Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Ran; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yunsheng; Huang, Jieping; Chang, Zhenhua; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao
The Mongolian cattle are one of the most widespread breeds with strictly Bos taurus morphological features in northern China. In our current study, we presented a diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region and Y chromosome SNP markers in 25 male and 8 female samples of Mongolian cattle from the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in Western China, and detected 21 B. taurus and four Bos indicus (zebu) mtDNA haplotypes. Among four B. indicus mtDNA haplotypes, two haplotypes belonged to I1 haplogroup and the remaining two haplotypes belonged to I2 haplogroup. In contrast, all 25 male Mongolian cattle samples revealed B. taurus Y chromosome haplotype and no B. indicus haplotypes were found. Historical and archeological records indicate that B. taurus was introduced to Xinjiang during the second millennium BC and B. indicus appeared in this region by the second century AD. The two types of cattle coexisted for many centuries in Xinjiang, as depicted in clay and wooden figurines unearthed in the Astana cemetery in Turfan (3rd-8th century AD). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the earliest B. indicus introgression in the Mongolian cattle may have occurred during the 2nd-7th centuries AD through the Silk Road around the Xinjiang region. This conclusion differs from the previous hypothesis that zebu introgression to Mongolian cattle happened during the Mongol Empire era in the 13th century.
George, J E; Osburn, R L; Wikel, S K
Purebred and crossbred Bos indicus calves were infested 1, 2, or 3 times with 10 female and 5 male Amblyomma americanum. Resistance was acquired by both the purebred and the crossbred calves after 1 infestation and resulted in statistically significant decreases in the percentages of females that engorged, the mean weights of engorged females, and the mean weights of egg masses. Comparisons between breeds of the percent of female ticks that engorged during the first and second infestations indicate that purebred B. indicus expressed a stronger acquired resistance to A. americanum more readily than did crossbred animals. However, calves of both genetic compositions displayed similar levels of resistance during a third exposure. All tick-exposed and control animals were skin tested with salivary gland extracts of A. americanum, A. cajennense and Dermacentor andersoni. Control, uninfested calves, did not display significant cutaneous reactivity to these extracts. All calves that had been infested had immediate, 30-min, 5-hr and delayed, 24-hr, skin reactions to Amblyomma species antigens. Reactions to D. andersoni salivary antigens in tests of both purebred and crossbred calves with acquired resistance to A. americanum suggest that Amblyomma species salivary gland antigens might have cross reactive moieties with a salivary extract prepared from D. andersoni. Peripheral blood lymphocyte in vitro responsiveness to Amblyomma species antigens was detected in purebred calves after a first, second, and third infestation, indicating the presence of cells of the immune system capable of recognizing and undergoing blast transformation in response to tick salivary components.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation after treatment...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick...
Dermauw, Veronique; Yisehak, Kechero; Belay, Duguma; Van Hecke, Thomas; Du Laing, Gijs; Duchateau, Luc; Janssens, Geert P J
Mineral deficiencies in cattle, widespread in East Africa, impair optimal health and production and consequently place a great burden on the farmers' income. Therefore, detection of shortages and imbalances of specific minerals is essential. Our objective was to evaluate the mineral status of grazing cattle around the Gilgel Gibe catchment in Ethiopia and associated factors. In study I, individual animal plasma and herd faecal Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, S, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were determined in adult zebu cattle (Bos indicus; n=90) grazing at three altitudes around the catchment, whilst recording body condition score and sex. In study II, liver samples of adult male zebu cattle (n=53) were analysed for Cu, Zn, Fe, Se and Mo concentrations and inspected for parasitic infections. Plasma and liver analyses revealed a Cu deficiency problem in the area, since 68 and 47 % of cattle, respectively, were Cu deprived according to diagnostic criteria for Bos taurus cattle. High hepatic Mo concentrations in 17 % of cases might reflect excessive dietary Mo intake. Liver Se and plasma Na concentrations were too low in 92 and 80 % of cattle. Plasma Mn concentrations were largely below the detection limit. Plasma Cu as well as Ca concentrations were lower in the lowest altitude compared to the highest altitude group (P<0.05), whereas lean to medium cattle had lower plasma Cu concentrations (P<0.05). No differences in hepatic mineral concentrations were detected between cattle with different types of parasitic infection. In conclusion, bovine mineral deficiencies were present in the Gilgel Gibe area and were associated with grazing altitude and body condition score.
Ohkubo, T; Yano, H; Takahashi, S; Takahashi, K; Kimura, N; Tanaka, M
The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene is responsible for growth and carcass traits, and polymorphisms associated with the variation of meat production are thought to occur in the liver-specific promoter of the GHR gene in cattle. The aim of this study was to analyse the structure of the liver-specific promoter of GHR in Japanese Black cattle, as the relationship between GHR polymorphism and meat production is poorly understood in this breed. Typically in European cattle, the LINE-1 element, a family of retrotransposons, is inserted in the liver-specific promoter. However, a short GHR promoter without the LINE-1 sequence was found in the Japanese Black breed as in Bos indicus cattle. The frequency of the short allele was approximately 60%. In addition, 24 of 29 Holstein/Japanese Black crosses carried the short allele from their sire. The present result suggests that the short allele for GHR may be a candidate marker for improving meat production of Japanese Black cattle.
Santana, M H A; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Gomes, R C; Garcia, J F; Fukumasu, H; Silva, S L; Leme, P R; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S
The genome-wide association study (GWAS) results are presented for average daily gain (ADG) in Nellore cattle. Phenotype of 720 male Bos indicus animals with information of ADG in feedlots and 354,147 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from a database added by information from Illumina Bovine HD (777,962 SNPs) and Illumina BovineSNP50 (54,609) by imputation were used. After quality control and imputation, 290,620 SNPs remained in the association analysis, using R package Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model and Regression method GRAMMAR-Gamma. A genomic region with six significant SNPs, at Bonferroni-corrected significance, was found on chromosome 3. The most significant SNP (rs42518459, BTA3: 85849977, p = 9.49 × 10(-8)) explained 5.62% of the phenotypic variance and had the allele substitution effect of -0.269 kg/day. Important genes such as PDE4B, LEPR, CYP2J2 and FGGY are located near this region, which is overlapped by 12 quantitative trait locus (QTLs) described for several production traits. Other regions with markers with suggestive effects were identified in BTA6 and BTA10. This study showed regions with major effects on ADG in Bos indicus in feedlots. This information may be useful to increase the efficiency of selecting this trait and to understand the physiological processes involved in its regulation.
Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J
Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.
Bó, G A; Cutaia, L; Peres, L C; Pincinato, D; Maraña, D; Baruselli, P S
The adaptation of Bos indicus cattle to tropical and subtropical environments has led to their widespread distribution around the world. Although artificial insemination (AI) is one of the best alternatives to introduce new genetics into Bos indicus herds, the peculiarity of their temperament and the tendency to show short oestrus (many of them during the night) greatly affects the effectiveness of genetic improvement programs. Therefore, the most useful alternative to increase the number of females that are inseminated is the use of protocols that allow for AI without the need for oestrus detection, usually called fixed-time AI (FTAI). Besides, the development of protocols to advance the resumption of cyclicity during the early postpartum period has a great impact on beef production and will allow for the inclusion of a significantly larger population of animals into genetic improvement programs. Fixed-time AI protocols using progestin devices, oestradiol and eCG have resulted in consistent pregnancy rates in suckled Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus cows. Furthermore, fertility in the successive cycles and the overall pregnancy rates at the end of the breeding season, have been shown to be improved by the use of progestin devices at the beginning of the breeding season. In summary, exogenous control of luteal and follicular development has facilitated the application of assisted reproductive technologies in Bos indicus-influenced cattle, by offering the possibility of planning programs without the necessity of oestrus detection and may provide the opportunity to improve reproductive performance of beef cattle in tropical climates.
Dermauw, Veronique; Lopéz Alonso, Marta; Duchateau, Luc; Du Laing, Gijs; Tolosa, Tadele; Dierenfeld, Ellen; Clauss, Marcus; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules
The amount of trace elements present in edible bovine tissues is of importance for both animal health and human nutrition. This study presents data on trace element concentrations in semitendinosus and cardiac muscles, livers and kidneys of 60 zebu (Bos indicus) bulls, sampled at Jimma, Ethiopia. From 28 of these bulls, blood samples were also obtained. Deficient levels of copper were found in plasma, livers, kidneys and semitendinosus muscles. Suboptimal selenium concentrations were found in plasma and semitendinosus muscles. Semitendinosus muscles contained high iron concentrations. Trace elements were mainly stored in the liver, except for iron and selenium. Cardiac muscles generally contained higher concentrations of trace elements than semitendinous muscles except for zinc. A strong association was found between liver and kidney concentrations of copper, iron, cobalt and molybdenum. Liver storage was well correlated with storage in semitendinosus muscle for selenium and with cardiac muscle for cobalt and selenium. Plasma concentrations of copper, selenium, cobalt were well related with their respective liver concentrations and for cobalt and selenium, also with cardiac muscle concentrations. The data suggest multiple trace element deficiencies in zebu cattle in South-West Ethiopia, with lowered tissue concentrations as a consequence. Based on the comparison of our data with other literature, trace element concentrations in selected edible tissues of Bos indicus seem quite similar to those in Bos taurus. However, tissue threshold values for deficiency in Bos taurus cattle need to be refined and their applicability for Bos indicus cattle needs to be evaluated.
... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. Cars or others vehicles which have carried cattle exposed to or infested with ticks within the...
Cooke, R F
Temperament in cattle is defined as the fear-related behavioral responses when exposed to human handling. Our group evaluates cattle temperament using 1) chute score on a 1 to 5 scale that increases according to excitable behavior during restraint in a squeeze chute, 2) exit velocity (speed of an animal exiting the squeeze chute), 3) exit score (dividing cattle according to exit velocity into quintiles using a 1 to 5 scale where 1=cattle in the slowest quintile and 5=cattle in the fastest quintile), and 4) temperament score (average of chute and exit scores). Subsequently, cattle are assigned a temperament type of adequate temperament (ADQ; temperament score≤3) or excitable temperament (EXC; temperament score>3). To assess the impacts of temperament on various beef production systems, our group associated these evaluation criteria with productive, reproductive, and health characteristics of Bos taurus and Bos indicus-influenced cattle. As expected, EXC cattle had greater plasma cortisol vs. ADQ cattle during handling, independent of breed type (B. indicus×B. taurus, P<0.01; B. taurus, P<0.01; B. indicus, P=0.04) or age (cows, P<0.01; heifers or steers, P<0.01). In regards to reproduction, EXC females had reduced annual pregnancy rates vs. ADQ cohorts across breed types (B. taurus, P=0.03; B. indicus, P=0.05). Moreover, B. taurus EXC cows also had decreased calving rate (P=0.04), weaning rate (P=0.09), and kilograms of calf weaned/cow exposed to breeding (P=0.08) vs. ADQ cohorts. In regards to feedlot cattle, B. indicus EXC steers had reduced ADG (P=0.02) and G:F (P=0.03) during a 109-d finishing period compared with ADQ cohorts. Bos taurus EXC cattle had reduced weaning BW (P=0.04), greater acute-phase protein response on feedlot entry (P≤0.05), impaired feedlot receiving ADG (P=0.05), and reduced carcass weight (P=0.07) vs. ADQ cohorts. Acclimating B. indicus×B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved temperament (P≤0.02), reduced plasma
Zhang, Liangzhi; Jia, Shangang; Plath, Martin; Huang, Yongzhen; Li, Congjun; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong
Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also in domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution of CNV regions (CNVRs) has not yet been examined in this context. Here, we of CNVRs, mtDNA D-loop sequence variation, and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the impact of maternal and paternal B. taurus and B. indicus origins on the distribution of CNVRs in 24 Chinese domesticated bulls. We discovered 470 genome-wide CNVRs, only 72 of which were shared by all three Y-lineages (B. taurus: Y1, Y2; B. indicus: Y3), whereas 265 were shared by inferred taurine or indicine paternal lineages, and 228 when considering their maternal taurine or indicine origins. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered eight taurine/indicine hybrids, and principal component analysis on CNVs corroborated genomic exchange during hybridization. The distribution patterns of CNVRs tended to be lineage-specific, and correlation analysis revealed significant positive or negative co-occurrences of CNVRs across lineages. Our study suggests that CNVs in Chinese cattle partly result from selective breeding during domestication, but also from hybridization and introgression. PMID:26260653
... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...
... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...
... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...
Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.
Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030
G T Pereira, Anirene; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Garcia, José F
Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.
... infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. 72.11 Section 72.11 Animals and... Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. Cattle of the quarantined area shall be considered infested and shall not be placed in noninfectious...
... infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. 72.11 Section 72.11 Animals and... Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. Cattle of the quarantined area shall be considered infested and shall not be placed in noninfectious...
... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. 72.11 Section 72.11 Animals and...; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. Cattle of...
... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...
... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...
Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...
Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Prakash, B; Mishra, B P; Sobti, R C; Singh, Karn P; Singh, Satbir; Ahlawat, S P S
The MspI allelic variation in intron III of the bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene was explored using PCR-RFLP in 750 animals belonging to 17 well-recognized breeds of Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) reared in different geographic locations of the country. Restriction digestion analysis of a 329-bp PCR fragment of the bGH intron III region with MspI restriction enzyme revealed two alleles (MspI- and MspI+) and two genotypes (-/- and +/-) across the 17 cattle breeds studied. The allelic frequency varied from 0.67 to 0.94 for MspI (-) and from 0.06 to 0.33 for MspI (+) across the 17 breeds, with a combined average frequency of 0.87 and 0.13, respectively. No animal with +/+ genotype was detected across the samples analyzed. The chi-square test showed that the difference in MspI allelic frequency was not significant (p > 0.05), regardless of the geographic origin, coat color, or utility of the cattle breed. The high MspI (-) allele frequencies obtained for Indian zebu cattle in this study are in sharp contrast to those reported for taurine breeds from northern Europe, Mediterranean countries, and America. Findings of this study further substantiate the hypothesis that the MspI (-) allele has an Indian origin.
Carvalho, Minos Esperândio; Gasparin, Gustavo; Poleti, Mirele Daiana; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar Carvalho; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Nassu, Renata Tieko; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Mourão, Gerson Barreto; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann
Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus (Zebu) breed, is well adapted to tropical conditions and has allowed Brazil to become one of the largest producers of red meat. Nevertheless, B. indicus breeds are reported to have less tender meat than Bos taurus. This study was designed to identify genes associated with meat tenderness and thus provides important information for breeding programs. A group of 138 animals was evaluated for longissimus thoracis muscle shear force (SF). Animals with the highest and lowest SF values (six animals each) were then selected for protein abundance studies. Samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by peptide sequencing through mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins associated with SF values. Seventeen differentially expressed spots were observed (p<0.05) between the two groups. The 13 proteins identified included structural proteins (alpha actin-1, MLC1, MLC3, MLC2F and tropomyosin), related to cell organization (HSPB1 and HSP70), metabolism (beta-LG, ACBD6 and Complex III subunit I) and some uncharacterized proteins. Results confirm the existence of differentially expressed proteins associated with SF, which can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms involved in meat tenderness.
... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with ticks or exposed... interstate movement of cattle....
Tamerat, Nateneal; Tuluka, Temesgen
The study was conducted from October 2014 to June 2015 to estimate tick prevalence and identify major tick genera infesting cattle and the associated risk factors in Arbegona district, southern Ethiopia. A total of 2024 adult ticks were collected from main body parts of animals and eight species of ticks which belong to three genera were identified. Questionnaire survey was employed concerning the general case on the tick infestation problems on the cattle. From 384 cattle examined, 291 (75.7%) were found to be infested with one or more types of tick species. The relative prevalence of each genera was Amblyomma (34.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) (26.6%), Hyalomma (19.2%), and Rhipicephalus (19%). The prevalence of tick infestation in good (65.5%), medium (74%), and poor body condition animal (100%) was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was also significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence in old (98.4%) than adult (78.8%) and young (59.8%) age groups of animals. In the survey, 87.5% of respondents believe that there was tick infestation problem in their locality. This study showed there was high burden and prevalence of ticks that still play major roles in reducing productivity and cause health problems of cattle in the area which call for urgent attention. PMID:28105466
Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman)] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian)] (p ≤ 0.001). These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE20605. PMID:20637126
Piper, E K; Jonsson, N N; Gondro, C; Vance, M E; Lew-Tabor, A; Jackson, L A
Resistance to cattle tick infestation in single-host ticks is primarily manifested against the larval stage and results in the immature tick failing to attach successfully and obtain a meal. This study was conducted to identify immune responses that characterize the tick-resistant phenotype in cattle. Thirty-five tick-naïve Santa Gertrudis heifers were used in this study, thirty of which were artificially infested for thirteen weeks with tick larvae while five animals remained at a tick-free quarantine property to serve as a control group. Following thirteen weeks of tick infestation, the animals in this trial exhibited highly divergent tick-resistant phenotypes. Blood samples collected throughout the trial were used to measure peripheral immune parameters: haematology, the percentage of cellular subsets comprising the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population, tick-specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody titres, IgG1 avidity for tick antigens and the ability of PBMC to recognize and proliferate in response to stimulation with tick antigens in vitro. The tick-susceptible cattle developed significantly higher tick-specific IgG1 antibody titres compared to the tick-resistant animals. These results suggest that the heightened antibody response either does not play a role in resistance or might contribute to increased susceptibility to infestation.
Seabury, Christopher M.; Seabury, Paul M.; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.
The Toll-like receptor (TLR) and peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1) genes play key roles in the innate immune systems of mammals. While the TLRs recognize a variety of invading pathogens and induce innate immune responses, PGLYRP1 is directly microbicidal. We used custom allele-specific assays to genotype and validate 220 diallelic variants, including 54 nonsynonymous SNPs in 11 bovine innate immune genes (TLR1-TLR10, PGLYRP1) for 37 cattle breeds. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and we were unable to differentiate between the specialized B. t. taurus beef and dairy breeds, despite an average polymorphism density of one locus per 219 bp. Ninety-nine tagSNPs and one tag insertion-deletion polymorphism were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at all 11 innate immune loci in both subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 58 tagSNPs captured 100% of the variation at 172 loci in B. t. taurus. PolyPhen and SIFT analyses of nonsynonymous SNPs encoding amino acid replacements indicated that the majority of these substitutions were benign, but up to 31% were expected to potentially impact protein function. Several diversity-based tests provided support for strong purifying selection acting on TLR10 in B. t. taurus cattle. These results will broadly impact efforts related to bovine translational genomics. PMID:20018671
Camargo, Luiz Sergio Almeida; Freitas, Celio; de Sa, Wanderlei Ferreira; de Moraes Ferreira, Ademir; Serapiao, Raquel Varela; Viana, João Henrique Moreira
In vitro embryo production (IVP) has been suggested to result in a greater proportion of male calves, longer gestation and heavier offspring than artificial insemination in Bos taurus cattle. Despite the increasing use of IVP in tropical countries, its effects upon these traits in Bos indicus have not been conclusively investigated. Gyr is a B. indicus dairy breed with known physiological differences from B. taurus, such as a longer gestation period and lighter offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of IVP on gestation length, birth weight and gender ratio in Gyr offspring. Oocytes were recovered from Gyr cows by ovum pick-up and were matured and fertilized with thawed Gyr semen in vitro. Embryos were cultured in CR2aa medium with cumulus cells and 10% fetal calf serum under 5% CO(2) at 38.5 degrees C in air. Seven- to eight-day blastocysts were transferred to synchronized recipients. Data on gestation length and birth weight of calves from in vitro-produced embryos were compared to data obtained from Gyr calves produced by artificial insemination (AI) and natural breeding (NB) during the same period using analysis of variance, and the gender ratio was compared to the expected 1:1 ratio using a chi-square test. IVP increased (P<0.01) the percentage of male offspring (76.9%) compared to the expected 1:1 ratio, while no difference (P>0.05) was observed in the AI and NB groups. Gestation length was similar (P>0.05) between the IVP and AI groups, but IVP-derived offspring were heavier (P<0.05) than AI- and NB-derived ones, mainly for male calves (P<0.05). These data show that in vitro production affects the subsequent development of Gyr embryos, resulting in a skewed sex ratio and increased birth weight.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...
Kariuki, Edward K; Penzhorn, Barend L; Horak, Ivan G
Several ixodid tick species are shared between domestic cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). So too, are a number of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the species composition of ticks that infest cattle and buffaloes utilising the same habitat within the Tsavo Conservation Area, Kenya. To this end, 25 cattle and 62 buffaloes were each opportunistically sampled for ticks on a single occasion in February 2010. Eight species, namely Amblyomma gemma, Amblyomma lepidum, Hyalomma albiparmatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus pravus and Rhipicephalus pulchellus infested both cattle and buffaloes. Three species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) sp., Rhipicephalus kochi, and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected only from cattle, and three species, Hyalomma impeltatum, Rhipicephalus humeralis and Rhipicephalus praetextatus were present only on buffaloes. The attachment sites of the various tick species were also recorded. New locality records for H. impeltatum and H. truncatum and the first confirmed locality record for Rhipicephalus praetextatus sensu stricto in Kenya were documented.
Naves, M; Barré, N; Fargetton, M; Aprelon, R; Sheikboudou, C
The level of infestation of "Creole" beef cattle of Guadeloupe by the tick Amblyomma variegatum was recorded during a long-term survey in an experimental farm: 61 steers and 83 cows were distributed in different lots according to sex and management. They grazed continuously either on irrigated Digitaria decumbens pastures or on dry native savannahs. Tick numbers as well as animal weights were registered monthly. Climatic data were also recorded. Different acaricide treatments were tested during the survey. But in order to minimize their effect in the data analysis, only tick counts over an average of 5 adult ticks per cattle were taken into account. The level of infestation is analyzed with respect to environmental factors (season, management) and individual factors (sex, weight, physiological stage, genetic effect). The effects of these factors are discussed with regard to alternative tick-control methods, such as the selection of resistant hosts.
Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose
The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations.
Mohammadi, A; Nassiry, M R; Mosafer, J; Mohammadabadi, M R; Sulimova, G E
The distribution of the frequencies of BoLA-DRB3 gene alleles in the Iranian cattle breed Sistani was studied by the PCR-RFLP ("hemi-nested") assay using restriction endonucleases RsaI, HaeIII and BstYI. In the examined cattle breed (65 animals) 32 alleles have been identified one of which being described for the first time (6.15% frequency). The nucleotide sequence of the polymorphic region of exon 2 of this allele has been determined and submitted in the GeneBank database under accession number DQ486519. The submitted sequence has maximum homology (92%) with the previously described sequence DRB3-mRNA from Bos indicus (AccN X79346) and differs from it by 24 nucleotide substitutions which result in 16 amino acid substitutions. The peptide (on the basis of the reconstructed amino acid sequence) has 89% identity to the sequence encoded by the BIDRBF 188 locus (Bos indicus). The results obtained permit the sequence described by us to be considered as a new allele of the BoLA-DRB3 gene (DRB3.2**X). The total frequency of the main six alleles (DRB3.2*X, *10, *11, *20, *34 and *X) occurring with a frequency of over 5% is about 60% in Iranian Sistani cattle. Fifteen alleles have <1% frequency. The highest frequency was observed for DRB3.2*8 allele (21.54%) like in other previously described breeds of Bos indicus (up to 23.07%). The Iranian breed Sistani has a high level of similarity by the spectrum of BoLA-DRB3 alleles and their frequencies to other Bos indicus breeds and significantly differs by these criteria from the Bos taurus breeds. The Iranian Sistani herd under study includes alleles associated with to resistance to leukemia (DRB3.2*ll and *23) and to different forms of mastitis (DRB3.2*2, *7, *11, *23 and *24) although their frequencies are low (from 0.77 to 5.37%). On the whole, a high level of diversity of BoLA-DRB3 gene alleles and the availability of alleles associated with resistance to different diseases makes this breed of interest for breeding practice.
Hope, M; Jiang, X; Gough, J; Cadogan, L; Josh, P; Jonsson, N; Willadsen, P
Limited prior evidence suggests that 5'-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5'-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5'-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5'-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies.
HOPE, M; JIANG, X; GOUGH, J; CADOGAN, L; JOSH, P; JONSSON, N; WILLADSEN, P
Limited prior evidence suggests that 5′-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5′-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5′-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5′-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies. PMID:20070827
Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto
The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower (P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.
Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto
The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.
Pothmann, Daniela; Poppert, Sven; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Hogan, Benedikt; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Thiel, Claudia; Silaghi, Cornelia
Tick-borne bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), is a major constraint to cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions. From Madagascar, clinical cases were published but data based on molecular methods regarding the prevalence and genetic diversity of this pathogen on the island are lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the prevalence of A. marginale in Malagasy zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and their ticks with a species-specific real-time PCR, (2) the genetic diversity of A. marginale based on tandem repeats and microsatellites of the msp1α gene, and (3) the phylogenetic relationship between A. marginale isolates from Madagascar and strains found worldwide. Two hundred fourteen blood samples and 1822 ticks from 214 zebu cattle were collected. Rhipicephalus (R) microplus (40.2%) and Amblyomma (A) variegatum (59.8%) were identified on the cattle. A. marginale DNA was found in 89.7% of the examined zebu cattle and in 62.3% of the examined ticks. The tandem repeat and microsatellite analyses of the mspa1 gene showed high genetic diversity among the isolates between and within the different regions and high infection potential. Eighteen of the 25 tandem repeats identified have not been described before. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of A. marginale strains from Madagascar with South Africa, America and Israel. A common ancestor may originate from South Africa and may have evolved due to phylogeographic characteristics or by a history of cattle movement. Its high prevalence in cattle and ticks, together with a low number of clinical manifestations and a high genetic heterogeneity among the investigated strains, confirms endemic stability of A. marginale in cattle from Madagascar.
Das, D N; Sri Hari, V G; Hatkar, D N; Rengarajan, K; Saravanan, R; Suryanarayana, V V S; Murthy, L K
The present study was performed to evaluate the genetic polymorphism of BoLA-DRB3.2 locus in Malnad Gidda, Hallikar and Ongole South Indian Bos indicus cattle breeds, employing the PCR-RFLP technique. In Malnad Gidda population, 37 BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles were detected, including one novel allele DRB3*2503 (GenBank: HM031389) that was observed in the frequency of 1.87%. In Hallikar and Ongole populations, 29 and 21 BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles were identified, respectively. The frequencies of the most common BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles (with allele frequency > 5%), in Malnad Gidda population, were DRB3.2*15 (10.30%), DRB3*5702 (9.35%), DRB3.2*16 (8.41%), DRB3.2*23 (7.01%) and DRB3.2*09 (5.61%). In Hallikar population, the most common alleles were DRB3.2*11 (13.00%), DRB3.2*44 (11.60%), DRB3.2*31 (10.30%), DRB3.2*28 (5.48%) and DRB3.2*51 (5.48%). The most common alleles in Ongole population were DRB3.2*15 (22.50%), DRB3.2*06 (20.00%), DRB3.2*13 (13.30%), DRB3.2*12 (9.17%) and DRB3.2*23 (7.50%). A high degree of heterozygosity observed in Malnad Gidda (H(O) = 0.934, H(E) = 0.955), Hallikar (H(O) = 0.931, H(E) = 0.943) and Ongole (H(O) = 0.800, H(E) = 0.878) populations, along with F(IS) values close to F(IS) zero (Malnad Gidda: F(IS) = 0.0221, Hallikar: F(IS) = 0.0127 and Ongole: F(IS) = 0.0903), yielded nonsignificant P-values with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium probabilities revealing, no perceptible inbreeding, greater genetic diversity and characteristic population structure being preserved in the three studied cattle populations. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the frequencies of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles observed in 10 Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle breeds revealed distinct clustering of specific Bos indicus cattle breeds, along with unique genetic differentiation observed among them. The results of this study demonstrated that the BoLA-DRB3.2 is a highly polymorphic locus, with significant breed-specific genetic diversities being present amongst the three studied
Borges, Gabriel B O; Oliveira, Rodrigo A; Pivato, Ivo
There is no consensus about the occurrence of transuterine embryo migration under natural breeding circumstances, neither data related to this phenomenon for zebu cattle. In this study, 5431 reproductive tracts of Nellore cows and heifers were evaluated in an abattoir in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 1030 animals (19.0%) were pregnant at the time of slaughter (including 2 twin pregnancies). Regarding singleton pregnancies (n = 1028), 39.5% of them, the fetus was located in the left uterine horn and the remaining 60.5% in the right. These frequencies differed statistically from parity. In all 1028 (100.0%) cases, the presence of a single CL was perceived in the ovary ipsilateral (whether right or left) to the pregnant uterine horn, indicating the absence of transuterine embryo migration of the conceptus. The overall sex ratio found was 51.5%, considering only pregnancies with sex identified, not differing significantly between the number of males and the number of females. The sex frequencies obtained from the total number of singleton pregnancies were 46.5% males, 43.9% females, and the remaining 9.6% corresponding to unknown sex fetuses. The supposed sex predilection for uterine horns was not observed because the difference between the numbers of males and females for the same uterine horn was not statistically significant. The crown-rump (CR) and crown-nose (CN) measures, for the conceptus with CR length 2.00 cm to 15.00 cm, showed a high linear correlation coefficient (r = 0.990865), being CN = (0.3027 × CR) + 0.4491, r(2) = 0.9818, the equation that describes the behavior between the variables for this length interval. In conclusion, in Nellore cattle, the transuterine migration of conceptus may not exist, or consists of a rare event. In addition, the sex ratio and predilection are not distinguished from the symmetrical distribution, and regarding fetometry, an equation that involves CR and CN, could be useful for the veterinary field
Two mixed-species livestock groups were monitored while foraging on 410 ha of brush-infested Southern New Mexico rangeland during July and August 1988. The groups consisted of crossbred Bos taurus and Bos indicus beef cattle with white-faced sheep (Ovis aries) and mohair goats (Capra hircus). The b...
Two mixed-species livestock groups were monitored while foraging on 410 ha of brush-infested Southern New Mexico rangeland during July and August 1988. The groups consisted of crossbred Bos taurus and Bos indicus beef cattle with white-faced sheep (Ovis aries) and mohair goats (Capra hircus). The b...
Macedo, A A; Costa, E A; Silva, A P C; Paixão, T A; Santos, R L
Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in the world. Considering its strict zoonotic nature, understanding of the pathogenesis and immunity of Brucella spp. in natural animal hosts is essential to prevent human infections. Natural resistance against brucellosis has been demonstrated in cattle, and it is associated with the ability of macrophages to prevent intracellular replication of Brucella abortus. Identification of breeds that are resistant to B. abortus may contribute for controlling and eradicating brucellosis in cattle. This study aimed to compare macrophages from Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) or Holstein (Bos taurus taurus) regarding their resistance to B. abortus infection. Macrophages from Nelore were significantly more efficient in controlling intracellular growth of B. abortus when compared to Holstein macrophages even under intralysosomal iron restricting conditions. Furthermore, Nelore macrophages had higher transcription levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α at 12h post-infection (hpi) and higher levels of IL-12 at 24 hpi when compared to Holstein macrophages. Conversely, Holstein macrophages had higher levels of IL-10 transcripts at 24 hpi. Macrohages from Nelore also generated more nitric oxide (NO) in response to B. abortus infection when compared to Holstein macrophages. In conclusion, cultured Nelore macrophages are more effective in controlling intracellular replication of B. abortus, suggesting that Nelore cattle is likely to have a higher degree of natural resistance to brucellosis than Holstein.
Zúquete, Sara Tudela; Coelho, João; Rosa, Fernanda; Vaz, Yolanda; Cassamá, Bernardo; Padre, Ludovina; Santos, Dulce; Basto, Afonso P; Leitão, Alexandre
Tick infestations are a major problem for animal production in tropical areas where prevention and control remain deficient. The present study sought to assess the awareness of traditional cattle producers towards the importance of ticks and aimed at the identification of tick species infesting bovines within the Geba River basin, Guinea-Bissau. Interviews with producers revealed that the majority directly correlates the presence of ticks with the occurrence of diseases in cattle. However, insufficient or inadequate control approaches prevail. A total of 337 ticks were collected on bovines at 18 different villages (10 during dry season, and 8 during rainy season). The tick species collected during the dry season were Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) geigyi (56.5%), followed by Amblyomma variegatum (23.3%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (17.6%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1%). In the rainy season A. variegatum was the most collected (88.9%), followed by R. (Boophilus) geigyi (4.2%), R. (Boophilus) annulatus (3.4%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (2.8%) and H. truncatum (0.7%). To support species identification, segments of both cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S) genes were sequenced and the data gathered were analysed by maximum likelihood and parsimony. Morphological and genetic data of individual specimens gathered in this study provide relevant information for future studies on tick population dynamics in the region. In addition, it led to a deeper characterization of R. sulcatus and a R. sanguineus-like specimen, exploring their genetic relationship with other R. sanguineus, which supports their classification as distinct species within R. sanguineus group.
Kumar, Anil; Ashraf, Syma; Goud, T Sridhar; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C
Heat shock proteins consist of highly conserved stress proteins, expressed in response to stress and play crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and adaptation. The present study was conducted to identify major types of genes under the HSP70 family and other HSPs and to evaluate their expression pattern in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with respect to different seasons. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the transcript variants of three HSP70 family genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B, and HSPA8) and HSP10, HSP60, HSP90 and HSF1 in each breed. The major finding of this study was the higher abundance of all the studied HSP genes during summer and winter compared to spring season, but the magnitude of increase was higher during summer as compared to winter. HSPA1A and HSPA1B genes showed maximal induction (P<0.001) during summer and winter while HSP60 and HSP10 were found to be the second most abundantly expressed HSPs. The relative mRNA abundance of HSF1 significantly increased (P<0.001) in Murrah buffalo compared to Tharparkar and Sahiwal cattle during summer and winter. Expression pattern of heat shock protein genes indicated that amongst the breeds, the expression was higher in Murrah buffalo compared to Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle, thereby indicating the more adaptive capacity of later during periods of stress. Hence, this study suggests that heat shock protein genes may be conveniently used as biomarkers for assessing stress response in cattle and buffalo and the expression is species and breed-specific. Furthermore, the variation in expression is associated with heat tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions.
Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Prakash, B; Ahlawat, S P S; Sobti, R C
The present study estimates genetic variability with a set of 25 microsatellite markers in a random sample of 50 animals of Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. Tharparkar is a dual-purpose breed, valued for its milk as well as draught utility, and is adapted to the inhospitable Thar desert conditions of Rajasthan typified by summer temperature hovering above 50 degrees C, sparse rainfall and vegetation, and scarcity of even drinking water. The observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH3, ILSTS030, INRA5, INRA63 and MM8) to 11 (HEL9 and ILSTS034), with allelic diversity (average number of observed alleles per locus) of 6.20. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 (INRA63) to 0.77 (ETH10), and from 0.51 (HEL5 and HAUT27) to 0.88 (HEL9) respectively. Wide range of genetic variability supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in measurement of genetic diversity indices in other Indian cattle breeds too. Various average genetic variability measures, namely allele diversity (6.20), observed heterozygosity (0.57), expected heterozygosity (0.67) and mean polymorphism information content (0.60) values showed substantial within-breed genetic variability in this major breed of Rajasthan, despite accumulated inbreeding as reflected by high average inbreeding coefficient (F(IS) = 0.39). The Tharparkar population has not experienced a bottleneck in the recent past.
Da Mota, A F; Martinez, M L; Coutinho, L L
BoLA-DRB3 is a gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in cattle. The product of the BoLA-DRB3 gene is a beta chain of an MHC class II molecule, a glycoprotein expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Responses of CD4+ T lymphocytes to peptides are dependent on the presentation of peptide ligands bound to class II molecules on APCs. Genotyping of the BoLA-DRB3 gene is relatively complex due to the extensive polymorphism of this locus. Current techniques for assignment of genotypes are polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), direct sequencing of PCR products, cloning-sequencing, polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP), and denaturant-gradient gel electrophoresis. These techniques are time-consuming, do not discriminate all possible alleles, or are not readily reproducible. The objective of this study was to genotype BoLA-DRB3 using temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) to separate alleles before sequencing. PCRs using 28 DNA samples from Gir Dairy cattle (a Brazilian breed of Bos indicus) were submitted to TGGE. New PCR products were generated from separated alleles, purified, and sequenced. Allele separation was possible in 21 out of 26 heterozygote samples (81%). Results indicate that two sequence reads (forward and reverse) were sufficient for accurate genotyping of BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Separation of alleles by TGGE provides high-throughput, reliable typing of BoLA-DRB3, which is critical in disease association studies in cattle.
The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, and the cattle tick, R. annulatus, are obligate ectoparasites and the vectors of pathogens causing bovine babesiosis, or “Cattle Fever”, and anaplasmosis in cattle. These cattle fever tick (CFT) species were declared eradicated from the U.S. in 1943...
MacHugh, D. E.; Shriver, M. D.; Loftus, R. T.; Cunningham, P.; Bradley, D. G.
Genetic variation at 20 microsatellite loci was surveyed to determine the evolutionary relationships and molecular biogeography of 20 different cattle populations from Africa, Europe and Asia. Phylogenetic reconstruction and multivariate analysis highlighted a marked distinction between humpless (taurine) and humped (zebu) cattle, providing strong support for a separate origin for domesticated zebu cattle. A molecular clock calculation using bison (Bison sp.) as an outgroup gave an estimated divergence time between the two subspecies of 610,000-850,000 years. Substantial differences in the distribution of alleles at 10 of these loci were observed between zebu and taurine cattle. These markers subsequently proved very useful for investigations of gene flow and admixture in African populations. When these data were considered in conjunction with previous mitochondrial and Y chromosomal studies, a distinctive male-mediated pattern of zebu genetic introgression was revealed. The introgression of zebu-specific alleles in African cattle afforded a high resolution perspective on the hybrid nature of African cattle populations and also suggested that certain West African populations of valuable disease-tolerant taurine cattle are under threat of genetic absorption by migrating zebu herds. PMID:9215909
Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Vital, Camilo Elber; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Barros, Edvaldo; Busato, Karina Costa; Gomes, Rafael Aparecido; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Martins, Taiane da Silva
Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (P<0.05). Nellore had higher phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain-2, alpha actin-1, triosephosphate isomerase and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. However, Angus had greater phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase-1 and troponin-T (P<0.05). Therefore, proteins involved in contraction and muscle organization, myofilaments expressed in fast or slow-twitch fibers and heat shock proteins localized in mitochondria or sarcoplasmic reticulum and involved in cell flux of calcium and apoptosis might be associated with differences in beef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle contraction force
Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave J; Goddeeris, Bruno M
Trypanosomosis is a vector-borne protozoan disease of animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, particularly the northwest region is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects and compare differences in virulence of Trypanosoma vivax infection between tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia on the basis of serum biochemical values in Zebu cattle. Eighteen cattles purchased from trypanosome free area and aged between 9 and 12 months were assigned into three groups of six animals (Group TT=infected with T. vivax from tsetse infested area, Group NT=infected with T. vivax from non-tsetse infested area and Group C=non-infected control). For each experimental animal 3 ml of blood from naturally infected cattle was inoculated intravenously at 10(6) trypanosomes/ml except the control. Blood sample was collected once a week for 8 consecutive weeks for analyzing serum biochemical values (glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and enzymes including GOT, GPT and ALP) using a Humastar 80 clinical chemistry analyzer. Both T. vivax parasites caused an acute infection with parasites appearing in circulation on 6 and 12 days post-infection for NT and TT cattle, respectively. A significant reduction (P<0.001) in glucose levels was observed in infected groups compared with the control with mean values of 33.8 ± 3.6 mg/dl for TT, 34.3 ± 3.6 mg/dl for NT and 70.9 ± 3.0 mg/dl for control groups. A similar reduction was also seen in total cholesterol values (P=0.001) with 70.4 ± 10.6 mg/dl for TT and 78.0 ± 10.6 mg/dl for NT groups compared to 139.5 ± 8.7 mg/dl for the control group. No difference was observed for total serum protein between the three groups (P=0.260) whereas the mean albumin level was significantly (P<0.001) decreased (3.5 ± 0.1g/dl and 2.9 ± 0.1g/dl in TT and NT groups respectively) compared to that for control cattle (4.5 ± 0.1g
Fonseca, Pablo Augusto de Souza; Pires, Maria de Fátima Ávila; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Rosse, Izinara da Cruz.; Bruneli, Frank Angelo Tomita; Machado, Marco Antonio; Carvalho, Maria Raquel Santos
Temperament is fundamental to animal production due to its direct influence on the animal-herdsman relationship. When compared to calm animals, the aggressive, anxious or fearful ones exhibit less weight gain, lower reproductive efficiency, decreased milk production and higher herd maintenance costs, all of which contribute to reduced profits. However, temperament is a trait that is complex and difficult to assess. Recently, a new quantitative system, REATEST®, for assessing reactivity, a phenotype of temperament, was developed. Herein, we describe the results of a Genome-wide association study for reactivity, assessed using REATEST® with a sample of 754 females from five dual-purpose (milk and meat production) Guzerat (Bos indicus) herds. Genotyping was performed using a 50k SNP chip and a two-step mixed model approach (Grammar-Gamma) with a one-by-one marker regression was used to identify QTLs. QTLs for reactivity were identified on chromosomes BTA1, BTA5, BTA14, and BTA25. Five intronic and two intergenic markers were significantly associated with reactivity. POU1F1, DRD3, VWA3A, ZBTB20, EPHA6, SNRPF and NTN4 were identified as candidate genes. Previous QTL reports for temperament traits, covering areas surrounding the SNPs/genes identified here, further corroborate these associations. The seven genes identified in the present study explain 20.5% of reactivity variance and give a better understanding of temperament biology. PMID:28125592
Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Josh, Peter; Colgrave, Michelle L; Bagnall, Neil H; Gough, Joanne; Burns, Brian; Pearson, Roger
The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and the diseases it transmits pose a persistent threat to tropical beef production. Genetic selection of host resistance has become the method of choice for non-chemical control of cattle tick. Previous studies have suggested that larval stages are most susceptible to host resistance mechanisms. To gain insights into the molecular basis of host resistance that occurs during R. microplus attachment, we assessed the abundance of proteins (by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and Western blot analyses) and mRNAs (by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR)) in skin adjacent to tick bite sites from high tick-resistant (HR) and low tick-resistant (LR) Belmont Red cattle following challenge with cattle tick. We showed substantially higher expression of the basal epidermal keratins KRT5 and KRT14, the lipid processing protein, lipocalin 9 (LCN9), the epidermal barrier catalysing enzyme transglutaminase 1 (TGM1), and the transcriptional regulator B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) in HR skin. Our data reveals the essential role of the epidermal permeability barrier in conferring greater resistance of cattle to tick infestation, and suggest that the physical structure of the epidermal layers of the skin may represent the first line of defence against ectoparasite invasion.
Mullins, C R; Zerby, H N; Fitzpatrick, L A; Parker, A J
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the basal concentrations of heat shock proteins (HSP) between and cattle and to determine if HSP basal concentrations change as an animal matures. A total of 40 cattle were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the effects of genotype and age (heifers and mature cows) on basal concentrations of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), α B-crystallin (Cryab), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Each experimental group of 10 animals was sampled on a separate day over a period of 4 wk during July 2014. A muscle sample was collected from the longissimus thoracis (LT) and concentrations of HSP were quantified using ELISA. There were no significant differences in HSP concentration for the interaction between age and genotype or for age alone. cattle had greater ( < 0.05) basal concentrations of HSP27, Cryab, and HSP70 in the LT than cattle. The results of this study show that basal in vivo HSP concentrations differ between and cattle. However, further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between HSP concentrations and meat tenderness with respect to genotypes to see if HSP concentrations account for at least some variability in tenderness differences.
Behl, J D; Verma, N K; Behl, R; Mukesh, M; Ahlawat, S P S
Bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB 3.2 (BoLA-DRB3.2) gene encodes for the beta chain of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule in cattle, which is a glycoprotein present on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. This locus shows extensive polymorphism in it. The objective of the present study was to genotype the BoLA-DRB3.2 locus in Kankrej cattle (n = 50) by PCR-RFLP. Bovine DNA was isolated from aliquots of whole blood. Primers specific for exon 2 of the bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA)-DRB3 gene were used to amplify the region. The 304-bp amplified product of the DRB3 gene was separately digested with restriction endonucleases RsaI, BstYI, and Hae III. Twenty-four BoLA-DRB 3.2 alleles were identified with frequencies ranging from 1 to 22.0%. Twenty-one alleles of the total 24 alleles were similar to those reported earlier; 3 alleles were new and had not been reported previously. The allele BoLA-DRB3.2*34 occurred at the highest frequency of 22% (approx.) in the Kankrej animals studied. Six alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2 *34, *15, *06, *20, *37, and *20) accounted for almost 71% of the total alleles observed to be present in the Kankrej animals. All the new alleles observed were present at frequencies of 1%. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that the BoLA DRB3.2 locus is highly polymorphic in the Kankrej cattle.
Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in Tharparkar of semi-arid region (4.72 ± 1.55) compared to arid region (2.83 ± 1.01). Similarly, the frequency of SCEs was found to be 4.0 ± 1.41 in the Sahiwal of semi-arid region and 2.69 ± 1.12 in Kankrej of arid zone. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences ( P < 0.05) amongst the different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference ( P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.
Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T; Tonk, R K; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Tharparkar of semi-arid region (4.72 ± 1.55) compared to arid region (2.83 ± 1.01). Similarly, the frequency of SCEs was found to be 4.0 ± 1.41 in the Sahiwal of semi-arid region and 2.69 ± 1.12 in Kankrej of arid zone. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) amongst the different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.
Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D
Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species.
Behl, Jyotsna Dhingra; Sharma, Anurodh; Kataria, R S; Verma, N K; Kimothi, Shiv Prasad; Bhatia, Avnish Kumar; Sodhi, Monika; Behl, Rahul; Joshi, B K
Toll-like receptor 4 gene (TLR4) that recognizes the Gram negative bacterial ligand LPS was sequenced in the Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed. Ninety four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected within 10.8 kb gene region. Seventeen of the SNPs were in the coding regions and the one at position 9589(A > G) in exon3 resulted in an amino acid change from Valine to Isoleucine. These SNPs led to generation of 27 TLR4 gene haplotypes. All the Sahiwal animals studied presently showed the occurrence of the genotype CC at gene position 9662, which codes for the amino acid threonine at position 674 of the TLR4 protein, and which had been reported to be associated with lower somatic cell score and, therefore, a lower susceptibility to mastitis, in Taurus cattle. This nucleotide configuration of the Toll-like receptor 4 gene of the Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed could possibly indicate toward a lower susceptibility to mastitis in the Sahiwal animals. Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (CCL2) gene encoding for small inducible cytokine A2 that belongs to the CC chemokine family was also sequence characterized in these Sahiwal animals. The CCL2 gene was observed to have 12 polymorphic sites in 3.3 kb region of which one SNP at position 2500 (A > G) in exon 3 resulted in amino acid change from Valine to Isoleucine at position 46 of the mature CCL2 peptide. Seventeen haplotypes of the CCL2 gene were predicted corresponding to 12 genotypes detected.
Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Yong, Tai-Soon
Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania.
A cDNA encoding an aquaporin from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, was isolated from transcriptomic studies. Bioinformatic analysis indicates this aquaporin, designated RmAQP1, shows greatest amino acid similarity to the human aquaporin 7 family. Members of this family of water-conducting c...
Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...
Pinheiro, O L; Barros, C M; Figueiredo, R A; do Valle, E R; Encarnação, R O; Padovani, C R
Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval are essential for estimating the best time to artificially inseminate cattle. Because these parameters are not well characterized in the Nelore breed (Bos indicus), the main purpose of the this study was to determine the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore heifers and cows with natural estrus or with estrus induced by treatments with PGF2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate (NEV). The cows and heifers were observed continuously (24 h a day) to determine the onset of estrus and to study estrous behavior in the cows. Ten hours after the start of estrus the ovaries were scanned every 2 h by ultrasonography to monitor the dominant follicle until ovulation. Blood samples were collected periodically to determine progesterone levels by RIA. Administration of PGF2 alpha (2 injections, 11 days apart) did not induce estrus in most Nelore females in spite of the presence of functional CL, indicated by progesterone concentrations above 6.0 ng/ml in 25 of 28 animals. Treatment with NEV induced high sexual receptivity in cows (10/11), but only 66% ovulated. Cows with natural or induced estrus exhibited behavioral estrus of 10.9 +/- 1.4 h, and ovulation occurred 26.6 +/- 0.44 h (n = 26) after the onset of estrus. In most of the cows (53.8%) estrus began at night (between 1801 and 600 h), and 34.6% it started and finished during the night. It is concluded that in Nelore females ovulation occurs approximately 26 h after the onset of estrus. Additionally, estrous behavior is shorter than in European breeds, and there is a high incidence of estrus at night, which makes it difficult to detect and, consequently, impairs Al in Nelore cattle. The observation that a high percentage of Nelore females with an active CL did not respond to usual dosages of PGF2 alpha warrants further investigation.
Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Kishore, A; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R S; Joshi, B K
Due to evolutionary divergence, cattle (taurine, and indicine) and buffalo are speculated to have different responses to heat stress condition. Variation in candidate genes associated with a heat-shock response may provide an insight into the dissimilarity and suggest targets for intervention. The present work was undertaken to characterize one of the inducible heat shock protein genes promoter and coding regions in diverse breeds of Indian zebu cattle and buffaloes. The genomic DNA from a panel of 117 unrelated animals representing 14 diversified native cattle breeds and 6 buffalo breeds were utilized to determine the complete sequence and gene diversity of HSP70.1 gene. The coding region of HSP70.1 gene in Indian zebu cattle, Bos taurus and buffalo was similar in length (1,926 bp) encoding a HSP70 protein of 641 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight (Mw) of 70.26 kDa. However buffalo had a longer 5' and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of 204 and 293 nucleotides respectively, in comparison to Indian zebu cattle and Bos taurus wherein length of 5' and 3'-UTR was 172 and 286 nucleotides, respectively. The increased length of buffalo HSP70.1 gene compared to indicine and taurine gene was due to two insertions each in 5' and 3'-UTR. Comparative sequence analysis of cattle (taurine and indicine) and buffalo HSP70.1 gene revealed a total of 54 gene variations (50 SNPs and 4 INDELs) among the three species in the HSP70.1 gene. The minor allele frequencies of these nucleotide variations varied from 0.03 to 0.5 with an average of 0.26. Among the 14 B. indicus cattle breeds studied, a total of 19 polymorphic sites were identified: 4 in the 5'-UTR and 15 in the coding region (of these 2 were non-synonymous). Analysis among buffalo breeds revealed 15 SNPs throughout the gene: 6 at the 5' flanking region and 9 in the coding region. In bubaline 5'-UTR, 2 additional putative transcription factor binding sites (Elk-1 and C-Re1) were identified, other than three common sites
Rodríguez, M; Massard, C L; da Fonseca, A H; Ramos, N F; Machado, H; Labarta, V; de la Fuente, J
Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Recent advances have introduced the possibility for the immunological control of the parasite through the use of recombinant vaccines. Recently, it was shown that the recombinant vaccine Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.) is able to control B. microplus populations in artificially infected grazing dairy cattle in Cuba. To assay the effect of the vaccine on a different B. microplus strain and under different ecological conditions, we conducted a trial in Brazil on grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle under natural infestation conditions. A farm in the northeast of the state of Sao Paulo was selected and two groups of animals per breed were included in the experiment and were maintained grazing on separate but similar pastures. For each breed, one group was vaccinated with the vaccine Gavac and the second group was not vaccinated and was employed as a control. In vaccinated cattle, during 36 weeks of experiment, the average infestation rate was maintained below 78 ticks per animal while average infestation peaks (mean +/- S.E.) of 144 +/- 44 ticks per animal (for dairy cross-bred cattle) and 195 +/- 42 ticks per animal (for beef cross-bred cattle) were recorded in the control groups. Tick infestation rates showed statistical significant differences (p = 0.04) between both experimental groups throughout the experiment. These results clearly showed, as in the Cuban study, that the vaccine controlled tick numbers in successive generations in the field.
Pontes, J H F; Melo Sterza, F A; Basso, A C; Ferreira, C R; Sanches, B V; Rubin, K C P; Seneda, M M
The objective was to clarify in vitro production of bovine embryos in Brazil. Data from 656 ovum pick-up/in vitro production (OPU/IVP) procedures, performed on 317 Nelore (Bos indicus) donors, without hormone stimulation or control of ovarian follicular waves, were analysed. Donors were subjected to OPU from one to nine times (no specific schedule), with < 15 d between consecutive procedures. There were 20,848 oocytes, of which 15,747 (75.53%) were considered viable, 5,446 embryos were obtained, 5,398 embryos were immediately transferred, resulting in 1,974 pregnancies (36.57%) at Day 30 and 1,788 (33.12%) pregnancies at Day 60. The average number of total and viable oocytes produced per OPU session was (mean ± SEM) 30.84 ± 0.88 and 23.35 ± 0.7 (average of 8.1 ± 0.3 embryos and 3.0 ± 0.1 pregnancies per OPU-IVP procedure). Since oocyte production varied widely among donor, they were designated as very high, high, intermediate, and low, with 58.94 ± 2.04, 32.61 ± 0.50, 22.13 ± 0.50, and 10.26 ± 0.57 oocytes, respectively, produced by 78, 80, 79, and 80 donors. The number of viable oocytes recovered ranged from 0 to 128; since donors with numerous viable oocytes produced many viable embryos and pregnancies, oocyte production was useful for donor selection. However, there was no significant effect of the number of OPU sessions per donor on mean numbers of oocytes produced. In conclusion, we confirmed field reports of high oocyte production by some Nelore donors and demonstrated individual variation in oocyte yield, which was associated with embryo production and pregnancy rates.
Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G
Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations.
The use of relatively low number of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, conservation of genetic resources and maintenance of the sustainability of the breed...
Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J
A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P<0.006 and P<0.01, respectively) associated with Brucella abortus seropositivity. Herd composition, abortion in herd, exchange of bulls for mating, introduction of new cattle, and socio-cultural practices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial.
Background: Rhipicephalus microplus is a highly-invasive tick that vectors cattle fever parasites (Babesia bovis and B. bigemina). In North America, ticks and Babesia are endemic in Mexico and ticks persist in the United States inside a narrow permanent quarantine zone (PQZ) along the Rio Grande. Th...
Kumar, Nishant; Verma, Ramesh Prashad; Singh, Lallan Prasad; Varshney, Vijay Prakash; Dass, Ram Sharan
An experiment was conducted on 16 crossbred bulls (about 2 years of age, 316.2+/-0.77 kg average body weight), divided into groups I, II, III and IV to study the effect of different levels of Zn supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on semen quality. The animals in the first 3 groups were supplemented with 0, 35 and 70 ppm Zn from Zn sulfate, respectively and the animals in-group IV were supplemented with 35 ppm Zn as Zn propionate. Semen collection and evaluation was done in the first month (to assess semen quality at the start of the experiment) and 7th, 8th and 9th month of experimental feeding to evaluate the effect of supplemental Zn on semen attributes. We gave 6 months for Zn feeding, so that 3 sperm cycles of spermatogenesis had passed and the collected semen reflected the complete effect of Zn supplementation. Six ejaculates from each bull were collected and evaluated for semen quantitative (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and sperm number per ejaculate) and qualitative characteristics (semen pH, mass motility, individual motility, sperm livability percent and abnormal sperm percent, percent intact acrosome, bovine cervical mucus penetration test, hypo-osmotic sperm swelling test) and activity of seminal plasma enzymes i.e., alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, GOT and GPT. Testosterone level in the blood serum of crossbred bulls was also estimated. Mean values of semen quantitative and qualitative characteristics at the start of the experiment were statistically non significant (P > 0.05) in all the crossbred cattle bulls, however, there were statistically significant differences among the bulls of different groups after 6 months of zinc supplementation. Mean ejaculate volume (mL) was 2.37, 4.70, 5.86 and 6.38, respectively in groups I to IV, indicating a statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher semen volume in Zn-supplemented groups as compared to the control group of bulls. Similarly, sperm concentration (million.mL(-1)), live
Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Othman, Iekhsan; Yee, Tee Ting; Karsani, Saiful Anuar
Production performance of European cattle breeds has significantly improved through various breeding programs. However, European breeds are more susceptible to heat stress compared to zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as their conception rate can range between 20 to 30% in hot seasons compared to winter. To identify cattle sperm proteins associated with zebu cattle higher fertility and heat tolerance in tropical environments, we utilised a proteomics-based approach to compare sperm from the highly fertile Malaysian indigenous breed, Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus), with sperm from the sub-fertile crossbreed, Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus). Frozen semen of three high performance bulls from each breed was processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Proteins were separated and gel bands were processed by in-gel tryptic digestion. For each breed, mass spectrometry data was acquired over 11 replicates. The analyzed data identified peptides with different expression levels (99% confidence level) and protein identification was determined by targeted MS/MS. Among the identified proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction, two proteins were up-regulated in Kedah Kelantan sperm and 7 proteins were up-regulated in or specific to Mafriwal. Our results suggest that the higher fertility of zebu cattle in tropical areas may not be related to more efficient sperm-oocyte interaction. Further analysis of the other regulated proteins in these two breeds may contribute further knowledge on the physiological reason/s for higher fertility and heat tolerance of Zebu cattle in tropical areas.
Barbedo, Jayme Garcia Arnal; Gomes, Claudia Cristina Gulias; Cardoso, Fernando Flores; Domingues, Robert; Ramos, Jeferson Vidart; McManus, Concepta Margaret
This paper presents a study on the use of low resolution infrared images to detect ticks in cattle. Emphasis is given to the main factors that influence the quality of the captured images, as well as to the actions that can increase the amount of information conveyed by these images. In addition, a new automatic method for analyzing the images and counting the ticks is introduced. The proposed algorithm relies only on color transformations and simple mathematical morphology operations, thus being easy to implement and computationally light. Tests were carried out using a large database containing images of the neck and hind end of the animals. It was observed that the proposed algorithm is very effective in detecting ticks visible in the images, even if the contrast with the background is not high. On the other hand, due to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, the thermographic images used in this study did not always succeed in creating enough contrast between ticks and cattle's hair coat. Although these problems can be mitigated by following some directives, currently only rough estimates for tick counts can be achieved using infrared images with low spatial resolution.
Signoretti, Ricardo D; Veríssimo, Cecília José; De Souza, Fernando Henrique M; Garcia, Tamires Da S; De Oliveira, Elisa Marcela; De Souza, Karen G; Mourão, Gerson Barreto
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and parasitologic infection of male dairy cattle submitted to supplemental proteic salt with and without the use of homeopathic medicines. Were used crossbred Gir x Holstein castrated males calves, with 10 months of age and live weight of 150.75 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with eight replicates per treatment, totaling 16 animals. The calves of each treatment remained in a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, managed in continuous grazing system for 8 months. The treatments employed were: supplementation with 300 g/animal/day of protein (40% of crude protein (CP) and 25% CP in the dry and rainy season, respectively) added or not with 5 g/animal/day of the homeopathic medicines FATOR PRO® and C & MC®. The addition of homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement did not affect (P > 0.05) the development of body male crossbred to pasture. The counting of the larvae and adults of ticks in scrapings were lower (P < 0.05) in animals that did not receive homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement. The females tick in the body anterior third (simplifying counting), nymphs in scrapings and the number of eggs per gram of helminths were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments. It was concluded that the use of homeopathic medicines did not affect the development of male crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy cattle neither their parasitic infection.
Tikki, N; Rhalem, A; Sadak, A; Sahibi, H
Proteins extracted from salivary glands of unfed, three days and five days fed adult Hyalomma marginatum marginatum were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). We have noticed changes during the three feeding steps. Some proteins disappeared during feeding process (23, 38, 39, 40 to 50, 95 and 112 kDa), they might be proteins which were converted in other substances and are secreted. Other antigens (13 to 14, 20, 25, 29, 165 and 210 kDa) were synthesized as a result of tick attachment and feeding. They may be related to growth and development or are the ciment which fixed the adult. Also, three Holstein calves were infested five times with 100 pairs of adult ticks of the same species. The five infestations were performed two weeks from the previous infestation. The sera before infestations and after each infestation were used in western-blot analyses to identify antigens from five days salivary gland extracts of the primary infestation of ticks. Three antigens (18.7, 50 and 80 kDa) were revealed weakly after the first and the second infestations by sera samples but not at infestation onward. Others (13.5, 17 to 18.5, 25, 30, 70, 133, 176 and 193 kDa) were revealed only by sera taken after manifestation of resistance (third infestation). A 13.5 kDa antigen was particularly revealed when resistance had appeared and became more evident after the fourth and fifth infestations. The late antigens recognized might be associated with establishment of calves resistance against ticks.
Klotz, Peter; Göttig, Stephan; Leidner, Ursula; Semmler, Torsten; Scheufen, Sandra; Ewers, Christa
The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and evaluation of pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45) from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. from the nasal cavities of two calves could be isolated. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing identified these isolates as A. indicus-like. A phylogenetic tree based on partial rpoB sequences indicated closest relation of the two bovine isolates to the A. indicus type strain A648T and human clinical A. indicus isolates, while whole genome comparison revealed considerable intraspecies diversity. High mimimum inhibitory concentrations were observed for carbapenems and other antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Whole genome sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that both isolates harboured blaOXA-23 localized on the chromosome and surrounded by interrupted Tn2008 transposon structures. Since the pathogenic potential of A. indicus is unknown, pathogenicity was assessed employing the Galleria (G.) mellonella infection model and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay using A549 human lung epithelial cells. Pathogenicity in vivo (G. mellonella killing assay) and in vitro (cytotoxicity assay) of the two A. indicus-like isolates was lower compared to A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and similar to A. lwoffii ATCC 15309. The reduced pathogenicity of A. indicus compared to A. baumannii correlated with the absence of important virulence genes encoding like phospholipase C1+C2, acinetobactin outer membrane protein BauA, RND-type efflux system proteins AdeRS and AdeAB or the trimeric autotransporter adhesin Ata. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. indicus-like strains from cattle carrying blaOXA-23 on transposable elements and revealing genetic
Leidner, Ursula; Semmler, Torsten; Scheufen, Sandra; Ewers, Christa
The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and evaluation of pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45) from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. from the nasal cavities of two calves could be isolated. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing identified these isolates as A. indicus-like. A phylogenetic tree based on partial rpoB sequences indicated closest relation of the two bovine isolates to the A. indicus type strain A648T and human clinical A. indicus isolates, while whole genome comparison revealed considerable intraspecies diversity. High mimimum inhibitory concentrations were observed for carbapenems and other antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Whole genome sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that both isolates harboured blaOXA-23 localized on the chromosome and surrounded by interrupted Tn2008 transposon structures. Since the pathogenic potential of A. indicus is unknown, pathogenicity was assessed employing the Galleria (G.) mellonella infection model and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay using A549 human lung epithelial cells. Pathogenicity in vivo (G. mellonella killing assay) and in vitro (cytotoxicity assay) of the two A. indicus-like isolates was lower compared to A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and similar to A. lwoffii ATCC 15309. The reduced pathogenicity of A. indicus compared to A. baumannii correlated with the absence of important virulence genes encoding like phospholipase C1+C2, acinetobactin outer membrane protein BauA, RND-type efflux system proteins AdeRS and AdeAB or the trimeric autotransporter adhesin Ata. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. indicus-like strains from cattle carrying blaOXA-23 on transposable elements and revealing genetic
Individual animal variation occurs regarding external parasite infestation in beef cattle. Our objective was to determine if horn flies infestations present on beef cattle are associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; T-318C) in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP3A28) and the prolactin (PR...
Laupland, Kevin B.; Valiquette, Louis
Although the practice of infectious diseases involves a broad range of surgical and medical disciplines, interactions with psychiatry are infrequent. Delusional infestation is a condition where an individual has a firmly fixed false belief that they have an infection. Delusional infestation challenges the infectious diseases specialist who must diligently rule out the presence of a true infection. However, perhaps, more importantly, we may need to initiate therapy with neuroleptic medications for which we may have little specific knowledge and experience. In this note we review the diagnosis and management of patients with delusional infestation. PMID:27366186
Comparative Analysis of Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) and Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) Sperm Proteome Identifies Sperm Proteins Potentially Responsible for Higher Fertility in a Tropical Climate
Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Karsani, Saiful Anuar
The fertility of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) is higher than that of the European purebred (Bos taurus) and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cattle in tropical areas. To identify proteins related to the higher thermo-tolerance and fertility of Zebu cattle, this study was undertaken to identify differences in sperm proteome between the high fertile Malaysian indigenous zebu cattle (Kedah Kelantan) and the sub-fertile crossbred cattle (Mafriwal). Frozen semen from three high performance bulls from each breed were processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Sperm proteins were then extracted, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis performed to compare proteome profiles. Gel image analysis identified protein spots of interest which were then identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry quadrupole time-of-flight (LC MS/MS Q-TOF). STRING network analysis predicted interactions between at least 20 of the identified proteins. Among the identified proteins, a number of motility and energy related proteins were present in greater abundance in Kedah Kelantan. Sperm motility evaluation by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) confirmed significantly higher motility in Kedah Kelantan. While results from this study do identify proteins that may be responsible for the higher fertility of Kedah Kelantan, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles in sperm fertility. PMID:23903046
Madden, C.T.; Lewis, G.E.
The very large Eurasian Miocene ape Indopithecus giganteus is distinct from contemporanious Sivapithecus (non-Dryopithecus)indicus. The probabilities that length and width for the only specimen of I. giganteus could be sampled from populations similar or identical to those of S. indicus are less than six chances in 100,000 for both parameters. ?? 1980 Japan Monkey Centre.
Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.
Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J
Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated.
Kaufman, P E; Rutz, D A; Doscher, M E; Albright, R
The four chlorfenapyr formulations examined provided 100% control of both the nymphal and adult stages of naturally acquired Bovicola bovis (L.) on cattle up to 35 days after application. Treatment with 6mg chlorfenapyr per kg BW in a 0.12ml per kg BW formulation was as effective as treatment with CyLence (cyfluthrin) in controlling naturally acquired Solenopotes capillatus (Enderlein) on cattle for 35 days. Percent reduction was never greater than 90% with any chlorfenapyr application against Linognathus vituli (L.). However, percent reduction was greater than 90% with CyLence from day 21 through 35. No adverse effects were noted on cattle from any of the chlorfenapyr dosages used.
Studdiford, James S; Conniff, Kathryn M; Trayes, Kathryn P; Tully, Amber S
The significant resurgence of bedbugs in the past decade has been attributed to pesticide resistance, more frequent travel, lack of public awareness, and inadequate pest control programs. Bedbugs are obligate blood parasites (insect family Cimicidae). They can withstand a large range of temperatures but are attracted to warmth and carbon dioxide. They typically feed just before dawn. Cutaneous reactions to bedbug bites can include macules, papules, wheals, vesicles, bullae, and nodules. Bites may be confused with other skin conditions. Bedbug bite reactions are typically self-limited and resolve within one to two weeks without treatment. Bedbug infestation may cause significant psychological distress. The diagnosis of a bedbug infestation is based on history, appearance of bites, and inspection of sleeping quarters. Although there is no evidence that bedbugs transmit disease, systemic reactions may include asthma, angioedema, generalized urticaria, iron deficiency anemia, and, rarely, anaphylaxis. An integrated pest management strategy should be employed to eliminate infestation. Tactics include vacuuming, heat or cold treatment, trapping devices, and pesticides.
Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter
This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol.
Shmidt, Eugenia; Levitt, Jacob
Head lice are transmitted by head to head contact. Optimal therapy includes malathion lotion 0.5% repeated in one week left on for 30 minutes to 8 hours. Spinosad topical suspension 0.9% repeated in one week left on for 10 minutes is another option. Scabies is transmitted mainly by direct contact but also via heavily infested fomites due to crusted scabies. Permethrin 5% cream to the body repeated in four days is often sufficient; however, scalp treatment with malathion lotion 0.5% is helpful in crusted scabies and in infested children. Oral ivermectin 200 mcg/kg is another option, repeated in four days. For scabies more than lice, fomites should be placed in a drier at 60 °C for 10 minutes to kill the arthropods. Treatment of close contacts in both cases will control outbreaks and repeated infestations. Both have been associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Bed bugs are a common cause for papular urticaria. Identification of the insect in the mattress or bedding confirms the diagnosis. Prevention involves encasing the mattress in a sealed plastic cover and extermination. Delusions of parasitosis is a diagnosis of exclusion that is best treated with an antipsychotic.
Freudenmann, Roland W.; Lepping, Peter
Summary: This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme “infestation” is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed “Morgellons disease” can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895
Yonesaka, Riku; Sasazaki, Shinji; Yasue, Hiroshi; Niwata, Satoru; Inayoshi, Yousuke; Mukai, Fumio; Mannen, Hideyuki
In this study, we genotyped 117 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms using a DigiTag2 assay to assess the genetic diversity, structure and relationships of 16 Eurasian cattle populations, including nine cattle breeds and seven native cattle. Phylogenetic and principal component analyses showed that Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations were clearly distinguished, whereas Japanese Shorthorn and Japanese Polled clustered with European populations. Furthermore, STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated the distinct separation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus (K=2), and between European and Asian populations (K=3). In addition, Japanese Holstein exhibited an admixture pattern with Asian and European cattle (K=3-5). Mongolian (K=13-16) and Japanese Black (K=14-16) populations exhibited admixture patterns with different ancestries. Bos indicus populations exhibited a uniform genetic structure at K=2-11, thereby suggesting that there are close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations. However, the Bhutan and Bangladesh populations formed a cluster distinct from the other Bos indicus populations at K=12-16. In conclusion, our study could sufficiently explain the genetic construction of Asian cattle populations, including: (i) the close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations; (ii) the genetic influences of European breeds on Japanese breeds; (iii) the genetic admixture in Japanese Holstein, Mongolian and Japanese Black cattle; and (iv) the genetic subpopulations in Southeast Asia.
Yonesaka, Riku; Sasazaki, Shinji; Yasue, Hiroshi; Niwata, Satoru; Inayoshi, Yousuke; Mukai, Fumio
Abstract In this study, we genotyped 117 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms using a DigiTag2 assay to assess the genetic diversity, structure and relationships of 16 Eurasian cattle populations, including nine cattle breeds and seven native cattle. Phylogenetic and principal component analyses showed that Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations were clearly distinguished, whereas Japanese Shorthorn and Japanese Polled clustered with European populations. Furthermore, STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated the distinct separation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus (K=2), and between European and Asian populations (K=3). In addition, Japanese Holstein exhibited an admixture pattern with Asian and European cattle (K=3‐5). Mongolian (K=13‐16) and Japanese Black (K=14‐16) populations exhibited admixture patterns with different ancestries. Bos indicus populations exhibited a uniform genetic structure at K=2‐11, thereby suggesting that there are close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations. However, the Bhutan and Bangladesh populations formed a cluster distinct from the other Bos indicus populations at K=12‐16. In conclusion, our study could sufficiently explain the genetic construction of Asian cattle populations, including: (i) the close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations; (ii) the genetic influences of European breeds on Japanese breeds; (iii) the genetic admixture in Japanese Holstein, Mongolian and Japanese Black cattle; and (iv) the genetic subpopulations in Southeast Asia. PMID:26260416
Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M.; Vajrabukka, C.; Katawatin, Suporn
Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal ( B. indicus) ( n = 10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) ( B. taurus) ( n = 10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% ( n = 10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % ( n = 10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm2; 1.60 μ3 × 10-6) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm2; 0.51 μ3x10-6) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm2; 0.68 μ3 × 10-6) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm2; 0.61 μ3 × 10-6) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm2) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm2); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm2 for HF75% and HF87.5 %) ( P < 0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred ( P < 0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction ( P < 0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic
Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B.b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos Taurus Taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos Taurus indicus). Genetic distances,...
Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B. b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Genetic distances...
Zavarez, Ludmilla B.; Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ferenčaković, Maja; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M.; Curik, Ino; Cole, John B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José F.
The use of relatively low numbers of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, which affects conservation of genetic resources and sustainability of this breed. Here, we investigated the distribution of autozygosity levels based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a sample of 1,278 Nellore cows, genotyped for over 777,000 SNPs. We found ROH segments larger than 10 Mb in over 70% of the samples, representing signatures most likely related to the recent massive use of few sires. However, the average genome coverage by ROH (>1 Mb) was lower than previously reported for other cattle breeds (4.58%). In spite of 99.98% of the SNPs being included within a ROH in at least one individual, only 19.37% of the markers were encompassed by common ROH, suggesting that the ongoing selection for weight, carcass and reproductive traits in this population is too recent to have produced selection signatures in the form of ROH. Three short-range highly prevalent ROH autosomal hotspots (occurring in over 50% of the samples) were observed, indicating candidate regions most likely under selection since before the foundation of Brazilian Nellore cattle. The putative signatures of selection on chromosomes 4, 7, and 12 may be involved in resistance to infectious diseases and fertility, and should be subject of future investigation. PMID:25688258
Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, B. G.; Rana, D. G.
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant. PMID:21455454
Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are deadly cattle diseases caused by microorganisms transmitted by the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is considered the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock worldwide. Humans brought animals infested w...
Silva-Santos, K C; Ferreira, C R; Santos, G M G; Eberlin, M N; Siloto, L S; Rosa, C O; Marcantonio, T N; Seneda, M M
The aim of the present study was to compare the lipid profile in oocytes of indicus and 1/2 indicus × taurus cows with high and low antral follicle count (AFC)/oocyte yields. After an OPU procedure (D0), antral follicles ≥3 mm were counted by ultrasonography (D4, 19, 34, 49, 64), and cows were assigned to groups with either high AFC (≥30 follicles; indicus, NH group; 1/2 indicus × taurus, AH group) or low AFC (≤15 antral follicles; indicus, NL group; 1/2 indicus × taurus, AL group). The lipid profiles of the oocytes were determined by MALDI-MS. For GI, GII and GIII oocytes, the indicus samples tend to cluster separately from the 1/2 indicus × taurus samples. The lipid species [PC (P-38:5) + H](+) and/or [PC (P-36:2) + Na](+) , [PC (38:2) + H](+) , [PC (38:5) + Na](+) and [TAG (60:8) + NH(4) ](+) were more abundant in indicus (NH and NL groups) than 1/2 indicus × taurus. The higher lipid content in the indicus oocytes likely reflects differences in the rate of lipid metabolism and may contribute to oocyte competence and embryo development.
To test the hypothesis that gender and breed type affect cortisol secretion, Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls (intact males), steers (castrate males), and heifers (intact females) were studied. Jugular venipuncture samples were taken from 900 cattle at: 28 days before weaning; wean...
Smith, James G; Christian, Keith; Green, Brian
Some species of terrestrial lizards in wet-dry tropical climates reduce their body temperatures (T(b)'s) and activity and lower their metabolic rates during the dry season when food and water resources are scarce. However, semiaquatic lizards have access to water and presumably food throughout the year, so it is possible that they will not have the seasonal response seen in terrestrial species. We studied the thermal biology, energetics, and water flux of Varanus indicus, a semiaquatic, mangrove-dwelling varanid in tropical northern Australia. Although V. indicus remained active all year, they reduced their activity in the dry season, but not to the extent of terrestrial varanids. Varanus indicus field metabolic rates decreased by 38% in the dry season mostly as a result of the reduction in activity. Although food and water depletion are the driving forces behind decreases in dry season T(b) selection and energetics for many varanids, V. indicus appears not to be subject to these pressures to the same extent. Thermoregulatory indices indicate that V. indicus actively thermoregulate in the wet and dry seasons, but they do not fully exploit the available thermal resources. These lizards are unusual among varanid lizards in that their midday T(b)'s are relatively low (about 31 degrees C) despite the availability of thermal resources that would allow them to attain substantially higher T(b)'s.
Rhipicephalus microplus, the cattle fever tick, is a global economic problem to the cattle industry due to direct infestation of cattle and pathogens transmitted during feeding. Cattle fever tick outbreaks continue to occur along the Mexico-U.S. border even though the tick has been eradicated from t...
Macedo, Gustavo Guerino; Zúccari, Carmem Estefânia Serra Neto; de Abreu, Urbano Gomes Pinto; Negrão, João Alberto; da Costa e Silva, Eliane Vianna
This study investigated the effect of human-animal interaction (HAI) and the stress response on the quality of embryo production in superovulated Nelore (Bos indicus) cattle, under tropical conditions. Thirty-two females underwent a superovulation protocol for 5 days. Cortisol concentrations were determined in blood plasma collected on days 0, 4, and 5. Artificial insemination was performed on days 4 and 5, and nonsurgical embryo flushing on day 11. Embryo production and viability were determined. Human stimulation, animal behaviors, accidents, and handling time were recorded to assess HAI. Cattle age was negatively correlated with accidents, frequency of aversive behaviors, and negative stimuli by stockperson during transit through corral compartments to receive superovulation treatments. The factor analysis revealed two distinct groups. The first group was called stressed and had higher cortisol concentration than the nonstressed group, 16.0 ± 2.1 and 12.5 ± 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. Comparisons between these groups showed that the frequency of voice emissions by the stockperson and the number of accidents were higher in the stressed group, and also, the mean handling time was longer in the stressed group than for the nonstressed. As a result, viability rate of the embryos was 19% lower in the stressed group (P < 0.05). This indicates that intensive negative HAI is likely related to stress, which affects embryo production in a superovulation program.
Smith, L C; Suzuki, J; Goff, A K; Filion, F; Therrien, J; Murphy, B D; Kohan-Ghadr, H R; Lefebvre, R; Brisville, A C; Buczinski, S; Fecteau, G; Perecin, F; Meirelles, F V
Many of the developmental anomalies observed in cloned animals are related to foetal and placental overgrowth, a phenomenon known as the 'large offspring syndrome' (LOS) in ruminants. It has been hypothesized that the epigenetic control of imprinted genes, that is, genes that are expressed in a parental-specific manner, is at the root of LOS. Our recent research has focused on understanding epigenetic alterations to imprinted genes that are associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as early embryo in vitro culture (IVC) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in cattle. We have sought and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in Bos indicus DNA useful for the analysis of parental-specific alleles and their respective transcripts in tissues from hybrid embryos derived by crossing Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. By analysing differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes SNRPN, H19 and the IGF2R in cattle, we demonstrated that there is a generalized hypomethylation of the imprinted allele and the biallelic expression of embryos produced by SCNT when compared to the methylation patterns observed in vivo (artificially inseminated). Together, these results indicate that imprinting marks are erased during the reprogramming of the somatic cell nucleus during early development, indicating that such epigenetic anomalies may play a key role in mortality and morbidity of cloned animals.
Abd El Bagi, Mohamed E; Sammak, Bassam M; Mohamed, Abdulrahman E; Al Karawi, Mohamed A; Al Shahed, Mona; Al Thagafi, Mohamed A
Twenty-five percent of the world's population could be suffering parasitic infestation. Highest prevalence is in underdeveloped agricultural and rural areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. In some areas incidence may reach 90% of the population. In contrast, some major economic projects intended to promote local development have, paradoxically, caused parasitic proliferation, e.g. bilharziasis in Egypt and Sudan and Chagas disease in Brazil. The commonest cosmopolitan gastrointestinal parasite is Entamoeba histolytica. Some intestinal parasite are endemic in temperate climates, e.g. Entrobius vermicularis. The AIDS epidemic has increased the prevalence and severity of parasitic disease, particularly Strongyloides stercolaris. Tropical parasites are seen in Western people who travel to tropical countries. Radiology has acquired a major role in diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal parasite infestations and their complications.
Althomali, Sarah Ali; Alzubaidi, Lamya Mohammed; Alkhaldi, Dhelal Musleh
Lice feed on human blood, and heavy and chronic lice infestation can lead to chronic blood loss with resultant iron deficiency anaemia. Although no definite relationship between lice infestation and iron deficiency anaemia has been described, the concurrent presence of these two conditions has been reported in children and adults, as well as in cattle. We present a case of a young woman with severe iron deficiency anaemia that could not be explained by the known causes of iron deficiency anaemia. However, the patient was found to have heavy and chronic head lice infestation.
He, Ruijie; Zhang, Yanjun; Wu, Liangdeng; Nie, Hui; Huang, Yan; Liu, Buming; Deng, Shengping; Yang, Ruiyun; Huang, Shuai; Nong, Zhijie; Li, Jun; Chen, Haiyan
Two pairs of rare benzofuran glucoside epimers, indicuses A and B and indicuses C and D, three biogenetically related compounds indicuses E-G, and one coumarin indicus H, as well as 11 known compounds, were isolated from the bark of Streblus indicus (Bur.) Corner. The structures of indicuses A-H were elucidated by NMR and MS data, as well as by CD. (S)-Marmesinin exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity in vitro against Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 7,8-Dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) coumarin, umbelliferone, and scopoletin displayed strong cytotoxic activity in vitro against human bladder carcinoma cell line EJ. The structure-activity relationships indicate that hydroxylation at C-7 in the cytotoxic compounds is crucial to their activities.
Silva-Santos, K C; Siloto, L S; Santos, G M G; Morotti, F; Marcantonio, T N; Seneda, M M
The objective was to compare populations of antral and pre-antral ovarian follicles in Bos indicus and Bos indicus-taurus cows with high and low antral follicle counts. Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 20) and Nelore X Angus (1/2 Bos indicus-taurus, n = 20) cows were subjected to follicular aspiration without regard to the stage of their oestrous cycle (day of aspiration = D0) to remove all follicles ≥3 mm and induce growth of a new follicular wave. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on D4, D19, D34, D49 and D64, and antral follicles ≥3 mm were counted. Thereafter, cows were assigned to one of two groups: high or low antral follicular count (AFC, ≥30 and ≤15 antral follicles, respectively). After D64, ovaries were collected after slaughter and processed for histological evaluation. There was high repeatability in the numbers of antral follicles for all groups (range 0.77-0.96). The mean (±SD) numbers of antral follicles were 35 ± 9 (Bos indicus) and 38 ± 6 (Bos indicus-taurus) for the high AFC group and 10 ± 3 (Bos indicus) and 12 ± 2 (Bos indicus-taurus) follicles for the low AFC. The mean number of preantral follicles in the ovaries of Bos indicus-taurus cows with high AFC (116 226 ± 83 156 follicles) was greater (p < 0.05) than that of Bos indicus cows (63 032 ± 58 705 follicles) with high AFC. However, there was no significant correlation between numbers of antral and preantral follicles.
Wisoram, Wijit; Saengthong, Pradit; Ngernsiri, Lertluk
The giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae), a native species of Southeast Asia, is one of the largest insects belonging to suborder Heteroptera. In this study, the meiotic chromosome of L. indicus was studied in insect samples collected from Thailand, Myanmar, Loas, and Cambodia. Testicular cells stained with lacto-acetic orcein, Giemsa, DAPI, and silver nitrate were analyzed. The results revealed that the chromosome complement of L. indicus was 2n = 22A + neo-XY + 2m, which differed from that of previous reports. Each individual male contained testicular cells with three univalent patterns. The frequency of cells containing neo-XY chromosome univalent (∼5%) was a bit higher than that of cells with autosomal univalents (∼3%). Some cells (∼0.5%) had both sex chromosome univalents and a pair of autosomal univalents. None of the m-chromosome univalents were observed during prophase I. In addition, this report presents clear evidence about the existence of m-chromosomes in Belostomatidae. PMID:23895100
Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram
Mucor indicus, one of the most important strains of zygomycetes fungi, has been the subject of several studies since a couple of hundred years ago. This fungus, regarded as a non-pathogenic dimorphic microorganism, is used for production of several beers and foods. Morphology of the fungus can be manipulated and well controlled by changing a number of parameters. Furthermore, M. indicus can grow on a variety of substrates including lignocellulosic hydrolysates which are mixtures of hexoses, pentoses, and different severe fermentation inhibitors. Indeed, high yield ethanol production is among the most important features of this strain. Presence of considerable amounts of chitosan in the cell wall is another important aspect of the fungus. Besides production of ethanol and chitosan, the biomass of this fungus has shown a great potential to be used as a rich nutritional source, e.g. fish feed. The fungus is also among the oleaginous fungi and produces high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids particularly γ-linolenic acid. Furthermore, the biomass autolysate has a high potential for yeast extract replacement in fermentation by the fungus. Additionally, the strain has shown promising results in heavy metal removal from wastewaters. This review discusses different aspects of biology and industrial application perspectives of M. indicus. Furthermore, open areas for the future basic and applied levels of research are also presented.
Castro, Susan; Ríos, Marcela; Ortiz, Yurany; Manrique, Carlos; Jiménez, Ariel; Ariza, Fernando
The objective of this research was to determine the association of SNPs in the candidate genes Calpain (CAPN1), Calpastatin (CAST) and Myoglobin (MB) with colorimetric parameters (L *, a *, b *, C *, hue) in a F1 population (n = 164) obtained from crossing Bos taurus × Bos indicus and Bos indicus × Bos indicus. SNPs were analyzed using PCR-RFLP and SSCP. Colorimetric measurements were performed in the muscles Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and Semitendinosus (ST) at 7, 14 and 21 days postmortem applying the methodology CIE L* a* b*. The CAST gene showed a significant effect on the b* and hue* parameters in both muscles. MB gene showed significant association with all colorimetric parameters in both LTL and ST muscles, except with b* parameter. The CAPN1 gene did not show any significant association. These results suggest an important role of genetics in meat color variation for cattle raised under the tropic conditions.
Di Marco, L; Berghenti, M; Cocuzza, C; Manfredini, A; Sciascia, V; Salmi, R
The Authors present 2 cases of enterobiasis of appendix observed on a total of 186 appendicectomies. Enterobius infestation is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible without clinical suspect. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis but parasitic infection rarely causes it. It is also important considered in the differential diagnosis cases that mimic Crohn's disease.
Lee, Yueh-Chang; Chiu, Cheng-Jen
This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. PMID:25784786
Mohamad, K; Olsson, M; Andersson, G; Purwantara, B; van Tol, H T A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Colenbrander, B; Lenstra, J A
Both Bos indicus (zebu) and Bos javanicus (banteng) contribute to the Indonesian indigenous livestock, which is supposedly of a mixed species origin, not by direct breeding but by secondary cross-breeding. Here, the analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds with East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle having higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30%) and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura) or even complete (Galekan) maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. There was no evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng.
Horak, Ivan G; Heyne, Heloise; Halajian, Ali; Booysen, Shalaine; Smit, Willem J
The aim of the study was to determine the species spectrum of ixodid ticks that infest horses and donkeys in South Africa and to identify those species that act as vectors of disease to domestic livestock. Ticks were collected opportunistically from 391 horses countrywide by their owners or grooms, or by veterinary students and staff at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria. Ticks were also collected from 76 donkeys in Limpopo Province, 2 in Gauteng Province and 1 in North West province. All the ticks were identified by means of a stereoscopic microscope. Horses were infested with 17 tick species, 72.1% with Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, 19.4% with Amblyomma hebraeum and 15.6% with Rhipicephalus decoloratus. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi was recovered from horses in all nine provinces of South Africa and R. decoloratus in eight provinces. Donkeys were infested with eight tick species, and 81.6% were infested with R. evertsi evertsi, 23.7% with A. hebraeum and 10.5% with R. decoloratus. Several tick species collected from the horses and donkeys are the vectors of economically important diseases of livestock. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is the vector of Theileria equi, the causative organism of equine piroplasmosis. It also transmits Anaplasma marginale, the causative organism of anaplasmosis in cattle. Amblyomma hebraeum is the vector of Ehrlichia ruminantium, the causative organism of heartwater in cattle, sheep and goats, whereas R. decoloratus transmits Babesia bigemina, the causative organism of babesiosis in cattle.
Dewar, Catharine L; Sigler, Lynne
Mycoleptodiscus indicus is a recognized plant pathogen which has very rarely been reported as a cause of human infection. It is a tropical or subtropical fungus which is difficult to culture and identify from clinical specimens. This is the first report of septic arthritis with this fungus in a healthy Canadian male. The fungal infection was contracted on a vacation in Costa Rica, probably through direct inoculation through injured skin. The fungus was isolated from synovial fluid and identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. There has only been one previous case of septic arthritis of the knee and one skin infection reported with this fungus; both cases involved immunocompromised hosts. Both septic arthritis patients required joint surgery and lavage to eradicate the fungus, however, only the immunocompromised patient required antifungal medications. In the future, it is very likely that the number of patients identified with M. indicus infection will rise due to increasing awareness of this pathogen as well as increasing exposure. Many immunocompromised patients on anti-retroviral or biologic therapy are healthy enough to travel, thereby exposing themselves to exotic and infected plants which increase the risk of unusual fungal infections.
Da Silva, Mari-Ann O; Kortegaard, Hanne E; Choong, Siew Shean; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bertelsen, Mads F
Facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. To determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased Malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. Dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/ young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging). All of the lesions identified were of a resorptive nature. seemingly originating at the cementoenamel junction and burrowing towards the center of the tooth. Overall, 27% of the investigated skulls presented radiolucent dental lesions. The prevalence among captive animals was 52% (13/25), while only 6% (2/31) of the free-ranging tapirs had dental lesions. The second, third, and fourth premolars and first molar were the teeth most commonly affected, and the mandibular teeth were more often involved than the maxillary dentition. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of resorptive dental lesions in captive Malayan tapirs and provides a strong indication that age and captivity are significant risk factors in the development of these lesions. Dental disease, Malayan tapir, radiology, resorptive lesions, Tapirus indicus.
McClure, Matthew C.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Wiggans, George R.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Weber, Kristina L.; Penedo, Cecilia T.; Berry, Donagh P.; Flynn, John; Garcia, Jose F.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Albuquerque, Milla; Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Machado, Marco A.; Coffey, Mike; Moore, Kirsty; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Genestout, Lucie; Mazza, Raffaele; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Simpson, Barry; Marques, Elisa; McEwan, John C.; Cromie, Andrew; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Keele, John W.; Piper, Emily K.; Cook, Jim; Williams, Robert; Van Tassell, Curtis P.
To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ≤1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset. PMID:24065982
Prabhu, Kirti S; Lobo, Richard; Shirwaikar, Annie
We have investigated the possible antihyperglycaemic effects of Sphaeranthus indicus extract in rats rendered diabetic by nicotinamide (120 mgkg(-1) i.p.) and streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mgkg(-1) i.p). Fasting plasma glucose levels, serum insulin levels, serum lipid profiles, magnesium levels, glycosylated haemoglobin, changes in body weight and liver glycogen levels were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. Oral administration of S. indicus for 15 days resulted in significant decrease in blood glucose levels and increases in hepatic glycogen and plasma insulin levels. Fasting normal rats treated with the alcoholic extract of S. indicus showed significant improvement in oral glucose tolerance test. Glibenclamide was used as a reference standard. The findings demonstrate that the alcoholic S. indicus extract may be useful in the treatment of diabetes.
Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D; Vu, Ninh; Leesburg, Vicki; Blackburn, Harvey D; Derr, James N
The genetic relationship of American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) was quantified and compared with that among breeds and subspecies of cattle. Plains bison from 9 herds (N = 136), wood bison from 3 herds (N = 65), taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus) from 14 breeds (N = 244), and indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus) from 2 breeds (N = 53) were genotyped for 29 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Bayesian cluster analyses indicate 3 groups, 2 of which are plains bison and 1 of which is wood bison with some admixture, and genetic distances do not show plains bison and wood bison as distinct groups. Differentiation of wood bison and plains bison is also significantly less than that of cattle breeds and subspecies. These and other genetic data and historical interbreeding of bison do not support recognition of extant plains bison and wood bison as phylogenetically distinct subspecies.
Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver
Cockroaches are detected ashore worldwide. At present, little is known about cockroach infestation on ships. The authors' objective in this study was to assess the current prevalence of cockroach infestation on seagoing vessels. In August 2005, port officials investigated cockroach infestation on 59 ships in Hamburg's port via standardized procedures (ie, illuminating hiding places and using pyrethrum spray). About 3 minutes after illumination or chemical provocation, the inspectors counted the number of insects escaping from their hiding places. The examination revealed cockroach presence in the galley or mess room of 6 ships (10.2%). These ships were bigger than 10,000 gross register tons (GRT) and older than 7 years. Inspectors detected the cockroach species Blattella germanica on 5 ships and Blatta orientalis on 1 ship. The standardized use of pyrethrum spray more frequently detected cockroaches than did inspection or illumination of their hiding places.
Malathy, N S; Sini, S
Hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts from Hemidesmus indicus and Ichnocarpus frutescens roots were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. The chloroform extract of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested organisms. Both the plants showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activity against Eschericia coli and Aspergillus flavus respectively. With increase in concentration of the extract a corresponding increase in diameter of inhibition vgme was observed. The roots of the common substitute of H.Indicus namely Ifrutescenspossess similar antimicrobial properties. PMID:22557326
Colwell, Douglas D; Otranto, Domenico
The potential for cross-transmission of Hypoderma lineatum from cattle to domestic goats (Capra hircus) was examined using artificial infestation techniques. Two routes of infestation, subcutaneous injection and dermal penetration, were used to expose goats to newly hatched first instars. Presence of antibodies and appearance of circulating antigen (hypodermin C) were evaluated at selected intervals for up to 40 weeks post-infestation. In addition, immunoblots against H. lineatum first-instar proteins were conducted using sera taken at 10 weeks post-infestation. Goats were palpated for the presence of developing larvae at sub-dermal sites beginning at week 30 pi. No developing larvae were palpated at any time, regardless of the route of infestation nor was circulating antigen detected in any infested goats. Antibodies were present at weeks 6 and 10 and week 27 pi in both infested groups. Immunoblots indicated all infested goats produced antibodies to first instar H. lineatum antigens. H. lineatum appears to be incapable of completing development in domestic goats although the transient appearance of ELISA detectable antibodies and the presence of bands on immunoblots suggests that at least some larvae survive long-enough to engender a humoural response. The host specificity of H. lineatum is discussed in light of the general concepts of host-parasite relationships of oestrids.
de Sá Filho, Ocilon Gomes; Vasconcelos, José Luiz Moraes
Bos indicus cattle, the preferred genetic group in tropical climates, are characterized by having a lower reproductive efficiency than Bos taurus. The reasons for the poorer reproductive efficiency of the Bos indicus cows include longer lengths of gestation and postpartum anestrus, a short length of estrous behavior with a high incidence of estrus occurring during the dark hours, and puberty at older age and at a higher percentage of body weight relative to mature body weight. Moreover, geography, environment, economics, and social traditions are factors contributing for a lower use of reproductive biotechnologies in tropical environments. Hormonal protocols have been developed to resolve some of the reproductive challenges of the Bos indicus cattle and allow artificial insemination, which is the main strategy to hasten genetic improvement in commercial beef ranches. Most of these treatments use exogenous sources of progesterone associated with strategies to improve the final maturation of the dominant follicle, such as temporary weaning and exogenous gonadotropins. These treatments have caused large impacts on reproductive performance of beef cattle reared under tropical areas. PMID:21076547
de Sá Filho, Ocilon Gomes; Vasconcelos, José Luiz Moraes
Bos indicus cattle, the preferred genetic group in tropical climates, are characterized by having a lower reproductive efficiency than Bos taurus. The reasons for the poorer reproductive efficiency of the Bos indicus cows include longer lengths of gestation and postpartum anestrus, a short length of estrous behavior with a high incidence of estrus occurring during the dark hours, and puberty at older age and at a higher percentage of body weight relative to mature body weight. Moreover, geography, environment, economics, and social traditions are factors contributing for a lower use of reproductive biotechnologies in tropical environments. Hormonal protocols have been developed to resolve some of the reproductive challenges of the Bos indicus cattle and allow artificial insemination, which is the main strategy to hasten genetic improvement in commercial beef ranches. Most of these treatments use exogenous sources of progesterone associated with strategies to improve the final maturation of the dominant follicle, such as temporary weaning and exogenous gonadotropins. These treatments have caused large impacts on reproductive performance of beef cattle reared under tropical areas.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The...
Usarova, E I
Data on Eimeria (Sporozoa: Coccidia) parasitizing cattle in different regions of the Republic of Dagestan are given. Eight species of the genus were found. Eimeria zuernii, E. subspherica, and E. bovis appeared to be the dominate species. Total infestation rate in the republic is 67.7%, while in mountain regions of Dagestan in is 83%.
Welch, Kevin D; Stonecipher, Clint A; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Parsons, Cory; Deboodt, Tim; Johnson, Bryan
Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in western juniper-infested rangelands tend to have decreased conception rates. The objective of this study was to determine if western juniper alters the estrous cycle of cattle. Fourteen heifers (10 treated and 4 control) were monitored for 74 days for signs of normal estrous behavior, with a 21 day feeding trial with western juniper bark from days 28-48, after which the cattle were bred naturally with a bull. The cattle were checked for pregnancy 30 days after all cattle had been bred. The data from this study indicate that exposure to western juniper bark does not affect normal estrus, estrous cycle or conception rates of cattle.
Aroeira, Carolina N; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Gomide, Lúcio Alberto M; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ladeira, Márcio M; Ramos, Eduardo M
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of freezing prior to aging on the meat tenderness of young Nellore and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Samples of the longissimus thoracis muscle were submitted to two treatments: conventional aging and freezing (-20°C for 40 days) followed by thawing and aging periods. The meats were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 aging days (1°C). Freezing increased (P<0.05) purge, cooking loss and total exudate loss throughout aging. Nellore meats had greater total exudate loss and shorter sarcomere lengths (P<0.05). Freezing increased proteolysis during aging in the meats of both breeds, but reduced shear force was found (P<0.05) only in Aberdeen Angus meats and only at time zero. These results suggest that the meat tenderizing process by freezing prior to aging may contribute to meat tenderness in the first weeks of aging, but it is dependent on the animal breed.
Scolamacchia, Francesca; Handel, Ian G.; Fèvre, Eric M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.
Brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever are important infections of livestock causing a range of clinical conditions including abortions and reduced fertility. In addition, they are all important zoonotic infections infecting those who work with livestock and those who consume livestock related products such as milk, producing non-specific symptoms including fever, that are often misdiagnosed and that can lead to severe chronic disease. This study used banked sera from the Adamawa Region of Cameroon to investigate the seroprevalences and distributions of seropositive animals and herds. A classical statistical and a multi-level prevalence modelling approach were compared. The unbiased estimates were 20% of herds were seropositive for Brucella spp. compared to 95% for Leptospira spp. and 68% for Q fever. The within-herd seroprevalences were 16%, 35% and 39% respectively. There was statistical evidence of clustering of seropositive brucellosis and Q fever herds. The modelling approach has the major advantage that estimates of seroprevalence can be adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test used and the multi-level structure of the sampling. The study found a low seroprevalence of brucellosis in the Adamawa Region compared to a high proportion of leptospirosis and Q fever seropositive herds. This represents a high risk to the human population as well as potentially having a major impact on animal health and productivity in the region. PMID:20098670
The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between the scrotal circumference and testicular parameters with body weight and age in Tho Tho bulls (Bos indicus), which were maintained at around the villages of National Research Centre on Mithun (ICAR), Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. A total of 32 Tho Tho bulls were selected and divided into four groups according to their age and each group consisted of 8 bulls, namely, Group I: 18–24 months (n = 8), Group II: 25–36 months (n = 8), Group III: 37–48 months (n = 8), and Group IV: 49 months and above (n = 8). The scrotal circumference and testicular parameters were measured with caliper and tape and age of animals was calculated with dental formula. The body weight of bulls was estimated with Shaeffer's formula. Result revealed that the scrotal circumference was highly correlated with testicular parameters and body weight compared to age. Compared to exotic cattle (Bos taurus), Tho Tho bull's testicular parameters and scrotal circumference were lower. The results of the present study in Tho Tho bulls revealed that scrotal circumference is a useful indicator and is an important selection criterion to determine the testicular development and breeding soundness in young bulls as it is highly correlated with tesicular parameters. PMID:27351012
The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between the scrotal circumference and testicular parameters with body weight and age in Tho Tho bulls (Bos indicus), which were maintained at around the villages of National Research Centre on Mithun (ICAR), Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. A total of 32 Tho Tho bulls were selected and divided into four groups according to their age and each group consisted of 8 bulls, namely, Group I: 18-24 months (n = 8), Group II: 25-36 months (n = 8), Group III: 37-48 months (n = 8), and Group IV: 49 months and above (n = 8). The scrotal circumference and testicular parameters were measured with caliper and tape and age of animals was calculated with dental formula. The body weight of bulls was estimated with Shaeffer's formula. Result revealed that the scrotal circumference was highly correlated with testicular parameters and body weight compared to age. Compared to exotic cattle (Bos taurus), Tho Tho bull's testicular parameters and scrotal circumference were lower. The results of the present study in Tho Tho bulls revealed that scrotal circumference is a useful indicator and is an important selection criterion to determine the testicular development and breeding soundness in young bulls as it is highly correlated with tesicular parameters.
Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie
Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Conclusions: Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs. PMID:23826461
Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Nardon, R F; Figueiredo, L A; Alleoni, G F
Relationships between the chemical composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section and the chemical composition of the carcass and empty body were evaluated for Bos indicus (108 Nellore and 36 Guzerah; GuS) and tropically adapted Bos taurus (56 Caracu; CaS) bulls, averaging 20 to 24 mo of age at slaughter. Nellore cattle were represented by 56 animals from the selected herd (NeS) and 52 animals from the control herd (NeC). The CaS and GuS bulls were from selected herds. Selected herds were based on 20 yr of selection for postweaning BW. Carcass composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, and analyzing soft tissue and bones. Similarly, empty body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Bulls were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 was composed of 36 NeS, 36 NeC, 36 CaS, and 36 GuS bulls and had water, ether extract (EE), protein, and ash chemically determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section and in the carcass. Group 2 was composed of 20 NeS, 16 NeC, and 20 CaS bulls and water, EE, protein, and ash were determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section, carcass, and empty body. Linear regressions were developed between the carcass and the 9th- to 11th-rib section compositions for group 1 and between carcass and empty body compositions for group 2. The 9th- to 11th-rib section percentages of water (RWt) and EE (RF) predicted the percentages of carcass water (CWt) and carcass fat (CF) with high precision: CWt, % = 29.0806 + 0.4873 × RWt, % (r(2) = 0.813, SE = 1.06) and CF, % = 10.4037 + 0.5179 × RF, % (r(2) = 0.863, SE = 1.26), respectively. Linear regressions between percentage of CWt and CF and empty body water (EBWt) and empty body fat (EBF) were also predicted with high precision: EBWt, % = -9.6821 + 1.1626 × CWt, % (r(2) = 0.878, SE = 1.43) and EBF, % = 0.3739 + 1.0386 × CF, % (r(2) = 0.982, SE = 0.65), respectively. Chemical composition of the 9th- to 11
Sangwan, A K; Banerjee, D P; Sangwan, N
Antigens derived from partially engorged nymphs of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum were used in immunizing crossbred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle against larval, nymphal and adult H. a. anatolicum and H. dromedarii. The cattle were either infected with Theileria annulata at low parasitaemia or were uninfected. Whole nymphal extract (WNE), nymphal membrane antigens (NMA) and nymphal soluble antigens (NSA) were used for immunization. The group immunized with WNE showed significant and better rejection of H. a. anatolicum ticks as compared to calves immunized with either NMA or NSA. The moulting rates of both engorged larvae and nymphs remained unaffected. Nymphs which engorged on the immunized calves were fully susceptible to infection by T. annulata as indicated by the intensity and abundance of Theileria infections in the resulting adult ticks from immunized and unimmunized Theileria infected cattle. These ticks also transmitted fatal theileriosis to susceptible calves.
Mamiro, Kamilius A; Magwisha, Henry B; Rukambile, Elpidius J; Ruheta, Martin R; Kimboka, Expery J; Malulu, Deusdedit J; Malele, Imna I
Ticks and tick-borne diseases plus trypanosomosis are a constraint to cattle rearing in Tanzania. Rufiji district was not known for important ticks infesting cattle because inhabitants were not engaged in keeping livestock. Not only has settlement of pastoralists and cattle in Rufiji increased the number of cattle but also cattle have been the source of bringing in and spreading of ticks. This study investigated tick species that have been introduced and managed to establish themselves in the new livestock farming areas in cattle in Rufiji. Tick distribution study was undertaken in three villages of Chumbi ward seasonally in 2009, 2011, and 2012. The identified ticks were Amblyomma variegatum (56.10%), Rhipicephalus evertsi (10.25%), R. microplus (27.40%), and R. appendiculatus (6.19%) out of 12940 ticks. Results indicate that ticks are present in the new livestock settlement areas. The occurrence of ticks is correlated with the recent settlement of cattle in the district.
Schwartz, Amnon; Gilboa, Sarah; Koller, Dov
Leaflet orientation in Melilotus indicus (L.) All. Is under photonastic control during the day and nyctinastic control during the night, but also exhibits a diaphototropic (solar-tracking) response. Detached leaves with the two lateral leaflets excised were used to study the solar-tracking capability of the terminal leaflet. Perception of the photonastic excitation is located in the pulvinule. The lower (abaxial) and upper (adaxial) surfaces perceive photonastic excitation, which results in concomitant contraction of the side exposed to light and/or expansion of the opposite side. Steady state laminar elevation is determined by the fluence rates of the light incident simultaneously on the opposite sides. Light sensitivity of the lower side exceeds that of the upper. Response to photonastic excitation of either side is affected by angle of incidence of the light, but angular dependence is restricted to a limited range of angle of incidence, which differs for the two sides. This may be accounted for by the different topography of the two pulvinar surfaces and the localization in them of the light-sensitive tissues. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665437
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924
Nuñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Rainbow, Philip S
Juveniles of the dendrobranchiate decapod Penaeus indicus take up radiolabelled cadmium from solution over the exposure concentration range of 1.8-31.5 microg L(-1), with an uptake rate constant of 0.090 L g(-1)d(-1) at 15 salinity and 25 degrees C. New cadmium taken up is added to the existing cadmium content of the prawn with no significant excretion, and the rate of accumulation of radiolabelled cadmium is a measure of the absolute cadmium uptake rate from solution. Moulting had no significant effect on the accumulation of cadmium. Newly accumulated cadmium is distributed to all organs with the highest proportions of body content being found in the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, gills and remaining soft tissues, the hepatopancreas and gills containing the highest labelled cadmium concentrations. Like other crustaceans, penaeid prawns inhabiting anthropogenically contaminated coastal waters with raised cadmium bioavailabilities can be expected to contain raised body concentrations of cadmium. Cadmium concentrations of most field-collected adult penaeids are relatively low, as a probable consequence of the growth dilution of their cadmium contents as a result of the rapid growth rates of penaeid prawns.
Loftus, R T; MacHugh, D E; Bradley, D G; Sharp, P M; Cunningham, P
The origin and taxonomic status of domesticated cattle are controversial. Zebu and taurine breeds are differentiated primarily by the presence or absence of a hump and have been recognized as separate species (Bos indicus and Bos taurus). However, the most widely held view is that both types of cattle derive from a single domestication event 8000-10,000 years ago. We have examined mtDNA sequences from representatives of six European (taurine) breeds, three Indian (zebu) breeds, and four African (three zebu, one taurine) breeds. Similar levels of average sequence divergence were observed among animals within each of the major continental groups: 0.41% (European), 0.38% (African), and 0.42% (Indian). However, the sequences fell into two very distinct geographic lineages that do not correspond with the taurine-zebu dichotomy: all European and African breeds are in one lineage, and all Indian breeds are in the other. There was little indication of breed clustering within either lineage. Application of a molecular clock suggests that the two major mtDNA clades diverged at least 200,000, and possibly as much as 1 million, years ago. This relatively large divergence is interpreted most simply as evidence for two separate domestication events, presumably of different subspecies of the aurochs, Bos primigenius. The clustering of all African zebu mtDNA sequences within the taurine lineage is attributed to ancestral crossbreeding with the earlier B. taurus inhabitants of the continent. Images PMID:8146187
Decker, Jared E.; McKay, Stephanie D.; Rolf, Megan M.; Kim, JaeWoo; Molina Alcalá, Antonio; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Hanotte, Olivier; Götherström, Anders; Seabury, Christopher M.; Praharani, Lisa; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Correia de Almeida Regitano, Luciana; Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Heaton, Michael P.; Liu, Wan-Sheng; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Reecy, James M.; Saif-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.
The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. PMID:24675901
Gayathri, Mahalingam; Kannabiran, Krishnan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of an aqueous extract of the roots of Hemidesmus indicus on blood glucose, serum electrolytes, serum marker enzymes, liver microsomal P-450 enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Effect of H. indicus extract on blood glucose was studied with fed, fasted and glucose-loaded diabetic and nondiabetic rat models. The effect of the extract on serum electrolytes, serum levels of key glucose metabolizing enzymes, hepatic microsomal protein and hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent mono-oxygenase enzyme systems and lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. One way analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Oral administration of H. indicus aqueous extract to fed, fasted and glucose-loaded diabetic rats decreased blood glucose level significantly at 5 h and restored serum electrolytes, glycolytic enzymes and hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent enzyme systems by preventing the formation of liver and kidney lipid peroxides at the end of 12 weeks of the study period. CONCLUSION: From the studies, it can be concluded that the aqueous extract of the roots of H. indicus at a dosage of 500 mg/kg/day exhibits significant antidiabetic activity. It restores the concentrations of electrolytes, glucose metabolizing enzymes, hepatic microsomal protein and hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent mono-oxygenase enzyme systems to near normal level and also corrects the related metabolic alterations in experimentally induced diabetic rats. H. indicus administration also decreased liver and kidney lipid peroxidation products. On the basis of our findings, H. indicus could be used as an antidiabetic and antioxidant agent for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:19902032
Cruz-Vazquez, C; Carvajal Márquez, J; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Vitela-Mendoza, I; Ramos-Parra, M
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae applied by aspersion to control of Stomoxys calcitrans flies in dairy cattle naturally infested. Was applied by aspersion an aqueous formulation of M. anisopliae sensu lato (Ma134), at a concentration of 1×10(8)conidia/ml, four times with seven day intervals, on a group of eight Holstein cows; a control group of eight Holstein cows, received a water solution with Tween 80 (0.1%). The average number of flies per animal was estimated one day before each application, and then daily counts were done in both groups. The effectiveness of the formulation was calculated using the Abbott's formula. At the same time, defensive behaviors of stamp/kicks and tail movements were evaluated daily, estimating relative frequency per hour. The Ma134 formulation had an infestation control efficacy of 73%, taking into consideration the four study weeks. The population reduction effect was observed since the first week post-application (p<0.05), and the effect increased with the subsequent applications. Defensive behaviors were reduced beginning from the first application, reaching a reduction of 66% and 70%, respectively, during the four weeks of study. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the formulation to control infestation by S. calcitrans, as well as reduce defensive behaviors which involves the infestation.
Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae
At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394
Bonnin, Rémy A; Poirel, Laurent; van der Reijden, Tanny J K; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Lescat, Mathilde; Nordmann, Patrice
Here we report a case of carbapenem resistance in a human clinical isolate that was found to be closely related to the newly described environmental species Acinetobacter indicus. This strain harboured the blaOXA-23 carbapenemase gene located on a conjugative plasmid. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA and rpoB genes, together with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis, showed that this strain was distantly related to the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex and was closely related to A. indicus.
El-Azazy, Osama M E; Al-Behbehani, Bahja; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud M I
Bedbug, Cimex lectularius, human infestations were reported in the State of Kuwait in the last 2 years. Eleven separate infestations from different localities were received at the Veterinary Laboratories indicating that bedbug is widespread in the State of Kuwait. There was circumstantial evidence to suggest the transfer of bugs with recent immigrants or used furniture. The spread of infestation can be attributed to the increase in migrant labor and their mobility inside the country. The increase in reported cases appears also consistent with a worldwide increase in bedbug infestations.
Taylor, David B; Moon, Roger D; Mark, Darrell R
Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are among the most damaging arthropod pests of cattle worldwide. The last estimate of their economic impact on United States cattle production was published 20 yr ago and placed losses at $608 million. Subsequently, several studies of effects of stable flies on beef cattle weight gain and feed efficiency have been published, and stable flies have become increasingly recognized as pests of cattle on pasture and range. We analyzed published studies and developed yield-loss functions to relate stable fly infestation levels to cattle productivity, and then estimated the economic impact of stable flies on cattle production in the United States. Four industry sectors were considered: dairy, cow-calf, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle. In studies reporting stable fly infestation levels of individual herds, median annual per animal production losses were estimated to be 139 kg of milk for dairy cows, and 6, 26, and 9 kg body weight for preweanling calves, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle, respectively. The 200,000 stable flies emerging from an average sized winter hay feeding site reduce annual milk production of 50 dairy cows by an estimated 890 kg and weight gain of 50 preweanling calves, stockers, or feeder cattle by 58, 680, or 84 kg. In 2009 dollars, the value of these losses would be $254, $132, $1,279, or $154, respectively. Using cattle inventories and average prices for 2005-2009, and median monthly infestation levels, national losses are estimated to be $360 million for dairy cattle, $358 million for cow-calf herds, $1,268 million for pastured cattle, and $226 million for cattle on feed, for a total impact to U.S. cattle industries of $2,211 million per year. Excluded from these estimates are effects of stable flies on feed conversion efficiency, animal breeding success, and effects of infested cattle on pasture and water quality. Additional research on the effects of stable flies on high-production dairy cows and
Biasibetti, Elena; Sferra, Chiara; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa
The Authors describe a severe vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis of the meningeal arteries observed in two brains of indigenous short-horn zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, with bovine cerebral theileriosis (BCT) caused by a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan, Theileria taurotragi, from Northern Tanzania. In the Author's opinion, the role of T. taurotragi infection in the angiocentric and angiodestructive detected features remains to be evaluated. A possible immunopathologic cancerous mechanism, secondary to the lymphoid deregulation, could be involved. This report suggests further studies to better characterize the lymphoid cell involvement in the pathogenesis of the meningeal vascular lesions by T. taurotragi.
Gharbi, Mohamed; Hayouni, Mohamed Ettaïeb; Sassi, Limam; Dridi, Walid; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz
Hyalomma scupense is a two-host tick infesting mainly cattle representing in North Africa the vector of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection), a major tick-borne disease affecting cattle. Any effective control programme of ticks requires a good knowledge of the biology of the target species. In the present study, three cattle farms in northeast Tunisia were surveyed during the activity seasons for adult and nymphs of Hyalomma scupense. Several indicators were studied, including chronological indicators, infestation prevalence, infestation intensity and feeding predilection sites of the ticks. The adult ticks were present from mid-June to late November. Nymphs were observed on animals from early September to late November. A large proportion of the ticks were attached in the posterior udder quarters: 41% and 64% of adult ticks and nymphs, respectively. The animals that were heavily infested by adult ticks were also heavily infested by nymphs. Moreover, 17% of adult ticks and 53% of nymphs were present on only 5% of cattle population. These data are important for the success of targeted acaricide application leading to a dramatic decrease of acaricide quantity needed for the treatment. When the preferential sites of attachment are known, the effectiveness of manual removal of ticks can be improved. The presence of highly infested animals is to be considered when any control programme is implemented, since these animals harbour a high proportion of the ticks. PMID:23547915
Lai, Qiliang; Yu, Zhiwei; Yuan, Jun; Sun, Fengqin; Shao, Zongze
A taxonomic study was carried out on a novel bacterial strain, designated C115(T), isolated from a crude-oil-degrading consortium, enriched from deep-sea water of the Indian Ocean. Cells were Gram-negative short rods, mobile by means of a monopolar flagellum. Growth was observed at salinities of 0-7 % and at 10-43 °C. It was unable to degrade Tween 80 or gelatin. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain C115(T) was related most closely to Nitratireductor aquibiodomus NL21(T) (96.5 % similarity), Nitratireductor kimnyeongensis KY 101(T) (96.4 %) and Nitratireductor basaltis J3(T) (96.2 %). The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C(18 : 1)ω7c and/or C(18 : 1)ω6c, 81.8 %) and C(18 : 0) (7.0 %). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA of strain C115(T) was 59 mol%. Based on its morphology, physiology and fatty acid composition together with 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, the novel strain most appropriately belongs to the genus Nitratireductor, but can be distinguished readily from recognized species of the genus. Strain C115(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nitratireductor, for which the name Nitratireductor indicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C115(T) (=RC92-7(T) =CCTCC AB 209298(T) =LMG 25540(T) =MCCC 1A01260(T)).
Malhotra, Jaya; Anand, Shailly; Jindal, Swati; Rajagopal, Raman; Lal, Rup
The taxonomic position of a Gram-negative, non-motile, oxidase negative and catalase positive strain, A648(T), isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) dump site located in Lucknow, India, was ascertained by using a polyphasic approach. A comparative analysis of a partial sequence of the rpoB gene and the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain A648(T) belonged to the genus Acinetobacter. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain A648(T) and other closely related members (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity greater than 97%), namely Acinetobacter radioresistens DSM 6976(T), A. venetianus ATCC 31012(T), A. baumannii LMG 1041(T), A. parvus LMG 21765(T) A. junii LMG 998(T) and A. soli JCM 15062(T), were found to be less than 8%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain A648(T) were 18:1ω9c (19.6%), summed feature 3 (15.9%), 16:0 (10.6%) and 12:0 (6.4%). The DNA G+C content was 40.4 mol%. The polar lipid profile of strain A648(T) indicated the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, followed by phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The predominant polyamine of strain A648(T) was 1,3-diaminopropane and moderate amounts of putrescine, spermidine and spermine were also detected. The respiratory quinone consisted of ubiquinone with nine isoprene units (Q-9). On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other members of the genus Acinetobacter, strain A648(T) is found to be a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter indicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A648(T) ( = DSM 25388(T) = CCM 7832(T)).
Qin, Hongyu; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Xiao, Jianhua
Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren) province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (MM3-SERO) was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt) was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis. PMID:28000591
Stropko, Samantha J; Pipes, Shannon E; Newman, Jeffrey D
While characterizing a related strain, it was noted that there was little difference between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bacillus indicus LMG 22858(T) and Bacillus cibi DSM 16189(T). Phenotypic characterization revealed differences only in the utilization of mannose and galactose and slight variation in pigmentation. Whole genome shotgun sequencing and comparative genomics were used to calculate established phylogenomic metrics and explain phenotypic differences. The full, genome-derived 16S rRNA gene sequences were 99.74% similar. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the two strains was 98.0%, the average amino acid identity (AAI) was 98.3%, and the estimated DNA-DNA hybridization determined by the genome-genome distance calculator was 80.3%. These values are higher than the species thresholds for these metrics, which are 95%, 95% and 70%, respectively, suggesting that these two strains should be classified as members of the same species. We propose reclassification of Bacillus cibi as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus indicus and an emended description of Bacillus indicus.
The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, causes considerable production losses to the Southern U.S. cattle industry due to reduced weight, infertility, secondary infections at bite wounds, damaged hides, and potentially death, as these ticks tend to infest livestock in large numbers. Chemical resid...
Svoboda, Tomislav J.; De Jong, Iain J.; Kabasele, Karl J.; Gogosis, Evie
Until recently, bed bugs have been considered uncommon in the industrialized world. This study determined the extent of reemerging bed bug infestations in homeless shelters and other locations in Toronto, Canada. Toronto Public Health documented complaints of bed bug infestations from 46 locations in 2003, most commonly apartments (63%), shelters (15%), and rooming houses (11%). Pest control operators in Toronto (N = 34) reported treating bed bug infestations at 847 locations in 2003, most commonly single-family dwellings (70%), apartments (18%), and shelters (8%). Bed bug infestations were reported at 20 (31%) of 65 homeless shelters. At 1 affected shelter, 4% of residents reported having bed bug bites. Bed bug infestations can have an adverse effect on health and quality of life in the general population, particularly among homeless persons living in shelters. PMID:15829190
Mishra, Bhuwan B; Kishore, Navneet; Tiwari, Vinod K
A new antifungal eudesmanolide glycoside 11,13-dihydro-3-O-(β-digitoxopyranose)-7α-hydroxy eudasman-6,12-olide (2) in addition to known compounds 1 and 3, has been isolated from Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Its structure was determined by spectral analysis (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrum).
Dalyan, C; Eryilmaz, L
The Arabian scad Trachurus indicus is recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea (Iskenderun Bay, Turkey). The presence of this Indo-Pacific fish in the Mediterranean Sea is probably because of migration from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal.
Miller, C L; Templeton, R S; Karpinski, L
An oral mass was observed in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed by histologic examination of a biopsy specimen. A series of intralesional injections using fluorouracil resulted in complete regression of the neoplasm with no recognized adverse effects.
Maignien, Lois; Shao, Zongze; Alain, Karine
The complete genome sequence of Desulfovibrio indicus J2T, a member of the family Desulfovibrionaceae, consists of 3,966,573-bp in one contig and encodes 3,461 predicted genes, 5 noncoding RNAs, 3 rRNAs operons, and 52 tRNA-encoding genes. The genome is consistent with a heterotrophic, anaerobic lifestyle including the sulfate reduction pathway. PMID:27056223
Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Trinidad-Martínez, I C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Ticante-Perez, V; Castro-Marín, J M; Tapia-Moo, C A; Vázquez-Gómez, G
Rhipicephalus microplus is the most economically important cattle tick in the Mexican tropics. Wild ungulate species, including red deer (Cervus elaphus), are gaining popularity in diversified livestock ranching operations in Mexico. However, there is no information available on the susceptibility of red deer to infestation with the cattle tick, R. microplus, under hot, subhumid tropical conditions in Mexico. Biological data on R. microplus as an ectoparasite of cattle and red deer in a farm in the Mexican tropics are presented here. Ticks collected from red deer were identified as R. microplus (97 %) and Amblyomma cajennense (3 %), and tick species infesting cattle included R. microplus (95 %) and A. cajennense (5 %). Standard counts of R. microplus engorged females on red deer were 11 times higher than on cattle (428 ± 43 vs. 40 ± 18; p < 0.001). The reproductive efficiency index and larval hatching of R. microplus collected from cattle and red deer were similar (p > 0.05). Hemolymph samples of R. microplus collected from cattle were positive for Babesia spp. (10 %, 2/50) and all the samples from ticks infesting red deer were negative. Seventeen and ten percent of the blood samples from cattle and red deer were positive for Anaplasma marginale, respectively. The role of red deer as a host of R. microplus in Yucatan, Mexico and the importance of this host-parasite relationship relative to the epidemiology of R. microplus-borne diseases are discussed.
Davis, K M; Smith, T; Bolt, B; Meadows, S; Powell, J G; Vann, R C; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lalman, D L; Rouquette, F M; Hansen, G R; Cooper, A J; Cloud, J E; Garcia, M D; Herring, A D; Hale, D S; Sanders, J O; Hairgrove, T B; DeWitt, T J; Riley, D G
Cancer of the eye in cattle with white faces occurs less frequently in cattle with pigmented eyelids. Corneoscleral pigmentation is related to eyelid pigmentation and occurrence of lesions that may precede cancer. Objectives of this study were to assess 1) variation in the proportion of eyelid and corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford, Bos taurus, and Bos indicus crossbreds and 2) the occurrence of lesions with the presence of pigmentation in those areas. Hereford and Bos indicus crosses (Brahman or Nellore with Angus and Hereford and straightbred Brafords) and Bos taurus crosses (Angus-Hereford) were included in the study (n = 1,083). Eyelid pigmentation proportions were estimated by pixel quantification and were evaluated as total proportions and for upper and lower eyelids distinctly for each eye. Fixed effects included breed type, age categories, and sex of the animal. Lesion presence (1) or absence (0) was obtained by visual appraisal of image and was assumed to be binomially distributed. Eyelid pigmentation proportions (overall, upper, and lower eyelids) for Hereford ranged from 0.65 ± 0.03 to 0.68 ± 0.03 and were significantly lower than Bos indicus (range from 0.93 ± 0.02 to 0.95 ± 0.02) or Bos taurus (ranged from 0.88 ± 0.02 to 0.92 ± 0.02) crosses. Corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) did not differ (P = 0.91) from Hereford calves and yearlings (0.16 ± 0.07). Bos indicus and Bos taurus crossbred cows had larger corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04 for left eyes and 0.37 ± 0.05 and 0.53 ± 0.04 for right eyes, respectively) than all calves (P < 0.001), and their corneoscleral pigmentations were greater than that of Hereford cows (P < 0.003). Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows had greater proportions of left eye corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04, respectively) than Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) and all young animal breed types (P < 0.05). Right eye proportions differed for all cow
Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik
Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.
Lee, Jai-Wei; Li, Hung; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Shen, Perng-Chin
The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerance of ear fibroblasts derived from various SCNT cattle. Specimens were produced from cloned embryos that had been reconstructed using donor cells (d) from the same Holstein cow (Hd) and the ooplasm (o) from Holstein cattle (Ho) or Taiwan yellow cattle (Yo). Polymorphism in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the Y ooplasm and H donor cells (SCNT-Yo-Hd) indicates that the cytoplasm originated from Bos indicus. The rates of apoptosis in heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle (1.9%) and purebred Y cattle (1.5%) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the H ooplasm (SCNT-Ho-Hd: 3.4%), donor cells (4.0%), and purebred Holstein (4.1%) cattle. At the protein level, the relative abundances of apoptosis-inducing factor, B cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, endonuclease G, cytochrome c, cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases 3, 8 and 9 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle after heat shock. In contrast, the relative abundances of heat shock proteins 27, 70 and B cell lymphoma 2 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were higher (P < 0.05) than those of fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle. Moreover, heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle have a significantly (P < 0.05) lower percentage of apoptosis-inducing factor-positive nuclei than do heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle (11.1% vs. 18.5%). Taken together, these results report that ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the Y ooplasm are more thermotolerant than ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the H ooplasm. This is an indication that the cytoplasm may be a major determinant of thermal sensitivity in bovine
Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galietti, Alfredo; Mariani, Ugo; Di Loria, Antonio; Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; Guccione, Jacopo; Gokbulut, Cengiz
A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPR) against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on fifteen animals. On day 0, donkeys received EPR pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended cattle dose. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. EPR was completely effective (100%) from day 7, until the end of the study. Clinically no adverse reactions were observed in any of donkeys treated. EPR was considered to be 100% effective against H. asini. This is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of EPR against a natural louse infestation in donkeys.
Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Galietti, Alfredo; Rufrano, Domenico; Bassini, Andrea; Mariani, Ugo; Gokbulut, Cengiz
The chewing louse Werneckiella equi is an ectoparasite of donkeys and other equids. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used for the control of insects of veterinary and public health concerns. A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of ACYP against W. equi on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on 13 animals. On day 0, the donkeys received ACYP pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate for cattle. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. ACYP was completely effective (100 %) from day 7, until the end of the study. ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinical adverse reactions. ACYP was highly effective, safe, user-friendly, and considered to be suitable for the treatment of donkeys for W. equi infestation.
Maillard, J C; Kemp, S J; Naves, M; Palin, C; Demangel, C; Accipe, A; Maillard, N; Bensaid, A
By using biological data and historical research, we have tried to explain the difference between resistance and susceptibility to the diseases transmitted (cowdriosis) or associated (dermatophilosis) with the tick Amblyomma variegatum, in two cattle breeds of the French West Indies: the Creole crossbred cattle of Guadeloupe and the Brahman zebu cattle of Martinique. Have been studied the polymorphisms of 5 independent genetic systems (erythrocytic haemoglobin, serum albumin and transferrin, the class I region of the BoLA complex and the gamma S crystallin gene) in different breeds comprising Bos taurus cattle of Europe and Africa, Bos indicus of West and East Africa, as well as the Brahman of Martinique and the Creole crossbred of Guadeloupe. By comparing the different allele frequencies of these 5 non related polymorphic loci and by using the two different mathematical matrices of NEI and of CAVALLI-SFORZA, have been established the genetic distances between these breeds. It appears clearly that the Creole cattle of Guadeloupe are in an intermediate position between the Bos taurus N'Dama breed of West Africa and two Bos indicus zebu breeds, namely the West African Sudan zebu and the Brahman. Thanks to studies of different archieves in the Caribbean and in Europe, historical evidence have been accumulated on the geographical origins and on the chronology of the establishment of Creole and Brahman cattle in the French West Indies. The high resistance of the Creole cattle of Guadeloupe to diseases associated with or transmitted by the "Senegalese" tick Amblyomma variegatum seems to be due to the inheritance of a pool of genes from West African cattle and more particularly from the N'Dama breed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Gaughan, J B; Mader, T L; Holt, S M; Lisle, A
The ability to predict the effects of extreme climatic variables on livestock is important in terms of welfare and performance. An index combining temperature and humidity (THI) has been used for more than 4 decades to assess heat stress in cattle. However, the THI does not include important climatic variables such as solar load and wind speed (WS, m/s). Likewise, it does not include management factors (the effect of shade) or animal factors (genotype differences). Over 8 summers, a total of 11,669 Bos taurus steers, 2,344 B. taurus crossbred steers, 2,142 B. taurus x Bos indicus steers, and 1,595 B. indicus steers were used to develop and test a heat load index (HLI) for feedlot cattle. A new HLI incorporating black globe (BG) temperature ( degrees C), relative humidity (RH, decimal form), and WS was initially developed by using the panting score (PS) of 2,490 Angus steers. The HLI consists of 2 parts based on a BG temperature threshold of 25 degrees C: HLI(BG>25) = 8.62 + (0.38 x RH) + (1.55 x BG) - (0.5 x WS) + e((2.4-WS)), and HLI(BG<25) = 10.66 + (0.28 x RH) + (1.3 x BG) - WS, where e is the base of the natural logarithm. A threshold HLI above which cattle of different genotypes gain body heat was developed for 7 genotypes. The threshold for unshaded black B. taurus steers was 86, and for unshaded B. indicus (100%) the threshold was 96. Threshold adjustments were developed for factors such as coat color, health status, access to shade, drinking water temperature, and manure management. Upward and downward adjustments are possible; upward adjustments occur when cattle have access to shade (+3 to +7) and downward adjustments occur when cattle are showing clinical signs of disease (-5). A related measure, the accumulated heat load (AHL) model, also was developed after the development of the HLI. The AHL is a measure of the animal's heat load balance and is determined by the duration of exposure above the threshold HLI. The THI and THI-hours (hours above a THI
Sblendorio, R.P.; Malinchock, J.C. ); Claudi, R. )
U.S. and Canadian utilities in the great lakes area have adopted techniques to temporarily prevent infestation of the zebra mussel in their hydro facilities, but are still looking for more permanent solutions.
Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...
Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Calura, Fernando Henrique; Ferrenzini, Jenifer; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de
Much attention has been given to the development of botanical insecticides to provide effective natural control of cattle ectoparasites without harming animals, consumers, and environment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a commercial neem cake in controlling Haematobia irritans infestation on cattle. The study was conducted at the Embrapa Southeast Cattle Research Center (CPPSE), in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, from April to July 2008. The neem cake mixed in mineral salt in a 2% concentration was provided to 20 Nelore cows during nine weeks and had its efficacy evaluated by comparison of the infestation level against a control group. Fly infestations were recorded weekly by digital photographs of each animal from both groups and the number of flies was later counted in a computer-assisted image analyzer. Quantification of neem cake components by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of azadirachtin (421 mg.kg(-1)) and 3-tigloyl-azadirachtol (151 mg.kg(-1)) in the tested neem cake. Addition of the 2% neem cake reduced mineral salt intake in about 22%. The 2% neem cake treatment failed to reduce horn fly infestations on cattle during the 9-week study period.
Puerto Rico (PR) is infested with the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. A research coalition involving the livestock industry in PR, the PR Department of Agriculture (...
Uzun, Aslıhan; Gök, Mustafa; İşcanlı, Murat Doğan
Tick infestation of the eyelid is a rare but serious condition that can lead to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. In this report, we describe two cases who presented with tick infestation of the eyelid. Neither patient developed systemic disease or adverse sequelae after tick extraction. Complete mechanical removal of ticks located on the eyelid with blunt forceps is a safe and effective treatment method. PMID:28058170
Ibrahim, Omer; Syed, Usama Mohammad; Tomecki, Kenneth J
Bedbugs--hematophagous parasitic arthropods of the genus Cimex--have been unwelcome bedfellows for humans for thousands of years. With increases in population density, ease of travel, and insecticide resistance, bedbugs have reemerged. As a result, physicians are often at the forefront in the diagnosis and treatment of bedbug infestation. This review summarizes the biology and epidemiology of bedbugs and provides details on the diagnosis and treatment of bedbug infestation.
Breijo, M; Rocha, S; Ures, X; Pedrana, G; Alonzo, P; Meikle, A
The burden of infestation of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae), differs among bovines within the same herd. We hypothesized that these differences might be related to the epidermal thickness of the cattle and the blood intake capacity of the fly. Results showed that dark animals carried more flies and had a thinner epidermis than light-coloured animals, which was consistent with the greater haemoglobin content found in flies caught on darker cattle. Similarly, epidermal thickness increased with body weight, whereas haemoglobin content decreased. Overall, we suggest that accessibility of blood is a factor that partially explains cattle attractiveness to flies.
Latha, M; Sumathi, M; Manikandan, R; Arumugam, A; Prabhu, N M
In the present investigation, we described the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extract of Hemidesmus indicus. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM images proved that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 25.24 nm. To evaluate antibacterial efficacy, bacteria was isolated from poultry gut and subjected to 16S rRNA characterization and confirmed as Shigella sonnei. The in vitro antibacterial efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles was studied by agar bioassay, well diffusion and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) assay. The H. indicus mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles shows rapid synthesis and higher inhibitory activity (34 ± 0.2 mm) against isolated bacteria S. sonnei at 40 μg/ml.
Sreenivasula Reddy, P.
The possible involvement of an endogenous opioid system in the regulation of ovarian development in the prawn Penaeus indicus was investigated. Injection of leucine-enkephalin significantly increased the ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of methionine-enkephalin significantly decreased the ovarian index and oocyte diameters. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that an opioid system is involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans.
Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Barbato, Mario; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel; Biscarini, Filippo; Milanesi, Marco; Davies, Wyn; Williams, Don; Stella, Alessandra; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W.
The domestication of the aurochs took place approximately 10,000 years ago giving rise to the two main types of domestic cattle known today, taurine (Bos taurus) domesticated somewhere on or near the Fertile Crescent, and indicine (Bos indicus) domesticated in the Indus Valley. However, although cattle have historically played a prominent role in human society the exact origin of many extant breeds is not well known. Here we used a combination of medium and high-density Illumina Bovine SNP arrays (i.e., ~54,000 and ~770,000 SNPs, respectively), genotyped for over 1300 animals representing 56 cattle breeds, to describe the relationships among major European cattle breeds and detect patterns of admixture among them. Our results suggest modern cross-breeding and ancient hybridisation events have both played an important role, including with animals of indicine origin. We use these data to identify signatures of selection reflecting both domestication (hypothesized to produce a common signature across breeds) and local adaptation (predicted to exhibit a signature of selection unique to a single breed or group of related breeds with a common history) to uncover additional demographic complexity of modern European cattle. PMID:26082794
Sartori, Roberto; Gimenes, Lindsay U; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Melo, Leonardo F; Baruselli, Pietro S; Bastos, Michele R
During the last decade, researchers have studied the differences in the reproductive physiology between Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. This manuscript focuses on the main aspects of ovarian function and circulating hormones of B. taurus and B. indicus cows and heifers. In general, there is no difference in the number of follicle waves during the estrous cycle, however B. indicus have greater antral follicle count, circulating insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) than B. taurus. Moreover, despite of B. taurus having larger ovulatory follicle diameter and maximum CL volume, they have lesser peak circulating estradiol concentrations and lesser circulating progesterone concentrations than B. indicus. We may speculate that there are two main factors related to lesser circulating concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in B. taurus when compared with B. indicus: increased liver metabolism of steroid hormones and lesser production by follicles and CL. Differences between the two genetic groups are also observed with respect to in vitro embryo production because in addition to B. indicus having greater numbers of retrieved oocytes, due to greater antral follicle count, they also have greater percentages of viable oocytes, number of blastocysts, and blastocyst rates when compared with B. taurus. Effects of dietary intake on embryo quality may differ between B. taurus and B. indicus due to different concentrations of circulating insulin and IGF1. For in vivo and in vitro embryo production, an increase in circulating insulin concentrations is negatively associated with oocyte/embryo quality and conception rates. However, this seems to be more pronounced in B. taurus breeds. Differences in ovarian function related or not to nutrition between these two genetic groups are very consistent and may be related to the influence of metabolic hormones such as insulin and IGF1.
Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Golkar, Poorandokht; Zamani, Akram
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0–5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus. PMID:26204839
Prasad, A G Devi; Al-Sagheer, Nageeb A
Wood elements and anatomical ratio of Dipterocarpus indicus were studied to evaluate variation among populations and to recommend for end selection. The variation of wood element [fibre length (FL), fibre diameter (FD), lumen diameter (LD), cell wall thickness (CWT), double wall thickness (DWT), and lumen volume (LV)] and anatomical ratio [fibre lumen area (FLA), slenderness ratio (SR) and runkel ratio (RR)] were investigated in a girth class of 100 - 120 cm among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India. The study revealed a significant variations in FL (0.2426), FD (4.7019), LD (3.1689), CWT (2.7104), DWT and (5.4298) among populations. The variations in anatomical ratios were significant among populations except in case of LV. The causes of variations among populations in their wood traits were attributed to the site factors. The interaction between genetic makeup of wood traits combined with effects of edaphic, local and regional climatic conditions reflect the amount of variation among populations. The highest coefficient of variation (CV %) for FL, FD, CWT and DWT was recorded in population of Gundya whereas low coefficient of variation were recorded in the population of Makuta (FL), Devimane (FD, CWT and DWT), and Sampaje (LD). The wood of Dipterocarpus indicus was found undesirable for pulp wood but can be utilized for plywood timbers.
Background Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits and calving difficulty. One region of the cattle genome, located on Bos primigenius taurus chromosome 14 (BTA14), has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains orthologous genes affecting human height. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for BW in Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus) was performed using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of 654 progeny-tested bulls genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results The most significant SNP (rs133012258, PGC = 1.34 × 10-9), located at BTA14:25376827, explained 4.62% of the variance in BW EBVs. The surrounding 1 Mb region presented high identity with human, pig and mouse autosomes 8, 4 and 4, respectively, and contains the orthologous height genes PLAG1, CHCHD7, MOS, RPS20, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5) and PENK. The region also overlapped 28 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported in literature by linkage mapping studies in cattle, including QTLs for birth weight, mature height, carcass weight, stature, pre-weaning average daily gain, calving ease, and gestation length. Conclusions This study presents the first GWAS applying a high-density SNP panel to identify putative chromosome regions affecting birth weight in Nellore cattle. These results suggest that the QTLs on BTA14 associated with body size in taurine cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) also affect birth weight and size in zebu cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). PMID:23758625
Boldbaatar, D; Xuan, X; Kimbita, E; Huang, X; Igarashi, I; Byambaa, B; Battsetseg, B; Battur, B; Battsetseg, G; Batsukh, Z; Nagasawa, H; Fujisaki, K; Mikami, T
The cDNA encoding the entire mature hypodermin C (HC) of Hypoderma lineatum was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein using pGEX vector. The recombinant HC protein (rHC) was tested by Western blotting to detect antibodies to H. lineatum in cattle. Western blotting with rHC as antigen clearly differentiated between H. lineatum-infested cattle sera and normal cattle sera. Forty-six out of forty-eight serum samples from cattle in Central Mongolia were positive, whereas all 30 serum samples from cows in Hokkaido, Japan, were negative by Western blotting. The result of Western blotting was identical to that of a previously developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These data demonstrated that Western blotting, with rHC expressed in E. coli, might be a useful method for the diagnosis of cattle hypodermosis.
Verma, Amit Kumar; Singh, Shanker Kumar
Bovine tropical theileriosis (BTT) is a disease of worldwide economic importance in cattle, caused by Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite, and transmitted cyclically by ticks. The disease is one of the serious constraints to dairy industry in endemic areas like India, leading to fatal infections in exotic cattle and significant mortality in cross-bred cattle and zebu cattle. The present report demonstrates the clinical manifestation, haematological alteration and therapeutic management of theileriosis cases in a cross-bred cattle dairy farm at district Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh. Clinical examination of affected animals revealed high rectal temperature (104-106 °F), generalized enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, pallor mucous, apathy and watery blood. The affected animals were severely infested with Hyalomma anatolicum ticks. The blood smears examination after staining with Leishman stain revealed the presence of typical Theileria organisms. Buparvaquone along with symptomatic and supportive therapy could cure all the animals.
Background Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in particular genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, can complement historic and archaeological records to elucidate these past events. However, SNP ascertainment in cattle has been optimized for taurine breeds, imposing limitations to the study of diversity in zebu cattle. As amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers are discovered and genotyped as the samples are assayed, this type of marker is free of ascertainment bias. In order to obtain unbiased assessments of genetic differentiation and structure in taurine and zebu cattle, we analyzed a dataset of 135 AFLP markers in 1,593 samples from 13 zebu and 58 taurine breeds, representing nine continental areas. Results We found a geographical pattern of expected heterozygosity in European taurine breeds decreasing with the distance from the domestication centre, arguing against a large-scale introgression from European or African aurochs. Zebu cattle were found to be at least as diverse as taurine cattle. Western African zebu cattle were found to have diverged more from Indian zebu than South American zebu. Model-based clustering and ancestry informative markers analyses suggested that this is due to taurine introgression. Although a large part of South American zebu cattle also descend from taurine cows, we did not detect significant levels of taurine ancestry in these breeds, probably because of systematic backcrossing with zebu bulls. Furthermore, limited zebu introgression was found in Podolian taurine breeds in Italy. Conclusions The assessment of cattle diversity reported here contributes an unbiased global view to genetic differentiation and structure of taurine and zebu cattle
Stojsin-Carter, Anja; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan
This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77 ± 0.09 and 0.33 ± 0.24 ng/ml respectively (p = 0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3 ± 568.5 and 2977.9 ± 214.1 ng/ml respectively (p < 0.05). This is the first published report of FF and GC AMH in Zebu cattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p = 0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance.
Because of the high variability of cattle infestation, selective breeding has been proposed to control three-host ticks in Africa in the same way as it has been implemented to control the one-host tick Boophilus microplus in Australia. Interbreeding (divergent selection experiment) between Gudali zebu cattle was performed at the Wakwa Research Centre, Adamawa, Cameroon to assess the feasibility and impact of such a selective breeding programme. Fifty cows (chosen out of 129) and 2 bulls (chosen out of 10) were selected according to their greater or lesser attractiveness for the tick Amblyomma variegatum, assessed by their infestation degree (ID, ratio between individual animal infestation and mean herd infestation). Half of the animals displayed a high ID (H) and the remainder a low ID (L). The presence of a suckling calf had a significant effect on the infestation of its dam, the udder of lactating cows being significantly less infested (P<0.001) because of a tick removal effect by the calves. Observed infestation data were therefore corrected to allow comparison between lactating and non-lactating cows. The ID of the cows was assessed on five occasions from 1992 to 1994: the consistency of the infestation hierarchy was good overall (P<0.001) despite high variability seen in some animals which would complicate the selection of cattle with low infestation. Four breeding groups were set up (LxL, LxH, HxL, HxH) and 40 calves were born in 1993 and 1994. There was a correlation (P<0.02-0.001) between liveweight (or age) and ID when the younger calves of the groups were 6 months old, but the correlation disappeared by the time the calves were all older than 1 year. There was no difference between the average ID of the calves from the four breeding groups, and no correlation was observed between dam ID and calf ID. The average ID of the 10 calves born of the dams with the lowest ID was however significantly lower than that of the 10 calves born of the dams with the
Thakkar, Angeli; Ooi, Kenneth GJ; Assaad, Nagi; Coroneo, Minas
This case report documents a 58-year-old male who presented to the clinic with a 12-month history of a burrowing sensation in his eyelids that he attributed to a parasitic infestation. After being extensively investigated and reviewed by relevant specialties, no evidence of parasitic infestation was found. He was diagnosed with and treated for blepharitis. Psychiatric referral for presumed delusional infestation (DI) was recommended. Despite this, he remained insistent in his belief of infestation, and was inevitably lost to follow-up. DI, previously known as delusional parasitosis, is a rare delusional disorder where affected individuals have a fixed, false belief that they have a parasitic infestation. Diagnosis can be challenging. Practitioners need to evaluate between primary and secondary DI carefully, as management differs depending on the etiology. Despite this, patients diagnosed with primary DI tend to be resistant to psychiatric referral. This report aims to optimize management by giving the reader a guideline for appropriate investigations and advice on patient approach. It is important to recognize hallmark features of DI to minimize self-inflicted trauma and associated psychosocial consequences. Effective treatment for DI is available, and devastating consequences, including blindness, can be avoided. PMID:26082608
Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum
Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification.
Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles
Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (p<0.001) associated with seropositive herds. These findings add critical evidence to existing information on the widespread occurrence of brucellosis among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda and could guide allocation of meagre resources for awareness creation
Blutke, A; Börjes, P; Herbach, N; Pfister, K; Hamel, D; Rehbein, S; Wanke, R
In cattle, infestation with Psoroptes ovis mites may cause severe dermatitis (psoroptic mange) which compromises the health and welfare of the animals and may lead to significant economic losses. To investigate yet undocumented effects of psoroptic mange mite infestations and how successful therapy promotes animal health, the present study examined alterations of the skin, lymph nodes and adrenal glands of P. ovis infested Fleckvieh (Simmental) bulls treated with either ivermectin long-acting injection (IVM LAI; IVOMEC(®) GOLD, Merial; 3.15% ivermectin w/v) or saline (n=16 each). Approximately 8 weeks subsequent to experimental infestation with P. ovis, the bulls had developed mange and were administered either IVM LAI or saline once at 1 mL/50 kg body weight by subcutaneous injection. Mite counts were conducted in weekly intervals for determination of efficacy of treatment, and following humane euthanasia of the animals 8 weeks after treatment, skin samples from affected (mangy or previously mangy) and unaffected areas, prescapular lymph nodes and adrenal glands were collected for gross and pathohistological examination. In addition, four age-matching, uninfested Simmental bulls were sampled as controls for comparison. No P. ovis mites were detected on any IVM LAI-treated bull after 28 days following treatment whereas saline-treated bulls maintained infestation throughout the study. At sampling (approximately 16 weeks after experimental infestation and 8 weeks following saline or IVM LAI treatment), saline-treated bulls displayed a severe, exsudative dermatitis with significantly increased skin thickness and inflammatory cell infiltration, significantly enlarged, hyperplastic prescapular lymph nodes, as well as significantly increased adrenal gland weights and volumes as compared to P. ovis-infested, IVM LAI-treated bulls and uninfested controls. Quantitative stereological analysis revealed that the adrenal gland enlargement in P. ovis-infested, saline
This is the final part of a three part series specifically addressing lessons learned concerning the management of rehabilitated cheatgrass-infested rangelands. Steve Novak and Richard Mack reported in 2003 that they found no evidence of outcrossing in 2,000 cheatgrass seedlings from 60 North Americ...
Masetti, Massimo; Bruschi, Fabrizio
In summer 2003 two separate infestations due to the common bedbug (Cimex lectularius) occurred in Pisa, Italy. Cutaneous reaction was evident and one patient developed a severe bullous eruption. In both cases there was circumstantial evidence for association with international travel.
Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Arivoli, Subramaniam; Maheshwaran, Rajan; Baskar, Kathirvelu; Vincent, Savariar
Sphaeranthus indicus, Cleistanthus collinus and Murraya koenigii leaf extracts were tested against the third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From each plant, 500 g powder was macerated with 1.5 L of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yield of the S. indicus, C. collinus and M. koenigii crude extracts by hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate was 9.16, 11.71 and 10.83 g for S. indicus; 8.17, 10.69 and 9.85 g for C. collinus; and 10.11, 11.92 and 9.87 g for M. koenigii, respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The S. indicus, C. collinus and M. koenigii leaf extracts at 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm caused a significant mortality of C. quinquefasciatus. The LC(50) and LC(90) values of S. indicus, C. collinus and M. koenigii against third instar larvae at 24, 48 and 72 h (hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) were the following: S. indicus LC(50) values were 544.93, 377.86 and 274.79 ppm and LC(90) values were 1,325.32, 1,572.55 and 1,081.29 ppm at 24 h; C. collinus LC(50) values were 375.34, 318.29 and 226.10 ppm and LC(90) values were 699.65, 1,577.62 and 1,024.92 ppm at 24 h; and M. koenigii LC(50) values were 963.53, 924.85 and 857.62 ppm and LC(90) values were 1,665.12, 1,624.68 and 1,564.37 ppm at 24 h, respectively. However, the highest larval mortality was observed in C. collinus followed by S. indicus and M. koenigii of various concentrations at 24, 48 and 72 h. The study proved that S. indicus, C. collinus and M. koenigii leaf extracts had larvicidal property against species of C. quinquefasciatus. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of vector control programmes.
Anderson, Iain; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Mavromatis, K; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Jeffries, Cynthia; Chang, Yun-Juan; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter
Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the genomically so far poorly characterized family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Anderson, Iain; Saunders, Elizabeth; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Chang, Yun-juan; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C.; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter
Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the Thermodesulfobacteriaceae, a family in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria that is currently poorly characterized at the genome level. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:22768359
Two distant Antioquian cattle farms where systemic and topical acaricides had previously failed to control infestations by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were studied. An initial in vivo study was conducted using single subcutaneous injections with a long-acting formulation of ivermectin (630 µ...
Manwell, C; Baker, C M
Phylogenetic trees for the ten major breed groups of cattle were constructed by Farris's (1972) maximum parsimony method, or Fitch & Margoliash's (1967) method, which averages ou the deviation over the entire assemblage. Both techniques yield essentially identical trees. The phylogenetic tree for the ten major cattle breed groups can be superimposed on a map of Europe and western Asia, the root of the tree being close to the 'fertile crescent' in Asia Minor, believed to be a primary centre of bovine domestication. For some but not all protein variants there is a cline of gene frequencies as one proceeds from the British Isles and northwest Europe towards southeast Europe and Asia Minor, with the most extreme gene frequencies in the Zebu breeds of India. It is not clear to what extent the observed clines are primary or secondary, i.e., consequent to the initial migrations of cattle towards the end of the Pleistocene or consequent to the many migrations of man with his domesticated cattle. Such clines as exist are not in themselves sufficient to prove either selection versus genetic drift or to establish taxonomic ranking. Contrary to some suggestions in the literature, the biochemical evidence supports Linnaeus's original conclusions: Bos taurus and Bos indicus are distinct species.
Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review.
Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A
A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.
Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Cimmino, Roberta; Balestrieri, Anna; Rufrano, Domenico; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Santoro, Mario; Gokbulut, Cengiz
The sucking louse Haematopinus tuberculatus (Burmeister 1839) is an ectoparasite of buffaloes, cattle, camels, and American bison. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to control arthropods of veterinary and public health interest. Therapeutics, such as antiparasitic compounds, is often administered to buffaloes based on dosage and intervals recommended for cattle because very few drugs have buffalo-specific label indications. A trial was conducted on 20 louse-infested buffaloes at a farm to assess the efficacy and safety of ACYP pour-on, at the manufacturer's recommended dose for cattle, on buffaloes naturally infested by H. tuberculatus. Ten animals were assigned to ACYP-treated group (ACYP-group) and ten to untreated control group (C-group). On day 0, all ACYP-group buffaloes received alphacypermethrin pour-on. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at eight predilection sites on the skin of each buffalo. ACYP was completely effective (100%) at day 7, highly effective (99.8%) at day 14, and completely effective (100%) from day 21 until the end of the study (day 56 post-treatment). During the trial, ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinically adverse reactions. The results of this trial suggest that ACYP is an effective, safe, and user-friendly compound suitable for treatment of buffaloes with natural louse infestations.
Zubairova, M M; Ataev, A M
Cattle of Dagestan are infested with several nematode species from the suborders Spirurata and Filariata, and extensiveness of the invasion depends greatly on the altitude above sea level. Level of infestation with Thelazia rhodesi, Th. gulosa, and Th. skrjabini is 38% in plains, 20% in submontane, and 5% in mountain zone. The same tendency is observed for the species Gongylonema pulchrum--45, 22, and 10%, respectively. Infestation with Setaria labiato-papillosa is 27.3% on average. Infestation with Onchocerca gutturosa and O. lienalis is 11% in plains and 3% in mountain and submontane zones; infestation with Stephanofilaria assamensis and S. stilesi in these zones is 18 and 5%, respectively. In mountain localities situated higher than 1000 m a. s. l. only G. pulchrum is occurred.
Tripathi, Ajai K; Koringa, Prakash G; Jakhesara, Subhash J; Ahir, Viral B; Ramani, Umed V; Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Sajnani, Manisha R; Patel, Drashti A; Joshi, Akash J; Shanmuga, Sundaram J; Rank, Dharamshi N; Joshi, Chaitanya G
Horn cancer, a type of squamous cell carcinoma, in zebu cattle is an expensive affair in Indian agriculture sector, which accounts for 83.34% of total tumors found. In general, cancer tissue confirms considerably different expression patterns when compared to a normal stage. This includes not only up/down regulation, but also, the aberrant gene expression, the presence of different non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), pseudogenes expression and genes involved in unusual pathways. We employed Roche 454 next generation sequencing platform to sequence Bos indicus cancerous and normal horn tissue transcripts. This resulted into a total of 909,345 high-confidence deep sequencing reads and detected a range of unusual transcriptional events including tumor associated genes. We also validated expression of two of the four tested genes in five other similar tissue samples by RT-qPCR. Further, seven cancer specific non-coding transcripts were accessed and a few of them have been suggested as cancer specific markers. This study for the first time provides primary transcriptome sketch of Bos indicus horn cancer tissue, and also demonstrates the suitability of the 454 sequencer for transcriptome analysis, which supports the concept of varied gene expression in cancerous condition.
Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...
Vulink, Nienke C
Patients with a delusional infestation (DI) have an overwhelming conviction that they are being infested with (non) pathogens without any medical proof. The patients need a systematic psychiatric and dermatological evaluation to assess any possible underlying cause that could be treated. Because they avoid psychiatrists, a close collaboration of dermatologists and psychiatrists, who examine the patient together, seems to be a promising solution. It helps to start a trustful doctor-patient relationship and motivates the patient for psychiatric treatment. We here review diagnostic criteria, classification of symptoms, pathophysiology and treatment options of DI. Antipsychotic medication is the treatment of choice when any other underlying cause or disorder is excluded. Further research is needed to assess the pathophysiology, and other treatment options for patients with DI.
Meleney, W P; Roberts, I H
Insect juvenile hormone mimics (IJH) at 0.1 and 0.01% were used as sprays for control of the short-nosed cattle louse, Haematopinus eurysternus Denny, on 11 heavily infested Hereford cows. A significant reduction of lice occurred although eradication was achieved in only one case. Severe reactions, apparently associated with the death or failure of complete development of cattle grub larvae, Hypoderma sp. Latr., were seen in the IJH-treated cows.
Zahran, Hamdi H; Marín-Manzano, M Carmen; Sánchez-Raya, A Juan; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Venema, Kees; Rodríguez-Rosales, M Pilar
Medicago intertexta and Melilotus indicus, two wild leguminous herbs with different tolerance to salinity were investigated for NaCl-induced changes in the expression level of some Na(+) transporters. M. indicus plants grew well at NaCl concentration from 0 to 400 mM, whereas growth of M. intertexta plants was severely inhibited at NaCl concentrations higher than 100 mM. In M. intertexta, increasing NaCl in the growth media caused a strong increase in Na(+) content concomitant with a decrease in K(+) content in leaves and, above all, roots. In comparison, M. indicus plants cultivated in the presence of NaCl accumulated much less Na(+) in leaves and roots and no differences in K(+) content among plants grown in nutrient solution containing 100-400 mM NaCl were detected. The expression levels of four genes coding for NHX-type Na(+)/H(+) antiporters in the above two wild legumes were studied in plants cultivated under the different NaCl concentrations. Expression levels of the genes were higher in M. intertexta as compared with M. indicus plants. In M. intertexta, salt treatments increased MtNHX1, MtNHX3 and MtNHX4 transcript levels in leaves and roots. However, in M. indicus NaCl treatments only induced the expression of MtNHX1 in roots. Our data suggest that two different mechanisms, Na(+) avoidance or accumulation into cellular compartments, are developed by the two wild legumes to cope with salt stress, and that expression of NHX antiporters is linked to the accumulator phenotype.
Sanches, B V; Marinho, L S R; Filho, B D O; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Meirinhos, M L G; Silva-Santos, K C; Ferreira, C R; Seneda, M M
In vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos are more sensitive to cryopreservation than their in vivo counterparts due to their higher lipid concentrations, whereas Bos indicus IVP embryos are even more sensitive than Bos taurus IVP embryos. To examine the effects of a lipolytic agent, before vitrification of Bos indicus IVP embryos, on embryo survival, viability, and pregnancy rates, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, Bos indicus (Nelore) embryos were produced from abattoir-derived ovaries and allocated into two groups. In the treatment group, 10 μM of forskolin was added to the in vitro culture medium on Day 5 and incubated for 48 hours. On Day 7 of culture, IVP-expanded blastocysts from both the control (n = 101) and treatment (n = 112) groups were vitrified with ethylene glycol and DMSO via the Cryotop procedure. Although there was no significant difference between the rates of blastocoel reexpansion and hatching of the embryos exposed to forskolin (87.5% and 70.5%, respectively) compared with the control embryos (79.2% and 63.3%, respectively), the numerically superior rates of the embryos exposed to forskolin led to another experiment. In experiment 2, blastocysts produced from the ovum pick up were exposed or not exposed to the lipolytic agent and vitrified as in experiment 1. Embryos treated with forskolin had higher pregnancy rates than the control group (48.8% vs. 18.5%). In view of these results, 1908 Bos indicus embryos were produced from ovum pick up, exposed to the lipolytic agent, and blastocysts were transferred to recipients, and the pregnancy rates of the embryos of various breeds were compared. The mean pregnancy rate obtained was 43.2%. All data were analyzed by chi-square or by binary logistic regression (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, treatment with forskolin before vitrification improved cryotolerance of Bos indicus IVP embryos, resulting in good post-transfer pregnancy rates.
Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A
Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits.
Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A
Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13tm), BALB/c-Il13/Il4tm, and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm index mice. However, only Il13tm and Il13/Il4tm mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2tm1.1Flv Il2rgtm1.1Flv/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858
Zakizadeh, S; Reissmann, M; Rahimi, G; Javaremi, A Nejati; Reinecke, P; Mirae-Ashtiani, S R; Shahrbabak, M Moradi
The aim of this study was to estimate the allele frequencies in polymorphic site of exon six of POU1F1 gene in three Iranian native and Holstein cattle. Genomic DNA was extracted from 3 Iranian native cattle breeds, including 97 Mazandarani, 87 Sarabi, 112 Golpaygani and also 110 Holstein cattle. A 451 bp fragment of intron 5 and exon 6 were amplified and digested with HinfI restriction enzyme. Frequencies of allele A were 0.37, 0.27, 0.34 and 0.21 for Mazandarani, Sarabi, Golpaygani and Holstein cattle, respectively. Significant differences in genotype frequencies were found between Mazandarani or Golpaygani and Holstein cattle. No significant differences in genotype frequencies were found between Sarabi and Holstein cattle. Transition A to G in nucleotide 1256 is responsible for HinfI(-) allele. No significant association was observed between POU1F1 polymorphism and milk production. Differences in allelic frequency between native Bos indicus breeds (Mazandarani, Golpaygani) and Holstein at the present study might be due to differences in origin breeds, low number of samples and/or as the effect of natural selection in native breeds.
De Jager, N; Hudson, N J; Reverter, A; Barnard, R; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L; Dalrymple, B P
Gene expression phenotypes were evaluated for intramuscular fat (IMF) in bovine skeletal muscle as an alternative to traditional estimates of IMF%. Gene expression data from a time course of LM development in high- and low-marbling Bos taurus cattle crosses were compared to identify genes involved in intramuscular adipocyte lipid metabolism with developmentally similar gene expression profiles. Three sets of genes were identified: triacylglyceride (TAG) synthesis and storage, fatty acid (FA) synthesis, and PPARγ-related genes. In an independent analysis in the LM of 48 Bos indicus cattle, TAG and FA gene sets were enriched in the top 100 genes of which expression was most correlated with IMF% (P = 1.2 × 10(-24) and 3.5 × 10(-9), respectively). In general, genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of FA and TAG in the intramuscular adipocytes were present in the top 100 genes. In B. indicus, effects of a steroid hormone growth promotant (HGP), 2 experimental sites [New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA)], and 3 tenderness genotypes on the expression levels of genes in the TAG gene set and the correlation of gene expression with IMF% were investigated. Although correlation between expression of 12 individual TAG genes and IMF% was observed in HGP-treated animals in both experimental sites (mean r = 0.43), correlation was not observed for untreated animals at the NSW site (mean r = -0.07, P < 3 × 10(-6)). However, TAG genes showed an average 1.6-fold (P < 0.0004) reduction in expression in the LM of HGP-treated cattle relative to untreated cattle, an effect consistent across both experimental sites. Cattle possessing the favored tenderness calpain 1 and 3 and calpastatin alleles exhibited a greater (P = 0.008) reduction in expression in NSW (1.8-fold reduction, P = 0.0002) compared with WA (1.2-fold reduction, P = 0.03). Tenderness genotype had no impact (P > 0.05) on the correlation of TAG genes with IMF%. In general, the interactions among
Torbick, Nathan M.
Recent shifts in wetland ecosystem management goals have directed efforts toward measuring ecological integrity, rather than only using physical and chemical measures of ecosystems as health indicators. Invasive species pose one of the largest threats to wetlands integrity. Resource managers can benefit from improved methods for identifying invasive plant species, assessing infestation, and monitoring control measures. The utilization of advanced remote sensing tools for species-level mapping has been increasing and techniques need to be explored for identifying species of interest and characterizing infestation. The overarching goal of this research was to develop monitoring technologies to map invasive plants and quantify wetland infestation. The first field-level objective was to characterize absorption and reflectance features and assess processing techniques for separating wetland species. The second field-level objective was to evaluate the abilities of a shape filter to identify wetland invasive plant species. The first landscape-level objective was to classify hyperspectral imagery in order to identify invasives of interest. The second landscape-level objective was to quantify infestation within the study area. Field-level hyperspectral data (350-2500nm) were collected for twenty-two wetland plant species in a wetland located in the lower Muskegon River watershed in Michigan, USA. The Jeffries-Matusita distance measure, continuum removal, and a shape-filter were applied to hyperspectral species reflectance data to characterize spectral features. Generally, continuum removal decreased separation distance for the invasive species of interest. Using the shape-filter, Lythrum salicaria, Phragmites australis, and Typha latifolia possessed maximum separation (distinguished from other species) at the near-infrared edge (700nm) and water absorption region (1350nm), the near-infrared down slope (1000 and 1100nm), and the visible/chlorophyll absorption region (500nm
Ward, M P; Armstrong, R T
Information provided by wool growers in Queensland, Australia between 1995 and 1997 was used to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of louse (Bovicola ovis) infestation in sheep flocks. The estimated prevalence of louse-infested flocks was 40% (95% confidence interval, 35-46%). Although the prevalence of infestation was higher in western regions (41-50%) compared to the south region of Queensland (31%), the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Significant (P = 0.02) clustering of infested flocks was detected in the south region where two foci were apparent. We conclude that Queensland sheep flocks have a moderate prevalence of louse infestation, and that clustering of infestation is not strong. The control of lice is an industry-wide issue that needs to be addressed by most wool growers in Queensland.
Silva, Vinicius Henrique da; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; Brassaloti, Ricardo Augusto; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann
Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype.
Background Meat from Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds are an important source of nutrients for humans and intramuscular fat (IMF) influences its flavor, nutritional value and impacts human health. Human consumption of fat that contains high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) can reduce the concentration of undesirable cholesterol (LDL) in circulating blood. Different feeding practices and genetic variation within and between breeds influences the amount of IMF and fatty acid (FA) composition in meat. However, it is difficult and costly to determine fatty acid composition, which has precluded beef cattle breeding programs from selecting for a healthier fatty acid profile. In this study, we employed a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip to genotype 386 Nellore steers, a Bos indicus breed and, a Bayesian approach to identify genomic regions and putative candidate genes that could be involved with deposition and composition of IMF. Results Twenty-three genomic regions (1-Mb SNP windows) associated with IMF deposition and FA composition that each explain ≥ 1% of the genetic variance were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17, 26 and 27. Many of these regions were not previously detected in other breeds. The genes present in these regions were identified and some can help explain the genetic basis of deposition and composition of fat in cattle. Conclusions The genomic regions and genes identified contribute to a better understanding of the genetic control of fatty acid deposition and can lead to DNA-based selection strategies to improve meat quality for human consumption. PMID:24666668
da Silva, Vinicius Henrique; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann
Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype. PMID:27348523
Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J
The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation.
Poudel, S K S; Barker, S C
The prevalence of infestation with head lice and body lice, Pediculus spp. (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) and pubic (crab) lice Pthirus pubis (L.) (Phthiraptera: Pthiridae), was recorded from 484 people in Nepal. The prevalence of head lice varied from 16% in a sample of people aged 10-39 years of age, to 59% in street children. Simultaneous infestations with head and body lice (double infestations) varied from 18% in slum children to 59% in street children.
Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Matos, Márcia C.; Zavarez, Ludmilla B.; Ito, Pier K. R. K.; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M.; Sölkner, Johann; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Schenkel, Flávio S.; McEwan, John; Cole, John B.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Garcia, José Fernando
The reproductive performance of bulls has a high impact on the beef cattle industry. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most recorded reproductive trait in beef herds, and is used as a major selection criterion to improve precocity and fertility. The characterization of genomic regions affecting SC can contribute to the identification of diagnostic markers for reproductive performance and uncover molecular mechanisms underlying complex aspects of bovine reproductive biology. In this paper, we report a genome-wide scan for chromosome segments explaining differences in SC, using data of 861 Nellore bulls (Bos indicus) genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci that excel from the genome background were identified on chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21. The majority of these regions were previously found to be associated with reproductive and body size traits in cattle. The signal on chromosome 14 replicates the pleiotropic quantitative trait locus encompassing PLAG1 that affects male fertility in cattle and stature in several species. Based on intensive literature mining, SP4, MAGEL2, SH3RF2, PDE5A and SNAI2 are proposed as novel candidate genes for SC, as they affect growth and testicular size in other animal models. These findings contribute to linking reproductive phenotypes to gene functions, and may offer new insights on the molecular biology of male fertility. PMID:24558400
Background Feed intake plays an important economic role in beef cattle, and is related with feed efficiency, weight gain and carcass traits. However, the phenotypes collected for dry matter intake and feed efficiency are scarce when compared with other measures such as weight gain and carcass traits. The use of genomic information can improve the power of inference of studies on these measures, identifying genomic regions that affect these phenotypes. This work performed the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI) of 720 Nellore cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Results In general, no genomic region extremely associated with both phenotypic traits was observed, as expected for the variables that have their regulation controlled by many genes. Three SNPs surpassed the threshold for the Bonferroni multiple test for DMI and two SNPs for RFI. These markers are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 14 and 21 in regions near genes regulating appetite and ion transport and close to important QTL as previously reported to RFI and DMI, thus corroborating the literature that points these two processes as important in the physiological regulation of intake and feed efficiency. Conclusions This study showed the first GWAS of DMI to identify genomic regions associated with feed intake and efficiency in Nellore cattle. Some genes and QTLs previously described for DMI and RFI, in other subspecies (Bos taurus taurus), that influences these phenotypes are confirmed in this study. PMID:24517472
Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe
Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications.
Johnson, Lee F.
During the 1993 growing season, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll concentrations were monitored with respect to phylloxera (root-louse) infestation in a Napa Valley (California) vineyard. Study plots were established in areas of severely infested, mildly infested, and uninfested sections of the vineyard. A handheld chlorophyll meter, measuring leaf transmittance of near-infrared and red light, confirmed that reduced foliar chlorophyll concentrations were symptomatic of phylloxera stress in the sample vines. Bidirectional reflectance measurements of green and near-infrared light, taken on fresh leaves with a laboratory spectrophotometer, were related to chlorophyll concentration but did not allow discrimination of mildly infested from uninfested vines.
Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M L; Mouris, A E; Labarta, V; Luaces, L L; Rubiera, R; Cordovés, C; Sánchez, P A; Ramos, E; Soto, A
Current methods for the control of cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas. Recently, we developed a vaccine against B. microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 (rBm86) antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec) and it was shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals under controlled conditions. Here we show that, under field conditions in grazing cattle, the vaccine is able to control B. microplus populations. Two parasite-free farms were employed for the study. In the first farm, animals were vaccinated with the recombinant vaccine, while, in the second, animals received a saline injection in adjuvant. After immunization, animals were artificially infected and the infestation rate was recorded. Over the 33 weeks of the experiment, the infestation rate was lower in the vaccinated group compared with the control group. At the end of the experiment it was necessary to use chemicals in the control farm after serious losses in production and animals.
Canul-Ku, H L; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Pérez-Cogollo, L C; Ojeda-Chi, M M
The objective was to determine the prevalence of semi-intensive Bos indicus and Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle herds with ivermectin (IVM) resistant nematodes in a sub-humid tropical zone of Mexico using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Thirty-three herds (28 beef and 5 dual purpose herds) were monitored in a period of 6 months (September 2008 to February, 2009). Only 14 of the 33 herds were included in the trial. The other herds had not enough animals with sufficient nematode eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) to be included in a FECRT. Some farms were visited twice trying to find more animals with egg counts higher than 150 EPG. In the 14 surveyed herds the calves were randomly distributed into two groups: (a) treatment group received 0.2mg of IVM/kg BW sc on day 0, and (b) control group without treatment. Faecal samples were obtained from each animal on days 0 and 14 post-treatment. Reduction percentages (% R) and 95% CI were calculated. The prevalence of cattle herds with IVM resistant nematodes was 78.6%. Those suspected of IVM resistance were 21.4%. All surveyed herds used IVM from two to three times a year (mainly beginning and end of the wet season) during 1-11 consecutive years. The farm with stronger resistance used IVM for 11 consecutive years (% R=0%; 95% CI=0-47%). Genera of nematodes resistant to IVM were: Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Cooperia and Trichostrongylus. A considerable effort is needed to perform FECRT in cattle herds under hot sub-humid tropical conditions.
Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Sá Martins, J. S.
The Penna model is used to simulate the competition between an asexual parthenogenetic and asexual population inhabiting the same environment represented by a square lattice. With a small probability, a newborn from the sexual population mutates into an asexual one and vice versa. Then, the asexual population rapidly dominates the sexual one, which all but disappears. However, when an infestation by mutating genetically coupled parasites, that mimic trematodes that feed on gonads, is introduced, the outcome may be one in which both populations coevolve or one in which one of the populations overcomes the other, depending on the density of parasites on the lattice.
Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago
This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.
Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi
Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks. PMID:25183090
Nikpay, Ali; Nabian, Sedigheh
Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Recently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle. Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2) respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Finally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA. Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, engorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3%) and increased duration of feeding, preoviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%). All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation. Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B.) annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control. PMID:27308287
Lilia, K; Rosnina, Y; Abd Wahid, H; Zahari, Z Z; Abraham, M
The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) is the largest among the four tapir species and is listed as an endangered species. Ultrasound examination and description of the external anatomy of the female reproductive system of three adult females were performed, whereas the internal anatomy was investigated in necropsied samples of four adult females and one subadult female. Descriptions of the male external genitalia were conducted on one adult male. Gross examination revealed the presence of a bicornuate uterus. The uterine cervix is firm and muscular with projections towards its lumen, which is also evident on ultrasonography. The elongated and relatively small ovaries, which have a smooth surface, could not be imaged on ultrasonography, due to their anatomical position. The testes are located inside a slightly pendulous scrotum that is sparsely covered with soft, short hairs. The penis has one dorsal and two lateral penile projections just proximal to the glans penis.
Jurczynski, Kerstin; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Gomis, David; Moser, Irmgard; Greenwald, Rena; Moisson, Pierre
In the last 7 yr, three different species of terrestrial mammals were diagnosed with Mycobacterium pinnipedii either within one collection or through the introduction of an infected animal from another zoo. The affected species included the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus), and crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). In the first zoo, all of these were living in exhibits adjacent to a group of South American sea lions (Otariaflavescens) and were cared for by the same keeper. One infected tapir was transferred to a different zoo and transmitted M. pinnipedii infection to three other Malayan tapirs. The tapirs were tested with various diagnostic methods, including comparative intradermal tuberculin test, PCR and culture of sputum samples, Rapid Test (RT), and multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). The M. pinnipedii infection was confirmed at postmortem examination in all animals. RT and MAPIA showed the diagnostic potential for rapid antemortem detection of this important zoonotic disease.
Current management recommendations for grazing cattle on larkspur-infested ranges are based primarily on the concentration of MSAL-type alkaloids. Delphinium barbeyi is one of the more problematic species of tall larkspur plants due to its high concentration of MLA. However, the most abundant nord...
Levy, Michael Z.; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L.; Waller, Lance A.; Richards, Jean M.; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G. Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A.; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn
We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13–0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease. PMID:18840739
Levy, Michael Z; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L; Waller, Lance A; Richards, Jean M; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn
We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease.
da Silva, Joaquim Manoel; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; da Silva, Luiz Otávio Campos; Cintra, Leandro Carrijo; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues; Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza
High density genotyping panels have been used in a wide range of applications. From population genetics to genome-wide association studies, this technology still offers the lowest cost and the most consistent solution for generating SNP data. However, in spite of the application, part of the generated data is always discarded from final datasets based on quality control criteria used to remove unreliable markers. Some discarded data consists of markers that failed to generate genotypes, labeled as missing genotypes. A subset of missing genotypes that occur in the whole population under study may be caused by technical issues but can also be explained by the presence of genomic variations that are in the vicinity of the assayed SNP and that prevent genotyping probes from annealing. The latter case may contain relevant information because these missing genotypes might be used to identify population-specific genomic variants. In order to assess which case is more prevalent, we used Illumina HD Bovine chip genotypes from 1,709 Nelore (Bos indicus) samples. We found 3,200 missing genotypes among the whole population. NGS re-sequencing data from 8 sires were used to verify the presence of genomic variations within their flanking regions in 81.56% of these missing genotypes. Furthermore, we discovered 3,300 novel SNPs/Indels, 31% of which are located in genes that may affect traits of importance for the genetic improvement of cattle production. PMID:26305794
Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Gupta, Ishwar Dayal; Gupta, Neelam; Gupta, SC
Background Improvement of efficiency and economic returns is an important goal in dairy farming, as in any agricultural enterprise. The primary goal of dairy industry has been to identify an efficient and economical way of increasing milk production and its constituents without increasing the size of the dairy herd. Selection of animals with desirable genotypes and mating them to produce the next generation has been the basis of livestock improvement and this would continue to remain the same in the coming years. The use of polymorphic genes as detectable molecular markers is a promising alternative to the current methods of trait selection once these genes are proven to be associated with traits of interest in animals. The point mutations in exon IV of bovine β-Lactoglobulin gene determine two allelic variants A and B. These variants were distinguished by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in two indigenous Bos indicus breeds viz. Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle. DNA samples (228 in Sahiwal and 86 in Tharparkar) were analyzed for allelic variants of β-Lactoglobulin gene. Polymorphism was detected by digestion of PCR amplified products with Hae III enzyme, and separation on 12% non-denaturing gels and resolved by silver staining. Results The allele B of β-Lactoglobulin occurred at a higher frequency than the allele A in both Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds. The genotypic frequencies of AA, AB, and BB in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds were 0.031, 0.276, 0.693 and 0.023, 0.733, 0.244 respectively. Frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.17 and 0.83, and 0.39 and 0.61 in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds respectively. The Chi-square test results (at one degree of freedom at one per cent level) revealed that the Tharparkar population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium as there was a continuous migration of animals in the herd studied, where as, the results are not significant for the Sahiwal population. Conclusion
Studies were conducted to evaluate treatments that reduce survival and attachment of Diaphorina citri nymphs on infested curry leaves (Bergera koenigii). Decontamination of curry leaves infested with D. citri in relation to disinfectant (none or Pro-San), temperature (0, 40, and 50°C), and treatment...
Amin, Hardik S.; Russo, Rachel S.; Sive, Barkley; Richard Hoebeke, E.; Dodson, Craig; McCubbin, Ian B.; Gannet Hallar, A.; Huff Hartz, Kara E.
Bark beetle infestation impacts the health of coniferous forests, which are an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. The types and amounts of VOCs emitted from forests can influence secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and impact overall air quality. In this initial work, the impact of bark beetle infestation on SOA precursors from Engelmann spruce is assessed. The VOCs emitted from the trunk of infested and healthy spruce trees were sampled using both sorbent traps and evacuated canisters that were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The samples from the infested spruce tree suggest a nine-fold enhancement in the total VOC emissions. The dominant VOCs in the infested spruce trees were 3-carene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The increase observed in VOCs sampled at the trunk of the infested spruce was consistent with increases observed at infested lodgepole pine trunks. However, the types and amounts of VOCs emitted from Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine are different, which suggests that additional measures of VOC emissions are needed to characterize the impact of bark beetle infestation on VOC emissions and SOA precursors.
Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Kaolim, Nongnid; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Dongsaard, Khwanruean; Maikaew, Umaporn; Sanannu, Saowaphang
Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is categorized as Endangered on the 2008 IUCN red list. The first full-length mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Asian tapir is 16,717 bp in length. Base composition shows 34.6% A, 27.2% T, 25.8% C and 12.3% G. Highest polymorphic site is on the control region as typical for many species.
Griffith, G. S.; Cook, R.; Mizen, K. A.
Trifolium repens (white clover) stolons were inoculated with Ditylenchus dipsaci (stem nematode), and the development of resulting infestations was monitored. Nematodes initially remained confined to superficial locations, concentrating in petiole axils near inoculation points. They were able to migrate slowly from the inidal inoculation points and infest adjacent axils, especially in regions near the stolon tip. As time progressed, in some axils, nematodes migrated through the stolon epidermis and colonized slowly expanding subepidermal pockets of host tissue (ca. 0.2-mm length of stolon/day). In these loci nematodes established exponentially increasing populations, but the rates of locus expansion remained constant, indicating that locus expansion was limited by unidentified host-dependent factors. As a result of increasing population pressure within subepidermal loci, J4 entered a "diapause" state and the rate of egg production by adults declined, thereby reducing rate of population growth to more sustainable levels. Typically, these populations peaked at ca. 10,000 individuals in ca. 160 days occupying 3-cm lengths of stolon. Thereafter, heavily infested regions of stolons started to die, leading to the formation of longitudinal splits in their epidermis. In other axils, nematodes did not migrate into the stolons but remained confined to axils. Some of these populations increased a hundred-fold in 95 days, with population growth ending when petioles started to die. Host plant stolon morphology was affected only when subepidermal stolon populations developed high population levels (>100 nematodes) within close proximity (<2 cm) to active terminal meristems. This occurred either when axillary buds became active on previously infested nodes or when nematodes established endoparasitic populations at locations near the stolon tip during winter and spring, when the rate of stolon extension was limited by low light intensity. Affected stolon tips could "escape" from
Razza, Eduardo M; Satrapa, Rafael A; Emanuelli, Isabele P; Barros, Ciro M; Nogueira, Marcelo F G
The aggregation of a tetraploid zebu embryo (Bos indicus, a thermotolerant breed) with a diploid taurine embryo (Bos taurus, a thermosensitive breed) should create a complete taurine fetus, whose extra-embryonic components, e.g., the chorion, is derived mainly from the zebu embryo. These zebu-derived extra-embryonic components may interact positively with the taurine embryo/fetus during pregnancy in a tropical environment. We tested different parameters for the production of tetraploid Nelore (Bos indicus) embryos to be combined via aggregation with crossbred Bos taurus (diploid) embryos in order to produce viable chimeric blastocysts. Bovine (Bos indicus or crossbred Bos taurus) embryos were produced in vitro according to standard procedures. Two-cell Bos indicus embryos were submitted to electrofusion with varying numbers of pulses (1 or 2), voltages (0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.4 and 5.0 kV/cm) and time (20, 25, 50 and 60 μs) to produce tetraploid embryos. Electrofused embryos were cultured with crossbred non-fused embryos to form chimeras that developed until the blastocyst stage. The best fusion parameter was 0.75 kV/cm for 60 μs. Four chimeric blastocysts (tetraploid Nelore with diploid crossbred Holstein) were formed after 31 attempts in 4 replicates (13%). We established an optimal procedure for the production of tetraploid Bos indicus (4n) embryos and embryonic chimeras by aggregation of crossbred Bos taurus (2n) with Bos indicus (4n) embryos. This technique would be valid in applied research, by producing exclusively taurine calves, but with placental elements from the Bos indicus breed, following transfer of these chimeras into recipient cows.
Despite successful eradication techniques and specific effective therapies, insect bites and infestations remain a source of great human misery. The current scabies pandemic shows no signs of abating. Bed bugs, which through the ages have been second only to the malarial mosquito as an insect vector of fatal infection, have now been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis B and possibly African acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of head- and pubic lice is on the rise, the latter paralleling, and often co-existing with, other sexually transmitted diseases. Black widow spiders are native to many populous areas in southern Canada, and the brown recluse spider's range now encompasses Canada, thanks to moving vans and central heating. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263961
Miranda-Miranda, E; Cossio-Bayugar, R; Martínez-Ibañez, F; Casasanero-Orduña, R; Folch-Mallol, J
The purpose of this study was to describe an unreported entomopathogenic fungus that naturally infects the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Engorged female ticks, showed symptoms of fungal infection after controlled tick infestation of cattle. Infected ticks developed a distinctive dark colour, a pale mould grew over the cuticle and the ticks eventually died covered with fungal conidiophores. The responsible fungus was isolated and cultured on mycological medium and submitted to microscopic morphology, biochemical phenotyping and 18S rRNA ribotyping analyses, which identified it as aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Spores from the cultured fungus were experimentally sprayed over healthy engorged female ticks, obtaining an 80% prevalence of experimental infection of healthy ticks and their egg masses, the larval progeny after incubation under laboratory conditions was also infected. These results demonstrate that A. flavus is the causative agent of the natural fungal disease of the cattle tick R. microplus described here.
Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian
Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.
Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian
Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783
Diaz, James H; Nesbitt, Lee T
Physicians are not infrequently consulted by distraught patients with delusions of infestation who believe that they are infested with external or internal parasites and describe a crawling sensation of bugs or worms on or under their skin. Internet search engines were queried with the keywords as search terms to examine the latest articles on delusional infestations in order to describe presenting manifestations, differential diagnoses, and effective management strategies. The demographic and behavioral features of delusional infestations have remained constant and include: (1) onset in well-educated, middle-aged adults who are pet owners; (2) production of purported specimens of causative parasites; (3) pesticide overtreatment of themselves, their households, and pets; (4) excessive cleaning or vacuuming of households; (5) intense anger and resentment directed at physicians failing to confirm their self-diagnoses; and (6) sharing delusional symptoms with spouses or relatives. Although some reports have suggested that cases of delusional infestation are increasing today in the tropics, most studies have confirmed a stable incidence over time and similar disorder demographics worldwide. However, management strategies for delusional infestations have changed significantly over time with second generation, atypical antipsychotics offering safer adverse effect profiles and better prognoses than earlier therapies with first generation, typical antipsychotics. The most effective management strategies for delusional infestations include empathetic history-taking and active listening to the patient, careful exclusion of true parasitoses, and a therapeutic regimen that includes a second generation neuroleptic agent.
Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B
Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.
Álvarez, Isabel; Pérez-Pardal, Lucía; Traoré, Amadou; Fernández, Iván; Goyache, Félix
A panel of 81 Asian, African and European cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus) was analysed for the whole sequence of the CXCR4 gene (3844bp), a strong candidate for cattle trypanotolerance. Thirty-one polymorphic sites identified gave 31 different haplotypes. Neutrality tests rejected the hypothesis of either positive or purifying selection. Bayesian phylogenetic tree showed differentiation of haplotypes into two clades gathering genetic variability predating domestication. Related with clades definition, linkage disequilibrium analyses suggested the existence of one only linkage block on the CXCR4 gene. Two tag SNPs identified on exon 2 captured 50% of variability. Whatever the analysis carried out, no clear separation between cattle groups was identified. Most haplotypes identified in West African taurine cattle were also found in European cattle and in Asian and West African zebu. West African taurine samples did not carry unique variants on the CXCR4 gene sequence. The current analysis failed in identifying a causal mutation on the CXCR4 gene underlying a previously reported QTL for cattle trypanotolerance on BTA2.
Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min
Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This
Noyes, Harry; Brass, Andy; Obara, Isaiah; Anderson, Susan; Archibald, Alan L.; Bradley, Dan G.; Fisher, Paul; Freeman, Abigail; Gibson, John; Gicheru, Michael; Hall, Laurence; Hanotte, Olivier; Hulme, Helen; McKeever, Declan; Murray, Caitriona; Oh, Sung Jung; Tate, Catriona; Smith, Ken; Tapio, Miika; Wambugu, John; Williams, Diana J.; Agaba, Morris; Kemp, Stephen J.
African bovine trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma sp., is a major constraint on cattle productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Some African Bos taurus breeds are highly tolerant of infection, but the potentially more productive Bos indicus zebu breeds are much more susceptible. Zebu cattle are well adapted for plowing and haulage, and increasing their tolerance of trypanosomiasis could have a major impact on crop cultivation as well as dairy and beef production. We used three strategies to obtain short lists of candidate genes within QTL that were previously shown to regulate response to infection. We analyzed the transcriptomes of trypanotolerant N'Dama and susceptible Boran cattle after infection with Trypanosoma congolense. We sequenced EST libraries from these two breeds to identify polymorphisms that might underlie previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL), and we assessed QTL regions and candidate loci for evidence of selective sweeps. The scan of the EST sequences identified a previously undescribed polymorphism in ARHGAP15 in the Bta2 trypanotolerance QTL. The polymorphism affects gene function in vitro and could contribute to the observed differences in expression of the MAPK pathway in vivo. The expression data showed that TLR and MAPK pathways responded to infection, and the former contained TICAM1, which is within a QTL on Bta7. Genetic analyses showed that selective sweeps had occurred at TICAM1 and ARHGAP15 loci in African taurine cattle, making them strong candidates for the genes underlying the QTL. Candidate QTL genes were identified in other QTL by their expression profile and the pathways in which they participate. PMID:21593421
Giovambattista, Guillermo; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Ripoli, Maria Veronica; Matsumoto, Yuki; Franco, Luz Angela Alvarez; Saito, Hideki; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko
In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for diseases and immunological traits. However, none of the highly adapted Latin American Creole breeds have been characterized for BoLA gene polymorphism by high resolution typing methods. In this work, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 179 cattle (113 Bolivian Yacumeño cattle and 66 Colombian Hartón del Valle cattle breeds) using a polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method. We identified 36 previously reported alleles and three novel alleles. Thirty-five (32 reported and three new) and 24 alleles (22 reported and two new) were detected in Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds, respectively. Interestingly, Latin American Creole cattle showed a high degree of gene diversity despite their small population sizes, and 10 alleles including three new alleles were found only in these two Creole breeds. We next compared the degree of genetic variability at the population and sequence levels and the genetic distance in the two breeds with those previously reported in five other breeds: Holstein, Japanese Shorthorn, Japanese Black, Jersey, and Hanwoo. Both Creole breeds presented gene diversity higher than 0.90, a nucleotide diversity higher than 0.07, and mean number of pairwise differences higher than 19, indicating that Creole cattle had similar genetic diversity at BoLA-DRB3 to the other breeds. A neutrality test showed that the high degree of genetic variability may be maintained by balancing selection. The FST index and the exact G test showed significant differences across all cattle populations (FST=0.0478; p<0.001). Results from the principal components analysis and the phylogenetic tree showed that Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds were closely related to each other. Collectively, our results suggest that the high level of genetic diversity could be explained by the multiple origins of the Creole germplasm (European, African and
Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.
Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.
Khandelwal, Vinoth Kumar Megraj; Balaraman, R.; Pancza, Dezider; Ravingerová, Táňa
Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (HI) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS) are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R). Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure), reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining) served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75%) occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF) was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55%) and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions. PMID:20953394
Chatterjee, Biji; Ghosh, Krishna; Yadav, Nitin; Kanade, Santosh R
Lectins are omnipresent in almost all life forms, being the proteins which specifically bind to carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface; they have been explored for their anti-tumour activities. In this study, we purified a fucose specific-lectin (IFL) from Fenneropenaeus indicus haemolymph using fucose-affinity column and characterized for its haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity, dependency on cations and cytotoxicity against cancer cells. The lectin showed non-specificity against human erythrocytes. It was a Ca(2+)-dependent lectin which remained stable over wide pH and temperature ranges. The lectin showed effective dose dependent cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as evidenced by DNA ladder assay and PARP cleavage in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, an increased p21 level corresponding to cyclin D downregulation in response to IFL treatment was observed which might work as probable factors to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Therefore, we report a novel lectin from the prawn haemolymph with high specificity for L-fucose and antiproliferative towards human cancer cells. However, further establishment of the modus operandi of this lectin is required to enable its biotechnological applications.
Cao, Junwei; Lai, Qiliang; Yuan, Jun; Shao, Zongze
Celeribacter indicus P73T, isolated from deep-sea sediment from the Indian Ocean, is capable of degrading a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is the first fluoranthene-degrading bacterium within the family Rhodobacteraceae. Here, the complete genome sequence of strain P73T is presented and analyzed. Besides a 4.5-Mb circular chromosome, strain P73T carries five plasmids, and encodes 4827 predicted protein-coding sequences. One hundred and thirty-eight genes, including 14 dioxygenase genes, were predicted to be involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds, and most of these genes are clustered in four regions. P73_0346 is the first fluoranthene 7,8-dioxygenase to be discovered and the first fluoranthene dioxygenase within the toluene/biphenyl family. The degradative genes in regions B and D in P73T are absent in Celeribacter baekdonensis B30, which cannot degrade PAHs. Four intermediate metabolites [acenaphthylene-1(2H)-one, acenaphthenequinone, 1,2-dihydroxyacenaphthylene, and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride] of fluoranthene degradation by strain P73T were detected as the main intermediates, indicating that the degradation of fluoranthene in P73T was initiated by dioxygenation at the C-7,8 positions. Based on the genomic and metabolitic results, we propose a C-7,8 dioxygenation pathway in which fluoranthene is mineralized to TCA cycle intermediates. PMID:25582347
Santana, M H A; Freua, M C; Do, D N; Ventura, R V; Kadarmideen, H N; Ferraz, J B S
Feed intake, feed efficiency, and weight gain are important economic traits of beef cattle in feedlots. In the present study, we investigated the physiological processes underlying such traits from the point of view of systems genetics. Firstly, using data from 1334 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle and 943,577 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a genome-wide association analysis was performed for dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and residual feed intake with a Bayesian Lasso procedure. Genes within 50-kb SNPs, most relevant for explaining the genomic variance, were annotated and the biological processes underlying the traits were inferred from Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Our results indicated several putative genomic regions associated with the target phenotypes and showed that almost all genomic variances were in the SNPs located in the intergenic and intronic regions. We further identified five main metabolic pathways related to ion transport, body composition, and feed intake control, which influenced the four phenotypes simultaneously. The systems genetics approach used in this study revealed novel pathways related to feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.
Trung, Nguyen Thanh; Berg, Jan; Cuong, Vu Chi; Kjos, Nils Petter
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of varying levels of cassava root meal (CRM, 300 and 1,000 g), without or with 700 g groundnut cake (GNC) on intake and performance of growing Laisind cattle fed with a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw (URTRS). Twenty-four male cattle of crossbred Laisind (50% Red Sindhi and 50 % local Yellow, both Bos indicus), from 15 to 17 months of age, 165-175 kg body weight, were used. They were assigned to a completely randomized block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (two CRM levels and two GNC levels). Intake of URTRS (interaction, P < 0.01) and digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (interaction, P < 0.05) decreased as CRM level increased on the diets without GNC but was not affected by CRM level on the diets with GNC. The total dry matter intake (interaction, P < 0.05) and live weight gain (LWG) (interaction, P < 0.001) increased as CRM level increased on the diets with GNC, but no difference was observed on the diets without GNC. In conclusion, supplementation of 1,000 g CRM should be in combination with 700 g GNC to avoid the negative effects on URTRS intake and digestibility, therefore improving LWG of growing Laisind cattle fed on a URTRS-based diet.
Araújo, F R; Silva, M P; Lopes, A A; Ribeiro, O C; Pires, P P; Carvalho, C M; Balbuena, C B; Villas, A A; Ramos, J K
An investigation was conducted into a severe flea infestation on dairy calves. Inspection of the dairy revealed a high infestation of Ctenocephalides felis felis on four calves and thousands of fleas in the stable where cows and calves were brought in for milking. A 3-month-old female calf was highly infested with fleas. The animal showed an evident lethargy, weight loss, as well as pale mucous membranes and dehydration. Hematological analysis revealed anemia, with 10% packed cell volume and a 1.72 x 10(6) microl(-1) erythrocyte count. Blood transfusions were performed and the flea infestation was controlled with 1% fipronil pour-on (1 ml/10 kg). The farmer was advised to treat the other calves with fipronil, remove the manure from the stable and spread 1% propoxur powder (100 g/m2) onto the floor of the stable.
Liao, Xiaoping; Peng, Fred; Forni, Selma; McLaren, David; Plastow, Graham; Stothard, Paul
Genetic variation in Gir cattle (Bos indicus) has so far not been well characterized. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing of three Gir bulls and a pooled sample from another 11 bulls to identify polymorphisms and loci under selection. A total of 9 990 733 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 604 308 insertion/deletions (indels) were discovered in Gir samples, of which 62.34% and 83.62%, respectively, are previously unknown. Moreover, we detected 79 putative selective sweeps using the sequence data of the pooled sample. One of the most striking sweeps harbours several genes belonging to the cathelicidin gene family, such as CAMP, CATHL1, CATHL2, and CATHL3, which are related to pathogen- and parasite-resistance. Another interesting region harbours genes encoding mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are involved in directing cellular responses to a variety of stimuli, such as osmotic stress and heat shock. These findings are particularly interesting because Gir is resistant to hot temperatures and tropical diseases. This initial selective sweep analysis of Gir cattle has revealed a number of loci that could be important for their adaptation to tropical climates.
Somavilla, A L; Sonstegard, T S; Higa, R H; Rosa, A N; Siqueira, F; Silva, L O C; Torres Júnior, R A A; Coutinho, L L; Mudadu, M A; Alencar, M M; Regitano, L C A
Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) have been selected for growth traits for over more than four decades. In recent years, reproductive and meat quality traits have become more important because of increasing consumption, exports and consumer demand. The identification of genome regions altered by artificial selection can potentially permit a better understanding of the biology of specific phenotypes that are useful for the development of tools designed to increase selection efficiency. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect evidence of recent selection signatures in Nellore cattle using extended haplotype homozygosity methodology and BovineHD marker genotypes (>777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms) as well as to identify corresponding genes underlying these signals. Thirty-one significant regions (P < 0.0001) of possible recent selection signatures were detected, and 19 of these overlapped quantitative trait loci related to reproductive traits, growth, feed efficiency, meat quality, fatty acid profiles and immunity. In addition, 545 genes were identified in regions harboring selection signatures. Within this group, 58 genes were associated with growth, muscle and adipose tissue metabolism, reproductive traits or the immune system. Using relative extended haplotype homozygosity to analyze high-density single nucleotide polymorphism marker data allowed for the identification of regions potentially under artificial selection pressure in the Nellore genome, which might be used to better understand autozygosity and the effects of selection on the Nellore genome.
Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A
The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance.
Mwale, Kamukwamba; Siziya, Seter
Background: Intestinal infestations are of considerable public health importance in Zambia and elsewhere in Africa. Children aged less than 5 years are at the highest risk of infection. Interventions for prevention and control of these infestations require identification of their determinants. This study investigates the determinants of intestinal infestations in children below 5 years of age admitted to a children’s hospital and assesses the most prevalent of the helminthes. Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted at Arthur Davison Children’s Hospital, Ndola, Zambia. Socio-demographic data of study participants and possible determinants for occurrence of intestinal infestations were collected using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and examined for presence of parasites using direct techniques. The Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to establish associations. Results: Present study had 148 participants out of the expected 165, making a respondent rate of 89.7%. Over half of the participants were male (50.6%), and 68.9% were above the age of 2 years. Prevalence of intestinal infestations was 19.6%, and the most prevalent parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides. Factors independently associated with worm infestation were father’s employment (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI [0.19, 0.90]) and history of prior worm infestation (AOR = 6.54; 95 % CI [3.28, 13.03]). Conclusion: Intestinal infestations particularly Ascaris lumbricoides were more prevalent in this study. There should be policy towards countrywide deworming programs and enhanced hygiene. PMID:27622006
Leelavathi, Muthupalaniappen; Norhayati, Moktar; Lee, Yin Yin
Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome.
Nabian, S; Taheri, M; Fard, R Mazaheri Nezhad; Aramoon, M
Background Boophilus annulatus is an obligate blood feeder tick that can cause great losses in animals due to anemia and its ability to injure its host skin directly. The aim of this study was identification of cattle humoral immune response to some tick proteins during experimental infestation. Methods Immune sera against tick were collected from experimentally infested cattle with ticks. One and two-dimensional electrophoresis and Western blotting methods were used for the detection of immunogenic proteins in larval tick extract and eight of these proteins were identified by MALDITOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Results In non-reducing one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, some bounds between 12 to more than 250-kDa appeared. In two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, numerous spot appeared and the identified immunogenic proteins by parallel immunoblotting weighted between 14 and 97 kDa. Amino acid sequences of protein spot with 37-kDa molecular weight had identity to tropomyosin based on Mascot search in NCBI. Conclusion Anti tropomyosin antibodies can be induced in experimentally infested hosts with ticks and it seems that tropomyosin can be useful for the development of anti tick vaccines. PMID:23914237
Infestation patterns of digenetic trematodes in Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) were studied in a shallow-water area of the southern Baltic Sea. The amphipod C. volutator is the most common second intermediate host of microphallid trematodes, in particular Maritrema subdolum, in this area. Seasonal and interannual alterations in infestation among the amphipod population are described. The general trend of infestation followed a relatively invariable seasonal pattern. Lowest prevalences were generally observed in spring and early summer, when juvenile amphipods predominated. Increasing prevalences and relative infestation intensities were recorded over the summer, with the highest values in late summer and autumn. These observations are mainly explained by the population dynamics of C. volutator and the infection dynamics of the first intermediate hosts, mudsnails of the genus Hydrobia. Exceptionally high infestation rates in summer 1997 may have been triggered by the earlier appearance of high cercaria densities in the field compared to 1996. The coincidence of the infection dynamics of the first intermediate host with the population dynamics of C. volutator was apparently important. Parasite infestation, in turn, obviously induced mortality of the crustacean host, but conclusive evidence could not be provided based on the analysis of the parasite dispersion patterns in C. volutator.
Botulism is an intoxication caused by ingestion of feed or water contaminated with the toxin of Clostridium botulinum. In cattle, intoxication usually results from the ingestion of feed containing preformed type C or D toxin, either in feed which has been contaminated with toxin-containing carcasses or in feed in which there has been primary multiplication of C. botulinum and toxin production. The initial signs of botulism are progressive difficulty in chewing and swallowing, caused by paralysis of the tongue and muscles of mastication. This results in slow prehension and chewing of feed, water and feed falling out of the mouth, excessive salivation and weakness of the tongue. After 1 to 3 days, generalised paralysis occurs followed by death due to respiratory paralysis. Intravenous fluid therapy is the recommended treatment. The administration of antiserum is of limited value in advanced stages and is used mainly as a prophylactic measure in cattle herds in which an outbreak has just started. Active immunization of cattle in high-risk herds is also an option. It is critical that cattle not be fed feed contaminated with soil or carcasses.
Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping
Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle.
Chaiyarat, Rattanawat; Srikosamatara, Sompod
The Western Forest Complex (WEFCOM) of Thailand is comprised of many protected areas and has one of the highest wildlife populations in the country. Populations of wildlife in the WEFCOM have decreased dramatically over recent years. Rapid economic development has resulted in the conversion of forest into agricultural and pastoral land, which has directly and indirectly impacted the wildlife community. This research aimed to evaluate populations of domesticated cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the WEFCOM and their possible impacts on the wildlife community. Domesticated cattle and buffalo keepers from 1561 (or 3.3%) of houses in and near WEFCOM were interviewed. The average number of animals per household was 15.6 cattle and 8.5 buffalo. Most villagers released domesticated cattle and buffalo to forage in the protected areas. This tended to have a high impact on the wildlife community in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary and Tungyai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary. The least impacted areas were Luam Khlong Ngu National Park, Thong Pha Phum National Park and Chaleam Ratanakosin National Park. With a high risk to the wildlife community, law enforcement should be used in combination with a certain level of co-management with local communities.
Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Carreón, Diana; Almazán, Consuelo; de la Fuente, José
Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas. PMID:25047078
Venkateshan, Suganya; Subramaniyan, Vetriselvan; Chinnasamy, Velmurugan; Chandiran, Sarath
Objective: Dietary changes play major risk roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group) and fed with a standard diet (control), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks. High-fat diet induced changes in average body weight and oxidative stress and elevated levels of plasma lipid profile in rats. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of H. indicus (200 mg/kg) offered a significant dose-dependent protection against HFD-induced oxidative stress, as reflected in the levels of catalase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver), superoxide dismutase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver), and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver). Hyperlipidemia condition assessed in terms of body weight, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, ester cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, and atherogenic index and the results showed significant differences between HFD and non-HFD fed rats (p<0.001). High-fat diet treated rats showed changes in hepatic tissue architecture such as micro and macrovascular steatosis, increased fatty infiltration, and inflammation. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the methanolic extract of H. indicus protects against oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and liver damage. PMID:27761421
Inbreeding has been incriminated as a cause of decrease in reproductive performance in cattle. This negative correlation is known as ‘inbreeding depression’, and evidence supporting this hypothesis was generated from association studies between reproductive traits and estimates of inbreeding coeffic...
Background: Apart from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), copy number variation (CNV) is another important type of genetic variation, which may affect growth traits and play key roles for the production of beef cattle. To date, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CNV and body traits in be...
Desquesnes, Marc; Dia, Mamadou Lamine
The trypanosomes pathogenic to livestock in Africa (Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, and Trypanosoma brucei) are mainly cyclically transmitted by tsetse (Glossina). However, T. vivax, can also be mechanically transmitted by haematophagous insects. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the mechanical transmission of T. congolense, but confirmation of this under natural conditions was necessary. An experiment was therefore carried out in Lahirasso, Burkina Faso, in a corral completely covered by mosquito net, to avoid exposure to tsetse. Eight receiver heifers, free of trypanosome infection, were kept together with two donor heifers, experimentally infected with local stocks of T. congolense. On average, 291 Atylotus agrestis, freshly captured in Nzi traps, were introduced into the mosquito net daily for a period of 20 days to initiate mechanical transmission among cattle. Daily microscopical observation of their blood indicated that two of the eight receiver heifers became infected with T. congolense from days 42 and 53. Mechanical transmission of T. congolense by A. agrestis was demonstrated unequivocally with a 25% incidence over a 20-day period of exposure under a mean challenge of 29 insects/animal/day. These results, in addition to previous reports, demonstrate the ability of A. agrestis to transmit T. vivax and T. congolense to cattle in Africa by mechanical means. Efforts to eliminate cattle trypanosomosis should therefore consider the eventual persistence of disease as a result of mechanical transmission of trypanosomes by tabanids. Index descriptor and abbreviations: Trypanosoma congolense (Trypanosomatidae) is a pathogenic trypanosome found in wild and domestic herbivores, principally in cattle (Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and cross-breds), in Africa. It is cyclically transmitted by tsetse (Glossina, Diptera); however, mechanical transmission by biting insects may also occur. The present study demonstrates unequivocally the mechanical transmission of
L'Haridon, S; Reysenbach, A-L; Banta, A; Messner, P; Schumann, P; Stackebrandt, E; Jeanthon, C
An autotrophic, hyperthermophilic methanogen, strain SL43(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney sample collected on the Central Indian Ridge at a depth of 2420 m. The coccoid, surface-layer-carrying, Gram-negative-staining cells were heavily flagellated and exhibited a slight tumbling motility. The temperature range for growth at pH 6.5 was 50-86 degrees C, with optimum growth at 85 degrees C. The optimum pH for growth was 6.6 and the optimum NaCl concentration for growth was 30 g l(-1). The novel isolate used H(2) and CO(2) as the only substrates for growth and produced methane. Selenium and yeast extract stimulated growth significantly. In the presence of CO(2) and H(2), the organism reduced elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. Growth was inhibited by chloramphenicol and rifampicin, but not by ampicillin, kanamycin, penicillin or streptomycin. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 30.7 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this organism was most closely related to Methanocaldococcus infernus ME(T) (3.2 % distance). Its phylogenetic distinctiveness was confirmed by RFLP analysis of the 16S rDNA, a reliable tool for differentiating hyperthermophilic methanococci. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, it is proposed that strain SL43(T) (=DSM 15027(T)=JCM 11886(T)) be designated as the type strain of a novel species, Methanocaldococcus indicus sp. nov.
Simpson, Boyd K.; Shukor, M. N.; Magintan, David
A study on the selection of food plants by captive Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) was undertaken in a 30 hectare natural forest enclosure at the Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. Tapirs browsed on 217 species of plants (from 99 genera and 49 families) from a total of the 1142 specimens collected and identified. Food plants were heavily dominated by sapling trees and shrubs which comprised 93% of all plants taken, with the remainder comprising woody lianas, vines and herbaceous plants. Although tapirs browsed on a wide variety of plant species, the top 30 species consumed represented more than 60% of all the plants selected, whilst the vast majority of species were rarely eaten. More than 80 species of trees and shrubs were available, but not eaten at all. The most readily consumed species were the sub-canopy and understorey trees Xerospermum noronhianum, Aporosa prainiana and Baccaurea parviflora, while Aporosa, Knema and Xerospermum were the dominant plant genera. The Phyllanthaceae (leaf flowers), Myristicaceae (nutmegs) and Sapindaceae (rambutans) were the most commonly selected families comprising 45% of the diet. Tapirs fed on saplings trees up to 8.3 m in height, while plants taller than about 1.6 m were bent, broken or pushed to the ground to gain access to the foliage. Sapling stems up to 4.2 cm in diameter could be snapped by biting, while larger trees to 7 cm diameter could be pushed down. Tapirs typically fed on the newer leaves and shoots, however, often only consuming half of the available foliage on a plant. This study documents 160 new plant species suitable as Malayan tapir food, and is consistent with the generalist, but selective browsing nature of the Tapirus species in general.
Helmick, Kelly E; Milne, Victoria E
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was diagnosed in two captive female neonatal Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) at separate institutions. Both calves had unremarkable exams and normal blood parameters within the first 3 days of life. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (hematocrit, HCT= 20%; mean corpuscular volume, MCV = 32.8 fl; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH = 10.5 pg) was diagnosed at day 66 of age in calf EPZ-1. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 71. A normal HCT (33%) with microcytosis and hypochromasia (MCV = 33.0 fl; MCH = 11.7 pg) was identified at day 80. No further concerns were noted through 610 days of age. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (HCT = 16%; MCV = 38.4 fl; MCH = 13.3 pg; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC= 34.6 g/dl) with thrombocytosis (platelets= 1018 10(3)/UL) and poikilocytosis was diagnosed at day 38 of age in calf WPZ-1 by samples obtained through operant conditioning. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 40 and day 68. Improving hematocrit (32%) and low serum iron (45 micorg/dl) was identified at day 88; total iron binding capacity (TIBC; 438 microg/dl) and percentage saturation (10%) were also measured. No further concerns were noted through day 529 of age. Retrospective evaluation identified presumptive IDA in two male siblings of calf WPZ-1. One calf died at day 40 (iron = 40 microg/dl; TIBC = 482 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 4%) and another at day 72 (HCT = 11%; iron = 26 microg/dl; TIBC = 470 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 6%). Death in both calves was attributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and bacterial septicemia. IDA can develop in Malayan tapirs between day 38 and day 72 of age and may be a significant precursor to bacterial septicemia and death in neonatal Malayan tapirs.
Rose, Paul E; Roffe, Sarah M
The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. A questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit Malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry regimes to determine prevalence of standardized practices as well as highlighting any key differences, and to showcase good practice, thus providing information beneficial to those maintaining this species in their zoo. Twenty-five animals were included in the survey from collections across four continents. The research's major conclusions show differing dietary make-up, with a lack of forage provision, contrasting with a diverse array of enrichment protocols used. Significant differences were noted between zoos for total amount of food offered (P = 0.000) as well as ratios of forage to concentrate pellet offered (P = 0.004). Comparing food offered to male and female tapirs with published requirements for an "average" of either gender shows not all zoos providing the amount suggested in husbandry guidelines. Intelligently designed and original enrichment was provided to all animals but differences between zoos were noted in the application and "usefulness" of enrichment for individual tapir. Overall, animals are benefiting from enrichment but welfare could be further improved via consistent feeding of ad libitum forage and regular use of browse as a constituent part of daily rations.
Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.; Overstreet, R. M.
Hyperinfection by the gill-infesting monogenean Allobivagina sp. (Microcotylea) caused mass mortalities in juveniles of Siganus luridus cultured in seawater earthen ponds and holding tanks in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Other species of Siganus and adults of S. luridus cultured in the same systems acquired a low intensity of infestation. Most hyperinfected fish were emaciated and anaemic with hematocrit values below 10 %. Skin and mouth infestations by the monogenean Benedenia monticelli (Capsaloidea) caused mass mortalities in grey mullets (Mugilidae). These mortalities occurred in large individuals in wild populations of Liza carinata from lagoonal habitats in the Gulf of Suez and in most species of grey mullets cultured in Eilat. The intensity of infestation correlated positively with severity of infestation, and the common sites of infestation corresponded with areas of severe pathological alterations. Spontaneous recovery followed the climax of an epizootic, both for infested S. luridus and infested grey mullets. Decline in infestation coincided with remission of the pathological signs.
Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.
Moore, D P; Konrad, J L; San Martino, S; Reichel, M P; Cano, D B; Méndez, S; Späth, E J L; Odeón, A C; Crudeli, G; Campero, C M
The aim of this study was to investigate how Neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. A convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the Northeast of Argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. Blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbreeds) from four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages at herd level for each ranch were also recorded. N. caninum antibody levels were measured by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (reciprocal antibody titers ≥ 100). Serological results were classified into 2 categories (0: negative; 1: positive). A logistic regression model was used to describe the relationship between N. caninum serostatus and specie (water buffalo or cattle), age or ranch and their interactions. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the significance of the model and their terms. Odds ratios were estimated and 95% profile likelihood (LR) and Wald confidence intervals (CI) obtained. Overall, specific antibody titers were found in 43.3% (584/1350) of water buffaloes and 28.6% (252/880) of cattle. Seropositive water buffaloes and cattle were observed on all ranches. Age was statistically significant (p=0.01) with an overall estimate of logit (log odds) of age of 0.03 for both species. This indicates that for every one year increase in age, the expected change in log odds of being seropositive increased by 0.03. On three of four ranches a water buffalo was 4.48, 1.54 and 2.25 times more likely to be seropositive than cattle for animals of the same age. The N. caninum serostatus was affected by age in the first place, but also by species on at least three of the four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages were higher in water buffaloes than in beef cattle (p<0.05). Even though the low
Suleman, M; Jabeen, N
The prevalence of head lice infestation was estimated among the general population of four urban localities in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan during 1986. Altogether 1002 persons (656 females, 346 males) were screened by visual inspection and combing of the head. The overall infestation rate was 36.7%, with females showing a higher prevalence (41.5%) than males (27.7%). The prevalence did not differ significantly with locality, and exhibited only a slight seasonal variation. Pediculosis was high in the five to 19 year old age-group, beyond which it decreased, gradually in females and abruptly in males. Higher rate of infestation in females could be attributed to their long hair. A significant negative association between pediculosis and dandruff was noticed in males but not in females. Crowding and low level of education, which reflect poor socio-economic status, apparently contributed to higher rate of infestation. Prevalence was directly related to the number of children per family, suggesting that school children perhaps play an important role in the distribution of lice. Intensity of infestation, like prevalence, was higher in females than males, and decreased with age in both sexes.
Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cascio, Antonio; Isola, Stefania; Gangemi, Sebastiano
The tapeworm Taenia (T.) solium can be responsible for two different conditions: taeniasis and cysticercosis. Helminth infections in human host cause an immune response associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis, and with the presence of CD4+ T cells that preferentially produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Individuals exposed to helminth infections may have allergic inflammatory responses to parasites and parasite antigens. PubMed search of human cases of allergic reactions occurring during T. solium infestation was performed combining the terms (allergy, urticaria, angioedema, asthma, anaphylaxis) with T. solium. A study was considered eligible for inclusion in the review if it reported data on patients with T. solium infestation who had signs or symptoms of allergy. In literature we found six articles reporting the association between an allergic reaction and T. solium infestation: two cases of urticaria, two cases of relapsing angioedema, one case of asthma and two cases of anaphylaxis. Despite the large diffusion of T. solium infestation, we found only a few cases of concomitant allergic reaction and the presence of Taenia in the host. The association between T. solium infestation and allergic manifestations has never been clearly demonstrated, and in absence of a well-documented causality the hypotheses are merely speculative. Therefore, the association between Taenia infection and allergy needs to be thoroughly studied to better clarify if this association may really exist and which is the pathogenetic mechanism supported.
Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa
Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients. PMID:23599875
Horwood, Martin A; Westlake, Terry; Kathuria, Amrit
A trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of termiticidal dusts (arsenic trioxide, triflumuron, and Metarhizium anisopliae), a timber fumigant (dazomet) and liquid termiticides (bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and imidacloprid) for controlling subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting in-service power poles in New South Wales, Australia. Dusts were applied to parts of the pole where termites were present. Fumigant was inserted into holes drilled into the base of the pole. Liquid termiticides were mixed with soil around the base of the pole and injected into internal voids if present. Poles were inspected for up to 5 yr, and the time taken for reinfestation to occur was recorded. Before the start of the trial, the major Australian pole owners were surveyed to obtain an estimate of the annual national cost of termite infestation to the power supply industry. The annual costs of termite treatment and replacing damaged poles were estimated at AU$2 million and AU$13 million, respectively. Infestation rates were lower for all treatments compared with controls within the first 12 mo of the study. Dazomet, arsenic trioxide, fipronil, and chlorpyrifos were the most efficacious treatments. Efficacy was positively related to the amount of termiticide applied and negatively related to the infestation severity but was unaffected by geographical location. Survival curves were calculated of the time elapsed before the recurrence of termite infestations (survival absence of reinfestation). Survival was highest for poles treated with liquid termiticides.
Useh, N M; Nok, A J; Ambali, S F; Esievo, K A N
The inhibition of neuraminidase from Clostridium chauvoei (jakari strain) with partially purified methanolic extracts of some plants used in Ethnopharmacological practice was evaluated. Extracts of two medicinal plants, Tamarindus indicus and Combretum fragrans at 100-1000 microg/ml, both significantly reduced the activity of the enzyme in a dose-dependent fashion (P < 0.001). The estimated IC50 values for Tamarindus indicus and Combretum fragrans were 100 and 150 microg/ml respectively. Initial velocity studies conducted, using fetuin as substrate revealed a non-competitive inhibition with the Vmax significantly altered from 500 micromole min(-1) mg(-1) to 240 micromole min(-1) mg(-1) and 340 micromole min(-1) mg(-1) in the presence of Tamarindus indicus and Combretum fragrans respectively. The KM remained unchanged at 0.42 mM. The computed Index of physiological efficiency was reduced from 1.19min(-1) to 0.57min(-1) and 0.75min(-1) with Tamarindus indicus and Combretum fragrans as inhibitors respectively.
In Experiment 1, we evaluated the effects of two lengths of progesterone exposure (CIDR; 7 vs. 14 d) prior to a modified CO-Synch protocol, with or without temporary weaning (TW) before GnRH treatments, on fertility of suckled Bos indicus Nelore cows (n = 283) and on calf performance. Timed AI (TAI)...
Background Endogamy increases the risk of manifestation of deleterious recessive genes. Mitochondrial DNA allows the separation of American Zebu (Bos indicus and Bos taurus) and evaluate the effect of mitochondrial DNA on productive traits of cattle. However, the effect of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on the immune system remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between endogamy, mtDNA and immune parameters. Results A total of 86 cattle (43 cows and 43 calves) were used in this study. Age, endogamy, milk yield, and origin of mtDNA were measured and their influence on immunological parameters was evaluated. Older cows had increased CD4+ T cells, decreased CD21+ and γδhigh T cells as well as increased CD4+/CD8+ and T/B ratio. Multiple regression analysis indicated that endogamy in calves was associated with increased CD8+ T and CD21+ B lymphocytes, and decreased γδhigh T cells in peripheral blood. Cows with medium and lower endogamy had a lower percentage of B lymphocytes and γδlow T cells and cows with lower endogamy had higher levels of γδ T cells and γδhigh T cells, as well as the CD4+/CD48+ cell ratio. Calves with higher endogamy had higher levels of CD8+ T lymphocytes, whereas calves with lower endogamy had lower levels of γδlow T cells. Conclusions These results demonstrated for the first time that endogamy influences the immune system of cattle. PMID:24694022
Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi; Jann, Oliver Carl; Weimann, Christina; Erhardt, Georg
Genetic diversity, introgression and relationships were studied in 521 individuals from 9 African Bos indicus and 3 Bos taurus cattle breeds in Cameroon and Nigeria using genotype information on 28 markers (16 microsatellite, 7 milk protein and 5 blood protein markers). The genotypes of 13 of the 16 microsatellite markers studied on three European (German Angus, German Simmental and German Yellow) and two Indian (Nelore and Ongole) breeds were used to assess the relationships between them and the African breeds. Diversity levels at microsatellite loci were higher in the zebu than in the taurine breeds and were generally similar for protein loci in the breeds in each group. Microsatellite allelic distribution displayed groups of alleles specific to the Indian zebu, African taurine and European taurine. The level of the Indian zebu genetic admixture proportions in the African zebus was higher than the African taurine and European taurine admixture proportions, and ranged from 58.1% to 74.0%. The African taurine breed, Muturu was free of Indian zebu genes while its counter Namchi was highly introgressed (30.2%). Phylogenic reconstruction and principal component analysis indicate close relationships among the zebu breeds in Cameroon and Nigeria and a large genetic divergence between the main cattle groups – African taurine, European taurine and Indian zebu, and a central position for the African zebus. The study presents the first comprehensive information on the hybrid composition of the individual cattle breeds of Cameroon and Nigeria and the genetic relationships existing among them and other breeds outside of Africa. Strong evidence supporting separate domestication events for the Bos species is also provided. PMID:15496287
Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Shanthi, Sathappan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Espiñeira, Montserrat
Penaeidins are members of a special family of antimicrobial peptide existing in penaeid shrimp and play an important role in the immunological defense of shrimp. Here, we report a penaeidin sequence cloned from the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaus indicus (Fein-Penaeidin). The Fein-Penaeidin open reading frame encodes a 77 amino acid peptide including a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequences of Fein-Penaeidin include a proline rich N-terminal domain and a carboxyl-domain that contains six cysteine residues. Structural analysis revealed an alpha-helix in its secondary structure and the predicted 3D structure indicated two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison with other known peaneidin suggest the gene shows high similarity to that of penaeidin from Peneaus monodon (95%), F. indicus (80%) and Fenneropenaeus chinensis (74%). Fein-Penaeidin was examined in normal and microbial challenged shrimp and was found to be constitutively expressed in haemocytes, Heart, gills, muscles, intestine, hepatopancreas and eyestalk. Bacterial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, inducing expression at 6 h post injection indicating the penaeidin involved in the innate immunity.
Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan.
Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn
Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.
Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Yalçın, Zeliha Gülter; Karakeçe, Engin; Çiftci, İhsan Hakkı; Erdem, Teoman
Tumor-associated immune system cells secrete protease and cytokines that can inhibit the immune response. In particular, T-cell effector functions could be inhibited, potentially causing an increase in parasitic infestations. Demodex species are common inhabitants of normal hair follicles. Humans are the specific host for two species Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and infestation of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in patients with cancer. In the present study, 101 patients with cancer were selected from among patients who were diagnosed and treated for cancer. The cancer patients were divided into four groups according to cancer type. Slides were examined for parasites using light microscopy at magnifications of ×40 and ×100. Infestation was defined as having at least five living parasites/cm(2) of skin. The ages of the patients with cancer ranged between 38 and 82 years, with a mean of 65.5±10.1 years. It was determined that 77 of the 101 (76.2%) cancer patients were positive for Demodex species. Infestation was positive in 18 (47.4%) of the 38 cases in the breast cancer group, 7 (29.2%) of the 24 cases in the lung cancer group, 5 (18.5%) of the 27 cases in the gastrointestinal system cancer group, and 2 (16.7%) of the 12 cases in the urogenital system cancer group. Results showed that the rate of Demodex species infestation was higher in patients with breast cancer. Thus, cancer - and particularly breast cancer - is a risk factor for Demodex species infestation.
Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy
Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery. PMID:26283859
Sharma, Divyesh; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Choudhari, Kishor A
Head lice or pediculosis is recognized as an increasing problem in medical practice (Down et al, 1999). Secondary bacterial infections can occur in patients with infestation. In neurosurgical patients, head lice infestation may be a potential risk factor for peri-operative complications. Secondary infection could further complicate neurosurgical wounds with subsequent complications. The authors discuss epidemiology, pathogenesis of potential peri-operative complications resulting from pediculosis and methodology of treatment of this common condition. The importance of early recognition and prompt treatment in patients with neurological diseases is highlighted. A simple algorithm to treat scalp pediculosis is suggested.
Brannan, Jaime L; Riggs, Penny K; Olafson, Pia U; Ivanov, Ivan; Holman, Patricia J
The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum Linnaeus 1758 (Acari; Ixodidae), causes considerable production losses to the southern U.S. cattle industry due to reduced weight, infertility, secondary infections at bite wound sites, damaged hides, and potentially death, as these ticks tend to infest livestock in large numbers. Increasing environmental concerns, along with the potential for chemical residue in food products, have led to more emphasis on alternative tick control strategies, such as selective breeding practices and anti-tick vaccines. To enable progress toward these goals, a better understanding of bovine host immune mechanisms elicited by ticks is needed. In this study, 7 calves were phenotyped as susceptible, moderately resistant, or highly resistant to adult A. americanum ticks. Tick bite-site biopsies and blood leukocytes were collected at multiple time points throughout 3 successive tick infestations. Gene expression at tick bite-site biopsies was assessed by microarray analysis over 3 time points for each phenotype group. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR expression analysis evaluated 11 candidate genes in tick bite-site biopsies, and 6 in blood leukocytes. Regression curve estimates calculated from the expression values generated by qRT-PCR in tick bite-sites identified correlations between several candidate genes. Increased expression of IGHG1, IL6, IL1α, and IL1RN in bovine tick bite-site biopsies suggests that Th2 differentiation may be important for the local bovine response to A. americanum ticks. Strong correlations in expression for IL1α and IL1β, for IL1α and IL1RN, and for IL1α and TLR4 were found in biopsies from the tick-resistant phenotypes. The up-regulation of IL12 and IL23 in blood leukocytes from Lone Star tick-infested calves of all phenotypes suggests a possible systemic recruitment of memory T cells. This study provides novel insight concerning the bovine immune response to Lone Star ticks and a basis for future
Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L
The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P < 0.10) for an association with the previously described marker in GPE6. Closer examination of the GPE6 data revealed that the source of the tendency was an association (P < 0.02) with marbling in animals of Wagyu inheritance. Animals having Wagyu background and inheriting the TT genotype had a greater marbling score (599 +/- 20) than those inheriting the CC (540 +/- 10) or the CT (541 +/- 11) genotype. No association was detected with any other carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population.
Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew
This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n = 122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (<2, 2-<4, 4-6 and >6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p = 0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p = 0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0) kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5) kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community.
Lai, Qiliang; Zhong, Huanzi; Wang, Jianning; Yuan, Jun; Sun, Fengqin; Wang, Liping; Zheng, Tianling; Shao, Zongze
A taxonomic study was carried out on a novel bacterial strain, designated B108(T), which was isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading consortium, enriched from deep-sea water of the Indian Ocean. The isolate was Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile. Growth of strain B108(T) was observed in 1-15 % (w/v) NaCl and at 10-39 °C and it was unable to degrade Tween 80 or gelatin. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain B108(T) was most closely related to Roseovarius halotolerans HJ50(T) (97.1 % sequence similarity), followed by Roseovarius pacificus 81-2(T) (96.6 %) and Roseovarius aestuarii SMK-122(T) (95.2 %); other species shared <95.0 % sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization tests showed that strain B108(T) had a low DNA-DNA relatedness to R. halotolerans HJ50(T) and R. pacificus 81-2(T) (48±4 % and 44±5 %, respectively). The predominant fatty acids were C₁₆:₀, C₁₆:₀ 2-OH, summed feature 8 (C₁₈:₁ω7c/ω6c) and C₁₉:₀ω8c cyclo, which accounted for 84.2 % of the total cellular fatty acids. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 63.6 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q10). Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and some unidentified compounds were detected. These characteristics were in good agreement with those of members of the genus Roseovarius. The pufLM gene was also detected. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and phylogenetic position based on 16S rRNA sequence data, the novel strain most appropriately belongs to the genus Roseovarius but can be readily distinguished from known species of this genus. Therefore, strain B108(T) represents a novel species, of the genus Roseovarius, for which the name Roseovarius indicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B108(T) ( = 2PR52-14(T) = CCTCC AB 208233(T) = LMG 24622(T) = MCCC 1A01227(T)).
Hernandez, J A; Zanella, E L; Bogden, R; de Avila, D M; Gaskins, C T; Reeves, J J
Two field trials were conducted in Brazil to evaluate LHRH immunocastration of Bos indicus bulls (d 0 = 2 yr of age). In Study I, 72 bulls were assigned randomly to one of three treatment groups: LHRH0-immunized, castrated, and intact. Immunized animals (n = 25) received a primary and two booster injections of ovalbumin-LHRH-7 and thioredoxin-LHRH-7 fusion proteins on d 0, 141, and 287. Twenty-three bulls were surgically castrated on d 141, and 24 served as intact controls. All animals were slaughtered on d 385, at approximately 3 yr of age. In Study II, 216 bulls were assigned randomly to the same three treatments as in Study I; however, because of a drought in the area, bulls were kept on pasture an additional year, and a fourth treatment was added, in which one-half the LHRH-immunized bulls received an additional booster on d 639 (fourth immunization). All animals in Study II were slaughtered on d 741 (4 yr of age). Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antibodies increased following each immunization for immunized bulls, but they were not detectable in castrate or intact animals in either study. Consequently, scrotal circumference was suppressed in immunized bulls compared with intact controls in both studies. By d 287, serum concentrations of testosterone in LHRH-immunized bulls were decreased compared with intact controls (P < 0.01). In both studies, testes and epididymal weights at slaughter were greater (P < 0.01) for intact (500 +/- 17 and 60 +/- 2 g, respectively) than for immunized bulls (173 +/- 22 and 26 +/- 2 g, respectively) and fourth immunization bulls (78 +/- 23 and 20 +/- 2 g, respectively; Study II). At the end of each study, BW was greater (P < 0.01) for intact bulls than for castrated and LHRH-immunized animals. In these two studies, the efficacy of the LHRH fusion proteins to induce an effect similar to that of surgical castration was considered 92 and 93%, respectively. These data support the concept that immunocastration of bulls at 2 yr of
Colwell, D D; Clymer, B; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T; Jim, G K; Schunicht, O C; Wildman, B K
Beef calves from 2 sources entering southern Alberta feedlots in the winters of 1997-98 and 1998-99, were surveyed for the presence of lice. A random sample of multiple source (MS), that is, auction market-derived, calves entering commercial feedlots and single source (SS) calves entering a backgrounding feedlot were examined for the presence of lice at entry to the feedlot. A standardized examination, which involved hair-part examination of 8 louse predilection sites, was conducted on each selected calf to determine prevalence and intensity of infestation. The long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli, was the most commonly encountered species. This species infested from 57.8% to 95.6% of the calves selected from both MS and SS calves during both winters. Louse index values, indicating intensity of infestation, for L. vituli ranged from 1 to 243 lice per animal. The chewing louse, Bovicola bovis, was present on MS and SS calves only in the winter of 1998-99. The louse index values for B. bovis ranged from 1 to 230 lice per animal. Mixed infestations of the L. vituli and B. bovis were common. The little blue cattle louse, Solenopotes capillatus, was present only on the SS calves in the winter of 1997-98. The short-nosed sucking louse, Haematopinus eurysternus, was present at very low intensities, 1-2 lice per animal, on 2.6% to 4.4% of the MS calves during both winters. Comparison of results from the current study with published literature suggests that efforts to determine the economic impact of louse infestations are confounded by the lack of a uniform method to assess louse population levels.
Gummow, B; van den Broek, J; Kirsten, W F A; Botha, C J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Heesterbeek, J A P
Various potential biomarkers were sampled for vanadium every 3-4 months from Bos indicus beef cattle farmed extensively immediately adjacent (high exposure (HE) group) and two km away (low exposure (LE) group) from a vanadium processing plant, respectively. Vanadium intake (mg vanadium kg(-1) bwt d(-1)) was modelled using environmental and physiological data as inputs. The vanadium intake ranged from 0.57 to 5.44 mg vanadium kg(-1) bwt d(-1) in the HE group and 0.41 to 2.61 mg vanadium kg(-1) bwt d(-1) in the LE group over a five-year period of monitoring. Samples collected from live sentinel animals over the five-year period included caudal coccygeal vertebrae, tail-switch hair, milk, urine, faeces, rib-bone biopsies and a wide range of blood clinical pathology and haematological parameters. The data was analysed for differences in response between the HE and LE groups. Where differences were found, a linear mixed-effects regression model was fitted to model the relationship between the exposure dose and the response variable. The model included the effects of age, duration of exposure and response, and allowed the prediction of the exposure dose given these inputs. Moreover, forty-two adult cattle were slaughtered over the five years. A wide range of tissue samples, rumen content and whole blood were taken from the cattle at slaughter for vanadium determination. In live animals, a difference in response was found between the HE group and LE group with respect to serum albumin (n = 36), monocyte (n = 36) and thrombocyte (n = 36) counts, and hair (n = 2) and faeces (n = 34) vanadium concentrations. No difference in vanadium concentrations could be shown for urine (n = 36), the traditional occupational health biomarker. Regression models are described for serum albumin, monocyte counts, faeces and hair, which showed the most promise as biomarkers. Average concentrations of vanadium in the tissues of slaughtered cattle ranged from 0.08 to 2.94 mg kg(-1) (wet
Klompmaker, Adiël A; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W M; Fraaije, René H B; Jagt, John W M
Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations).
Koch, W; Ritter, W
The deformations of bees occurring in connection with varroatosis was examined both in case of natural and artificial infestation. Under both conditions, the number of bees showing wing deformations increased with the degree of mite infestation. Shortened abdomina, however, only appeared in the case of natural infestation. Inadequate brood care in colonies severely infested by Varroa mites is supposed to be responsible. Wing deformations could be produced by experimental haemolymph extraction.
Kenechukwu, Franklin C.; Momoh, Mumuni A.; Umeyor, Emmanuel C.; Uronnachi, Emmanuel M.; Attama, Anthony A.
Background: The aim of this study was to formulate solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS)-based solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) using homolipids from tallow fat (Bos indicus) and evaluate its potential for enhanced delivery of gentamicin. Materials and Methods: SLMs were formulated by melt-emulsification using SRMS (15% w/w Phospholipon® 90G in 35% w/w Bos indicus), polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) and gentamicin (1.0, 2.0, 3.0% w/w), and characterized with respect to size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency % and pH-dependent stability. The in vitro release of gentamicin from the SLMs was performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) while bioevaluation was carried out using clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: Results showed that the lipid matrix accommodated gentamicin in a concentration-dependent manner, and that stable and spherical SLMs with size range of 18.62 ± 1.24-20.59 ± 1.36 μm and 21.35 ± 1.57-50.62 ± 2.37 μm respectively for unloaded and drug-loaded formulations were obtained. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that SRMS-based SLMs could better be used to control the release of gentamicin than gentamicin injection. Results of sensitivity test revealed that the SLMs time-dependently and capacity-limitedly produced greater inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) than the standards, an indication of improved bioactivity against the test organisms, with greater IZDs against S. aureus than E. coli. Overall, SLMs containing 2% w/w SRMS, 3% w/w gentamicin and PEG 4000 entrapped the highest amount of drug, achieved complete drug release and gave highest IZD against the organisms within 420 min, while plain gentamicin gave the least. Conclusion: This research has shown that SLMs based on Bos indicus and P90G is a potential carrier system for dissolution and bioactivity enhancement of gentamicin. PMID:27014617
Duangjinda, M; Jindatajak, Y; Tipvong, W; Sriwarothai, J; Pattarajinda, V; Katawatin, S; Boonkum, W
Tick-borne disease is one of the most harmful tropical diseases in dairy production. Selection of dairy cows for tolerance to tick-borne disease is a challenging concept for dairy breeders in the tropics. The objectives of this study were (1) to detect specific tick-borne pathogen in cattle of different genetics and (2) to examine the polymorphisms of DRB3.2 alleles in Thai dairy cattle and find the allelic association with tick-borne disease tolerance. Specific primers to Anaplasma marginale (AM), Babesia bigemina (BG) and Babesia bovis (BB) were used to detect the infections by PCR. The results showed that the high proportion of infections were found in Bos indicus (Sahiwal, n=95) and crossbred Holstein × Zebu (75:25 Holstein:Zebu, n=101), compared to high Holstein fraction crossbreed (≥ 87.5% Holstein, n=187). The proportion of triple infections was also highly found in high Holstein fractions crossbreed. This study confirmed that Zebuine (Bos indicus) had a higher degree of tolerance, even when infected by tick-borne pathogens, compared to high Holstein fraction crossbred. The associated alleles of DRB3.2 for tick-borne pathogen infection tolerance were found: DRB3*14 and *41 were found to be tolerant to A. marginale; *14 to B. bovis; and *10 and *51 to B. bigemina. These tolerance alleles could be used as potential markers for selection in dairy genetic evaluation. The associated alleles for susceptibility were also found: *2 was found to be susceptible to A. marginale; *3 and *16 to B. bovis; and *20 to B. bigemina. These susceptibility alleles could be used as markers for culling, and selection favoring susceptibility alleles should be considered to maintain heterozygote advantage and pathogen-specific memories in the herd.
Padmaja, P G; Shwetha, B L; Swetha, G; Patil, J V
This research investigated the role of oxidative enzymes in the defense response of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae), to the sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani (Diptera: Muscidae). Changes in polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity and total protein content were observed in resistant and susceptible sorghum genotypes in response to A. soccata feeding. Resistant plants exhibited higher levels of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities and total protein content compared with susceptible plants. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities and total protein content in the infested resistant and susceptible genotypes were higher when compared with their control plants, respectively. These findings suggest that resistant genotypes may be able to tolerate shoot fly feeding by increasing their peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities. Among the enzymes examined, differences in isozyme profiles for peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were detected between control and infested IS 18551, M35-1, 296B, SSV 84, and DJ 6514 plants. Differences in protein profiles were observed between A. soccata infested and their respective uninfested controls of all the genotypes. In conclusion, this study revealed that these defense enzymes and proteins might attribute to the resistance mechanisms in sorghum plants against A. soccata infestation.
The fast-spreading-zebra mussel has significant potential to foul intakes and other water systems at North American hydro projects. Chemical controls can be effective in reducing infestations, but most have environmental and other drawbacks. Several non-chemical methods promise to help project operators reduce problems associated with the mussels.
The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...
To detect popcorn kernels infested by the internal feeding stored-product insect pest Sitophilus zeamais, maize weevil, a laboratory roller mill was modified so that the electrical conductivity of the grain is measured while the kernels are milled between the rolls. When a kernel with a S. zeamais l...
Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...
The challenges that land owners and resource managers face when trying to attempt applications and practices when attempting to rehabilitate rangelands infested with cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) are over-whelming. Simply purchasing seed and spreading it throughout the rangelands is doomed for failu...
Zapardiel, Ignacio; Peiretti, Michele; Godoy-Tundidor, Sonia
The most common etiology of postpartum hemorrhage is uterine atony, although hematologic disorders may be present. A 36-year-old nulliparous woman underwent puerperal hysterectomy caused by uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage. One day after discharge, she vomited in the emergency room a 24-cm long Ascaris lumbricoides. Infestation during gestation may cause hematologic disorders that could complicate pregnancy outcome.
Leafy spurge is an invasive Eurasian weed on pastures and rangeland in North America where it reduces grass forage production. Our objective was to determine the effects of multispecies grazing combined with Aphthona 'ea beetles on leafy spurge-infested rangeland. On two western North Dakota sites d...
The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...
Giorda, Federica; Guardone, Lisa; Mancini, Marialetizia; Accorsi, Annalisa; Macchioni, Fabio; Mignone, Walter
CBed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions) and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.
Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are test... of interstate movement: Provided, however, That: The official test is not required for rodeo...
The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the fecundity of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite genera. Resu...
The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the reproductive ability of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite g...
The goal of this research was to detect and predict degree of triticale seed infestation with rice weevils using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Groups of seeds at 11 different levels (degrees) of infestation were tested by combining mixtures of infested and uninfested seeds at different ratios. S...
Insect infestation of seeds of the triticale hybrid, Triticosecale, causes extraordinary storage losses as a consequence of vulnerability of triticale seed to insect infestation and its soft coat. Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), is a common insect that causes infestation in Florida, which was t...
... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...
Pal, Aruna; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Chatterjee, Paresh Nath
The decline in the male reproductive ability in terms of sexual behavior and seminal traits might lead to nonavailability of required number of bulls in a progeny testing program. The present study was conducted in 493 crossbred cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) bulls to study polymorphisms of growth hormone (GH) gene and its association with seminal and sexual behavioral characteristics. A 428-base pair fragment of GH gene spanning over the fourth exon, fourth intron, and fifth exon was amplified and digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Bulls were found to be polymorphic, with two variants, LL and LV, and higher genotypic frequency for LL being 0.88. Twelve nucleotide changes and a single nonsynonymous substitution of Leucine by Valine were observed from GH1 (L) to GH2 (V). Statistical analysis revealed that the genotype of the GH gene had a significant effect on libido score, reaction time, Flehmen response, requirement of mounting stimulus, sperm mass activity, number of semen doses per collection, individual fresh sperm motility, postthaw sperm motility, acrosome integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling test, live and dead count, total morphological abnormality, and head abnormality of sperm in crossbred bulls. Growth hormone gene might be considered a candidate gene for seminal and sexual behavioral traits in crossbred cattle.
Cooper, Susan M; Scott, H Morgan; de la Garza, Guadalupe R; Deck, Aubrey L; Cathey, James C
The last outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States occurred in 1929. Since that time, numbers and distribution of feral swine (Sus scrofa) have increased greatly, especially in the southern states. This creates a potential risk to livestock production because swine are susceptible to, and can be carriers of, several economically harmful diseases of livestock. Most importantly, swine are potent amplifiers of FMD virus. In this study, global positioning system (GPS) collars were placed on rangeland cattle (Bos indicus x taurus) and feral swine to determine shared habitat use by these species on a large ranch in south Texas from 2004 to 2006. The aim was to identify locations and rates of interspecies contact that may result in effective transfer of FMD virus, should an outbreak occur. In shrubland and riparian areas, animals were dispersed, so contacts within and between species were relatively infrequent. Indirect contacts, whereby cattle and feral swine used the same location (within 20 m) within a 360-min period, occurred primarily at water sources, and seasonally in irrigated forage fields and along ranch roads. Direct contacts between species (animals <20 m apart and within 15 min) were rare and occurred primarily at water sources. Changes in ranch management practices are suggested to reduce interspecies contact should an FMD disease outbreak occur. This information can also be used to improve current epidemiologic models to better fit free-ranging animal populations.
Silva, Guilherme Araujo Collares da; Lins, Luciana Araujo; Irala, Márcio Josué Costa; Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha
The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016) at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length < 5.0 cm, n= 7) and long coat (coat length > 5.0 cm, n= 7). In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91%) and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%). The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.
Meyer-Kayser, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Lothar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Mahling, Monia; Passos, Lygia M F
This study aimed to provide up-to-date information on the dynamics of tick infestations on foxes in Thuringia, as the most recent information available was published in 1997. Fox carcasses that had been sent to the Thuringian State Authority for Food Safety and Consumer Protection (Thüringer Landesamt für Lebensmittelsicherheit und Verbraucherschutz - TLLV), between January 1st and December 31st, 2009, were examined for the presence of ticks. All ticks collected were stored at -20 °C before being identified and classified according to their developmental stage and sex. Out of a total of 1286 foxes examined, 989 (76.9%) were infested with ticks. A total of 13,227 ticks were collected from the foxes. The stage most frequently found was the larva (48.1%), followed by the adult (34.1%), and the nymphal stage (17.8%). Regarding the adult stage, Ixodes ricinus was the most frequent tick species detected (82.2%), followed by I. canisuga (10.8%) and I. hexagonus (6.7%). Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were very rare (0.3%). With regard to nymphs, I. canisuga and I. hexagonus were the most frequent tick species found, and this was also assumed for the larval stage. The results indicate the occurrence of tick infestations in foxes throughout the year, mainly by I. ricinus, I. canisuga, and I. hexagonus, with seasonal variations. Foxes were infested by I. ricinus ticks significantly more frequently from April to September. This applied to all tick developmental stages, but especially to adults. In contrast to I. ricinus, the infestation of foxes with I. canisuga and I. hexagonus was significantly higher from January to March and from October to December, especially with the immature developmental stages.
Msalya, George; Kim, Eui-Soo; Laisser, Emmanuel L. K.; Kipanyula, Maulilio J.; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Kusiluka, Lughano J. M.; Chenyambuga, Sebastian W.; Rothschild, Max F.
Background More than 90 percent of cattle in Tanzania belong to the indigenous Tanzania Short Horn Zebu (TSZ) population which has been classified into 12 strains based on historical evidence, morphological characteristics, and geographic distribution. However, specific genetic information of each TSZ population has been lacking and has caused difficulties in designing programs such as selection, crossbreeding, breed improvement or conservation. This study was designed to evaluate the genetic structure, assess genetic relationships, and to identify signatures of selection among cattle of Tanzania with the main goal of understanding genetic relationship, variation and uniqueness among them. Methodology/Principal findings The Illumina Bos indicus SNP 80K BeadChip was used to genotype genome wide SNPs in 168 DNA samples obtained from three strains of TSZ cattle namely Maasai, Tarime and Sukuma as well as two comparative breeds; Boran and Friesian. Population structure and signatures of selection were examined using principal component analysis (PCA), admixture analysis, pairwise distances (FST), integrated haplotype score (iHS), identical by state (IBS) and runs of homozygosity (ROH). There was a low level of inbreeding (F~0.01) in the TSZ population compared to the Boran and Friesian breeds. The analyses of FST, IBS and admixture identified no considerable differentiation between TSZ trains. Importantly, common ancestry in Boran and TSZ were revealed based on admixture and IBD, implying gene flow between two populations. In addition, Friesian ancestry was found in Boran. A few common significant iHS were detected, which may reflect influence of recent selection in each breed or strain. Conclusions Population admixture and selection signatures could be applied to develop conservation plan of TSZ cattle as well as future breeding programs in East African cattle. PMID:28129396
Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A
The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present.
Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi
Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.
Corn, Joseph L; Berger, Patrick; Mertins, James W
Surveys in 2001, 2005, and 2006 attempted to determine the role of wildlife in maintenance and dissemination of the tropical bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum (F.) (Acari: Ixodidae), in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Small mammals; birds; white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann); and feral cattle, Bos taurus L., were examined at nine premises, in mountainous rain forest, and in surrounding areas in western St. Croix, an area including and central to all known bont tick-infested premises on the island. Small Asian mongooses, Herpestes javanicus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire), yielded 1,566 ectoparasite specimens, representing five species, and including larvae of a soft tick, Carios puertoricensis (Fox); the tropical horse tick, Anocentor nitens (Neumann); and the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). Black rats, Rattus rattus L., yielded 144 specimens, representing six ectoparasite species, including C. puertoricensis. Of 25 bird species examined, seven yielded 116 ectoparasite specimens representing at least 14 different species of lice and mites, but no ticks. White-tailed deer and feral cattle yielded only various stages of A. nitens and R. microplus ticks. A. variegatum was not encountered on any potential wildlife host sampled, reflecting its low occurrence in St. Croix during the survey period. One collection of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from a spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia (L.), and collections of feather mites (Acari: Astigmata: Trouessartiidae) from both bananaquits, Coereba flaveola (L.), and black-faced grassquits, Tiaris bicolor (L.), may represent new, undescribed species.
Michalzik, B.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Bischoff, S.; Näthe, K.
Mass outbreaks of herbivore insects are known to perturb the functional properties of forests. However, it is less clear how endemic to moderate aboveground herbivory affects the vertical flow of nutrients from tree canopies to the soil. Here, we report on the effects of low to moderate infestation levels of the woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on the nutrient dynamics and hydrology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In a potted sapling experiment, we followed the vertical dynamics of nutrients via throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and litter leachates (LL) collected over ten weeks underneath infested and uninfested control trees. Aphid infestation amplifies the fluxes of K+, Mn2+ and particulate nitrogen (0.45μm < PN < 500 μm) in TF solution by 42% for K+, 59% for Mn2+ and 13% for PN relative to the control. In contrast, fluxes of NH4-N and SO4-S diminished during peaking aphid abundance by 26 and 16%, respectively. Differences in canopy-derived dissolved nitrogen and carbon compounds, sulfur (S), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ were < 10%. The effect of aphid abundance on nutrient dynamics was most notable in TF and SF and diminished in LL.Aphid infestation greatly altered the SF fluxes of DOC, K+, Mn2+, DON and sulfur-species, which were significantly concentrated at the tree base by "funneling" the rainfall through the canopy biomass to the trunk. Normalized to one square meter, water and nutrient fluxes were amplified by a factor of up to 200 compared to TF.Imaging of leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy exhibited notable differences of the surface morphology and microbiology of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves. This observation might point to an aphid-mediated alteration of the phyllosphere ecology triggering the microbial uptake of NH4-N and SO4-S and its transformation to particulate N by magnified biomass growth of the phyllosphere microflora, consequently changing the chemical partitioning and temporal availability of nitrogen.
Harris, Marvin K; Hunt, Kenneth L; Cognato, Anthony I
Larvae found infesting fruit from a Carpathian walnut, Juglans regia L., tree in Missouri were confirmed by DNA analysis to be those of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The infested walnut tree occurs in the midst of pecan weevil-infested pecans, Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch; the larval haplotypes were found to be identical to pecan weevil larvae from the region, indicating that the walnut infestation arose by association with infested pecan. This is the first confirmed DNA analysis showing pecan weevil attacks J. regia and the second report that J. regia may be at risk of infestation by pecan weevil. Further study indicates this infestation on walnut is established and ongoing. The pecan weevil is a key pest of pecan and seems capable of inflicting similar damage to walnut if spread to commercial areas that produce J. regia.
Kawabata, Ryuzou; Uefune, Masayoshi; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi
We studied spontaneous photon emission from kidney bean leaves infested with spider mites. Strong photon radiation was observed from the leaf veins where spider mites were crowding. Photon emission intensity increased with the decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis yield; these decreases represented the degree of damage caused by the pest. When both infested and un-infested leaves were put on the same wet cotton, photon emission from the un-infested leaf increased, too. Photon emission from the un-infested leaf might be induced by an aqueous elicitor released from the infested leaf. Such an elicitor activates the plant defense response. Therefore, it is suggested that photon emission from an infested leaf conveys information on the direct injury (physical stresses) and physiological (biochemical) actions associated with the defensive response.
Cha, Hae-Sim; Kim, Wan-Joong; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong
Pterocarpus indicus Willd has been widely used as a traditional medicine to treat edema, cancer, and hyperlipidemia, but its antiallergic properties and underlying mechanisms have not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiallergic activity of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract (PIW) using activated mast cells and an atopic dermatitis (AD)-like mouse model. PIW decreased IgE/Ag-induced mast cell degranulation and the phosphorylation of Syk and downstream signaling molecules such as PLC-γ, Akt, Erk 1/2, JNK compared to stimulated mast cells. In DNCB-induced AD-like mice, PIW reduced IgE level in serum, as well as AD-associated scratching behavior and skin severity score. These results indicate that PIW inhibits the allergic response by reducing mast cell activation and may have clinical potential as an antiallergic agent for disorders such as AD.
Weijola, Valter; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Lindqvist, Christer
Abstract We describe a new species of Varanus from Mussau Island, north-east of New Guinea. The new species is a member of the Varanus indicus species group and is distinguished from all other members by both morphological and molecular genetic characters. It is the third species of Varanus reported from the Bismarck Archipelago and the first record of a yellow tongued member of the Varanus indicus species group from a remote oceanic island. The herpetofauna of Mussau Island has not been well studied but the discovery of this new species is in accordance with recent findings indicating that the island may harbor several unknown endemic vertebrates. The distribution of the closely related Varanus finschi is also discussed in the light of recent fieldwork and a review of old records. PMID:27103877
Under NPDES permit SD-0034606, the Wulf Cattle Depot is authorized to discharge and must operate their facility in accordance with effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other provisions set forth herein.
Linkage disequilibrium (LD), the observed correlation between alleles at different loci in the genome, is a determinant parameter in many applications of molecular genetics. With the wider use of genomic technologies in animal breeding and animal genetics, it is worthwhile revising and improving the...
Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge
Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity.
Saenz, Virna L; Booth, Warren; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L
Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) are a resurgent pest worldwide and infestations within the United States are increasing at a rapid rate. Because of the physical and psychological discomfort inflicted by their blood feeding habits, and allergies and secondary infections associated with bites, bed bugs are recognized as a significant public health problem. Although bed bug infestations are spreading and becoming more prevalent, we have a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. To help fill this gap, we conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States, nearly all of which came from single rooms within residences. We genotyped samples comprised of 8-10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5-17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3 alleles per locus), we found low genetic diversity (1-4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny, or a female mated with multiple males that were highly related to her. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise F(ST) between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of genetic structure, indicating infestations located in closer proximity to each other were nearly as genetically differentiated as those located hundreds of kilometers away. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources.
Piñeiro-Vázquez, A T; Canul-Solis, J R; Alayón-Gamboa, J A; Chay-Canul, A J; Ayala-Burgos, A J; Solorio-Sánchez, F J; Aguilar-Pérez, C F; Ku-Vera, J C
The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, dry matter digestibility, nitrogen balance, supply of microbial protein to the small intestine and energy utilization in cattle fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass. Five heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) with an average live weight of 295 ± 19 kg were allotted to five treatments consisting of increasing levels of CT (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4% CT/kg DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (p > 0.05) between treatments containing 0, 1, 2 and 3% of CT/kg DM and it was reduced (p < 0.05) to 4% CT (5.71 kg DM/day) with respect to that observed with 0% CT (6.65 kg DM/day). Nitrogen balance, purine derivatives excretion in urine, microbial protein synthesis and efficiency of synthesis of microbial nitrogen in the rumen were not affected (p ≥ 0.05) by the increase in the levels of condensed tannins in the ration. Energy loss as CH4 was on average 2.7% of the gross energy consumed daily. Metabolizable energy intake was 49.06 MJ/day in cattle fed low-quality tropical grass with a DMI of 6.27 kg/day. It is concluded that concentrations of CT between 2 and 3% of DM of ration reduced energy loss as CH4 by 31.3% and 47.6%, respectively, without affecting intakes of dry and organic matter; however, digestibilities of dry and organic matter are negatively affected.
H M, Yathish; Kumar, Subodh; Dubey, Prem P; Modi, Rajendra P; Chaudhary, Rajni; A, Siva Kumar; Ghosh, Subrata K; Sarkar, Mihir; B, Sivamani
Crossbred cattle in some sectors of the world have a significant role in enhancing milk production thereby enhancing the per capita milk availability as a human food source. However, there are certain constraints associated with crossbred animals, such as disease susceptibility, increased reproductive problems, repeat breeding and poor seminal quality. The semen of crossbred bulls has a poor freezing capacity, increased cryo-damage, poor mass cell motility, greater percentages of dead/abnormal sperm and poor initial and post-freeze cell motility. The rejection rate of crossbred bulls for cryostorage of semen has been reported to be as great as 50% as a result of unacceptable semen quality. The identification of superior bulls using molecular technologies is needed which necessitates identification of the genes having a role in sperm function. The present study was, therefore, conducted to gain information on identification and expression of genes having a role in sperm motility in crossbred bulls. The gene transcripts in bulls with sperm of superior and inferior quality were profiled in Vrindavani crossbred cattle by microarray analyses and the results were verified by real time-quantitative PCR. Microarray analyses revealed 19,454 genes which were differentially expressed. At a two-fold cut off, 305 genes were differentially (P<0.01) expressed with 160 genes upregulated and 145 genes down regulated. Some of the upregulated candidate genes were further validated by RT-qPCR. These genes had a four to 16 fold upregulation in sperm with inferior motility as compared to sperm of crossbred bulls with superior motility.
Villegas, S C
Head lice infestations continue to be an issue in today's society, with an increase in economic cost and resistance. Spinosad 0.9% topical suspension was recently introduced in the U.S. market as a novel agent with both pediculicidal and ovicidal activity, approved in children 4 years of age and older for the treatment of head lice infestations. In clinical trials, it has demonstrated effectiveness against head lice with permethrin resistance. In two clinical trials comparing spinosad to permethrin, efficacy was observed in the spinosad-treated groups at 84.6% and 86.7%, respectively, when compared to the permethrin-treated groups (respective values of 44.9% and 42.9%; P < 0.001). Overall, spinosad was well tolerated in clinical trials.
Dewan, P; Miller, J; Musters, C; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P
Delusional infestation (DI) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a fixed, false belief that the patient is infested with extracorporeal agents. It is known by several names, including the more commonly used term 'delusional parasitosis'. The psychiatric disease is responsible for the cutaneous pathology. About 90% of patients with DI seek help from dermatologists, and most reject psychiatric referral. Thus, effective management requires incorporation of psychiatric principles. We report three cases of DI with inanimate materials, and examine 'Morgellons' disease. We believe that patients with unusual presentations of DI are likely to be seen more commonly in the future. These patients appear to be a subgroup of DI, and may be even more difficult to treat than other patients with DI.
Shah, Reena; Taylor, Ruth E; Bewley, Anthony
Delusional infestation (DI) is an uncommon psychiatric disorder in which patients present with the false and fixed belief (i.e. a delusion) that their skin and/or their environment is infested despite objective evidence to the contrary. Within psychodermatology specialist clinics there is a high rate of DI referrals. What is not known is the level of psychiatric and psychological co-morbidities associated with DI and whether psychiatric or psychological assessment would be warranted. One-hundred and thirty-eight adult patients with DI attending an outpatient psychodermatology clinic were given 3 standardised questionnaires. The results showed that 81% had a poor quality of life; 52% with anxiety, 41.6% with depression and 49% with appearance-related concerns. This study indicates high levels of psychiatric and psychological disorders in DI which require assessment and appropriate intervention.
Andreotti, Renato; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante
The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is globally regarded as the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock, and the evolution of resistance to commercial acaricides among cattle tick populations is of great concern. The essential oil derived from Tagetes minuta may be efficacious against cattle tick infestation, and the results of a cattle pen trial using this essential oil for the control of ticks are reported here. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of four major components in the essential oil. These components represent more than 70% of the essential oil: limonene (6.96%), β-ocimene (5.11%), dihydrotagetone (54.10%) and tagetone (6.73%). The results of the cattle pen trial indicated significant differences among the average values of the analyzed biological parameters, including the number of ticks, the average weight of the ticks, the average egg weight per engorged female and larval viability. Treatment with the T. minuta essential oil prepared in this study promoted significant effects on all biological indicators analyzed. Based on the biological indicators, the essential oil showed 99.98% efficacy compared to the control group when used at a 20% concentration. The results obtained in this study suggest that the T. minuta essential oil is a potential R. microplus tick control agent and may be used to mitigate the economic losses caused by tick infestation.
facilities. It was decided that sites where zebra mussel infestations would be most apparent were components of (1) navigation locks (walls, miter gates, fill... components likely to be negatively affected by zebra mussels. In addition, attendees prepared a preliminary list of strategies to deal with zebra mussel...struc- tural components , and suitable control strategies. The matrix was developed prior to the meeting by WES personnel and was based on an approach
Honig, P J
Readily available information as to the management of arthropod bites, stings, and infestations is important to have but often difficult to find. This article brings such information together in one reference for use by the practicing pediatrician, dermatologist, and family practitioner. Preventive measures are stressed and therapy is outlined for each entity; the rationale for many of the interventions is discussed. It is not the intent of this paper to cover each subject comprehensively.
Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.
Kmieć, K; Kot, I; Golan, K; Górska-Drabik, E; Łagowska, B; Rubinowska, K; Michałek, W
The harmfulness of mealybugs resulting from sucking plant sap, secreting honeydew, and transmitting plant viruses can give them the status of serious pests. This study documents the influence of Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) infestation on alterations in selected physiological parameters of Phalaenopsis x hybridum 'Innocence'. The condition of the cytoplasmic membranes was expressed as the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. We have determined changes in the activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and measured the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (Y), photochemical quenching (qP), and nonphotochemical quenching (qN). The strongest physiological response of orchids was recorded in the initial period of mealybugs infestation. Prolonged insect feeding suppressed lipid peroxidation, peroxidase and catalase activity, as well as photosynthesis photochemistry. The pattern of changes was dependent on mealybug species. This indicated the complexity of the processes responsible for plant tolerance. Data generated in this study have provided a better understanding of the impact of two mealybug species infestation on Phalaenopsis and should be useful in developing pest management strategies.
Anderegg, William R L; Callaway, Elizabeth S
Drought impacts on forests, including widespread die-off, are likely to increase with future climate change, although the physiological responses of trees to lethal drought are poorly understood. In particular, in situ examinations of carbon starvation and its interactions with and effects on infestation and hydraulic vulnerability are largely lacking. In this study, we conducted a controlled, in situ, repeated defoliation experiment to induce carbon stress in isolated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) ramets. We monitored leaf morphology, leaves per branch, and multitissue carbohydrate concentrations during canopy defoliation. We examined the subsequent effects of defoliation and defoliation-induced carbon stress on vulnerability to insect/fungus infestation and hydraulic vulnerability the following year. Defoliated ramets flushed multiple canopies, which coincided with moderate drawdown of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves. Infestation frequency greatly increased and hydraulic conductivity decreased 1 year after defoliation. Despite incomplete carbohydrate drawdown from defoliation and relatively rapid carbohydrate recovery, suggesting considerable carbohydrate reserves in aspen, defoliation-induced carbon stress held significant consequences for vulnerability to mortality agents and hydraulic performance. Our results indicate that multiyear consequences of drought via feedbacks are likely important for understanding forests' responses to drought and climate change over the coming decades.
Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.
Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.
Visser, M; Rehbein, S; Wiedemann, C
The species of flea infesting pets and hedgehogs in Germany were investigated through a survey of small animal practitioners throughout the country who were asked to collect specimens at their veterinary practices. A total of 625 veterinarians/veterinary practices responded and provided 2445 intact anti identifiable flea specimens. These fleas originated from 294 dogs (795 fleas), 334 cats (1152 fleas), 76 hedgehogs (481 fleas), five domestic rabbits (10 fleas), one golden hamster (four fleas) and one ferret (three fleas). Dogs were found to be infested with Archaeopsylla erinacei, Chaetopsylla globiceps, Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, Hystrichopsylla talpae, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Paraceras melis and Pulex irritans. From cats, Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ceratophyllus gallinae, Ceratophyllus garei, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenophthalmus assimilis, Hystrichopsylla talpae, Monopsyllus sciurorum, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi and Typhloceras poppei were collected. In both dogs and cats the most prevalent species were Ctenocephalides felis (78.9% and 91.6%, respectively) and Archaeopsylla erinacei (21.1% and 12.6%, respectively) followed by Ctenocephalides canis in dogs (5.8%) and Hystrichopsylla talpae in cats (1.2%). The fleas isolated from rabbits were Ctenocephalides felis, Hystrichopsylla talpae and Spilopsyllus cuniculi. Nosopsyllus fasciatus and Ctenocephalides felis were recovered from the golden hamster and the ferret, respectively. The hedgehogs were found to be infested with Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ceratophyllus gallinae and Ctenocephalides felis.
Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei
The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (P<0.05). Temperature changes also influenced T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestation, and a rise in temperature caused an increase in the number of T. leonina and Toxo. cati eggs. This study provides a better understanding of ascarid infestation among the captive Siberian tigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo.
Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Ginja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha; Pérez-Pardal, Lucía; Tresset, Anne; Stock, Frauke; Gama, Luis T.; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Nijman, Isaäc J.
Background Diversity patterns of livestock species are informative to the history of agriculture and indicate uniqueness of breeds as relevant for conservation. So far, most studies on cattle have focused on mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Previous studies of Y-chromosomal variation, with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine) haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes) and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu) haplogroup (Y3), as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. Methodology and Principal Findings Haplogroup data were collected for 2087 animals from 138 breeds. For 111 breeds, these were resolved further by genotyping microsatellites INRA189 (10 alleles) and BM861 (2 alleles). European cattle carry exclusively taurine haplotypes, with the zebu Y-chromosomes having appreciable frequencies in Southwest Asian populations. Y1 is predominant in northern and north-western Europe, but is also observed in several Iberian breeds, as well as in Southwest Asia. A single Y1 haplotype is predominant in north-central Europe and a single Y2 haplotype in central Europe. In contrast, we found both Y1 and Y2 haplotypes in Britain, the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Y-chromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. Conclusions We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea and Baltic coasts and the spotted, yellow or brown breeds from Switzerland, respectively. The present Y1-Y2 contrast in central Europe coincides with historic, linguistic, religious and cultural boundaries. PMID:21253012
Ralph, Nancy; Jones, Heidi E; Thorpe, Lorna E
Bed bug infestations have risen precipitously in urban areas. Little is known about risk factors for infestations or health outcomes resulting from these infestations. In the 2009 Community Health Survey, which is a representative population-based survey, 9,934 noninstitutionalized adults in New York City reported on bed bug infestations requiring an exterminator in the past year. The authors estimated infestation prevalence and explored predictors of infestation and associations between infestations and health outcomes using logistic regression. Seven percent of adults in New York City reported bed bug infestations. Significant individual and household risk factors were younger age, increased household poverty, and having three or more adults in the household. Environmental risk factors included living in high poverty neighborhoods and in buildings with more housing units, suggesting apartment-to-apartment transmission. Bed bug infestations were not associated with stress-related outcomes of alcohol consumption or recent depression, and, unlike cockroach infestation, were not associated with recent asthma episodes caused by allergens or contaminants.
Chaves, I S; Luvizzotto-Santos, R; Sampaio, L A N; Bianchini, A; Martínez, P E
Fish have developed protective strategies against monogeneans through immunological responses. In this study, immune adaptive response to parasites was analysed in the pompano Trachinotus marginatus infested by Bicotylophora trachinoti. Hosts were pre-treated with formalin and after 10 days assigned to one of the following experimental treatments: (1) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti; (2) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti and experimentally re-infested by exposure to T. marginatus heavily infested with B. trachinoti. Samples were collected at 0, 15, and 30 days. Gills were dissected to check the presence of B. trachinoti. Blood was collected for haematological and biochemical assays. Spleen and head-kidney were dissected for phagocytosis assay. The spleen-somatic index was also calculated. Re-infested fish showed a faster and higher parasite infestation than infested ones. The parasite mean abundance at 15 days was 24.86+/-13.32 and 11.67+/-8.57 for re-infested and infested fish, respectively. In both groups, hosts showed an immune adaptive response to parasite infestation that was marked by an increased number of leukocytes. Also, phagocytosis (%) in spleen and head-kidney cells was stimulated after parasite infestation (92.50+/-3.73 and 66.00+/-9.54, respectively), becoming later depressed (77.39+/-6.69 and 53.23+/-9.14, respectively). These results support the hypothesis that monogenean infestation induces a biphasic response of the non-specific defence mechanisms in the pompano T. marginatus. This response is marked by an initial stimulation followed by a later depression of the non-specific defence mechanisms.
Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R
Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties.
Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu
Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to
Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.
Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587
Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261
Stachurski, Frédéric; Tortosa, Pablo; Rahajarison, Patrick; Jacquet, Stéphanie; Yssouf, Amina; Huber, Karine
Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area.
James, Roswin; Thampuran, Nirmala; Lalitha, K V; Rajan, Lawrance Anbu; Joseph, Toms C
Suppression Subtractive Hybridization was employed in order to identify the differentially expressed genes in the hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus infected Fenneropenaeus indicus. A forward subtracted cDNA library generated 356 clones following a white spot syndrome virus infection. A total of 345 clones with more than 100 nucleotides were selected for further analysis using bioinformatics tools after vector screening. Twenty-three contigs and 111 singletons were generated from a total of 134 consensuses. The consensuses, on a sequence homology search using BLASTX (NCBI), revealed that 74 (55%) of them had no significant match to reported sequences in the database, suggesting that they were found for the first time and are probably associated with shrimp immune function. Out of the remaining 60 (45%) consensuses, 43 had significant homology to known protein sequences in the database while 17 consensuses are homologous to unknown proteins in the database which are considered novel. The most abundant genes in the subtracted library were antimicrobial peptides accounting for 56 clones; among which one is a member of SNF2 family of proteins and another belonged to PfP1 family of proteins on analysis using Antimicrobial peptide predictor software. The other predicted genes in the subtracted library include signal transduction molecules (GTPase, Serine threonine kinase, Armadillo repeats etc), antioxidant enzymes (Cytochrome oxidase, Monomeric sarcosine oxidase and Catalase), active transporters (Nuclear Localization Signal [NLS], calcium ATPase, sodium glutamate symporter, Store-Operated Calcium Entry [SOCE] and ribonucleoprotein [RNP]) contributing to 19, 14 and 5 clones respectively. Three clones are homologous to reverse transcriptase; a first time report in shrimp and one each belong to cell adhesion molecule and Proteinase. InterProScan at EMBL, when used for an integrated search at PROSITE predicted; signal sequences and transmembrane regions for 13
Bawin, Thomas; De Backer, Lara; Dujeu, David; Legrand, Pauline; Caparros Megido, Rudy; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.
The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae) were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research. PMID:26462946
Sosnina, E F; Davydov, G S
2213 lice of Neohaematopinus palaearctcus Ols. were collected from 152 of 865 examined specimens of Marmota caudata Geoffr. from different vertical zones of Tadjikistan. The long-tailed marmot is characterized by a moderate or poor infestation with lice. In the subalpine zone, where the number and density of these animals in rather high, the infestation rate is greater than that in the brushwood zone. In spring after hibernation the infestation of M. caudata is very low. Within the reporoduction period the infestation with lice increases, the latter begin to reproduce intensively. During the preparation for hibernation the infestation rate falls due to a less intensive reproduction of lice. There are no distinct differences in the infestation rate of long-tailed marmots belonging to different age groups since there are constant contacts between the individuals of the colony. Only reproducing females live together with brood by themselves, differ in moulting periods and in a greater intensity of invasion during reproduction.
Zipple, Anthony M; Batscha, Catherine L; Flaherty, Peggy; Reynolds, Jared L
Bedbug infestation has become a major problem in the United States. Infestations can be frightening and expensive and appear to be more prevalent in urban settings and low-income housing such as homeless shelters, public housing, and single-room occupancy apartments. This exposes consumers and staff of psychiatric rehabilitation agencies to higher risk of infestation. This brief report outlines practical suggestions for managing bedbug infestation in such agencies. Drawing on resources readily available on the Internet and the experience of Thresholds, a large provider of psychiatric rehabilitation services based in Chicago, this report describes strategies for responding to infestation. Providers need to assume that bedbug infestation is a significant risk and prepare accordingly. Assertive, persistent, and calm response is recommended.
Background Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated. Results We investigated the copy number (CN) of the bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY in a total of 460 bulls from 15 breeds using a quantitative PCR approach. We observed CNVs for both gene families within and between cattle breeds. The median copy number (MCN) of HSFY among all bulls was 197, ranging from 21 to 308. The MCN of ZNF280BY was 236, varying from 28 to 380. Furthermore, bulls in the Bos taurus (BTA) lineage had a significantly higher MCN (202) of HSFY than bulls in the Bos indicus (BIN) lineage (178), while taurine bulls had a significantly lower MCN (231) of ZNF280BY than indicine bulls (284). In addition, the CN of ZNF280BY was positively correlated to that of HSFY on the BTAY. Association analysis revealed that the CNVs of both HSFY and ZNF280BY were correlated negatively with testis size, while positively with sire conception rate. Conclusion The bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families have extensively expanded on the Y chromosome during evolution. The CN of both gene families varies significantly among individuals and cattle breeds. These variations were associated with testis size and bull fertility in Holstein, suggesting that the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY may serve as valuable makers for male fertility selection in cattle. PMID:24507556
Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F
Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the
... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...
Villa, José D; Danka, Robert G
Worker honey bees from genetic strains selected for being resistant (R) or susceptible (S) to tracheal mites typically show large differences in infestation in field colonies and in bioassays that involve controlled exposure to infested bees. We used bioassays exposing newly emerged individuals to infested workers to compare the propensity for tracheal mites to infest queens, drones and workers from R and S colonies. In tests with queens, newly emerged R and S queens were either simultaneously confined in infested colonies (n = 95 and 87 respectively), or individually caged with groups of 5-20 infested workers (n = 119 and 115 respectively). Mite prevalence (percentage of individuals infested) and abundance (foundress mites per individual) after 4-6 days did not differ between R and S queens. In another test, five newly emerged drones and workers from both an R and an S colony, and a queen of one of the two strains, were caged in each of 38 cages with 20 g of workers infested at 60-96% prevalence. Infestations of the R queens (n = 17) and S queens (n = 19) did not differ significantly, but R workers had half the mite abundance of S workers, while R drones received about a third more migrating mites than S drones. In tests to evaluate possible mechanisms, removal of one mesothoracic leg from R and S workers resulted in 2- to 10-fold increase in mite abundance on the treated side, but excising legs did not affect infestation of the corresponding tracheae in drones. This suggests that differences in infestation between R and S workers, but not drones, are largely determined by their ability to remove mites through autogrooming. If autogrooming is the primary mechanism of colony resistance to tracheal mites, selection for resistance to tracheal mites using infestation of hemizygous drones may be inefficient.
Li, Yehua; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Chamontri, Surachet; Dicke, Marcel; Gols, Rieta
Attraction of parasitoids to plant volatiles induced by multiple herbivory depends on the specific combinations of attacking herbivore species, especially when their feeding modes activate different defense signalling pathways as has been reported for phloem feeding aphids and tissue feeding caterpillars. We studied the effects of pre-infestation with non-host aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) for two different time periods on the ability of two parasitoid species to discriminate between volatiles emitted by plants infested by host caterpillars alone and those emitted by plants infested with host caterpillars plus aphids. Using plants originating from three chemically distinct wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, Diadegma semiclausum switched preference for dually infested plants to preference for plants infested with Plutella xylostella hosts alone when the duration of pre-aphid infestation doubled from 7 to 14 days. Microplitis mediator, a parasitoid of Mamestra brassicae caterpillars, preferred dually-infested plants irrespective of aphid-infestation duration. Separation of the volatile blends emitted by plants infested with hosts plus aphids or with hosts only was poor, based on multivariate statistics. However, emission rates of individual compounds were often reduced in plants infested with aphids plus hosts compared to those emitted by plants infested with hosts alone. This effect depended on host caterpillar species and plant population and was little affected by aphid infestation duration. Thus, the interactive effect of aphids and hosts on plant volatile production and parasitoid attraction can be dynamic and parasitoid specific. The characteristics of the multi-component volatile blends that determine parasitoid attraction are too complex to be deduced from simple correlative statistical analyses.
Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C
Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities.
Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E; Finley, G G
Musculature from 198 Canadian cattle with suspected lesions of eosinophilic myositis were examined histologically and by pepsin digestion. Sera from 51 of the 198 animals were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-Trichinella antibodies. Viable larvae of Trichinella were not recovered from any of the cattle but one animal from Ontario tested positive for anti-Trichinella antibodies. Histologically, focal and/or diffuse eosinophilic myositis lesions were observed in 149 (75.2%) of the animals studied. Other conditions identified were sarcocystiosis, abscesses, cysticercosis, steatosis, fibrosis, granuloma, lymphosarcoma and necrosis. Sarcocystiosis was identified in 105 of the 198 animals in both normal and affected musculature. The study indicates that trichinosis is not a primary cause of eosinophilic myositis in cattle. PMID:1884289
World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)
Rand, K N; Moore, T; Sriskantha, A; Spring, K; Tellam, R; Willadsen, P; Cobon, G S
Glycoproteins located on the luminal surface of the plasma membrane of tick gut epithelial cells, when used to vaccinate cattle, are capable of stimulating an immune response that protects cattle against subsequent tick infestation. One such tick gut glycoprotein, designated Bm86, has been purified to homogeneity and the amino acid sequences of peptide fragments generated by endoproteinase Lys-C digestion have been determined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a cDNA that encodes Bm86. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA contains a 1982-base-pair open reading frame and predicts that Bm86 contains 650 amino acids including a 19-amino acid signal sequence and a 23-amino acid hydrophobic region adjacent to the carboxyl terminus. The main feature of the deduced protein sequence is the repeated pattern of 6 cysteine residues, suggesting the presence of several epidermal growth factor-like domains. A fusion protein consisting of 599 amino acids of Bm86 and 651 amino acids of beta-galactosidase was expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. Ticks engorging on cattle vaccinated with these inclusion bodies were significantly damaged as a result of the immune response against the cloned antigen. Images PMID:2690068
Weerakoon, Kanchana; Li, Suiquing; Shu, Hungjen J.; Chin, Bryan A.
The financial losses and destruction of crops due to insect infestation in the United States are estimated by the USDA to exceed 20 billion dollars annually. Much of these losses could be avoided by having a sensor that could effectively identify the early stages of insect infestation. However, traditional detection methods are time consuming, require trained personnel, and are not sufficient for early detection. Several previous research studies showed that emitting organic volatile compounds is a defensive mechanism activated by some plant species after being attacked by herbivores and parasites. Corn, cotton, pine, Brussels sprouts when attacked by Beet army worm, spider mites, bark beetles and caterpillars respectively, emits different blends of plant volatiles including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate, with a concentration of about 50 ppm. Therefore, monitoring for these volatile compounds may enable on-site early detection of insect infestations. In this study, a chemical resistor sensor to detect plant volatiles was designed and fabricated. The sensor platform consists of micro electronically fabricated interdigitated electrodes. On to this platform, a poly3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) thin film was deposited, using a spin coater at 8000 rpm for 30 seconds. The sensor was tested and found to be sensitive to a variety of plant volatiles, including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate at room temperature. These vapors interacted with the P3HT film causing an increase in the resistance of the sensor by more than one order of magnitude
Smith, J J; Gavrilovic, V; Smitley, D R
In this study, we addressed the question of whether or not native stands of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and/or huckleberry (Gaylussacia spp.) support populations of blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran, in the Great Lakes region. Infestation of commercial blueberries by the blueberry maggot, R. mendax, is a serious problem in many areas where blueberries are grown. In the past 10-20 yr, commercial bighbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., production has expanded into places such as southern Ontario and southern Quebec where blueberry maggot had not previously been reported. In the mid-1990s, isolated infestations of commercial highbush blueberry were reported in southern Ontario. Because R. mendax was not considered endemic to that area, it was widely assumed that the pests had come into the fields via movement from exotic localities. Here we present an alternative hypothesis, that the blueberry maggots infesting newly established highbush plantations are derived from native blueberries growing in the vicinity. To test this hypothesis, in 1997-1999, we sampled potential native hosts for R. mendax (Vaccinium spp. and Gaylussacia spp.) from 31 localities in the Great Lakes region, primarily in Michigan and Ontario. R. mendax was reared from fruits of native hosts collected at four sites in Michigan and one site each in Ontario, Indiana, and Ohio. V. corymbosum was the predominant host infested, with infestation of this host observed at five of the seven sites. However, two huckleberry species [Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenheim) K. Koch, and Gaylussacia dumosa (Andersson) Torrey & Gray] had the highest rates of infestation that we observed (25.4 and 17.6%, respectively). These data represent the first published reports of R. mendax infesting native host plants in the Great Lakes region, and support the hypothesis that infestations observed in commercial fields may have originated from infested native host plants.
Glock, R D; DeGroot, B D
Sudden deaths or the sudden death syndrome are perceived as major concerns in cattle feedlots because most of these deaths occur in cattle near market weight. Etiology and preventive measures are poorly defined. The current literature indicates that sudden deaths are associated most commonly with digestive upsets. Death is thought to be the result of interactions between factors including acidosis, bloat, and endotoxemia. Trauma, peracute interstitial pneumonia, and other identifiable events are specifically defined but relatively uncommon. Enterotoxemia is of questionable significance as a cause of sudden deaths.
Meneghetti, M; Sá Filho, O G; Peres, R F G; Lamb, G C; Vasconcelos, J L M
Five experiments were conducted on commercial farms in Brazil aiming to develop a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol that achieved pregnancy rates between 40% and 55% in Bos indicus cows. These studies resulted in the development of the following protocol: insertion of an intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone (CIDR) plus 2.0mg im estradiol benzoate on Day 0; 12.5mg im dinoprost tromethamine on Day 7 in cycling cows or on Day 9 in anestrous cows; CIDR withdrawal plus 0.5mg im estradiol cypionate plus temporary calf removal on Day 9; TAI (48h after CIDR withdrawal) plus reuniting of calves with their dams on Day 11. Reduced dose of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha); 12.5mg im dinoprost tromethamine) effectively caused luteolysis. In cycling cows, fertility was greater when the treatment with PGF(2alpha) was administered on Day 7 than on Day 9, but in anestrous cows, no effects of time of the PGF(2alpha) treatment were found. Estradiol cypionate effectively replaced estradiol benzoate or gonadotropin-releasing hormone as the ovulatory stimulus, reducing labor and cost. In this protocol, CIDR inserts were successfully used four times (9 d each use) with no detrimental effects on fertility.
Saqib, Mohd; Khatri, Rahul; Singh, Bindu; Gupta, Ananya; Kumar, Arvind; Bhaskar, Sangeeta
BCG, the only approved vaccine protects against severe form of childhood tuberculosis but its protective efficacy wanes in adolescence. BCG has reduced the incidence of infant TB considerably in endemic areas; therefore prime-boost strategy is the most realistic measure for control of tuberculosis in near future. Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) shares significant antigenic repertoire with Mtb and BCG and has been shown to impart significant protection in animal models of tuberculosis. In this study, MIP was given as a booster to BCG vaccine which enhanced the BCG mediated immune response, resulting in higher protection. MIP booster via aerosol route was found to be more effective in protection than subcutaneous route of booster immunization. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-17 were induced at higher level in infected lungs of 'BCG-MIP' group both at mRNA expression level and in secretory form when compared with 'only BCG' group. BCG-MIP groups had increased frequency of multifunctional T cells with high MFI for IFN-γ and TNF-α in Mtb infected mice. Our data demonstrate for the first time, potential application of MIP as a booster to BCG vaccine for efficient protection against tuberculosis. This could be very cost effective strategy for efficient control of tuberculosis.
Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram
In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution. PMID:27589726
Sharifia, Mahnaz; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by the enzyme invertase. The fungus efficiently grew on glucose and fructose and produced ethanol in synthetic media or from molasses. The cultivations were carried out aerobically and anaerobically, and manipulated toward filamentous or yeast-like morphology. Ethanol was the major metabolite in all the experiments. The ethanol yield in anaerobic cultivations was between 0.35 and 0.48 g/g sugars consumed, depending on the carbon source and the growth morphology, while a yield of as low as 0.16 g/g was obtained during aerobic cultivation. The yeast-like form of the fungus showed faster ethanol production with an average productivity of 0.90 g/l h from glucose, fructose and inverted sucrose, than the filamentous form with an average productivity of 0.33 g/l h. The biomass of the fungus was also analyzed with respect to alkali-insoluble material (AIM), chitin, and chitosan. The biomass of the fungus contained per g maximum 0.217 g AIM and 0.042 g chitosan in yeast-like cultivation under aerobic conditions.
Rayan, D Mark; Mohamad, Shariff Wan; Dorward, Leejiah; Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Christopher, Wong Chai Thiam; Traeholt, Carl; Magintan, David
The endangered Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, forest fragmentation and increased hunting pressure. Conservation planning for this species, however, is hampered by a severe paucity of information on its ecology and population status. We present the first Asian tapir population density estimate from a camera trapping study targeting tigers in a selectively logged forest within Peninsular Malaysia using a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. With a trap effort of 2496 nights, 17 individuals were identified corresponding to a density (standard error) estimate of 9.49 (2.55) adult tapirs/100 km(2) . Although our results include several caveats, we believe that our density estimate still serves as an important baseline to facilitate the monitoring of tapir population trends in Peninsular Malaysia. Our study also highlights the potential of extracting vital ecological and population information for other cryptic individually identifiable animals from tiger-centric studies, especially with the use of a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework.
Chinni, Satyavathi; Khan, Ritindra N; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao
The estuaries and backwaters that are the potential breeding grounds of penaeid shrimps are subject to heavy metal pollution through industrial effluents and domestic sewage. In the present investigation, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the acute toxicity of lead on tolerance, oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation in Penaeus indicus postlarvae. Static bioassay tests were employed to determine tolerance limits. Oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation were determined in postlarvae by exposing them to different concentrations of lead for a period of 48 h. Oxygen consumption measurements were made by using a respiratory chamber equipped with an oxygen electrode and ammonia-N was determined with trione (dichloro-S-triamine 2,4,6(1H,3H,5H-trione)). Accumulation of metal was estimated by wet-ash method. The LC50 value for 96 h was 7.223 ppm and the regression equation Y=4.1638+0.9738X with correlation coefficient of 0.9613 was obtained by probit method. A decrease in oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion was observed in postlarvae with increasing concentration of lead. A concentration-dependent accumulation of metal was noticed in these postlarvae. Modifications in O:N ratios of postlarvae suggest that lead accumulation might have altered utilization patterns.
Urrego, R; Bernal-Ulloa, S M; Chavarría, N A; Herrera-Puerta, E; Lucas-Hahn, A; Herrmann, D; Winkler, S; Pache, D; Niemann, H; Rodriguez-Osorio, N
Bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro differ with respect to molecular profiles, including epigenetic marks and gene expression profiles. This study investigated the CpG methylation status in bovine testis satellite I (BTS) and Bos taurus alpha satellite I (BTαS) DNA sequences, and concomitantly the relative abundance of transcripts, critically involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1 and DNMT3A), growth and development (IGF2R) and pluripotency (POU5F1) in Bos indicus embryos produced in vitro or in vivo. Results revealed that methylation of BTS were higher (P < 0.05) in embryos produced in vitro compared with their in vivo produced counterparts, while the methylation status of BTαS was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in transcript abundance for DNMT3A, IGF2R and POU5F1 between blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro. However, a significantly lower amount of DNMT1 transcripts was found in the in vitro cultured embryos (P < 0.05) compared with their in vivo derived counterparts. In conclusion, this study reported only minor changes in the expression of developmentally important genes and satellite DNA methylation related to the in vitro embryo production system.
Gupta, Ankan; Ahmad, F J; Ahmad, Faiz; Gupta, U D; Natarajan, M; Katoch, V M; Bhaskar, Sangeeta
Tuberculosis kills two million people each year. As the current vaccine BCG fails to prevent adult cases of TB, an improved vaccine and/or vaccination strategy is urgently needed to combat TB. Previously we reported the higher protective efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), formerly known as Mycobacterium w (M.w) as compared to BCG in murine model of TB. In this study we further evaluated the protective efficacy of MIP in guinea pig model of TB. Modulation of post infection immune response was analyzed in the lungs of MIP immunized and control groups. We found reduced bacterial loads, improved pathology and organized granulomatous response at different post infection time points in the MIP-immunized group as compared to the BCG-immunized group. Combined results suggest that MIP-immunization results in heightened protective Th1 response as compared to BCG group, early after infection with M.tb and a balanced Th1 versus immunosuppressive response at late chronic stage of infection. The study demonstrates the higher antigen presenting cells function both inside the granuloma as well as in the single cell suspension of the lung in the MIP-immunized group. We further demonstrate that live MIP is safe to use in vivo as we observed quick clearance of MIP from the body and no untoward reaction was found. Aerosol route of immunization provided higher protection. Further this study provides evidence that MIP-immunization gives significantly better long term protection as compared to BCG against TB.
Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B
Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given.
Raszeja-Kotelba, Barbara; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Izdebska, Joanna N; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Tomczak, Małgorzata; Dembińska, Magdalena
The importance of demodicids (Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis) infestation and their effect on skin lesions has been described based on literature data and our own clinical and parasitological investigations. Hair follicle mites have been detected in 45% of patients with rosacea, 27% of patients with perioral dermatitis, 28% of patients suffering from seborrhoeic dermatitis and in 3 out of 7 patients with chronic blepharitis. Clinical picture of demodecosis included erythemato-papulous and pustulous (rosacea-like) skin lesions together with erythemato-desquamative changes of the face.
Horak, Ivan G; Boshoff, Christiaan R; Cooper, David V; Foggin, Christoper M; Govender, Danny; Harrison, Alan; Hausler, Guy; Hofmeyr, Markus; Kilian, J Werner; MacFadyen, Duncan N; Nel, Pierre J; Peinke, Dean; Squarre, David; Zimmermann, David
The objectives of the study were to determine the species composition of ticks infesting white and black rhinoceroses in southern Africa as well as the conservation status of those tick species that prefer rhinos as hosts. Ticks were collected opportunistically from rhinos that had been immobilised for management purposes, and 447 white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) and 164 black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) were sampled in South Africa, 61 black rhinos in Namibia, 18 white and 12 black rhinos in Zimbabwe, and 24 black rhinos in Zambia. Nineteen tick species were recovered, of which two species, Amblyomma rhinocerotis and Dermacentor rhinocerinus, prefer rhinos as hosts. A. rhinocerotis was collected only in the northeastern KwaZulu-Natal reserves of South Africa and is endangered, while D. rhinocerinus is present in these reserves as well as in the Kruger National Park and surrounding conservancies. Eight of the tick species collected from the rhinos are ornate, and seven species are regularly collected from cattle. The species present on rhinos in the eastern, moister reserves of South Africa were amongst others Amblyomma hebraeum, A. rhinocerotis, D. rhinocerinus, Rhipicephalus maculatus, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus zumpti, while those on rhinos in the Karoo and the drier western regions, including Namibia, were the drought-tolerant species, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum and Rhipicephalus gertrudae. The species composition of ticks on rhinoceroses in Zambia differed markedly from those of the other southern African countries in that Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma tholloni and Amblyomma variegatum accounted for the majority of infestations.
da Silva, R C G; Ferraz, J B S; Meirelles, F V; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C; Cucco, D C; Mattos, E C; Rezende, F M; Silva, S L
Given the important role of leptin in metabolism, we looked for a possible association of leptin and leptin receptor polymorphisms with carcass and growth traits in Nellore cattle. We examined associations of leptin and leptin receptor SNPs with ultrasound carcass (longissimus dorsi muscle area (ribeye area), backfat thickness and rump fat thickness and growth traits (weaning weight adjusted to 210 days of age, yearling weight adjusted to 550 days of age, weight gain of weaning to yearling and scrotal circumference adjusted to 550 days of age) of 2162 Bos primigenius indicus (Nellore) animals. Allele and genotypic frequencies were calculated for each marker. Allele substitution, additive and dominance effects of the polymorphisms were also evaluated. Some alleles of the molecular markers had low frequencies, lower than 1%, in the sample analyzed, although the same polymorphisms described for B. p. taurus cattle were found. Due to very low allelic frequencies, the E2JW, A59V and UASMS2 markers were not included in the analysis, because they were almost fixed. E2FB was found to be significantly associated with weight gain, ribeye area and backfat thickness. The promoter region markers, C963T and UASMS1, were also found to be significantly associated with ribeye area. T945M was significantly associated with weight gain. We conclude that the leptin and receptor gene markers would be useful for marker-assisted selection.
Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Park, Jinho
In the current study, we compared seasonal changes in complete blood counts (CBCs) and rates of infection with a tick-borne pathogen between Holstein cattle housed indoors and those maintained outside on pasture. There were differences in white blood cell (WBC) parameters, but the changes were not associated with seasons or the housing type. Analysis of red blood cell (RBC) parameters showed lower values in August and November versus March, and in the cattle maintained on pasture versus the housed cattle. In comparison with the RBC count of the housed cattle in March (10.1M/μL), the RBC counts of the pastured cattle were significantly lower in August (7.8M/μL; p<0.01) and November (7.5M/μL; p<0.01). The hematocrit (HCT) also showed a decrease in March (33.5%), August (30.0%, p<0.01) and November (28.5%, p<0.01). According to PCR analysis, the Theileria infection rate among the pastured cattle in March was only 11%, but this rate increased to 22% and 60% in August and November, respectively. The RBC count (7.4M/μL) and HCT (27.7%) values in Theileria-positive pastured cattle in November showed a dramatic decrease compared to those of cattle examined in March. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Theileria isolates correspond to T. orientalis. These results suggest that a remarkable increase in tick infestation in mountainous areas in the summer may cause increased rates of infection with T. orientalis, leading to significant changes in the RBC profile after grazing. Therefore, these hematological changes may be associated with T. orientalis infection caused by tick-biting; thus, additional studies on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis are needed.
Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Pethick, D W; Robinson, D L
Data from 2 previously published experiments, New South Wales (NSW; n = 161) and Western Australia (WA; n = 135), were used to test molecular value predictions (MVP), generated from commercially available gene markers, on economically important traits of Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle. Favorable tenderness MVP scores were associated with reduced shear force values of strip loin (LM) steaks aged 7 d from Achilles-hung carcasses (P ≤ 0.06), as well as steaks aged 1 (P ≤ 0.08) or 7 d (P ≤ 0.07) from carcasses hung from the pelvis (tenderstretch). Favorable tenderness MVP scores were also associated with improved consumer tenderness ratings for strip loin steaks aged 7 d and either Achilles hung (P ≤ 0.006) or tenderstretched (P ≤ 0.07). Similar results were observed in NSW for rump (top butt; gluteus medius) steaks, with favorable tenderness MVP scores associated with more tender (P = 0.006) and acceptable (P = 0.008) beef. Favorable marbling MVP scores were associated with improved (P ≤ 0.021) marbling scores and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the NSW experiment, despite low variation in marbling in the Brahman cattle. For the WA experiment, however, there were no (P ≥ 0.71) relationships between marbling MVP and marbling scores or IMF content. Although residual (net) feed intake (RFI) was not associated (P = 0.63) with the RFI (feed efficiency) MVP, the RFI MVP was adversely associated with LM tenderness and acceptability of 7-d-aged Achilles-hung carcasses in NSW (P ≤ 0.031) and WA (P ≤ 0.037). Some other relationships and trends were noted between the MVP and the other traits, but few reached statistical significance, and none were evident in both experiments. Results from this study provide evidence to support the use of the tenderness MVP. The value of the marbling MVP, which was associated with marbling in only 1 herd, warrants further evaluation; however, there appears to be no evidence to support use of the RFI MVP in Brahman cattle.
Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M
The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations.
Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based radiometry. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total
Wolf, Robert Christian; Huber, Markus; Depping, Malte Sebastian; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Karner, Martin; Lepping, Peter; Freudenmann, Roland W
Little is known about the neural basis of delusional infestation (DI), the delusional belief to be infested with pathogens. Case series and the response to anti-dopaminergic medication indicate disruptions in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum (caudate, putamen), but did not allow for population-based inference. Here, we report the first whole-brain structural neuroimaging study to investigate gray and white matter abnormalities in DI compared to controls. In this study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to investigate gray and white matter volume in 16 DI patients and 16 matched healthy controls. Lower gray matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in left medial, lateral and right superior frontal cortices, left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left thalamus, right striatal areas and in lateral and medial temporal cortical regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). Higher white matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in right middle cingulate, left frontal opercular and bilateral striatal regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). This study shows that structural changes in prefrontal, temporal, insular, cingulate and striatal brain regions are associated with DI, supporting a neurobiological model of disrupted prefrontal control over somato-sensory representations.
Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul
Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846
Sędzikowska, Aleksandra; Osęka, Maciej; Grytner-Zięcina, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to determine subjective ocular symptoms occurring in patients infested with Demodex. The number of Demodex mites in the obtained material that correlated with the appearance of ocular symptoms was estimated. The study material were eyelashes collected from 1499 patients. The material were observed under a light microscope. T-test, the logistic regression method, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for the analysis. Demodex mites were detected in 47% patients. The mean ages of infected women and men were 64 and 59 years, respectively. 64% infected patients complained of one or more ophthalmological symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms included itching (28%), redness of eyelids (21%), and watery eyes (15%). Positive correlation was found between itching, redness, pain, purulence or eyelash loss and the presence of Demodex. The mentioned symptoms increase the probability of Demodex infestation in a statistically significant manner (p<0.005). A correlation between the age and gender and the number of Demodex was revealed by the study. The threshold average number of seven Demodex mites per eight collected eyelashes with which the risk of the occurrence of an ocular symptom increases significantly was defined. In patients with a low number of Demodex mites, symptoms may be absent. The risk of the occurrence of ocular symptom in patients with demodicosis increases with the increase in the average number of Demodex mites.
Xing, L. J.; Westphal, A.
A field inoculation method was developed to produce Meloidogyne spp. infestation sites with minimal quantities of nematode inoculum and with a reduced labor requirement compared to previous techniques. In a preseason-methyl bromidefumigated site, nematode egg suspensions were delivered at concentrations of 0 or 10x eggs/m of row where x = 2.12, 2.82, 3.52, or 4.22 through a drip line attached to the seed firmer of a commercial 2-row planter into the open seed furrow while planting cowpea. These treatments were compared to a hand-inoculated treatment, in which 103.1 eggs were delivered every 30 cm in 5 ml of water agar suspension 2 weeks after planting. Ten weeks after planting, infection of cowpea roots was measured by gall rating and gall counts on cowpea roots. A linear relationship between the inoculation levels and nematode-induced galls was found. At this time, the amount of galling per root system in the hand-inoculated treatment was less than in the machine-applied treatments. Advantages of this new technique include application uniformity and low population level requisite for establishing the nematode. This method has potential in field-testing of Meloidogyne spp. management strategies by providing uniform infestation of test sites at planting time. PMID:19262898
Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B
A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups.
Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.
Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…
Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...
The objective of this study was to determine if supplementing the diet of near-finished beef cattle with a yeast product would mitigate the negative impact of a controlled HS on the physiological and endocrine responses. Crossbred beef heifers (n=111; BW=281.07 kg) were divided into 2 pens in a comm...
There is sustained growth in the number of tropical cattle, which represent more than half of all cattle worldwide. By and large, most research in tropical areas is still focused on breeds of cattle, their particular advantages or disadvantages in tropical areas, and the tropical forages or feeds that could be usefully fed to them. A consistent issue for adaptation to climate is the heat of tropical environments. Changing the external characteristics of the animal, such as color and coat characteristics, is one way to adapt, and there are several major genes for these traits. However, further improvement in heat tolerance and other adaptation traits will need to use the entire genome and all physical and physiological systems. Apart from the response to heat, climate forcing through methane emission identifies dry season weight loss as an important if somewhat neglected trait in climate adaptation of cattle. The use of genome-estimated breeding values in tropical areas is in its infancy and will be difficult to implement, but will be essential for rapid, coordinated genetic improvement. The difficulty of implementation cannot be exaggerated and may require major improvements in methodology.
Ovarian responses in Bos indicus heifers treated to synchronise ovulation with intravaginal progesterone releasing devices, oestradiol benzoate, prostaglandin F(2α) and equine chorionic gonadotrophin.
Butler, S A A; Phillips, N J; Boe-Hansen, G B; Bo, G A; Burns, B M; Dawson, K; McGowan, M R
The objectives were: (i) improve understanding of the ovarian responses of Bos indicus heifers treated with different ovulation synchronisation protocols, (ii) compare ovarian responses of B. indicus heifers treated with intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD)+oestradiol benzoate (ODB) versus a conventional prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) protocol and (iii) investigate whether reducing the amount of progesterone (P(4)) in the IPRD, and treatment with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) would increase the proportion of heifers with normal ovarian function during the synchronised and return cycles. Two-year-old Brahman (n=30) and Brahman-cross (n=34) heifers were randomly allocated to three IPRD-treatment groups: (i) standard-dose IPRD (Cue-Mate(®) 1.56g P(4); n=17); (ii) half-dose IPRD (Cue-Mate(®) 0.78g P(4); n=15); (iii) half-dose IPRD+300IU eCG at IPRD removal (n=14), and a non-IPRD control group (iv) 2×PGF(2α) (500μg cloprostenol) on Days -16 and -2 (n=18). IPRD-treated heifers received 250μg cloprostenol at IPRD insertion (Day -10) and IPRD removal (Day -2) and 1mg ODB on Days -10 and -1. Ovarian function was evaluated by ultrasonography and plasma P(4) throughout the synchronised and return cycles. The mean diameter of the dominant follicle observed at 54-56h after IPRD removal, was greater for heifers which ovulated than heifers which did not ovulate (P<0.001; 14.5±1.1 vs. 9.3±0.6mm, respectively). The prevalence of IPRD-treated heifers with ovarian dysfunction (persistent CL, failure to re-ovulate, shortened luteal phase) was 39%. This relatively high prevalence of ovarian dysfunction may explain the commonly reported, lower than expected pregnancy rates to FTAI in B. indicus heifers treated to synchronise ovulation.
Mehdi, Youcef; Dufrasne, Isabelle
This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism's use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.
Kocianová, Elena; Rusňáková Tarageľová, Veronika; Haruštiaková, Danka; Špitalská, Eva
This study assessed the parasitization of cavity-nesting birds and ground-nesting/foraging birds with larvae and nymphs of two Ixodes species, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes arboricola. Totals of 679 (52.3%) I. ricinus and 619 (47.7%) I. arboricola ticks were collected from 15 species of passerine birds which were caught during the nesting and non-nesting periods of 2003-2006, in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic, the Drahanská Vrchovina Uplands. In the non-nesting period from October to March, 6.8% (101/1492) of birds were infested with ticks, mainly with I. arboricola larvae. In the non-nesting period, the average intensity of infestation by I. arboricola and I. ricinus was 8.5 and 1.5 individuals per infested bird, respectively. In the nesting period from April to June, 21.6% (50/232) of birds were infested by both tick species but mainly with I. ricinus nymphs. The average intensity of infestation by I. ricinus and I. arboricola was 13.3 and 10.8 individuals per infested bird, respectively. Altogether, 23.2% of the infested birds were parasitized by both immature life stages of one or both tick species. From an enzootic perspective, co-feeding and co-infestation of I. ricinus and I. arboricola subadults on passerine birds might happen and may be important for the dissemination of tick-borne agents.
The Rio Grande of west Texas contains, by far, the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable ba...
The Rio Grande of west Texas contains by far the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable band...
Drosophila suzukii is a pest of small fruits and cherries, and has also been noted to infest a variety of wild, ornamental, and uncultivated hosts. Identifying alternative hosts is critical for pest management. Research objectives were to: 1) survey fruits in fields for natural infestation of D. ...
Costa, Andrea P; Silva, Arannadia B; Costa, Francisco B; Xavier, Gabriel S; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Guerra, Rita M S N C
This study evaluated for the first time, ectoparasite infestations on dogs from urban and rural areas of the continental land of the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. In total, 622 dogs were examined for ectoparasite infestations. Overall, 392 (63.0%) were infested with ectoparasites, 154 (51.3%) of 300 urban dogs and 238 (73.9%) of 322 rural dogs. Five species of ectoparasites were found, three ticks [Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), Amblyomma ovale Koch, and Amblyomma cajennense (F.)], one flea [Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché)], and one louse [(Heterodoxus spininger (Enderlein)]. The frequency of infestation by R. sanguineus tended to be higher in urban than in rural areas, whereas infestations by Amblyomma ticks and C. felis fleas tended to be higher among rural dogs. Louse (H. spininger) infestations were similarly low among all areas. Mixed infestations by at least two species of ectoparasites on the same dog were significantly more frequent on rural than on urban dogs. The most frequent mixed infestation was by R. sanguineus and C. felis, found on 11.4% of the dogs. Further studies are warranted to evaluate canine vector-borne agents in Maranhão, especially because most of the ectoparasites here reported are vectors of major vector-borne diseases, including zoonoses of continental importance.
Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...
Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...
Birkemoe, Tone; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Soleng, Arnulf; Næss, Øyvind; Rukke, Bjørn Arne
Background. Health providers need to know which measures to take and children to prioritize in order to decrease costs associated with head lice infestations. Objective. Our aim was to determine the most important predictors for head lice and identify the major drivers of an infestation outbreak in a low-prevalence area. Methods. The study was based on three datasets of head lice prevalence (retrospective, point prevalence and prospective approach) from primary school children (ages 6–12) at 12 schools in Oslo, Norway. The tested predictors were siblings with lice, individual and household characteristics as well as class and school affiliation. Self-reported monthly incidences (prospective approach) of head lice were used to evaluate infestation dynamics. Results. Infested siblings strongly increased the odds of head lice infestation of school children (odds ratio 36, 26 and 7 in the three datasets) whereas having short hair halved the odds. Household characteristics were of minor importance, and class affiliation proved more important than school affiliation. Having head lice in one school term increased the odds of an infestation in the next, but this effect diminished over time. About 97% of all self-reported infestations were noted in two consecutive months or less. Conclusions. With the exception of hair length, we have found that individual and household characteristics are of minor importance to predict head lice infestations in a low-prevalence country and that unnoticed transmissions in school classes and families are likely to be the major driver upon outbreaks. PMID:26511728
Fruit fly infestation causes significant loss of perishable products around the world and is an economic threat to growers, processors, and exporters. A rapid, economical, and non-destructive technique for detection of fruit fly infestation is reported based on hyperspectral imaging and discriminant...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions... detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...
... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...
Nowak, J.T.; Berisford, C.W.
This study investigates the relationship between intensive management practices and insect infestation, maximum growth potential studies of loblolly pine over four years using different levels of cultural treatments. Results indicate tree fertilization can increase coneworm infestation and demonstrated that tip moth management can improve initial tree growth.
... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin... infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on October 24, 2013, we...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...
... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. This document corrects errors... necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...
The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the US. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export fruit hosts of this insect from infested countries to non-infested countries where it might...
Jood, S; Kapoor, A C; Singh, R
A significant decrease in essential amino acids of wheat, maize and sorghum was observed due to grain infestation caused by mixed populations of Trogoderma granarium Everts and Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius (50:50). Non-essential amino acids were also adversely affected. Among the essential amino acids, maximum reduction was found in methionine, isoleucine and lysine in infested wheat, maize and sorghum grains, respectively. Lysine, with lowest chemical score in uninfested and infested grains of three cereals, is the first limiting amino acid. Insect infestation caused significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the chemical score of all the essential amino acids, yet did not change the position of first and second limiting amino acids in wheat and sorghum. However, in case of maize, isoleucine became the second limiting amino acid. Infested grains also showed substantial reduction in essential amino acid index, calculated biological value and requirement index.
Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore
FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.
Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao
To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (χ(2)=60.6, P<0.001). Specifically, the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R(2)=0.57, moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1, severe infestation OR=10.3). It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.
González, Margarita P; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Marín, Sandra L
The year-round presence of ovigerous females of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi in the fish farms of southern Chile results in a continuous source of the copepodid (infestive) stage of this louse. The short generation time in spring-summer could lead to high abundances of this copepodid, potentially leading to high infestation levels for fish. Knowing how heavy lice infestations affect Salmo salar can help determine how to time antiparasitic treatments so as to both minimize the treatment impact and reduce lice infestation levels for fish. This study aimed to describe the effects of high infestations of the copepodid stage of C. rogercresseyi on the physiology of S. salar. Two groups of S. salar were used: an infested group (75 copepodids per fish) and a control group (not infested). Sixty-five days after the first infestation, the infested fish group was re-infested at an infestation pressure of 200 copepodids per fish. Sampling was done prior to and following the second infestation, at 56 and 67 days (the latter 2 days following the second infestation). Several physiological variables were measured: cortisol (primary stress response) and glucose, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides, lactate, osmolality levels, and number and diameter of skin mucous cells (secondary stress responses). The plasma cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride levels were altered in the heavily infested fish, as was the diameter of skin mucous cells. These results suggest that heavy infestations of C. rogercresseyi lead to an acute stress response, metabolic reorganization, and increased mucus production in S. salar under heavy infestation conditions.
Rasmussen, L.A.; Amman, G.D.; Vandygriff, J.C.; Oakes, R.D.; Munson, A.S.
Surveys of bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the Greater Yellowstone Area were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effect of delayed tree mortality on mosaics of fire-killed and green tree stands, the relationship between fire injury and infestation, but both types of mortality greatly altered the mosaics immediately apparent after the 1988 fires. The high level of infestation suggests that insects built up in fire-injured trees and then caused increased infestation of uninjured trees.
Arman, P; Hopcraft, D
1. A series of digestibility trials was done using four animals of each of the following species: Friesian cattle (Bos taurus), Boran zebu cattle (Bos indicus), Corriedale sheep, fat-tailed sheep, eland (Taurotragus oryx Pallas), Coke's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokei Günther), Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii Günther) and bush duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia L.). 2. Two batches of pelleted food were prepared from ground maize cobs, cassava, whs (A-E) were prepared containing 65 (A)-135 (E) g crude protein (nitrogen times 6-25)/kg dry matter. The crude-fibre contents of all the diets were similar (120-138 g/kg dry matter). 3. The animals were given the high-protein diet (E), then given diets with decreasing protein contents finishing with the low-protein (A). The antelope and half the sheep were given diets from the first batch of pelleted food, the other four sheep and all the cattle were given diets from the second batch of food. 4. In sheep, there were significant differences in digestibility between the two batches of food. 5. There were no significant differences in the over-all mean digestibilities of all diets when given to cattle (both species) and sheep. However, with diet E, dry-matter digestibility was higher in sheep than in cattle (P smaller than 0-05): the reverse was true with diet A (P smaller than 0-001). Crude-fibre and crude-protein digestibilities followed a similar pattern. The differences between Corriedale and fat-tailed sheep were not significant. The only significant difference between the two species of cattle was the higher digestibility of crude protein in Borans given diet E (P smaller than 0-05). 6. The over-all mean digestibility of the dry matter was higher (P smaller than 0-001) in hartebeest and duiker than in sheep; in Thomson's gazelle (P smaller than 0-01) and eland (P smaller than 0-001) it was lower than in sheep. The values for crude-fibre digestibilities varied in a similar way. 7. The mean apparent digestibility of
Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiangming Xiao,; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Newman, Scott H.
Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conservation efforts and can help inform our understanding of continental-scale disease transmission. In this study, stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in contour feathers were used to assess the degree of molt-site fidelity among Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) captured in north-central Mongolia. Samples were collected from actively molting Bar-headed Geese (n = 61), and some individual samples included both a newly grown feather (still in sheath) and an old, worn feather from the bird's previous molt (n = 21). Although there was no difference in mean hydrogen isotope ratios for the old and new feathers, the isotopic variance in old feathers was approximately three times higher than that of the new feathers, which suggests that these birds use different and geographically distant molting locations from year to year. To further test this conclusion, online data and modeling tools from the isoMAP website were used to generate probability landscapes for the origin of each feather. Likely molting locations were much more widespread for old feathers than for new feathers, which supports the prospect of low molt-site fidelity. This finding indicates that population connectivity would be greater than expected based on data from a single annual cycle, and that disease spread can be rapid even in areas like Mongolia where Bar-headed Geese generally breed in small isolated groups.
Cui, Peng; Hou, Yuansheng; Tang, Mingjie; Zhang, Haiting; Zuohua, Yuanchun; Yin, Zuohua; Li, Tianxian; Guo, Shan; Xing, Zhi; He, Yubang; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders.
Ginson, J; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Bindu, J; Kamalakanth, C K; Srinivasa Gopal, T K
High pressure treatment of 250 MPa for 6 min at 25 °C was applied to headless Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) to evaluate changes in microbiological characteristics of the species during chilled storage. Changes in load of mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., H2S producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and yeast & mold were estimated in pressurized and un-pressurized samples during chilled storage. All microbes were reduced significantly after high pressure treatment and there was significant difference in microbial quality of control and high pressure treated samples in the entire duration of chilled storage (p < 0.05). There was delay in the growth of Enterobacteriaceae and H2S producing bacteria up to 6th and 9th day of storage, respectively in high pressure treated samples. In high pressure treated sample, no lag phase (λ) was observed for psychrotrophic bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, B. thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria; however, other bacteria showed a reduced lag phase during chilled storage. Kinetic parameter such as specific growth rate (μmax) in high pressure treated samples was significantly reduced in most of the bacterial groups except for psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Mesophilic bacterial count of control samples crossed the marginal limit of acceptability on 12th day and unacceptable limit on 18th day of storage, whereas high pressure treated samples never breached the acceptability limit during entire duration of chilled storage. The present study indicated that application of high pressure processing can be used to improve microbial quality of Indian white prawn and extend the chilled storage life.
Diantoro, Markus; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin, Sujito, Hidayat, Arif
Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C6-C3-C6 carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.
Lynam, Antony J; Tantipisanuh, Naruemon; Chutipong, Wanlop; Ngoprasert, Dusit; Baker, Megan C; Cutter, Passanan; Gale, George; Kitamura, Shumpei; Steinmetz, Robert; Sukmasuang, Ronglarp; Thunhikorn, Somying
Southeast Asia's tropical forests suffer the highest rates of deforestation and disturbance of any on Earth, with poorly understood impacts on native fauna. Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) are among the least studied of the large mammals in these forests. Using records from 9 camera trap surveys in 7 of the largest (>1000 km(2) ) protected area complexes, we assessed the influence of environmental variation and human-induced disturbance on tapir occurrence. Tapirs were detected at 13% of locations sampled, significantly associated with evergreen forest (P < 0.001). A multiple logistic regression model predicted tapir presence 87% of the time. According to this model, tapir occurrence was positively influenced by annual rainfall and proximity to the forest edge. However, tapirs may not avoid edges but instead prefer wetter evergreen forest, a habitat type that tended to occur further from the forest edge at higher elevations in our particular study sites (P < 0.001). By comparison, 4 other wild ungulate species that share habitats with tapirs showed a range of differing responses. Tapirs are expected to be less sensitive to disturbance because they are not targets for hunting and trade, and are almost entirely active at night, so avoid peak traffic periods in parks. Tapir populations in Thailand may be more stable than in other parts of their global range because rates of forest loss have decreased >40% over the past 20 years. We recommend surveys to fill gaps in the understanding of the status in lesser-known protected areas, research to better understand the fine-scale environmental influences on behavior and habitats of tapirs, and other forest ungulates, and continued legal status for tapirs in the highest category of protection.
Hoyer, M J; van Engeldorp Gastelaars, H M D
This study was conducted to establish representative curves that allow evaluation of fetal growth and estimation of gestational age from measurement of fetal structures by ultrasound in Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus). Three pregnancies (i.e. 3 fetuses) were examined in one female Malayan tapir. Transabdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed without anesthesia from 79 ± 8 days to 281 ± 48 days (mean ± S.D.) post mating. To assess fetal growth attempts were made to measure biparietal diameter (BPD), head length (HL), thorax diameter A (TDA), thorax height A (THA), thorax diameter B (TDB), thorax height B (THB), abdomen diameter (AD), abdomen height (AH), humerus length (HUL) and Crown rump length (CRL). The value of each parameter as an estimator of gestational age was assessed by ease of observation and the length of time the parameter was measurable throughout gestation. The most precise predictors for gestational age in this study were BPD and CRL (weeks 10-20 of gestation), as well as AD and AH (weeks 14-43 of gestation). The parameters TDB, THB and HUL (weeks 15-41 of gestation) gave almost as good predictions. Fetal viability was assessed by identifying a fetal heartbeat and movement. All pregnancies resulted in normal deliveries and healthy offspring. The ultrasound examination was well tolerated by the female. The gestation lengths (399 ± 3 days) were within reported ranges. The serial transabdominal ultrasound, without the need for anesthesia, was an effective method to evaluate fetal growth, development and well being in a Malayan tapir.
Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Javed, Salim; Newman, Scott H.; Suwal, Rajendra N.; Rahman, Asad R.; Choudhury, Binod C.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Wikelski, Martin
The connectivity and frequency of exchange between sub-populations of migratory birds is integral to understanding population dynamics over the entire species' range. True geese are highly philopatric and acquire lifetime mates during the winter, suggesting that the number of distinct sub-populations may be related to the number of distinct wintering areas. In the Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, a species found exclusively in Central Asia, the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas is not well known. Their migration includes crossing a broad front of the Himalaya Cordillera, a significant barrier to migration for most birds. Many Bar-headed Geese fly to breeding areas on the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau (TQP), the highest plateau in the world. From 2005-2008, 60 Bar-headed Geese were captured and marked with satellite transmitters in Nepal (n = 2), India (n = 6), China (n = 29), and Mongolia (n = 23) to examine their migration and distribution. Distinct differences were observed in their migration corridors and timing of movements, including an apparent leap-frog migration pattern for geese from Mongolia. Measurements of geese from Mongolia were larger than their counterparts from China, providing some evidence of morphological differences. Alteration of habitats in China, including the warming effects of climate change on glaciers increasing runoff to TQP wetlands, may be changing goose migration patterns and timing. With the exception of one individual, all geese from Qinghai Lake, China wintered in the southern TQP near Lhasa, and their increasing numbers in that region may be related to the effects of climate change and agricultural development. Thus, our findings document both morphological and geographical variation in sub-populations of Bar-headed Geese, but their resilience to environmental change may be lost if migratory short-stopping results in larger congregations restricted to a smaller number of wintering areas.
Kumar, Pawan; Tyagi, Rohit; Das, Gobardhan; Bhaskar, Sangeeta
Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is an atypical mycobacterial species possessing strong immunomodulatory properties. It is a potent vaccine candidate against tuberculosis, promotes Th1 immune response and protects mice from tumours. In previous studies, we demonstrated higher protective efficacy of MIP against experimental tuberculosis as compared with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Since macrophages play an important role in the pathology of mycobacterial diseases and cancer, in the present study, we evaluated the MIP in live and killed form for macrophage activation potential, compared it with BCG and investigated the underlying mechanisms. High levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), IL-6 and nitric oxide were produced by MIP-stimulated macrophages as compared with BCG-stimulated macrophages. Prominent up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 was also observed in response to MIP. Loss of response in MyD88-deficient macrophages showed that both MIP and BCG activate the macrophages in a MyD88-dependent manner. MyD88 signalling pathway culminates in nuclear factor-κB/activator protein-1 (NF-κB/AP-1) activation and higher activation of NF-κB/AP-1 was observed in response to MIP. With the help of pharmacological inhibitors and Toll-like receptor (TLR) -deficient macrophages, we observed the role of TLR2, TLR4 and intracellular TLRs in MIP-mediated macrophage activation. Stimulation of HEK293 cells expressing TLR2 in homodimeric or heterodimeric form showed that MIP has a distinctly higher level of TLR2 agonist activity compared with BCG. Further experiments suggested that TLR2 ligands are well exposed in MIP whereas they are obscured in BCG. Our findings establish the higher macrophage activation potential of MIP compared with BCG and delineate the underlying mechanism.
Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming
Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.
Cui, P.; Hou, Y.; Tang, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Yin, Z.; Li, T.; Guo, S.; Xing, Z.; He, Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Yan, B.; Lei, F.
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders. ?? 2010 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V.
Redondo, M; Fragoso, H; Ortíz, M; Montero, C; Lona, J; Medellín, J A; Fría, R; Hernández, V; Franco, R; Machado, H; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J
Throughout most of the twentieth century, tick infestations on cattle have been controlled with chemical acaricides, typically administered by dipping or spraying. This approach can cause environmental and residue problems and has created a high incidence of acaricide resistance within tick populations in the field. Recently we developed a vaccine against Boophilus microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac), (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) which has been shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals. Here we show for the first time under field conditions a near 100% control of B. microplus populations resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates, by an integrated system employing vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments. This method effectively controls tick infestations while reducing the number of chemical acaricide treatments and consequently the rise of B. microplus populations resistant to chemical acaricides.
An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...
... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter and manure removed... which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall be destroyed or treated by...
... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...
... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...
We model a zombie infestation by three coupled ODEs that jointly describe the time evolution of three populations: regular humans, zombies, and survivors (humans that have survived at least one zombie encounter). This can be generalized to take into account more levels of expertise and/or skill degradation. We compute the fixed points, and stability thereof, that correspond to one of three possible outcomes: human extinction, zombie extermination or, if one allows for a human non-zero birth-rate, co-habitation. We obtain analytically the optimum strategy for humans in terms of the model's parameters (essentially, whether to flee and hide, or fight). Zombies notwithstanding, this can also be seen as a toy model for infections of immune system cells, such as CD4+ T cells in AIDS, and macrophages in tuberculosis, whereby cells are both the target of infection, and mediate the acquired immunity response against the same infection. I thank FAPERJ for financial support.
Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Wilamowski, Amos; Schnur, Heather; Akad, Fouad; Naftali, Modi
Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO) is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis) and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus) botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma) larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation. PMID:24455366
Frese, D A; Reinhardt, C D; Bartle, S J; Rethorst, D N; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Depenbusch, B E; Corrigan, M E; Thomson, D U
Angus crossbred steers (n = 40; 563 ± 44 kg) were used to examine the effects of handling method and fat thickness on the blood chemistry and physiology of market steers. Steers were blocked by backfat (BF) thickness and were randomly assigned to treatment groups: low-stress handling (LSH) and aggressive handling (AH). Cattle were then ran¬domly assigned to one of 5 blocks containing 4 steers from the LSH and AH treatments. Steers in the LSH treatment were walked and AH cattle were run through a course of 1,540 m. Blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture before handling (BASE), at 770 m (LAP1), at 1,540 m (LAP2), and at1 h (1H) and 2 h (2H) after finishing the course. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma lactate (LAC), creatinine kinase (CK), base excess (BE), blood pH (pH), serum cortisol (CORT) concentrations, and venous carbon dioxide (PvCO2) and oxygen (PvO2) pressures. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and rectal temperature (TEMP) were measured at the same intervals. Cattle in the AH treatment had greater ( < 0.05) LAC than those in LSH at BASE (4.1 vs. 3.0 mmol/L), LAP1 (16.5 vs. 2.3 mmol/L), LAP2 (22.3 vs. 2.4 mmol/L), 1H (7.2 vs. 2.7 mmol/L), and 2H (4.0 vs. 2.5 mmol/L), respectively. Creatinine kinase and RR were not different (P > 0.14). Blood pH in AH cattle was decreased compared with that in LSH cattle ( < 0.05) at LAP1 (7.25 vs. 7.45) and LAP2 (7.19 vs. 7.48) but was not different ( > 0.13) at BASE, 1H, or 2H. Heart rate and TEMP were increased in AH cattle compared to LSH ( > 0.01). Serum cortisol was increased ( < 0.05) in AH compared to that in LSH cattle at LAP1 (87.5 vs. 58.9 nmol/L), LAP2 (144.4 vs. 93.1 nmol/L), and 1H (113.5 vs. 53.1 nmol/L). Although RR was not differ¬ent between LSH and AH, PvCO2 was decreased in AH compared to that in LSH ( < 0.05) at LAP2 (30.6 vs. 39.3 mmHg) and PvO2 was increased at LAP1 (42.7 vs. 33.5 mmHg) and at LAP2 (51.5 vs. 36.6 mmHg). Lactate was increased in AH cattle in the thicker BF
Radostits, O. M.; Searcy, G. P.; Mitchall, K. G.
Some selected clinical and laboratory aspects of moldy sweetclover poisoning in cattle are reviewed. The prothrombin time is preferred when the disease is suspected. The bleeding time and whole blood clotting time test are also used. Dicoumarol is not always detectable in the suspected feed which may be due to sampling technique or inaccuracy in the laboratory assay. The most effective treatment is a whole blood transfusion. Vitamin K1 (naturally occurring vitamin K) is an effective antidote but too expensive. Vitamin K3 (synthetic vitamin K) in both the injectable and oral forms are not as effective as K1 but are used extensively for treatment and prevention. Feeding the suspected feed for two weeks followed by a one week withdrawal successively or by dilution with other feeds will help to reduce the incidence of disease if other feeds are not available. Suspected feed should not be fed to cattle for at least three weeks before surgery or parturition. PMID:6159060
Modulation of biochemical parameters by Hemidesmus indicus in cumene hydroperoxide-induced murine skin: possible role in protection against free radicals-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and tumor promotion.
Sultana, Sarwat; Khan, Naghma; Sharma, Sonia; Alam, Aftab
Hemidesmus indicus has been shown to possess significant activity against immunotoxicity and other pharmacological and physiological disorders. In this communication, we have shown the modulating effect of H. indicus on cumene hydroperoxide-mediated cutaneous oxidative stress and tumor promotion response in murine skin. Cumene hydroperoxide treatment (30 mg per animal) increased cutaneous microsomal lipid peroxidation and induction of xanthine oxidase activity which are accompanied by decrease in the activities of cutaneous antioxidant enzymes and depletion in the level of glutathione. Parallel to these changes a sharp decrease in the activities of phase II metabolizing enzymes was observed. Cumene hydroperoxide treatment also induced the ornithine decarboxylase activity and enhanced the [3H]-thymidine uptake in DNA synthesis in murine skin. Application of ethanolic extract of H. indicus at a dose level of 1.5 and 3.0mg/kg body weight in acetone prior to that of cumene hydroperoxide treatment resulted in significant inhibition of cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress, epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and enhanced DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced susceptibility of cutaneous microsomal membrane for lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity were significantly reduced (P<0.01). In addition the depleted level of glutathione, inhibited activities of antioxidants and phase II metabolizing enzymes were recovered to significant level (P<0.05). In summary, our data suggest that H. indicus is an effective chemopreventive agent in skin and capable of ameliorating hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and tumor promotion.
Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Tripathi, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam
Lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3 glucan-binding protein (LGBP) is a family of pattern-recognition transmembrane proteins (PRPs) which plays a vital role in the immune mechanism of crustaceans in adverse conditions. Fenneropenaeus indicus LGBP-deduced amino acid has conserved potential recognition motif for β-1,3 linkages of polysaccharides and putative RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) cell adhesion sites for the activation of innate defense mechanism. In order to understand the stimulating activity of β-1,3 glucan (β-glucan) and its interaction with LGBP, a 3D model of LGBP is generated. Molecular docking is performed with this model, and the results indicate Arg71 with strong hydrogen bond from RGD domain of LGBP. Moreover, from the docking studies, we also suggest that Arg34, Lys68, Val135, and Ala146 in LGBP are important amino acid residues in binding as they have strong bonding interaction in the active site of LGBP. In our in vitro studies, yeast agglutination results suggest that shrimp F. indicus LGBP possesses sugar binding and recognition sites in its structure, which is responsible for agglutination reaction. Our results were synchronized with the already reported evidence both in vivo and in vitro experiments. This investigation may be valuable for further experimental investigation in the synthesis of novel immunomodulator.
Kolte, Sunil W.; Larcombe, Stephen D.; Jadhao, Suresh G.; Magar, Swapnil P.; Warthi, Ganesh; Kurkure, Nitin V.; Glass, Elizabeth J.; Shiels, Brian R.
Tick-borne pathogens (TBP) are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD), most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey) with native Bos indicus (numerous) breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type). The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites) and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic benefit. PMID
Garrett, A J; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Elzo, M A; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G
Expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene and its binding with GH is essential for growth and fat metabolism. A GT microsatellite exists in the promoter of bovine GHR segregating short (11 bp) and long (16 to 20 bp) allele sequences. To detect SNP and complete an association study of genotype to phenotype, we resequenced a 1,195-bp fragment of DNA including the GT microsatellite and exon 1A. Resequencing was completed in 48 familialy unrelated Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, Simmental, Angus, Brahman, and Brangus cattle. Nine SNP were identified. Phylogeny analyses revealed minor distance (i.e., <5%) in DNA sequence among the 5 Bos taurus breeds; however, sequence from Brahman cattle averaged 27.4 +/- 0.07% divergence from the Bos taurus breeds, whereas divergence of Brangus was intermediate. An association study of genotype to phenotype was completed with data from growing Brangus bulls (n = 553 from 96 sires) and data from 4 of the SNP flanking the GT microsatellite. These SNP were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and in phase based on linkage disequilibrium analyses (r(2) = 0.84 and D'= 0.92). An A/G tag SNP was identified (ss86273136) and was located in exon 1A, which began 88 bp downstream from the GT microsatellite. Minor allele frequency of the tag SNP was greater than 10%, and Mendelian segregation was verified in 3 generation pedigrees. The A allele was derived from Brahman, and the G allele was derived from Angus. This tag SNP genotype was a significant effect in analyses of rib fat data collected with ultrasound when bulls were ~365 d of age. Specifically, bulls of the GG genotype had 6.1% more (P = 0.0204) rib fat than bulls of the AA and AG genotypes, respectively. Tag SNP (ss86273136), located in the promoter of GHR, appears to be associated with a measure of corporal fat in Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle.
Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D
In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements
Gonella-Diaza, Angela María; da Silva Andrade, Sónia Cristina; Sponchiado, Mariana; Pugliesi, Guilherme; Mesquita, Fernando Silveira; Van Hoeck, Veerle; de Francisco Strefezzi, Ricardo; Gasparin, Gustavo R.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Binelli, Mario
In cattle, molecular control of oviduct receptivity to the embryo is poorly understood. Here, we used a bovine model for receptivity based on size of the pre-ovulatory follicle to compare oviductal global and candidate gene transcript abundance on day 4 of the estrous cycle. Growth of the pre-ovulatory follicle (POF) of Nelore (Bos indicus) cows was manipulated to produce two groups: large POF large corpus luteum (CL) group (LF-LCL; greater receptivity) and small POF-small CL group (SF-SCL). Oviductal samples were collected four days after GnRH-induced ovulation. Ampulla and isthmus transcriptome was obtained by RNA-seq, regional gene expression was assessed by qPCR, and PGR and ERa protein distribution was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. There was a greater abundance of PGR and ERa in the oviduct of LF-LCL animals thus indicating a greater availability of receptors and possibly sex steroids stimulated signaling in both regions. Transcriptomic profiles indicated a series of genes associated with functional characteristics of the oviduct that are regulated by the periovulatory sex steroid milieu and that potentially affect oviductal receptivity and early embryo development. They include tissue morphology changes (extra cellular matrix remodeling), cellular changes (proliferation), and secretion changes (growth factors, ions and metal transporters), and were enriched for the genes with increased expression in the LF-LCL group. In conclusion, differences in the periovulatory sex steroid milieu lead to different oviductal gene expression profiles that could modify the oviductal environment to affect embryo survival and development. PMID:26699362
Rohácik, Tibor; Hudec, Kamil
The influence of location, year and cultivar on occurrence, level of infestation and Fusarium species spectrum in winter wheat seeds were evaluated. The wheat seeds from different cultivars and localities of the Slovak Republic were used for Fusarium species evaluation during years 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2003. The significant influence of the locality on total Fusarium kernel infestation was confirmed. The total sample infestation was significantly higher in the colder and moister localities, lower infestation was in warmer and dryer ones. Cultivar "Astella" was significantly the most susceptible. The widest Fusarium species spectrum was recorded in the locations with a high level of total kernel infestation. In localities with lower infestation, the species spectrum was less numerous. F. poae was the dominant species in all locations. The species F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and Microdochium nivale were subdominant and relatively frequent in the locations with higher altitude. The frequency and density of other isolated species (F. graminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. tricinctum, F. semitectum, F. acuminatum, F. heterosporum, F. sambucinum, F. solani, F. compactum and F. oxysporum) was trivial in all localities. The kernel infestation and Fusarium population structure in wheat grains mostly depends on microclimatic condition of the locality. Rising of rainfall rate and altitude led to an increase in the species spectrum. The wide Fusarium species spectrum is connected with the high frequency of coincident species. The species with low and medium frequency achieved low or trivial density in population structure.
James, P J; Garrett, J A; Moon, R D
The sampling distribution of Bovicola ovis (Schrank) on sheep was examined in two flocks, one with a light and one with a heavy infestation of lice. The derived distributions were used to calculate the sensitivity of detecting lice on individual sheep and in flocks by fleece parting regimes that varied in number of parts per animal and number of sheep per flock, different scenarios of flock sizes, proportion infested and louse density were examined. Lice were aggregated among fleece partings in the heavily infested flock and described by a negative binomial distribution with k values between 0.3 and 1.92. The distribution was indistinguishable from Poisson in the lightly infested flock. The assumed distribution had little effect on sensitivity, except when only one fleece part per animal was examined. On individual sheep where louse density was 0.5 per 10 cm part or greater, there were only marginal gains from inspecting more than 10 parts per animal. Increasing the number of sheep inspected always increased sensitivity more than increasing number of parts per sheep by an equivalent amount. This advantage was greatest in situations where a low proportion of sheep in the flock were infested with a high density of lice, and less where a low proportion of sheep were infested with a low density of lice, or a high proportion of sheep were infested with a high density of lice.
Buteler, Micaela; Weaver, David K; Peterson, Robert K D
Insect herbivores typically oviposit on the most suitable hosts, but choices can be modulated by detection of potential competition among conspecifics, especially when eggs are deposited cryptically. Larvae of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, developing within an already infested stem, experience elevated risk when only one will survive because of cannibalism. To increase our understanding of host selection when the choices made by females can lead to severe intraspecific competition, females were presented with either uninfested wheat plants or with plants previously exposed to other females in laboratory choice tests. The oviposition behavior of this insect was described by recording the behavioral sequences that lead to and follow the insertion of the ovipositor in both previously infested and uninfested stems. No significant differences were found in frequencies of specific behaviors or behavioral transitions associated with oviposition. In choice tests, there was no difference in the numbers of eggs laid in infested and uninfested plants. Taller plants received more eggs, irrespective of infestation. Females neither preferred nor avoided previously infested hosts. Other characteristics of the host, such as stem height, may be more important in determining suitability for oviposition. These findings support the use of management tactics relying on the manipulation of oviposition behavior, such as trap cropping. Given that there is no evidence for response to previously infested hosts, the infested plants in a trap crop would remain as suitable as they were when uninfested, which could also lead to an increase in mortality caused by intraspecific competition.
Mikkelson, K.; Dickenson, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.
In the previous decade, millions of acres in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado have been infested by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) leading to large-scale tree mortality. These vegetation changes can impact hydrological and biogeochemical processes, possibly altering the leaching of natural organic matter to surrounding waters and increasing the potential for harmful disinfection byproducts (DBP) during water treatments. To investigate these adverse outcomes, we have collected water quality data sets from local water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado that have either been infested with MPB or remain a control. Results demonstrate significantly more total organic carbon (TOC) and DBPs in water treatment facilities receiving their source water from infested watersheds as compared to the control sites. Temporal DBP concentrations in MPB-watersheds also have increased significantly in conjunction with the bark-beetle infestation. Interestingly, only modest increases in TOC concentrations were observed in infested watersheds despite more pronounced increases in DBP concentrations. Total trihalomethanes, a heavily regulated DBP, was found to approach the regulatory limit in two out of four reporting quarters at facilities receiving their water from infested forests. These findings indicate that bark-beetle infestation alters TOC composition and loading in impacted watersheds and that this large-scale phenomenon has implications on the municipal water supply in the region.
Bachok, Norsa'adah; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Awang, Che Wil; Ibrahim, Noor Aini; Naing, Lin
Head lice infestation contributes a significant morbidity among schoolchildren in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of head lice infestation among primary schoolchildren in Kelantan, Malaysia. Six schools were randomly selected from three sub-districts of Kuala Krai, Kelantan. A total of 463 eleven-year-old pupils were screened by visual scalp examination and fine-toothed combing. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography and associated factors of head lice infestation. The prevalence of head lice infestation was 35.0% (95% Cl: 30.6, 39.3) with 11.9% inactive, 23.1% active, 18.2% light and 16.8% heavy infestations. The associated factors were girls; family income of RM247 or less; head lice infestation of family member and having four or more siblings. The high prevalence of head lice infestation in this study indicates the need for regular school health program that emphasis on the eradication of head lice. The significant associated factors identified in this study reconfirm the importance of controlling the transmissibility of head lice. Pupils and parents should be informed regarding factors that may facilitate the transmission of head lice.
Jones, Michael P.; Faresjö, Åshild
Worm infestations influence the immune system and may therefore decrease the risk for autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to determine whether children who have developed autoimmune disease were less likely to have had worm infestations in childhood. The ABIS-study is a prospective population-based cohort study of children born in southeast Sweden 1997/99. 17.055 children participated. As of June 2014 116 individuals had developed Type 1 diabetes, 181 celiac disease, and 53 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. The parents answered questions on worm infestations when the children were 1, 5 and 8 years of age. The ABIS registry was connected to the National Registry of Drug Prescriptions, and national registries for diagnosis of the studied diseases. We found no differences in incidence of worm infestations at 1, 5 or 8 years of age between children who developed autoimmune disease(s) or healthy controls. At 8 years in total 20.0% of the general child population had experienced a worm infestation; children who developed Type 1 diabetes, 21,3%, celiac disease 19,5% and JRA 18,8%. There was no difference in prescriptions of drugs for treatment of worm infestations between those who had and who had not developed Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. We found no associations indicating that worm infestations in childhood does not play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases in Sweden. PMID:28333965
Lü, Jianhua; Ma, Dan
The ability of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), to infest wheat flour under packaged and unpackaged conditions was investigated in the laboratory at 27 ± 2°C and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. Five common packaging materials, namely, vacuum plastic bags, kraft paper bags, nonwoven cloth bags, aluminum foil bags, and woven plastic bags, were investigated. Adults and eggs of L. serricorne were released on different packaged wheat flour or on unpackaged wheat flour, and infestation levels (number of live adults and larvae) were determined after 45 days. When adults were released on wheat flour, the infestation degree varied depending on the package materials. The highest infestation was observed in refined wheat flour packaged in nonwoven cloth bags. With wheat flour packaged in kraft paper bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation or insect infestation was negligible (mean population, <1.3). With wheat flour packaged in aluminum foil bags and vacuum plastic bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation. Damage to the packaging materials along the folds or edges was found in nonwoven cloth bags and woven plastic bags. Therefore, both aluminum foil and plastic bags had the greatest resistance to package invasion by L. serricorne.
Pires, Marcus Sandes; Santos, Tiago Marques dos; Santos, Huarrisson Azevedo; Vilela, Joice Aparecida Rezende; Peixoto, Maristela Peckle; Roier, Erica Cristina Rocha; Silva, Claudia Bezerra da; Barreira, Jairo Dias; Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio de; Massard, Carlos Luiz
The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with infestation by Amblyomma cajennense on horses in two microregions of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Horses on 62 farms in the municipalities of the Itaguaí and Serrana microregions were evaluated between January and May 2009. The animals were examined to determine the presence of ticks and infestation level. The animals' rearing and management were assessed on each farm property using an epidemiological questionnaire. Out of the 635 horses evaluated, 41.6% were infested with A. cajennense. It was observed that farms in low-altitude regions (OR=3.69; CI: 2.3-5.8), with unsatisfactory zootechnical and sanitary management (OR=5.92; CI: 3.8-9.2) and an extensive rearing system (OR=4.25; CI: 2.1-8.5) were factors associated with tick infestation (p < 0.05) and also with cases of high infestation on horses. Use of chemical acaricides on horses was also associated with infestation (p < 0.05); the owners described different therapeutic approaches with different treatment intervals. From the present study, low altitudes, unsatisfactory management, extensive rearing and inappropriate use of acaricide products were factors associated with occurrences of A. cajennense at different infestation levels on horses in these municipalities.
Perea, Ramón; López, David; San Miguel, Alfonso; Gil, Luis
Many nutritious seeds are commonly attacked by insects which feed on the seed reserves. However, studies have not fully explored the ecological implications of insect infestation in animal seed dispersal and subsequent plant regeneration. Our question is whether the fact that an infested seed still contains the larva or not might increase/decrease the probability of being successfully dispersed by animals. This study examines the effects of weevil-infested seeds on the natural regeneration of a rodent-dispersed oak species. Rodents showed a high ability to discriminate between sound and infested seeds, even when the larva was still inside. As a result, rodents caused differential seed dispersal for sound and infested seeds by modifying multiple aspects of the dispersal process. We found that, for the same seed weight, infested acorns with a larva still inside can contribute to natural regeneration (0.7 % of seedlings in next summer), although in comparison to sound acorns they suffered higher predation rates by rodents (both partial and complete), were removed later from the ground (less preferred), cached less frequently, and dispersed to shorter distances, which reduced their potential to colonize new environments. However, infested seeds with exit holes are notably less preferred by rodents and, when dispersed, they are mostly deposited on the litter (uncached) with shorter dispersal distances and lower emergence success. Thus, the probability that larval-holed acorns will produce viable seedlings is extremely low (null in this study). Whether infested seeds still contain a larva or not clearly determines the probability of being successfully dispersed. Premature seed drop prolongs the presence of the larva inside the acorn after seed drop, and could be a possible mechanism to allow dispersal of infested seeds.
Shanthi, S; Vaseeharan, B
A new member of antimicrobial peptide genes of the penaeidin family, penaeidin 3, was cloned from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropeneaus indicus (F. indicus), by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE-PCR) methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of cDNA clone of Indian white shrimp F. indicus Penaeidin 3 (Fi-Pen3) was 243bp long and has an open reading frame which encodes 80 amino acid peptide. The homology analysis of Fi-Pen3 sequence with other Penaeidins 3 shows higher similarity with Penaeus monodon (92%). The theoretical 3D structure generated through ab initio modelling indicated the presence of two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. The signal peptide sequence of Fi-Pen3 is almost entirely homologous to that of other Penaeidin 3 of crustaceans, while differing relatively in the N-terminal domain of the mature peptide. The mature peptide has a predicted molecular weight of 84.9kDa, and a theoretical pI of 9.38. Phylogenetic analysis of Fi-Pen3 shows high resemblance with other Pen-3 from P. monodon, Litopenaeus stylirostris, Litopenaeus vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus. Fi-Pen3 found to be expressed in haemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, muscles, gills, intestine, and eyestalk with higher expression in haemocytes. Microbial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, up to 6h post injection of Vibrio parahemolyticus. The Fi-Pen3 mRNA expression of F. indicus in the premolt stage (D(01) and D(02)) was significantly up-regulated than the postmolt (A and B) and intermolt stages (C). The findings of the present paper underline the involvement of Fi-Pen3 in innate immune system of F. indicus.
Curtis, Michael P; Chubb, Nathan; Ellsworth, Edmund; Goodwin, Richard; Holzmer, Sue; Koch, Jason; McTier, Tom; Menon, Sanjay; Mills, Kent; Pullins, Aleah; Stuk, Tim; Zinser, Erich
Haematobia irritans (horn fly) infestation in cattle is responsible for over a billion dollars a year in global economic loss due to decreased milk production and lower feed conversion. There is significant need for new insecticidal agents since current treatments such as organophosphates and pyrethroids suffer from field resistance. Isoxazoline oxime ethers represent a new class of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor channel blockers which show good activity (LD(90) = 1.0 μg/mL) against horn flies in an in vitro feed assay and have demonstrated efficacy (>90% reduction at 1.0mg/kg) as a topical treatment in a field study.
Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran.
Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran. PMID:25629073
Gharouni, Ali; Wang, Lin
A patch-structured multigroup-like $SIS$ epidemiological model is proposed to study the spread of the common bed bug infestation. It is shown that the model exhibits global threshold dynamics with the basic reproduction number as the threshold parameter. Costs associated with the disinfestation process are incorporated into setting up the optimization problems. Procedures are proposed and simulated for finding optimal resource allocation strategies to achieve the infestation free state. Our analysis and simulations provide useful insights on how to efficiently distribute the available exterminators among the infested patches for optimal disinfestation management.
Laisser, Emmanuel Levillal Katamboi; Kipanyula, Maulilio John; Msalya, George; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Karimuribo, Esron Daniel; Mwilawa, Anjello Joseph; Mwega, Elisa Daniel; Kusiluka, Lughano; Chenyambuga, Sebastian Wilson
This study was carried out to assess the distribution, abundance of different tick genera and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle kept in selected wards of Serengeti and Tarime districts in Mara region. Adult ticks were identified and counted from half body parts of 360 animals which were extensively managed in communal land with natural pastures. Concurrently, blood samples were collected and thereafter DNA extracted and a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was done using primers specific for p104 gene to detect the presence of T. parva DNA. Ticks were identified into four groups: Amblyomma genus, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus, other species of Rhipicephalus, and Hyalomma genus. Rhipicephalus genus accounted for 71.8 % of the total ticks, whereas Amblyomma, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus and Hyalomma constituted 14.1, 14.0 and 0.1 %, respectively. There were more animals (p < 0.05) infested with ticks in Tarime district (96.1 %) than in Serengeti (61.7 %). The average counts of ticks were higher in adult animals (p < 0.05) than in young animals. The overall prevalence of T. parva was 27.7 % and was higher (p < 0.05) in Serengeti (38.3 %) than in Tarime district (16.7 %). However, all animals tested positive for T. parva did not show any clinical signs of East Coast fever (ECF), suggesting the existence of subclinical infection in Tarime zebu. These results suggest that Tarime cattle can tolerate ECF infection and are likely to serve as potential carriers of T. parva to other less-tolerant cattle breeds in mixed herds. Since Tarime cattle are preferred by most farmers with mixed herds, routine screening for T. parva is highly recommended to minimize introduction of infected cattle into an immunologically naive population.
Melo, José Wagner S; Lima, Debora B; Pallini, Angelo; Oliveira, José Eudes M; Gondim, Manoel G C
The phytophagous mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is an important pest of coconut worldwide. A promising method of control for this pest is the use of predatory mites. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram are predatory mites found in association with A. guerreronis in the field. To understand how these predators respond to olfactory cues from A. guerreronis and its host plant, the foraging behavior of the predatory mites was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer and on T-shaped arenas. The predators were subjected to choose in an olfactometer: (1) isolated parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of infested coconut plant or clean air stream; (2) isolated parts of non-infested or infested coconut plant; and (3) two different plant parts previously shown to be attractive. Using T-shaped arenas the predators were offered all possible binary combinations of discs of coconut fruit epidermis infested with A. guerreronis, non-infested discs or coconut pollen. The results showed that both predators were preferred (the volatile cues from) the infested plant parts over clean air. When subjected to odours from different infested or non-infested plant parts, predators preferred the infested parts. Among the infested plant parts, the spikelets induced the greatest attraction to predators. On the arenas, both predators preferred discs of coconut fruits infested with A. guerreronis over every other alternative. The results show that both predators are able to locate A. guerreronis by olfactory stimuli. Foraging strategies and implications for biological control are discussed.
Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z
We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes.
Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M.; Barbarin, Alexis M.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Levy, Michael Z.
We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012–2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. PMID:24799372
Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Polizel, Daniel M; Nepomuceno, Delci D; Sartori, Roberto; Barreto Filho, João Bosco; Gonçalves, José Renato S; Day, Michael L
The aim of this study was to evaluate luteolysis using three doses of PGF2α on Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in nonlactating Nellore (Bos indicus) cows. Cows (n = 323) were assigned within date of estrus (Day 0 of estrous cycle) to receive 12.5, 25.0, or 50.0 mg of PGF2α on either Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) concentrations were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PGF2α to assess luteolysis (L). Luteolysis was defined on the basis of P4 concentrations at 72 hours using either less than 0.5 ng/mL (L0.5) or less than 1.0 ng/mL (L1.0) as the cut off. Luteolysis was considered "partial" when P4 concentration declined within 24 hours after PGF2α but failed to decline further or, in some cases, increased. Incidence of luteolysis was less (P < 0.01) on Day 5 than Day 7 of the estrous cycle (17.3 vs. 47.6% and 30.4 vs. 77.2%; for L0.5 and L1.0, respectively). Dose of PGF2α increased (P < 0.01) L1.0 (12.5 mg = 38.9%; 25.0 mg = 52.3%; and 50.0 mg = 70.4%). Incidence of partial luteolysis for cows on Day 5 (57.1%) was greater (P < 0.01) than that on Day 7 (19.1%) of the estrous cycle and was more prevalent (P < 0.01) with lower doses of PGF2α (12.5 mg = 49.1%; 25.0 mg = 37.4%; and 50.0 mg = 27.8%). In conclusion, both days of the estrous cycle and doses of PGF2α influenced the incidence of complete and partial luteolysis in Nellore cows and should be an important consideration when devising estrus synchronization programs in this species.
Guneidy, Rasha A; Shahein, Yasser E; Abouelella, Amira M K; Zaki, Eman R; Hamed, Ragaa R
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is a bloodsucking ectoparasite that causes severe production losses in the cattle industry. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro effects of tannic acid, hematin (GST inhibitors) and different plant extracts (rich in tannic acid) on the activity of the recombinant glutathione S-transferase enzyme of the Egyptian cattle tick R. annulatus (rRaGST), in order to confirm their ability to inhibit the parasitic essential detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase. Extraction with 70% ethanol of Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf flowers), Punica granatum (red and white pomegranate peel), Musa acuminata (banana peel) (Musaceae), Medicago sativa (alfalfa seeds), Tamarindus indicus (seed) and Cuminum cyminum (cumin seed) were used to assess: (i) inhibitory capacities of rRaGST and (ii) their phenolic and flavonoid contents. Ethanol extraction of red pomegranate peel contained the highest content of phenolic compounds (29.95mg gallic acid/g dry tissue) compared to the other studied plant extracts. The highest inhibition activities of rRaGST were obtained with kenaf and red pomegranate peel (P. granatum) extracts with IC50 values of 0.123 and 0.136mg dry tissue/ml, respectively. Tannic acid was the more effective inhibitor of rRaGST with an IC50 value equal to 4.57μM compared to delphinidine-HCl (IC50=14.9±3.1μM). Gossypol had a weak inhibitory effect (IC50=43.7μM), and caffeic acid had almost no effect on tick GST activity. The IC50 values qualify ethacrynic acid as a potent inhibitor of rRaGST activity (IC50=0.034μM). Cibacron blue and hematin showed a considerable inhibition effect on rRaGST activity, and their IC50 values were 0.13μM and 7.5μM, respectively. The activity of rRaGST was highest for CDNB (30.2μmol/min/mg protein). The enzyme had also a peroxidatic activity (the specific activity equals 26.5μmol/min/mg protein). Both tannic acid and hematin inhibited rRaGST activity non-competitively with respect to GSH and
Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo
Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale.
Parasitic pneumonia in cattleNutritional osteodystrophy in cattleWhite liver disease in lambsErysipelas in pigsLead poisoning and atherosclerosis in an eagle These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for October 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).
Background and Aims: Ammonia volatilization is the primary route for nitrogen loss from cattle feedlots. An additional, but poorly studied mechanism in feedlots is aerobic nitrification. The aim of this study is to characterize nitrifier activity, abundance, and diversity for a cattle production ...
Crain, Robert L.
This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 [Docket 91-161-2] Tuberculosis in Cattle and... amending the tuberculosis regulations by adding a definition for States whose accredited-free status has been suspended due to detection of tuberculosis in any cattle or bison in those States, and by...
We performed a systematic analysis of cattle copy number variations (CNVs) using the Bovine HapMap SNP genotyping data, including 539 animals of 21 modern cattle breeds and 6 outgroups. After correcting genomic waves and considering the trio information, we identified 682 candidate CNV regions (CNVR...
Terefe, Endashaw; Haile, Aynalem; Mulatu, Wudyalew; Dessie, Tadelle; Mwai, Okeyo
The study was conducted to characterize the morphological features of Mursi cattle breed and to identify the species of trypanosome infecting the cattle and its prevalence in these traditionally managed cattle in the Bodi and Mursi pastoral communities. Cattle body description and measurements were made on 201 matured animals. Blood samples were collected from 409 animals into heparin-treated capillary tubes and were centrifuged to 12,000 rpm for 5 min to identify trypanosome species from the wet smeared buffy coat and to estimate the degree of anemia (PCV). Tsetse flies were collected using phenol-treated biconical trap and the caught flies identified to species level. The breed possesses variable coat color pattern, coat color type, and have small to medium hump size on the thoracic vertebrae. Body measurement of Mursi cattle in the two locations did not show significant differences except chest girth, rump width, and horn length. Trypanosome prevalence in the Mursi cattle breed was 6.1%. The highest trypanosome infection was caused by Trypanosoma congolense (56%) followed by Trypanosoma vivax (40%) and Trypanosoma brucei (4%). Trypanosome prevalence significantly varies between dry (2.0%) and late rainy (10.1%) seasons (P < 0.001) and between lean (11.9%) and medium (2.4%) body condition score (P < 0.01). The PCV value was 22.1 ± 0.5%, which is significantly varied with season (P < 0.01) and parasitism (P < 0.001). Parasitaemic cattle show the lowest PCV value (20.4 ± 1%) than aparasitaemic (23.7 ± 0.3%) cattle and cattle with lean BCS showed the lowest (P < 0.0001) PCV value (20.4 ± 0.6%). Tsetse fly species identified in the study area were Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans, and Glossina fuscipes. The number of flies captured in late rainy season was higher than in dry season (P < 0.01). Despite the existence of trypanosome and high tsetse fly infestation in the areas, large proportion of the Mursi
Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence
Mondet, Fanny; Kim, Seo Hyun; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R.
Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the targeting of parasitized brood for removal must be accurate and selective. Here we show that varroa-infested brood produce uniquely identifiable cues that could be used by VSH-performing bees to identify with high specificity which brood cells to sacrifice. This selective elimination of mite-infested brood is a disease resistance strategy analogous to programmed cell death, where young bees likely to be highly dysfunctional as adults are sacrificed for the greater good of the colony. PMID:27140530
Gorla, David E; Porcasi, Ximena; Hrellac, Hugo; Catalá, Silvia S
Vectorial transmission of Chagas disease has been decreasing over the past few decades because of effective vector control programs in the southern cone of South America. However, the disease is still actively transmitted within the Gran Chaco region. In this area, vector populations are abundant and highly prevalent in poor rural houses. This study analyses the spatial pattern of rural house infestation by Triatoma infestans in a 56,000 km(2) area in the province of La Rioja, Argentina, before the re-initiation of systematic activity on vector control intervention. Data on 5,045 rural houses show that infestation has high spatial heterogeneity, with highly infested localities concentrated in a few areas. House infestation has a negative significant relationship with locality size. Rural houses in the region are highly dispersed and this feature has been and will remain a challenge for any vigilance system to be installed in the region.
Sikkel, Paul C.; Schaumburg, Collin S.; Mathenia, Jeremy K.
Infestation dynamics of parasitic gnathiid isopods on Caribbean reefs were studied throughout the 24-h diel cycle. Gnathiid infestation on caged longfin damselfish ( Stegastes diencaeus) peaked strongly at dawn, remained low during the remainder of the day, and increased again at night until about midnight. Gnathiids were less abundant during the pre-dawn period. Peak loads on fish retrieved at dawn were the highest reported in any study thus far. The dawn peak consisted almost exclusively of individuals from the smallest size class, whereas nocturnal activity consisted almost exclusively of individuals of the largest size class. Because of the high rates of infestation at night and dawn, and the high variation in parasite loads on fish collected during that time, reduction of parasite infestation may play an important role in the selection of nocturnal and crepuscular shelter holes and settlement sites by reef fishes.
Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B
The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management.
How, Yee-Fatt; Lee, Chow-Yang
A total of 54 bed bug-infested sites (hotels, public accommodations, and residential premises) in Malaysia and Singapore was surveyed between July, 2005 and December, 2008. Only one species of bed bug was found, the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius). Bed bug infestations were common in hotels and public accommodations when compared to residential premises. The three most common locations of infestation within an infested premise were the bedding (31.1%), the headboard (30.3%), and cracks and crevices surrounding the baseboard, wall, or floor (23.5%). We speculate that the route of movement of bed bugs in hotels and public accommodations is more direct than in residential premises.
Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) is an invasive annual grass that is rapidly invading rangelands. Medusahead invasion reduces the productivity and biodiversity of rangelands. Efforts to control medusahead and revegetation infested rangelands are often unsuccessful. We evaluated...
The toxicity of eight commercially-available botanical formulations were evaluated against 3rd instars of the nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse), Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. In vi...