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Sample records for indicus cattle infested

  1. Studies on host resistance to tick infestations among trypanotolerant Bos indicus cattle breeds in east Africa.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Ndung'U, J M; Stear, M J; Reid, S W; Gettinby, G; Murray, M

    1998-06-29

    Recent epidemiological studies carried out in East Africa have indicated that some Bos indicus cattle breeds such as the Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu have a degree of trypanotolerance worth exploitation by their introduction into trypanosomosis endemic areas where other cattle breeds cannot survive. However, in most areas of East Africa, trypanosomosis, ticks, and tick-borne diseases occur together. It is therefore important to obtain information on the susceptibility of these breeds to tick infestation and tick-borne diseases. This study was therefore designed to determine the susceptibility of these cattle breeds to tick infestations. They were compared with the Galana Boran (trypanosusceptible) and the Friesian (susceptible to tick infestations, tick-borne diseases, and trypanosomosis). The four breeds of cattle were exposed to natural tick challenge for a period of seven months and whole body weekly tick counts were done on each animal. Significant differences to tick infestations among the four breeds were observed. For both Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Boophilus decoloratus, susceptibility to infestation increased in the order, Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran, Galana Boran and Friesian. The results generated by this pilot study so far suggest that variation in susceptibility to tick infestations exists among the four breeds. The Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu showed greater resistance to tick-infestations than the Galana Boran and Friesian. This suggests that utilization of these trypanotolerant cattle breeds could be feasible even in the face of tick challenge and should therefore be considered when planning integrated trypanosomosis and tick control strategies. PMID:9668465

  2. Immune Response of Bos indicus Cattle against the Anti-Tick Antigen Bm91 Derived from Local Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Ticks and Its Effect on Tick Reproduction under Natural Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Lambertz, Christian; Chongkasikit, Natthaphon; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Gauly, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Antigens of anti-tick vaccines are more efficacious for homologous challenge with local tick strains. cDNA clones encoding for Bm91 from local Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strains were developed to immunize Bos indicus cattle under field conditions. Three groups of six animals each were injected with the antigen Bm91, saline, and adjuvant, respectively. Animals were immunized three times at 3-week intervals and a fourth time after six months. The anti-Bm91 antibody level, measured by ELISA, was monitored for 7 months and the reproductive performance of naturally infested R. (B.) microplus was determined. Bm91-immunized animals developed a strong immune response expressed by high anti-Bm91 levels remaining on high levels until the end of the study. Western blot analysis confirmed that Bm91 is immunogenic. Compared to control animals, the reproductive efficiency index and the egg viability were 6% and 8%, respectively, lower in the Bm91 group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, it was demonstrated that Bm91 induced a long-lasting immune response. However, the effect on the tick reproduction was not sufficient for an efficient tick control. Further studies under field conditions are warranted to enhance the effect on the tick reproduction by optimizing the immunization regimen, alone or in combination with other vaccine candidate antigens. PMID:23213489

  3. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems, and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to its improvement. The first results of the application of genomic selection in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population are presented in this paper...

  4. Host resistance in cattle to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, N N; Piper, E K; Constantinoiu, C C

    2014-11-01

    Resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus infestation in cattle has many effector mechanisms, each of which is likely to be modulated by complex, interacting factors. Some of the mechanisms of host resistance and their modulating factors have been identified and quantified, although much remains to be explained. The variation in resistance to tick infestation is most marked between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, taurine cattle given the same exposure carrying between five and 10 times as many ticks as indicine cattle. Tick resistance is mostly manifest against attaching larvae, which attempt to feed often and without success, death occurring mostly within 24 h of finding a host. There is evidence of innate and adaptive immune response to tick infestation, and it appears that the relative importance of each differs between indicine and taurine cattle. There is conflicting information regarding the role of humoral immunity in tick resistance, and recent studies indicate that strong IgG responses to tick antigens are not protective. A strong T-cell-mediated response directed against larval stages, as mounted by indicine cattle, seems to be protective. Variation in the extracellular matrix of skin (epidermal growth factors, collagens and other matrix components such as lumican) also contributes to variation in host resistance. PMID:25313455

  5. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  6. Genome wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting tick resistance in cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In tropical countries, losses caused by bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation have a tremendous economic impact on cattle production systems. Genetic variation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus to tick resistance and molecular biology tools might allow for the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance traits that could be used as an auxiliary tool in selection programs. The objective of this work was to identify QTL associated with tick resistance/susceptibility in a bovine F2 population derived from the Gyr (Bos indicus) × Holstein (Bos taurus) cross. Results Through a whole genome scan with microsatellite markers, we were able to map six genomic regions associated with bovine tick resistance. For most QTL, we have found that depending on the tick evaluation season (dry and rainy) different sets of genes could be involved in the resistance mechanism. We identified dry season specific QTL on BTA 2 and 10, rainy season specific QTL on BTA 5, 11 and 27. We also found a highly significant genome wide QTL for both dry and rainy seasons in the central region of BTA 23. Conclusions The experimental F2 population derived from Gyr × Holstein cross successfully allowed the identification of six highly significant QTL associated with tick resistance in cattle. QTL located on BTA 23 might be related with the bovine histocompatibility complex. Further investigation of these QTL will help to isolate candidate genes involved with tick resistance in cattle. PMID:20433753

  7. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to accelerate genetic improvement of production and fertility in this breed. We present the first results of the implementation of genomic prediction in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population. Methods Influential bulls were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD chip in order to assess genomic predictive ability for weight and carcass traits, gestation length, scrotal circumference and two selection indices. 685 samples and 320 238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used in the analyses. A forward-prediction scheme was adopted to predict the genomic breeding values (DGV). In the training step, the estimated breeding values (EBV) of bulls were deregressed (dEBV) and used as pseudo-phenotypes to estimate marker effects using four methods: genomic BLUP with or without a residual polygenic effect (GBLUP20 and GBLUP0, respectively), a mixture model (Bayes C) and Bayesian LASSO (BLASSO). Empirical accuracies of the resulting genomic predictions were assessed based on the correlation between DGV and dEBV for the testing group. Results Accuracies of genomic predictions ranged from 0.17 (navel at weaning) to 0.74 (finishing precocity). Across traits, Bayesian regression models (Bayes C and BLASSO) were more accurate than GBLUP. The average empirical accuracies were 0.39 (GBLUP0), 0.40 (GBLUP20) and 0.44 (Bayes C and BLASSO). Bayes C and BLASSO tended to produce deflated predictions (i.e. slope of the regression of dEBV on DGV greater than 1). Further analyses suggested that higher-than-expected accuracies were observed for traits for which EBV means differed significantly between two breeding subgroups that were identified in a principal component analysis based on genomic relationships. Conclusions Bayesian regression models are of interest for future applications of genomic selection in this population

  8. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brunelle, Brian W; Greenlee, Justin J; Seabury, Christopher M; Brown, Charles E; Nicholson, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular indel region and

  9. Sequence analysis for a de novo genome assembly of Bos indicus (Nelore) cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A second draft sequence assembly of the bovine genome based on the sub-species, Bos indicus, is essential to better evaluate the genetic variation underlying the prototypical beef and dairy cattle in tropical and sub-tropical production environments. A linebred bull (Futuro), two generations remove...

  10. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIAVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN BOS INDICUS BEEF CATTLE (NELLORE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci of economic importance in purebred Bos indicus beef cattle breed (Nellore). Two half-sib families constituted of 187 (family 1) and 189 (family 2) female sisters, daughters from two distinct bulls, where used. Each parent (F0) was ...

  11. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation after treatment...

  12. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick...

  13. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick...

  14. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick...

  15. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick...

  16. Susceptibility to trypanosomosis of three Bos indicus cattle breeds in areas of differing tsetse fly challenge.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Gettinby, G; Reid, S W; Murray, M

    1998-09-01

    Studies to assess the differences in susceptibility to trypanosomosis among Bos indicus cattle breeds (Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran and Galana Boran) were conducted under conditions of varying tsetse fly challenge at the Nguruman escarpment in south-western Kenya, for a period of 1 year. It was found that under tsetse challenge quantified as high, Maasai Zebu and Orma Boran were less susceptible than Galana Boran to trypanosome infections, as judged by the significantly lower incidence of infection, development of less severe anaemia, fewer requirements for trypanocidal drug treatments, higher growth rates and fewer mortalities. In the area where tsetse challenge was considered low as a result of a tsetse fly control operation using odour-baited traps, only the Maasai Zebu and Orma Boran were compared. No significant differences in the incidence of infection, degree of anaemia or growth rates were observed between the two breeds, but all were significantly different from their counterparts in the high tsetse challenge area. These results suggest that there is variation in resistance to trypanosomosis among Bos indicus cattle breeds that could be exploited as part of the integrated trypanosomosis control programmes in East Africa. PMID:9777722

  17. Impact of parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus origins on copy number variation in traditional Chinese cattle breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution o...

  18. Identical marker alleles in Podolic cattle (Bos taurus) and Indian zebu (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Pieragostini, E; Scaloni, A; Rullo, R; Di Luccia, A

    2000-09-01

    In the context of biochemical marker research and in order to add new information on native breeds, the present work focuses on a local Southern Italy cattle, namely Italian Podolic. We provide the complete structural characterisation of alpha-lactalbumins and beta-globin chains isolated from Podolic cattle (Bos taurus). Given the unavailability of the complete sequence for alpha-lactalbumin A of taurine cattle in the literature, we intended to check its structure in order to ascertain the absence of any possible silent mutation. Screening the Podolic cattle, we found a new beta-globin variant not detectable by conventional methods. The presence of such a new variant might be helpful in the study of the Podolic population genetic structure and for a better knowledge of the gene pool per se, and in comparison with the other breeds. Structural analyses showed that the new beta-globin Podolic variant exhibited the same sequence as beta-globin Azebu. The alpha-lactalbumin A was the same as that isolated from zebu cattle (Bos indicus). The results are discussed in relation to the possible involvement of the two markers in the debate on the origin of the Podolic breed. PMID:11126744

  19. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed. PMID:26613758

  20. Trace Element Distribution in Selected Edible Tissues of Zebu (Bos indicus) Cattle Slaughtered at Jimma, SW Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dermauw, Veronique; Lopéz Alonso, Marta; Duchateau, Luc; Du Laing, Gijs; Tolosa, Tadele; Dierenfeld, Ellen; Clauss, Marcus; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2014-01-01

    The amount of trace elements present in edible bovine tissues is of importance for both animal health and human nutrition. This study presents data on trace element concentrations in semitendinosus and cardiac muscles, livers and kidneys of 60 zebu (Bos indicus) bulls, sampled at Jimma, Ethiopia. From 28 of these bulls, blood samples were also obtained. Deficient levels of copper were found in plasma, livers, kidneys and semitendinosus muscles. Suboptimal selenium concentrations were found in plasma and semitendinosus muscles. Semitendinosus muscles contained high iron concentrations. Trace elements were mainly stored in the liver, except for iron and selenium. Cardiac muscles generally contained higher concentrations of trace elements than semitendinous muscles except for zinc. A strong association was found between liver and kidney concentrations of copper, iron, cobalt and molybdenum. Liver storage was well correlated with storage in semitendinosus muscle for selenium and with cardiac muscle for cobalt and selenium. Plasma concentrations of copper, selenium, cobalt were well related with their respective liver concentrations and for cobalt and selenium, also with cardiac muscle concentrations. The data suggest multiple trace element deficiencies in zebu cattle in South-West Ethiopia, with lowered tissue concentrations as a consequence. Based on the comparison of our data with other literature, trace element concentrations in selected edible tissues of Bos indicus seem quite similar to those in Bos taurus. However, tissue threshold values for deficiency in Bos taurus cattle need to be refined and their applicability for Bos indicus cattle needs to be evaluated. PMID:24465529

  1. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. Cars or others vehicles which have carried cattle exposed to or infested with ticks within the...

  2. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...

  3. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...

  4. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...

  5. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...

  6. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    PubMed

    G T Pereira, Anirene; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Garcia, José F

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  7. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  8. Detection of quantitative trait loci in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The apparent effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on phenotype depends on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the SNP and a quantitative trait locus (QTL). However, the phase of LD between a SNP and a QTL may differ between Bos indicus and Bos taurus because they diverged at least one hundred thousand years ago. Here, we test the hypothesis that the apparent effect of a SNP on a quantitative trait depends on whether the SNP allele is inherited from a Bos taurus or Bos indicus ancestor. Methods Phenotype data on one or more traits and SNP genotype data for 10 181 cattle from Bos taurus, Bos indicus and composite breeds were used. All animals had genotypes for 729 068 SNPs (real or imputed). Chromosome segments were classified as originating from B. indicus or B. taurus on the basis of the haplotype of SNP alleles they contained. Consequently, SNP alleles were classified according to their sub-species origin. Three models were used for the association study: (1) conventional GWAS (genome-wide association study), fitting a single SNP effect regardless of subspecies origin, (2) interaction GWAS, fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies-origin, and (3) best variable GWAS, fitting the most significant combination of SNP and sub-species origin. Results Fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies origin resulted in more significant SNPs (i.e. more power) than a conventional GWAS. Thus, the effect of a SNP depends on the subspecies that the allele originates from. Also, most QTL segregated in only one subspecies, suggesting that many mutations that affect the traits studied occurred after divergence of the subspecies or the mutation became fixed or was lost in one of the subspecies. Conclusions The results imply that GWAS and genomic selection could gain power by distinguishing SNP alleles based on their subspecies origin, and that only few QTL segregate in both B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. Thus, the QTL that segregate in

  9. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...

  10. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. 72.11 Section 72.11 Animals and...; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. Cattle of...

  11. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...

  12. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...

  13. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...

  14. Microarray analysis of tick-infested skin in resistant and susceptible cattle confirms the role of inflammatory pathways in immune activation and larval rejection.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Wanessa Araújo; Domingues, Robert; de Azevedo Prata, Marcia Cristina; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius G B; de Oliveira, Guilherme Corrêa; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Machado, Marco Antônio

    2014-09-15

    Tick bites promote activation of an inflammatory process that is influenced by bovine genetic composition and its history of previous exposure. Taurine and indicine breeds are known to differ on its immune response development against Rhipicephalus microplus. Nevertheless, further investigation about the complex molecular pathways involved in the development of immune response to tick infestation in cattle presenting the same genetic background is mandatory. The aim of this work was to access the early immune response triggered by R. microplus larvae attachment in previously selected resistant and susceptible animals in a bovine F2 population derived from Gyr (Bos indicus)×Holstein (Bos taurus) crosses. Microarray data analysis of RNA samples from tick infested skin was used to evaluate the gene expression at 0, 24 and 48h after R. microplus larvae attachment. Our experimental design allowed us to deeply explore the immune response related to R. microplus infestation avoiding the innate differences between these breeds. The differentially expressed genes found reveal networks and pathways that suggest a key role of lipid metabolism in inflammation control and impairment of tick infestation in resistant animals. Acute phase response also seems to be impaired in susceptible animals. These results provide new insights about early immune response against ticks and raise the possibility of using immunomodulation processes to improve and develop novel tools for tick control. PMID:25108850

  15. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  16. Induction of ovarian follicular wave emergence and ovulation in progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocols for Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Baldrighi, J M; Sales, J N S; Crepaldi, G A; Carvalho, J B P; Bó, G A; Baruselli, P S

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (FWE) and ovulation in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) synchronization protocols using norgestomet ear implants (NORG) in Bos indicus cattle. In Experiment 1, the synchronization of FWE was evaluated when two different estradiol esters in different doses [2mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 2.5mg EV or 5mg estradiol valerate (EV)] were administered with NORG implant insertion in B. indicus cattle (estrous cyclic heifers and cows with suckling calves; n=10 per treatment). After estradiol treatment, ovarian ultrasonic exams were performed once daily to detect the interval between treatment and FWE. There were significant treatment-by-animal category interaction (P=0.05) on the interval from the estradiol treatment to FWE. An earlier (P<0.0001) and less variable (P=0.02) interval from estradiol treatment to FWE was observed in heifers treated with EB (2.5±0.2; mean±SE) than in those treated with 2.5mg EV (4.2±0.3) or 5mg EV (6.1±0.6). Cows treated with 5mg EV (4.0±0.5) had longer (P=0.05) interval than cows receiving EB (2.5±0.2), however, there was an intermediate interval in those cows treated with 2.5mg EV (3.1±0.4). In Experiment 2, the number of uses of the NORG implant (new; n=305 or previously used once; n=314) and three different ovulation induction hormones [0.5mg estradiol cypionate (EC) at implant removal (n=205), 1mg EB given 24h after implant removal (n=219), or 100μg gonadorelin (GnRH) given at FTAI (n=195)] were evaluated in Nelore heifers (2×3 factorial design). Similar pregnancy per AI (P/AI; 30 days after FTAI; P>0.05) were achieved using each of the three ovulation induction hormones (EB=40.6%; EC=48.3%, or GnRH=48.7%) and with a new (47.2%) or once-used NORG implant (44.3%). In Experiment 3, the effect of different ovulation induction hormones for FTAI [1mg EC at NORG implant removal (n=228), 10μg buserelin acetate at FTAI (GnRH; n

  17. Identification of a null allele in genetic tests for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, Fozia; Malik, Naveed A; Qureshi, Javed A; Raadsma, Herman W; Tammen, Imke

    2012-12-01

    Two clinically healthy mature Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle were genotyped as homozygous affected for the lethal immunodeficiency disorder bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) using previously described PCR-RFLP based DNA tests which was confirmed by sequencing. Sequencing of Bos taurus and B. indicus × B. taurus genomic DNA surrounding the disease causing mutation (c.383A > G) in the ITGB2 gene identified numerous variations in exonic and intronic regions within and between species, including substantial variation in primer annealing sites for three PCR-RFLP tests for one of the B. indicus allelic variants. These variations in the primer annealing sites resulted in a null allele in the DNA tests causing the misdiagnosis of some heterozygous B. taurus × B. indicus cattle to be classified as homozygous affected. New primers were designed and a modified test was developed which simultaneously identified the disease mutation and the Pakistani B. indicus allelic variant associated with the null allele in the previous test. PMID:22374219

  18. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with ticks or exposed... interstate movement of cattle....

  19. Analysis of host genetic factors influencing African trypanosome species infection in a cohort of Tanzanian Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Morrison, Liam J; Black, Alana; Turner, C Michael R; Kambarage, Dominic M; Ballingall, Keith T

    2011-06-30

    Trypanosomosis caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma is a major health constraint to cattle production in many African countries. One hundred and seventy one Bos indicus cattle from traditional pastoral Maasai (87) and more intensively managed Boran (84) animals in Tanzania were screened by PCR for the presence of African animal trypanosomes (Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei), using blood samples archived on FTA cards. All cattle screened for trypanosomes were also genotyped at the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB3 locus to investigate possible associations between host MHC and trypanosome infection. Overall, 23.4% of the 171 cattle tested positive for at least one of the three trypanosome species. The prevalence of individual trypanosome species was 8.8% (T. congolense), 4.7% (T. vivax) and 15.8% (T. brucei). The high prevalence of T. brucei compared with T. congolense and T. vivax was unexpected as this species has previously been considered to be of lesser importance in terms of African bovine trypanosomosis. Significantly higher numbers of Maasai cattle were infected with T. brucei (23.0%, p=0.009) and T. congolense (13.8%, p=0.019) compared with Boran cattle (8.3% and 3.6%, respectively). Analysis of BoLA-DRB3 diversity in this cohort identified extensive allelic diversity. Thirty-three BoLA-DRB3 PCR-RFLP defined alleles were identified. One allele (DRB3*15) was significantly associated with an increased risk (odds ratio, OR=2.71, p=0.034) of T. brucei infection and three alleles (DRB3*35, *16 and *23) were associated with increased risk of T. congolense infection. While further work is required to dissect the role of these alleles in susceptibility to T. brucei and T. congolense infections, this study demonstrates the utility of FTA archived blood samples in combined molecular analyses of both host and pathogen. PMID:21377802

  20. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 is type I myofiber specific in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Coles, C A; Wadeson, J; Knight, M I; Cafe, L M; Johns, W H; White, J D; Greenwood, P L; McDonagh, M B

    2014-04-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12) is involved in the regulation of myogenesis and adipogenesis and is of interest as a potential target to manipulate skeletal muscle development and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in cattle to increase beef yield and improve meat quality. The longissimus thoracis muscle (LM) and semitendinosus muscle (STM) from 5 Bos taurus (Angus) and 5 Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle were collected for histological and ADAM12 gene and protein expression analysis. Myofiber typing was used to determine if ADAM12 expression patterns related to differences in muscling and IMF deposition, which are influenced by proportions of the different myofiber types. The STM was found to contain a higher proportion of glycolytic myofibers than the LM, which contained a greater proportion of oxidative myofibers (myofiber ratio of glycolytic to more oxidative types in LM and STM of 1.1 and 3.5, respectively; P < 0.05). ADAM12 gene expression, fluorescent immunohistochemical staining for ADAM12, and image analysis found ADAM12 to be greater in the LM (P < 0.05). Regression analysis found a strong, positive relationship for the distribution of ADAM12 against the proportion of type I myofibers (P < 0.05, r(2) = 0.86). These findings suggest ADAM12 is upregulated in muscles with more slow-oxidative myofibres, such as the LM, and is linked to type I myofibers in cattle. ADAM12 may be important in the regulation and maintenance slow myofibers in the LM muscle. PMID:24663211

  1. A ten-year review of commercial vaccine performance for control of tick infestations on cattle.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Pérez de la Lastra, José Manuel; Kocan, Katherine M; Willadsen, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Ticks are important ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, and tick infestations economically impact cattle production worldwide. Control of cattle tick infestations has been primarily by application of acaricides which has resulted in selection of resistant ticks and environmental pollution. Herein we discuss data from tick vaccine application in Australia, Cuba, Mexico and other Latin American countries. Commercial tick vaccines for cattle based on the Boophilus microplus Bm86 gut antigen have proven to be a feasible tick control method that offers a cost-effective, environmentally friendly alternative to the use of acaricides. Commercial tick vaccines reduced tick infestations on cattle and the intensity of acaricide usage, as well as increasing animal production and reducing transmission of some tick-borne pathogens. Although commercialization of tick vaccines has been difficult owing to previous constraints of antigen discovery, the expense of testing vaccines in cattle, and company restructuring, the success of these vaccines over the past decade has clearly demonstrated their potential as an improved method of tick control for cattle. Development of improved vaccines in the future will be greatly enhanced by new and efficient molecular technologies for antigen discovery and the urgent need for a tick control method to reduce or replace the use of acaricides, especially in regions where extensive tick resistance has occurred. PMID:17692140

  2. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman)] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian)] (p ≤ 0.001). These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE20605. PMID:20637126

  3. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

  4. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

  5. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

  6. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

  7. Diversity and evolution of 11 innate immune genes in Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus cattle

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Christopher M.; Seabury, Paul M.; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) and peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1) genes play key roles in the innate immune systems of mammals. While the TLRs recognize a variety of invading pathogens and induce innate immune responses, PGLYRP1 is directly microbicidal. We used custom allele-specific assays to genotype and validate 220 diallelic variants, including 54 nonsynonymous SNPs in 11 bovine innate immune genes (TLR1-TLR10, PGLYRP1) for 37 cattle breeds. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and we were unable to differentiate between the specialized B. t. taurus beef and dairy breeds, despite an average polymorphism density of one locus per 219 bp. Ninety-nine tagSNPs and one tag insertion-deletion polymorphism were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at all 11 innate immune loci in both subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 58 tagSNPs captured 100% of the variation at 172 loci in B. t. taurus. PolyPhen and SIFT analyses of nonsynonymous SNPs encoding amino acid replacements indicated that the majority of these substitutions were benign, but up to 31% were expected to potentially impact protein function. Several diversity-based tests provided support for strong purifying selection acting on TLR10 in B. t. taurus cattle. These results will broadly impact efforts related to bovine translational genomics. PMID:20018671

  8. Molecular detection of piroplasms in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Signorini, Manuela; Teshale, Sori; Tessarin, Cinzia; Duguma, Reta; Ayana, Dinka; Martini, Marco; Cassini, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed and contribute to important economic losses. Several studies investigated the prevalence and species composition of ticks infesting ruminants; however, data on tick-borne pathogens are still scarce. During the study period from October 2010 to April 2011, a total of 1,246 adult ticks and 264 nymphs were collected from 267 cattle and 45 sheep in Bako District, western Oromia, Ethiopia. The study showed infestation of 228/267 (85.4 %) cattle and 35/45 (77.8 %) sheep with adult ticks. Overall, eight tick species, belonging to three genera (Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma), were identified and Amblyomma cohaerens (n = 577), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n = 290), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (n = 287), and Amblyomma variegatum (n = 85) were the more prevalent species. A statistically significant host preference in A. cohaerens for cattle and R. evertsi evertsi for sheep was noticed. Molecular detection of piroplasms, performed only for adult ticks of two species of the genus Rhipicephalus (R. evertsi evertsi and R. decoloratus), revealed an overall prevalence of 4 % (8/202) Theileria buffeli/sergenti/orientalis, 0.5 % (1/202) Theileria velifera, and 2 % (4/202) Theileria ovis. The study showed that tick infestation prevalence is considerably high in both cattle and sheep of the area, but with a low intensity of tick burden and a moderate circulation of mildly pathogenic piroplasm species. PMID:23846769

  9. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 extends the current tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and crossbred descent.

    PubMed

    White, S N; Casas, E; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Keele, J W; Smith, T P L

    2005-09-01

    The three objectives of this study were to 1) test for the existence of beef tenderness markers in the CAPN1 gene segregating in Brahman cattle; 2) test existing CAPN1 tenderness markers in indicus-influenced crossbred cattle; and 3) produce a revised marker system for use in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. Previously, two SNP in the CAPN1 gene have been described that could be used to guide selection in Bos taurus cattle (designated Markers 316 and 530), but neither marker segregates at high frequency in Brahman cattle. In this study, we examined three additional SNP in CAPN1 to determine whether variation in this gene could be associated with tenderness in a large, multisire American Brahman population. One marker (termed 4751) was associated with shear force on postmortem d 7 (P < 0.01), 14 (P = 0.015), and 21 (P < 0.001) in this population, demonstrating that genetic variation important for tenderness segregates in Bos indicus cattle at or near CAPN1. Marker 4751 also was associated with shear force (P < 0.01) in the same large, multisire population of cattle of strictly Bos taurus descent that was used to develop the previously reported SNP (referred to as the Germplasm Evaluation [GPE] Cycle 7 population), indicating the possibility that one marker could have wide applicability in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. To test this hypothesis, Marker 4751 was tested in a third large, multisire cattle population of crossbred subspecies descent (including sire breeds of Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford, and Angus referred to as the GPE Cycle 8 population). The highly significant association of Marker 4751 with shear force in this population (P < 0.001) confirms the usefulness of Marker 4751 in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds, including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and crossbred descent. This wide applicability adds substantial value over previously released Markers 316 and 530. However, Marker 316, which had previously been shown to be

  10. Distribution of cattle fever tick infestations detected in the U.S. along the Texas/Mexico border

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species identification and coordinates of geographical premises for infestations of cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say) and R. (B.) microplus (Canestrini) were determined for 782 specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory during the eleven years betw...

  11. Protective efficacy of bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed BM95 antigenic peptides for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Canales, Mario; Labruna, Marcelo B; Soares, João F; Prudencio, Carlos R; de la Fuente, José

    2009-12-01

    The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 glycoproteins are homologous proteins that protect cattle against tick infestations. In this study, we demonstrated that the recombinant chimeric protein comprising tick BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the A. marginale MSP1a N-terminal region for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane was protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. This system provides a novel and simple approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on live E. coli and suggests the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions for vaccination against cattle tick infestations. PMID:19835826

  12. Utilization of Bos Indicus cattle in Florida beef enterprises: Carcass Traits and Merit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The F1 Brahman cow is the most productive cow type for the Southern United States, both in terms of reproduction (calving and weaning rate) and maternal ability. However, the substandard quality and tenderness of beef from Brahman and Brahman-cross cattle is an opportunity for improvement in the br...

  13. Efficacy of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 against Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma cajennense tick infestations in camels and cattle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose

    2012-05-14

    The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations. PMID:22446633

  14. Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5'-nucleotidase.

    PubMed

    Hope, M; Jiang, X; Gough, J; Cadogan, L; Josh, P; Jonsson, N; Willadsen, P

    2010-02-01

    Limited prior evidence suggests that 5'-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5'-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5'-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5'-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies. PMID:20070827

  15. Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5′-nucleotidase

    PubMed Central

    HOPE, M; JIANG, X; GOUGH, J; CADOGAN, L; JOSH, P; JONSSON, N; WILLADSEN, P

    2010-01-01

    Limited prior evidence suggests that 5′-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5′-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5′-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5′-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies. PMID:20070827

  16. Genome-wide association with residual body weight gain in Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Gomes, R C; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Novais, F J; Bonin, M N; Fukumasu, H; Garcia, J F; Alexandre, P A; Oliveira Junior, G A; Coutinho, L L; Ferraz, J B S

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain is a key performance trait for beef cat-tle; however, attention should be given to the production costs for better profitability. Therefore, a feed efficiency trait based on per-formance can be an interesting approach to improve performance without increasing food costs. To identify candidate genes and ge-nomic regions associated with residual body weight gain (RWG), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 720 Nellore cattle using the GRAMMAR-Gamma association test. We identified 30 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), especially on chromosomes 2, 8, 12, and 17. Several genes and quantitative train loci (QTLs) present in the regions identified were appointed; we highlight DMRT2 (doublesex and mab-3 related tran-scription factor 2), IFFO2 (intermediate filament family orphan 2), LNX2 (ligand of numb-protein X 2), MTIF3 (mitochondrial transla-tional initiation factor 3), and TRNAG-CCC (transfer RNA glycine anticodon CCC). The metabolic pathways that can explain part of the phenotypic variation in RWG are related to oxidative stress and muscle control. PMID:26125717

  17. Protection against Boophilus annulatus infestations in cattle vaccinated with the B. microplus Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac. off.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, H; Rad, P H; Ortiz, M; Rodríguez, M; Redondo, M; Herrera, L; de la Fuente, J

    1998-12-01

    Tick infestations by Boophilus spp. constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The use of traditional control methods has been only partially successful and tick infestations remain a serious problem. Recently, the gut antigen Bm86 was isolated from B. microplus. Recombinant preparations of this antigen have been used in vaccines for the control of B. microplus infestations. However, in several regions of the world, B. microplus coexists with other Boophilus species, mainly B. annulatus and B. decoloratus. Therefore, there is a need for the simultaneous control of infestations by different Boophilus species. To test the capacity of the P. pastoris-derived Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec S.A., Havana) to control B. annulatus infestations, controlled experiments were conducted in Mexico and Iran. Cattle were vaccinated with Gavac or not vaccinated and then artificially infested with B. annulatus larvae. The results showed for the first time a high protection efficacy (> 99.9%) of Gavac in the control of B. annulatus infestations. These results support the application of Bm86-containing vaccines for the control of Boophilus spp. infestations. PMID:9796055

  18. Characterization of the rumen microbiome of Indian Kankrej cattle (Bos indicus) adapted to different forage diet.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Patel, Amrutlal K; Parmar, Nidhi R; Patel, Anand B; Reddy, Bhaskar; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-12-01

    Present study described rumen microbiome of Indian cattle (Kankrej breed) to better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the rumen microbiome under different dietary treatments. Kankrej cattle were gradually adapted to a high-forage diet (four animals with dry forage and four with green forage) containing 50 % (K1), 75 % (K2) to 100 % (K3) forage, and remaining concentrate diet, each for 6 weeks followed by analysis of rumen fiber adherent and fiber-free metagenomic community by shotgun sequencing using ion torrent PGM platform and EBI-metagenomics annotation pipeline. Taxonomic analysis indicated that rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes followed by Firmicutes, Fibrobacter, Proteobacteria, and Tenericutes. Functional analysis based on gene ontology classified all reads in total 157 categories based on their functional role in biological, molecular, and cellular component with abundance of genes associated with hydrolase activity, membrane, transport, transferase, and different metabolism (such as carbohydrate and protein). Statistical analysis using STAMP revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) between solid and liquid fraction of rumen (in 65 categories), between all three treatments (in 56 categories), and between green and dry roughage (17 categories). Diet treatment also exerted significant difference in environmental gene tags (EGTs) involved in metabolic pathways for production of volatile fatty acids. EGTs for butyrate production were abundant in K2, whereas EGTs for propionate production was abundant during K1. Principal component analysis also demonstrated that diet proportion, fraction of rumen, and type of forage affected rumen microbiome at taxonomic as well as functional level. PMID:25359471

  19. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  20. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower (P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle. PMID:26070369

  1. [Tick infestation and the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia divergens in cattle in Bavaria].

    PubMed

    Lengauer, Heidi; Just, Frank Thomas; Edelhofer, Renate; Pfister, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    During the grazing period 2002 319 cattle from 31 farms located in 6 districts of southern Bavaria were examined for the presence of ticks in 4- to 5-week intervals, and 287 serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia divergens. Ticks were detected in all 31 farms with a mean prevalence of 69%. 3218 out of 3453 collected ticks were Ixodes ricinus; 139 nymphs, 19 larvae and 77 damaged adult specimens could only be determined to the Genus level (Ixodes). The seasonal pattern revealed the highest frequencies of ticks in May/June and September. The intensity of tick infestation of positive animals was generally low. 76.5% of parasitized cattle had 1-6 ticks per day of investigation. Individual cattle showed up to 250 ticks per day. The percentage of infested animals in each herd varied within the period between 0-100%. The examination of serum samples by immunofluorescence technique (IFAT) revealed positive anti-Borrelia antibody titers (> or = 1:64) for 45.6% of the animals. The within-farm seroprevalence of borreliosis ranged from 20 to 100% in 27 of the 31 farms. A significant correlation could be detected between the number of ticks/cattle and the anti-Borrelia burgdorferi IgG-titer. By contrast, there was no significant correlation between the age of the animals and anti-Borrelia serum titers. For comparative reasons, 64 IFAT-positive serum samples were tested by Western blot techniques for the presence of antibodies cross-reacting with Borrelia garinii antigen. These analyses revealed that 69% of the samples reacted positively, 28% were unclear and 3% were negative. Examinations of the 287 serum samples for the presence of anti-Babesia divergens antibodies revealed one positive animal with a titer of 1:16. PMID:17009719

  2. Control of tick infestations in cattle vaccinated with bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed tick protective antigens.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; Moreno-Cantú, Orlando; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Galindo, Ruth C; Canales, Mario; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. Previous studies showed that R. microplus BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein (MSP) 1a N-terminal region (BM95-MSP1a) for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane were protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. In this study, we extended these results by expressing SUB-MSP1a, EF1a-MSP1a and UBQ-MSP1a fusion proteins on the E. coli membrane using this system and demonstrating that bacterial membranes containing the chimeric proteins BM95-MSP1a and SUB-MSP1a were protective (>60% vaccine efficacy) against experimental R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations in cattle. This system provides a novel, simple and cost-effective approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on the E. coli membrane and demonstrates the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions in vaccine preparations to protect cattle against tick infestations. PMID:22085549

  3. Variation in meat quality characteristics between Sanga (Bos taurus africanus) and Sanga-derived cattle breeds and between Sanga and Brahman (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Smith, M F

    2011-03-01

    Cattle breeds indigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P < 0.05). Measurements related to the calcium-dependent protease system and myofibrillar fragmentation explained the bulk of the variation among breeds, whereas variation in fibre type, sarcomere length and connective tissue properties gave less convincing support. With the exception of the Tuli, Sanga and Sanga-related breeds produced more tender (according to SF) meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05). PMID:22445415

  4. Characterizing foraging patterns among cattle and bonded and non- bonded small ruminants using spatial point process techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two mixed-species livestock groups were monitored while foraging on 410 ha of brush-infested Southern New Mexico rangeland during July and August 1988. The groups consisted of crossbred Bos taurus and Bos indicus beef cattle with white-faced sheep (Ovis aries) and mohair goats (Capra hircus). The b...

  5. Characterizing foraging patterns among cattle and bonded and non-bonded small ruminants using spatial point process techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two mixed-species livestock groups were monitored while foraging on 410 ha of brush-infested Southern New Mexico rangeland during July and August 1988. The groups consisted of crossbred Bos taurus and Bos indicus beef cattle with white-faced sheep (Ovis aries) and mohair goats (Capra hircus). The b...

  6. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; Lagunes, Rodolfo; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, José

    2010-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, we describe the analysis of R. microplus glutathione-S transferase, ubiquitin (UBQ), selenoprotein W, elongation factor-1 alpha, and subolesin (SUB) complementary DNAs (cDNAs) by RNA interference (RNAi) in R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus. Candidate protective antigens were selected for vaccination experiments based on the effect of gene knockdown on tick mortality, feeding, and fertility. Two cDNA clones encoding for UBQ and SUB were used for cattle vaccination and infestation with R. microplus and R. annulatus. Control groups were immunized with recombinant Bm86 or adjuvant/saline. The highest vaccine efficacy for the control of tick infestations was obtained for Bm86. Although with low immunogenic response, the results with the SUB vaccine encourage further investigations on the use of recombinant subolesin alone or in combination with other antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. The UBQ peptide showed low immunogenicity, and the results of the vaccination trial were inconclusive to assess the protective efficacy of this antigen. These experiments showed that RNAi could be used for the selection of candidate tick-protective antigens. However, vaccination trials are necessary to evaluate the effect of recombinant antigens in the control of tick infestations, a process that requires efficient recombinant protein production and formulation systems. PMID:19943063

  7. Efficiency of partial treatment of cattle infested with horn fly using 40% diazinon.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Fabiana Alves; Alari, Fernando de Oliveira; Seno, Maria Conceição Zocoller; de Lima, Marco Monteiro; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Chiquitelli Neto, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of partial treatment of animals infested with horn flies. Forty-five Guzerat cows between 4 and 7 years of age were divided into three groups (15 cows per group). The treatments were as follows: in groups G33 and G100, 33.3 and 100% of the cows were treated with one insecticide-impregnated ear tag/animal (40% diazinon), respectively, while in the group GC, the cows were not treated (control). The flies on the cervico-dorsal-lumbar region of the cows, in all three groups, were counted every 14 days. The experiment lasted from September 2006 to September 2009. Over this period, six four-month ear tag treatments, with intervals of one to two months, were conducted on both treated groups. The animals of group G33 had a higher infection than those of group G100, and the number of flies ranged from 12 to 27 (group G33) and from 3 to 11 (group G100). However, groups G33 and G100 had lower infection levels than group GC, which presented from 45 to 87 flies. Partial treatment of cattle infested with horn flies using 40% diazinon insecticide is an efficient alternative for controlling this ectoparasite. PMID:24473881

  8. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Morotti, F; Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Siqueira, E R; Lisboa, L A; Seneda, M M

    2014-03-15

    Obtaining sexed sperm from previously frozen doses (reverse-sorted semen [RSS]) provides an important advantage because of the possibility of using the semen of bulls with desired genetic attributes that have died or have become infertile but from whom frozen semen is available. We report the efficiency of RSS on the pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves in a large-scale program using ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. From 645 ovum pick-up procedures (Holstein, Gir, and Nelore), 9438 viable oocytes were recovered. A dose of frozen semen (Holstein, Nelore, Brahman, Gir, and Braford) was thawed, and the sperm were sex-sorted and cooled for use in IVF. Additionally, IVF with sperm from three Holstein bulls with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted (RSS) or sex-sorted, freeze-thawed (control) was tested. A total of 2729 embryos were produced, exhibiting a mean blastocyst rate of 29%. Heifers and cows selected for adequate body condition, estrus, and health received 2404 embryos, and 60 days later, a 41% average pregnancy rate was observed. A total of 966 calves were born, and 910 were of a predetermined sex, with an average of 94% accuracy in determining the sex. Despite the lower blastocyst rate with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted semen compared with sex-sorted semen, (P < 0.05), the pregnancy rate (bull I, 45% vs. 40%; II, 35% vs. 50%; and III, 47% vs. 48% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) and sex-sorted efficiency (bull I, 93% vs. 98%; II, 96% vs. 94%; and III, 96% vs. 97% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) were similar for each of the three bulls regardless of the sperm type used in the IVF. The sexing of previously frozen semen, associated with IVEP, produces viable embryos with a pregnancy rate of up to 40%, and calves of the desired sex are born even if the paternal bull has acquired some infertility, died, or is located a long distance from the sexing laboratory. Furthermore

  9. Calculation of the efficacy of vaccines against tick infestations on cattle.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Andreotti, Renato; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Leitão, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Cattle ticks are responsible for great economic losses in cattle farming worldwide, and their main control method, chemicals, has been showing problems, whether resulting from the development of resistant strains of ticks or environmental contamination. Research studies directed toward developing vaccines against ticks are emerging. One way to evaluate those vaccines is to calculate the percentage of efficacy. The aim of this study was to analyze scientific publications archived in PubMed that used this method of assessment and discuss the main factors that may affect its calculation. Thus, 25 articles addressing this subject were selected. The percentage of efficacy was usually calculated in one of two ways, with one considering the reduced fertility of eggs and the other not. The latter method may underestimate the vaccine efficacy, and the most complete formula for calculating the efficacy reflects how much the vaccine actually affects the infestation. In our view, the use of the complete formula for calculating the percentage of efficacy is broader and more representative of the vaccine effect on the tick population. PMID:24473884

  10. Efficacy of Hyalomma scupense (Hd86) antigen against Hyalomma excavatum and H. scupense tick infestations in cattle.

    PubMed

    Galaï, Yousr; Canales, Mario; Ben Saïd, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jedidi, Mohamed; de La Fuente, José; Darghouth, Mohamed-Aziz

    2012-11-19

    The Rhipicephalus microplus recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of several Hyalomma cattle ticks genera, namely H. dromedarii and H. anatolicum. However, H. scupense species, the most important tick in North Africa has never been studied. Vaccination trials using either a recombinant Bm86-based vaccine or a recombinant Hd86-based vaccine (the Bm86 ortholog in H. scupense) were conducted in cattle against immature and adult H. scupense ticks and adult H. excavatum ticks. The results showed a 59.19% reduction in the number of scupense nymphs engorging on Hd86 vaccinated cattle. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 or Hd86 did not have an effect on H. scupense or H. excavatum adult ticks infestations. These results showed that Hd86 vaccines are selectively effective against H. scupense immature instars and emphasize on an integrated anti-tick vaccine control in North Africa. PMID:23036501

  11. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P < 0.05), suggesting the presence of variation affecting meat tenderness. All three informative SNP at the CAPN1 gene were associated with hump height (P < 0.02). The TG marker was associated with fat thickness and LMA (P < 0.05), but not with marbling score. No significant associations of the SNP in the DGAT1 gene were observed for any trait. Allele frequencies of the SNP in TG and CAPN1 were different in this Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers. PMID:15583037

  12. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle. PMID:9051459

  13. The US experience of eradicating and preventing re-infestation with cattle fever ticks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, and the cattle tick, R. annulatus, are obligate ectoparasites and the vectors of pathogens causing bovine babesiosis, or “Cattle Fever”, and anaplasmosis in cattle. These cattle fever tick (CFT) species were declared eradicated from the U.S. in 1943...

  14. Bos indicus-cross feedlot cattle with excitable temperaments have tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters.

    PubMed

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Deesing, M J

    1997-08-01

    Temperament ratings based on a numerical scale (chute score) were assessed during weighing and handling of cattle at a feedlot. Breeds studied included Braford, Red Brangus and Simbrah. Cattle were fed to a constant fat thickness of 9 to 13 mm (target = 11 mm) over the 12th rib as determined by periodic ultrasound measurements. Cattle were slaughtered in a commercial slaughter plant and stunned by captive bolt. Temperament rating had a significant effect on the incidence of borderline dark cutters which were downgraded by a USDA grader (P = 0.01). Temperament score also had a significant effect on tenderness (P < 0.001) as evaluated by Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS) force at day 14 post mortem. The calmest animals which stood still when restrained in a hydraulic squeeze chute had a mean WBS force of 2.86 ± 11 kg and cattle which became highly agitated and struggled violently during restraint averaged 3.63 ± 19 kg. Forty percent of these cattle had WBS force values which were over 3.9 kg which is a threshold value for acceptability in food service establishments. These data show that cattle with the most excitable temperament ratings produce carcasses with tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters than cattle with calm temperament ratings. PMID:22062320

  15. Microsatellite DNA Variation and the Evolution, Domestication and Phylogeography of Taurine and Zebu Cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus)

    PubMed Central

    MacHugh, D. E.; Shriver, M. D.; Loftus, R. T.; Cunningham, P.; Bradley, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic variation at 20 microsatellite loci was surveyed to determine the evolutionary relationships and molecular biogeography of 20 different cattle populations from Africa, Europe and Asia. Phylogenetic reconstruction and multivariate analysis highlighted a marked distinction between humpless (taurine) and humped (zebu) cattle, providing strong support for a separate origin for domesticated zebu cattle. A molecular clock calculation using bison (Bison sp.) as an outgroup gave an estimated divergence time between the two subspecies of 610,000-850,000 years. Substantial differences in the distribution of alleles at 10 of these loci were observed between zebu and taurine cattle. These markers subsequently proved very useful for investigations of gene flow and admixture in African populations. When these data were considered in conjunction with previous mitochondrial and Y chromosomal studies, a distinctive male-mediated pattern of zebu genetic introgression was revealed. The introgression of zebu-specific alleles in African cattle afforded a high resolution perspective on the hybrid nature of African cattle populations and also suggested that certain West African populations of valuable disease-tolerant taurine cattle are under threat of genetic absorption by migrating zebu herds. PMID:9215909

  16. Comparative biochemical changes in young Zebu cattle experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave J; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2014-10-15

    Trypanosomosis is a vector-borne protozoan disease of animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, particularly the northwest region is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects and compare differences in virulence of Trypanosoma vivax infection between tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia on the basis of serum biochemical values in Zebu cattle. Eighteen cattles purchased from trypanosome free area and aged between 9 and 12 months were assigned into three groups of six animals (Group TT=infected with T. vivax from tsetse infested area, Group NT=infected with T. vivax from non-tsetse infested area and Group C=non-infected control). For each experimental animal 3 ml of blood from naturally infected cattle was inoculated intravenously at 10(6) trypanosomes/ml except the control. Blood sample was collected once a week for 8 consecutive weeks for analyzing serum biochemical values (glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and enzymes including GOT, GPT and ALP) using a Humastar 80 clinical chemistry analyzer. Both T. vivax parasites caused an acute infection with parasites appearing in circulation on 6 and 12 days post-infection for NT and TT cattle, respectively. A significant reduction (P<0.001) in glucose levels was observed in infected groups compared with the control with mean values of 33.8 ± 3.6 mg/dl for TT, 34.3 ± 3.6 mg/dl for NT and 70.9 ± 3.0 mg/dl for control groups. A similar reduction was also seen in total cholesterol values (P=0.001) with 70.4 ± 10.6 mg/dl for TT and 78.0 ± 10.6 mg/dl for NT groups compared to 139.5 ± 8.7 mg/dl for the control group. No difference was observed for total serum protein between the three groups (P=0.260) whereas the mean albumin level was significantly (P<0.001) decreased (3.5 ± 0.1g/dl and 2.9 ± 0.1g/dl in TT and NT groups respectively) compared to that for control cattle (4.5 ± 0.1g

  17. Reticulo-ruminal motility in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) fed a low quality roughage diet.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, C S; Kennedy, P M; John, A

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of A and B sequence contractions of the reticulo-rumen on passage rate of digesta was compared in buffaloes and cattle fed low quality rhodes grass. 2. Both species ate the same amount per unit body weight but buffaloes spent 53% more time ruminating than cattle. 3. Buffaloes had fewer A and B sequence contractions each day and the rate of these contractions during eating, ruminating and at rest were slower. 4. A larger pool of fine feed particles in the rumen of buffaloes, generated by extra ruminating activity was associated with the 30% shorter mean residence time of particulate matter in the forestomach compared with cattle. 5. It is concluded that the difference in the number and frequency of contractions between the species was insufficient to affect passage rate of digesta from the stomach. PMID:2575949

  18. Widespread movement of invasive cattle fever ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus) in southern Texas leads to shared local infestations on cattle and deer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a highly-invasive tick that transmits the cattle parasites (Babesia bovis and B. bigemina) that cause cattle fever. R. microplus and Babesia are endemic in Mexico and ticks persist in the United States inside a narrow tick eradication quarantine area (TEQA) along the Rio Grande. This containment area is threatened by unregulated movements of illegal cattle and wildlife like white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus). Methods Using 11 microsatellite loci we genotyped 1,247 R. microplus from 63 Texas collections, including outbreak infestations from outside the TEQA. We used population genetic analyses to test hypotheses about ecological persistence, tick movement, and impacts of the eradication program in southern Texas. We tested acaricide resistance with larval packet tests (LPTs) on 47 collections. Results LPTs revealed acaricide resistance in 15/47 collections (32%); 11 were outside the TEQA and three were resistant to multiple acaricides. Some collections highly resistant to permethrin were found on cattle and WTD. Analysis of genetic differentiation over time at seven properties revealed local gene pools with very low levels of differentiation (FST 0.00-0.05), indicating persistence over timespans of up to 29 months. However, in one neighborhood differentiation varied greatly over a 12-month period (FST 0.03-0.13), suggesting recurring immigration from distinct sources as another persistence mechanism. Ticks collected from cattle and WTD at the same location are not differentiated (FST = 0), implicating ticks from WTD as a source of ticks on cattle (and vice versa) and emphasizing the importance of WTD to tick control strategies. We identified four major genetic groups (K = 4) using Bayesian population assignment, suggesting multiple introductions to Texas. Conclusions Two dispersal mechanisms give rise to new tick infestations: 1) frequent short-distance dispersal from the TEQA; and 2) rare long

  19. Protective Immunity Against Tick Infestation in Cattle Vaccinated with Recombinant Trypsin Inhibitor of Rhipicephalus Microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, and the related cattle fever tick species, R. annulatus, collectively referred to herein as Cattle Fever Ticks (CFT), transmit Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and Anaplasma marginale, that cause bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis, respectively....

  20. Strategies for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to enhance genotype imputation in Gyr (Bos indicus) dairy cattle: Comparison of commercially available SNP chips.

    PubMed

    Boison, S A; Santos, D J A; Utsunomiya, A H T; Carvalheiro, R; Neves, H H R; O'Brien, A M Perez; Garcia, J F; Sölkner, J; da Silva, M V G B

    2015-07-01

    Genotype imputation is widely used as a cost-effective strategy in genomic evaluation of cattle. Key determinants of imputation accuracies, such as linkage disequilibrium patterns, marker densities, and ascertainment bias, differ between Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds. Consequently, there is a need to investigate effectiveness of genotype imputation in indicine breeds. Thus, the objective of the study was to investigate strategies and factors affecting the accuracy of genotype imputation in Gyr (Bos indicus) dairy cattle. Four imputation scenarios were studied using 471 sires and 1,644 dams genotyped on Illumina BovineHD (HD-777K; San Diego, CA) and BovineSNP50 (50K) chips, respectively. Scenarios were based on which reference high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel (HDP) should be adopted [HD-777K, 50K, and GeneSeek GGP-75Ki (Lincoln, NE)]. Depending on the scenario, validation animals had their genotypes masked for one of the lower-density panels: Illumina (3K, 7K, and 50K) and GeneSeek (SGGP-20Ki and GGP-75Ki). We randomly selected 171 sires as reference and 300 as validation for all the scenarios. Additionally, all sires were used as reference and the 1,644 dams were imputed for validation. Genotypes of 98 individuals with 4 and more offspring were completely masked and imputed. Imputation algorithms FImpute and Beagle v3.3 and v4 were used. Imputation accuracies were measured using the correlation and allelic correct rate. FImpute resulted in highest accuracies, whereas Beagle 3.3 gave the least-accurate imputations. Accuracies evaluated as correlation (allelic correct rate) ranged from 0.910 (0.942) to 0.961 (0.974) using 50K as HDP and with 3K (7K) as low-density panels. With GGP-75Ki as HDP, accuracies were moderate for 3K, 7K, and 50K, but high for SGGP-20Ki. The use of HD-777K as HDP resulted in accuracies of 0.888 (3K), 0.941 (7K), 0.980 (SGGP-20Ki), 0.982 (50K), and 0.993 (GGP-75Ki). Ungenotyped individuals were imputed with an

  1. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CAPN1 and CAST genes on meat traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and in their crosses with Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Curi, R A; Chardulo, L A L; Mason, M C; Arrigoni, M D B; Silveira, A C; de Oliveira, H N

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the segregation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the calpain 1, large subunit (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Nellore xBos taurus beef cattle, as well as to evaluate their effects on meat traits. For this, 300 animals, including 114 Nellore, 67 Angus x Nellore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nellore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way crosses and 15 Braunvieh three-way crosses, were genotyped for the CAPN4751 [AF_248054.2:g.6545C>T (GenBank accession AF248054.2)] and CAST/DdeI [AF_159246.1:g.2959A>G (GenBank accession AF159246.1)] polymorphisms and phenotyped for Ribeye Area, Backfat Thickness, Intramuscular Fat, Shear Force (SF) and Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI). In relation to the CAPN4751 polymorphism, a frequency of 10.5% was observed for the C allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample of studied animals, a significant association was found between genotypes and meat tenderness, assessed by SF (P = 0.005) and MFI (P = 0.008), with genotype CT being more favourable than TT. For the CAST/DdeI polymorphism, a frequency of 55.7% was found for the A allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample, a significant association was observed between genotypes and meat tenderness - SF (P = 0.004) and MFI (P = 0.006), with genotype AA being more favourable than AG. The relationship between genotypes and aged meat tenderness in confluence with the distribution of favourable alleles shows great potential for application of the CAPN4751 and CAST/DdeI polymorphisms in the genetic improvement of the Nellore breed, whilst contributing to the validation, in this breed and in its crosses with B. taurus, of the association results previously described in the literature. PMID:19392828

  2. Control of tick infestations and pathogen prevalence in cattle and sheep farms vaccinated with the recombinant Subolesin-Major Surface Protein 1a chimeric antigen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the use of chemical acaricides, tick infestations continue to affect animal health and production worldwide. Tick vaccines have been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative for tick control. Vaccination with the candidate tick protective antigen, Subolesin (SUB), has been shown experimentally to be effective in controlling vector infestations and pathogen infection. Furthermore, Escherichia coli membranes containing the chimeric antigen composed of SUB fused to Anaplasma marginale Major Surface Protein 1a (MSP1a) (SUB-MSP1a) were produced using a simple low-cost process and proved to be effective for the control of cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations in pen trials. In this research, field trials were conducted to characterize the effect of vaccination with SUB-MSP1a on tick infestations and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in a randomized controlled prospective study. Methods Two cattle and two sheep farms with similar geographical locations and production characteristics were randomly assigned to control and vaccinated groups. Ticks were collected, counted, weighed and classified and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens at the DNA and serological levels were followed for one year prior to and 9 months after vaccination. Results Both cattle and sheep developed antibodies against SUB in response to vaccination. The main effect of the vaccine in cattle was the 8-fold reduction in the percent of infested animals while vaccination in sheep reduced tick infestations by 63%. Female tick weight was 32-55% lower in ticks collected from both vaccinated cattle and sheep when compared to controls. The seroprevalence of Babesia bigemina was lower by 30% in vaccinated cattle, suggesting a possible role for the vaccine in decreasing the prevalence of this tick-borne pathogen. The effect of the vaccine in reducing the frequency of one A. marginale msp4 genotype probably reflected

  3. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Tharparkar of semi-arid region (4.72 ± 1.55) compared to arid region (2.83 ± 1.01). Similarly, the frequency of SCEs was found to be 4.0 ± 1.41 in the Sahiwal of semi-arid region and 2.69 ± 1.12 in Kankrej of arid zone. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) amongst the different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  4. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in Tharparkar of semi-arid region (4.72 ± 1.55) compared to arid region (2.83 ± 1.01). Similarly, the frequency of SCEs was found to be 4.0 ± 1.41 in the Sahiwal of semi-arid region and 2.69 ± 1.12 in Kankrej of arid zone. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences ( P < 0.05) amongst the different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference ( P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  5. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T; Tonk, R K; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Tharparkar of semi-arid region (4.72 ± 1.55) compared to arid region (2.83 ± 1.01). Similarly, the frequency of SCEs was found to be 4.0 ± 1.41 in the Sahiwal of semi-arid region and 2.69 ± 1.12 in Kankrej of arid zone. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) amongst the different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability. PMID:26476524

  6. Therapeutic and residual efficacy of a pour-on formulation of Novaluron against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari:Ixodidae) on infested cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a pour-on formulation of novaluron (Novatack Pour-on 5% AI), a benzoylphenyl urea acaricide, was evaluated by applying low and high rates (1 mg/20 kg body weight and 1 mg/10 kg body weight) to cattle infested with all parasitic developmental stages (adults, nymphs, and larvae) o...

  7. Effect of rainfall exposure immediately after a single dip treatment with coumaphos on the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari:Ixodidae) on infested cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficacy of coumaphos applied as a single dip treatment at 0.182% active ingredient was determined against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) in all stages of development on infested cattle that were exposed to various levels of rainfall immediately following treatment. One group of c...

  8. Therapeutic and residual efficacy of a pour-on formulation of Novaluron against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) on infested cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a pour-on formulation of novaluron (Novatack Pour-on 5% AI), a benzoylphenyl urea acaricide, was evaluated by applying low and high rates (1 mg/20 kg body weight and 1 mg/10 kg body weight) to cattle infested with all parasitic developmental stages (adults, nymphs, and larvae) o...

  9. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species. PMID:8952073

  10. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) initial yield values compared to supplements given 2d prior to slaughter. Supplementation had no significant effect on meat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly

  11. Supplementation with sunflower seed increases circulating cholesterol concentrations and potentially impacts on the pregnancy rates in Bos indicus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Mariângela B; Peres, Mariana S; de Souza, Johnny M; Gaspar, Pércio; Barbiere, Fausto; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Filho, Milton Maturana; Dinardi, Robson N; Nogueira, Guilherme P; Mesquita, Fernando S; Pugliesi, Guilherme; Martins, Thiago; Binelli, Mario; Membrive, Claudia M B

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with sunflower seed on blood concentrations of progesterone and cholesterol and on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) and timed embryo transfer (TET). In experiment 1, cows were received 22-day supplements containing (sunflower, n = 66) sunflower seed or not (control, n = 67) immediately after a progesterone/estradiol-based TAI protocol (Day 0). The cholesterol concentration on Day 21 and the pregnancy rate were greater (P < 0.03) in the sunflower group (148.2 ± 6.1 mg/dL and 66.7%) than those in the control group (116.0 ± 6.4 mg/dL and 47.8%). In experiment 2, heifers received an in vitro-produced embryo 7 days after the expected time of the synchronized ovulation. Heifers were separated into two supplementation groups (sunflower, n = 106 and control, n = 111) for 22 days. The plasma progesterone concentration on Day 7 was not different between the groups. However, on Day 19, the plasma progesterone concentration was greater (P < 0.0001) in the sunflower group (5.8 ± 0.4 ng/mL) than that in the control group (3.5 ± 0.4 ng/mL). A greater (P < 0.05) cholesterol concentration was observed in the sunflower group than that in the control group on Days 7 (306.0 ± 11.6 vs. 277.1 ± 11.9 mg/dL, respectively) and 19 (260.5 ± 8.0 vs. 232.0 ± 8.0 mg/dL, respectively). The pregnancy rate was greater (P = 0.01) in the sunflower-treated heifers (55.7%) than that in control-treated heifers (36.9%). Results indicate that sunflower seed supplementation increases the circulating cholesterol concentrations and potentially impacts the pregnancy rate in suckled beef cattle subjected to TAI or TET. PMID:25772849

  12. Ixodid Tick Infestation in Cattle and Wild Animals in Maswa and Iringa, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania. PMID:25352709

  13. Effects of different spray formulations on the reproductive parameters of engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus females detached from experimentally infested cattle.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzzulini, Carolina; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Felippelli, Gustavo; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Soares, Vando Edésio; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Campos, Gabriel Pimentel; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-11-01

    This present study aimed to evaluate the deleterious effects of some commercially available spray formulations (15% Cypermethrin+25% Chlorpyriphos+1% Citronellal and 8% Cypermethrin+60% Ethion) on the reproductive parameters of engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus females that detached from experimentally infested cattle. The following reproductive parameters of engorged female ticks were analyzed: female weight, egg mass weight, percentage of hatchability, percentage of reduction in oviposition, percentage of reduction in hatchability, reproductive efficiency and percent control/efficacy of formulations for reproductive parameters. Our findings showed that although the strain R. (B.) microplus used in both experiments was thought to be sensitive to the test compounds because of the acaricidal efficacy observed throughout these trials, it was not possible to observe overall deleterious effects on the reproductive parameters of this tick species with both spray formulations. However, the 8% Cypermethrin+60% Ethion showed short-term significant effects on the weight of female ticks between the 14th and 16th days post-treatment and the weight of female and the egg mass weight between the 20th and 22nd days post-treatment. New studies should be conducted to show if these results regarding the reproductive parameters of fully engorged R. (B.) microplus females, combined with the acaricidal efficacy can be sufficient to reduce the number of chemical treatments administered to cattle. PMID:26427633

  14. Effect of electrical stimulation on protease activity and tenderness of M. longissimus from cattle with different proportions of Bos indicus content.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D M; Jiang, S T; Hearnshaw, H; Rymill, S R; Thompson, J M

    2000-07-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on protease activity (at approx. 3 h postmortem), sensory tenderness scores and shear force was determined on M. longissimus samples from three Bos indicus genotypes (0% Hereford, 50% Brahman×Hereford and 100% Brahman). The samples were divided and aged for 1 or 30 days. Electrical stimulation resulted in a general reduction in calpastatin activity suggesting that it accelerated proteolysis. Calpastatin activity increased commensurate with increasing Bos indicus content. Several significant interactions were shown, the most relevant of these was the interaction between Bos indicus content×electrical stimulation. In contrast to the other genotypes, calpain I and calpain II activities were shown to increase (significant for calpain II only) following stimulation in the purebred Brahmans (100%). There was a significant reduction in tenderness with increasing Bos indicus content. However, breed differences in shear force were reduced by electrical stimulation. The improvement in shear force following ageing was smaller for stimulated carcasses compared to the controls. This tends to reinforce the premise that electrical stimulation accelerates proteolysis. The results of this study show clear genotypic differences in proteolytic activity and tenderness. However, electrical stimulation can be employed to reduce breed differences in tenderness of the M. longissimus. PMID:22061281

  15. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus aquaporin as an effective vaccine antigen to protect against cattle tick infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cDNA encoding an aquaporin from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, was isolated from transcriptomic studies. Bioinformatic analysis indicates this aquaporin, designated RmAQP1, shows greatest amino acid similarity to the human aquaporin 7 family. Members of this family of water-conducting c...

  16. The effect of a single injection of nitroxynil at 20 mg/kg live mass in the treatment of parafilaria bovicola infestations in cattle.

    PubMed

    Wellington, A C; van Schalkwyk, L

    1982-06-01

    The efficacy of nitroxynil administered once by subcutaneous injection at a dosage regimen of 20 mg/kg live mass was evaluated against natural infestations of parafilaria bovicola in cattle. Trial animals were slaughtered 14 weeks after treatment. Treatment reduced the number of bleeding points by 97,8%, eosinophil-positive carcass lesions by 85,7% and eosinophil-positive lesion area by 92,8%, compared with controls. PMID:7120274

  17. Comparison of synthetic oviductal fluid and G1/G2 medium under low-1 oxygen atmosphere on embryo production and pregnancy rates in Nelore (Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Ferreira, C R; Perecin, F; Seneda, M M

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we evaluated whether embryo development and pregnancy rates would be affected by culturing bovine Bos indicus embryos in Synthetic Oviductal Fluid with amino acids (SOFaa) or G1/G2 sequential medium under a low-oxygen atmosphere. Using Ovum Pick Up, we obtained 1,538 oocytes, divided into G1/G2 (n = 783) and SOFaa (n = 755). No difference was observed for blastocyst development among the groups (27.8% ± 14.6 and 34.9% ± 20.0 for G1/G2 and SOFaa respectively, p > 0.05). Transferring the embryos (n = 450) from both groups to recipients resulted in similar pregnancy rates for the G1/G2 (38.4% n = 78/203) compared to the SOFaa (39.7% n = 98/247). Our findings confirm that Bos indicus embryos cultured in SOFaa and G1/G2 under low-oxygen atmosphere have similar in vitro (blastocyst rate) and in vivo (pregnancy rate) developmental capacity. However, embryos cultured in G1/G2 medium have higher cleavage than those cultured in SOFaa medium. PMID:22448771

  18. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  19. Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) with natural estrus or estrus induced with prostaglandin F2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, O L; Barros, C M; Figueiredo, R A; do Valle, E R; Encarnação, R O; Padovani, C R

    1998-02-01

    Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval are essential for estimating the best time to artificially inseminate cattle. Because these parameters are not well characterized in the Nelore breed (Bos indicus), the main purpose of the this study was to determine the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore heifers and cows with natural estrus or with estrus induced by treatments with PGF2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate (NEV). The cows and heifers were observed continuously (24 h a day) to determine the onset of estrus and to study estrous behavior in the cows. Ten hours after the start of estrus the ovaries were scanned every 2 h by ultrasonography to monitor the dominant follicle until ovulation. Blood samples were collected periodically to determine progesterone levels by RIA. Administration of PGF2 alpha (2 injections, 11 days apart) did not induce estrus in most Nelore females in spite of the presence of functional CL, indicated by progesterone concentrations above 6.0 ng/ml in 25 of 28 animals. Treatment with NEV induced high sexual receptivity in cows (10/11), but only 66% ovulated. Cows with natural or induced estrus exhibited behavioral estrus of 10.9 +/- 1.4 h, and ovulation occurred 26.6 +/- 0.44 h (n = 26) after the onset of estrus. In most of the cows (53.8%) estrus began at night (between 1801 and 600 h), and 34.6% it started and finished during the night. It is concluded that in Nelore females ovulation occurs approximately 26 h after the onset of estrus. Additionally, estrous behavior is shorter than in European breeds, and there is a high incidence of estrus at night, which makes it difficult to detect and, consequently, impairs Al in Nelore cattle. The observation that a high percentage of Nelore females with an active CL did not respond to usual dosages of PGF2 alpha warrants further investigation. PMID:10732045

  20. Effect of vaccination with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation on natural infestations of Boophilus microplus in grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Massard, C L; da Fonseca, A H; Ramos, N F; Machado, H; Labarta, V; de la Fuente, J

    1995-12-01

    Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Recent advances have introduced the possibility for the immunological control of the parasite through the use of recombinant vaccines. Recently, it was shown that the recombinant vaccine Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.) is able to control B. microplus populations in artificially infected grazing dairy cattle in Cuba. To assay the effect of the vaccine on a different B. microplus strain and under different ecological conditions, we conducted a trial in Brazil on grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle under natural infestation conditions. A farm in the northeast of the state of Sao Paulo was selected and two groups of animals per breed were included in the experiment and were maintained grazing on separate but similar pastures. For each breed, one group was vaccinated with the vaccine Gavac and the second group was not vaccinated and was employed as a control. In vaccinated cattle, during 36 weeks of experiment, the average infestation rate was maintained below 78 ticks per animal while average infestation peaks (mean +/- S.E.) of 144 +/- 44 ticks per animal (for dairy cross-bred cattle) and 195 +/- 42 ticks per animal (for beef cross-bred cattle) were recorded in the control groups. Tick infestation rates showed statistical significant differences (p = 0.04) between both experimental groups throughout the experiment. These results clearly showed, as in the Cuban study, that the vaccine controlled tick numbers in successive generations in the field. PMID:8701597

  1. Ovum pick up, in vitro embryo production, and pregnancy rates from a large-scale commercial program using Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) donors.

    PubMed

    Pontes, J H F; Melo Sterza, F A; Basso, A C; Ferreira, C R; Sanches, B V; Rubin, K C P; Seneda, M M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to clarify in vitro production of bovine embryos in Brazil. Data from 656 ovum pick-up/in vitro production (OPU/IVP) procedures, performed on 317 Nelore (Bos indicus) donors, without hormone stimulation or control of ovarian follicular waves, were analysed. Donors were subjected to OPU from one to nine times (no specific schedule), with < 15 d between consecutive procedures. There were 20,848 oocytes, of which 15,747 (75.53%) were considered viable, 5,446 embryos were obtained, 5,398 embryos were immediately transferred, resulting in 1,974 pregnancies (36.57%) at Day 30 and 1,788 (33.12%) pregnancies at Day 60. The average number of total and viable oocytes produced per OPU session was (mean ± SEM) 30.84 ± 0.88 and 23.35 ± 0.7 (average of 8.1 ± 0.3 embryos and 3.0 ± 0.1 pregnancies per OPU-IVP procedure). Since oocyte production varied widely among donor, they were designated as very high, high, intermediate, and low, with 58.94 ± 2.04, 32.61 ± 0.50, 22.13 ± 0.50, and 10.26 ± 0.57 oocytes, respectively, produced by 78, 80, 79, and 80 donors. The number of viable oocytes recovered ranged from 0 to 128; since donors with numerous viable oocytes produced many viable embryos and pregnancies, oocyte production was useful for donor selection. However, there was no significant effect of the number of OPU sessions per donor on mean numbers of oocytes produced. In conclusion, we confirmed field reports of high oocyte production by some Nelore donors and demonstrated individual variation in oocyte yield, which was associated with embryo production and pregnancy rates. PMID:21334055

  2. [Photosensitization in cattle grazing on pastures of Brahciaria decumbens Stapf infested with Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M.B. Ellis].

    PubMed

    Andrade, S O; da Silva Lopes, H O; de Almeida Barros, M; Leite, G G; Dias, S M; Saueressig, M; Nobre, D; Temperini, J A

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of photosensitization in bovines grazing on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf infested with Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M.B. Ellis infested all pastures 45(2):117-136, 1978. This paper reports experimental studies on photosensitization in bovines grazing on different pastures of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in the "Cerrados" region (Planaltina, DF). Climatic conditions, zinc content and occurence of fungi on pastures were investigated. Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M.B. Ellis infested all pastures examined. Photosensitization was observed in one animal maintained on a pasture of B. decumbens formed with seeds from Australia. Clinical and necropsy data were similar to those related in literature for sporidesmin-intoxicated animals. An isolate of P. chartarum and samples of bovine bile were assayed for sporidesmin presence. PMID:573108

  3. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shreya M.; Koringa, Prakash G.; Nathani, Neelam M.; Patel, Namrata V.; Shah, Tejash M.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations. PMID:26925373

  4. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  5. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-02-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations. PMID:26925373

  6. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of relatively low number of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, conservation of genetic resources and maintenance of the sustainability of the breed...

  7. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P<0.006 and P<0.01, respectively) associated with Brucella abortus seropositivity. Herd composition, abortion in herd, exchange of bulls for mating, introduction of new cattle, and socio-cultural practices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. PMID:26464048

  8. Tick infestations in extensively grazed cattle and efficacy trial of high-cis cypermethrin pour-on preparation for control of ticks in Mvomero district in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed at determining the extent of tick infestations in extensively grazed cattle and assess the efficacy of Ecotix® acaricide (2.5% high cis cypermethrin) in Mvomero district in Tanzania. A total of 1200 Tanzanian short horn Zebu (TSHZ) from two farms in two villages were qualitatively assessed for tick infestations and 40 animals (grouped in 10s from each farm) were separated in their herds and quantitatively examined to establish the tick load. The animals were grouped in treatment regime groups (TxRG 1, 2, 3, and 4), TxRG 1 being the control group was treated with water. Ecotix® was applied on day 0 for TxRG 2, days 0 and 7 for TxRG 3 and days 0, 7 and 14 for TxRG 4 and tick load was monitored for 28 days. Results All the animals examined were infested with ticks. The identified ticks were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (55%), Amblyomma variegatum (18%), R. (Boophilus) microplus (12.9%), R. (B) decoloratus (7.1%), R. evertsi evertsi (4.4%) and R. composites (2.6%). The overall mean (mean ± SEM) tick density on day zero was 63 ± 30 ticks per animal (ranging from 20–160). The mean tick density on day zero was 44.6 ± 25.4, 74.6 ± 30.3, 55.0 ± 26.2 and 77 ± 33.5 for groups one, two, three and four respectively. Post-treatment quantitative assessment of tick burden revealed that the TxRG 1 animals maintained a tick load throughout the study period. A significant decrease in tick load in animals in groups TxRG 2, 3 and 4 (P=0.0001) with increasing frequency of Ecotix® application was recorded. There was however no significant difference in tick reduction between TxRG 3 and 4 (P=0.0986). Thus TxRG 3 would be sufficient for the monthly tick treatment and with this regime, the farmer would save up to 2.5 USD per animal during six months of dry season. Conclusions The study revealed a high tick infestation among the TSHZ kept in extensive grazing systems in Mvomero district and that when treated with Ecotix® as pour-on preparation using a

  9. Widespread Movement of Invasive Cattle Fever Ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus) in Southern Texas Leads to Shared Local Infestations on Cattle and Deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Rhipicephalus microplus is a highly-invasive tick that vectors cattle fever parasites (Babesia bovis and B. bigemina). In North America, ticks and Babesia are endemic in Mexico and ticks persist in the United States inside a narrow permanent quarantine zone (PQZ) along the Rio Grande. Th...

  10. Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, J P; Cooper, D A; Cartmill, J A; Zuluaga, J F; Stanko, R L; Williams, G L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare cumulative pregnancy rates in a traditional management (TM) scheme with those using a synchronization of ovulation protocol (CO-Synch + CIDR) for timed AI (TAI) in Bos indicus-influenced cattle; 2) evaluate ovarian and hormonal events associated with CO-Synch + CIDR and CO-Synch without CIDR; and 3) determine estrual and ovulatory distributions in cattle synchronized with Select-Synch + CIDR. The CO-Synch + CIDR regimen included insertion of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR) and an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) on d 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of PGF2alpha (PGF) on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. For Exp. 1, predominantly Brahman x Hereford (F1) and Brangus females (n = 335) were stratified by BCS, parity, and day postpartum (parous females) before random assignment to CO-Synch + CIDR or TM. To maximize the number of observations related to TAI conception rate (n = 266), an additional 96 females in which TM controls were not available for comparison also received CO-Synch + CIDR. Conception rates to TAI averaged 39 +/- 3% and were not affected by location, year, parity, AI sire, or AI technician. Cumulative pregnancy rates were greater (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60 d of the breeding season in CO-Synch + CIDR (74.1 and 95.9%) compared with TM (61.8 and 89.7%). In Exp. 2, postpartum Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows (n = 100) were stratified as in Exp. 1 and divided into 4 replicates of 25. Within each replicate, approximately one-half (12 to 13) received CO-Synch + CIDR, and the other half received CO-Synch only (no CIDR). No differences were observed between treatments, and the data were pooled. Percentages of cows ovulating to GnRH-1, developing a synchronized follicular wave, exhibiting luteal regression to PGF, and ovulating to GnRH-2 were 40 +/- 5, 60 +/- 5, 93 +/- 2, and 72 +/- 4%, respectively. In Exp. 3, primiparous Brahman x Hereford, (F1) heifers (n = 32) and pluriparous

  11. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects). Genetic correlations between IBK incidence and tick and helminth egg

  12. Chemo-profiling and bioassay of phytoextracts from Ageratum conyzoides for acaricidal properties against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting cattle and buffaloes in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K G Ajith; Tayade, Amol B; Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, Suman; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Tewari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Rawat, A K S; Srivastava, Sharad; Kumar, Sachin; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-03-01

    In India, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations have developed a certain level of resistance to most of the acaricides marketed against tick species. To manage the problem, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the acaricidal potential of Ageratum conyzoides plants against acaricides-resistant ticks infesting cattle and buffaloes. The regression analysis of dose-response data of ethanolic extract of A. conyzoides revealed LC90 value of 8.91% against reference susceptible IVRI-1 line of R.(B.) microplus. The ethanolic extract was found efficacious against 76.7-90% acaricides-resistant field ticks and adversely affected oviposition showing 7.04-31.3% reduction in egg laying capacity. The extract was also showed an in vitro efficacy of 52.5 and 76.7% against reference resistant IVRI-4 and 5 lines. The GC/MS/MS profiling of hexane extract, two bioactive sub-fractions and essential oils revealed the presence of 6,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran (precocene II) as a major phyto-compound. The bioactive sub-fractions showed 96.2-97.5% efficacy against larvae of IVRI-1 and 77.1-94.9% against multi-acaricide resistant larvae of IVRI-5 line of R.(B.) microplus. The results of this study provided significant support for the development of a phyto-formulation based on A. conyzoides species. PMID:26723275

  13. Potential synergistic effect of Melia azedarach fruit extract and Beauveria bassiana in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in cattle infestations.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Lorena Alessandra Dias; Pires, Hélio Bernardes; Soares, Sara Fernandes; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Ribas, Patricia; Lima, Eliane Martins; Furlong, John; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2011-02-10

    The use of a concentrate emulsion of Melia azedarach green fruits and a suspension of the fungus Beauveria bassiana was evaluated in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus on artificially infested cattle. The evaluation was conducted following the protocol established by the Brazilian Agriculture Ministry. Five groups of 4 or 5 animals were allocated to one of the following treatments: emulsion concentrate of M. azedarach at 0.25% (T AZED 0.25%), emulsion concentrate of M. azedarach at 0.5% (T AZED 0.5%), B. bassiana at 2.4 × 10(8) conidia (T BASS), association of the concentrate of M. azedarach at 0.25% with B. bassiana at 2.4 × 10(8) conidia (T AZED 0.25%+BASS), and control (untreated). The association of the two compounds provided better results than any one isolated treatment, indicating compatibility or perhaps a synergy between M. azedarach and B. bassiana. This treatment resulted in fewer engorged females (129 ± 70) than in the control group (233 ± 82), showing high performance against all developmental stages of the tick. Results revealed an apparent synergistic effect of M. azedarach and B. bassiana in the control of R. microplus that should be further investigated. PMID:21055878

  14. Membrane proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction: A proteomic comparison between Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) and Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Othman, Iekhsan; Yee, Tee Ting; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-11-01

    Production performance of European cattle breeds has significantly improved through various breeding programs. However, European breeds are more susceptible to heat stress compared to zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as their conception rate can range between 20 to 30% in hot seasons compared to winter. To identify cattle sperm proteins associated with zebu cattle higher fertility and heat tolerance in tropical environments, we utilised a proteomics-based approach to compare sperm from the highly fertile Malaysian indigenous breed, Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus), with sperm from the sub-fertile crossbreed, Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus). Frozen semen of three high performance bulls from each breed was processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Proteins were separated and gel bands were processed by in-gel tryptic digestion. For each breed, mass spectrometry data was acquired over 11 replicates. The analyzed data identified peptides with different expression levels (99% confidence level) and protein identification was determined by targeted MS/MS. Among the identified proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction, two proteins were up-regulated in Kedah Kelantan sperm and 7 proteins were up-regulated in or specific to Mafriwal. Our results suggest that the higher fertility of zebu cattle in tropical areas may not be related to more efficient sperm-oocyte interaction. Further analysis of the other regulated proteins in these two breeds may contribute further knowledge on the physiological reason/s for higher fertility and heat tolerance of Zebu cattle in tropical areas.

  15. In vivo experimental drug resistance study in Trypanosoma vivax isolates from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave; McCulloch, Richard; Goddeeris, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Ethiopia, particularly in the Northwest region, is affected by both tsetse fly and non-tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. The control of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (DA) or isometamidium chloride (ISM), respectively. However, since these two trypanocides have been on the market for more than 40 years, this may have resulted in drug-resistance. Therefore, in vivo drug resistance tests on two Ethiopian isolates of Trypanosoma vivax were completed, one from an area where tsetse flies are present and one from an area where tsetse flies are not present. Twenty four cattle (Bos indicus) aged between 6 and 12 months, purchased from a trypanosome-free area (Debre Brehan: Northcentral Ethiopia) and confirmed to be trypanosome-negative, were randomly assigned into four groups of six animals, which were infected with T. vivax isolated from a tsetse-infested or non-tsetse infested area, and in each case treated with curative doses of DA or ISM. Each animal were inoculated intravenously 3×10(6) trypanosomes from donor animals. Parasitaemia became patent earlier in infections with non-tsetse T. vivax (∼7 days post-infection) than tsetse (∼14 days post-infection). Both groups were treated at the highest peak parasitaemia with DA or ISM and nine cattle, four with non-tsetse T. vivax (two ISM- and two DA-treated) and five with tsetse T. vivax (three ISM- and two DA-treated) showed relapses of parasitaemia. Moreover, treatment did not improve diagnostic host markers of trypanosome infections in these animals. In conclusion, in vivo drug tests indicated the presence of resistant parasites (>20% of treated animals in each group relapsed) against recommended doses of both available trypanocidal drugs. PMID:25792418

  16. Delusional Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Laupland, Kevin B.; Valiquette, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Although the practice of infectious diseases involves a broad range of surgical and medical disciplines, interactions with psychiatry are infrequent. Delusional infestation is a condition where an individual has a firmly fixed false belief that they have an infection. Delusional infestation challenges the infectious diseases specialist who must diligently rule out the presence of a true infection. However, perhaps, more importantly, we may need to initiate therapy with neuroleptic medications for which we may have little specific knowledge and experience. In this note we review the diagnosis and management of patients with delusional infestation. PMID:27366186

  17. Indopithecus giganteus distinct from Sivapithecus indicus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madden, C.T.; Lewis, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The very large Eurasian Miocene ape Indopithecus giganteus is distinct from contemporanious Sivapithecus (non-Dryopithecus)indicus. The probabilities that length and width for the only specimen of I. giganteus could be sampled from populations similar or identical to those of S. indicus are less than six chances in 100,000 for both parameters. ?? 1980 Japan Monkey Centre.

  18. Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.

    PubMed

    Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

  19. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated. PMID:24990384

  20. Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 2. The effect of rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur on voluntary food intake and rumen characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hunter, R A; Siebert, B D

    1985-05-01

    In a number of experiments voluntary food intake of three low-quality roughages, either alone or supplemented with rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur and minerals, was measured in Brahman (Bos indicus) and Hereford (Bos taurus) steers. The chaffed hays were Spear grass (Heteropogon contortus) (6.2 g N/kg organic matter (OM)), Pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) (7.9 g N/kg OM), and Pangola grass (12.0 g N/kg OM). Rumen characteristics relating to rate of fluid outflow from the rumen were also determined. There was no significant difference between breeds in the dry-matter intakes of the unsupplemented diets which ranged from 11.3 to 17.8 g/kg body-weight (BW) by Herefords and from 11.8 to 16.1 g/kg BW by Brahmans. Supplementation of Spear grass with N and S significantly (P less than 0.05) increased intake by Herefords (24%) but not by Brahmans. When the lower-N Pangola grass was supplemented there was a significant increase in intake by both breeds with the magnitude of the response in Herefords (42%) (P less than 0.001) being greater than that in Brahmans (15%) (P less than 0.05). The intakes of both the supplemented Spear grass and the lower-N Pangola diets were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater by Herefords than Brahmans. There was no breed difference in intake when the higher-N Pangola grass was supplemented. Both breeds recorded an 8% intake response to supplementation, although the increase was only significant (P less than 0.05) in Herefords. The mean retention time of fluid in the rumen on the unsupplemented Pangola grass diet of lower N content was 12.7 h in Brahmans compared with 17.5 h in Herefords (P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2998450

  1. Delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter

    2009-10-01

    This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

  2. Dermatologic infestations.

    PubMed

    Shmidt, Eugenia; Levitt, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    Head lice are transmitted by head to head contact. Optimal therapy includes malathion lotion 0.5% repeated in one week left on for 30 minutes to 8 hours. Spinosad topical suspension 0.9% repeated in one week left on for 10 minutes is another option. Scabies is transmitted mainly by direct contact but also via heavily infested fomites due to crusted scabies. Permethrin 5% cream to the body repeated in four days is often sufficient; however, scalp treatment with malathion lotion 0.5% is helpful in crusted scabies and in infested children. Oral ivermectin 200 mcg/kg is another option, repeated in four days. For scabies more than lice, fomites should be placed in a drier at 60 °C for 10 minutes to kill the arthropods. Treatment of close contacts in both cases will control outbreaks and repeated infestations. Both have been associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Bed bugs are a common cause for papular urticaria. Identification of the insect in the mattress or bedding confirms the diagnosis. Prevention involves encasing the mattress in a sealed plastic cover and extermination. Delusions of parasitosis is a diagnosis of exclusion that is best treated with an antipsychotic. PMID:22250620

  3. Delusional Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Freudenmann, Roland W.; Lepping, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Summary: This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme “infestation” is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed “Morgellons disease” can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

  4. Genetic structure and relationships of 16 Asian and European cattle populations using DigiTag2 assay.

    PubMed

    Yonesaka, Riku; Sasazaki, Shinji; Yasue, Hiroshi; Niwata, Satoru; Inayoshi, Yousuke; Mukai, Fumio; Mannen, Hideyuki

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we genotyped 117 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms using a DigiTag2 assay to assess the genetic diversity, structure and relationships of 16 Eurasian cattle populations, including nine cattle breeds and seven native cattle. Phylogenetic and principal component analyses showed that Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations were clearly distinguished, whereas Japanese Shorthorn and Japanese Polled clustered with European populations. Furthermore, STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated the distinct separation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus (K=2), and between European and Asian populations (K=3). In addition, Japanese Holstein exhibited an admixture pattern with Asian and European cattle (K=3-5). Mongolian (K=13-16) and Japanese Black (K=14-16) populations exhibited admixture patterns with different ancestries. Bos indicus populations exhibited a uniform genetic structure at K=2-11, thereby suggesting that there are close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations. However, the Bhutan and Bangladesh populations formed a cluster distinct from the other Bos indicus populations at K=12-16. In conclusion, our study could sufficiently explain the genetic construction of Asian cattle populations, including: (i) the close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations; (ii) the genetic influences of European breeds on Japanese breeds; (iii) the genetic admixture in Japanese Holstein, Mongolian and Japanese Black cattle; and (iv) the genetic subpopulations in Southeast Asia. PMID:26260416

  5. Genome wide association study on early puberty in Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A V; Matos, M C; Seno, L O; Romero, A R S; Garcia, J F; Grisolia, A B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fertility traits (early puberty) in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus). Fifty-five Nellore cows were selected from a herd monitored for early puberty onset (positive pregnancy at 18 months of age). Extremes of this phenotype were selected; 30 and 25 individuals were pregnant and non-pregnant, respectively, at that age. DNA samples were genotyped using a high-density SNP chip (>777.000 SNP). GWAS using a case-control strategy highlighted a number of significant markers based on their proximity with the Bonferroni correction line. Results indicated that chromosomes 5, 6, 9, 10, and 22 were associated with the traits of interest. The most significant SNPs on these chromosomes were rs133039577, rs110013280, rs134702839, rs109551605, and rs41639155. Candidate genes, as well as quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously reported in the Ensembl and Cattle QTLdb databases, were further investigated. Analysis of the regions close to the SNP on chromosomes 9 and 10 revealed that four QTL had been previously classified under the reproduction category. In conclusion, we have identified SNPs in close proximity to genes associated with reproductive traits. Moreover, U6 spliceosomal RNA was present on three different chromosomes, which is possibly associated with age at first calving, suggesting that it might be a strong candidate for future studies. PMID:26909970

  6. Differences of skin morphology in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M.; Vajrabukka, C.; Katawatin, Suporn

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal ( B. indicus) ( n = 10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) ( B. taurus) ( n = 10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% ( n = 10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % ( n = 10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm2; 1.60 μ3 × 10-6) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm2; 0.51 μ3x10-6) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm2; 0.68 μ3 × 10-6) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm2; 0.61 μ3 × 10-6) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm2) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm2); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm2 for HF75% and HF87.5 %) ( P < 0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred ( P < 0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction ( P < 0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic

  7. Genetic variation in bison (bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B.b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos Taurus Taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos Taurus indicus). Genetic distances,...

  8. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B. b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Genetic distances...

  9. Genomic divergence of indicine and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically adapted Bos primigenius indicus. Human selection exponentially...

  10. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  11. Epidemiology of flea infestation of ruminants in Libya.

    PubMed

    Kaal, J F; Baker, K; Torgerson, P R

    2006-11-01

    The results of an epidemiological and clinical study of flea infestations of farm animals in northern Libya is reported. Of 12,130 sheep examined from 124 flocks, 150 sheep were found to be infested with fleas from 50 different flocks. Likewise 23 goats from 2981 examined, and 11 calves from 1124 cattle examined were infested No fleas were recovered from camels or horses. Of 1861 fleas recovered from farm livestock, 1857 were Ctenocephalides felis strongylus and 4 were Pulex irritans. Dogs from farms and local clinics were also examined. Eight farms dogs were found to be infested with P. irritans. Of 79 infested dogs examined in veterinary clinics, 53 were found infested with P. irritans, 11 with Ctenocephalides felis felis, 12 had a mixed infestation of P. irritans and C. felis felis. Single dogs had mixed infestation of P. irritans and C. canis; C. felis felis and C. canis; and P. irritans, C. felis felis and Echidnophaga gallinacia. C. felis felis was also found on 15 infested cats. C. felis felis was never found on large farm animals despite frequently sharing their environment with dogs or cats. Likewise C. felis stongylus was never isolated from dogs or cats. This is consistent with the hypothesis that C. felis strongylus has become adapted to large farm animals, whilst C. felis felis is better adapted to dogs and cats. However, four stockmen were found infested with a total of 176 C. felis strongylus, which suggests that this subspecies is also a potential zoonosis. A significantly higher proportion of intensive farms had animals with flea infestation compared to semi-intensive farms. Fleas were not found in nomadic herds. Infested farm animals often presented with excoriation, alopecia, pruritus and hyperkeratitis particularly on the lower limbs. These signs are consistent with the generation of flea-bite hypersensitivity. PMID:16962246

  12. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zavarez, Ludmilla B; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ferenčaković, Maja; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M; Curik, Ino; Cole, John B; Van Tassell, Curtis P; da Silva, Marcos V G B; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José F

    2015-01-01

    The use of relatively low numbers of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, which affects conservation of genetic resources and sustainability of this breed. Here, we investigated the distribution of autozygosity levels based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a sample of 1,278 Nellore cows, genotyped for over 777,000 SNPs. We found ROH segments larger than 10 Mb in over 70% of the samples, representing signatures most likely related to the recent massive use of few sires. However, the average genome coverage by ROH (>1 Mb) was lower than previously reported for other cattle breeds (4.58%). In spite of 99.98% of the SNPs being included within a ROH in at least one individual, only 19.37% of the markers were encompassed by common ROH, suggesting that the ongoing selection for weight, carcass and reproductive traits in this population is too recent to have produced selection signatures in the form of ROH. Three short-range highly prevalent ROH autosomal hotspots (occurring in over 50% of the samples) were observed, indicating candidate regions most likely under selection since before the foundation of Brazilian Nellore cattle. The putative signatures of selection on chromosomes 4, 7, and 12 may be involved in resistance to infectious diseases and fertility, and should be subject of future investigation. PMID:25688258

  13. Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, B. G.; Rana, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant. PMID:21455454

  14. Sequence variation of Bm86 in cattle fever ticks isolated from outbreaks in south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus cattle infestations have significantly expanded beyond the original quarantine zone established in south Texas as part of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Major obstacles for containment of ticks...

  15. Challenges with the southern cattle fever tick in Puerto Rico: Then and now

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are deadly cattle diseases caused by microorganisms transmitted by the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is considered the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock worldwide. Humans brought animals infested w...

  16. Pediatric ocular phthiriasis infestation.

    PubMed

    Kairys, D J; Webster, H J; Terry, J E

    1988-02-01

    Although pubic lice infestation of ocular regions is relatively uncommon, the optometrist needs to be aware of the diagnosis and treatment of louse-infested patients. A case report of ocular phthiriasis is presented along with a discussion of its etiology, clinical diagnosis and management. PMID:3361053

  17. Characterization of ferritin 2 for the control of tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Hajdusek, Ondrej; Almazán, Consuelo; Loosova, Gabriela; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kopacek, Petr; de la Fuente, José

    2010-04-01

    Ixodes ricinus is one the most abundant tick species in Europe and these ticks transmit pathogens causing human and animal diseases. The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Development of vaccines directed against tick proteins may reduce tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. However, a limiting step in tick vaccine development has been the identification of tick protective antigens. Herein, the tick iron metabolism pathway was targeted in an effort to identify new tick protective antigens. Recombinant I. ricinus (IrFER2) and Rhipicephalus microplus (RmFER2) ferritin 2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and used to immunize rabbits and cattle, respectively. Vaccination with IrFER2 reduced I. ricinus tick numbers, weight and fertility in rabbits with an overall vaccine efficacy (E) of 98%. Control of cattle tick, R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations was obtained in vaccinated cattle with overall E of 64% and 72%, respectively. Notably, the efficacy of the RmFER2 vaccine was similar to that obtained with Bm86 against R. microplus. These collective results demonstrated the feasibility of using ferritin 2 to develop vaccines for the control of tick infestations. PMID:20171306

  18. Evaluation of Biochemical Parameters and Genetic Markers for Association with Meat Tenderness in South African Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a ...

  19. Influence of gender and breed type on basal and induced secretion of cortisol in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis that gender and breed type affect cortisol secretion, Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls (intact males), steers (castrate males), and heifers (intact females) were studied. Jugular venipuncture samples were taken from 900 cattle at: 28 days before weaning; wean...

  20. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  1. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  2. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  3. Association of bovine Toll-like receptor 4 with tick infestation rates and blood histamine concentration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G; Yu, M; Cui, Q-W; Zhou, X; Zhang, J-C; Li, H-X; Qu, K-X; Wang, G-L; Huang, B-Z

    2013-01-01

    We investigated a possible association between bovine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and resistance to tick infestation in 103 cattle, including BMY cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey, and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle), Brahman, and Red Angus grazing on improved pasture. The tick infestation weight and number of Rhipicephalus microplus and the blood histamine concentration were measured and compared with those of 32 Chinese Holsteins and 30 Simmentals. A 228-bp fragment was amplified and sequenced to analyze the polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene. After SSCP and sequencing analysis, 4 SNPs, i.e., 535(A>C), 546(T>C), 605(T>A), and 618(G>C), were identified, corresponding to GenBank accession Nos. AY297041 and NW_003104150; the latter two SNPs caused Leu→Gln and Gln→His substitutions, respectively. Genotype AA was completely predominant in the Chinese Holstein and Simmental; genotypes AA and AB were detected in Red Angus, while genotypes AA, AB, BB, and BC were detected in Brahman and in BMY cattle. A negative correlation was identified between blood histamine concentration and number of tick infestation; in BMY cattle this negative association was significant. The tick infestation in cattle with genotype BB was significantly lower than in those with genotype AA. Blood histamine concentration in cattle with genotype BB was significantly higher than in those with genotype AA. The TLR4 gene mutation could affect the blood histamine level and activate the immune reaction after tick infestation. Allele B has potential as a molecular marker for tick-resistance originated from Zebu cattle for use in cattle breeding programs. PMID:23479166

  4. Acetylcholinesterase 1 in populations of organophosphate-resistant North American strains of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhipicephalus microplus, the cattle fever tick, is a global economic problem to the cattle industry due to direct infestation of cattle and pathogens transmitted during feeding. Cattle fever tick outbreaks continue to occur along the Mexico-U.S. border even though the tick has been eradicated from t...

  5. Immunological response of tick-naive white-tailed deer to infestation with Dermacentor albipictus, a one host tick

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer are competent alternative hosts for cattle fever ticks, and their abundance throughout south Texas is compromising efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP). We artificially infested white-tailed deer with a model one-host tick, Dermacentor albipictus (winter tic...

  6. Vaccination with proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions reduces vector infestations and pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Merino, Octavio; Antunes, Sandra; Mosqueda, Juan; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Rodríguez, Sergio; Domingos, Ana; de la Fuente, José

    2013-12-01

    Tick-borne pathogens cause diseases that greatly impact animal health and production worldwide. The ultimate goal of tick vaccines is to protect against tick-borne diseases through the control of vector infestations and reducing pathogen infection and transmission. Tick genetic traits are involved in vector-pathogen interactions and some of these molecules such as Subolesin (SUB) have been shown to protect against vector infestations and pathogen infection. Based on these premises, herein we characterized the efficacy of cattle vaccination with tick proteins involved in vector-pathogen interactions, TROSPA, SILK, and Q38 for the control of cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestations and infection with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. SUB and adjuvant/saline placebo were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The results showed that vaccination with Q38, SILK and SUB reduced tick infestations and oviposition with vaccine efficacies of 75% (Q38), 62% (SILK) and 60% (SUB) with respect to ticks fed on placebo control cattle. Vaccination with TROSPA did not have a significant effect on any of the tick parameters analyzed. The results also showed that vaccination with Q38, TROSPA and SUB reduced B. bigemina DNA levels in ticks while vaccination with SILK and SUB resulted in lower A. marginale DNA levels when compared to ticks fed on placebo control cattle. The positive correlation between antigen-specific antibody titers and reduction of tick infestations and pathogen infection strongly suggested that the effect of the vaccine was the result of the antibody response in vaccinated cattle. Vaccination and co-infection with A. marginale and B. bigemina also affected the expression of genes encoding for vaccine antigens in ticks fed on cattle. These results showed that vaccines using tick proteins involved in vector-pathogen interactions could be used for the dual control of tick infestations and pathogen infection. PMID:24084474

  7. Cutaneous Infections and Infestations

    PubMed Central

    Tomecki, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Directed and preventive therapies for cutaneous infectious disease and infestation continue to evolve, providing physicians with new options for care. Common infectious diseases (e.g., genital herpes, herpes zoster, and head lice) occur in the outpatient and inpatient setting. This review of the literature highlights new therapies, including those still in development, such as novel drugs and vaccines, all of which should help to decrease the frequency and severity of common infectious diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. PMID:22191004

  8. Effects of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) and a combination of fluazuron (3.0 mg/kg) + abamectin (0.5 mg/kg) on the reproductive parameters of a field population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on experimentally infested cattle.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Felippelli, Gustavo; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Cruz, André Cayeiro; Buzzulini, Carolina; Soares, Vando Edésio; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-08-01

    The current study assessed the deleterious effects of two formulations of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg fluazuron and a combination of 3.0 mg/kg fluazuron + 0.5 mg/kg abamectin) on the reproductive parameters of engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus females that naturally detached from experimentally infested cattle in two experiments. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) showed deleterious effects only on the hatchability percentage in the period of 2-7 post-treatment days of this ectoparasite's engorged females. On the other hand, the fluazuron (3.0 mg/kg) + abamectin (0.5 mg/kg) combination presented harmful effects over reproductive parameters of this tick species. Further studies should be performed with a known tick population (reference susceptible strain) to determine the effect of these formulations on the reproductive parameters and to elucidate if this field population is fluazuron resistant. PMID:24837997

  9. Subcutaneous Mycoleptodiscus indicus Infection in an Immunosuppressed Dog ▿

    PubMed Central

    Metry, Catherine A.; Hoien-Dalen, Patricia S.; Maddox, Carol W.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Romanelli, Anna M.; Wickes, Brian L.; MacNeill, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    An 8-year-old dog presented with several dermal excoriations. Lesion cytology revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation with branching, septate hyphae. A mold identified as Mycoleptodiscus indicus by morphology and sequencing was cultured from fine-needle aspirates. This is the first report of a Mycoleptodiscus species as an etiologic agent in a dog. PMID:20519473

  10. Genetic analysis of Thai cattle reveals a Southeast Asian indicine ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Wangkumhang, Pongsakorn; Wilantho, Alisa; Shaw, Philip J.; Flori, Laurence; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katayoun; Gautier, Mathieu; Duangjinda, Monchai; Assawamakin, Anunchai

    2015-01-01

    Cattle commonly raised in Thailand have characteristics of Bos indicus (zebu). We do not know when or how cattle domestication in Thailand occurred, and so questions remain regarding their origins and relationships to other breeds. We obtained genome-wide SNP genotypic data of 28 bovine individuals sampled from four regions: North (Kho-Khaolampoon), Northeast (Kho-Isaan), Central (Kho-Lan) and South (Kho-Chon) Thailand. These regional varieties have distinctive traits suggestive of breed-like genetic variations. From these data, we confirmed that all four Thai varieties are Bos indicus and that they are distinct from other indicine breeds. Among these Thai cattle, a distinctive ancestry pattern is apparent, which is the purest within Kho-Chon individuals. This ancestral component is only present outside of Thailand among other indicine breeds in Southeast Asia. From this pattern, we conclude that a unique Bos indicus ancestor originated in Southeast Asia, and native Kho-Chon Thai cattle retain the signal of this ancestry with limited admixture of other bovine ancestors. PMID:26528405

  11. Comprehensive transcriptome profiling of squamous cell carcinoma of horn in Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Koringa, P G; Jakhesara, S J; Bhatt, V D; Meshram, C P; Patel, A K; Fefar, D T; Joshi, C G

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of horn is frequently observed in Bos indicus affecting 1% of cattle population and accounting 83.34% of total tumours found. The transcriptome profile of horn cancer (HC) tissue and the matched normal (HN) tissue were analysed by RNA-seq using Roche 454 sequencing. A total of 1 504 900 reads comprising of 612 MB data were used to identify differentially expressed genes using CLC Genomic Workbench. These include up-regulation of KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT14, SFN, KRT84, PI3, COL17A1, ANLN, SERPINB5 and down-regulation of BOLA, SCGB1A1, CXCL17, KRT19, BPIFB1, NR4A1 and TFF3 in HC, which are involved in regulation of gene transcription, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell survival and metabolic pathways. The qPCR analysis of several targets suggested concordance of gene expression profile with RNA-seq analysis. The present findings would provide basis for further screening of genes and identification of markers for early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of HC. PMID:24314272

  12. Meiotic Chromosome Analysis of the Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus

    PubMed Central

    Wisoram, Wijit; Saengthong, Pradit; Ngernsiri, Lertluk

    2013-01-01

    The giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae), a native species of Southeast Asia, is one of the largest insects belonging to suborder Heteroptera. In this study, the meiotic chromosome of L. indicus was studied in insect samples collected from Thailand, Myanmar, Loas, and Cambodia. Testicular cells stained with lacto-acetic orcein, Giemsa, DAPI, and silver nitrate were analyzed. The results revealed that the chromosome complement of L. indicus was 2n = 22A + neo-XY + 2m, which differed from that of previous reports. Each individual male contained testicular cells with three univalent patterns. The frequency of cells containing neo-XY chromosome univalent (∼5%) was a bit higher than that of cells with autosomal univalents (∼3%). Some cells (∼0.5%) had both sex chromosome univalents and a pair of autosomal univalents. None of the m-chromosome univalents were observed during prophase I. In addition, this report presents clear evidence about the existence of m-chromosomes in Belostomatidae. PMID:23895100

  13. Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle and sheep northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mehdi Aghamohammad; Raoofi, Afshin; Hosseini, Arman; Mehrara, Mohammad Reza; Amininajafi, Fatemeh

    2016-09-01

    A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle and sheep north of Iran. The aim of study was to determine the prevalence of hard ticks on cattle and sheep in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. A total of 26 ticks were collected from 22 infested cattle and 26 ticks were collected from 12 infested sheep during activating seasons of ticks in 2013-2014. The species collected from cattle and sheep were Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The results show that these are dominant tick species in the surveyed area. PMID:27605782

  14. Prednisolone and Mycobacterium indicus pranii in Tuberculous Pericarditis

    PubMed Central

    Mayosi, Bongani M; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Bosch, Jackie; Pandie, Shaheen; Jung, Hyejung; Gumedze, Freedom; Pogue, Janice; Thabane, Lehana; Smieja, Marek; Francis, Veronica; Joldersma, Laura; Thomas, Kandithalal M.; Thomas, Baby; Awotedu, Abolade A.; Magula, Nombulelo P.; Naidoo, Datshana P.; Damasceno, Albertino; Banda, Alfred Chitsa; Brown, Basil; Manga, Pravin; Kirenga, Bruce; Mondo, Charles; Mntla, Phindile; Tsitsi, Jacob M.; Peters, Ferande; Essop, Mohammed R.; Russell, James B.W.; Hakim, James; Matenga, Jonathan; Barasa, Ayub F.; Sani, Mahmoud U.; Olunuga, Taiwo; Ogah, Okechukwu; Ansa, Victor; Aje, Akinyemi; Danbauchi, Solomon; Ojji, Dike; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tuberculous pericarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality even if antituberculosis therapy is administered. We evaluated the effects of adjunctive glucocorticoid therapy and Mycobacterium indicus pranii immunotherapy in patients with tuberculous pericarditis. METHODS Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 1400 adults with definite or probable tuberculous pericarditis to either prednisolone or placebo for 6 weeks and to either M. indicus pranii or placebo, administered in five injections over the course of 3 months. Two thirds of the participants had concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death, cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis, or constrictive pericarditis. RESULTS There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between patients who received prednisolone and those who received placebo (23.8% and 24.5%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.18; P = 0.66) or between those who received M. indicus pranii immunotherapy and those who received placebo (25.0% and 24.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.29; P = 0.81). Prednisolone therapy, as compared with placebo, was associated with significant reductions in the incidence of constrictive pericarditis (4.4% vs. 7.8%; hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.87; P = 0.009) and hospitalization (20.7% vs. 25.2%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.99; P = 0.04). Both prednisolone and M. indicus pranii, each as compared with placebo, were associated with a significant increase in the incidence of cancer (1.8% vs. 0.6%; hazard ratio, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.07 to 10.03; P = 0.03, and 1.8% vs. 0.5%; hazard ratio, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.03 to 13.24; P = 0.03, respectively), owing mainly to an increase in HIV-associated cancer. CONCLUSIONS In patients with tuberculous pericarditis, neither prednisolone nor M. indicus pranii had a significant effect on the

  15. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CAPN1, CAST and MB genes with meat color of Brahman and crossbreed cattle.

    PubMed

    Castro, Susan; Ríos, Marcela; Ortiz, Yurany; Manrique, Carlos; Jiménez, Ariel; Ariza, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the association of SNPs in the candidate genes Calpain (CAPN1), Calpastatin (CAST) and Myoglobin (MB) with colorimetric parameters (L *, a *, b *, C *, hue) in a F1 population (n = 164) obtained from crossing Bos taurus × Bos indicus and Bos indicus × Bos indicus. SNPs were analyzed using PCR-RFLP and SSCP. Colorimetric measurements were performed in the muscles Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and Semitendinosus (ST) at 7, 14 and 21 days postmortem applying the methodology CIE L* a* b*. The CAST gene showed a significant effect on the b* and hue* parameters in both muscles. MB gene showed significant association with all colorimetric parameters in both LTL and ST muscles, except with b* parameter. The CAPN1 gene did not show any significant association. These results suggest an important role of genetics in meat color variation for cattle raised under the tropic conditions. PMID:26946475

  16. The origin of Indonesian cattle and conservation genetics of the Bali cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, K; Olsson, M; Andersson, G; Purwantara, B; van Tol, H T A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Colenbrander, B; Lenstra, J A

    2012-01-01

    Both Bos indicus (zebu) and Bos javanicus (banteng) contribute to the Indonesian indigenous livestock, which is supposedly of a mixed species origin, not by direct breeding but by secondary cross-breeding. Here, the analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds with East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle having higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30%) and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura) or even complete (Galekan) maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. There was no evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. PMID:22212207

  17. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. Calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon ratchasima Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Keawrayup, S.; Duvallet, G.; Sukonthabhirom, S.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.

    2012-01-01

    A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2%) and S. calcitrans (49.5%). S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%). The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05). The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00) during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies. PMID:22910668

  18. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Keawrayup, S; Duvallet, G; Sukonthabhirom, S; Chareonviriyaphap, T

    2012-08-01

    A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2%) and S. calcitrans (49.5%). S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%). The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05). The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00) during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies. PMID:22910668

  19. Facilitative ecological interactions between invasive species: Arundo donax (Poaceae) stands as favorable habitat for cattle ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) along the U.S.-Mexico border

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), is a key vector of protozoa that causes bovine babesiosis. Largely eradicated from most of the U.S., the cattle tick continues to infest the Cattle Fever Tick Quarantine Zone in south Texas. Management areas of the souther...

  20. Resorptive tooth root lesions in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Mari-Ann O; Kortegaard, Hanne E; Choong, Siew Shean; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2011-03-01

    Facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. To determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased Malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. Dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/ young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging). All of the lesions identified were of a resorptive nature. seemingly originating at the cementoenamel junction and burrowing towards the center of the tooth. Overall, 27% of the investigated skulls presented radiolucent dental lesions. The prevalence among captive animals was 52% (13/25), while only 6% (2/31) of the free-ranging tapirs had dental lesions. The second, third, and fourth premolars and first molar were the teeth most commonly affected, and the mandibular teeth were more often involved than the maxillary dentition. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of resorptive dental lesions in captive Malayan tapirs and provides a strong indication that age and captivity are significant risk factors in the development of these lesions. Dental disease, Malayan tapir, radiology, resorptive lesions, Tapirus indicus. PMID:22946368

  1. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Matthew C.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Wiggans, George R.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Weber, Kristina L.; Penedo, Cecilia T.; Berry, Donagh P.; Flynn, John; Garcia, Jose F.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Albuquerque, Milla; Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Machado, Marco A.; Coffey, Mike; Moore, Kirsty; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Genestout, Lucie; Mazza, Raffaele; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Simpson, Barry; Marques, Elisa; McEwan, John C.; Cromie, Andrew; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Keele, John W.; Piper, Emily K.; Cook, Jim; Williams, Robert; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2013-01-01

    To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ≤1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset. PMID:24065982

  2. SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in elephants (Elephus maximus indicus) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tuntasuvan, D; Mohkaew, K; Dubey, J P

    2001-02-01

    Serum samples from captive 156 elephants (Elephus maximus indicus) from Thailand were examined for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT) and the latex agglutination test (LAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 45.5% of 156 elephants by MAT (> or = 1:50) and 25.6% of 156 elephants by LAT (> or = 1:64). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in E. maximus indicus from Asia. PMID:11227899

  4. Cultural control of the root nematodes Pratylenchus indicus in rice through crop rotations.

    PubMed

    Prasad, J S; Moorty, B T; Rao, Y S

    1983-01-01

    Pratylenchus indicus nematodes cause damage to the roots of rice plants, which may lead to considerable yield reductions. In field trials with six different rice-based rotations it was tested whether the inclusion of other crops into the rotation can influence the population of Pratylenchus indicus. Investigation of soil samples and roots showed that rice, safflower, and tobacco increased the nematodes, whereas fallowing or growing Phaseolus radiatus L. decreased them. PMID:6626134

  5. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D; Vu, Ninh; Leesburg, Vicki; Blackburn, Harvey D; Derr, James N

    2013-01-01

    The genetic relationship of American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) was quantified and compared with that among breeds and subspecies of cattle. Plains bison from 9 herds (N = 136), wood bison from 3 herds (N = 65), taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus) from 14 breeds (N = 244), and indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus) from 2 breeds (N = 53) were genotyped for 29 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Bayesian cluster analyses indicate 3 groups, 2 of which are plains bison and 1 of which is wood bison with some admixture, and genetic distances do not show plains bison and wood bison as distinct groups. Differentiation of wood bison and plains bison is also significantly less than that of cattle breeds and subspecies. These and other genetic data and historical interbreeding of bison do not support recognition of extant plains bison and wood bison as phylogenetically distinct subspecies. PMID:23667052

  6. [Anthraquinones isolated from Morinda officinalis and Damnacanthus indicus].

    PubMed

    Yang, Y J; Shu, H Y; Min, Z D

    1992-01-01

    From chloroform extract of the root of Morinda officinalis, eight anthraquinones were isolated whose structures were deduced to be rubiadin (I), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (II), 1-hydroxyanthraquinone (III), 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (IV), 1,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (V), 1,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VI), 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VII) and physcion (VIII). Except for compound I and compound II, the other compounds, 1-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (IX), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (X), 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (XI), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XII) and 1,4-dimethoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XIII), were isolated from chloroform extract of root of Damnacanthus indicus. Compound V, VI and XIII are new compounds. PMID:1442057

  7. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.

    PubMed

    Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations

  8. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Conclusions: Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs. PMID:23826461

  9. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Stonecipher, Clint A; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Parsons, Cory; Deboodt, Tim; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-02-01

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in western juniper-infested rangelands tend to have decreased conception rates. The objective of this study was to determine if western juniper alters the estrous cycle of cattle. Fourteen heifers (10 treated and 4 control) were monitored for 74 days for signs of normal estrous behavior, with a 21 day feeding trial with western juniper bark from days 28-48, after which the cattle were bred naturally with a bull. The cattle were checked for pregnancy 30 days after all cattle had been bred. The data from this study indicate that exposure to western juniper bark does not affect normal estrus, estrous cycle or conception rates of cattle. PMID:25554383

  10. Serological Patterns of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis and Q Fever in Bos indicus Cattle in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Scolamacchia, Francesca; Handel, Ian G.; Fèvre, Eric M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever are important infections of livestock causing a range of clinical conditions including abortions and reduced fertility. In addition, they are all important zoonotic infections infecting those who work with livestock and those who consume livestock related products such as milk, producing non-specific symptoms including fever, that are often misdiagnosed and that can lead to severe chronic disease. This study used banked sera from the Adamawa Region of Cameroon to investigate the seroprevalences and distributions of seropositive animals and herds. A classical statistical and a multi-level prevalence modelling approach were compared. The unbiased estimates were 20% of herds were seropositive for Brucella spp. compared to 95% for Leptospira spp. and 68% for Q fever. The within-herd seroprevalences were 16%, 35% and 39% respectively. There was statistical evidence of clustering of seropositive brucellosis and Q fever herds. The modelling approach has the major advantage that estimates of seroprevalence can be adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test used and the multi-level structure of the sampling. The study found a low seroprevalence of brucellosis in the Adamawa Region compared to a high proportion of leptospirosis and Q fever seropositive herds. This represents a high risk to the human population as well as potentially having a major impact on animal health and productivity in the region. PMID:20098670

  11. Freezing, thawing and aging effects on beef tenderness from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Aroeira, Carolina N; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Gomide, Lúcio Alberto M; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ladeira, Márcio M; Ramos, Eduardo M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of freezing prior to aging on the meat tenderness of young Nellore and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Samples of the longissimus thoracis muscle were submitted to two treatments: conventional aging and freezing (-20°C for 40days) followed by thawing and aging periods. The meats were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 aging days (1°C). Freezing increased (P<0.05) purge, cooking loss and total exudate loss throughout aging. Nellore meats had greater total exudate loss and shorter sarcomere lengths (P<0.05). Freezing increased proteolysis during aging in the meats of both breeds, but reduced shear force was found (P<0.05) only in Aberdeen Angus meats and only at time zero. These results suggest that the meat tenderizing process by freezing prior to aging may contribute to meat tenderness in the first weeks of aging, but it is dependent on the animal breed. PMID:26878609

  12. Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 1. Rumen digestion.

    PubMed

    Hunter, R A; Siebert, B D

    1985-05-01

    Six Hereford and six Brahman steers were fed ad lib. Pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) and Spear grass (Heteropogon contortus) hay alone and supplemented with rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur and minerals. The rumen digestion of the two feeds was determined by reference to the disappearance of substrate from nylon bags suspended in the rumen and withdrawn after intervals ranging from 8 to 120 h. The digestion of the unsupplemented Pangola grass diet occurred more rapidly in Brahmans than in Herefords and was associated with higher rumen ammonia concentrations in Brahmans (40 v. 16 mg/l). The rumen NH3 concentrations were increased to over 100 mg/l by supplementation. The digestion rate increased in both breeds after supplementation and the breed difference disappeared. Increases in digestion rate were not achieved above NH3 concentrations of 60-80 mg/l. Spear grass, especially the cell-wall-constituent fraction, was more resistant to digestion than Pangola grass. Digestion of the unsupplemented Spear grass diet proceeded more rapidly in Brahmans than in Herefords. The digestion rate in Brahmans were similar irrespective of whether the diet was supplemented or not. Supplementation increased digestion rate in Herefords. PMID:2998449

  13. Some preliminary observations on the susceptibility and resistance of different cattle breeds to Theileria parva infection.

    PubMed

    Ndungu, S G; Ngumi, P N; Mbogo, S K; Dolan, T T; Mutugi, J J; Young, A S

    2005-03-01

    Theileria parva-naïve Friesian (Bos taurus), Boran (Bos indicus) and Maasai Zebu steers (B. indicus) were infected with a T. parva sporozoite stabilate dose which had previously been shown to induce an estimated 50% mortality rate in Boran cattle. All the cattle developed patent infections with no significant differences in the length of the prepatent period to development of macroschizonts (P > 0.05) between the three groups. Clinical theileriosis occurred in all eight the Friesians (100%), five out of nine Borans (55.6%) and two out of five Zebus (40%). Three of the Friesians (37.5%), and two of the Borans (22.2%) died of theileriosis. The different cattle types were equally susceptible to the infective dose used as indicated by the length of the prepatent periods, but there was a marked difference in their development of clinical theileriosis. The gradation in resistance to disease confirms the findings of earlier less critical studies and identifies these cattle breeds as suitable for investigations into the mechanisms of resistance to theileriosis. PMID:15991701

  14. Seroepidemiologic survey in Thailand of Coxiella burnetii infection in cattle and chickens and presence in ticks attached to dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Usaki, Noriyo; Thongchai, Chalermchaikit; Kramomtong, Indhira; Kriengsak, Poonsuk; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    A seroepidemiologic survey of Coxiella burnetii in cattle and chickens in Thailand was carried out using indirect fluorescent antibody test. Nine of the 130 serum samples from cattle were positive for antibodies against C. burnetii, with antibody titers ranging from 32 to 64. Only one of 113 serum samples from chickens was seropositive, with antibody titer of 16. No C. burnetii-specific DNA was detected using restriction fragment length polymorphism-nested PCR in spleens of cattle and chickens. However, coxiella DNA was detected in two of 102 engorged Rhipicephalus microplus ticks attached to dairy cattle. These results indicated that infestation of C. burnetii among cattle and chickens is considerably low in Thailand. PMID:25417520

  15. Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs: an overview.

    PubMed

    Laha, R

    2015-12-01

    Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs is caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. It is the most common mange infestation of pigs. The parasite is distributed worldwide. Pig owners are generally concerned about the internal parasitic infections and ignored the external parasitic infestations. But the external parasitic infestation with S. scabiei var. suis has economic significance as it causes morbidity, mortality, decreased fertility and feed conversion ratio in pigs. Keeping in view of importance of S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, this communication discussed about the present and past research works done on S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, particularly its prevalence, life cycle, pathological lesions, clinical symptoms, haematobiochemical changes, diagnosis, treatment and control, to have an idea about this infestation at a glance. It has been concluded that the research work done on sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs in India is less in comparison to other countries. It may be due to its consideration as a neglected parasite or due to it's under report. Organization of awareness programs for the farmers by extension personalities or other authorities might be able to save the farmers from economic losses due to this infestation. PMID:26688620

  16. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae in the control of infestation by stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), under natural infestation conditions.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vazquez, C; Carvajal Márquez, J; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Vitela-Mendoza, I; Ramos-Parra, M

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae applied by aspersion to control of Stomoxys calcitrans flies in dairy cattle naturally infested. Was applied by aspersion an aqueous formulation of M. anisopliae sensu lato (Ma134), at a concentration of 1×10(8)conidia/ml, four times with seven day intervals, on a group of eight Holstein cows; a control group of eight Holstein cows, received a water solution with Tween 80 (0.1%). The average number of flies per animal was estimated one day before each application, and then daily counts were done in both groups. The effectiveness of the formulation was calculated using the Abbott's formula. At the same time, defensive behaviors of stamp/kicks and tail movements were evaluated daily, estimating relative frequency per hour. The Ma134 formulation had an infestation control efficacy of 73%, taking into consideration the four study weeks. The population reduction effect was observed since the first week post-application (p<0.05), and the effect increased with the subsequent applications. Defensive behaviors were reduced beginning from the first application, reaching a reduction of 66% and 70%, respectively, during the four weeks of study. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the formulation to control infestation by S. calcitrans, as well as reduce defensive behaviors which involves the infestation. PMID:26209932

  17. Chemical composition of whole body and carcass of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Nardon, R F; Figueiredo, L A; Alleoni, G F

    2011-09-01

    Relationships between the chemical composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section and the chemical composition of the carcass and empty body were evaluated for Bos indicus (108 Nellore and 36 Guzerah; GuS) and tropically adapted Bos taurus (56 Caracu; CaS) bulls, averaging 20 to 24 mo of age at slaughter. Nellore cattle were represented by 56 animals from the selected herd (NeS) and 52 animals from the control herd (NeC). The CaS and GuS bulls were from selected herds. Selected herds were based on 20 yr of selection for postweaning BW. Carcass composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, and analyzing soft tissue and bones. Similarly, empty body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Bulls were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 was composed of 36 NeS, 36 NeC, 36 CaS, and 36 GuS bulls and had water, ether extract (EE), protein, and ash chemically determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section and in the carcass. Group 2 was composed of 20 NeS, 16 NeC, and 20 CaS bulls and water, EE, protein, and ash were determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section, carcass, and empty body. Linear regressions were developed between the carcass and the 9th- to 11th-rib section compositions for group 1 and between carcass and empty body compositions for group 2. The 9th- to 11th-rib section percentages of water (RWt) and EE (RF) predicted the percentages of carcass water (CWt) and carcass fat (CF) with high precision: CWt, % = 29.0806 + 0.4873 × RWt, % (r(2) = 0.813, SE = 1.06) and CF, % = 10.4037 + 0.5179 × RF, % (r(2) = 0.863, SE = 1.26), respectively. Linear regressions between percentage of CWt and CF and empty body water (EBWt) and empty body fat (EBF) were also predicted with high precision: EBWt, % = -9.6821 + 1.1626 × CWt, % (r(2) = 0.878, SE = 1.43) and EBF, % = 0.3739 + 1.0386 × CF, % (r(2) = 0.982, SE = 0.65), respectively. Chemical composition of the 9th- to 11

  18. Cadmium uptake and accumulation by the decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Rainbow, Philip S

    2005-09-01

    Juveniles of the dendrobranchiate decapod Penaeus indicus take up radiolabelled cadmium from solution over the exposure concentration range of 1.8-31.5 microg L(-1), with an uptake rate constant of 0.090 L g(-1)d(-1) at 15 salinity and 25 degrees C. New cadmium taken up is added to the existing cadmium content of the prawn with no significant excretion, and the rate of accumulation of radiolabelled cadmium is a measure of the absolute cadmium uptake rate from solution. Moulting had no significant effect on the accumulation of cadmium. Newly accumulated cadmium is distributed to all organs with the highest proportions of body content being found in the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, gills and remaining soft tissues, the hepatopancreas and gills containing the highest labelled cadmium concentrations. Like other crustaceans, penaeid prawns inhabiting anthropogenically contaminated coastal waters with raised cadmium bioavailabilities can be expected to contain raised body concentrations of cadmium. Cadmium concentrations of most field-collected adult penaeids are relatively low, as a probable consequence of the growth dilution of their cadmium contents as a result of the rapid growth rates of penaeid prawns. PMID:15769503

  19. Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Koṭṭaikkarantai)

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Shakila

    2013-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

  20. Worldwide Patterns of Ancestry, Divergence, and Admixture in Domesticated Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Jared E.; McKay, Stephanie D.; Rolf, Megan M.; Kim, JaeWoo; Molina Alcalá, Antonio; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Hanotte, Olivier; Götherström, Anders; Seabury, Christopher M.; Praharani, Lisa; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Correia de Almeida Regitano, Luciana; Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Heaton, Michael P.; Liu, Wan-Sheng; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Reecy, James M.; Saif-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.

    2014-01-01

    The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. PMID:24675901

  1. Impact of Bos indicus genetics on the global beef industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the cattle in the world are maintained in tropical environments between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. In the U.S., about 40% of the beef cows are located in subtropical environments of the hot and humid Southeast or more arid Southwest. Results of research documenting the ...

  2. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-01-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  3. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World.

    PubMed

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-07-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  4. Negative Feedbacks on Bark Beetle Outbreaks: Widespread and Severe Spruce Beetle Infestation Restricts Subsequent Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Sarah J.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  5. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  6. Expression of bovine genes associated with a local and systemic immune response to infestation by the Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, causes considerable production losses to the Southern U.S. cattle industry due to reduced weight, infertility, secondary infections at bite wounds, damaged hides, and potentially death, as these ticks tend to infest livestock in large numbers. Chemical resid...

  7. Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in northeast Tunisia: seasonal population dynamics of nymphs and adults on field cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Hayouni, Mohamed Ettaïeb; Sassi, Limam; Dridi, Walid; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Hyalomma scupense is a two-host tick infesting mainly cattle representing in North Africa the vector of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection), a major tick-borne disease affecting cattle. Any effective control programme of ticks requires a good knowledge of the biology of the target species. In the present study, three cattle farms in northeast Tunisia were surveyed during the activity seasons for adult and nymphs of Hyalomma scupense. Several indicators were studied, including chronological indicators, infestation prevalence, infestation intensity and feeding predilection sites of the ticks. The adult ticks were present from mid-June to late November. Nymphs were observed on animals from early September to late November. A large proportion of the ticks were attached in the posterior udder quarters: 41% and 64% of adult ticks and nymphs, respectively. The animals that were heavily infested by adult ticks were also heavily infested by nymphs. Moreover, 17% of adult ticks and 53% of nymphs were present on only 5% of cattle population. These data are important for the success of targeted acaricide application leading to a dramatic decrease of acaricide quantity needed for the treatment. When the preferential sites of attachment are known, the effectiveness of manual removal of ticks can be improved. The presence of highly infested animals is to be considered when any control programme is implemented, since these animals harbour a high proportion of the ticks. PMID:23547915

  8. Sequence variations in the Boophilus microplus Bm86 locus and implications for immunoprotection in cattle vaccinated with this antigen.

    PubMed

    García-García, J C; Gonzalez, I L; González, D M; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; Lamberti, J; D'Agostino, B; Citroni, D; Fragoso, H; Ortiz, M; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-11-01

    Cattle tick infestations constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful, hampered by the selection of chemical-resistant tick populations. The Boophilus microplus Bm86 protein was isolated from tick gut epithelial cells and shown to induce a protective response against tick infestations in vaccinated cattle. Vaccine preparations including the recombinant Bm86 are used to control cattle tick infestations in the field as an alternative measure to reduce the losses produced by this ectoparasite. The principle for the immunological control of tick infestations relies on a polyclonal antibody response against the target antigen and, therefore, should be difficult to select for tick-resistant populations. However, sequence variations in the Bm86 locus, among other factors, could affect the effectiveness of Bm86-containing vaccines. In the present study we have addressed this issue, employing data obtained with B. microplus strains from Australia, Mexico, Cuba, Argentina and Venezuela. The results showed a tendency in the inverse correlation between the efficacy of the vaccination with Bm86 and the sequence variations in the Bm86 locus (R2 = 0.7). The mutation fixation index in the Bm86 locus was calculated and shown to be between 0.02 and 0.1 amino acids per year. Possible implications of these findings for the immunoprotection of cattle against tick infestations employing the Bm86 antigen are discussed. PMID:10668863

  9. Severe meningeal fibrinoid vasculitis associated with Theileria taurotragi infection in two short-horned Zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Biasibetti, Elena; Sferra, Chiara; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2016-08-01

    The Authors describe a severe vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis of the meningeal arteries observed in two brains of indigenous short-horn zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, with bovine cerebral theileriosis (BCT) caused by a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan, Theileria taurotragi, from Northern Tanzania. In the Author's opinion, the role of T. taurotragi infection in the angiocentric and angiodestructive detected features remains to be evaluated. A possible immunopathologic cancerous mechanism, secondary to the lymphoid deregulation, could be involved. This report suggests further studies to better characterize the lymphoid cell involvement in the pathogenesis of the meningeal vascular lesions by T. taurotragi. PMID:27145963

  10. Genome-based reclassification of Bacillus cibi as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus indicus and emended description of Bacillus indicus.

    PubMed

    Stropko, Samantha J; Pipes, Shannon E; Newman, Jeffrey D

    2014-11-01

    While characterizing a related strain, it was noted that there was little difference between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bacillus indicus LMG 22858(T) and Bacillus cibi DSM 16189(T). Phenotypic characterization revealed differences only in the utilization of mannose and galactose and slight variation in pigmentation. Whole genome shotgun sequencing and comparative genomics were used to calculate established phylogenomic metrics and explain phenotypic differences. The full, genome-derived 16S rRNA gene sequences were 99.74% similar. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the two strains was 98.0%, the average amino acid identity (AAI) was 98.3%, and the estimated DNA-DNA hybridization determined by the genome-genome distance calculator was 80.3%. These values are higher than the species thresholds for these metrics, which are 95%, 95% and 70%, respectively, suggesting that these two strains should be classified as members of the same species. We propose reclassification of Bacillus cibi as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus indicus and an emended description of Bacillus indicus. PMID:25142211

  11. Functional Characterization of a c-type Lysozyme from Indian Shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Viswanathan; Kamalakannan, Vijayan; Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparambu Saidumuhammed; Singh, Issac S Bright; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2014-06-01

    Lysozyme gene from Fenneropenaeus indicus was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The cDNA consists of 477 base pairs and encodes amino acid sequence of 159 residues. F. indicus lysozyme had high identity (98%) with Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and Fenneropenaeus chinensis and exhibits low to moderate identities with lysozymes of other invertebrates and vertebrates. This lysozyme is presumed to be chicken types as it possesses two catalytic and eight cysteine residues that are conserved across c-type lysozymes and a c-terminal extension, which is a characteristic of lysozymes from marine invertebrates. Further, the antimicrobial properties of the recombinant lysozyme from F. indicus were determined in comparison with recombinant hen egg white lysozyme. This exhibited high activity against a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium Salmonella typhimurium and two fungal strains Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in turbidimetric assay. Distribution of lysozyme gene and protein in tissues of shrimps infected with white spot syndrome virus revealed that the high levels of lysozyme are correlated with low and high viral load in abdominal muscle and tail, respectively. In conclusion, lysozyme from F. indicus has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties, which once again emphasizes its role in shrimp innate immune response. PMID:24676722

  12. Genome Sequence of the Piezophilic, Mesophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio indicus J2T

    PubMed Central

    Maignien, Lois; Shao, Zongze; Alain, Karine

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Desulfovibrio indicus J2T, a member of the family Desulfovibrionaceae, consists of 3,966,573-bp in one contig and encodes 3,461 predicted genes, 5 noncoding RNAs, 3 rRNAs operons, and 52 tRNA-encoding genes. The genome is consistent with a heterotrophic, anaerobic lifestyle including the sulfate reduction pathway. PMID:27056223

  13. Analysis of copy number variations among diverse cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Liu, George E.; Hou, Yali; Zhu, Bin; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Jiang, Lu; Cellamare, Angelo; Mitra, Apratim; Alexander, Leeson J.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Gasbarre, Lou C.; Lacalandra, Gianni; Li, Robert W.; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K.; Nonneman, Dan; de A. Regitano, Luciana C.; Smith, Tim P.L.; Song, Jiuzhou; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Van Tassell, Curt P.; Ventura, Mario; Eichler, Evan E.; McDaneld, Tara G.; Keele, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. Here, we describe the first systematic and genome-wide analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in modern domesticated cattle using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The array CGH panel included 90 animals from 11 Bos taurus, three Bos indicus, and three composite breeds for beef, dairy, or dual purpose. We identified over 200 candidate CNV regions (CNVRs) in total and 177 within known chromosomes, which harbor or are adjacent to gains or losses. These 177 high-confidence CNVRs cover 28.1 megabases or ∼1.07% of the genome. Over 50% of the CNVRs (89/177) were found in multiple animals or breeds and analysis revealed breed-specific frequency differences and reflected aspects of the known ancestry of these cattle breeds. Selected CNVs were further validated by independent methods using qPCR and FISH. Approximately 67% of the CNVRs (119/177) completely or partially span cattle genes and 61% of the CNVRs (108/177) directly overlap with segmental duplications. The CNVRs span about 400 annotated cattle genes that are significantly enriched for specific biological functions, such as immunity, lactation, reproduction, and rumination. Multiple gene families, including ULBP, have gone through ruminant lineage-specific gene amplification. We detected and confirmed marked differences in their CNV frequencies across diverse breeds, indicating that some cattle CNVs are likely to arise independently in breeds and contribute to breed differences. Our results provide a valuable resource beyond microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the full dimension of genetic variability for future cattle genomic research. PMID:20212021

  14. Assessment of cattle genetic introgression into domestic yak populations using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Qi, X B; Jianlin, H; Wang, G; Rege, J E O; Hanotte, O

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization between yak Poephagus grunniens and taurine Bos taurus or indicine B. indicus cattle has been widely practiced throughout the yak geographical range, and gene flow is expected to have occurred between these species. To assess the impact of cattle admixture on domestic yak, we examined 1076 domestic yak from 29 populations collected in China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and Russia using mitochondrial DNA and 17 autosomal microsatellite loci. A cattle diagnostic marker-based analysis reveals cattle-specific mtDNA and/or autosomal microsatellite allele introgression in 127 yak individuals from 22 populations. The mean level of cattle admixture across the populations, calculated using allelic information at 17 autosomal microsatellite loci, remains relatively low (mYcattle = 2.66 ± 0.53% and Qcattle = 0.69 ± 2.58%), although it varies a lot across populations as well as among individuals within population. Although the level of cattle admixture shows a clear geographical structure, with higher levels of admixture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Mongolian and Russian regions, and lower levels in the Himalayan and Pamir Plateau region, our results indicate that the level of cattle admixture is not significantly correlated with the altitude across geographical regions as well as within geographical region. Although yak-cattle hybridization is primarily driven to produce F1 hybrids, our results show that the subsequent gene flow between yak and cattle took place and has affected contemporary genetic make-up of domestic yak. To protect yak genetic integrity, hybridization between yak and cattle should be tightly controlled. PMID:19917041

  15. An outbreak of cysticercosis in feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bundza, Adam; Finley, Gordon G.; Easton, Kenneth L.

    1988-01-01

    An outbreak of cysticercosis (infestation with the larvae of Taenia saginata) occurred in feedlot cattle in Ontario in 1986. Two hundred and thirty-three of 271 steers were confirmed histologically to be positive for cysticerci. Nineteen (8.2%) animals had viable cysticerci, 87 (37.3%) had degenerated cysticerci, 77 (33.0%) had mineralized cysticerci, and 50 (21.5%) steers had lymphoid granulomas consistent with cysticercosis. Three viable cysticerci were partly evaginated and one degenerate cysticercus was fully evaginated. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6., Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9., F PMID:17423200

  16. Technical note: Digital quantification of eye pigmentation of cattle with white faces.

    PubMed

    Davis, K M; Smith, T; Bolt, B; Meadows, S; Powell, J G; Vann, R C; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lalman, D L; Rouquette, F M; Hansen, G R; Cooper, A J; Cloud, J E; Garcia, M D; Herring, A D; Hale, D S; Sanders, J O; Hairgrove, T B; DeWitt, T J; Riley, D G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the eye in cattle with white faces occurs less frequently in cattle with pigmented eyelids. Corneoscleral pigmentation is related to eyelid pigmentation and occurrence of lesions that may precede cancer. Objectives of this study were to assess 1) variation in the proportion of eyelid and corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford, Bos taurus, and Bos indicus crossbreds and 2) the occurrence of lesions with the presence of pigmentation in those areas. Hereford and Bos indicus crosses (Brahman or Nellore with Angus and Hereford and straightbred Brafords) and Bos taurus crosses (Angus-Hereford) were included in the study (n = 1,083). Eyelid pigmentation proportions were estimated by pixel quantification and were evaluated as total proportions and for upper and lower eyelids distinctly for each eye. Fixed effects included breed type, age categories, and sex of the animal. Lesion presence (1) or absence (0) was obtained by visual appraisal of image and was assumed to be binomially distributed. Eyelid pigmentation proportions (overall, upper, and lower eyelids) for Hereford ranged from 0.65 ± 0.03 to 0.68 ± 0.03 and were significantly lower than Bos indicus (range from 0.93 ± 0.02 to 0.95 ± 0.02) or Bos taurus (ranged from 0.88 ± 0.02 to 0.92 ± 0.02) crosses. Corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) did not differ (P = 0.91) from Hereford calves and yearlings (0.16 ± 0.07). Bos indicus and Bos taurus crossbred cows had larger corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04 for left eyes and 0.37 ± 0.05 and 0.53 ± 0.04 for right eyes, respectively) than all calves (P < 0.001), and their corneoscleral pigmentations were greater than that of Hereford cows (P < 0.003). Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows had greater proportions of left eye corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04, respectively) than Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) and all young animal breed types (P < 0.05). Right eye proportions differed for all cow

  17. Improved cellular thermotolerance in cloned Holstein cattle derived with cytoplasts from a thermotolerant breed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Li, Hung; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Shen, Perng-Chin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerance of ear fibroblasts derived from various SCNT cattle. Specimens were produced from cloned embryos that had been reconstructed using donor cells (d) from the same Holstein cow (Hd) and the ooplasm (o) from Holstein cattle (Ho) or Taiwan yellow cattle (Yo). Polymorphism in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the Y ooplasm and H donor cells (SCNT-Yo-Hd) indicates that the cytoplasm originated from Bos indicus. The rates of apoptosis in heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle (1.9%) and purebred Y cattle (1.5%) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the H ooplasm (SCNT-Ho-Hd: 3.4%), donor cells (4.0%), and purebred Holstein (4.1%) cattle. At the protein level, the relative abundances of apoptosis-inducing factor, B cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, endonuclease G, cytochrome c, cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases 3, 8 and 9 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle after heat shock. In contrast, the relative abundances of heat shock proteins 27, 70 and B cell lymphoma 2 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were higher (P < 0.05) than those of fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle. Moreover, heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle have a significantly (P < 0.05) lower percentage of apoptosis-inducing factor-positive nuclei than do heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle (11.1% vs. 18.5%). Taken together, these results report that ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the Y ooplasm are more thermotolerant than ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the H ooplasm. This is an indication that the cytoplasm may be a major determinant of thermal sensitivity in bovine

  18. [Imported infestations of nasopharyngeal parasites in dogs].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Barutzki, D; Schöl, H; Heinen, H

    1991-02-01

    In this paper infestations of the nasal cavity with Myxobdella annandalei in a dog after a sojourn in Nepal and with Linguatula serrata in 2 stray dogs from Turkey, which were imported to Germany, are described. PMID:2048114

  19. Controlling zebra mussel infestations at hydroelectric plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sblendorio, R.P.; Malinchock, J.C. ); Claudi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    U.S. and Canadian utilities in the great lakes area have adopted techniques to temporarily prevent infestation of the zebra mussel in their hydro facilities, but are still looking for more permanent solutions.

  20. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  1. Lack of haplotype structuring for two candidate genes for trypanotolerance in cattle.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, I; Pérez-Pardal, L; Traoré, A; Fernández, I; Goyache, F

    2016-04-01

    Bovine trypanotolerance is a heritable trait associated to the ability of the individuals to control parasitaemia and anaemia. The INHBA (BTA4) and TICAM1 (BTA7) genes are strong candidates for trypanotolerance-related traits. The coding sequence of both genes (3951 bp in total) were analysed in a panel including 79 Asian, African and European cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus) to identify naturally occurring polymorphisms on both genes. In general, the genetic diversity was low. Nineteen of the 33 mutations identified were found just one time. Seventeen different haplotypes were defined for the TICAM1 gene, and 9 and 12 were defined for the exon 1 and the exon 2 of the INHBA gene, respectively. There was no clear separation between cattle groups. The most frequent haplotypes identified in West African taurine samples were also identified in other cattle groups including Asian zebu and European cattle. Phylogenetic trees and principal component analysis confirmed that divergence among the cattle groups analysed was poor, particularly for the INHBA sequences. The European cattle subset had the lowest values of haplotype diversity for both the exon1 (monomorphic) and the exon2 (0.077 ± 0.066) of the INHBA gene. Neutrality tests, in general, did not suggest that the analysed genes were under positive selection. The assessed scenario would be consistent with the identification of recent mutations in evolutionary terms. PMID:26365013

  2. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Ghauri, Sanniya Khan

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. PMID:27175091

  3. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Ghauri, Sanniya Khan

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. PMID:27175091

  4. Influence of calf genotype on colostral immunoglobulins in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows and serum immunoglobulins in their calves.

    PubMed

    Vann, R C; Holloway, J W; Carstens, G E; Boyd, M E; Randel, R D

    1995-10-01

    Purebred Bos indicus calves are documented to have lower survival rates than Bos taurus calves. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the possibility that this decreased survival rate may be attributed to dam colostral immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations and subsequent calf serum Ig concentrations. The specific objective was to determine the effect of breed type of calf on colostrum production, immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and calf serum, and availability and absorption efficiency of Ig. Brahman (B) and Angus (A) cattle were reciprocally mated to produce calves of the following types: A x A (n = 8), A x B (n = 9), B x B (n = 11), and B x A (n = 11). At birth, calves were separated from their dams and a blood sample was collected before feeding pooled colostrum (30 mL/kg birth weight) at 1 and 6 h of age. From 6 to 12 h of age, each calf was placed in a box that allowed interaction with the dam but prevented suckling. At 12 h of age, each calf was fed its dam's colostrum and placed with the dam. Additional blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 48 h after birth. Serum and colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA using single radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay techniques. The cows were hand-milked after induction of milk letdown with oxytocin at 1 and 12 h after calving. Colostrum volume was recorded, and samples were collected. Brahman cows produced more (P < .001) colostrum at 1 and 12 h than A cows. Total Ig concentrations were obtained by summing IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA concentrations. Total Ig (P < .02), IgG (P < .005), and IgA (P < .01) concentrations in colostrum were greater in cows producing crossbred calves. Total Ig (P < .006), IgG (P < .02), IgG1 (P < .004), and IgG2 (P < .02) available in colostrum were affected by B x B and A x B breed types of calf. Brahman cows had more Ig available at 1 and 12 h than A cows due to increased production of colostrum. Breed type influenced colostral Ig in cattle

  5. Synchronization of ovulation in beef cows (Bos indicus) using GnRH, PGF2alpha and estradiol benzoate.

    PubMed

    Barros, C M; Moreira, M B; Figueiredo, R A; Teixeira, A B; Trinca, L A

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate protocols for synchronizing ovulation in beef cattle. In Experiment 1, Nelore cows (Bos indicus) at random stages of the estrous cycle were assigned to 1 of the following treatments: Group GP controls (nonlactating, n=7) received GnRH agonist (Day 0) and PGF2alpha (Day 7); while Groups GPG (nonlactating, n=8) and GPG-L (lactating, n=9) cows were given GnRH (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and GnRH again (Day 8, 30 h after PGF2alpha). A new follicular wave was observed 1.79+/-0.34 d after GnRH in 19/24 cows. After PGF2alpha, ovulation occurred in 19/24 cows (6/7 GP, 6/8 GPG, 7/9 GPG-L). Most cows (83.3%) exhibited a dominant follicle just before PGF2alpha, and 17/19 ovulatory follicles were from a new follicular wave. There was a more precise synchrony of ovulation (within 12 h) in cows that received a second dose of GnRH (GPG and GPG-L) than controls (GP, ovulation within 48 h; P<0.01). In Experiment 2, lactating Nelore cows with a visible corpus luteum (CL) by ultrasonography were allocated to 2 treatments: Group GPE (n=10) received GnRH agonist (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and estradiol benzoate (EB; Day 8, 24 h after PGF2alpha); while Group EPE (n=11), received EB (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 9) and EB (Day 10, 24 h after PGF2alpha). Emergence of a new follicular wave was observed 1.6+/-0.31 d after GnRH (Group GPE). After EB injection (Day 8) ovulation was observed at 45.38+/-2.03 h in 7/10 cows within 12 h. In Group EPE the emergence of a new follicular wave was observed later (4.36+/-0.31 d) than in Group GEP (1.6+/-0.31 d; P<0.001). After the second EB injection (Day 10) ovulation was observed at 44.16+/-2.21 h within 12 (7/11 cows) or 18 h (8/11 cows). All 3 treatments were effective in synchronizing ovulation in beef cows. However, GPE and, particularly, EPE treatments offer a promising alternative to the GPG protocol in timed artificial insemination of beef cattle, due to the low cost of EB compared with GnRH agonists. PMID

  6. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve

  7. Evaluation of the VetCap® treatment method for horn fly control in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the VetCap® treatment method, (SmartVet Pty Ltd, Brisbane, Australia) to control horn flies infesting cattle. The VetCap® delivery system consists of a pressure (liquid CO2) driven launcher and an encapsulated insecticide (CyLence®) formulation...

  8. Research project for integrated control of the southern cattle fever tick in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puerto Rico (PR) is infested with the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. A research coalition involving the livestock industry in PR, the PR Department of Agriculture (...

  9. Effect of circulating progesterone concentration during synchronization for fixed-time artificial insemination on ovulation and fertility in Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Carvalho, J B P; Crepaldi, G A; Soares, J G; Girotto, R W; Maio, J R G; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of different circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations during a synchronization of ovulation protocol for the timed artificial insemination (TAI) of Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cattle. In the first trial, 13 ovariectomized Nelore heifers were randomly allocated into one of three groups using new P4 devices (New; 1.0 g P4), previously used P4 devices for 8 days (Used1x), and previously used P4 devices for 16 days (Used2x), in a crossover experimental design. The circulating P4 concentrations during the P4 device treatment were lower for Used1x (2.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and Used2x (2.0 ± 0.1 ng/mL) than those for New (3.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In the second trial, the ovarian follicular dynamics of 60 anestrous cows were evaluated after the cows received the treatments described previously (New [n = 20], Used1x [n = 20], and Used2x [n = 20]). During the insertion of the P4 device, the cows were administered 2.0-mg estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the P4 device was removed, and the cows were administered 0.53-mg sodium cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, and 1-mg estradiol cypionate. There were no differences among the groups during the interval from P4 device removal to ovulation (73.7 ± 2.9 vs. 69.8 ± 2.4 vs. 68.4 ± 2.3 hours) or regarding the ovulation rate (70.0% vs. 80.0% vs. 85.0%). However, the maximum diameter of the largest follicle was greater (P = 0.06) in the Used2x (15.3 ± 0.4 mm) than that of New (13.5 ± 0.8 mm) and Used1x (14.9 ± 0.5 mm). In experiment 3, 443 anestrous cows were randomly assigned into one of the three treatments (New [n = 144] vs. Used1x [n = 167] vs. Used2x [n = 132]) and received a TAI 48 hours after the P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle during the device removal (10.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.2 vs. 11.3 ± 0.3 mm) and the 30-day pregnancy rates (51.4% vs. 53.9% vs. 43.2%) did not differ among the experimental

  10. Control of the bush tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) with Zebu x European cattle.

    PubMed

    Dicker, R W; Sutherst, R W

    1981-02-01

    Brahman x Hereford cattle carried only one-quarter as many engorging adult bush ticks (Haemaphysalis (Kaiseriana) longicornis) as Hereford. Simmental x Hereford or Friesian x Hereford cattle when grazed together on the north coast of New South Wales. Fourteen percent of a Brahman x Hereford herd carried half of the engorging ticks suggesting that infestation levels would be further reduced by culling procedures. The results indicate an additional advantage to those already established for Brahman x Hereford cattle on the north coast of New South Wales and have important implications for tick control. PMID:7259646

  11. Pregnancy Rates to Fixed Embryo Transfer of Vitrified IVP Bos indicus, Bos taurus or Bos indicus × Bos taurus Embryos.

    PubMed

    Marinho, L S R; Sanches, B V; Rosa, C O; Tannura, J H; Rigo, A G; Basso, A C; Pontes, J H F; Seneda, M M

    2015-10-01

    The pregnancy rates obtained after the transfer of cryopreserved in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos are usually low and/or inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rates of Holstein, Gyr and Holstein × Gyr cattle after the transfer of vitrified IVP embryos produced with X-sorted sperm. Seventy-two Gyr and 703 Holstein females were subjected to ovum pickup (OPU) sessions, followed by in vitro embryo production using semen from sires of the same breeds. Embryos (1636 Holstein, 241 Gyr and 1515 Holstein × Gyr) were exposed to forskolin for 48 h prior to vitrification. The pregnancy rate achieved with Gyr dam and sire was 46.1%, which was similar (p = 0.11) to that of Holstein dam and Gyr sire (40.3%). Crossing Gyr dams with Holstein sires resulted in a pregnancy rate of 38.9% and did not differ (p = 0.58) from the pregnancy rate obtained with the cross between Holstein dams and Gyr sires. The rate obtained with Holstein dam and sire was 32.5%. The average pregnancy rate was 36.6%, and no difference was found in the proportion of female foetuses (88.8%, in average) among breeds (p > 0.05). In conclusion, transfer of cryopreserved X-sorted embryos represents an interesting choice for dairy cattle. Despite the small differences between pregnancy rates, we highlight the efficiency of this strategy for all of the racial groups studied. PMID:26280798

  12. Delusional infestation: are you being bugged?

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Angeli; Ooi, Kenneth Gj; Assaad, Nagi; Coroneo, Minas

    2015-01-01

    This case report documents a 58-year-old male who presented to the clinic with a 12-month history of a burrowing sensation in his eyelids that he attributed to a parasitic infestation. After being extensively investigated and reviewed by relevant specialties, no evidence of parasitic infestation was found. He was diagnosed with and treated for blepharitis. Psychiatric referral for presumed delusional infestation (DI) was recommended. Despite this, he remained insistent in his belief of infestation, and was inevitably lost to follow-up. DI, previously known as delusional parasitosis, is a rare delusional disorder where affected individuals have a fixed, false belief that they have a parasitic infestation. Diagnosis can be challenging. Practitioners need to evaluate between primary and secondary DI carefully, as management differs depending on the etiology. Despite this, patients diagnosed with primary DI tend to be resistant to psychiatric referral. This report aims to optimize management by giving the reader a guideline for appropriate investigations and advice on patient approach. It is important to recognize hallmark features of DI to minimize self-inflicted trauma and associated psychosocial consequences. Effective treatment for DI is available, and devastating consequences, including blindness, can be avoided. PMID:26082608

  13. Genome Sequence of the Piezophilic, Mesophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio indicus J2T.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junwei; Maignien, Lois; Shao, Zongze; Alain, Karine; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence ofDesulfovibrio indicusJ2(T), a member of the familyDesulfovibrionaceae, consists of 3,966,573-bp in one contig and encodes 3,461 predicted genes, 5 noncoding RNAs, 3 rRNAs operons, and 52 tRNA-encoding genes. The genome is consistent with a heterotrophic, anaerobic lifestyle including the sulfate reduction pathway. PMID:27056223

  14. Involvement of opioid peptides in the regulation of reproduction in the prawn Penaeus indicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The possible involvement of an endogenous opioid system in the regulation of ovarian development in the prawn Penaeus indicus was investigated. Injection of leucine-enkephalin significantly increased the ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of methionine-enkephalin significantly decreased the ovarian index and oocyte diameters. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that an opioid system is involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans.

  15. Evidence for pleiotropism and recent selection in the PLAG1 region in Australian Beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Fortes, M R S; Kemper, K; Sasazaki, S; Reverter, A; Pryce, J E; Barendse, W; Bunch, R; McCulloch, R; Harrison, B; Bolormaa, S; Zhang, Y D; Hawken, R J; Goddard, M E; Lehnert, S A

    2013-12-01

    A putative functional mutation (rs109231213) near PLAG1 (BTA14) associated with stature was studied in beef cattle. Data from 8199 Bos taurus, Bos indicus and Tropical Composite cattle were used to test the associations between rs109231213 and various phenotypes. Further, 23 496 SNPs located on BTA14 were tested for association with these phenotypes, both independently and fitted together with rs109231213. The C allele of rs109231213 significantly increased hip height, weight, net food intake, age at puberty in males and females and decreased IGF-I concentration in blood and fat depth. When rs109231213 was fitted as a fixed effect in the model, there was an overall reduction in associations between other SNPs and these traits but some SNPs remained associated (P < 10(-4) ). Frequency of the mutant C allele of rs109231213 differed among B. indicus (0.52), B. taurus (0.96) and Tropical Composite (0.68). Most chromosomes carrying the C allele had the same surrounding 10 SNP haplotype, probably because the C allele was introgressed into Brahman from B. taurus cattle. A region of reduced heterozygosity surrounds the C allele; this is small in B. taurus but 20 Mb long in Brahmans, indicating recent and strong selection for the mutant allele. Thus, the C allele appears to mark a mutation that has been selected almost to fixation in the B. taurus breeds studied here and introduced into Brahman cattle during grading up and selected to a frequency of 0.52 despite its negative effects on fertility. PMID:23909810

  16. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Golkar, Poorandokht; Zamani, Akram

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0–5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus. PMID:26204839

  17. Age-related habitat selection by brown forest skinks (Sphenomorphus indicus)

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, Qi-Ping; ZHU, Meng-Yao; HU, Ying-Chao; ZHANG, Xue-Ya; DING, Guo-Hua; LIN, Zhi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In reptiles, habitat selection is the process whereby suitable habitat is selected that optimizes physiological functions and behavioral performance. Here, we used the brown forest skink (Sphenomorphus indicus) as a model animal and examined whether the frequency of active individuals, environmental temperature, illumination of activity area, and habitat type vary with different age classes. We surveyed the number of active individuals and measured environmental variables at Baiyunshan Mountain in Lishui, Zhejiang, China. We found no difference in the activity frequency of adult and juvenile S. indicus; the activity pattern of active individuals was bimodal. The mean environmental temperature selected by adults was higher than that selected by juveniles. The environmental temperature of active areas measured at 0900-1000 h and 1100-1200h was higher than at 1400-1500h; illumination of the active area at 1000-1200h was also higher than at 1400h-1600 h. The number of active individuals, the environmental temperature and illumination of activity areas showed pairwise positive correlation. There was a difference in habitat type between juveniles and adults whereby juveniles prefer rock habitats. We predict that active S. indicus select optimal habitats with different environmental temperatures and types to reach the physiological needs particular to their age classes. PMID:25730458

  18. Variation in wood fibre traits among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A G Devi; Al-Sagheer, Nageeb A

    2012-03-01

    Wood elements and anatomical ratio of Dipterocarpus indicus were studied to evaluate variation among populations and to recommend for end selection. The variation of wood element [fibre length (FL), fibre diameter (FD), lumen diameter (LD), cell wall thickness (CWT), double wall thickness (DWT), and lumen volume (LV)] and anatomical ratio [fibre lumen area (FLA), slenderness ratio (SR) and runkel ratio (RR)] were investigated in a girth class of 100 - 120 cm among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India. The study revealed a significant variations in FL (0.2426), FD (4.7019), LD (3.1689), CWT (2.7104), DWT and (5.4298) among populations. The variations in anatomical ratios were significant among populations except in case of LV. The causes of variations among populations in their wood traits were attributed to the site factors. The interaction between genetic makeup of wood traits combined with effects of edaphic, local and regional climatic conditions reflect the amount of variation among populations. The highest coefficient of variation (CV %) for FL, FD, CWT and DWT was recorded in population of Gundya whereas low coefficient of variation were recorded in the population of Makuta (FL), Devimane (FD, CWT and DWT), and Sampaje (LD). The wood of Dipterocarpus indicus was found undesirable for pulp wood but can be utilized for plywood timbers. PMID:23033683

  19. Metabolic and endocrine differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus females that impact the interaction of nutrition with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Roberto; Gimenes, Lindsay U; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Melo, Leonardo F; Baruselli, Pietro S; Bastos, Michele R

    2016-07-01

    During the last decade, researchers have studied the differences in the reproductive physiology between Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. This manuscript focuses on the main aspects of ovarian function and circulating hormones of B. taurus and B. indicus cows and heifers. In general, there is no difference in the number of follicle waves during the estrous cycle, however B. indicus have greater antral follicle count, circulating insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) than B. taurus. Moreover, despite of B. taurus having larger ovulatory follicle diameter and maximum CL volume, they have lesser peak circulating estradiol concentrations and lesser circulating progesterone concentrations than B. indicus. We may speculate that there are two main factors related to lesser circulating concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in B. taurus when compared with B. indicus: increased liver metabolism of steroid hormones and lesser production by follicles and CL. Differences between the two genetic groups are also observed with respect to in vitro embryo production because in addition to B. indicus having greater numbers of retrieved oocytes, due to greater antral follicle count, they also have greater percentages of viable oocytes, number of blastocysts, and blastocyst rates when compared with B. taurus. Effects of dietary intake on embryo quality may differ between B. taurus and B. indicus due to different concentrations of circulating insulin and IGF1. For in vivo and in vitro embryo production, an increase in circulating insulin concentrations is negatively associated with oocyte/embryo quality and conception rates. However, this seems to be more pronounced in B. taurus breeds. Differences in ovarian function related or not to nutrition between these two genetic groups are very consistent and may be related to the influence of metabolic hormones such as insulin and IGF1. PMID:27156680

  20. Molecular Characterization and SNP Detection of CD14 Gene of Crossbred Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Aruna; Sharma, Arjava; Bhattacharya, T. K.; Chatterjee, P. N.; Chakravarty, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    CD14 is an important molecule for innate immunity that can act against a wide range of pathogens. The present paper has characterized CD14 gene of crossbred (CB) cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus). Cloning and sequence analysis of CD14 cDNA revealed 1119 nucleotide long open reading frame encoding 373 amino acids protein and 20 amino acids signal peptide. CB cattle CD14 gene exhibited a high percentage of nucleotide identity (59.3–98.1%) with the corresponding mammalian homologs. Cattle and buffalo appear to have diverged from a common ancestor in phylogenetic analysis. 25 SNPs with 17 amino acid changes were newly reported and the site for mutational hot-spot was detected in CB cattle CD14 gene. Non-synonymous substitutions exceeding synonymous substitutions indicate the evolution of this protein through positive selection among domestic animals. Predicted protein structures obtained from deduced amino acid sequence indicated CB cattle CD14 molecule to be a receptor with horse shoe-shaped structure. The sites for LPS binding, LPS signalling, leucine-rich repeats, putative N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation, glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor, disulphide bridges, alpha helix, beta strand, leucine rich nuclear export signal, leucine zipper and domain linker were predicted. Most of leucine and cysteine residues remain conserved across the species. PMID:22132326

  1. Revisiting demographic processes in cattle with genome-wide population genetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Barbato, Mario; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel; Biscarini, Filippo; Milanesi, Marco; Davies, Wyn; Williams, Don; Stella, Alessandra; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of the aurochs took place approximately 10,000 years ago giving rise to the two main types of domestic cattle known today, taurine (Bos taurus) domesticated somewhere on or near the Fertile Crescent, and indicine (Bos indicus) domesticated in the Indus Valley. However, although cattle have historically played a prominent role in human society the exact origin of many extant breeds is not well known. Here we used a combination of medium and high-density Illumina Bovine SNP arrays (i.e., ~54,000 and ~770,000 SNPs, respectively), genotyped for over 1300 animals representing 56 cattle breeds, to describe the relationships among major European cattle breeds and detect patterns of admixture among them. Our results suggest modern cross-breeding and ancient hybridisation events have both played an important role, including with animals of indicine origin. We use these data to identify signatures of selection reflecting both domestication (hypothesized to produce a common signature across breeds) and local adaptation (predicted to exhibit a signature of selection unique to a single breed or group of related breeds with a common history) to uncover additional demographic complexity of modern European cattle. PMID:26082794

  2. Revisiting demographic processes in cattle with genome-wide population genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Barbato, Mario; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel; Biscarini, Filippo; Milanesi, Marco; Davies, Wyn; Williams, Don; Stella, Alessandra; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of the aurochs took place approximately 10,000 years ago giving rise to the two main types of domestic cattle known today, taurine (Bos taurus) domesticated somewhere on or near the Fertile Crescent, and indicine (Bos indicus) domesticated in the Indus Valley. However, although cattle have historically played a prominent role in human society the exact origin of many extant breeds is not well known. Here we used a combination of medium and high-density Illumina Bovine SNP arrays (i.e., ~54,000 and ~770,000 SNPs, respectively), genotyped for over 1300 animals representing 56 cattle breeds, to describe the relationships among major European cattle breeds and detect patterns of admixture among them. Our results suggest modern cross-breeding and ancient hybridisation events have both played an important role, including with animals of indicine origin. We use these data to identify signatures of selection reflecting both domestication (hypothesized to produce a common signature across breeds) and local adaptation (predicted to exhibit a signature of selection unique to a single breed or group of related breeds with a common history) to uncover additional demographic complexity of modern European cattle. PMID:26082794

  3. Control and therapeutic management of bovine tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit Kumar; Singh, Shanker Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tropical theileriosis (BTT) is a disease of worldwide economic importance in cattle, caused by Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite, and transmitted cyclically by ticks. The disease is one of the serious constraints to dairy industry in endemic areas like India, leading to fatal infections in exotic cattle and significant mortality in cross-bred cattle and zebu cattle. The present report demonstrates the clinical manifestation, haematological alteration and therapeutic management of theileriosis cases in a cross-bred cattle dairy farm at district Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh. Clinical examination of affected animals revealed high rectal temperature (104-106 °F), generalized enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, pallor mucous, apathy and watery blood. The affected animals were severely infested with Hyalomma anatolicum ticks. The blood smears examination after staining with Leishman stain revealed the presence of typical Theileria organisms. Buparvaquone along with symptomatic and supportive therapy could cure all the animals. PMID:27065628

  4. First description of Bartonella bovis in cattle herds in Israel.

    PubMed

    Rudoler, Nir; Rasis, Michal; Sharir, Benny; Novikov, Anna; Shapira, Gregory; Giladi, Michael

    2014-09-17

    Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0-89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (≥100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent. PMID:25096531

  5. Amblyomma variegatum in cattle in Marie Galante, French Antilles: prevalence, control measures, and infection by Ehrlichia ruminantium.

    PubMed

    Molia, Sophie; Frebling, Mathieu; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Pinarello, Valérie; Petitclerc, Martial; Rousteau, Alain; Martinez, Dominique; Lefrançois, Thierry

    2008-05-31

    We report Marie Galante as one of the Caribbean islands most heavily infested by the tropical bont tick (TBT) Amblyomma variegatum which is associated with two major diseases of ruminants: heartwater and dermatophilosis. In 2005, a survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of TBT infestation in cattle, the prevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in TBTs, and the tick control measures implemented by livestock owners. A random sample of 195 cattle herds out of 1885 recorded on the island was investigated by thoroughly counting adult ticks on each animal and filling a questionnaire. A randomly collected sample of 136 TBTs was tested for infection by E. ruminantium by pCS20 nested PCR. Cattle herd prevalence (hp) was 73.8% for infestation by at least one TBT, 17.9% for infestation by at least one engorged female TBT, and 8.2% for clinical dermatophilosis. Cattle individual prevalence was 42.3% for infestation by at least one TBT, 6.6% for infestation by at least one engorged female TBT, and 2.2% for clinical dermatophilosis. The minimum, maximum and average numbers of TBTs per infested animal were, respectively 1, 108 and 11.5. Prevalence of TBT infection by E. ruminantium was 19.1%. No significant difference in herd prevalence was found among parishes or among ecological zones. For cattle owners treating against ticks (97.9% of all owners), all used aspersion of amitraz and herd prevalence was significantly different among those treating every 1-2-week (hp=69.6%, n=148), and less often than every 2-week (hp=88.6%, n=35) (P=0.031). Of the 42 herd subunits treated less than 4 days before the survey, 27 (64%) were infested with at least one TBT, and 6 (14%) with at least one engorged female TBT. These results indicate a high level of TBT infestation in Marie Galante, the inefficacy of tick treatments currently performed, and the need for an improved tick control strategy. Persisting high levels of infestation in Marie Galante threaten the success of on

  6. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anja Stojsin-; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77±0.09 and 0.33±0.24ng/ml respectively (p=0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3±568.5 and 2977.9±214.1ng/ml respectively (p<0.05). This is the first published report of FF and GC AMH in Zebu cattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p=0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance. PMID:26898391

  7. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in particular genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, can complement historic and archaeological records to elucidate these past events. However, SNP ascertainment in cattle has been optimized for taurine breeds, imposing limitations to the study of diversity in zebu cattle. As amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers are discovered and genotyped as the samples are assayed, this type of marker is free of ascertainment bias. In order to obtain unbiased assessments of genetic differentiation and structure in taurine and zebu cattle, we analyzed a dataset of 135 AFLP markers in 1,593 samples from 13 zebu and 58 taurine breeds, representing nine continental areas. Results We found a geographical pattern of expected heterozygosity in European taurine breeds decreasing with the distance from the domestication centre, arguing against a large-scale introgression from European or African aurochs. Zebu cattle were found to be at least as diverse as taurine cattle. Western African zebu cattle were found to have diverged more from Indian zebu than South American zebu. Model-based clustering and ancestry informative markers analyses suggested that this is due to taurine introgression. Although a large part of South American zebu cattle also descend from taurine cows, we did not detect significant levels of taurine ancestry in these breeds, probably because of systematic backcrossing with zebu bulls. Furthermore, limited zebu introgression was found in Podolian taurine breeds in Italy. Conclusions The assessment of cattle diversity reported here contributes an unbiased global view to genetic differentiation and structure of taurine and zebu cattle

  8. Effect of the association of cattle and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) on populations of cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus).

    PubMed

    Barre, N; Bianchi, M; De Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2002-10-01

    The wild population of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia (South Pacific) is nearly as large as the cattle population. The cattle tick is widespread and occurs all year round. Opinions are divided on the role of deer in the biological cycle of the tick: i) Do they maintain a sustainable tick population that is secondarily available for cattle? ii) Do they decrease the infestation of the environment by collecting larvae on the pasture, but preventing their development to the engorged female stage? or iii) Do they contribute to both situations? An experiment was conducted in three groups of pastures, each seeded with 450 000 larvae/ha and allowed to be grazed only by cattle, only by deer, and by a mixed herd of deer and cattle (deer representing 30% of the biomass), at approximately the same stocking rate (470-510 kg/ha). After 15 months of exposure, the tick burden per weight unit of host was 42 ticks/kg for the steers-only herd and 0.01/kg for the deer-only herd. The steers in the "mixed group" harbored 7 times fewer ticks (6.2/kg) than the cattle-only group, and the deer in the "mixed group," 130 times more (1.3/kg) than the deer-only group. Five emergency acaricide treatments had to be applied in the cattle-only group, but none in the other groups. The long-term sustainability of a viable tick population on deer as well as the potential benefit resulting from the association of deer and susceptible cattle in the tick control of cattle are highlighted. PMID:12381606

  9. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. PMID:27390089

  10. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Oliver M; Wagner, William E

    2013-04-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  11. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  12. Signature Chemicals for Detection of Hidden Insect Infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are major pests worldwide, but infestation is difficult to detect since the larval stages are concealed within host fruits. Using grapefruit infested with the Caribbean fruit fly, we evaluated gas chromatography (GC) as a tool for detection of hidden infestation. We found sever...

  13. Biological Parameters of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) Fed on Rabbits, Sheep, and Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ma, Miling; Chen, Ze; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Zhijie; Li, Youquan; Yin, Hong; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    In order to determine the effect of various hosts on feeding performance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, we used 3 mammalian species as hosts, cattle (Qinchuan), sheep (T an), and rabbits (Japanese white rabbit) for infest-ing ticks. Five hundreds of R. microplus larvae were exposed to each animal (3 animals/host species). Tick recoveries were 11.0%, 0.47%, and 5.5% from cattle, sheep, and rabbits, respectively. The averages of tick feeding periods were not significantly different on cattle, sheep, and rabbits, 28.8, 25.3, and 26.7 days, respectively. The average weights of individual engorged female from cattle, sheep, and rabbits were 312.5, 219.1, and 130.2 mg, respectively and those of egg mass weights each to 85.0, 96.6, and 17.8 mg. The highest egg hatching rate was in the ticks from cattle (96.0%), fol-lowed by those from rabbits (83.0%) and sheep (19.2%). These data suggest that rabbits could be as an alternative host to cultivate R. microplus for evaluating vaccines and chemical and biological medicines against the tick in the laboratory, although the biological parameters of ticks were less than those from cattle. PMID:27417084

  14. Biological Parameters of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) Fed on Rabbits, Sheep, and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Miling; Chen, Ze; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Zhijie; Li, Youquan; Yin, Hong; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of various hosts on feeding performance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, we used 3 mammalian species as hosts, cattle (Qinchuan), sheep (T an), and rabbits (Japanese white rabbit) for infest-ing ticks. Five hundreds of R. microplus larvae were exposed to each animal (3 animals/host species). Tick recoveries were 11.0%, 0.47%, and 5.5% from cattle, sheep, and rabbits, respectively. The averages of tick feeding periods were not significantly different on cattle, sheep, and rabbits, 28.8, 25.3, and 26.7 days, respectively. The average weights of individual engorged female from cattle, sheep, and rabbits were 312.5, 219.1, and 130.2 mg, respectively and those of egg mass weights each to 85.0, 96.6, and 17.8 mg. The highest egg hatching rate was in the ticks from cattle (96.0%), fol-lowed by those from rabbits (83.0%) and sheep (19.2%). These data suggest that rabbits could be as an alternative host to cultivate R. microplus for evaluating vaccines and chemical and biological medicines against the tick in the laboratory, although the biological parameters of ticks were less than those from cattle. PMID:27417084

  15. Spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies with reference to indigenous cattle populations among contrasting agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (p<0.001) associated with seropositive herds. These findings add critical evidence to existing information on the widespread occurrence of brucellosis among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda and could guide allocation of meagre resources for awareness creation

  16. Reduced efficacy of commercial acaricides against populations of resistant cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus from two municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two distant Antioquian cattle farms where systemic and topical acaricides had previously failed to control infestations by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were studied. An initial in vivo study was conducted using single subcutaneous injections with a long-acting formulation of ivermectin (630 µ...

  17. Treatment and control of bovine sarcoptic and psoroptic mange infestation with ivermectin long-acting injectable (IVOMEC(®) GOLD).

    PubMed

    Hamel, Dietmar; Joachim, Anja; Löwenstein, Michael; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Yoon, Stephen; Cramer, Luiz; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin long-acting injection (IVM LAI, IVOMEC® GOLD, Merial; 3.15 % ivermectin w/v) formulation was evaluated in cattle with induced Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis or Psoroptes ovis infestations. A total of 64 cattle were included in this series of four studies, with 16 animals per study. Approximately, 8 weeks following initial induced mite infestation, cattle were allocated to treatment groups based on decreasing pre-treatment bodyweights. Treatments (saline (control) or IVM LAI (630 mcg ivermectin/kg bodyweight) at 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight) were administered by a single subcutaneous injection in front of the right shoulder on Day 0. Skin scrapings were collected prior to treatment and at approximately weekly intervals for 8 weeks thereafter to establish live mite counts. Character and extent of skin lesions were evaluated at each sampling. Animals were weighed before treatment and at the end of the studies. Mite counts of the IVM LAI-treated animals were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of the controls in all four studies at all occasions post-treatment. In the two Sarcoptes studies, IVM LAI-treated cattle were free of mites at 14 days after treatment and in the Psoroptes studies at 13 or 28 days post-treatment. All IVM LAI-treated cattle remained free of mites to the end of the studies while all control animals remained infested. Mange lesions of the IVM LAI-treated animals improved significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those of the controls from Day 21 (Sarcoptes studies) and from Days 28 or 34 (Psoroptes studies). In all studies, mean weight gain over the 8 week post-treatment period was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for the IVM LAI-treated animals than for the controls: Sarcoptes studies, 64.1 and 68.6 kg vs. 46.9 and 48.6 kg, respectively; Psoroptes studies, 43.0 and 43.4 kg vs. 20.8 and 34.9 kg, respectively. All animals accepted the treatment well, and no treatment-related health problems and adverse events were

  18. Genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing ocean bacterium Thermodesulfatator indicus type strain (CIR29812T)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Mavromatis, K; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Jeffries, Cynthia; Chang, Yun-Juan; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the genomically so far poorly characterized family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  19. The efficacy and safety of alphacypermethrin as a pour-on treatment for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) infested with Haematopinus tuberculatus (Phthiraptera: Haematopinidae).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Cimmino, Roberta; Balestrieri, Anna; Rufrano, Domenico; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Santoro, Mario; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    The sucking louse Haematopinus tuberculatus (Burmeister 1839) is an ectoparasite of buffaloes, cattle, camels, and American bison. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to control arthropods of veterinary and public health interest. Therapeutics, such as antiparasitic compounds, is often administered to buffaloes based on dosage and intervals recommended for cattle because very few drugs have buffalo-specific label indications. A trial was conducted on 20 louse-infested buffaloes at a farm to assess the efficacy and safety of ACYP pour-on, at the manufacturer's recommended dose for cattle, on buffaloes naturally infested by H. tuberculatus. Ten animals were assigned to ACYP-treated group (ACYP-group) and ten to untreated control group (C-group). On day 0, all ACYP-group buffaloes received alphacypermethrin pour-on. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at eight predilection sites on the skin of each buffalo. ACYP was completely effective (100%) at day 7, highly effective (99.8%) at day 14, and completely effective (100%) from day 21 until the end of the study (day 56 post-treatment). During the trial, ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinically adverse reactions. The results of this trial suggest that ACYP is an effective, safe, and user-friendly compound suitable for treatment of buffaloes with natural louse infestations. PMID:23733232

  20. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    PubMed

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. PMID:26025652

  1. Y chromosome haplotype analysis in Portuguese cattle breeds using SNPs and STRs.

    PubMed

    Ginja, Catarina; Telo da Gama, Luís; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T

    2009-01-01

    DNA samples from 307 males of 13 Portuguese native cattle breeds, 57 males of the 3 major exotic breeds in Portugal (Charolais, Friesian, and Limousin), and 5 Brahman (Bos indicus) were tested for 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1 "indel," and 7 microsatellites specific to the Y chromosome. The 13 Y-haplotypes defined included 3 previously described patrilines (Y1, Y2, and Y3) and 10 new haplotypes within Bos taurus. Native cattle contained most of the diversity with 7 haplotypes (H2Y1, H3Y1, H5Y1, H7Y2, H8Y2, H10Y2, and H12Y2) found only in these breeds. H6Y2 and H11Y2 occurred in high frequency across breeds including the exotics. Introgression of Friesian cattle into Ramo Grande was inferred through their sharing of haplotype H4Y1. Among the native breeds, Mertolenga had the highest haplotype diversity (0.68 +/- 0.07), Brava de Lide was the least differentiated. The analyses of molecular variance showed significant (P < 0.0001) differences between breeds with more than 64% of the total genetic variation found among breeds within groups and 33-35% within breeds. The detection of INRA189-104 allele in 8 native breeds suggested influence of African cattle in breeds of the Iberian Peninsula. The presence in Portuguese breeds of Y1 patrilines, also found in aurochs, could represent more ancient local haplotypes. PMID:18832111

  2. Chemical classification of cattle. 2. Phylogenetic tree and specific status of the Zebu.

    PubMed

    Manwell, C; Baker, C M

    1980-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees for the ten major breed groups of cattle were constructed by Farris's (1972) maximum parsimony method, or Fitch & Margoliash's (1967) method, which averages ou the deviation over the entire assemblage. Both techniques yield essentially identical trees. The phylogenetic tree for the ten major cattle breed groups can be superimposed on a map of Europe and western Asia, the root of the tree being close to the 'fertile crescent' in Asia Minor, believed to be a primary centre of bovine domestication. For some but not all protein variants there is a cline of gene frequencies as one proceeds from the British Isles and northwest Europe towards southeast Europe and Asia Minor, with the most extreme gene frequencies in the Zebu breeds of India. It is not clear to what extent the observed clines are primary or secondary, i.e., consequent to the initial migrations of cattle towards the end of the Pleistocene or consequent to the many migrations of man with his domesticated cattle. Such clines as exist are not in themselves sufficient to prove either selection versus genetic drift or to establish taxonomic ranking. Contrary to some suggestions in the literature, the biochemical evidence supports Linnaeus's original conclusions: Bos taurus and Bos indicus are distinct species. PMID:7458002

  3. Nasal leech infestation causing persistent epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sarathi, Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are commonly encountered as a cause of epistaxis; however, nasal leech infestation as a cause of unilateral persistent epistaxis is very rare. Examination of nasal cavity revealed fleshy material in the left nostril, which was identified as leech. The leech was removed with the help of an artery forceps following irrigation of the left nostril with normal saline and adopting wait-and-watch policy. In developing countries, leech infestation as a cause of epistaxis should be suspected in patients with lower socioeconomic status or in those living in rural areas who give history of drinking polluted water from, or bathing in, stagnant ponds and puddles. PMID:21887037

  4. Botfly infestation (myiasis) masquerading as furunculosis.

    PubMed

    Gewirtzman, A; Rabinovitz, H

    1999-02-01

    With air travel so prevalent, diseases endemic to certain regions may appear anywhere. The botfly (Dermatobia hominis) is not native to North America. We describe a case of a young boy and his father who presented with furunculosis secondary to infestation with the botfly. The infected patients live in South Florida and had been vacationing in Central America. Standard surgical treatment as well as multiple native remedies are described. PMID:10071732

  5. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, a...

  6. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  7. Proteomics Approach to the Study of Cattle Tick Adaptation to White Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Popara, Marina; Villar, Margarita; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; de la Fuente, José

    2013-01-01

    Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD) play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle. PMID:24364032

  8. Subspecies differences in early fetal development and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations in cattle.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, P M; Waters, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; Elzo, M A; Johnson, S E; Rae, D O; Yelich, J V; Ealy, A D

    2013-08-01

    Inclusion of Bos indicus genetics improves production traits of cattle maintained in hot climates. Limited information exists detailing pregnancy-specific events as influenced by variable amounts of Bos indicus genetics. Three experiments were completed to examine the effect of Bos taurus and Bos indicus genotypes on fetal size and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations. In all experiments, cows were bred by AI after synchronization of ovulation. Fetal measurements were completed by transrectal ultrasonography and plasma PAG concentrations were quantified from plasma harvested the day of each fetal measurement. In Exp. 1, fetal size and plasma PAG concentrations were measured at d 53 of pregnancy in cows composed of various fractions of Angus and Brahman (n = 9 to 21 cows/group). Fetus size was greater in cows containing >80% Angus genetics compared with cows containing <80% Angus influence (3.40 ± 0.28 vs. 2.86 ± 0.28 cm crown-rump length; P < 0.01). Plasma PAG concentrations were reduced (P < 0.01) in cows containing >80% Angus genetics when compared with their contemporaries (6.0 ± 1.5 ng/mL vs. 9.4 ± 1.5 ng/mL). In Exp. 2, fetal measurements and plasma PAG concentrations were determined at d 35 and 62 of pregnancy in Angus and Brangus cows. Breed did not affect fetus size at d 35, but Angus cows contained larger fetuses than Brangus cows at d 62 [3.0 ± 0.03 vs. 2.8 ± 0.03 cm crown-nose length (CNL; P > 0.01)]. Plasma PAG concentrations were not different between breed at d 35 and 62 (P > 0.1). In Exp. 3, fetal measurements and plasma samples were collected at d 33/34, 40/41, 47/48, and 54/55 post-AI in Angus and Brangus cows. Fetus size was not different (P > 0.05) between genotypes on d 33/34, 40/41, and 47/48. Angus fetuses were larger than Brangus fetuses at d 54/55 (2.1 ± 0.03 vs. 1.9 ± 0.03 cm CNL; P = 0.001). Plasma PAG concentrations were less in Angus than Brangus cows at each time point (average 4.9 ± 0.9 vs. 8.2 ± 0

  9. Control of ticks resistant to immunization with Bm86 in cattle vaccinated with the recombinant antigen Bm95 isolated from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.

    PubMed

    García-García, J C; Montero, C; Redondo, M; Vargas, M; Canales, M; Boue, O; Rodríguez, M; Joglar, M; Machado, H; González, I L; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; de la Fuente, J

    2000-04-28

    The recombinant Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac(TM) against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus has proved its efficacy in a number of experiments, especially when combined with acaricides in an integrated manner. However, tick isolates such as the Argentinean strain A, show low susceptibility to this vaccine. In this paper we report on the isolation of the Bm95 gene from the B. microplus strain A, which was cloned and expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris producing a glycosylated and particulated recombinant protein. This new antigen was effective against different tick strains in a pen trial, including the B. microplus strain A, resistant to vaccination with Bm86. A Bm95-based vaccine was used to protect cattle against tick infestations under production conditions, lowering the number of ticks on vaccinated animals and, therefore, reducing the frequency of acaricide treatments. The Bm95 antigen from strain A was able to protect against infestations with Bm86-sensitive and Bm86-resistant tick strains, thus suggesting that Bm95 could be a more universal antigen to protect cattle against infestations by B. microplus strains from different geographical areas. PMID:10717348

  10. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  11. Differences in susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematode infection between Angus and Brangus cattle in south Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Peña, M T; Miller, J E; Wyatt, W; Kearney, M T

    2000-03-28

    Breed susceptibility to nematode infection was evaluated in Angus (Bos taurus) and Brangus (B. indicus crossbreed) cattle. A cow-calf herd and a yearling replacement heifer herd were monitored during one grazing season. Calves were born in March and were weaned in October. Individual rectal fecal samples were collected monthly from the two herds and processed for fecal egg counts (FEC) and coprocultures. Cow and calf FEC increased from April, reaching maximum values during the summer. Angus cows and calves had significantly (p<0.05) greater FEC than Brangus cows and calves, and Haemonchus and Cooperia were the predominant genera. Replacement heifer FEC showed a similar pattern with maximum levels during late summer/fall, and Haemonchus was the predominant genus. No significant differences were seen between breeds, however, infection levels were consistently lower in Brangus heifers. Ostertagia was present in cows and heifers only in fall/winter, which is consistent with summer inhibition. The data suggested that cows were an important source of pasture contamination for their susceptible calves and that the Brangus breed was relatively more resistant to infection. The use of B. indicus crossbreeds may help in alleviating reliance on chemical control by reducing the rate of pasture contamination and subsequent infection losses. PMID:10729645

  12. Thermal equilibrium responses in Guzerat cattle raised under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Camerro, Leandro Zuccherato; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, Marcos Chiquitelli; Costa, Cintia Carol de Melo; Castro, Patric André

    2016-08-01

    The literature is very sparse regarding research on the thermal equilibrium in Guzerat cattle (Bos indicus) under field conditions. Some factors can modify the physiological response of Guzerat cattle, such as the reactivity of these animals to handling. Thus, the development of a methodology to condition and select Guzerat cattle to acclimate them to the routine collection of data without altering their physiological response was the objective of the preliminary experiment. Furthermore, the animals selected were used in the main experiment to determine their thermal equilibrium according to the thermal environment. For this proposal, the metabolic heat production and heat exchange between the animal and the environment were measured simultaneously in the field with an indirect calorimetry system coupled to a facial mask. The results of the preliminary experiment showed that the respiratory rate could demonstrate that conditioning efficiently reduced the reactivity of the animals to experimental handling. Furthermore, the respiratory rate can be used to select animals with less reactivity. The results of the main experiment demonstrate that the skin, hair-coat surface and expired air temperature depend on the air temperature, whereas the rectal temperature depends on the time of day; consequently, the sensible heat flow was substantially reduced from 70 to 20Wm(-2) when the air temperature increased from 24 to 34°C. However, the respiratory latent heat flow increased from 10 to 15Wm(-2) with the same temperature increase. Furthermore, the metabolic heat production remained stable, independent of the variation of the air temperature; however, it was higher in males than in females (by approximately 25%). This fact can be explained by the variation of the ventilation rate, which had a mean value of 1.6 and 2.2Ls(-1) for females and males, respectively. PMID:27503735

  13. Cryosurvival and pregnancy rates after exposure of IVF-derived Bos indicus embryos to forskolin before vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sanches, B V; Marinho, L S R; Filho, B D O; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Meirinhos, M L G; Silva-Santos, K C; Ferreira, C R; Seneda, M M

    2013-09-01

    In vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos are more sensitive to cryopreservation than their in vivo counterparts due to their higher lipid concentrations, whereas Bos indicus IVP embryos are even more sensitive than Bos taurus IVP embryos. To examine the effects of a lipolytic agent, before vitrification of Bos indicus IVP embryos, on embryo survival, viability, and pregnancy rates, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, Bos indicus (Nelore) embryos were produced from abattoir-derived ovaries and allocated into two groups. In the treatment group, 10 μM of forskolin was added to the in vitro culture medium on Day 5 and incubated for 48 hours. On Day 7 of culture, IVP-expanded blastocysts from both the control (n = 101) and treatment (n = 112) groups were vitrified with ethylene glycol and DMSO via the Cryotop procedure. Although there was no significant difference between the rates of blastocoel reexpansion and hatching of the embryos exposed to forskolin (87.5% and 70.5%, respectively) compared with the control embryos (79.2% and 63.3%, respectively), the numerically superior rates of the embryos exposed to forskolin led to another experiment. In experiment 2, blastocysts produced from the ovum pick up were exposed or not exposed to the lipolytic agent and vitrified as in experiment 1. Embryos treated with forskolin had higher pregnancy rates than the control group (48.8% vs. 18.5%). In view of these results, 1908 Bos indicus embryos were produced from ovum pick up, exposed to the lipolytic agent, and blastocysts were transferred to recipients, and the pregnancy rates of the embryos of various breeds were compared. The mean pregnancy rate obtained was 43.2%. All data were analyzed by chi-square or by binary logistic regression (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, treatment with forskolin before vitrification improved cryotolerance of Bos indicus IVP embryos, resulting in good post-transfer pregnancy rates. PMID:23746692

  14. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications. PMID:26081893

  15. Hookworm infestation as unexpected cause of recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ming; Sun, Cheuk-Kay; Wang, Tzong-Luen; Lin, Aming Chor-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Parasite infestation is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Hookworm infestation is a very rare cause of pancreatitis. This parasitic infestation might be asymptomatic. Acute pancreatitis as a result of the hookworms migrating into the ampulla of Vater with chronic inflammation was a very rare complication. Were port a case of hookworm infestation that was associated with significant complication of recurrent pancreatitis. The patient was treated with mebendazole. He was asymptomatic and had gained weight at the 3-month follow-up. Our case demonstrates that pancreatitis secondary to hookworm infection can occur and may resolve after anthelmintic treatment. PMID:24768664

  16. Response of Grape Leaf Spectra to Phylloxera Infestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1993 growing season, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll concentrations were monitored with respect to phylloxera (root-louse) infestation in a Napa Valley (California) vineyard. Study plots were established in areas of severely infested, mildly infested, and uninfested sections of the vineyard. A handheld chlorophyll meter, measuring leaf transmittance of near-infrared and red light, confirmed that reduced foliar chlorophyll concentrations were symptomatic of phylloxera stress in the sample vines. Bidirectional reflectance measurements of green and near-infrared light, taken on fresh leaves with a laboratory spectrophotometer, were related to chlorophyll concentration but did not allow discrimination of mildly infested from uninfested vines.

  17. Bovine hypodermosis in indigenous cattle herd and its successful therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Kumar, Pradeep; Srivastava, Ashish; Shanker, Daya

    2016-03-01

    Warble fly infestation in cattle is a serious problem throughout the world. In India, it is mainly reported from northern parts of the country and is caused by the larvae of Hypoderma lineatum. The disease causes huge economic losses to animal production like milk and leather industry. The present article reports the outbreak and subsequent successful treatment of Warble fly infestation from an indigenous cattle herd. The animals were clinally examined for the presence of warbles and the larvae were collected by pressing the swellings on the back. The larvae were brought to the laboratory and were morphologically examined and morphometry was done. The animals were administered specific therapy consisting of two doses of subcutaneous injection of Ivermectin at weekly intervals. The epidemiology of the disease, its patho physiological impact on the animal and various strategies for clinical management are being described in the article. PMID:27065619

  18. Parasitic Infestation and Choice of Reproductive Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Sá Martins, J. S.

    The Penna model is used to simulate the competition between an asexual parthenogenetic and asexual population inhabiting the same environment represented by a square lattice. With a small probability, a newborn from the sexual population mutates into an asexual one and vice versa. Then, the asexual population rapidly dominates the sexual one, which all but disappears. However, when an infestation by mutating genetically coupled parasites, that mimic trematodes that feed on gonads, is introduced, the outcome may be one in which both populations coevolve or one in which one of the populations overcomes the other, depending on the density of parasites on the lattice.

  19. [Management of lice infestations, recommendations for 2012].

    PubMed

    Maillard, Alexia; Trellu, Laurence Toutous; Eicher, Nicole; Michaud, Mélanie; Laffitte, Emmanuel

    2012-04-01

    Pediculosis is the most frequent and contagious ectoparasitic infestation in human, particularly in children from 3 to 8 years of age. Epidemics are observed from time to time, in schools or in adults in prisons. Even though benign, these infections remain unpleasant and can have an important psyco-social impact. Since a few years, caregivers have to face increasing problems while treating lice: appearance of insecticide resistances, lindane's withdrawal from the market and the marketing of new products which are not always well evaluated. This article offers first recalls about pediculoses and then a sum up of the different available treatments with an evidence based management strategy. PMID:22545493

  20. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed. PMID:27135846

  1. Analysis and Determination of Trace Metals (Nickel, Cadmium, Chromium, and Lead) in Tissues of Pampus argenteus and Platycephalus indicus in the Hara Reserve, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadnabizadeh, Sahar; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Afshari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The accumulations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were measured in muscle, gill, kidney, and liver of Platycephalus indicus and Pampus argenteus. Our results indicated that all metals were found to be the highest in tissues in P. indicus (benthic species). Except Ni in P. indicus, concentrations of metals and bioaccumulation factor were in the following sequence: liver > kidney > gill > muscle. The data revealed that there is a significant negative correlation between concentrations of metals and size and age factors. The Ni and Cr levels in the muscles were higher than the maximum acceptable limit recommended by WHO and FEPA. Similarly, the concentration of Pb measured in P. indicus muscle exceeded the FAO standard limit. PMID:25132850

  2. A study on rate of infestation to Sarcocystis cysts in supplied raw hamburgers.

    PubMed

    Nematollahia, Ahmad; Khoshkerdar, Afsaneh; Helan, Javad Ashrafi; Shahbazi, Parisa; Hassanzadeh, Parviz

    2015-06-01

    This study was carried on for determination of presence of Sarcocystis cysts in raw hamburgers in Tabriz North West of Iran. Ninety-six samples of industrial (70 % meat content) and traditional (30 % meat content) hamburgers (80 samples industrial and 16 samples traditional) were obtained from retail fast food stores. The samples were examined by gross examination, and microscopic examination methods consist impression smear and peptic digestion. Macroscopic cysts did not observed in any of the samples in gross examination. Microscopic study showed that from 96 samples 54 (56.25 %) samples were infected by at least one bradyzoites of Sarcocystis. From 54 infected samples, 45 industrial hamburgers and nine traditional hamburgers samples were infected. Statistical analysis showed that there was not significant differences between industrial and traditional hamburgers in infection to Sarcocystis. Infestation of hamburgers to Sarcocystis in summer was higher than other seasons but this difference was not significant. In Iran, beef meat is used for preparation of 70 % of hamburger and infestation of cattle to sarcocystosis was reported in many investigations in Iran. With regard to the high prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in meat products such as hamburgers in this study, it is strongly recommended to avoid eating raw or under-cooked hamburgers or keep them at freezing temperature for at least 3-5 days. PMID:26064017

  3. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks. PMID:25183090

  4. Evaluation of the impacts of spaying by either the dropped ovary technique or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy on the welfare of Bos indicus beef heifers and cows.

    PubMed

    Petherick, J C; McCosker, K; Mayer, D G; Letchford, P; McGowan, M

    2013-01-01

    The welfare outcomes for Bos indicus cattle (100 heifers and 50 cows) spayed by either the dropped ovary technique (DOT) or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy (FL) were compared with cattle subjected to physical restraint (PR), restraint by electroimmobilization in conjunction with PR (EIM), and PR and mock AI (MAI). Welfare assessment used measures of morbidity, mortality, BW change, and behavior and physiology indicative of pain and stress. One FL heifer died at d 5 from peritonitis. In the 8-h period postprocedures, plasma bound cortisol concentrations of FL, DOT, and EIM cows were not different and were greater (P<0.05) than PR and MAI. Similarly, FL and DOT heifers had greater (P<0.05) concentrations than PR and MAI, with EIM intermediate. Creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations were greater (P<0.05) in FL and EIM heifers compared with the other treatments, with a similar pattern seen in the cows. Haptoglobin concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the FL heifers compared with other treatments in the 8- to 24-h and 24- to 96-h periods postprocedures, and in cows were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the FL and DOT compared with PR in the 24- to 96-h period. Behavioral responses complemented the physiological responses; standing head down was shown by more (P<0.05) FL cows and heifers to 3 d postprocedures compared with other treatments, although there was no difference between FL and DOT heifers at the end of the day of procedures. At this same time, fewer (P<0.05) FL and DOT heifers and cows were observed feeding compared with other treatments, although in cows there was no difference between FL, DOT, and EIM. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between treatments in BW changes. For both heifers and cows, FL and DOT spaying caused similar levels of acute pain, but FL had longer-lasting adverse impacts on welfare. Electroimmobilization during FL contributed to the pain and stress of the procedure. We conclude

  5. NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

  6. A new species of Sunipea Griffin & Tranter, 1986 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Inachidae) and a redescription of Sunipea indicus (Alcock, 1895).

    PubMed

    Santana, William

    2015-01-01

    A new species of spider crab, Sunipea callistus, n. sp., from Cape Guardafui, Somali Republic, is described and illustrated. Sunipea indicus (Alcock, 1895) is also redescribed and figured. Sunipea callistus n. sp. differs from S. indicus in the structures of the carapace, third maxillipeds, thoracic sternum, male abdomen, and chelipeds. Despite a number of characteristics that separate both species, these differences are more pronounced in males and are less evident in females. A diagnosis for the genus is provided. PMID:26701438

  7. Impregnated Netting Slows Infestation by Triatoma infestans

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L.; Waller, Lance A.; Richards, Jean M.; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G. Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A.; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2008-01-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13–0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease. PMID:18840739

  8. Impregnated netting slows infestation by Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Z; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L; Waller, Lance A; Richards, Jean M; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2008-10-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease. PMID:18840739

  9. Control of Boophilus microplus populations in grazing cattle vaccinated with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M L; Mouris, A E; Labarta, V; Luaces, L L; Rubiera, R; Cordovés, C; Sánchez, P A; Ramos, E; Soto, A

    1995-04-01

    Current methods for the control of cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas. Recently, we developed a vaccine against B. microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 (rBm86) antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec) and it was shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals under controlled conditions. Here we show that, under field conditions in grazing cattle, the vaccine is able to control B. microplus populations. Two parasite-free farms were employed for the study. In the first farm, animals were vaccinated with the recombinant vaccine, while, in the second, animals received a saline injection in adjuvant. After immunization, animals were artificially infected and the infestation rate was recorded. Over the 33 weeks of the experiment, the infestation rate was lower in the vaccinated group compared with the control group. At the end of the experiment it was necessary to use chemicals in the control farm after serious losses in production and animals. PMID:7660571

  10. Genome-Wide Detection of CNVs and Their Association with Meat Tenderness in Nelore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Vinicius Henrique; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype. PMID:27348523

  11. Genome-wide association study for intramuscular fat deposition and composition in Nellore cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Meat from Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds are an important source of nutrients for humans and intramuscular fat (IMF) influences its flavor, nutritional value and impacts human health. Human consumption of fat that contains high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) can reduce the concentration of undesirable cholesterol (LDL) in circulating blood. Different feeding practices and genetic variation within and between breeds influences the amount of IMF and fatty acid (FA) composition in meat. However, it is difficult and costly to determine fatty acid composition, which has precluded beef cattle breeding programs from selecting for a healthier fatty acid profile. In this study, we employed a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip to genotype 386 Nellore steers, a Bos indicus breed and, a Bayesian approach to identify genomic regions and putative candidate genes that could be involved with deposition and composition of IMF. Results Twenty-three genomic regions (1-Mb SNP windows) associated with IMF deposition and FA composition that each explain ≥ 1% of the genetic variance were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17, 26 and 27. Many of these regions were not previously detected in other breeds. The genes present in these regions were identified and some can help explain the genetic basis of deposition and composition of fat in cattle. Conclusions The genomic regions and genes identified contribute to a better understanding of the genetic control of fatty acid deposition and can lead to DNA-based selection strategies to improve meat quality for human consumption. PMID:24666668

  12. Genome-Wide Detection of CNVs and Their Association with Meat Tenderness in Nelore Cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vinicius Henrique da; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; Brassaloti, Ricardo Augusto; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype. PMID:27348523

  13. Pinniped tuberculosis in Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) and its transmission to other terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Jurczynski, Kerstin; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Gomis, David; Moser, Irmgard; Greenwald, Rena; Moisson, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    In the last 7 yr, three different species of terrestrial mammals were diagnosed with Mycobacterium pinnipedii either within one collection or through the introduction of an infected animal from another zoo. The affected species included the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus), and crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). In the first zoo, all of these were living in exhibits adjacent to a group of South American sea lions (Otariaflavescens) and were cared for by the same keeper. One infected tapir was transferred to a different zoo and transmitted M. pinnipedii infection to three other Malayan tapirs. The tapirs were tested with various diagnostic methods, including comparative intradermal tuberculin test, PCR and culture of sputum samples, Rapid Test (RT), and multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). The M. pinnipedii infection was confirmed at postmortem examination in all animals. RT and MAPIA showed the diagnostic potential for rapid antemortem detection of this important zoonotic disease. PMID:22946398

  14. Gross anatomy and ultrasonographic images of the reproductive system of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Lilia, K; Rosnina, Y; Abd Wahid, H; Zahari, Z Z; Abraham, M

    2010-12-01

    The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) is the largest among the four tapir species and is listed as an endangered species. Ultrasound examination and description of the external anatomy of the female reproductive system of three adult females were performed, whereas the internal anatomy was investigated in necropsied samples of four adult females and one subadult female. Descriptions of the male external genitalia were conducted on one adult male. Gross examination revealed the presence of a bicornuate uterus. The uterine cervix is firm and muscular with projections towards its lumen, which is also evident on ultrasonography. The elongated and relatively small ovaries, which have a smooth surface, could not be imaged on ultrasonography, due to their anatomical position. The testes are located inside a slightly pendulous scrotum that is sparsely covered with soft, short hairs. The penis has one dorsal and two lateral penile projections just proximal to the glans penis. PMID:20809915

  15. Effect of additives in the shelflife extension of chilled and frozen stored Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus).

    PubMed

    Manimaran, Uthaman; Shakila, Robinson Jeya; Shalini, Rajendran; Sivaraman, Balasubramanian; Sumathi, Ganesan; Selvaganapathi, Rajendran; Jeyasekaran, Geevarathnam

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effect of commercial additives viz. cafodos and altesa employed to treat Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus) was examined during chilled and frozen storage. Shelf lives of treated and untreated octopus in ice were 6 and 8 days, respectively in ice. Treated and untreated frozen octopus had a shelf life of 40 days. Autolytic and microbiological changes were not controlled by the additives, as evidenced through rapid reduction in non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and α-amino nitrogen (α-AN) compounds; as well as accumulation of water soluble ammoniacal nitrogen and total volatile base- nitrogen (TVB-N) compounds. Loss of texture and colour were the major quality defects noticed in treated octopus as a result of enhanced protein solubility. Therefore, the additives approved for use in octopus neither enhanced the shelf life nor improved the sensory quality. PMID:27162416

  16. Genome-wide association analysis of feed intake and residual feed intake in Nellore cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed intake plays an important economic role in beef cattle, and is related with feed efficiency, weight gain and carcass traits. However, the phenotypes collected for dry matter intake and feed efficiency are scarce when compared with other measures such as weight gain and carcass traits. The use of genomic information can improve the power of inference of studies on these measures, identifying genomic regions that affect these phenotypes. This work performed the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI) of 720 Nellore cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Results In general, no genomic region extremely associated with both phenotypic traits was observed, as expected for the variables that have their regulation controlled by many genes. Three SNPs surpassed the threshold for the Bonferroni multiple test for DMI and two SNPs for RFI. These markers are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 14 and 21 in regions near genes regulating appetite and ion transport and close to important QTL as previously reported to RFI and DMI, thus corroborating the literature that points these two processes as important in the physiological regulation of intake and feed efficiency. Conclusions This study showed the first GWAS of DMI to identify genomic regions associated with feed intake and efficiency in Nellore cattle. Some genes and QTLs previously described for DMI and RFI, in other subspecies (Bos taurus taurus), that influences these phenotypes are confirmed in this study. PMID:24517472

  17. Genome-Wide Mapping of Loci Explaining Variance in Scrotal Circumference in Nellore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Matos, Márcia C.; Zavarez, Ludmilla B.; Ito, Pier K. R. K.; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M.; Sölkner, Johann; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Schenkel, Flávio S.; McEwan, John; Cole, John B.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Garcia, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive performance of bulls has a high impact on the beef cattle industry. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most recorded reproductive trait in beef herds, and is used as a major selection criterion to improve precocity and fertility. The characterization of genomic regions affecting SC can contribute to the identification of diagnostic markers for reproductive performance and uncover molecular mechanisms underlying complex aspects of bovine reproductive biology. In this paper, we report a genome-wide scan for chromosome segments explaining differences in SC, using data of 861 Nellore bulls (Bos indicus) genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci that excel from the genome background were identified on chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21. The majority of these regions were previously found to be associated with reproductive and body size traits in cattle. The signal on chromosome 14 replicates the pleiotropic quantitative trait locus encompassing PLAG1 that affects male fertility in cattle and stature in several species. Based on intensive literature mining, SP4, MAGEL2, SH3RF2, PDE5A and SNAI2 are proposed as novel candidate genes for SC, as they affect growth and testicular size in other animal models. These findings contribute to linking reproductive phenotypes to gene functions, and may offer new insights on the molecular biology of male fertility. PMID:24558400

  18. Postharvest quarantine treatments for Diaphorina citri on infested curry leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate treatments that reduce survival and attachment of Diaphorina citri nymphs on infested curry leaves (Bergera koenigii). Decontamination of curry leaves infested with D. citri in relation to disinfectant (none or Pro-San), temperature (0, 40, and 50°C), and treatment...

  19. Delusional infestation: an Australian multicentre study of 23 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Tran, M M A; Iredell, J R; Packham, D R; O'Sullivan, M V N; Hudson, B J

    2015-04-01

    Delusional infestation remains a debilitating condition that is therapeutically challenging for clinicians. This case series identifies 23 patients with delusional infestation in an Australian setting. The majority of patients are women and unlikely to have a psychiatric comorbid background. The use of unnecessary anti-parasitic medication is prevalent. PMID:25827513

  20. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. PMID:25676198

  1. Immunization of Cattle with Tick Salivary Gland Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nikpay, Ali; Nabian, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Recently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle. Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2) respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Finally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA. Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, engorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3%) and increased duration of feeding, preoviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%). All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation. Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B.) annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control. PMID:27308287

  2. Insects and Spiders: Infestations and Bites

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, E.W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Despite successful eradication techniques and specific effective therapies, insect bites and infestations remain a source of great human misery. The current scabies pandemic shows no signs of abating. Bed bugs, which through the ages have been second only to the malarial mosquito as an insect vector of fatal infection, have now been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis B and possibly African acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of head- and pubic lice is on the rise, the latter paralleling, and often co-existing with, other sexually transmitted diseases. Black widow spiders are native to many populous areas in southern Canada, and the brown recluse spider's range now encompasses Canada, thanks to moving vans and central heating. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263961

  3. Observations on the life cycle of Coelomomyces indicus (Blastocladiales: Coelomomycetaceae) in anopheline mosquitoes from the Philippines and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Whisler, H C; Gabriel, B P; Chanpaisaeng, J; Zebold, S L; Padua, L E

    1999-11-01

    The water mold Coelomomyces indicus Iyengar is a widespread pathogen of anopheline mosquitoes in Asia and Africa, and it infects the copepod Microcyclops varicans Sars as its crustacean alternate host. This was determined by direct observation of field-infected copepods, selective meiospore encystment on M. varicans, and experimental infections of the copepod with zoospores from both thick and thin-walled meiosporangia. The physiological conditions governing germination of the 2 sporangial types were determined. The gametothallus in the copepod displays a light yellow pigmentation at maturity, and gametogenesis in both field and experimentally infected copepods occurs just at night fall, or 24 h after dark induction. In vivo culture was attained with the mosquito host Anopheles culicifacies Giles. Attempts to infect Anopheles stephensi Liston and Anopheles gambiae Giles, reported hosts of C. indicus, were unsuccessful. PMID:10593068

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus): the only extant Tapiridae species in the old world.

    PubMed

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Kaolim, Nongnid; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Dongsaard, Khwanruean; Maikaew, Umaporn; Sanannu, Saowaphang

    2016-01-01

    Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is categorized as Endangered on the 2008 IUCN red list. The first full-length mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Asian tapir is 16,717 bp in length. Base composition shows 34.6% A, 27.2% T, 25.8% C and 12.3% G. Highest polymorphic site is on the control region as typical for many species. PMID:24621216

  5. Genomic Variants Revealed by Invariably Missing Genotypes in Nelore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Joaquim Manoel; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; da Silva, Luiz Otávio Campos; Cintra, Leandro Carrijo; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues; Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza

    2015-01-01

    High density genotyping panels have been used in a wide range of applications. From population genetics to genome-wide association studies, this technology still offers the lowest cost and the most consistent solution for generating SNP data. However, in spite of the application, part of the generated data is always discarded from final datasets based on quality control criteria used to remove unreliable markers. Some discarded data consists of markers that failed to generate genotypes, labeled as missing genotypes. A subset of missing genotypes that occur in the whole population under study may be caused by technical issues but can also be explained by the presence of genomic variations that are in the vicinity of the assayed SNP and that prevent genotyping probes from annealing. The latter case may contain relevant information because these missing genotypes might be used to identify population-specific genomic variants. In order to assess which case is more prevalent, we used Illumina HD Bovine chip genotypes from 1,709 Nelore (Bos indicus) samples. We found 3,200 missing genotypes among the whole population. NGS re-sequencing data from 8 sires were used to verify the presence of genomic variations within their flanking regions in 81.56% of these missing genotypes. Furthermore, we discovered 3,300 novel SNPs/Indels, 31% of which are located in genes that may affect traits of importance for the genetic improvement of cattle production. PMID:26305794

  6. Accuracy of genomic breeding values for meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Magnabosco, C U; Lopes, F B; Fragoso, R C; Eifert, E C; Valente, B D; Rosa, G J M; Sainz, R D

    2016-07-01

    Zebu () cattle, mostly of the Nellore breed, comprise more than 80% of the beef cattle in Brazil, given their tolerance of the tropical climate and high resistance to ectoparasites. Despite their advantages for production in tropical environments, zebu cattle tend to produce tougher meat than Bos taurus breeds. Traditional genetic selection to improve meat tenderness is constrained by the difficulty and cost of phenotypic evaluation for meat quality. Therefore, genomic selection may be the best strategy to improve meat quality traits. This study was performed to compare the accuracies of different Bayesian regression models in predicting molecular breeding values for meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle. The data set was composed of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of longissimus muscle from 205, 141, and 81 animals slaughtered in 2005, 2010, and 2012, respectively, which were selected and mated so as to create extreme segregation for WBSF. The animals were genotyped with either the Illumina BovineHD (HD; 777,000 from 90 samples) chip or the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (GGP Indicus HD; 77,000 from 337 samples). The quality controls of SNP were Hard-Weinberg Proportion -value ≥ 0.1%, minor allele frequency > 1%, and call rate > 90%. The FImpute program was used for imputation from the GGP Indicus HD chip to the HD chip. The effect of each SNP was estimated using ridge regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Bayes A, Bayes B, and Bayes Cπ methods. Different numbers of SNP were used, with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100% of the markers preselected based on their significance test (-value from genomewide association studies [GWAS]) or randomly sampled. The prediction accuracy was assessed by the correlation between genomic breeding value and the observed WBSF phenotype, using a leave-one-out cross-validation methodology. The prediction accuracies using all markers were all very similar for all models, ranging from 0

  7. Reproductive and safety assessment of vaccination with Gavac against the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus).

    PubMed

    Boué, O; Redondo, M; Montero, C; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-06-01

    Recent developments in cattle tick control have incorporated the use of recombinant Bm86 vaccines against this ectoparasite. The vaccine developed by our group (Gavac) contains an antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris, and has been successfully employed for the control of tick infestations and transmission of tick-borne diseases. Here, we examined the safety and effect of the Gavac vaccine on reproductive parameters in cattle. Toxicity tests in mice and guinea pigs demonstrated the safety of Gavac. To study the adverse effects of vaccination on reproduction, a field trial involving 9,500 animals in Cuba was conducted. The cattle at 3 farms were vaccinated while those on a fourth farm were left unvaccinated and served as the control. Following vaccination, the control of tick infestation and the transmission of babesiosis were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the vaccine. No adverse effects were observed in any of the reproductive parameters studied when comparing the data before and after vaccination with Gavac and between the vaccinated farms and the control farm. These results demonstrate that under the conditions of our study vaccination with Gavac is safe for use on cattle. PMID:10729081

  8. Control of bovine trypanosomosis by restricted application of insecticides to cattle using footbaths.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, J; Stachurski, F; Gouro, A S; Lancelot, R

    2009-05-12

    African animal trypanosomoses are the main parasitological constraints to livestock production in many sub-Saharan African countries infested with tsetse flies. A prospective survey was implemented in Dafinso (Burkina Faso) to assess the effect of deltamethrin 0.005% (Vectocid(ND), CEVA Santé Animale) impregnation of cattle on trypanosomes transmission in cattle. Two herds were involved in the survey. They were watered at two different waterpoints located on the same river harboring a Guinean riparian forest infested with two different species of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae), Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank and G. tachinoides Westwood. Animals belonging to one of the herds were impregnated with deltamethrin applied with a footbath whereas the other herd was used as control. The overall incidence of cattle trypanosomoses was reduced (p=0.01) from 0.76 (control group) to 0.11 (footbath-treated group). A positive effect of the footbath treatment on packed-cell volume was observed (p<0.001). The conditions requested to use a footbath to prevent cattle trypanosomoses are discussed. PMID:19231084

  9. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332

  10. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/m2 in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities >5,000–6,000/m2 and infestation intensities >100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and akes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  11. Leech (Hirudinea) infestations among waterfowl near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Trauger, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen species of aquatic birds, including 11 species of ducks, were infested with leeches Theromyzon rude and Placobdella ornata near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Leeches infested 88% of 41 American Wigeon (Anas americana) and 31% of 86 Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) examined after death. Lesser Scaup captured by drive-trapping contained significantly more leeches than undisturbed ducks. Leeches were attached to the host within the mucosa of the nasal chamber, to the conjunctiva of the eye and on the skin of the body. Although only two deaths of ducklings were directly attributed to leech infestations, other birds probably died as a result of parasitism by leeches.

  12. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  13. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  14. Comparative immune responses against Psoroptes ovis in two cattle breeds with different susceptibility to mange.

    PubMed

    Sarre, Charlotte; González-Hernández, Ana; Van Coppernolle, Stefanie; Grit, Rika; Grauwet, Korneel; Van Meulder, Frederik; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Geldhof, Peter; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, is a major problem in the beef cattle industry, especially in Belgian Blue (BB) cattle. This breed is naturally more predisposed to psoroptic mange but reasons for this high susceptibility remain unknown. Different immune responses could be a potential cause; thus in this study, the cutaneous immune response and in vitro cellular immune response after antigen re-stimulation were examined in naturally infested BB. Cytokine production in the skin and in circulating re-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) demonstrated a mixed pro-inflammatory Th2/Th17 profile, with transcription of IL-4, IL-13, IL-6 and IL-17. Strong IL-17 up-regulation in the skin of BB was associated with an influx of eosinophils and other immune cells, potentially leading towards more severe symptoms. Virtually no changes in cutaneous IFN-γ transcription were detected, while there was substantial IFN-γ up-regulation in re-stimulated PBMC from infested and uninfested animals, potentially indicating a role of this pro-inflammatory cytokine in the innate immune response. In Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle, generally more resistant to P. ovis infection, a largely similar immunologic response was observed. Differences between HF and BB were the lack of cutaneous IL-17 response in infested HF and low transcription levels of IFN-γ and high IL-10 transcription in re-stimulated PBMC from both infested and uninfested animals. Further research is needed to identify potential cell sources and biological functions for these cytokines and to fully unravel the basis of this different breed susceptibility to P. ovis. PMID:26582546

  15. Evidence for role of white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in epizootiology of cattle ticks and southern cattle ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in reinfestations along the Texas/Mexico border in south Texas: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Pound, J M; George, J E; Kammlah, D M; Lohmeyer, K H; Davey, R B

    2010-04-01

    From 1907 when the fever tick eradication campaign began until 1933, the tick eradication methods of dipping cattle in an acaricide or "pasture vacation" were enormously successful in eradicating southern cattle ticks [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini)], until failures began to occur in some areas of Florida. Regarding the failures in Florida, the consensus was that populations of white-tailed deer [Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)] infested with southern cattle ticks were responsible. After numerous deer in several counties were killed, eradication was achieved in Florida. As in Florida, in Texas increasing numbers of failures of the pasture vacation approach to tick eradication from the 1970s to the present are known to be related to the abundance of white-tailed deer and perhaps other wild ungulate species. A sizable body of evidence confirms the hypothesis that white-tailed deer support the dispersal and maintenance of both cattle ticks [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say)] and southern cattle ticks (cattle fever ticks) within the permanent quarantine or buffer zone in South Texas along the Rio Grande, as well as in the so-called free ("cattle fever tick-free") area north and east of the buffer zone and extending to the east coast of the United States. As of August 2009, in addition to the permanent quarantine zone of approximately 2233 km2, three temporary preventative or blanket quarantines were established. Currently, only two methodologies exist to control ticks feeding on white-tailed deer: (1) a systemic treatment method involving dispersal of ivermectin-medicated corn, Zea mays L.; and (2) two topical treatment methods, '4-poster' deer treatment bait stations and '2-poster' deer treatment feeder adapters, both of which passively apply topically active acaricide to deer for the eradication of populations of cattle fever tick associated with white-tailed deer. This study presents and summarizes confirmational support for the role of

  16. Intestinal Infestations in Under-Five Children in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Kamukwamba; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intestinal infestations are of considerable public health importance in Zambia and elsewhere in Africa. Children aged less than 5 years are at the highest risk of infection. Interventions for prevention and control of these infestations require identification of their determinants. This study investigates the determinants of intestinal infestations in children below 5 years of age admitted to a children’s hospital and assesses the most prevalent of the helminthes. Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted at Arthur Davison Children’s Hospital, Ndola, Zambia. Socio-demographic data of study participants and possible determinants for occurrence of intestinal infestations were collected using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and examined for presence of parasites using direct techniques. The Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to establish associations. Results: Present study had 148 participants out of the expected 165, making a respondent rate of 89.7%. Over half of the participants were male (50.6%), and 68.9% were above the age of 2 years. Prevalence of intestinal infestations was 19.6%, and the most prevalent parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides. Factors independently associated with worm infestation were father’s employment (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI [0.19, 0.90]) and history of prior worm infestation (AOR = 6.54; 95 % CI [3.28, 13.03]). Conclusion: Intestinal infestations particularly Ascaris lumbricoides were more prevalent in this study. There should be policy towards countrywide deworming programs and enhanced hygiene.

  17. Cat Flea Infestation in a Hospital: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Norhayati, Moktar; Lee, Yin Yin

    2012-01-01

    Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome. PMID:22451739

  18. Lack of specific alleles for the bovine chemokine (C-X-C) receptor type 4 (CXCR4) gene in West African cattle questions its role as a candidate for trypanotolerance.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Isabel; Pérez-Pardal, Lucía; Traoré, Amadou; Fernández, Iván; Goyache, Félix

    2016-08-01

    A panel of 81 Asian, African and European cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus) was analysed for the whole sequence of the CXCR4 gene (3844bp), a strong candidate for cattle trypanotolerance. Thirty-one polymorphic sites identified gave 31 different haplotypes. Neutrality tests rejected the hypothesis of either positive or purifying selection. Bayesian phylogenetic tree showed differentiation of haplotypes into two clades gathering genetic variability predating domestication. Related with clades definition, linkage disequilibrium analyses suggested the existence of one only linkage block on the CXCR4 gene. Two tag SNPs identified on exon 2 captured 50% of variability. Whatever the analysis carried out, no clear separation between cattle groups was identified. Most haplotypes identified in West African taurine cattle were also found in European cattle and in Asian and West African zebu. West African taurine samples did not carry unique variants on the CXCR4 gene sequence. The current analysis failed in identifying a causal mutation on the CXCR4 gene underlying a previously reported QTL for cattle trypanotolerance on BTA2. PMID:27117936

  19. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions: in silico peptide binding prediction identifies distinct functional clusters.

    PubMed

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie; Nijhof, Ard; Mazzoni, Camila J; Svitek, Nicholas; Steinaa, Lucilla; Awino, Elias; Olds, Cassandra; Jabbar, Ahmed; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8(+) T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I MHC genes is dependent on the presence of codons specifying certain critical amino acid residues that line the peptide binding groove. Compared with European Bos taurus in which class I MHC allelic polymorphisms have been examined extensively, published data on class I MHC transcripts in African taurines in T. parva endemic areas is very limited. We utilized the multiplexing capabilities of 454 pyrosequencing to make an initial assessment of class I MHC allelic diversity in a population of Ankole cattle. We also typed a population of exotic Holstein cattle from an African ranch for class I MHC and investigated the extent, if any, that their peptide-binding motifs overlapped with those of Ankole cattle. We report the identification of 18 novel allelic sequences in Ankole cattle and provide evidence of positive selection for sequence diversity, including in residues that predominantly interact with peptides. In silico functional analysis resulted in peptide binding specificities that were largely distinct between the two breeds. We also demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells derived from Ankole cattle that are seropositive for T. parva do not recognize vaccine candidate antigens originally identified in Holstein and Boran (Bos indicus) cattle breeds. PMID:26852329

  20. Anthelmintics for cattle.

    PubMed

    Prichard, R K

    1986-07-01

    A number of anthelmintics are available for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In North America, O. ostertagi, Cooperia spp., lung worm, and F. hepatica probably cause the greatest losses in production. The older anthelmintics are often deficient in their action against some of these parasites. Recently, the Paratect morantel tartrate slow-release bolus has provided a mechanism for the prevention of infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and lung worm, to some extent, and this has been shown to produce considerable economic benefits. Fenbendazole removes arrested O. ostertagi larvae; thus, its availability is an important step in the prevention of type-2 ostertagiasis. It also has a very broad spectrum of activity that includes most other nematodes and tapeworms and is a very safe anthelmintic. Ivermectin is highly effective against almost all cattle nematodes and also has great value for the control of arthropod ectoparasites. In addition, it and levamisole are the only anti-nematode drugs that can be administered to cattle by injection. Clorsulon is a new, safe anthelmintic that provides good control of liver fluke and, thus, fills a gap in the control of helminths of cattle in North America. The efficient use of anthelmintics in association with management based on a knowledge of parasite epidemiology can ensure that cattle do not rapidly become re-infected. In this way, the benefits from the use of anthelmintics can be very considerable and far greater than the costs of control. PMID:3488116

  1. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher on day 15 than between 50 and 150 days of lactation in case of Sahiwal cows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (P<0.05), respectively. Murrah buffaloes showed low levels of IGFBP-5 protein in milk as compared with

  2. Whole-genome association study of fatty acid composition in a diverse range of beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M J; Tume, R K; Fortes, M; Thompson, J M

    2014-05-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue associated with meat is an important factor for the beef industry because of its implications for human health, processing, meat quality, and palatability. Individual fatty acid composition is a trait under genetic control, so improvement via selective breeding of cattle is possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition and identify genes associated with this trait in 3 breed types: Bos indicus (Brahman), Bos taurus (4 breeds), and tropically adapted composites (2 breeds). Using high-density data, regions on chromosomes 1, 9, 14, 16, 19, 23, 26, 29, and X were associated with fat composition and quantity traits. Known candidate genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN; chromosome 19) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; chromosome 26), were confirmed in our results. Other candidate genes and regions represent novel association results, requiring further validation. PMID:24782392

  3. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Lucy A.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Newman, Scott H.; Scott, Graham R.; Sathiyaselvam, Ponnusamy; Takekawa, John Y.; Wikelski, Martin; Bishop, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000 m in 7–8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8–2.2 km·h−1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power. PMID:21628594

  4. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.

  5. The polled locus maps to BTA1 in a Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross.

    PubMed

    Brenneman, R A; Davis, S K; Sanders, J O; Burns, B M; Wheeler, T C; Turner, J W; Taylor, J F

    1996-01-01

    Two hundred and nine reciprocal backcross and F2 progeny produced by embryo transfer from Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus) parents and their 60 parents and grandparents were utilized to localize the locus (POLL) responsible for the polled phenotype in a genetic map of bovine chromosome 1. Progeny were scored for polled, scurred, and horned phenotypes at 1 year of age and again following skull disection at slaughter at 20 months of age. Phenotype frequencies were independent of gender. One hundred and forty-two informative meioses for POLL and 13 microsatellite loci with an average of 267 informative meioses per locus contributed to a genetic map spanning 124.6 cM with an average interval of 9.6 cM. POLL mapped proximal to the centromere and 4.9 cM from TGLA49 supporting a previous study that employed two anonymous microsatellites. Difficulties in discriminating between scurred and horned phenotypes indicate that bracketing markers will be essential for refining the model for inheritance of the horned, scurred, and polled phenotypes and for effective marker assisted selection (MAS) for polled. PMID:8830095

  6. Packaging performance of organic acid incorporated chitosan films on dried anchovy (Stolephorus indicus).

    PubMed

    Vimaladevi, S; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Xavier, K A Martin; Bindu, J

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial chitosan films were prepared with acetic acid and propionic acid with glycerol as plasticizer and its efficiency was compared with polyester-polyethylene laminate (PEST/LDPE). The tensile strength of acetic acid/chitosan (ACS) films were higher than propionic acid/chitosan (PCS) films. The elongation percentage (6.43-11.3) and water vapour permeability (0.015-0.03 g/m(2)/day) were significantly lower (p<0.05) for chitosan films when compared to control. Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of control and propionic acid/chitosan (PCS) films were significantly higher (p<0.05) than acetic acid/chitosan (ACS) films. Dried anchovy (Stolephorus indicus) wrapped in these films were stored at ambient temperature for three months. Quality indices like peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) and microbiological parameters such as aerobic plate count (APC) and total fungal count (TFC) were periodically determined. In terms of microbial and chemical indices, anchovies wrapped in ACS and PCS films were superior to those wrapped with PEST/LDPE films during storage. Study revealed the suitability of chitosan film as wraps for increasing storage stability of dried fish. PMID:25965473

  7. Role of Rusa deer Cervus timorensis russa in the cycle of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Barré, N; Bianchi, M; Chardonnet, L

    2001-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of Rusa deer in the development of the cattle tick Boaphilus microplus in comparison with that of steers in the same pastures and under the same conditions of infestation. No difference was noted between a mixed steer/deer herd and a pure steer or pure deer herd in the infestation pattern of each host, suggesting that attachment to the alternative host is mechanical and not affected by the simultaneous presence of the primary host on the pasture. Deer are capable of producing engorged viable females, with weight and reproductive performances similar to or even better than females fed on steers. For moderate levels (1 million larvae per hectare) and high levels (32 million larvae per hectare) of pasture infestation, tick burdens on steers were not very different (e.g. average 1,911 and 2,681 ticks per m2 skin, respectively, on day 24). This may be because of saturation of steer skin sites at the moderate larval dose. Deer harboured 2.7-33 times fewer ticks than steers and produce no engorged females at the moderate larval level and 32 times fewer engorged females than steers at the high larval level. Infestation of deer was dose-dependent with averages of 12 and 399 ticks per m2 skin on day 25 at the moderate and high larval levels, respectively. At a high infestation level of the environment, Rusa deer may contribute, but to a limited extent, to infestation of pastures and, consequently, of cattle. However, their role in sustaining a viable tick population requires further investigation. PMID:11508531

  8. Seedstock beef cattle: SPA.

    PubMed

    McGrann, J M; Leachman, L

    1995-07-01

    The Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) for seedstock beef cattle (SPA-SB) is a recommended set of production and financial performance analysis guidelines developed specifically for the seedstock cow-calf, replacement heifer, and the sale bull enterprises. These guidelines were developed by members of the National Cattlemen's Association (NCA) and the National Integrated Resource Management Coordinating Committee to provide beef cattle producers with a comprehensive, standardized means of measuring, analyzing, and reporting the performance and profitability of an operation. This article describes and illustrates through an example the performance measures chosen. NCA certifies software and education materials conforming to the Seedstock SPA Guidelines. PMID:7584819

  9. Farmers' perceptions and knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance in the eastern cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance. PMID:25358328

  10. Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance. PMID:25358328

  11. Identification of Tropomyosin and Its Immunological Properties from Larvae of Cattle Tick, Boophilus annulatus

    PubMed Central

    Nabian, S; Taheri, M; Fard, R Mazaheri Nezhad; Aramoon, M

    2013-01-01

    Background Boophilus annulatus is an obligate blood feeder tick that can cause great losses in animals due to anemia and its ability to injure its host skin directly. The aim of this study was identification of cattle humoral immune response to some tick proteins during experimental infestation. Methods Immune sera against tick were collected from experimentally infested cattle with ticks. One and two-dimensional electrophoresis and Western blotting methods were used for the detection of immunogenic proteins in larval tick extract and eight of these proteins were identified by MALDITOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Results In non-reducing one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, some bounds between 12 to more than 250-kDa appeared. In two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, numerous spot appeared and the identified immunogenic proteins by parallel immunoblotting weighted between 14 and 97 kDa. Amino acid sequences of protein spot with 37-kDa molecular weight had identity to tropomyosin based on Mascot search in NCBI. Conclusion Anti tropomyosin antibodies can be induced in experimentally infested hosts with ticks and it seems that tropomyosin can be useful for the development of anti tick vaccines. PMID:23914237

  12. Comparative tick counts on game, cattle and sheep on a working game ranch in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, F D; Orinda, G O; Ngae, G N; Grootenhuis, J

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the possible influence of host species on the maintenance of ticks in the field by determining the relative contribution of game animals compared to domestic animals. The study was carried out on a game ranch 32 km south-east of Nairobi. Tick counts were carried out on 30 Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) aged 1 to 3 years and 20 red Maasai sheep (Ovis aries) aged 6 months to 1 year grazing with game animals in a common area for a period of 2 years and these counts were compared with those on eland and Thomson's gazelle. Half-body counts were carried out on the cattle and sheep once every week. To avoid excessive stress, the animals were dipped in amitraz whenever the half body counts exceeded 50 fully engorged female ticks of any species. Tick counts on two wild animal species (eland (Taurotragus oryx) and Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii)) were carried out during the weekly culling of the herbivores. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the number ticks per square metre between the wild ungulates and the domestic animals. PMID:17405627

  13. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    PubMed

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P < 0.001, NSW) and 9.3 N (P = 0.002, WA) in AT 7 d aged M. longissimus lumborum compared with those with no favorable alleles. There was no evidence (all P > 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the

  14. Modeling the impact of climate and landscape on the efficacy of white tailed deer vaccination for cattle tick control in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Carreón, Diana; Almazán, Consuelo; de la Fuente, José

    2014-01-01

    Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas. PMID:25047078

  15. Modeling the Impact of Climate and Landscape on the Efficacy of White Tailed Deer Vaccination for Cattle Tick Control in Northeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Carreón, Diana; Almazán, Consuelo; de la Fuente, José

    2014-01-01

    Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas. PMID:25047078

  16. Assessment of inbreeding depression in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inbreeding has been incriminated as a cause of decrease in reproductive performance in cattle. This negative correlation is known as ‘inbreeding depression’, and evidence supporting this hypothesis was generated from association studies between reproductive traits and estimates of inbreeding coeffic...

  17. Candidate gene analysis of GH1 for effects on growth and carcass composition of cattle.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J F; Coutinho, L L; Herring, K L; Gallagher, D S; Brenneman, R A; Burney, N; Sanders, J O; Turner, J W; Smith, S B; Miller, R K; Savell, J W; Davis, S K

    1998-06-01

    We present an approach to evaluate the support for candidate genes as quantitative trait loci (QTLs) within the context of genome-wide map-based cloning strategies. To establish candidacy, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone containing a putative candidate gene is physically assigned to an anchored linkage map to localise the gene relative to an identified QTL effect. Microsatellite loci derived from BAC clones containing an established candidate gene are integrated into the linkage map facilitating the evaluation by interval analysis of the statistical support for QTL identity. Permutation analysis is employed to determine experiment-wise statistical support. The approach is illustrated for the growth hormone 1 (GH1) gene and growth and carcass phenotypes in cattle. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers which amplify a 441 bp fragment of GH1 were used to systematically screen a bovine BAC library comprising 60,000 clones and with a 95% probability of containing a single copy sequence. The presence of GH1 in BAC-110R2C3 was confirmed by sequence analysis of the PCR product from this clone and by the physical assignment of BAC110R2C3 to bovine chromosome 19 (BTA19) band 22 by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Microsatellite KHGH1 was isolated from BAC110R2C3 and scored in 529 reciprocal backcross and F2 fullsib progeny from 41 resource families derived from Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus). The microsatellite KHGH1 was incorporated into a framework genetic map of BTA19 comprising 12 microsatellite loci, the erythrocyte antigen T and a GH1-TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Interval analysis localised effects of taurus vs. indicus alleles on subcutaneous fat and the percentage of either extractable fat from the Iongissimus dorsi muscle to the region of BTA19 harbouring GH1. PMID:9720178

  18. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle. PMID:26319996

  19. Populations of domesticated cattle and buffalo in the Western Forest Complex of Thailand and their possible impacts on the wildlife community.

    PubMed

    Chaiyarat, Rattanawat; Srikosamatara, Sompod

    2009-03-01

    The Western Forest Complex (WEFCOM) of Thailand is comprised of many protected areas and has one of the highest wildlife populations in the country. Populations of wildlife in the WEFCOM have decreased dramatically over recent years. Rapid economic development has resulted in the conversion of forest into agricultural and pastoral land, which has directly and indirectly impacted the wildlife community. This research aimed to evaluate populations of domesticated cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the WEFCOM and their possible impacts on the wildlife community. Domesticated cattle and buffalo keepers from 1561 (or 3.3%) of houses in and near WEFCOM were interviewed. The average number of animals per household was 15.6 cattle and 8.5 buffalo. Most villagers released domesticated cattle and buffalo to forage in the protected areas. This tended to have a high impact on the wildlife community in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary and Tungyai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary. The least impacted areas were Luam Khlong Ngu National Park, Thong Pha Phum National Park and Chaleam Ratanakosin National Park. With a high risk to the wildlife community, law enforcement should be used in combination with a certain level of co-management with local communities. PMID:19036494

  20. Control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting power poles.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Martin A; Westlake, Terry; Kathuria, Amrit

    2010-12-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of termiticidal dusts (arsenic trioxide, triflumuron, and Metarhizium anisopliae), a timber fumigant (dazomet) and liquid termiticides (bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and imidacloprid) for controlling subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting in-service power poles in New South Wales, Australia. Dusts were applied to parts of the pole where termites were present. Fumigant was inserted into holes drilled into the base of the pole. Liquid termiticides were mixed with soil around the base of the pole and injected into internal voids if present. Poles were inspected for up to 5 yr, and the time taken for reinfestation to occur was recorded. Before the start of the trial, the major Australian pole owners were surveyed to obtain an estimate of the annual national cost of termite infestation to the power supply industry. The annual costs of termite treatment and replacing damaged poles were estimated at AU$2 million and AU$13 million, respectively. Infestation rates were lower for all treatments compared with controls within the first 12 mo of the study. Dazomet, arsenic trioxide, fipronil, and chlorpyrifos were the most efficacious treatments. Efficacy was positively related to the amount of termiticide applied and negatively related to the infestation severity but was unaffected by geographical location. Survival curves were calculated of the time elapsed before the recurrence of termite infestations (survival absence of reinfestation). Survival was highest for poles treated with liquid termiticides. PMID:21309237

  1. Parasitic Infestation in Pediatric and Adolescent Appendicitis: A Local Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients. PMID:23599875

  2. Haplotypes that include the integrin alpha 11 gene are associated with tick burden in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infestations on cattle by the ectoparasite Boophilus (Rhipicephalus) microplus (cattle tick) impact negatively on animal production systems. Host resistance to tick infestation has a low to moderate heritability in the range 0.13 - 0.64 in Australia. Previous studies identified a QTL on bovine chromosome 10 (BTA10) linked to tick burden in cattle. Results To confirm these associations, we collected genotypes of 17 SNP from BTA10, including three obtained by sequencing part of the ITGA11 (Integrin alpha 11) gene. Initially, we genotyped 1,055 dairy cattle for the 17 SNP, and then genotyped 557 Brahman and 216 Tropical Composite beef cattle for 11 of the 17 SNP. In total, 7 of the SNP were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with tick burden tested in any of the samples. One SNP, ss161109814, was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with tick burden in both the taurine and the Brahman sample, but the favourable allele was different. Haplotypes for three and for 10 SNP were more significantly (P < 0.001) associated with tick burden than SNP analysed individually. Some of the common haplotypes with the largest sample sizes explained between 1.3% and 1.5% of the residual variance in tick burden. Conclusions These analyses confirm the location of a QTL affecting tick burden on BTA10 and position it close to the ITGA11 gene. The presence of a significant association in such widely divergent animals suggests that further SNP discovery in this region to detect causal mutations would be warranted. PMID:20565915

  3. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the requirements for cattle in this subpart and in 9 CFR part 86. (Approved by the Office of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are...

  4. Bioflocculant exopolysaccharide production by Azotobacter indicus using flower extract of Madhuca latifolia L.

    PubMed

    Patil, Satish V; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Deepak M; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2010-10-01

    Efficacy of Azotobacter indicus ATCC 9540 strain for production exopolysaccharide (EPS) bioflocculant was investigated. Mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L), a natural substrate at the concentration of 20 g L(-1), gave maximum recovery of EPS followed by sucrose and mannitol as compared to other carbon sources after 172 h. Yeast extract was found to be the most effective nitrogen source as compared to beef extract, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, casein hydrolysate, and urea for the production of EPS. EPS production was increased in presence of nitrogen (5.51 g L(-1)) as compared to nitrogen-free medium (3.51 g L(-1)), and fermentation time was also reduced by 28 h. Maximum EPS production (6.10 g L(-1)) was found in the presence of 20 g L(-1) flower extract and 0.5 g L(-1) yeast extract containing Ashby's media with 180 rpm at 30 degrees C at 144 h, under controlled conditions in 2.5 L fermenter using optimized medium. The isolated EPS showed cation-dependent flocculating activity. Concentration of EPS played an important role in bioflocculating activity which increased in a concentration-dependent manner up to a certain limit, with the maximum flocculation of 72% at 500 mg L(-1) concentration but remained almost static after this concentration. Extracted polymer was characterized by different chemical tests, FT-IR spectroscopy, and TLC which showed presence of uronic acids, O-acetyl groups, and Orcinol with suggestive indication of alginate like polymer. This study suggests that use of M. latifolia L. flowers can be a potential alternative bioresource for production of exopolysaccharide. PMID:19921493

  5. A case study of Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul E; Roffe, Sarah M

    2013-01-01

    The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. A questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit Malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry regimes to determine prevalence of standardized practices as well as highlighting any key differences, and to showcase good practice, thus providing information beneficial to those maintaining this species in their zoo. Twenty-five animals were included in the survey from collections across four continents. The research's major conclusions show differing dietary make-up, with a lack of forage provision, contrasting with a diverse array of enrichment protocols used. Significant differences were noted between zoos for total amount of food offered (P = 0.000) as well as ratios of forage to concentrate pellet offered (P = 0.004). Comparing food offered to male and female tapirs with published requirements for an "average" of either gender shows not all zoos providing the amount suggested in husbandry guidelines. Intelligently designed and original enrichment was provided to all animals but differences between zoos were noted in the application and "usefulness" of enrichment for individual tapir. Overall, animals are benefiting from enrichment but welfare could be further improved via consistent feeding of ad libitum forage and regular use of browse as a constituent part of daily rations. PMID:22610959

  6. Iron deficiency anemia in captive āalayan tapir calves (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Helmick, Kelly E; Milne, Victoria E

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was diagnosed in two captive female neonatal Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) at separate institutions. Both calves had unremarkable exams and normal blood parameters within the first 3 days of life. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (hematocrit, HCT= 20%; mean corpuscular volume, MCV = 32.8 fl; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH = 10.5 pg) was diagnosed at day 66 of age in calf EPZ-1. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 71. A normal HCT (33%) with microcytosis and hypochromasia (MCV = 33.0 fl; MCH = 11.7 pg) was identified at day 80. No further concerns were noted through 610 days of age. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (HCT = 16%; MCV = 38.4 fl; MCH = 13.3 pg; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC= 34.6 g/dl) with thrombocytosis (platelets= 1018 10(3)/UL) and poikilocytosis was diagnosed at day 38 of age in calf WPZ-1 by samples obtained through operant conditioning. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 40 and day 68. Improving hematocrit (32%) and low serum iron (45 micorg/dl) was identified at day 88; total iron binding capacity (TIBC; 438 microg/dl) and percentage saturation (10%) were also measured. No further concerns were noted through day 529 of age. Retrospective evaluation identified presumptive IDA in two male siblings of calf WPZ-1. One calf died at day 40 (iron = 40 microg/dl; TIBC = 482 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 4%) and another at day 72 (HCT = 11%; iron = 26 microg/dl; TIBC = 470 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 6%). Death in both calves was attributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and bacterial septicemia. IDA can develop in Malayan tapirs between day 38 and day 72 of age and may be a significant precursor to bacterial septicemia and death in neonatal Malayan tapirs. PMID:23272357

  7. Food selection of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) under semi-wild conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Boyd K.; Shukor, M. N.; Magintan, David

    2013-11-01

    A study on the selection of food plants by captive Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) was undertaken in a 30 hectare natural forest enclosure at the Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. Tapirs browsed on 217 species of plants (from 99 genera and 49 families) from a total of the 1142 specimens collected and identified. Food plants were heavily dominated by sapling trees and shrubs which comprised 93% of all plants taken, with the remainder comprising woody lianas, vines and herbaceous plants. Although tapirs browsed on a wide variety of plant species, the top 30 species consumed represented more than 60% of all the plants selected, whilst the vast majority of species were rarely eaten. More than 80 species of trees and shrubs were available, but not eaten at all. The most readily consumed species were the sub-canopy and understorey trees Xerospermum noronhianum, Aporosa prainiana and Baccaurea parviflora, while Aporosa, Knema and Xerospermum were the dominant plant genera. The Phyllanthaceae (leaf flowers), Myristicaceae (nutmegs) and Sapindaceae (rambutans) were the most commonly selected families comprising 45% of the diet. Tapirs fed on saplings trees up to 8.3 m in height, while plants taller than about 1.6 m were bent, broken or pushed to the ground to gain access to the foliage. Sapling stems up to 4.2 cm in diameter could be snapped by biting, while larger trees to 7 cm diameter could be pushed down. Tapirs typically fed on the newer leaves and shoots, however, often only consuming half of the available foliage on a plant. This study documents 160 new plant species suitable as Malayan tapir food, and is consistent with the generalist, but selective browsing nature of the Tapirus species in general.

  8. Ovarian function in Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) cows after post-ovulation hormonal treatments.

    PubMed

    Machado, R; Bergamaschi, M A C M; Barbosa, R T; de Oliveira, C A; Binelli, M

    2008-04-15

    Maternal recognition of pregnancy in the cow requires successful signaling by the conceptus to block luteolysis. Conceptus growth and function depend on an optimal uterine environment, regulated by luteal progesterone. The objective of this study was to test strategies to optimize luteal function, as well as prevent a dominant follicle from initiating luteolysis. Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) beef cows (n=40) were submitted to a GnRH/PGF(2alpha)/GnRH protocol. Cows that ovulated from a dominant ovarian follicle (ovulation=Day 0) were allocated to receive: no additional treatment (G(C); n=7); 3000IU of hCG on Day 5 (G(hCG); n=5); 5mg of estradiol-17beta on Day 12 (G(E2); n=6); or 3000IU of hCG on Day 5 and 5mg of estradiol-17beta on Day 12 (G(hCG/E2); n=5). Ultrasonographic imaging of the ovaries, assessment of plasma progesterone concentration, and detection of estrus were done daily from Day 5 to the day of subsequent ovulation. Treatment with hCG induced an accessory CL, increased CL volume, and plasma progesterone concentration throughout the luteal phase (P<0.01). Estradiol-17beta induced atresia and recruitment of a new wave of follicular growth; it eliminated a potentially estrogen-active, growing ovarian follicle within the critical period for maternal recognition of pregnancy, but it also hastened luteolysis (Days 16 or 17 vs. Days 18 or 19 in non-treated cows). In conclusion, the approaches tested enhanced luteal function (hCG) and altered ovarian follicular dynamics (estradiol-17beta), but were unable to extend the life-span of the CL in Nelore cows. PMID:18336896

  9. Detecting Weed Infestations in Soybean Using Remote Sensing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, S. A.; Chang, J.; Clay, D. E.; Dalsted, K.; Reese, C.

    2007-12-01

    Can weed distribution maps be developed from remote sensed reflectance data? When are the appropriate times to collect these data during the season? What wavebands can be used to distinguish weedy from weed- free areas? This research examined if and when reflectance could be used to distinguish between weed-free and weed-infested (mixed species) areas in soybean and to determine the most useful wavebands to separate crop, weed, and soil reflectance differences. Treatments in the two-year study included no vegetation (bare soil), weed-free soybean, and weed-infested soybean and, in one year, 80% corn residue cover. Reflectance was measured at several sampling times from May through September in 2001 and 2002 using a hand-held multispectral radiometer equipped with band-limited optical interference filters (460 - 1650 nm). Pixel resolution was 0.8-m. Reflectance in the visible spectral range (460 to 700 nm) generally was similar among treatments. In the near-infrared (NIR) range (>700 to 1650 nm), differences among treatments were observed from soybean growth stage V-3 (about 4 weeks after planting) until mid-July to early August depending on crop vigor and canopy closure (76 cm row spacing in 2001 and 19 cm row spacing in 2002). Reflectance rankings in the NIR range when treatments could be differentiated were consistent between years and, from lowest to highest reflectance, were soil < weed-free < weed-infested areas. Increased reflectance from weed-infested areas was most likely due to increased biomass and canopy cover. Residue masked differences between weed-free and weed- infested areas during the early stages of growth due to high reflectance from the residue and reduced weed numbers in these areas. These results suggest that NIR spectral reflectance collected prior to canopy closure can be used to distinguish weed-infested from weed-free areas.

  10. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

    2004-10-01

    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  11. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery. PMID:26283859

  12. Colonic obstruction and perforation related to heavy Trichuris trichiura infestation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahon, J; Poirriez, J; Creusy, C; Edriss, A N; Laget, J P; Dei Cas, E

    1997-01-01

    Heavy Trichuris trichiura infestation is rare in developed countries, and complications requiring surgical intervention have been described rarely in human trichuriasis. A case of colonic obstruction and perforation related to heavy whip-worm infection is described in an 84 year old woman. The woman was admitted to hospital because of a chest infection. Two days after admission she suffered nausea and vomiting followed a day later by bowel stoppage. Laparotomy indicated intestinal obstruction by a tumour. A partial right sided ileocolectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bowel revealed heavy infestation with T trichiura causing a pseudotumour following a proliferative inflammatory response. Images PMID:9306948

  13. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery. PMID:26283859

  14. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of Fein-Penaeidin from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    PubMed Central

    Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Shanthi, Sathappan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Penaeidins are members of a special family of antimicrobial peptide existing in penaeid shrimp and play an important role in the immunological defense of shrimp. Here, we report a penaeidin sequence cloned from the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaus indicus (Fein-Penaeidin). The Fein-Penaeidin open reading frame encodes a 77 amino acid peptide including a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequences of Fein-Penaeidin include a proline rich N-terminal domain and a carboxyl-domain that contains six cysteine residues. Structural analysis revealed an alpha-helix in its secondary structure and the predicted 3D structure indicated two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison with other known peaneidin suggest the gene shows high similarity to that of penaeidin from Peneaus monodon (95%), F. indicus (80%) and Fenneropenaeus chinensis (74%). Fein-Penaeidin was examined in normal and microbial challenged shrimp and was found to be constitutively expressed in haemocytes, Heart, gills, muscles, intestine, hepatopancreas and eyestalk. Bacterial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, inducing expression at 6 h post injection indicating the penaeidin involved in the innate immunity. PMID:24371565

  15. Immune modulations and protection by translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in Fenneropenaeus indicus harboring white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, S; Kamalakannan, V; Narayanan, R B

    2014-07-01

    Fenneropenaeus indicus translationally controlled tumor protein (Fi-TCTP) was cloned and expressed using pET 100a-D-TOPO in prokaryotic expression system and it exhibited putative antioxidant activity as assessed in vitro by enhanced growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The protective efficacy of recombinant Fi-TCTP (rFi-TCTP) was evaluated in F. indicus by intramuscular and oral administration. Intramuscular injection of rFi-TCTP to shrimps, on subsequent white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection exhibited 42% relative percent survival. To understand the mechanism of protection, immunological parameters such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), phenoloxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed in early (24h) and late (60h) stages of infection. rFi-TCTP pretreatment significantly lowers the WSSV induced ROS generation and respiratory burst during early and late stages of infection. Further, WSSV induced apoptotic changes such as reduced haemocyte count, loss in MMP and DNA fragmentation were significantly reduced during early and late stage of infection upon rFi-TCTP administration. Hence, the immunomodulatory studies suggest that protective effect of rFi-TCTP in treated shrimps, might be due to the reduction in ROS and apoptosis, following decreased mitochondrial damage together with reduced phenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst. PMID:24837973

  16. Epidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2015-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan. PMID:25898993

  17. Origins and genetic diversity of New World Creole cattle: inferences from mitochondrial and Y chromosome polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ginja, C; Penedo, M C T; Melucci, L; Quiroz, J; Martínez López, O R; Revidatti, M A; Martínez-Martínez, A; Delgado, J V; Gama, L T

    2010-04-01

    The ancestry of New World cattle was investigated through the analysis of mitochondrial and Y chromosome variation in Creoles from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Paraguay and the United States of America. Breeds that influenced the Creoles, such as Iberian native, British and Zebu, were also studied. Creoles showed high mtDNA diversity (H = 0.984 +/- 0.003) with a total of 78 haplotypes, and the European T3 matriline was the most common (72.1%). The African T1a haplogroup was detected (14.6%), as well as the ancestral African-derived AA matriline (11.9%), which was absent in the Iberian breeds. Genetic proximity among Creoles, Iberian and Atlantic Islands breeds was inferred through their sharing of mtDNA haplotypes. Y-haplotype diversity in Creoles was high (H = 0.779 +/- 0.019), with several Y1, Y2 and Y3 haplotypes represented. Iberian patrilines in Creoles were more difficult to infer and were reflected by the presence of H3Y1 and H6Y2. Y-haplotypes confirmed crossbreeding with British cattle, mainly of Hereford with Pampa Chaqueño and Texas Longhorn. Male-mediated Bos indicus introgression into Creoles was found in all populations, except Argentino1 (herd book registered) and Pampa Chaqueño. The detection of the distinct H22Y3 patriline with the INRA189-90 allele in Caracú suggests introduction of bulls directly from West Africa. Further studies of Spanish and African breeds are necessary to elucidate the origins of Creole cattle, and determine the exact source of their African lineages. PMID:19817725

  18. Genetic diversity, introgression and relationships among West/Central African cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi; Jann, Oliver Carl; Weimann, Christina; Erhardt, Georg

    2004-01-01

    Genetic diversity, introgression and relationships were studied in 521 individuals from 9 African Bos indicus and 3 Bos taurus cattle breeds in Cameroon and Nigeria using genotype information on 28 markers (16 microsatellite, 7 milk protein and 5 blood protein markers). The genotypes of 13 of the 16 microsatellite markers studied on three European (German Angus, German Simmental and German Yellow) and two Indian (Nelore and Ongole) breeds were used to assess the relationships between them and the African breeds. Diversity levels at microsatellite loci were higher in the zebu than in the taurine breeds and were generally similar for protein loci in the breeds in each group. Microsatellite allelic distribution displayed groups of alleles specific to the Indian zebu, African taurine and European taurine. The level of the Indian zebu genetic admixture proportions in the African zebus was higher than the African taurine and European taurine admixture proportions, and ranged from 58.1% to 74.0%. The African taurine breed, Muturu was free of Indian zebu genes while its counter Namchi was highly introgressed (30.2%). Phylogenic reconstruction and principal component analysis indicate close relationships among the zebu breeds in Cameroon and Nigeria and a large genetic divergence between the main cattle groups – African taurine, European taurine and Indian zebu, and a central position for the African zebus. The study presents the first comprehensive information on the hybrid composition of the individual cattle breeds of Cameroon and Nigeria and the genetic relationships existing among them and other breeds outside of Africa. Strong evidence supporting separate domestication events for the Bos species is also provided. PMID:15496287

  19. Influence of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA on immunological parameters in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogamy increases the risk of manifestation of deleterious recessive genes. Mitochondrial DNA allows the separation of American Zebu (Bos indicus and Bos taurus) and evaluate the effect of mitochondrial DNA on productive traits of cattle. However, the effect of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on the immune system remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between endogamy, mtDNA and immune parameters. Results A total of 86 cattle (43 cows and 43 calves) were used in this study. Age, endogamy, milk yield, and origin of mtDNA were measured and their influence on immunological parameters was evaluated. Older cows had increased CD4+ T cells, decreased CD21+ and γδhigh T cells as well as increased CD4+/CD8+ and T/B ratio. Multiple regression analysis indicated that endogamy in calves was associated with increased CD8+ T and CD21+ B lymphocytes, and decreased γδhigh T cells in peripheral blood. Cows with medium and lower endogamy had a lower percentage of B lymphocytes and γδlow T cells and cows with lower endogamy had higher levels of γδ T cells and γδhigh T cells, as well as the CD4+/CD48+ cell ratio. Calves with higher endogamy had higher levels of CD8+ T lymphocytes, whereas calves with lower endogamy had lower levels of γδlow T cells. Conclusions These results demonstrated for the first time that endogamy influences the immune system of cattle. PMID:24694022

  20. Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

  1. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  2. Susceptibility of pear to European pear sawfly fruit infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...

  3. Natural trematode infestation in feral Nebrodi Black pigs: pathological investigations.

    PubMed

    Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Catalano, Deborah; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Russo, Miriam; Aronica, Vincenzo; Tomaselli, Amedeo; Lazzara, Alessandro; Amedeo, Stefano; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Dore, Bruno; Guarda, Franco

    2009-01-22

    Few studies describe the parasites of pigs bred in the wild state, although pigs are a known reservoir of trematode infestation. This article reports the results of a retrospective study carried out from January 2003 to June 2007 on 3021 Nebrodi Black male and female pigs, regularly slaughtered, aged between 8 months and 4 years. Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum flukes were detected in 143 (4.37%) of 3021 livers. The predominant histological features were multifocal to diffuse chronic hepatitis, with fibrosis and severely thickened walls of the bile ducts and chronic parietal, sometimes nodular inflammation. F. hepatica infestation was frequently associated with marked hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the submucosal glands. The study results confirm the important role swine play in the transmission of trematode infestations, indicate the prevalence of these parasites in the Nebrodi Park area, and draw attention to the need for a prophylaxis plan to prevent the spread of infestation to ruminants and humans living in the area. PMID:19038498

  4. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  5. Parasitic infestation of lung: An unusual cause of interstitial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parth; Kate, Arvind H; Nester, Nora; Patole, Kamlakar; Leuppi, Joerg D; Chhajed, Prashant N

    2016-01-01

    Parasite infections are increasing worldwide due to increasing migration and traveling. Parasitic infections can affect lungs and present as a focal or diffuse lung diseases. High index of suspicion and detailed history are most important. We present a case of interstitial pneumonitis caused by parasite infestation, which was diagnosed on transbronchial lung biopsy. PMID:27051117

  6. Remote sensing for detecting and mapping whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...

  7. Reducing costly zebra mussel infestations at power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, G.

    1994-10-01

    The fast-spreading-zebra mussel has significant potential to foul intakes and other water systems at North American hydro projects. Chemical controls can be effective in reducing infestations, but most have environmental and other drawbacks. Several non-chemical methods promise to help project operators reduce problems associated with the mussels.

  8. FUSARIUM SPECIES SYNTHESIZE ALKALINE PROTEINASES IN INFESTED BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that is infested with Fusarium head blight (FHB, `scab') is unsuitable for malting and brewing because it may contain mycotoxins and has unacceptable malting quality. Fungal proteinases are apparently involved in plant-microbe interactions, because they degrade the storag...

  9. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  10. Determination of degree of infestation of triticale seed using NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect infestation of seeds of the triticale hybrid, Triticosecale, causes extraordinary storage losses as a consequence of vulnerability of triticale seed to insect infestation and its soft coat. Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), is a common insect that causes infestation in Florida, which was t...

  11. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  12. Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor: prevalence and reproduction in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the reproductive ability of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite g...

  13. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate...

  14. Russian Honey Bees and Their Response Toward Brood Infested with Small Hive Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African bees are known to preferentially remove brood that is infested with small hive beetles (SHB). European honey bees (EHB) also remove infested brood but at a lower frequency. The response of different stocks of EHB to brood infested with SHB has not been studied. Therefore, this study was cond...

  15. Russian Honey Bees And Their Response Toward Brood Infested With Small Hive Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African bees are known to preferentially remove brood that is infested with small hive beetles (SHB). European honey bees (EHB) also remove infested brood but at a lower frequency. The response of different stocks of EHB to brood infested with SHB has not been studied. Therefore, this study was cond...

  16. Prevalence of sucking and chewing lice on cattle entering feedlots in southern Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, D D; Clymer, B; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T; Jim, G K; Schunicht, O C; Wildman, B K

    2001-01-01

    Beef calves from 2 sources entering southern Alberta feedlots in the winters of 1997-98 and 1998-99, were surveyed for the presence of lice. A random sample of multiple source (MS), that is, auction market-derived, calves entering commercial feedlots and single source (SS) calves entering a backgrounding feedlot were examined for the presence of lice at entry to the feedlot. A standardized examination, which involved hair-part examination of 8 louse predilection sites, was conducted on each selected calf to determine prevalence and intensity of infestation. The long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli, was the most commonly encountered species. This species infested from 57.8% to 95.6% of the calves selected from both MS and SS calves during both winters. Louse index values, indicating intensity of infestation, for L. vituli ranged from 1 to 243 lice per animal. The chewing louse, Bovicola bovis, was present on MS and SS calves only in the winter of 1998-99. The louse index values for B. bovis ranged from 1 to 230 lice per animal. Mixed infestations of the L. vituli and B. bovis were common. The little blue cattle louse, Solenopotes capillatus, was present only on the SS calves in the winter of 1997-98. The short-nosed sucking louse, Haematopinus eurysternus, was present at very low intensities, 1-2 lice per animal, on 2.6% to 4.4% of the MS calves during both winters. Comparison of results from the current study with published literature suggests that efforts to determine the economic impact of louse infestations are confounded by the lack of a uniform method to assess louse population levels. PMID:11326630

  17. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P < 0.10) for an association with the previously described marker in GPE6. Closer examination of the GPE6 data revealed that the source of the tendency was an association (P < 0.02) with marbling in animals of Wagyu inheritance. Animals having Wagyu background and inheriting the TT genotype had a greater marbling score (599 +/- 20) than those inheriting the CC (540 +/- 10) or the CT (541 +/- 11) genotype. No association was detected with any other carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population. PMID:17686891

  18. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of atmospheric emissions of fugitive dusts and volatile products from beef cattle feedlots. Total particulate emissions are affected by feedlot area, cattle density in pens, wind speed, and the regional precipitation-evaporation index. The predominant...

  19. Heat stress in feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle is a common summer time occurrence in cattle-producing parts of the world (United States, Australia, Brazil, etc.). The impact of heat stress on feedlot animals is quite varied--from little to no effect in a brief exposure, to causing reductions in feed intake, growth,...

  20. Investigation of novel solid lipid microparticles based on homolipids from Bos indicus for the delivery of gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Kenechukwu, Franklin C.; Momoh, Mumuni A.; Umeyor, Emmanuel C.; Uronnachi, Emmanuel M.; Attama, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to formulate solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS)-based solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) using homolipids from tallow fat (Bos indicus) and evaluate its potential for enhanced delivery of gentamicin. Materials and Methods: SLMs were formulated by melt-emulsification using SRMS (15% w/w Phospholipon® 90G in 35% w/w Bos indicus), polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) and gentamicin (1.0, 2.0, 3.0% w/w), and characterized with respect to size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency % and pH-dependent stability. The in vitro release of gentamicin from the SLMs was performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) while bioevaluation was carried out using clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: Results showed that the lipid matrix accommodated gentamicin in a concentration-dependent manner, and that stable and spherical SLMs with size range of 18.62 ± 1.24-20.59 ± 1.36 μm and 21.35 ± 1.57-50.62 ± 2.37 μm respectively for unloaded and drug-loaded formulations were obtained. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that SRMS-based SLMs could better be used to control the release of gentamicin than gentamicin injection. Results of sensitivity test revealed that the SLMs time-dependently and capacity-limitedly produced greater inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) than the standards, an indication of improved bioactivity against the test organisms, with greater IZDs against S. aureus than E. coli. Overall, SLMs containing 2% w/w SRMS, 3% w/w gentamicin and PEG 4000 entrapped the highest amount of drug, achieved complete drug release and gave highest IZD against the organisms within 420 min, while plain gentamicin gave the least. Conclusion: This research has shown that SLMs based on Bos indicus and P90G is a potential carrier system for dissolution and bioactivity enhancement of gentamicin. PMID:27014617

  1. Vaccination of cattle with TickGARD induces cross-reactive antibodies binding to conserved linear peptides of Bm86 homologues in Boophilus decoloratus.

    PubMed

    Odongo, David; Kamau, Lucy; Skilton, Robert; Mwaura, Stephen; Nitsch, Cordula; Musoke, Anthony; Taracha, Evans; Daubenberger, Claudia; Bishop, Richard

    2007-01-26

    Vaccines based on recombinant Bm86 gut antigen from Boophilus microplus are a useful component of integrated control strategies against B. microplus infestations of cattle. The capacity of such vaccines to control heterologous infestations by two African tick species was investigated. The mean weight of engorged female ticks and mean egg mass per tick were significantly reduced in B. decoloratus infestations, but there was no effect of the vaccine against adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. We cloned, sequenced and expressed two Bm86 homologues (Bd86) from B. decoloratus. Amino acid sequence identity between Bd86 homologues (Bd86-1 and Bd86-2) and Bm86 was 86% and 85%, respectively, compared to 93% identity between the variants. Native Bd86 protein in B. decoloratus tick mid-gut sections and recombinant Bd86-1 reacted strongly with sera from TickGARD vaccinated cattle. TickGARD can therefore protect against a heterologous tick species with multiple antigen sequences. Epitope mapping using sera from TickGARD-vaccinated cattle identified two linear peptides conserved between the Bd86 homologues and Bm86. These epitopes represent candidate synthetic peptide vaccines for control of Boophilus spp. and the pathogens transmitted by these tick vectors. PMID:17070625

  2. Field studies and cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination with Gavac against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; Redondo, M; Montero, C; García-García, J C; Méndez, L; Serrano, E; Valdés, M; Enriquez, A; Canales, M; Ramos, E; Boué, O; Machado, H; Lleonart, R; de Armas, C A; Rey, S; Rodríguez, J L; Artiles, M; García, L

    1998-02-01

    The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remains a challenge for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful and the parasites continue to result in significant losses for the cattle industry. Recently, vaccines containing the recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigen Bm86 have been developed. These vaccines have been shown to control tick infestations in the field. However, extensive field studies investigating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of vaccination have not been reported and are needed to appraise the effect of this new approach for tick control. Here is reported the results of the application of Gavac in a field trial including more than 260,000 animals in Cuba. In this study the correlation between the antibody response to vaccination and the effect on ticks fertility is determined. Physiological status of the animals was found to affect the primary response to vaccination but not the antibody titers after revaccination. A cost-effectiveness analysis showed a 60% reduction in the number acaricide treatments, together with the control of tick infestations and transmission of babesiosis, which resulted in savings of $23.4 animal-1 year-1. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage of vaccination and support the application of Gavac for tick control. PMID:9607057

  3. Aphid infestation affecting the biogeochemistry of European beech saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, B.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Bischoff, S.; Näthe, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mass outbreaks of herbivore insects are known to perturb the functional properties of forests. However, it is less clear how endemic to moderate aboveground herbivory affects the vertical flow of nutrients from tree canopies to the soil. Here, we report on the effects of low to moderate infestation levels of the woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on the nutrient dynamics and hydrology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In a potted sapling experiment, we followed the vertical dynamics of nutrients via throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and litter leachates (LL) collected over ten weeks underneath infested and uninfested control trees. Aphid infestation amplifies the fluxes of K+, Mn2+ and particulate nitrogen (0.45μm < PN < 500 μm) in TF solution by 42% for K+, 59% for Mn2+ and 13% for PN relative to the control. In contrast, fluxes of NH4-N and SO4-S diminished during peaking aphid abundance by 26 and 16%, respectively. Differences in canopy-derived dissolved nitrogen and carbon compounds, sulfur (S), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ were < 10%. The effect of aphid abundance on nutrient dynamics was most notable in TF and SF and diminished in LL.Aphid infestation greatly altered the SF fluxes of DOC, K+, Mn2+, DON and sulfur-species, which were significantly concentrated at the tree base by "funneling" the rainfall through the canopy biomass to the trunk. Normalized to one square meter, water and nutrient fluxes were amplified by a factor of up to 200 compared to TF.Imaging of leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy exhibited notable differences of the surface morphology and microbiology of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves. This observation might point to an aphid-mediated alteration of the phyllosphere ecology triggering the microbial uptake of NH4-N and SO4-S and its transformation to particulate N by magnified biomass growth of the phyllosphere microflora, consequently changing the chemical partitioning and temporal availability of nitrogen.

  4. Geographical characterization of the triatomine infestations in north-central Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, J; Juárez, J; Nakatsuji, K; Akiyama, T; Hernandez, G; Macal, R; Flores, C; Ortiz, M; Marroquín, L; Bamba, T; Wakai, S

    2005-04-01

    In an entomological study in 2002, the degree of domestic and peridomestic infestation with triatomine bugs and the geographical distribution of such infestations were investigated in north-central Guatemala. The survey team searched for triatomines in houses constructed with mud walls or thatched roofs, in villages suspected of being infested. The level of infestation observed was lower than that seen in the same area and in eastern Guatemala, in a preliminary survey, 3 years earlier. Most of the infestations detected were of Triatoma dimidiata but even this species was found in <7% of the houses investigated. Infestations with Rhodnius prolixus or other potential vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi were much rarer. The generally low levels of infestation make the elimination of R. prolixus and the reduction of the domestic population of Tri. dimidiata feasible in the study area. The southern part of the study area had higher levels of domestic infestation and colonization than the north, and peridomestic infestation was highest in the south-west. Given such geographical variation in the pattern of infestation, it would seem wise to stratify the study region into areas of high, moderate and low-risk of human-triatomine contact, so that appropriate vector-control strategies can be targeted at the worst-affected areas. Regular entomological surveillance, ideally with community participation, is recommended. Analysis of the relationship between the geographical patterns of infestation and factors such as vegetation, altitude and vector migration would be useful. PMID:15829138

  5. Biophoton Emission from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Ryuzou; Uefune, Masayoshi; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

    2004-08-01

    We studied spontaneous photon emission from kidney bean leaves infested with spider mites. Strong photon radiation was observed from the leaf veins where spider mites were crowding. Photon emission intensity increased with the decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis yield; these decreases represented the degree of damage caused by the pest. When both infested and un-infested leaves were put on the same wet cotton, photon emission from the un-infested leaf increased, too. Photon emission from the un-infested leaf might be induced by an aqueous elicitor released from the infested leaf. Such an elicitor activates the plant defense response. Therefore, it is suggested that photon emission from an infested leaf conveys information on the direct injury (physical stresses) and physiological (biochemical) actions associated with the defensive response.

  6. Distribution and interspecies contact of feral swine and cattle on rangeland in south Texas: implications for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Susan M; Scott, H Morgan; de la Garza, Guadalupe R; Deck, Aubrey L; Cathey, James C

    2010-01-01

    The last outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States occurred in 1929. Since that time, numbers and distribution of feral swine (Sus scrofa) have increased greatly, especially in the southern states. This creates a potential risk to livestock production because swine are susceptible to, and can be carriers of, several economically harmful diseases of livestock. Most importantly, swine are potent amplifiers of FMD virus. In this study, global positioning system (GPS) collars were placed on rangeland cattle (Bos indicus x taurus) and feral swine to determine shared habitat use by these species on a large ranch in south Texas from 2004 to 2006. The aim was to identify locations and rates of interspecies contact that may result in effective transfer of FMD virus, should an outbreak occur. In shrubland and riparian areas, animals were dispersed, so contacts within and between species were relatively infrequent. Indirect contacts, whereby cattle and feral swine used the same location (within 20 m) within a 360-min period, occurred primarily at water sources, and seasonally in irrigated forage fields and along ranch roads. Direct contacts between species (animals <20 m apart and within 15 min) were rare and occurred primarily at water sources. Changes in ranch management practices are suggested to reduce interspecies contact should an FMD disease outbreak occur. This information can also be used to improve current epidemiologic models to better fit free-ranging animal populations. PMID:20090028

  7. Effects of a high-energy diet on oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Iguma, L T; Batista, R I T P; Quintão, C C R; Gama, M A S; Freitas, C; Pereira, M M; Camargo, L S A; Viana, J H M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different dietary energy levels [100 and 170% for maintenance (M) and high energy (1.7M), respectively] on metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive parameters were evaluated in nonlactating Bos indicus (Gir; n=14) and Bos taurus (Holstein; n=14) cows submitted to ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro embryo production. The oocyte donor cows were housed in a tiestall system and fed twice daily (0800 and 1600 h). Twenty-one days before the beginning of the experiment, the animals were fed with a maintenance diet for adaptation followed by the experimental diets (M and 1.7M), and each cow underwent 9 ovum pick-up procedures 14 d apart. The recovered oocytes were cultured in vitro for 7 d. We measured glucose and insulin concentrations and performed glucose tolerance tests and the relative quantification of transcripts (PRDX1, HSP70.1, GLUT1, GLUT5, IGF1R, and IGF2R) from the oocytes recovered at the end of the experimental period. No interactions were observed between the effects of genetic groups and dietary energy level on the qualitative (viable oocytes, quality grade, and oocyte quality index) and quantitative (oocytes recovered) oocyte variables. There were no effects of dietary energy level on the qualitative and quantitative oocyte variables. However, Bos indicus cows had greater numbers of recovered structures, viable oocytes, and A and B oocyte grades as well as better oocyte quality index scores and lower DNA fragmentation rates compared with Bos taurus donors. In vitro embryo production (cleavage and blastocyst rates and number of embryos) was similar between diets, but the 1.7M diet reduced in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus cows after 60 d of treatment. Moreover, Bos indicus cows on the 1.7M diet showed lower transcript abundance for the HSP70.1, GLUT1, IGF1R, and IGF2R genes. All cows fed 1.7M diets had greater glucose and insulin concentrations and greater insulin resistance according to the glucose tolerance test. In

  8. Trypanosomosis: potential driver of selection in African cattle.

    PubMed

    Smetko, Anamarija; Soudre, Albert; Silbermayr, Katja; Müller, Simone; Brem, Gottfried; Hanotte, Olivier; Boettcher, Paul J; Stella, Alessandra; Mészáros, Gábor; Wurzinger, Maria; Curik, Ino; Müller, Mathias; Burgstaller, Jörg; Sölkner, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is a serious cause of reduction in productivity of cattle in tsetse-fly infested areas. Baoule and other local Taurine cattle breeds in Burkina Faso are trypanotolerant. Zebuine cattle, which are also kept there are susceptible to trypanosomosis but bigger in body size. Farmers have continuously been intercrossing Baoule and Zebu animals to increase production and disease tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare levels of zebuine and taurine admixture in genomic regions potentially involved in trypanotolerance with background admixture of composites to identify differences in allelic frequencies of tolerant and non-tolerant animals. The study was conducted on 214 animals (90 Baoule, 90 Zebu, and 34 composites), genotyped with 25 microsatellites across the genome and with 155 SNPs in 23 candidate regions. Degrees of admixture of composites were analyzed for microsatellite and SNP data separately. Average Baoule admixture based on microsatellites across the genomes of the Baoule- Zebu composites was 0.31, which was smaller than the average Baoule admixture in the trypanosomosis candidate regions of 0.37 (P = 0.15). Fixation index F ST measured in the overall genome based on microsatellites or with SNPs from candidate regions indicates strong differentiation between breeds. Nine out of 23 regions had F ST ≥ 0.20 calculated from haplotypes or individual SNPs. The levels of admixture were significantly different from background admixture, as revealed by microsatellite data, for six out of the nine regions. Five out of the six regions showed an excess of Baoule ancestry. Information about best levels of breed composition would be useful for future breeding ctivities, aiming at trypanotolerant animals with higher productive capacity. PMID:25964796

  9. Trypanosomosis: potential driver of selection in African cattle

    PubMed Central

    Smetko, Anamarija; Soudre, Albert; Silbermayr, Katja; Müller, Simone; Brem, Gottfried; Hanotte, Olivier; Boettcher, Paul J.; Stella, Alessandra; Mészáros, Gábor; Wurzinger, Maria; Curik, Ino; Müller, Mathias; Burgstaller, Jörg; Sölkner, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is a serious cause of reduction in productivity of cattle in tsetse-fly infested areas. Baoule and other local Taurine cattle breeds in Burkina Faso are trypanotolerant. Zebuine cattle, which are also kept there are susceptible to trypanosomosis but bigger in body size. Farmers have continuously been intercrossing Baoule and Zebu animals to increase production and disease tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare levels of zebuine and taurine admixture in genomic regions potentially involved in trypanotolerance with background admixture of composites to identify differences in allelic frequencies of tolerant and non-tolerant animals. The study was conducted on 214 animals (90 Baoule, 90 Zebu, and 34 composites), genotyped with 25 microsatellites across the genome and with 155 SNPs in 23 candidate regions. Degrees of admixture of composites were analyzed for microsatellite and SNP data separately. Average Baoule admixture based on microsatellites across the genomes of the Baoule- Zebu composites was 0.31, which was smaller than the average Baoule admixture in the trypanosomosis candidate regions of 0.37 (P = 0.15). Fixation index FST measured in the overall genome based on microsatellites or with SNPs from candidate regions indicates strong differentiation between breeds. Nine out of 23 regions had FST ≥ 0.20 calculated from haplotypes or individual SNPs. The levels of admixture were significantly different from background admixture, as revealed by microsatellite data, for six out of the nine regions. Five out of the six regions showed an excess of Baoule ancestry. Information about best levels of breed composition would be useful for future breeding ctivities, aiming at trypanotolerant animals with higher productive capacity. PMID:25964796

  10. Surveys for ectoparasites on wildlife associated with Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae)-infested livestock in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Corn, Joseph L; Berger, Patrick; Mertins, James W

    2009-11-01

    Surveys in 2001, 2005, and 2006 attempted to determine the role of wildlife in maintenance and dissemination of the tropical bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum (F.) (Acari: Ixodidae), in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Small mammals; birds; white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann); and feral cattle, Bos taurus L., were examined at nine premises, in mountainous rain forest, and in surrounding areas in western St. Croix, an area including and central to all known bont tick-infested premises on the island. Small Asian mongooses, Herpestes javanicus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire), yielded 1,566 ectoparasite specimens, representing five species, and including larvae of a soft tick, Carios puertoricensis (Fox); the tropical horse tick, Anocentor nitens (Neumann); and the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). Black rats, Rattus rattus L., yielded 144 specimens, representing six ectoparasite species, including C. puertoricensis. Of 25 bird species examined, seven yielded 116 ectoparasite specimens representing at least 14 different species of lice and mites, but no ticks. White-tailed deer and feral cattle yielded only various stages of A. nitens and R. microplus ticks. A. variegatum was not encountered on any potential wildlife host sampled, reflecting its low occurrence in St. Croix during the survey period. One collection of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from a spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia (L.), and collections of feather mites (Acari: Astigmata: Trouessartiidae) from both bananaquits, Coereba flaveola (L.), and black-faced grassquits, Tiaris bicolor (L.), may represent new, undescribed species. PMID:19960701

  11. Variation among Bm86 sequences in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks collected from cattle across Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewmongkol, S; Kaewmongkol, G; Inthong, N; Lakkitjaroen, N; Sirinarumitr, T; Berry, C M; Jonsson, N N; Stich, R W; Jittapalapong, S

    2015-06-01

    Anti-tick vaccines based on recombinant homologues Bm86 and Bm95 have become a more cost-effective and sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides commonly used to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. However, Bm86 polymorphism among geographically separate ticks is reportedly associated with reduced effectiveness of these vaccines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation of Bm86 among cattle ticks collected from Northern, Northeastern, Central and Southern areas across Thailand. Bm86 cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences representing 29 female tick midgut samples were 95.6-97.0 and 91.5-93.5 % identical to the nucleotide and amino acid reference sequences, respectively, of the Australian Yeerongpilly vaccine strain. Multiple sequence analyses of these Bm86 variants indicated geographical relationships and polymorphism among Thai cattle ticks. Two larger groups of cattle tick strains were discernable based on this phylogenetic analysis of Bm86, a Thai group and a Latin American group. Thai female and male cattle ticks (50 pairs) were also subjected to detailed morphological characterization to confirm their identity. The majority of female ticks had morphological features consistent with those described for R. (B.) microplus, whereas, curiously, the majority of male ticks were more consistent with the recently re-instated R. (B.) australis. A number of these ticks had features consistent with both species. Further investigations are warranted to test the efficacies of rBm86-based vaccines to homologous and heterologous challenge infestations with Thai tick strains and for in-depth study of the phylogeny of Thai cattle ticks. PMID:25777941

  12. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. PMID:25752498

  13. Ovarian follicular dynamics, follicle deviation, and oocyte yield in Gyr breed (Bos indicus) cows undergoing repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present. PMID:20071017

  14. Infestation of the clam Chione fluctifraga by the burrowing worm Polydora sp. nov. in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2003-07-01

    Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity. PMID:12877826

  15. Hemochromatosis in Salers cattle.

    PubMed

    House, J K; Smith, B P; Maas, J; Lane, V M; Anderson, B C; Graham, T W; Pino, M V

    1994-01-01

    Two 2-year-old Salers cattle from different herds raised on pasture were evaluated for retarded growth and diarrhea. Increase of liver enzyme activities and prolonged sulfobromophothalein (BSP) half life (T1/2) indicated liver disease with impaired liver function. Histopathologic examination of liver biopsies revealed a micronodular cirrhosis with marked deposition of hemosiderin in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and arterioles. Transferrin saturation (TS) and liver iron content were markedly increased, consistent with a diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Both animals were euthanatized due to deterioration in their condition. Necropsy findings included hepatomegaly and hemosiderin accumulation in the liver, lymph nodes, pancreas, spleen, thyroid, kidney, brain and other glandular tissue. Continued surveillance of the second herd (serum iron, total iron binding capacity [TIBC], unsaturated iron binding capacity [UIBC], and TS), identified a heifer as a hemochromatosis suspect in a subsequent generation. Liver biopsies from that animal revealed the same histopathologic changes as the previous 2 animals, and similar increases in liver iron content (8,700 ppm, normal range 45 to 300 ppm). The 3 affected cattle were all products of line breeding programs and shared a common ancestor. The absence of dietary iron loading in conjunction with the histopathologic and metabolic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of primary hemochromatosis. The reported disease is similar to idiopathic hemochromatosis in human beings in which there is a hereditary defect in iron metabolism. PMID:8046672

  16. Spinosad for the treatment of head lice infestations.

    PubMed

    Villegas, S C

    2012-09-01

    Head lice infestations continue to be an issue in today's society, with an increase in economic cost and resistance. Spinosad 0.9% topical suspension was recently introduced in the U.S. market as a novel agent with both pediculicidal and ovicidal activity, approved in children 4 years of age and older for the treatment of head lice infestations. In clinical trials, it has demonstrated effectiveness against head lice with permethrin resistance. In two clinical trials comparing spinosad to permethrin, efficacy was observed in the spinosad-treated groups at 84.6% and 86.7%, respectively, when compared to the permethrin-treated groups (respective values of 44.9% and 42.9%; P < 0.001). Overall, spinosad was well tolerated in clinical trials. PMID:23032800

  17. Distribution pattern of phthirapterans infesting certain common Indian birds.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A K; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Nidhi; Mitra, J D; Ali, S A; Srivastava, Roshni

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence and frequency distribution patterns of 10 phthirapteran species infesting house sparrows, Indian parakeets, common mynas, and white breasted kingfishers were recorded in the district of Rampur, India, during 2004-05. The sample mean abundances, mean intensities, range of infestations, variance to mean ratios, values of the exponent of the negative binomial distribution, and the indices of discrepancy were also computed. Frequency distribution patterns of all phthirapteran species were skewed, but the observed frequencies did not correspond to the negative binomial distribution. Thus, adult-nymph ratios varied in different species from 1:0.53 to 1:1.25. Sex ratios of different phthirapteran species ranged from 1:1.10 to 1:1.65 and were female biased. PMID:17918388

  18. Efficient detection of internal infestation in wheat based on biophotonics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weiya; Jiao, Keke; Liang, Yitao; Wang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    In the process of grain storage, there are many losses of grain quantity and quality for the sake of insects. As a result, it is necessary to find a rapid and economical method for detecting insects in the grain. The paper innovatively proposes a model of detecting internal infestation in wheat by combining pattern recognition and BioPhoton Analytical Technology (BPAT). In this model, the spontaneous ultraweak photons emitted from normal and insect-contaminated wheat are firstly measured respectively. Then, position, distribution and morphological characteristics can be extracted from the measuring data to construct wheat feature vector. Backpropagation (BP) neural network based on genetic algorithm is employed to take decision on whether wheat kernel has contaminated by insects. The experimental results show that the proposed model can differentiate the normal wheat from the insect-contaminated one at an average accuracy of 95%. The model can also offer a novel thought for detecting internal infestation in the wheat. PMID:26774558

  19. Delusional infestation with unusual pathogens: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Dewan, P; Miller, J; Musters, C; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P

    2011-10-01

    Delusional infestation (DI) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a fixed, false belief that the patient is infested with extracorporeal agents. It is known by several names, including the more commonly used term 'delusional parasitosis'. The psychiatric disease is responsible for the cutaneous pathology. About 90% of patients with DI seek help from dermatologists, and most reject psychiatric referral. Thus, effective management requires incorporation of psychiatric principles. We report three cases of DI with inanimate materials, and examine 'Morgellons' disease. We believe that patients with unusual presentations of DI are likely to be seen more commonly in the future. These patients appear to be a subgroup of DI, and may be even more difficult to treat than other patients with DI. PMID:21933231

  20. Demodex (follicular mite) infesting a boy and his pet dog.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, M M; el-Said, A M; Arafa, M A; Sabry, A H

    1995-08-01

    Intense iritation and dermatitis, somewhat resembling that produced by scabies can result from various mites living as temporary ectoparasites on the skin of man. Demodex folliculorum is a worm-like mite that infests hair follicles above the level of sebaceous glands in various mammals. In this paper, Demodex folliculorum was recovered from a boy and his pet dog. Both the boy and the dog were successfully treated with permethrin. PMID:7665947

  1. Ten years later: Evaluation of the effectiveness of 12.5% amitraz against a field population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using field studies, artificial infestation (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Campos, Gabriel Pimentel; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-12-15

    Using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and in vitro adult immersion tests, the present study evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of 12.5% amitraz administered via whole body spraying against a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus population that did not have any contact with chemical products belonging to this acaricide family for 10 years (approximately 40 generations). Two natural infestation trials, two artificial infestation trials (Stall tests) and two adult immersion tests were performed in two different stages in 2005 and 2015. Between 2002 and 2015, the bovine herd of this property was formed by approximately 450 animals from the Simmental breed that were divided into nine paddocks formed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. For the natural infestation experiments in 2005 and 2015, we selected nearly 70 animals naturally infested with ticks from the same herd that belonged to the "São Paulo" farm located in São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil. Field studies were performed in the same paddock (9). To evaluate anti-R. (B.) microplus activity in the artificially infested cattle (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, two experiments of each methodology were performed at CPPAR (the Center of Research in Animal Health located on the FCAV/UNESP campus in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil) in 2005 and 2015. R. (B.) microplus used in the artificial infestation, and adult immersion test experiments were obtained from paddocks 1-9 in 2005 and 2015 from the commercial farm where the field studies were performed. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that amitraz use in rotation with pyrethroids every 28 days for three consecutive years (2002-2004) previous to the beginning of the first trial (2005) was sufficient to generate a R. (B.) microplus strain resistant to amitraz. Moreover, using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, we verified that 40 generations of the tick species with no

  2. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  3. Effects of leafy spurge infestation on grassland birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.

  4. Infestation and Hydraulic Consequences of Induced Carbon Starvation1

    PubMed Central

    Anderegg, William R.L.; Callaway, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Drought impacts on forests, including widespread die-off, are likely to increase with future climate change, although the physiological responses of trees to lethal drought are poorly understood. In particular, in situ examinations of carbon starvation and its interactions with and effects on infestation and hydraulic vulnerability are largely lacking. In this study, we conducted a controlled, in situ, repeated defoliation experiment to induce carbon stress in isolated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) ramets. We monitored leaf morphology, leaves per branch, and multitissue carbohydrate concentrations during canopy defoliation. We examined the subsequent effects of defoliation and defoliation-induced carbon stress on vulnerability to insect/fungus infestation and hydraulic vulnerability the following year. Defoliated ramets flushed multiple canopies, which coincided with moderate drawdown of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves. Infestation frequency greatly increased and hydraulic conductivity decreased 1 year after defoliation. Despite incomplete carbohydrate drawdown from defoliation and relatively rapid carbohydrate recovery, suggesting considerable carbohydrate reserves in aspen, defoliation-induced carbon stress held significant consequences for vulnerability to mortality agents and hydraulic performance. Our results indicate that multiyear consequences of drought via feedbacks are likely important for understanding forests’ responses to drought and climate change over the coming decades. PMID:22665446

  5. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (P<0.05). Temperature changes also influenced T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestation, and a rise in temperature caused an increase in the number of T. leonina and Toxo. cati eggs. This study provides a better understanding of ascarid infestation among the captive Siberian tigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. PMID:27514888

  6. A new blue-tailed Monitor lizard (Reptilia, Squamata, Varanus) of the Varanus indicus group from Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Weijola, Valter; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Lindqvist, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Varanus from Mussau Island, north-east of New Guinea. The new species is a member of the Varanus indicus species group and is distinguished from all other members by both morphological and molecular genetic characters. It is the third species of Varanus reported from the Bismarck Archipelago and the first record of a yellow tongued member of the Varanus indicus species group from a remote oceanic island. The herpetofauna of Mussau Island has not been well studied but the discovery of this new species is in accordance with recent findings indicating that the island may harbor several unknown endemic vertebrates. The distribution of the closely related Varanus finschi is also discussed in the light of recent fieldwork and a review of old records. PMID:27103877

  7. Morphology and molecular analysis of Mizelleus indicus Jain () and M. longicirrus (Tripathi, ) Venkatanarasaiah & Kulkarni 1981 (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the freshwater shark Wallago attu in the Ganga River, India.

    PubMed

    Verma, C; Chaudhary, A; Singh, H S

    2016-09-01

    Species of the genus Mizelleus Jain (1957) have always been controversial regarding identification and validity. Members of this group of species differ from each other in the morphology of their hard parts, which can be misleading and subject to differing interpretation among scientists. Therefore, the main objective of present study was to identify Mizelleus worms by morphological methods and molecular analysis on the basis of 18S ribosomal DNA to clarify their phylogenetic status. In this study, specimens were isolated from the gill filaments of Wallago attu (Siluriformes) and studied morphologically. In accordance with morphological characters, the specimens were found to be Mizelleus indicus and Mizelleus longicirrus. Partial sequences of nuclear 18S rDNA of these two species were amplified. The results confirm the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic validation of M. indicus and M. longicirrus in India. PMID:26373618

  8. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds. PMID:12926775

  9. Linkage disequilibrium levels in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using medium and high density SNP chip data and different minor allele frequency distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD), the observed correlation between alleles at different loci in the genome, is a determinant parameter in many applications of molecular genetics. With the wider use of genomic technologies in animal breeding and animal genetics, it is worthwhile revising and improving the...

  10. Immune adaptive response induced by Bicotylophora trachinoti (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) infestation in pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, I S; Luvizzotto-Santos, R; Sampaio, L A N; Bianchini, A; Martínez, P E

    2006-09-01

    Fish have developed protective strategies against monogeneans through immunological responses. In this study, immune adaptive response to parasites was analysed in the pompano Trachinotus marginatus infested by Bicotylophora trachinoti. Hosts were pre-treated with formalin and after 10 days assigned to one of the following experimental treatments: (1) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti; (2) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti and experimentally re-infested by exposure to T. marginatus heavily infested with B. trachinoti. Samples were collected at 0, 15, and 30 days. Gills were dissected to check the presence of B. trachinoti. Blood was collected for haematological and biochemical assays. Spleen and head-kidney were dissected for phagocytosis assay. The spleen-somatic index was also calculated. Re-infested fish showed a faster and higher parasite infestation than infested ones. The parasite mean abundance at 15 days was 24.86+/-13.32 and 11.67+/-8.57 for re-infested and infested fish, respectively. In both groups, hosts showed an immune adaptive response to parasite infestation that was marked by an increased number of leukocytes. Also, phagocytosis (%) in spleen and head-kidney cells was stimulated after parasite infestation (92.50+/-3.73 and 66.00+/-9.54, respectively), becoming later depressed (77.39+/-6.69 and 53.23+/-9.14, respectively). These results support the hypothesis that monogenean infestation induces a biphasic response of the non-specific defence mechanisms in the pompano T. marginatus. This response is marked by an initial stimulation followed by a later depression of the non-specific defence mechanisms. PMID:16483796

  11. Arteriosclerosis in Seven Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bundza, Adam; Stevenson, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    Sporadic arteriosclerosis of the aorta, with or without pulmonary ossification, occurred in seven cattle from slaughter-houses and farms. Aortic walls were thickened, and had many white or yellow mineralized plaques on the intimal surface. The lungs did not collapse, were firm, gritty and crepitant on palpation, and sponge-like in appearance on cross section. Microscopically, the aortas had mineral deposits in the tunica intima and media, varying in size and structure and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Lungs in four cases contained multiple spicules of metaplastic bone within alveolar walls. This disease was associated with high doses of vitamin D3 in three cows and one heifer. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4. PMID:17422885

  12. Dairy Cattle: Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five primary factors affect breeding genetically improved dairy cattle: 1) identification, 2) pedigree, 3) performance recording, 4) artificial insemination, and 5) genetic evaluation systems (traditional and genomic). Genetic progress can be measured as increased efficiency (higher performance with...

  13. Exploring the use of an anti-tick vaccine as a tool for the integrated eradication of the cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Almazán, Consuelo; Allen, Andrew; Jory, Lauren; Yeater, Kathleen; Messenger, Matthew; Ellis, Dee; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2012-08-17

    Bovine babesiosis, also known as cattle fever, is a tick-borne protozoal disease foreign to the United States. It was eradicated by eliminating the vector species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, through the efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP), with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone (PQZ) in south Texas along the border with Mexico. Keeping the U.S. free of cattle fever ticks in a sustainable manner is a critical national agricultural biosecurity issue. The efficacy of a Bm86-based anti-tick vaccine commercialized outside of the U.S. was evaluated against a strain of R. annulatus originated from an outbreak in Texas. Vaccination controlled 99.9 and 91.4% of the ticks 8 weeks and 5.5 months after the initial vaccination, respectively. Computer modeling of habitat suitability within the PQZ typically at risk of re-infestation with R. annulatus from Mexico predicted that at a level of control greater than 40%, eradication would be maintained indefinitely. Efficacy and computer modeling data indicate that the integration of vaccination using a Bm86-based anti-tick vaccine with standard eradication practices within the northwestern half of the PQZ could incentivize producers to maintain cattle on pasture thereby avoiding the need to vacate infested premises. Implementing this epidemiologically proactive strategy offers the opportunity to prevent R. annulatus outbreaks in the U.S., which would represent a significant shift in the way the CFTEP operates. PMID:22687762

  14. Protective action of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a cattle pen trial.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Renato; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante

    2013-10-18

    The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is globally regarded as the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock, and the evolution of resistance to commercial acaricides among cattle tick populations is of great concern. The essential oil derived from Tagetes minuta may be efficacious against cattle tick infestation, and the results of a cattle pen trial using this essential oil for the control of ticks are reported here. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of four major components in the essential oil. These components represent more than 70% of the essential oil: limonene (6.96%), β-ocimene (5.11%), dihydrotagetone (54.10%) and tagetone (6.73%). The results of the cattle pen trial indicated significant differences among the average values of the analyzed biological parameters, including the number of ticks, the average weight of the ticks, the average egg weight per engorged female and larval viability. Treatment with the T. minuta essential oil prepared in this study promoted significant effects on all biological indicators analyzed. Based on the biological indicators, the essential oil showed 99.98% efficacy compared to the control group when used at a 20% concentration. The results obtained in this study suggest that the T. minuta essential oil is a potential R. microplus tick control agent and may be used to mitigate the economic losses caused by tick infestation. PMID:23778081

  15. Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

  16. Molecular cloning of peroxinectin gene and its expression in response to peptidoglycan and Vibrio harveyi in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Shanthi, Sathappan; Manju, Sivalingam; Rajakumaran, Perumal; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2014-12-01

    The cDNA sequence of peroxinectin was obtained from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus using RT-PCR and RACE. Fenneropenaeus indicus peroxinectin (Fi-Pxn) sequence has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2415 bp encoding a protein of 804 amino acids with 21 residues signal sequence. The mature protein has molecular mass of 89.8 kDa with an estimated pI of 8.6. Two putative integrin-binding motifs, RGD and KGD, were observed at the basic N-terminal and C-terminal part of the mature aminoacid sequence. Fi-Pxn nucleotide sequence comparison showed high homology to mud crab Scylla serrata (89%) and to various vertebrate and invertebrate species. qRT-PCR showed peroxinectin mRNA transcript in haemocytes of F. indicus increased at 6 h post injection of peptidoglycan and Vibrio harveyi. The Fi-Pxn was mainly expressed in the tissues of haemocytes and the heart. The moulting stage responses showed Fi-Pxn expression in premoult stages D0/1 and D0/2. PMID:25072536

  17. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P < 0.05) in the rainiest months than in the less rainy season, which resulted in 20% less predicted weight gain by growing steers (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sorghum grain was required to increase milk production and growth by 25 or 50% per animal, respectively, but this strategy was less profitable than current forage-only diets. Greater productivity of land and labor from higher stocking indicated greater net margins for beef production, but not for milk. This study suggested that more intensive beef production by judicious fertilization of grass-legume pastures and greater stocking density is the preferable strategy for owners of these cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing. PMID:14677847

  18. Effect of superstimulatory treatments on the expression of genes related to ovulatory capacity, oocyte competence and embryo development in cattle.

    PubMed

    Barros, Ciro M; Satrapa, Rafael A; Castilho, Anthony C S; Fontes, Patrícia K; Razza, Eduardo M; Ereno, Ronaldo L; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2012-01-01

    Multiple ovulation (superovulation) and embryo transfer has been used extensively in cattle. In the past decade, superstimulatory treatment protocols that synchronise follicle growth and ovulation, allowing for improved donor management and fixed-time AI (FTAI), have been developed for zebu (Bos indicus) and European (Bos taurus) breeds of cattle. There is evidence that additional stimulus with LH (through the administration of exogenous LH or equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG)) on the last day of the superstimulatory treatment protocol, called the 'P-36 protocol' for FTAI, can increase embryo yield compared with conventional protocols that are based on the detection of oestrus. However, inconsistent results with the use of hormones that stimulate LH receptors (LHR) have prompted further studies on the roles of LH and its receptors in ovulatory capacity (acquisition of LHR in granulosa cells), oocyte competence and embryo quality in superstimulated cattle. Recent experiments have shown that superstimulation with FSH increases mRNA expression of LHR and angiotensin AT(2) receptors in granulosa cells of follicles >8 mm in diameter. In addition, FSH decreases mRNA expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) in oocytes, but increases the expression of both in cumulus cells, without diminishing the capacity of cumulus-oocyte complexes to generate blastocysts. Although these results indicate that superstimulation with FSH is not detrimental to oocyte competence, supplementary studies are warranted to investigate the effects of superstimulation on embryo quality and viability. In addition, experiments comparing the cellular and/or molecular effects of adding eCG to the P-36 treatment protocol are being conducted to elucidate the effects of superstimulatory protocols on the yield of viable embryos. PMID:23244825

  19. Dual Origins of Dairy Cattle Farming – Evidence from a Comprehensive Survey of European Y-Chromosomal Variation

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Ginja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha; Pérez-Pardal, Lucía; Tresset, Anne; Stock, Frauke; Gama, Luis T.; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Nijman, Isaäc J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diversity patterns of livestock species are informative to the history of agriculture and indicate uniqueness of breeds as relevant for conservation. So far, most studies on cattle have focused on mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Previous studies of Y-chromosomal variation, with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine) haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes) and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu) haplogroup (Y3), as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. Methodology and Principal Findings Haplogroup data were collected for 2087 animals from 138 breeds. For 111 breeds, these were resolved further by genotyping microsatellites INRA189 (10 alleles) and BM861 (2 alleles). European cattle carry exclusively taurine haplotypes, with the zebu Y-chromosomes having appreciable frequencies in Southwest Asian populations. Y1 is predominant in northern and north-western Europe, but is also observed in several Iberian breeds, as well as in Southwest Asia. A single Y1 haplotype is predominant in north-central Europe and a single Y2 haplotype in central Europe. In contrast, we found both Y1 and Y2 haplotypes in Britain, the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Y-chromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. Conclusions We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea and Baltic coasts and the spotted, yellow or brown breeds from Switzerland, respectively. The present Y1-Y2 contrast in central Europe coincides with historic, linguistic, religious and cultural boundaries. PMID:21253012

  20. Analysis of a polymorphism in the DGAT1 gene in 14 cattle breeds through PCR-SSCP methods.

    PubMed

    Ripoli, M V; Corva, P; Giovambattista, G

    2006-06-01

    The diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. Recent work have evidenced a significant association between lysine at amino acid position 232 with elevated milk fat content, while an alanine at this position is associated with lowered milk fat content. The aim of the present work was to develop a simple and inexpensive PCR-SSCP assay in order to discriminate the CG/AA alleles in exon 8 of the DGAT1 gene. In addition, this method was used to analyze the polymorphism of the DGAT1 through PCR-SSCP methods in 14 populations of cattle from Argentine, Bolivia and Uruguay. The PCR primers were designed from GenBank reported sequences. In this study, we found three PCR-SSCP variants, which were denominated from "A" to "C". However, DNA sequencing analysis showed that "A" variant corresponded with the A allele, while both "B" and "C" observed pattern have the motif AA at positions 10,433-10,434 (K allele), being two alternative conformations of the same DNA sequence. Both variants were detected within each breed with the exception of Hereford, and the heterozygosity varied between 0.000 and 0.524. The gene frequency analysis evidenced significant differences among the studied breeds (F(ST) = 0.325, p = 0.000). European Bos taurus breeds, with the exception of Jersey breed, showed the lowest frequency of the K allele, while highest K allele frequencies were harboured by Bos indicus type cattle. In addition, unselected South American Creole cattle breeds and the synthetic Brangus breed had intermediate allele frequencies. PMID:16464654

  1. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to

  2. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties. PMID:21947308

  3. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  4. Climate, Cattle Rearing Systems and African Animal Trypanosomosis Risk in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Sangaré, Mamadou; Bengaly, Zakaria; Akoudjin, Massouroudin; Belem, Adrien M. G.; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2012-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan countries infested by tsetse flies, African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is considered as the main pathological constraint to cattle breeding. Africa has known a strong climatic change and its population was multiplied by four during the last half-century. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of production practices and climate on tsetse occurrence and abundance, and the associated prevalence of AAT in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Four sites were selected along a South-north transect of increasing aridity. The study combines parasitological and entomological surveys. For the parasitological aspect, blood samples were collected from 1,041 cattle selected through a stratified sampling procedure including location and livestock management system (long transhumance, short transhumance, sedentary). Parasitological and serological prevalence specific to livestock management systems show a gradual increase from the Sahelian to the Sudano-Guinean area (P<0.05). Livestock management system had also a significant impact on parasitological prevalence (P<0.05). Tsetse diversity, apparent densities and their infection rates overall decreased with aridity, from four species, an apparent density of 53.1 flies/trap/day and an infection rate of 13.7% to an absence at the northern edge of the transect, where the density and diversity of other biting flies were on the contrary highest (p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance The climatic pressure clearly had a negative impact on tsetse abundance and AAT risk. However, the persistency of tsetse habitats along the Mouhoun river loop maintains a high risk of cyclical transmission of T. vivax. Moreover, an “epidemic mechanical livestock trypanosomosis” cycle is likely to occur in the northern site, where trypanosomes are brought in by cattle transhuming from the tsetse infested area and are locally transmitted by mechanical vectors. In Burkina Faso, the impact of tsetse thus extends

  5. Relationships between beak condition, preening behavior and ectoparasite infestation levels in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Mullens, Bradley A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-09-01

    The effects of beak condition on ectoparasite populations and preening in laying hens were investigated. Beak-trimmed and beak-intact caged Hy-Line W-36 hens were infested with either chicken body lice or northern fowl mites using a 2×2 factorial design with 4 replicate cages (each containing 2 hens)/treatment: 1) BTL: (beak-trimmed lice-infested); 2) BTM: (beak-trimmed mite-infested); 3) BIL: (beak-intact lice-infested); and 4) BIM: (beak-intact mite-infested). Mite scores and lice numbers were estimated weekly. Hens were video recorded the wk before infestation and at wk 6 and 9 post-infestation. Time spent preening on 6 body areas and in total were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. There was a wk×beak condition interaction for lice loads, with BTL harboring approximately 17 times more lice than BIL from wk 7 to 10 post-infestation (P<0.0001). Beak condition affected mite loads (P<0.0001), with BTM having a higher mite score (3.8±0.26) than BIM (1.4±0.26). At peak infestation, BTL spent more total time preening (P=0.02, s±SE: 232.1±37.6) than prior to infestation (33.9±37.6) and directed their preening behavior towards the vent. In contrast, BIL (73.9±37.6), BTM (9.4±1.6), and BIM (8.6±1.6) did not increase total time spent preening over pre-infestation levels (103.6±37.6, 5.8±1.6, 6.7±1.6 respectively), although BTM did redirect their preening behavior toward the vent. This study confirmed previous studies showing that an intact beak is important for reducing ectoparasite infestations. Preening behavior increased in response to lice infestation, but only in beak-trimmed hens; preening behavior and louse load were correlated at peak infestation. In contrast, mite infestation did not lead to increased preening, and there was no correlation between preening and mite load. However, both lice- and mite-infested hens directed preening behavior predominantly towards the vent where these parasites are typically found. PMID:26155987

  6. Pathogenesis-related proteins protect extrafloral nectar from microbial infestation.

    PubMed

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Eilmus, Sascha; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales; Heil, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Plants in more than 300 genera produce extrafloral nectar (EFN) to attract carnivores as a means of indirect defence against herbivores. As EFN is secreted at nectaries that are not physically protected from the environment, and contains carbohydrates and amino acids, EFN must be protected from infestation by micro-organisms. We investigated the proteins and anti-microbial activity in the EFN of two Central American Acacia myrmecophytes (A. cornigera and A. hindsii) and two related non-myrmecophytes (A. farnesiana and Prosopis juliflora). Acacia myrmecophytes secrete EFN constitutively at high rates to nourish the ants inhabiting these plants as symbiotic mutualists, while non-myrmecophytes secrete EFN only in response to herbivore damage to attract non-symbiotic ants. Thus, the quality and anti-microbial protection of the EFN secreted by these two types of plants were likely to differ. Indeed, myrmecophyte EFN contained significantly more proteins than the EFN of non-myrmecophytes, and was protected effectively from microbial infestation. We found activity for three classes of pathogenesis-related (PR) enzymes: chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase. Chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases were significantly more active in myrmecophyte EFN, and chitinase at the concentrations found in myrmecophyte EFN significantly inhibited yeast growth. Of the 52 proteins found in A. cornigera EFN, 28 were annotated using nanoLC-MS/MS data, indicating that chitinases and glucanases contribute more than 50% of the total protein content in the EFN of this myrmecophyte. Our study demonstrates that PR enzymes play an important role in protecting EFN from microbial infestation. PMID:19143997

  7. Detecting insect infestation with poly3-hexylthiophenethin thin film sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerakoon, Kanchana; Li, Suiquing; Shu, Hungjen J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2009-05-01

    The financial losses and destruction of crops due to insect infestation in the United States are estimated by the USDA to exceed 20 billion dollars annually. Much of these losses could be avoided by having a sensor that could effectively identify the early stages of insect infestation. However, traditional detection methods are time consuming, require trained personnel, and are not sufficient for early detection. Several previous research studies showed that emitting organic volatile compounds is a defensive mechanism activated by some plant species after being attacked by herbivores and parasites. Corn, cotton, pine, Brussels sprouts when attacked by Beet army worm, spider mites, bark beetles and caterpillars respectively, emits different blends of plant volatiles including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate, with a concentration of about 50 ppm. Therefore, monitoring for these volatile compounds may enable on-site early detection of insect infestations. In this study, a chemical resistor sensor to detect plant volatiles was designed and fabricated. The sensor platform consists of micro electronically fabricated interdigitated electrodes. On to this platform, a poly3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) thin film was deposited, using a spin coater at 8000 rpm for 30 seconds. The sensor was tested and found to be sensitive to a variety of plant volatiles, including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate at room temperature. These vapors interacted with the P3HT film causing an increase in the resistance of the sensor by more than one order of magnitude

  8. Phthriasis palpebrarum can resemble tick larva infestation in an eyelid.

    PubMed

    Dağdelen, Serkan; Aykan, Umit; Cetinkaya, Kubilay

    2013-08-01

    The similarities of the larval and nymph stages of the tick and louse (Pthirus pubis) may lead to misdiagnosis in rare cases of infestation of the eyelashes. The most frequent manifestations of tick in the eye are conjunctivitis, uveitis, keratitis, and vasculitis. Tick inoculation of the skin can locally lead to formation of granuloma and abscess. More concerning is the potential systemic sequelae that can result from transmission of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. P. pubis can cause pruritic eyelid margins or unusual blepharoconjunctivitis. We present a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 4-year-old boy. PMID:23993722

  9. Unilateral cacosmia: a presentation of maxillary fungal infestation.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Sally E; Schelenz, Silke; Philpott, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of long-standing unilateral cacosmia in a healthy 67-year-old man due to maxillary fungal infestation. Treatment with septoplasty had been attempted 10 years prior but no further investigation or management undertaken and symptoms continued. Subsequent MRI scan revealed significant opacification of the left maxillary sinus. This was readily amenable to treatment by balloon sinuplasty. This yielded viscous grey mucus which grew Scedosporium apiospermum. The case highlights the need for careful investigation of olfactory symptoms, including blood tests to exclude systemic causes, endoscopy and imaging where indicated. PMID:23563684

  10. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B

    2008-01-01

    Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given. PMID:19265581

  11. Evaluation of two progestogen-based estrous synchronization protocols in yearling heifers of Bos indicus × Bos taurus breeding.

    PubMed

    McKinniss, E N; Esterman, R D; Woodall, S A; Austin, B R; Hersom, M J; Thatcher, W W; Yelich, J V

    2011-06-01

    Yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers (n = 410) from three locations, were synchronized with either the Select Synch/CIDR+timed-AI (SSC+TAI) or 7-11+timed-AI (7-11+TAI) treatments. On Day 0 of the experiment, within each location, heifers were equally distributed to treatments by reproductive tract score (RTS; Scale 1-5: 1 = immature, 5 = estrous cycling) and body condition score. The 7-11+TAI treatment consisted of melengestrol acetate (0.5 mg/head/d) from Days 0 to 7, with PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 7, GnRH (100 μg im) on Day 11, and PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 18. The SSC+TAI heifers received the same carrier supplement (without MGA) from Days 0 to 7, and on Day 11 they were given 100 μg GnRH and an intravaginal CIDR (containing 1.38 g progesterone). The CIDR were removed on Day 18, concurrent with 25 mg PGF(2α) im For both treatments, estrus was visually detected for 1 h twice daily (0700 and 1600 h) for 72 h after PGF(2α), with AI done 6 to 12 h after a detected estrus. Non-responders were timed-AI and received GnRH (100 μg im) 72 to 76 h post PGF(2α). The 7-11+TAI heifers had a greater (P < 0.05) estrous response (55.2 vs 41.9%), conception rate (47.0 vs 31.3%), and synchronized pregnancy rate (33.5 vs 24.8%) compared to SSC+TAI heifers, respectively. Heifers exhibiting estrus at 60 h (61.7%) had a greater (P < 0.05) conception rate compared to heifers that exhibited estrus at ≤ 36 (35.3%), 48 (31.6%), and 72 h (36.2%), which were similar (P > 0.05) to each other. As RTS increased from ≤ 2 to ≥ 3, estrous response, conception rate, synchronized pregnancy rate, and 30 d pregnancy rate all increased (P < 0.05), irrespective of synchronization treatment. In conclusion, the 7-11+TAI treatment yielded greater synchronized pregnancy rates compared to SSC+TAI treatment in yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers. PMID:21356555

  12. Exogenous progesterone enhances ova and embryo quality following superstimulation of the first follicular wave in Nelore (Bos indicus) donors.

    PubMed

    Nasser, L F; Sá Filho, M F; Reis, E L; Rezende, C R; Mapletoft, R J; Bó, G A; Baruselli, P S

    2011-07-15

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous progesterone on superovulatory response and ova/embryo quality in Bos indicus donors superstimulated during the first follicular wave (FFW). We hypothesized that exogenous progesterone during gonadotropin treatments would improve ova and embryo quality. In Experiment 1, 18 Nelore cows were randomly allocated to three groups: (1) FFW; (2) FFW plus a progesterone-releasing device (FFW+P4); and (3) control (E2+P4). Cows in the FFW groups were superstimulated beginning at synchronized ovulation, whereas cows in the control group were superstimulated after synchronization of follicular wave emergence with estradiol plus progesterone (E2+P4). There were no differences in mean (± SD) numbers of transferable embryos between FFW+P4 (8.0 ± 4.5) and control (6.7 ± 4.8) groups, but both were higher (P = 0.006) than the FFW group (0.2 ± 0.4). In Experiment 2, FFW and FFW+P4 were compared in 20 Nelore donors; exogenous progesterone increased the number of transferable embryos (3.9 ± 3.4 vs. 1.3 ± 4.1, P = 0.003). In Experiment 3, FFW and FFW+P4 were compared in 10 Nelore donors except that cows were slaughtered 12 h after pLH (Lutropin-V(®), Bioniche Animal Health, Belleville, ON, Canada) treatment. More mature cumulus oocyte complex (COC) (expanded cumulus cell layers) were collected in the FFW+P4 group than in the FFW group (21.8 ± 13.1 vs. 10.8±14.7; P = 0.003). In summary, superovulatory response was satisfactory when FSH (Folltropin-V(®), Bioniche Animal Health) treatment was initiated at emergence of the first follicular wave in Nelore (Bos indicus) donors, and the hypothesis that administration of exogenous progesterone during the treatment will improve oocyte and embryo quality was supported. PMID:21496903

  13. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: I. Reproductive, maternal, and size traits.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Cows (n = 116) sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls and from Hereford dams were evaluated (when bred to the same breed of bull) for reproductive performance and cow weight and height and their calves (n = 1,161) were evaluated for birth and weaning weight in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). Cows were born from 1982 to 1985 and their calves were born from 1985 to 1999. Crossbred cows sired by Angus had a higher (P < 0.10) occurrence of calving difficulty than Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman crossbreds. Calves from Gir crossbreds had lighter (P < 0.10) birth weight (34.8 kg) than calves from Angus and Red Brahman crossbreds (39.4 and 37.2 kg). Calves from Angus crossbreds cows had lighter (P < 0.001) weaning weight (227.0 kg) than calves from Bos indicus crossbreds. Cows sired by Angus were lighter (P < 0.10) as mature cows (520.69 kg) than Gray Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds (585.6, 571.9, and 577.6 kg, respectively). They also had smaller (P < 0.05) hip height (124.7 cm) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Mature cows sired by Indu-Brazil had greater (P < 0.05) hip height (138.3 cm) than Gir crossbreds (133.8 cm). Differences among sire breeds were noted within cow age categories (2 through 14 yr of age) for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, calf survival rate (as a trait of cow), and calf crop weaned. Angus and Indu-Brazil crossbred cows were lower (P < or = 0.10) than Gir and Nellore crossbreds for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, and(or) calf crop weaned at some, but not all, ages. Indu-Brazil crossbreds had a lower (P < or = 0.10) calf survival rate than most other breed groups at ages 11 to 14 yr. The results of this study indicate that Nellore and Gir crossbreds, but not Indu-Brazil, could perform as well or better than breeds traditionally used in cross-breeding programs of U.S. cow-calf production. PMID:11424679

  14. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... age; (iii) Steers and spayed heifers; (iv) Cattle exported directly to slaughter in a country that...

  15. Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) as a host for the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, I L

    1977-04-01

    The rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) is more resistant to the cattle tick (Boophlilus microplus) than are Britsh breed cattle in Papua New Guinea. The average yield of replete female ticks from deer was 1.6% (0.3-3.2%) as compared to 11.2% (3.4-23.1%) from calves. Ticks from deer were more slender, lighter in weight and produced fewer eggs (mean 1,800) than did ticks from calves (mean 2,200) but the deer was shown to be an effective host. A cervid population can maintain a tick population in the absence of bovine hosts thus presenting an important factor in eradication programs. Nutritional stress appears to result in a higher seasonal prevalence of infestation amongst males and non-pregnant females. PMID:864854

  16. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute Babesia bovis infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifying additional methods to utilize Bm86 to reduce R. microplus infestation and babesia transmission. Additionally, the role played by Bm86 in R. microplus fitness during B. bovis infection is unknown. Results Here we describe in two independent experiments that RNA interference-mediated silencing of Bm86 decreased the fitness of R. microplus females fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Notably, Bm86 silencing decreased the number and survival of engorged females, and decreased the weight of egg masses. However, gene silencing had no significant effect on the efficiency of transovarial transmission of B. bovis from surviving female ticks to their larval offspring. The results also show that Bm86 is expressed, in addition to gut cells, in larvae, nymphs, adult males and ovaries of partially engorged adult R. microplus females, and its expression was significantly down-regulated in ovaries of ticks fed on B. bovis-infected cattle. Conclusion The R. microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role during tick feeding and after repletion during blood digestion in ticks fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Therefore, the data indirectly support the rationale for using Bm86-based vaccines, perhaps in combination with acaricides, to control tick infestation particularly in B. bovis endemic areas. PMID:21092112

  17. Detection of greenbug infestation on wheat using ground-based radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiming

    Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based radiometry. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total

  18. Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated. Results We investigated the copy number (CN) of the bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY in a total of 460 bulls from 15 breeds using a quantitative PCR approach. We observed CNVs for both gene families within and between cattle breeds. The median copy number (MCN) of HSFY among all bulls was 197, ranging from 21 to 308. The MCN of ZNF280BY was 236, varying from 28 to 380. Furthermore, bulls in the Bos taurus (BTA) lineage had a significantly higher MCN (202) of HSFY than bulls in the Bos indicus (BIN) lineage (178), while taurine bulls had a significantly lower MCN (231) of ZNF280BY than indicine bulls (284). In addition, the CN of ZNF280BY was positively correlated to that of HSFY on the BTAY. Association analysis revealed that the CNVs of both HSFY and ZNF280BY were correlated negatively with testis size, while positively with sire conception rate. Conclusion The bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families have extensively expanded on the Y chromosome during evolution. The CN of both gene families varies significantly among individuals and cattle breeds. These variations were associated with testis size and bull fertility in Holstein, suggesting that the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY may serve as valuable makers for male fertility selection in cattle. PMID:24507556

  19. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  20. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  1. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  2. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  4. Scabies infestation: the effect of intervention by public health education.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, H. F.; Thorne, C. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of scabies in an infested village; to educate the residents on self-treatment and prevention by the use of 5% monosulfiram soap; to evaluate the short term effectiveness of this intervention by determining, 2 weeks later, the compliance to self-treatment and prevention; and to determine the prevalence rate on the second visit. In 59 households (96.7% of the village) containing 313 persons, an educational session was held and a leaflet distributed on the use and availability of the soap. Thirteen persons (4.2%) from eight households (13.6%) had scabies. After 2 weeks, 7 persons (2.2%) (2 persisting and 5 new cases) from 5 households (8.5%) were infested. Thus a cure rate of 85% was obtained though the prevalence rate showed no statistically significant difference. Among the under 15 year olds, the numbers infected decreased from 10 to 3 while among the over 15 years olds, the numbers infected increased from 3 to 4, neither reading significance at the 5% level. PMID:2249723

  5. Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylura strongylura

    PubMed Central

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

  6. Associations of wheat with pea can reduce aphid infestations.

    PubMed

    Lopes, T; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2015-06-01

    Increasing plant diversity within crops can be beneficial for pest control. In this field study, the effects of two wheat and pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) on aphid populations were compared with pure stands of both crops by observations on tillers and plants. Pea was more susceptible to infestations than wheat. As expected, the density of aphid colonies was significantly higher in pure stands during the main occurrence periods, compared with associations. Additionally, flying beneficials, such as not only aphidophagous adult ladybirds but also parasitoid, hoverfly and lacewing species that feed on aphids at the larval stage, were monitored using yellow pan traps. At specific times of the sampling season, ladybirds and hoverflies were significantly more abundant in the pure stand of pea and wheat, respectively, compared with associations. Few parasitoids and lacewings were trapped. This study showed that increasing plant diversity within crops by associating cultivated species can reduce aphid infestations, since host plants are more difficult to locate. However, additional methods are needed to attract more efficiently adult beneficials into wheat and pea associations. PMID:26013274

  7. Epidemiology of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in Malaysian school children.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1981-05-01

    A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:7258487

  8. Current Status of Mimosa pigra L. Infestation in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Asyraf; Crawley, Micheal J.

    2011-01-01

    The status and distribution of Mimosa pigra L., a semi-aquatic invasive species in Peninsular Malaysia, were continuously assessed between 2004 and 2007. This assessment investigated its population stand density and related weed management activities. In total, 106 sites of 6 main habitat types i.e., construction site (CS), dam/ reservoir (DM), forest reserve (FR), plantation (PL), river bank/waterway (RB) and roadside (RD) were assessed, and 55 sites were recorded with M. pigra populations. A CS is the most likely habitat to be infested with M. pigra (16 out of 18 assessed sites have this weed), whereas none of the FR visited were found to harbour M. pigra. In terms of population stand density, 41 populations were in the low range of stand density (individual plant of ≤5 m−2), compared to only 9 populations in the high range of stand density (individual plant of >10 m−2). In general, the current impact of M. pigra infestation on natural habitats is relatively low, as its distribution is only confined to disturbed areas. However, continuous monitoring of this weed species is highly recommended, especially in the riparian zone and wetland habitats. PMID:24575208

  9. Social behaviour of cattle in tropical silvopastoral and monoculture systems.

    PubMed

    Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F

    2016-05-01

    Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the

  10. "Ormilo disease" a disorder of zebu cattle in Tanzania: bovine cerebral theileriosis or new protozoan disease?

    PubMed

    Catalano, Deborah; Biasibetti, Elena; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    "Ormilo" disease is a neurological disorder of cattle described by Maasai herders in Tanzania. It is attributed to infection by Theileria species, although no detailed data are available in the literature. The authors describe the macroscopical and histological changes observed in 30 brains of indigenous short-horn zebu cattle from Northern Tanzania, aged 2-9 years, with the characteristic neurological signs of "Ormilo". Moreover, the ultrastructural details observed in 14 selected brain samples were reported. Areas of congestion and hemorrhages, associated with the obstruction of the cerebral vessels with large numbers of parasitized lymphoid cells, were observed. Electron microscopy showed the presence of intralymphocytic parasites morphologically comparable to flagellated protozoa, not previously described in the lymphoid cells of cattle, but only reported during the sexual stages within the vector. Theileria taurotragi was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) in nine samples. The authors hypothesize that the parasite detected by electron microscopy could be a strain of a Theileria endemic to this region till now not investigated, having an intralymphocytic phase and being associated with other Theileria spp. infestation. Further studies are needed to better understand the etiology of "Ormilo" disease and to characterize the morphology of the observed parasite, clarifying its role in the disease in Tanzania. PMID:25851929

  11. Bacillus indicus sp. nov., an arsenic-resistant bacterium isolated from an aquifer in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Suresh, K; Prabagaran, S R; Sengupta, S; Shivaji, S

    2004-07-01

    Strain Sd/3T (=MTCC 4374T=DSM 15820T), an arsenic-resistant bacterium, was isolated from a sand sample obtained from an arsenic-contaminated aquifer in Chakdah district in West Bengal, India (23 degrees 3' N 88 degrees 35' E). The bacterium was Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-motile, endospore-forming and yellowish-orange pigmented. It possessed all the characteristics that conform to the genus Bacillus, such as it had A4beta murein type (L-orn-D-Asp) peptidoglycan variant, MK-7 as the major menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty acids. Based on its chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain Sd/3T was identified as a species of the genus Bacillus. It exhibited maximum similarity (95%) at the 16S rRNA gene level with Bacillus cohnii; however, DNA-DNA similarity with B. cohnii was 60.7%. Strain Sd/3T also exhibited a number of phenotypic differences from B. cohnii (DSM 6307T). These data suggest that Sd/3T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus. The name Bacillus indicus sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:15280316

  12. Estimating the population density of the Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) in a selectively logged forest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rayan, D Mark; Mohamad, Shariff Wan; Dorward, Leejiah; Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Christopher, Wong Chai Thiam; Traeholt, Carl; Magintan, David

    2012-12-01

    The endangered Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, forest fragmentation and increased hunting pressure. Conservation planning for this species, however, is hampered by a severe paucity of information on its ecology and population status. We present the first Asian tapir population density estimate from a camera trapping study targeting tigers in a selectively logged forest within Peninsular Malaysia using a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. With a trap effort of 2496 nights, 17 individuals were identified corresponding to a density (standard error) estimate of 9.49 (2.55) adult tapirs/100 km(2) . Although our results include several caveats, we believe that our density estimate still serves as an important baseline to facilitate the monitoring of tapir population trends in Peninsular Malaysia. Our study also highlights the potential of extracting vital ecological and population information for other cryptic individually identifiable animals from tiger-centric studies, especially with the use of a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. PMID:23253368

  13. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of heat killed Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) on various human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Menaga; In, Lionel L A; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ahmed, Niyaz; Nagoor, Noor Hasima

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is a non-pathogenic mycobacterium, which has been tested on several cancer types like lung and bladder where tumour regression and complete recovery was observed. In discovering the potential cytotoxic elements, a preliminary test was carried out using four different fractions consisting of live bacteria, culture supernatant, heat killed bacteria and heat killed culture supernatant of MIP against two human cancer cells A549 and CaSki by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was investigated in MCF-7 and ORL-115 cancer cells by poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation assays. Among four MIP fractions, only heat killed MIP fraction (HKB) showed significant cytotoxicity in various cancer cells with inhibitory concentration, IC50 in the range 5.6–35.0 μl/(1.0 × 106 MIP cells/ml), while cytotoxicity effects were not observed in the remaining fractions. HKB did not show cytotoxic effects on non-cancerous cells contrary to cancerous cells, suggesting its safe usage and ability to differentially recognize between these cells. Evaluation on PARP assay further suggested that cytotoxicity in cancer cells were potentially induced via caspase-mediated apoptosis. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of MIP HKB have indicated that this fraction can be a good candidate to further identify effective anti-cancer agents. PMID:26817684

  14. Inhibition of Cancer Cell Proliferation and Antiradical Effects of Decoction, Hydroalcoholic Extract, and Principal Constituents of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.

    PubMed

    Statti, Giancarlo; Marrelli, Mariangela; Conforti, Filomena; Spagnoletti, Antonella; Tacchini, Massimo; Fimognari, Carmela; Brognara, Eleonora; Gambari, Roberto; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra

    2015-06-01

    Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.) is widely used in Indian traditional medicine. In the present work, we explored the effects of decoction, traditional Ayurvedic preparation, and hydroalcoholic extract, a phytocomplex more traditionally studied and commercialized as food supplement in western medicine, from the roots as possible source of chemicals with new functional potential linked to their nutritional uses. The antiproliferative and antioxidant properties were assayed. To test antiproliferative affects, different cancer cell lines, growing both as monolayers (CaCo2, MCF-7, A549, K562, MDA-MB-231, Jurkat, HepG2, and LoVo) and in suspension (K562 and Jurkat) were used. The decoction showed strong activity on HepG2 cells, while the hydroalcoholic extracts were active on HepG2, LoVo, MCF-7, K562, and Jurkat cell lines. Weak inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was observed for the principal constituents of the preparations: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that were tested alone. The antiradical activity was tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt tests and inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Interesting result has also been obtained for hydroalcoholic extract regarding genoprotective potential (58.79% of inhibition at 37.5 µg/mL). PMID:25753739

  15. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution. PMID:27589726

  16. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  17. Cattle are eating the forest

    SciTech Connect

    DeWalt, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)

  18. Exploring cattle movements in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Ensoy, Chellafe; Faes, Christel; Welby, Sarah; Van der Stede, Yves; Aerts, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Movement of animals from one farm to another is a potential risk and can lead to the spreading of livestock diseases. Therefore, in order to implement effective control measures, it is important to understand the movement network in a given area. Using the SANITEL data from 2005 to 2009, around 2 million cattle movements in Belgium were traced. Exploratory analysis revealed different spatial structures for the movement of different cattle types: fattening calves are mostly moved to the Antwerp region, adult cattle are moved to different parts in Belgium. Based on these differences, movement of cattle would more likely cause a spread of disease to a larger number of areas in Belgium as compared to the fattening calves. A closer inspection of the spatial and temporal patterns of cattle movement using a weighted negative binomial model, revealed a significant short-distance movement of bovine which could be an important factor contributing to the local spreading of a disease. The model however revealed hot spot areas of movement in Belgium; four areas in the Walloon region (Luxembourg, Hainaut, Namur and Liege) were found as hot spot areas while East and West Flanders are important "receivers" of movement. This implies that an introduction of a disease to these Walloon regions could result in a spread toward the East and West Flanders regions, as what happened in the case of Bluetongue BTV-8 outbreak in 2006. The temporal component in the model also revealed a linear trend and short- and long-term seasonality in the cattle movement with a peak around spring and autumn. The result of this explorative analysis enabled the identification of "hot spots" in time and space which is important in enhancing any existing monitoring and surveillance system. PMID:24881483

  19. Generalised glycogenosis in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, B M; Healy, P J; Fraser, I R; Nieper, R E; Whittle, R J; Sewell, C A

    1981-05-01

    Generalised glycogenosis was diagnosed in Brahman cattle on 4 Queensland properties on the basis of clinical observations and pathological and biochemical findings. The disease presented as a problem of ill-thrift and poor growth rate in calves which eventually showed nervous signs. Histologically there was vacuolation in the cells of the central nervous system, heart and muscular tissues. Biochemical assay of liver and blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a deficiency of alpha-glucosidase. Parents of affected calves had approximately half the alpha-glucosidase activity of that found in normal cattle. PMID:6945845

  20. Cattle: disease risks at turnout.

    PubMed

    2016-04-30

    This article is prepared by the Cattle Expert Group and is intended to highlight seasonal issues related to turnout. The Cattle Expert Group is a virtual network of veterinary surveillance expertise in Great Britain, led by APHA. It is one of six Species Expert Groups that form part of the APHA Surveillance Intelligence Unit, which identifies and characterises potential New and Re-emerging Threats (NRTs) and other risks to livestock and wildlife in Great Britain. These are then considered by the Veterinary Risk Group for appropriate mitigation. PMID:27127093

  1. Sudden death of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Glock, R D; DeGroot, B D

    1998-01-01

    Sudden deaths or the sudden death syndrome are perceived as major concerns in cattle feedlots because most of these deaths occur in cattle near market weight. Etiology and preventive measures are poorly defined. The current literature indicates that sudden deaths are associated most commonly with digestive upsets. Death is thought to be the result of interactions between factors including acidosis, bloat, and endotoxemia. Trauma, peracute interstitial pneumonia, and other identifiable events are specifically defined but relatively uncommon. Enterotoxemia is of questionable significance as a cause of sudden deaths. PMID:9464913

  2. Infestation of wild and ornamental non-crop fruits by Drosophila suzukii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii is a pest of small fruits and cherries, and has also been noted to infest a variety of wild, ornamental, and uncultivated hosts. Identifying alternative hosts is critical for pest management. Research objectives were to: 1) survey fruits in fields for natural infestation of D. ...

  3. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  4. Detection of Mango Infested with Fruit Fly Eggs and Larvae by Infrared Imaging and Discriminant Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation causes significant loss of perishable products around the world and is an economic threat to growers, processors, and exporters. A rapid, economical, and non-destructive technique for detection of fruit fly infestation is reported based on hyperspectral imaging and discriminant...

  5. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the US. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export fruit hosts of this insect from infested countries to non-infested countries where it might...

  6. Evaluating airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains by far the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable band...

  7. Using airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains, by far, the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable ba...

  8. Gas chromatography for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small ...

  9. Signature chemicals for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. Ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small sa...

  10. Head lice predictors and infestation dynamics among primary school children in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Birkemoe, Tone; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Soleng, Arnulf; Næss, Øyvind; Rukke, Bjørn Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health providers need to know which measures to take and children to prioritize in order to decrease costs associated with head lice infestations. Objective. Our aim was to determine the most important predictors for head lice and identify the major drivers of an infestation outbreak in a low-prevalence area. Methods. The study was based on three datasets of head lice prevalence (retrospective, point prevalence and prospective approach) from primary school children (ages 6–12) at 12 schools in Oslo, Norway. The tested predictors were siblings with lice, individual and household characteristics as well as class and school affiliation. Self-reported monthly incidences (prospective approach) of head lice were used to evaluate infestation dynamics. Results. Infested siblings strongly increased the odds of head lice infestation of school children (odds ratio 36, 26 and 7 in the three datasets) whereas having short hair halved the odds. Household characteristics were of minor importance, and class affiliation proved more important than school affiliation. Having head lice in one school term increased the odds of an infestation in the next, but this effect diminished over time. About 97% of all self-reported infestations were noted in two consecutive months or less. Conclusions. With the exception of hair length, we have found that individual and household characteristics are of minor importance to predict head lice infestations in a low-prevalence country and that unnoticed transmissions in school classes and families are likely to be the major driver upon outbreaks. PMID:26511728

  11. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  12. Effects of Intensive Forest Management Practices on Insect Infestation Levels and Loblolly Pine Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, J.T.; Berisford, C.W.

    2000-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intensive management practices and insect infestation, maximum growth potential studies of loblolly pine over four years using different levels of cultural treatments. Results indicate tree fertilization can increase coneworm infestation and demonstrated that tip moth management can improve initial tree growth.

  13. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  14. Tick capillary feeding for the study of proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions as potential antigens for the control of tick infestation and pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks represent a significant health risk to animals and humans due to the variety of pathogens they can transmit during feeding. The traditional use of chemicals to control ticks has serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and environmental contamination with chemical residues. Vaccination with the tick midgut antigen BM86 was shown to be a good alternative for cattle tick control. However, results vary considerably between tick species and geographic location. Therefore, new antigens are required for the development of vaccines controlling both tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission. Tick proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions may provide good candidate protective antigens for these vaccines, but appropriate screening procedures are needed to select the best candidates. Methods In this study, we selected proteins involved in tick-Anaplasma (Subolesin and SILK) and tick-Babesia (TROSPA) interactions and used in vitro capillary feeding to characterize their potential as antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations and infection with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. Purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant SUB, SILK and TROSPA and added to uninfected or infected bovine blood to capillary-feed female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Tick weight, oviposition and pathogen DNA levels were determined in treated and control ticks. Results The specificity of purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against tick recombinant proteins was confirmed by Western blot and against native proteins in tick cell lines and tick tissues using immunofluorescence. Capillary-fed ticks ingested antibodies added to the blood meal and the effect of these antibodies on tick weight and oviposition was shown. However, no effect was observed on pathogen DNA levels. Conclusions These results highlighted the advantages and some of the disadvantages of in vitro tick capillary

  15. Seasonal changes in hemograms and Theileria orientalis infection rates among Holstein cattle pastured in the mountains in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Park, Jinho

    2016-05-01

    In the current study, we compared seasonal changes in complete blood counts (CBCs) and rates of infection with a tick-borne pathogen between Holstein cattle housed indoors and those maintained outside on pasture. There were differences in white blood cell (WBC) parameters, but the changes were not associated with seasons or the housing type. Analysis of red blood cell (RBC) parameters showed lower values in August and November versus March, and in the cattle maintained on pasture versus the housed cattle. In comparison with the RBC count of the housed cattle in March (10.1M/μL), the RBC counts of the pastured cattle were significantly lower in August (7.8M/μL; p<0.01) and November (7.5M/μL; p<0.01). The hematocrit (HCT) also showed a decrease in March (33.5%), August (30.0%, p<0.01) and November (28.5%, p<0.01). According to PCR analysis, the Theileria infection rate among the pastured cattle in March was only 11%, but this rate increased to 22% and 60% in August and November, respectively. The RBC count (7.4M/μL) and HCT (27.7%) values in Theileria-positive pastured cattle in November showed a dramatic decrease compared to those of cattle examined in March. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Theileria isolates correspond to T. orientalis. These results suggest that a remarkable increase in tick infestation in mountainous areas in the summer may cause increased rates of infection with T. orientalis, leading to significant changes in the RBC profile after grazing. Therefore, these hematological changes may be associated with T. orientalis infection caused by tick-biting; thus, additional studies on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis are needed. PMID:27094144

  16. Comparison of larkspur alkaloid extract and lithium chloride in maintaining cattle aversion to larkspur in the field.

    PubMed

    Ralphs, M H; Olsen, J D

    1992-04-01

    Lithium chloride (LiCl) and larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) alkaloid extract were compared in their effect as an emetic to create taste aversions to fresh larkspur. They were further compared in the field to determine whether the indigenous larkspur alkaloids were more effective in maintaining the aversion when conditioned cattle were subjected to the social pressure (social facilitation) of control cattle eating larkspur. Taste aversions were produced in two groups of 1-yr-old cattle by offering fresh larkspur and then gavaging with either LiCl at 200 mg/kg of BW or larkspur alkaloid extract at 1.1 to 1.6 mL/kg of BW. The third group (control) was gavaged with water. The alkaloid group was slower to form an aversion than the lithium group, requiring four doses compared with two doses. All groups were then taken to larkspur-infested rangeland to test the aversion in the field. In the first field trial in which groups grazed separately, both aversion-induced groups generally abstained from eating larkspur. In the second trial in which all groups grazed together, both aversion-induced groups consumed less than half as much larkspur as the controls, but neither group abstained completely. Larkspur alkaloids did not maintain the aversion to larkspur to a greater degree than did LiCl when aversion-induced cattle were subjected to social facilitation. PMID:1316344

  17. Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ponson, Laura; Andersson, Frédéric; El-Hage, Wissam

    2015-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown. Case presentation Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Conclusion Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA. PMID:25673993

  18. Effects of the Briarosaccus callosus infestation on the commercial golden king crab Lithodes aequispina.

    PubMed

    Shukalyuk, Andrey I; Isaeva, Valeria V; Pushchin, Igor I; Dolganov, Sergey M

    2005-12-01

    Commercial crab populations off the Kamchatka coasts are infested to a considerable degree by the rhizocephalan parasite Briarosaccus callosus: of 769 Lithodes aequispina males examined, 43 (5.7%) were parasitized. Infestations result in the feminization of the crabs, a significant decrease in the cheliped length, and a significant decrease in the carapace length and width. We suggest that commercial selection of healthy males, and the returning of unsuitable crabs, including infested ones, back into the sea, results in an increase of the proportion of infested crabs in the population, their elimination from reproduction, and, eventually, the gradual degradation of a whole population. To minimize as far as possible the negative effects of commercial crab harvesting, all infested crab specimens caught must be destroyed, either aboard or elsewhere, instead of throwing them back into the sea. PMID:16539043

  19. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  20. The relationship between parasite counts, lesions, antibody titres and daily weight gains in Psoroptes ovis infested cattle.

    PubMed

    Lonneux, J F; Nguyen, T Q; Detry, J; Farnir, F; Losson, B J

    1998-03-31

    Psoroptes ovis counts, extent of lesions (clinical index: ClinI), daily weight gains (DWGs) and anti-P. cuniculi antibody titres in ELISA were recorded during seven therapeutic field trials. Relationship between these different data were studied. The differences between the mean DWG of treated and untreated control animals of the different trials ranged from 39 to 1206 g/day. Data were pooled for statistical analysis and the influence of trial conditions (management of the herd, farm, treatment) was extracted from each individual data by subtracting, from the DWG of each animal, the mean DWG of its trial. Such data were called daily weight gain over the trial mean (DWG/TM). Multiple regression of DWG/TM, calculated over the period between the clinical examinations in control animals (n = 40), on clinical indices and sex demonstrated a significant DWG/TM reduction per percentage of affected body surface according to the following equation: DWG/TM (in g/day)= 135-22 ClinI(0)-13 ClinI(28/35)-70 (if male) (R2 adjusted = 0.39), where ClinI(0) and ClinI(28/35) are the clinical indices recorded respectively at the beginning (day 0) and at the end (day 28 or 35) of the experimental period during which the animals were left untreated. A nonsignificant relationship (R2 adjusted = 0.07) was found between the antibody titres on day 28 or 35 and the individual DWG/TM This would suggest that serology could be used to estimate the prevalence of the disease on a local or national basis but not to calculate its economic impact. PMID:9653998

  1. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations. PMID:25384155

  2. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae)*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao

    2011-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13–22 years in Xi’an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16–18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13–15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (χ 2=60.6, P<0.001). Specifically, the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R 2=0.57, moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1, severe infestation OR=10.3). It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence. PMID:22135149

  3. Bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the greater Yellowstone area during four postfire years. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, L.A.; Amman, G.D.; Vandygriff, J.C.; Oakes, R.D.; Munson, A.S.

    1996-03-01

    Surveys of bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the Greater Yellowstone Area were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effect of delayed tree mortality on mosaics of fire-killed and green tree stands, the relationship between fire injury and infestation, but both types of mortality greatly altered the mosaics immediately apparent after the 1988 fires. The high level of infestation suggests that insects built up in fire-injured trees and then caused increased infestation of uninjured trees.

  4. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) when heavily infested by Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000) copepodids.

    PubMed

    González, Margarita P; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Marín, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    The year-round presence of ovigerous females of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi in the fish farms of southern Chile results in a continuous source of the copepodid (infestive) stage of this louse. The short generation time in spring-summer could lead to high abundances of this copepodid, potentially leading to high infestation levels for fish. Knowing how heavy lice infestations affect Salmo salar can help determine how to time antiparasitic treatments so as to both minimize the treatment impact and reduce lice infestation levels for fish. This study aimed to describe the effects of high infestations of the copepodid stage of C. rogercresseyi on the physiology of S. salar. Two groups of S. salar were used: an infested group (75 copepodids per fish) and a control group (not infested). Sixty-five days after the first infestation, the infested fish group was re-infested at an infestation pressure of 200 copepodids per fish. Sampling was done prior to and following the second infestation, at 56 and 67 days (the latter 2 days following the second infestation). Several physiological variables were measured: cortisol (primary stress response) and glucose, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides, lactate, osmolality levels, and number and diameter of skin mucous cells (secondary stress responses). The plasma cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride levels were altered in the heavily infested fish, as was the diameter of skin mucous cells. These results suggest that heavy infestations of C. rogercresseyi lead to an acute stress response, metabolic reorganization, and increased mucus production in S. salar under heavy infestation conditions. PMID:26394864

  5. Molecular value predictions: associations with beef quality, carcass, production, behavior, and efficiency phenotypes in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Pethick, D W; Robinson, D L

    2013-12-01

    Data from 2 previously published experiments, New South Wales (NSW; n = 161) and Western Australia (WA; n = 135), were used to test molecular value predictions (MVP), generated from commercially available gene markers, on economically important traits of Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle. Favorable tenderness MVP scores were associated with reduced shear force values of strip loin (LM) steaks aged 7 d from Achilles-hung carcasses (P ≤ 0.06), as well as steaks aged 1 (P ≤ 0.08) or 7 d (P ≤ 0.07) from carcasses hung from the pelvis (tenderstretch). Favorable tenderness MVP scores were also associated with improved consumer tenderness ratings for strip loin steaks aged 7 d and either Achilles hung (P ≤ 0.006) or tenderstretched (P ≤ 0.07). Similar results were observed in NSW for rump (top butt; gluteus medius) steaks, with favorable tenderness MVP scores associated with more tender (P = 0.006) and acceptable (P = 0.008) beef. Favorable marbling MVP scores were associated with improved (P ≤ 0.021) marbling scores and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the NSW experiment, despite low variation in marbling in the Brahman cattle. For the WA experiment, however, there were no (P ≥ 0.71) relationships between marbling MVP and marbling scores or IMF content. Although residual (net) feed intake (RFI) was not associated (P = 0.63) with the RFI (feed efficiency) MVP, the RFI MVP was adversely associated with LM tenderness and acceptability of 7-d-aged Achilles-hung carcasses in NSW (P ≤ 0.031) and WA (P ≤ 0.037). Some other relationships and trends were noted between the MVP and the other traits, but few reached statistical significance, and none were evident in both experiments. Results from this study provide evidence to support the use of the tenderness MVP. The value of the marbling MVP, which was associated with marbling in only 1 herd, warrants further evaluation; however, there appears to be no evidence to support use of the RFI MVP in Brahman cattle. PMID

  6. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  7. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  8. Chlorate poisoning in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Blakley, Barry R.; Fraser, Lorrie M.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    A disease syndrome characterized by hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, methemoglobinuria, and death was observed in a herd of purebred Limousin beef cattle grazing on pasture in November in Alberta. Improper disposal of the nonselective herbicide, sodium chlorate, was identified as the causal agent. Highly variable blood methemoglobin levels reflected differences in herbicide consumption. PMID:17987970

  9. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    PubMed Central

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Wilamowski, Amos; Schnur, Heather; Akad, Fouad; Naftali, Modi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO) is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis) and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus) botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma) larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation. PMID:24455366

  10. Optimum survival strategies against zombie infestations - a population dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    We model a zombie infestation by three coupled ODEs that jointly describe the time evolution of three populations: regular humans, zombies, and survivors (humans that have survived at least one zombie encounter). This can be generalized to take into account more levels of expertise and/or skill degradation. We compute the fixed points, and stability thereof, that correspond to one of three possible outcomes: human extinction, zombie extermination or, if one allows for a human non-zero birth-rate, co-habitation. We obtain analytically the optimum strategy for humans in terms of the model's parameters (essentially, whether to flee and hide, or fight). Zombies notwithstanding, this can also be seen as a toy model for infections of immune system cells, such as CD4+ T cells in AIDS, and macrophages in tuberculosis, whereby cells are both the target of infection, and mediate the acquired immunity response against the same infection. I thank FAPERJ for financial support.

  11. [Clinical course of isolated larval infestation of orbit in children].

    PubMed

    Dubovskaia, L A; Tumol'skaia, N I; Sidorenko, N I; Kotiasheva, G I; Odoshashvili, E D; Gorbunov, A V

    2000-01-01

    Clinical course of an isolated infestation of orbital tissues by larvae of helminths parasitizing in dogs (Toxocara canis) has been followed up in 5 patients aged 6-13 years. The process ran a wave-like course for 3-8 months and was characterized by cyclic inflammatory changes in the orbit, presenting by toxic allergic tenonitis, regional lymphadenitis, optic nerve perineuritis with formation of parasitic granuloma detected by computer-aided rhoentgenotomography of the orbit. No clinical or laboratory signs of common inflammatory and allergic reaction in the presence of Toxocara antigen sensitization were observed in any case, which was confirmed by detection of specific antibodies (IgG and IgE). Specific therapy with anti-nematode drug albendazol was effective. PMID:10918851

  12. Tick Infestation of the Eyelid With Histopathologic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ruju; Yoon, Michael K; Stacy, Rebecca C

    2016-01-01

    Ocular tick infestation is a rare occurrence. The authors report a case that is unique for being the first published example from New England, for its chronic presentation, and for the inclusion of histopathologic analysis in its diagnostic workup. A 75-year-old man was evaluated for a persistent eyelid growth secondary to an incompletely removed tick that had attached 6 months earlier. The lesion was completely excised, and a partially destroyed arthropod was observed embedded within the tissue. Light microscopy demonstrated a mixed granulomatous reaction. Given the disruption of the tick's anatomy, speciation could not be performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. A corresponding review of tick bites to the eye is provided. PMID:25025390

  13. Reflectance confocal microscopy for cutaneous infections and infestations.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, E; Perrot, J L; Labeille, B; Cambazard, F

    2016-05-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a high-resolution emerging imaging technique that allows non-invasive diagnosis of several cutaneous disorders. A systematic review of the literature on the use of RCM for the study of infections and infestations has been performed to evaluate the current use of this technique and its possible future applications in this field. RCM is particularly suitable for the identification of Sarcoptes scabies, Demodex folliculorum, Ixodes, Dermatophytes and Candida species in the clinical practice and for the follow-up after treatment. The cytopathic effect of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and molluscipoxvirus is also detectable by this imaging technique even in a pre-vesicular stage. In addition, thanks to its non-invasiveness, RCM allows pathophysiological studies. PMID:26387660

  14. Detection of fruit-fly infestation in olives using X-ray imaging: Algorithm development and prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...

  15. Selenium in Cattle: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Youcef; Dufrasne, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism's use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. PMID:27120589

  16. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m2/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m2/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m2/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m2/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In conclusion

  17. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m(2)/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m(2)/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m(2)/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m(2)/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In

  18. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diantoro, Markus; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin, Sujito, Hidayat, Arif

    2016-03-01

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C6-C3-C6 carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  19. Mycobacterium indicus pranii and Mycobacterium bovis BCG lead to differential macrophage activation in Toll-like receptor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Tyagi, Rohit; Das, Gobardhan; Bhaskar, Sangeeta

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is an atypical mycobacterial species possessing strong immunomodulatory properties. It is a potent vaccine candidate against tuberculosis, promotes Th1 immune response and protects mice from tumours. In previous studies, we demonstrated higher protective efficacy of MIP against experimental tuberculosis as compared with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Since macrophages play an important role in the pathology of mycobacterial diseases and cancer, in the present study, we evaluated the MIP in live and killed form for macrophage activation potential, compared it with BCG and investigated the underlying mechanisms. High levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), IL-6 and nitric oxide were produced by MIP-stimulated macrophages as compared with BCG-stimulated macrophages. Prominent up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 was also observed in response to MIP. Loss of response in MyD88-deficient macrophages showed that both MIP and BCG activate the macrophages in a MyD88-dependent manner. MyD88 signalling pathway culminates in nuclear factor-κB/activator protein-1 (NF-κB/AP-1) activation and higher activation of NF-κB/AP-1 was observed in response to MIP. With the help of pharmacological inhibitors and Toll-like receptor (TLR) -deficient macrophages, we observed the role of TLR2, TLR4 and intracellular TLRs in MIP-mediated macrophage activation. Stimulation of HEK293 cells expressing TLR2 in homodimeric or heterodimeric form showed that MIP has a distinctly higher level of TLR2 agonist activity compared with BCG. Further experiments suggested that TLR2 ligands are well exposed in MIP whereas they are obscured in BCG. Our findings establish the higher macrophage activation potential of MIP compared with BCG and delineate the underlying mechanism. PMID:24766519

  20. Ultrasonographic measurement of fetal growth parameters over three successive pregnancies in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Hoyer, M J; van Engeldorp Gastelaars, H M D

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish representative curves that allow evaluation of fetal growth and estimation of gestational age from measurement of fetal structures by ultrasound in Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus). Three pregnancies (i.e. 3 fetuses) were examined in one female Malayan tapir. Transabdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed without anesthesia from 79 ± 8 days to 281 ± 48 days (mean ± S.D.) post mating. To assess fetal growth attempts were made to measure biparietal diameter (BPD), head length (HL), thorax diameter A (TDA), thorax height A (THA), thorax diameter B (TDB), thorax height B (THB), abdomen diameter (AD), abdomen height (AH), humerus length (HUL) and Crown rump length (CRL). The value of each parameter as an estimator of gestational age was assessed by ease of observation and the length of time the parameter was measurable throughout gestation. The most precise predictors for gestational age in this study were BPD and CRL (weeks 10-20 of gestation), as well as AD and AH (weeks 14-43 of gestation). The parameters TDB, THB and HUL (weeks 15-41 of gestation) gave almost as good predictions. Fetal viability was assessed by identifying a fetal heartbeat and movement. All pregnancies resulted in normal deliveries and healthy offspring. The ultrasound examination was well tolerated by the female. The gestation lengths (399 ± 3 days) were within reported ranges. The serial transabdominal ultrasound, without the need for anesthesia, was an effective method to evaluate fetal growth, development and well being in a Malayan tapir. PMID:25042428

  1. Comparative sensitivity to environmental variation and human disturbance of Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) and other wild ungulates in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Antony J; Tantipisanuh, Naruemon; Chutipong, Wanlop; Ngoprasert, Dusit; Baker, Megan C; Cutter, Passanan; Gale, George; Kitamura, Shumpei; Steinmetz, Robert; Sukmasuang, Ronglarp; Thunhikorn, Somying

    2012-12-01

    Southeast Asia's tropical forests suffer the highest rates of deforestation and disturbance of any on Earth, with poorly understood impacts on native fauna. Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) are among the least studied of the large mammals in these forests. Using records from 9 camera trap surveys in 7 of the largest (>1000 km(2) ) protected area complexes, we assessed the influence of environmental variation and human-induced disturbance on tapir occurrence. Tapirs were detected at 13% of locations sampled, significantly associated with evergreen forest (P < 0.001). A multiple logistic regression model predicted tapir presence 87% of the time. According to this model, tapir occurrence was positively influenced by annual rainfall and proximity to the forest edge. However, tapirs may not avoid edges but instead prefer wetter evergreen forest, a habitat type that tended to occur further from the forest edge at higher elevations in our particular study sites (P < 0.001). By comparison, 4 other wild ungulate species that share habitats with tapirs showed a range of differing responses. Tapirs are expected to be less sensitive to disturbance because they are not targets for hunting and trade, and are almost entirely active at night, so avoid peak traffic periods in parks. Tapir populations in Thailand may be more stable than in other parts of their global range because rates of forest loss have decreased >40% over the past 20 years. We recommend surveys to fill gaps in the understanding of the status in lesser-known protected areas, research to better understand the fine-scale environmental influences on behavior and habitats of tapirs, and other forest ungulates, and continued legal status for tapirs in the highest category of protection. PMID:23253370

  2. Superovulation, collection and transfer of embryos and demi-embryos from Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Jordt, T; Lorenzini, E

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG); a total of four embryos and 4.1 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) ova per ova-producing donor resulted. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P) was then used to superovulate 49 Boran cows for a total of 106 superovulations, of which 63 (59.4%) produced an average of 3.7 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SEM) embryos. The embryo production was not influenced by either the season or the number of times(one to five) the cows were superovulated. A higher pregnancy rate was obtained when the selection of Boran recipients was based on their plasma-progesterone values (overall 52.5%, single embryos 63.3%, twin demi-embryos 45.8%) than when they were selected by palpation per rectum only (overall 43.8%, single embryos 50%, twin demi-embryos 36.4%). The twinning rate of twin demiembryos was 62.5%, whereas only single calves were born after transfer of two embryos per recipient. No pregnancies were produced following transfer of twin demi-embryos without zonae pellucidae. Transferring single demi-embryos gave a low pregnancy rate (13.3%). Twelve donor Boran cows (21 superovulations) bred with their fathers resulted in a high rate of early embryonic death; additionally, only 20.9% (overall) of the recipients became pregnant. Estrus synchronization of Boran cows with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for a short period (7 d) combined with one injection of prostaglandin (Day 6) produced a larger number of good quality recipients (70.5%) than using double prostaglandin injections (60%). PMID:16726476

  3. Stable isotopes suggest low site fidelity in Bar-Headed Geese (Anser indicus) in Mongolia: Implications for disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiangming Xiao; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conservation efforts and can help inform our understanding of continental-scale disease transmission. In this study, stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in contour feathers were used to assess the degree of molt-site fidelity among Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) captured in north-central Mongolia. Samples were collected from actively molting Bar-headed Geese (n = 61), and some individual samples included both a newly grown feather (still in sheath) and an old, worn feather from the bird's previous molt (n = 21). Although there was no difference in mean hydrogen isotope ratios for the old and new feathers, the isotopic variance in old feathers was approximately three times higher than that of the new feathers, which suggests that these birds use different and geographically distant molting locations from year to year. To further test this conclusion, online data and modeling tools from the isoMAP website were used to generate probability landscapes for the origin of each feather. Likely molting locations were much more widespread for old feathers than for new feathers, which supports the prospect of low molt-site fidelity. This finding indicates that population connectivity would be greater than expected based on data from a single annual cycle, and that disease spread can be rapid even in areas like Mongolia where Bar-headed Geese generally breed in small isolated groups.

  4. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: II. Udder, mouth, longevity, and lifetime productivity.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Postpartum udder characteristics, aged mouth condition scores, and cow survival, longevity, and productivity were evaluated for 15 yr on F1 cows in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). The cows (n = 116) were progeny of Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman sires and Hereford dams. Crossbred cows sired by Nellore had smaller (P < 0.05) postpartum teat length than cows of all other crossbred groups and smaller (P < 0.10) postpartum teat diameter than Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman crossbreds. The Nellore crossbred cows had larger (P < 0.10) postpartum udder support scores (more well-supported udders) than Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds. As 14-yr-old cows, Angus crossbreds had lower (P < 0.05) mouth scores (indicative of one or more missing incisors) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Under actual and artificial (records were removed) culling procedures, Nellore crossbreds had the highest cow survival to age 14 and the highest longevity. Indu-Brazil crossbreds tended to be the lowest for both survival and longevity. Curves were fitted by nonlinear regression procedures to the adjusted frequencies of cows remaining at each age; scale and shape parameters were estimated and compared for the different breed groups. Breed group cow survival rates, calf crop weaned, and calf weaning weights were used 1) to construct population projection and production matrices for each breed group and 2) to generate breed group vectors containing projected age distributions and production information. Cows sired by Nellore and Gir were projected to require the fewest purebred cows to generate replacement heifers and to have the most calves and the largest total calf weight sold per year. PMID:11424680

  5. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: Effects on growth and concentrations of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus calves of intra-testicular injection of either saline (n=9) or one of two doses of zinc acetate ((ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10, or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) or surgical castration (n=9) on circulating concentrations of testostosterone and liveweight. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, 1500IU) was administered 202 and 525 days after treatment on Day 0 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. In animals left intact treatment with ZA reduced mean serum concentrations of testosterone (Saline: 5.58±0.79ng/mL, ZA1: 1.28±0.27ng/mL, ZA2: 1.01±0.17ng/mL; P<0.001) and concentrations 48h following administration of hCG. The maximum concentration of testosterone recorded throughout the study in six out of 19 animals treated with ZA was ≤0.21ng/mL. Treatment with ZA did not significantly affect live weights or carcass weights or result in any detectable scrotal lesions. Animals with concentrations of testosterone ≥1.0ng/mL exhibited greater liveweights throughout most of the study and yielded heavier carcass weights (340.9±7.02 versus 309.3±6.17kg, P=0.002). It is concluded that a single, intra-testicular administration of either 57.75mg or 71.75mg of ZA was able to similarly reduce circulating concentrations of testosterone without significantly affecting liveweights or carcass weights. Treatment with ZA can result in variation in circulating concentrations of testosterone which could lead to differences in behaviour, liveweights and carcass characteristics. PMID:26130602

  6. Geographic variation in Bar-headed geese Anser indicus: connectivity of wintering and breeding grounds across a broad front.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Javed, Salim; Newman, Scott H.; Suwal, Rajendra N.; Rahman, Asad R.; Choudhury, Binod C.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Wikelski, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The connectivity and frequency of exchange between sub-populations of migratory birds is integral to understanding population dynamics over the entire species' range. True geese are highly philopatric and acquire lifetime mates during the winter, suggesting that the number of distinct sub-populations may be related to the number of distinct wintering areas. In the Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, a species found exclusively in Central Asia, the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas is not well known. Their migration includes crossing a broad front of the Himalaya Cordillera, a significant barrier to migration for most birds. Many Bar-headed Geese fly to breeding areas on the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau (TQP), the highest plateau in the world. From 2005-2008, 60 Bar-headed Geese were captured and marked with satellite transmitters in Nepal (n = 2), India (n = 6), China (n = 29), and Mongolia (n = 23) to examine their migration and distribution. Distinct differences were observed in their migration corridors and timing of movements, including an apparent leap-frog migration pattern for geese from Mongolia. Measurements of geese from Mongolia were larger than their counterparts from China, providing some evidence of morphological differences. Alteration of habitats in China, including the warming effects of climate change on glaciers increasing runoff to TQP wetlands, may be changing goose migration patterns and timing. With the exception of one individual, all geese from Qinghai Lake, China wintered in the southern TQP near Lhasa, and their increasing numbers in that region may be related to the effects of climate change and agricultural development. Thus, our findings document both morphological and geographical variation in sub-populations of Bar-headed Geese, but their resilience to environmental change may be lost if migratory short-stopping results in larger congregations restricted to a smaller number of wintering areas.

  7. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  8. Acute impacts of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kettu, Maria; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-04-01

    Blood-sucking ectoparasites have often a strong impact on the behaviour of their hosts. The annual insect harassment of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has increased in the southern part of the Finnish reindeer herding area because of the recent invasion of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic louse-fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). We studied the impact of the deer ked on the behaviour of reindeer. Twelve reindeer were infested with a total of 300 keds/reindeer on six occasions in a 5-week period during the deer ked flight season in autumn, while six non-infested reindeer were used as controls. Behavioural patterns indicating potential stress were monitored by visual observation from August to December. The infested reindeer displayed more incidences of restless behaviour than the controls. Shaking and scratching were the most common forms of restless behaviour after infestation of deer keds. Increased grooming was also observed after the transplantation and also later, 1 month after the infestation. Based on the results, the deer ked infestation can cause acute behavioural disturbance in reindeer and, thus, could pose a potential threat to reindeer welfare. Antiparasitic treatment with, e.g. ivermectin, may increase the welfare of parasitized reindeer by reducing deer keds. If the deer ked infestation intensity on the reindeer herding area increases and restless behaviour of reindeer becomes more common, the present results can help in further evaluation of the duration and magnitude of behavioural changes. PMID:24562815

  9. Oviposition behavior of the wheat stem sawfly when encountering plants infested with cryptic conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Buteler, Micaela; Weaver, David K; Peterson, Robert K D

    2009-12-01

    Insect herbivores typically oviposit on the most suitable hosts, but choices can be modulated by detection of potential competition among conspecifics, especially when eggs are deposited cryptically. Larvae of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, developing within an already infested stem, experience elevated risk when only one will survive because of cannibalism. To increase our understanding of host selection when the choices made by females can lead to severe intraspecific competition, females were presented with either uninfested wheat plants or with plants previously exposed to other females in laboratory choice tests. The oviposition behavior of this insect was described by recording the behavioral sequences that lead to and follow the insertion of the ovipositor in both previously infested and uninfested stems. No significant differences were found in frequencies of specific behaviors or behavioral transitions associated with oviposition. In choice tests, there was no difference in the numbers of eggs laid in infested and uninfested plants. Taller plants received more eggs, irrespective of infestation. Females neither preferred nor avoided previously infested hosts. Other characteristics of the host, such as stem height, may be more important in determining suitability for oviposition. These findings support the use of management tactics relying on the manipulation of oviposition behavior, such as trap cropping. Given that there is no evidence for response to previously infested hosts, the infested plants in a trap crop would remain as suitable as they were when uninfested, which could also lead to an increase in mortality caused by intraspecific competition. PMID:20021767

  10. Integrated control of acaricide-resistant Boophilus microplus populations on grazing cattle in Mexico using vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments.

    PubMed

    Redondo, M; Fragoso, H; Ortíz, M; Montero, C; Lona, J; Medellín, J A; Fría, R; Hernández, V; Franco, R; Machado, H; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-10-01

    Throughout most of the twentieth century, tick infestations on cattle have been controlled with chemical acaricides, typically administered by dipping or spraying. This approach can cause environmental and residue problems and has created a high incidence of acaricide resistance within tick populations in the field. Recently we developed a vaccine against Boophilus microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac), (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) which has been shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals. Here we show for the first time under field conditions a near 100% control of B. microplus populations resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates, by an integrated system employing vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments. This method effectively controls tick infestations while reducing the number of chemical acaricide treatments and consequently the rise of B. microplus populations resistant to chemical acaricides. PMID:10581714

  11. Admixture mapping of tuberculosis and pigmentation-related traits in an African–European hybrid cattle population

    PubMed Central

    Kassahun, Yonas; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Ameni, Gobena; Hailu, Elena; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas B.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Admixture mapping affords a powerful approach to genetic mapping of complex traits and may be particularly suited to investigation in cattle where many breeds and populations are hybrids of the two divergent ancestral genomes, derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Here we design a minimal genome wide SNP panel for tracking ancestry in recent hybrids of Holstein–Friesian and local Arsi zebu in a field sample from a region of high bovine tuberculosis (BTB) endemicity in the central Ethiopian highlands. We first demonstrate the utility of this approach by mapping the red coat color phenotype, uncovering a highly significant peak over the MC1R gene and a second peak with no previously known candidate gene. Secondly, we exploit the described differential susceptibility to BTB between the ancestral strains to identify a region in which Bos taurus ancestry associates, at suggestive significance, with skin test positivity. Interestingly, this association peak contains the toll-like receptor gene cluster on chromosome 6. With this work we have shown the potential of admixture mapping in hybrid domestic animals with divergent ancestral genomes, a recurring condition in domesticated species. PMID:26124773

  12. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and genetic markers for association with meat tenderness in South African feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Frylinck, L; van Wyk, G L; Smith, T P L; Strydom, P E; van Marle-Köster, E; Webb, E C; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, M F

    2009-12-01

    A large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a variety of biochemical and genetic parameters previously shown to be associated with meat tenderness. Shear force values were generally high (5.6kg average at 14days post mortem), with SiX animals higher than BrX or NgX (P=0.051) despite higher calpastatin:calpain ratio in BrX (P<0.05). Calpain activity and cold shortening were both correlated with tenderness for all classes. The sample size was too small to accurately estimate genotypic effects of previously published markers in the CAST and CAPN1 genes, but the allele frequencies suggest that only modest progress would be possible in these South African crossbreds using these markers. PMID:20416642

  13. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran. PMID:25629073

  14. Trombiculidae larvae (Neotrombicula autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakiroglu, Duygu; Pekmezci, Didem; Meral, Yücel; Gokalp, Güvenç; Acici, Mustafa

    2008-04-01

    With this case report, we describe Trombiculidae larvae (Neotrombicula autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) which was brought to our clinics by the Directorship of Environmental and Forestry authorities of Samsun, Turkey in April, 2007. The male Little Bittern (I. minutus), with a black back and crown, and black wings with a large white patch on each wing, had thick Trombiculidae larvae infestation both on its legs. There were neither dermatological nor general conditional changes observed, except its superficial larval attachments to the skin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Trombiculidae larvae (N. autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (I. minutus) in Turkey. PMID:18266010

  15. Annoying vacation souvenir: Fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium sp.) infestation in an Austrian fisherman.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Haberl, Renate; Langner, Cord; Krejs, Günter J; Eherer, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is infestation with the fish tapeworm. Although the worldwide incidence has decreased in recent decades, increased travel and the new popularity of dishes involving raw fish (e.g. sushi) may provide a higher risk of infestation in formerly low-risk areas. We report an Austrian fisherman who passed a 75 cm tapeworm segment in his stool. Infestation presumably occurred 14 months earlier during a fishing tour in Alaska. At presentation, the patient was asymptomatic, reported no weight loss and showed neither anaemia nor eosinophilia. He was cured with a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight praziquantel. PMID:16416360

  16. DO GRAZING CATTLE SEEK NUTRITIONALLY SUPERIOR PORTIONS OF PASTURES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...

  17. Olfactory response of predatory mites to vegetative and reproductive parts of coconut palm infested by Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Melo, José Wagner S; Lima, Debora B; Pallini, Angelo; Oliveira, José Eudes M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2011-10-01

    The phytophagous mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is an important pest of coconut worldwide. A promising method of control for this pest is the use of predatory mites. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram are predatory mites found in association with A. guerreronis in the field. To understand how these predators respond to olfactory cues from A. guerreronis and its host plant, the foraging behavior of the predatory mites was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer and on T-shaped arenas. The predators were subjected to choose in an olfactometer: (1) isolated parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of infested coconut plant or clean air stream; (2) isolated parts of non-infested or infested coconut plant; and (3) two different plant parts previously shown to be attractive. Using T-shaped arenas the predators were offered all possible binary combinations of discs of coconut fruit epidermis infested with A. guerreronis, non-infested discs or coconut pollen. The results showed that both predators were preferred (the volatile cues from) the infested plant parts over clean air. When subjected to odours from different infested or non-infested plant parts, predators preferred the infested parts. Among the infested plant parts, the spikelets induced the greatest attraction to predators. On the arenas, both predators preferred discs of coconut fruits infested with A. guerreronis over every other alternative. The results show that both predators are able to locate A. guerreronis by olfactory stimuli. Foraging strategies and implications for biological control are discussed. PMID:21499777

  18. HISTOPATHOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH NEOTROMBICULA MICROTI INFESTATION IN THE ENDANGERED AMARGOSA VOLE (MICROTUS CALIFORNICUS SCIRPENSIS).

    PubMed

    Ott-Conn, Caitlin N; Woods, Leslie W; Clifford, Deana L; Branston, Tammy; Foley, Janet

    2015-07-01

    The Amargosa vole (Microtus californicus scirpensis) is a profoundly endangered rodent found only in the Central Mojave Desert, Inyo County, California, US. In 2010, severe cases of trombiculiasis, caused by larval Neotrombicula microti mites, were discovered among voles and sympatric small mammals. We evaluated Amargosa voles and sympatric rodents for infestation with N. microti December 2011-November 2012 and evaluated histopathology of ear tissue from 13 actively N. microti-infested Amargosa voles and 10 Amargosa voles with no gross evidence of current or past infestation. Rodents with current infestation had mites visible on tissue, typically ear pinnae, whereas mites were not seen on rodents with presumptive past infestation, but some of these animals had gross tissue scarring and loss consistent with healing from infestation. Ears from infested voles had severe granulocytic and necrotizing dermatitis, most associated with stylostome fragments, whereas few lesions were present in grossly uninfested voles. There was no association between body condition and infestation or severity of lesions. Significantly more voles were infested (37%) with N. microti than sympatric rodents (3%), suggesting that sympatric rodents do not serve as an important source of N. microti exposure to voles. Although this chigger infestation was common and induced severe localized pathology, we did not detect a fitness cost to infestation and recommend further evaluation of the disease to discern its significance in this conservation context. PMID:25919470

  19. Investigation of Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in Type 1 Diabetic Rats: An Identification of Possible Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, S.; Asokkumar, K.; Uma Maheswari, M.; Ravi, T. K.; Sivashanmugam, A. T.; Saravanan, S.; Rajasekaran, A.; Dharman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant properties of the root of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus root (EESIR) 100 and 200 mg/kg to the STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) reduction in blood glucose and increase in body weight compared to diabetic control rats. Both the doses of EESIR-treated diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) alteration in elevated lipid profile levels than diabetic control rats. The EESIR treatment in diabetic rats produced significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels than diabetic control rats. Administration of EESIR 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < .01) higher antioxidant activity than EESIR 100 mg/kg. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EESIR revealed the presence of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin. In conclusion, EESIR possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect will help to prevent diabetic complications, and these actions are possibly due to presence of above biomarkers. PMID:20953435

  20. Functional analysis of ars gene cluster of Pannonibacter indicus strain HT23(T) (DSM 23407(T)) and identification of a proline residue essential for arsenate reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Saumya; Das, Subrata K

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring ubiquitous highly toxic metalloid. In this study, we have identified ars gene cluster in Pannonibacter indicus strain HT23(T) (DSM 23407(T)), responsible for reduction of toxic pentavalent arsenate. The ars gene cluster is comprised of four non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) encoding a transcriptional regulator (ArsR), a low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases (LMW-PTPase) with hypothetical function, an arsenite efflux pump (Acr3), and an arsenate reductase (ArsC). Heterologous expression of arsenic inducible ars gene cluster conferred arsenic resistance to Escherichia coli ∆ars mutant strain AW3110. The recombinant ArsC was purified and assayed. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to ascertain the role of specific amino acids in ArsC catalysis. Pro94X (X = Ala, Arg, Cys, and His) amino acid substitutions led to enzyme inactivation. Circular dichroism spectra analysis suggested Pro94 as an essential amino acid for enzyme catalytic activity as it is indispensable for optimum protein folding in P. indicus Grx-coupled ArsC. PMID:26915994