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  1. Study Protocol - Accurate assessment of kidney function in Indigenous Australians: aims and methods of the eGFR Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an overwhelming burden of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Australians. In this high risk population, it is vital that we are able to measure accurately kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall marker of kidney function. However, differences in body build and body composition between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians suggest that creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate derived for European populations may not be appropriate for Indigenous Australians. The burden of kidney disease is borne disproportionately by Indigenous Australians in central and northern Australia, and there is significant heterogeneity in body build and composition within and amongst these groups. This heterogeneity might differentially affect the accuracy of estimation of glomerular filtration rate between different Indigenous groups. By assessing kidney function in Indigenous Australians from Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, we aim to determine a validated and practical measure of glomerular filtration rate suitable for use in all Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study of Indigenous Australian adults (target n = 600, 50% male) across 4 sites: Top End, Northern Territory; Central Australia; Far North Queensland and Western Australia. The reference measure of glomerular filtration rate was the plasma disappearance rate of iohexol over 4 hours. We will compare the accuracy of the following glomerular filtration rate measures with the reference measure: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 4-variable formula, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, Cockcroft-Gault formula and cystatin C- derived estimates. Detailed assessment of body build and composition was performed using anthropometric measurements, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance and a sub-study used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A

  2. Australian Indigenous Knowledge and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Martin, Ed.; Langton, Marcia, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and…

  3. Ecological Model of Australian Indigenous Men's Health.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Mellor, David; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Mussap, Alexander J; Hallford, David J

    2016-11-01

    This study was designed to examine the health behaviors as well as the enablers and barriers to health behaviors among Indigenous Australian men. One hundred and fifty Indigenous Australian men in rural, regional, and urban locations were interviewed about their health behaviors. The results revealed several themes of importance: (a) role of community activities, (b) the Indigenous man as a leader and role model, (c) negative impact of discrimination/racism, (d) importance of partner and family, (e) positive and negative role of peer relationships, (f) central role of culturally appropriate health care facilities, and (g) association between employment and health care problems. These findings highlight the importance of broad community-based (rather than individualistic) approaches to promoting health behavior in Indigenous men.

  4. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  5. Social Gradients in the Health of Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianghong; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The pattern of association between socioeconomic factors and health outcomes has primarily depicted better health for those who are higher in the social hierarchy. Although this is a ubiquitous finding in the health literature, little is known about the interplay between these factors among indigenous populations. We begin to bridge this knowledge gap by assessing evidence on social gradients in indigenous health in Australia. We reveal a less universal and less consistent socioeconomic status patterning in health among Indigenous Australians, and discuss the plausibility of unique historical circumstances and social and cultural characteristics in explaining these patterns. A more robust evidence base in this field is fundamental to processes that aim to reduce the pervasive disparities between indigenous and nonindigenous population health. PMID:22095336

  6. The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous…

  7. Connection, Challenge, and Change: The Narratives of University Students Mentoring Young Indigenous Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Sarah; Harwood, Valerie; Kervin, Lisa; Humphry, Nici

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we highlighted the stories of university student mentors who are involved in the Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience (AIME). The AIME program works with young Indigenous school students, at primary and secondary school levels, to encourage continued participation in education and to consider university as a viable life…

  8. Surgery for otitis media among Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Stephen J; Triolo, Ross D

    2009-11-02

    Otitis media with effusion and recurrent acute otitis media are ubiquitous among Indigenous children. Otitis media causes conductive hearing loss that may persist throughout early childhood and adversely affect social interactions, language acquisition and learning. Control of otitis media usually restores hearing to adequate levels. Surgery is to be considered when otitis media has not responded to medical treatment. In non-Indigenous populations, tympanostomy tubes ("grommets"), with or without adenoidectomy, can control otitis media; how these findings relate to Indigenous Australians is not known. Tympanic membrane perforation is a frequent sequela of early childhood otitis media among Indigenous children. It occurs as early as 12 months of age and causes conductive hearing loss. Perforation is associated with recurrent aural discharge, particularly in the tropics and in desert regions. Medical and public health management is required until a child is old enough to undergo surgical closure of the perforation, usually by an age of 7-10 years. Surgical closure of the tympanic membrane stops the aural discharge and improves the hearing sufficiently to avoid the need for hearing aids in most cases. The success rate of surgery conducted in rural and remote Australia is below urban benchmarks; improving this will probably require funding for community-based follow-up.

  9. Career Decision-Making: What Matters to Indigenous Australians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helme, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This article brings together and discusses three research projects that examined the vocational education and career-decision making of Indigenous Australians. These studies focused on the experiences of Indigenous people themselves, in order to provide an Indigenous perspective on vocational and career development. Four main barriers that limit…

  10. Australian Directions in Indigenous Education 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The educational outcomes of Indigenous Australians have improved over recent decades. This is evident across a range of indicators on the enrolment, participation and achievement of Indigenous students in the early childhood education and school sectors. There has also been increased representation of Indigenous students in New Apprenticeships and…

  11. Australian Indigenous Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…

  12. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed

  13. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  14. Is resilience relevant to smoking abstinence for Indigenous Australians?

    PubMed

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking.

  15. Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems.

  16. Anger in Australian Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Peter; Mergler, Amanda; Furlong, Michael; Caltabiano, Nerina

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive pilot study examined the cultural differences in the dimensions of self-reported anger in Indigenous and non-Indigenous (Caucasian) students aged 10-13 years in Far North Queensland, Australia. The Multidimensional School Anger Inventory-Revised (MSAI-R) (Boman, Curtis, Furlong, & Smith, 2006) was used to measure affective,…

  17. Regional Agreements, Higher Education and Representations of Indigenous Australian Reality (Why Wasn't I Taught That in School?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConville, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the rights asserted by indigenous peoples and recognized by the United Nations and then considers Australian performance in higher education relative to these recognized rights. Presents some options aimed at making Indigenous education an enforceable right rather than a matter of administrative and political goodwill. (SLD)

  18. Issues in English Language Assessment of Indigenous Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Although English is widely used by Indigenous Australians as the main means of communication, national testing has consistently raised questions as to the level of their English language and literacy achievement. This article examines contextual factors (historical, linguistic, cultural, socio-political and educational) which underlie this…

  19. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  20. Oral Language, Representations and Mathematical Understanding: Indigenous Australian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Elizabeth; Young, Janelle

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the role of oral language and representations in negotiating mathematical understanding. The data were gathered from two Indigenous Australian classrooms in Northern Queensland. The first classroom, a Year 6/7 consisted of 15 students whose ages range from 10 years to 12 years with eight being Aboriginal, six from Torres Strait…

  1. Australian Indigenous Higher Education: Politics, Policy and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…

  2. Immunisation issues for Indigenous Australian children.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert; Andrews, Ross

    2014-10-01

    Vaccination has provided major benefits to the health of indigenous children in the face of continuing poorer socioeconomic conditions but several issues have been identified for improvement. While indigenous children are vaccinated at high rates for the standard schedule vaccines, vaccination is more commonly delayed. Coverage for 'targeted' vaccines is substantially lower, and data on coverage for indigenous adolescents is non-existent. Improved identification of indigenous clients by immunisation providers and the expansion of the childhood register are required. The progressive removal of early-acting Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines from schedules for indigenous children because of an international shortage raises the risk of disease re-emergence and highlights the need for vigilant surveillance including carriage. The expanded use of existing vaccines (influenza) and early adoption of new vaccines (higher valency pneumococcal conjugates) are needed to maximise benefits, in particular the potential to impact on non-invasive disease such as otitis media and non-bacteraemic pneumonia that are so prevalent in indigenous children.

  3. Estimating Cognitive Gaps between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Andrew; Gong, Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Improving cognitive skills of young children has been suggested as a possible strategy for equalising opportunities across racial groups. Using data on four and five year olds in the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children, we focus on two cognitive tests: the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the "Who Am I?" test. We estimate the…

  4. The Contribution of Geography to Disparities in Preventable Hospitalisations between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    Harrold, Timothy C.; Randall, Deborah A.; Falster, Michael O.; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Main outcome measures Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. Results PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Conclusions Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity. PMID:24859265

  5. Strongyloides stercoralis: Systematic Review of Barriers to Controlling Strongyloidiasis for Australian Indigenous Communities

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Adrian; Smith, Michelle L.; Judd, Jenni A.; Speare, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis infects human hosts mainly through skin contact with contaminated soil. The result is strongyloidiasis, a parasitic disease, with a unique cycle of auto-infection causing a variety of symptoms and signs, with possible fatality from hyper-infection. Australian Indigenous community members, often living in rural and remote settings, are exposed to and infected with S. stercoralis. The aim of this review is to determine barriers to control of strongyloidiasis. The purpose is to contribute to the development of initiatives for prevention, early detection and effective treatment of strongyloidiasis. Methodology/Principle Findings Systematic search reviewing research published 2012 and earlier was conducted. Research articles discussing aspects of strongyloidiasis, context of infection and overall health in Indigenous Australians were reviewed. Based on the PRISMA statement, the systematic search of health databases, Academic Search Premier, Informit, Medline, PubMed, AMED, CINAHL, Health Source Nursing and Academic was conducted. Key search terms included strongyloidiasis, Indigenous, Australia, health, and community. 340 articles were retrieved with 16 original research articles published between 1969 and 2006 meeting criteria. Review found barriers to control defined across three key themes, (1) health status, (2) socioeconomic status, and (3) health care literacy and procedures. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies five points of intervention: (1) develop reporting protocols between health care system and communities; (2) test all Indigenous Australian patients, immunocompromised patients and those exposed to areas with S. stercoralis; (3) health professionals require detailed information on strongyloidiasis and potential for exposure to Indigenous Australian people; (4) to establish testing and treatment initiatives within communities; and (5) to measure and report prevalence rates specific to communities and to act

  6. Englishes and Literacies: Indigenous Australian Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripcony, Penny

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students are not achieving the levels of English literacy required for satisfactory completion of Australia's school system. A national strategy has been launched to help Indigenous students achieve English literacy. However, there continues to be little recognition of the language and cultural needs of the…

  7. Rheumatic fever in indigenous Australian children.

    PubMed

    Parnaby, Matthew G; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-09-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) caused by acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a disease of poverty, poor hygiene and poor living standards. RHD remains one of the major causes of childhood cardiac disease in developing nations. Within developed nations, there has been a dramatic drop in the prevalence of RHD because of the improvement of living standards, access to health care and the widespread availability of penicillin-based drugs. Despite a dramatic reduction of RHD in Australia overall, it continues to be a major contributor to childhood and adult cardiac disease in Indigenous communities throughout northern and central Australia. Currently, Australia has among the highest recorded rates of ARF and RHD in the world. The most accurate epidemiological data in Australia come from the Northern Territory's RHD control programme. In the Northern Territory, 92% of people with RHD are Indigenous, of whom 85% live in remote communities and towns. The incidence of ARF is highest in 5-14-year-olds, ranging from 150 to 380 per 100,000. Prevalence rates of RHD since 2000 have steadily increased to almost 2% of the Indigenous population in the Northern Territory, 3.2% in those aged 35-44 years. Living in remote communities is a contributing factor to ARF/RHD as well as a major barrier for adequate follow-up and care. Impediments to ARF/RHD control include the paucity of specialist services, rapid turnover of health staff, lack of knowledge of ARF/RHD by health staff, patients and communities, and the high mobility of the Indigenous population. Fortunately, the recently announced National Rheumatic Fever Strategy, comprising recurrent funding to the Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia for control programmes, as well as the creation of a National Coordination Unit suggest that RHD control in Australia is now a tangible prospect. For the disease to be eradicated, Australia will have to address the underpinning determinants of poverty, social and living conditions.

  8. Experiencing and Writing Indigeneity, Rurality and Gender: Australian Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramzan, Bebe; Pini, Barbara; Bryant, Lia

    2009-01-01

    This paper has two interrelated aims. The first is to contribute to knowledge about rurality, gender and Indigeneity. This is undertaken by the first author, Bebe Ramzan, an Indigenous woman living in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands. Bebe shows similarities across rural and remote areas in Australia and details her knowledge…

  9. Academic Staff Perceptions of Factors Underlying Program Completion by Australian Indigenous Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim; Stewart, Lee

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the number of Indigenous health professionals is one way to help reduce the poor health outcomes of Australia's Indigenous people. However, while Indigenous students are enrolling in Australian tertiary undergraduate nursing courses in increasing numbers, their completion rates remain lower than non-Indigenous students and many…

  10. Bridging the survival gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians: priorities for the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex

    2009-04-01

    The life-expectancy gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians remains one of contemporary Australia's most enduring health divides. The reduction of observed health outcome disparity between population groups based on measures of socioeconomic status, geography, or ethnicity stands as a key target of coordinated societal and health system reform. CVD remains the principal cause of death among all Australian population groups, including Aboriginal males and females, and is the primary contributor to the 17-year life-expectancy gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper discusses the challenges inherent, from the perspective of broader policy frameworks and health system reform, to reducing disparity between population groups within Australia, and outlines the opportunities for change that could contribute benefit to Aboriginal and mainstream Australians in regards to reducing the burden of CVD and related conditions. Further, through mapping adverse outcomes to acute cardiac events it seeks to discuss several key targets for reform that may serve to reduce health disparity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians.

  11. Social Media and Mobile Apps for Health Promotion in Australian Indigenous Populations: Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Brusse, Carl; McAullay, Daniel; Dowden, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion organizations are increasingly embracing social media technologies to engage end users in a more interactive way and to widely disseminate their messages with the aim of improving health outcomes. However, such technologies are still in their early stages of development and, thus, evidence of their efficacy is limited. Objective The study aimed to provide a current overview of the evidence surrounding consumer-use social media and mobile software apps for health promotion interventions, with a particular focus on the Australian context and on health promotion targeted toward an Indigenous audience. Specifically, our research questions were: (1) What is the peer-reviewed evidence of benefit for social media and mobile technologies used in health promotion, intervention, self-management, and health service delivery, with regard to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media? and (2) What social media and mobile software have been used in Indigenous-focused health promotion interventions in Australia with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, or otitis media, and what is the evidence of their effectiveness and benefit? Methods We conducted a scoping study of peer-reviewed evidence for the effectiveness of social media and mobile technologies in health promotion (globally) with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media. A scoping review was also conducted for Australian uses of social media to reach Indigenous Australians and mobile apps produced by Australian health bodies, again with respect to these three areas. Results The review identified 17 intervention studies and seven systematic reviews that met inclusion criteria, which showed limited evidence of benefit from these interventions. We also found five Australian projects with significant social media health components targeting the Indigenous Australian population for health promotion purposes, and four mobile software apps that met inclusion

  12. Optimising meropenem dosing in critically ill Australian Indigenous patients with severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Danny; Stewart, Penelope; Goud, Rajendra; Gourley, Stephen; Hewagama, Saliya; Krishnaswamy, Sushena; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-11-01

    Currently there are no pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide antibiotic dosing in critically ill Australian Indigenous patients with severe sepsis. This study aimed to determine whether the population pharmacokinetics of meropenem were different between critically ill Australian Indigenous and critically ill Caucasian patients. Serial plasma and urine samples as well as clinical and demographic data were collected over two dosing intervals from critically ill Australian Indigenous patients. Plasma meropenem concentrations were assayed by validated chromatography. Concentration-time data were analysed with data from a previous PK study in critically ill Caucasian patients using Pmetrics. The population PK model was subsequently used for Monte Carlo dosing simulations to describe optimal doses for these patients. Six Indigenous and five Caucasian subjects were included. A two-compartment model described the data adequately, with meropenem clearance and volume of distribution of the central compartment described by creatinine clearance (CLCr) and patient weight, respectively. Patient ethnicity was not supported as a covariate in the final model. Significant differences were observed for meropenem clearance between the Indigenous and Caucasian groups [median 11.0 (range 3.0-14.1) L/h vs. 17.4 (4.3-30.3) L/h, respectively; P <0.01]. Standard dosing regimens (1 g intravenous every 8 h as a 30-min infusion) consistently achieved target exposures at the minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoint in the absence of augmented renal clearance. No significant interethnic differences in meropenem pharmacokinetics between the Indigenous and Caucasian groups were detected and CLCr was found to be the strongest determinant of appropriate dosing regimens.

  13. Performing Race, Culture, and Gender in an Indigenous Australian Women's Music and Dance Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    One perpetual concern among Indigenous Australian peoples is authenticity of voice. Who has the right to speak for, and to make representations about, the knowledges and cultures of Indigenous Australian peoples? Whose voice is more authentic, and what happens to these ways of knowing when they make the journey into mainstream Western academic…

  14. The Subjective Wellbeing of Indigenous Australian Adolescents: Validating the Personal Wellbeing Index-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomyn, Adrian J.; Norrish, Jacolyn M.; Cummins, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    By almost all measures of objective life quality, Indigenous Australians are disadvantaged relative to the general population. However, no measures of their Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) have been published. This paper presents the first such data, norm-referenced to the general Australian population. A total of 519 Indigenous adolescents, aged…

  15. Effect of Dialect on Identification and Severity of Speech Impairment in Indigenous Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohill, Bethany J.; Mcleod, Sharynne; Mccormack, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dialectal difference on identification and rating of severity of speech impairment in children from Indigenous Australian backgrounds. The speech of 15 Indigenous Australian children identified by their parents/caregivers and teachers as having "difficulty talking and making speech sounds" was…

  16. Unknown and Unknowing Possibilities: Transformative Learning, Social Justice, and Decolonising Pedagogy in Indigenous Australian Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    For tertiary educators in Indigenous Australian Studies, decolonising discourse in education has held much promise to make space for the diversity of Indigenous Australian peoples to be included, accessed, understood, discussed, and engaged with in meaningful ways. However, Tuck and Yang provide us with the stark reminder that decolonisation…

  17. The Dissertation Examination: Identifying Critical Factors in the Success of Indigenous Australian Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil; Trudgett, Michelle; Page, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous Australians represent 2.2% of the working age population, yet account for only 1.4% of all university enrolments. In relation to higher degree research students, Indigenous Australians account for 1.1% of enrolments, but only 0.8% of all higher degree research completions. This paper reports on findings that emerged from an Australian…

  18. Seeing white: a critical exploration of occupational therapy with Indigenous Australian people.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Alison

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to critique current occupational therapy practice and theory using Indigenous Australian people as a case example. Critical race theory will be used to help question the privileged position of an occupational therapist from a dominant Westernized culture. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 (eight female and seven male) Indigenous Australian young people about their perspectives of health and physical activity. In addition, the Kawa model was used as an alternative data-collection tool and detailed field notes and researcher reflections were used as data sources. Preliminary analysis of data is used to illustrate the ways in which critical race theory can inform occupational therapy practitioners and researchers about the ways Indigenous Australian young people view their health. Methodological dilemmas are also discussed. The paper is based on preliminary findings and further analysis needs to continue. Cross-cultural research is inherently complex but can offer those from the dominant culture valuable insights into their taken-for-granted assumptions. Further use of critical race theory may prove useful as the occupational therapy profession continues to evolve its understanding of cultural safety.

  19. One to One and Face to Face: A Community Based Higher Education Support Strategy Retaining Indigenous Australian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Peta; Lockyer, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Literature relating to Indigenous Australian students in higher education highlights the need for improving the retention rates of Indigenous students in Australian universities. A cause for concern has been the increasing numbers of Indigenous Australian people experiencing lower progress and completion rates in comparison to non-Indigenous…

  20. Reflections on Teaching a First-Year Indigenous Australian Studies Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckenberg, Robyn; Gunstone, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Robyn Heckenberg and Andrew Gunstone team taught a first-year subject in Indigenous Australian Studies at Monash University for eight years. The significant majority of students undertaking this subject are non-Indigenous students who are studying the subject as an elective rather than as part of an Indigenous Studies course. In this paper, we…

  1. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  2. Indigenous Australian Women's Leadership: Stayin' Strong against the Post-Colonial Tide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Nereda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on my experiences as an Indigenous woman researcher coming to grips with colonialism through a post-colonialism lens. I also discuss a study which examines the leadership journey of a group of Indigenous Australian women. The research, which includes an auto-ethnographic approach, was guided by an Indigenous worldview…

  3. Self-Concepts and Educational Outcomes of Indigenous Australian Students in Urban and Rural School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Ali, Jinnat

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous Australians have been known to be disadvantaged in many ways although higher art and physical self-concepts have been reported with Indigenous samples. Given recent research demonstrating the reciprocal effects of achievement and self-concept in academic domains, Indigenous students may experience further disadvantages in both academic…

  4. Supervision Provided to Indigenous Australian Doctoral Students: A Black and White Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudgett, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The number of Indigenous Australians completing doctoral qualifications is disparately below their non-Indigenous contemporaries. Whilst there has been a steady increase in Indigenous completions in recent years, significant work remains to redress the imbalance. Supervision has been identified as a primary influencer of the likely success of…

  5. Haemophilus influenzae serotype a septic arthritis in an immunized central Australian indigenous child.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nicholas J

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a notable case of Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) septic arthritis in an immunized central Australian indigenous child. Since the widespread immunization for H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) in many indigenous peoples worldwide, there has been an increase in reported cases of Hia, postulating that this serotype is taking over the niche that Hib once occupied in indigenous populations.

  6. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  7. Developing Tests for the Assessment of Traditional Language Skill: A Case Study in an Indigenous Australian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loakes, Deborah; Moses, Karin; Simpson, Jane; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the development and piloting of a vocabulary recognition test designed for Indigenous Australian children. The research is both application oriented and development oriented. The aims of the article are to determine how well the test is used as a test instrument and the extent to which children recognize vocabulary items in…

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin in Critically Ill Australian Indigenous Patients with Severe Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Danny; Stewart, Penelope; Goud, Rajendra; Gourley, Stephen; Hewagama, Saliya; Krishnaswamy, Sushena; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-12-01

    There are no available pharmacokinetic data to guide piperacillin dosing in critically ill Australian Indigenous patients despite numerous reported physiological differences. This study aimed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of piperacillin in critically ill Australian Indigenous patients with severe sepsis. A population pharmacokinetic study of Indigenous patients with severe sepsis was conducted in a remote hospital intensive care unit. Plasma samples were collected over two dosing intervals and assayed by validated chromatography. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was conducted using Pmetrics. Nine patients were recruited, and a two-compartment model adequately described the data. The piperacillin clearance (CL), volume of distribution of the central compartment (Vc), and distribution rate constants from the central to the peripheral compartment and from the peripheral to the central compartment were 5.6 ± 3.2 liters/h, 14.5 ± 6.6 liters, 1.5 ± 0.4 h(-1), and 1.8 ± 0.9 h(-1), respectively, where CL and Vc were found to be described by creatinine clearance (CLCR) and total body weight, respectively. In this patient population, piperacillin demonstrated high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. CLCR was found to be the most important determinant of piperacillin pharmacokinetics.

  9. Indigenous Australian dental health: a brief review of caries experience.

    PubMed

    Martin-Iverson, N; Pacza, T; Phatouros, A; Tennant, M

    2000-03-01

    The indigenous community in Australia is an at risk population for oral diseases such as dental caries. The majority of communities are isolated and dental services in these areas are limited. Oral hygiene standards are poor and this combined with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates has led to high incidences of dental caries. In addition, diabetes, which is related to obesity (and a diet high in sugar and fat) has been linked to increases in oral disease. Caries prevalence was found to be low in areas where fluoridation levels in the water were high. The fact that the fluoride supplementation appears to improve oral health to a significant degree suggests that implementation of fluoride treatment programmes for school children and, where viable, fluoridation of water sources would be appropriate. In addition, dental education programmes should receive high priority. As with the rest of the community, these preventive measures will result in less need for emergency dental treatment in the future, better oral health for the community and reduced financial burden on the State. It is under these circumstances that oral health planners and providers must, in consultation with the relevant community representatives, develop appropriate mechanisms to address the needs of this group. The development of strategies that integrate with the plethora of general health strategies currently being implemented is just one means of achieving improved oral health outcomes for indigenous Australians.

  10. Engaging Indigenous Students in the Australian SKA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollow, Robert; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Brooks, Kate; Boddington, Leonie

    2015-08-01

    The Murchison region of Western Australia is the site of the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) that includes the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) and the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) and soon the SKA. This is also traditional land of the Wajarri Yamatji people. As part of its development in the region CSIRO has extensive engagement with the Wajarri Yamatji people. This includes educational, cultural, training and commercial opportunities. We outline the Indigenous Land Use Agreement (ILUA) between the Wajarri Yamatji and CSIRO, focusing on the educational and training aspects. Starting with "Wildflowers in the Sky" program in 2006 we have made extensive tours to all schools in the region providing teacher training and student engagement. More recently we have implemented a program where CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science staff visit the Pia Wadjarri Remote Community School, the closest school to the MRO, to mentor students. Students and staff from the school visit the MRO annually to explore the ASKAP telescope and see what is involved in its operation. An educational resource about ASKAP and astronomy that also incorporates traditional sky stories and local ecology is being trialled and developed. A cadetship and trainee program supporting Indigenous students has been implemented with the goal of providing employment opportunities and work skills in a diverse range of areas.

  11. Potential effectiveness of specific anti-smoking mass media advertisements among Australian Indigenous smokers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Harold S; Bowden, Jacqueline A; Bayly, Megan C; Sharplin, Greg R; Durkin, Sarah J; Miller, Caroline L; Givans, Sharon E; Warne, Charles D; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2011-12-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156 non-Indigenous smokers from South Australia were shown 10 anti-smoking advertisements representing a range of advertisements typically aired in Australia. Participants rated advertisements on a five-point Likert scale assessing factors including message acceptance and personalized effectiveness. On average, Indigenous people rated the mainstream advertisements higher than non-Indigenous people and were more likely to report that they provided new information. Advertisements with strong graphic imagery depicting the health effects of smoking were rated highest by Indigenous smokers. Advertisements featuring real people describing the serious health consequences of smoking received mixed responses. Those featuring an ill person were rated higher by Indigenous people than those featuring the family of the person affected by a smoking-related disease. With limited Indigenous-specific messages available and given the finite resources of most public health campaigns, exposure to mainstream strong graphic and emotive first-person narratives about the health effects of smoking are likely to be highly motivating for Indigenous smokers.

  12. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap. This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5–2 and 3.5–5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education. LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. PMID:25011454

  13. 'I sang Amazing Grace for about 3 hours that day': understanding Indigenous Australians' experience of seclusion.

    PubMed

    Sambrano, Rachel; Cox, Leonie

    2013-12-01

    Research shows that Indigenous Australians' suspicion and fear of being 'locked up' may influence mental health service avoidance. Given this, the aim of this study was to explore, by qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews (n = 3), how three Indigenous people experienced the controversial practice of seclusion. Hans-Georg Gadamer's phenomenology guided analysis of the material, and allowed narrated experiences to be understood within their cultural and historical context. Participants viewed seclusion negatively: police involvement in psychiatric care; perceptions of being punished and powerless; occasions of extreme use of force; and lack of care were prominent themes throughout the interviews. While power imbalances inherent in seclusion are problematic for all mental health clients, the distinguishing factor in the Indigenous clients' experience is that seclusion is continuous with the discriminatory and degrading treatment by governments, police, and health services that many Indigenous people have experienced since colonization. The participants' experiences echoed Goffman's findings that institutional practices act to degrade and dehumanize clients whose resulting conformity eases the work of nursing staff. While some nurses perceive that seclusion reduces clients' agitation, one must ask at what cost to clients' dignity, humanity, and basic human rights.

  14. Antibacterial compounds from the root of the indigenous Australian medicinal plant Carissa lanceolata R.Br.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Dhanushka S; Locher, Cornelia; Longmore, Robert B

    2011-09-01

    The conkerberry, Carissa lanceolata R.Br. (Apocynaceae), is commonly used by many indigenous Australian communities across Northern Australia for the treatment of a variety of conditions such as chest pain, toothache, colds and flu. Indigenous uses of this plant strongly argue for an antibacterial bioactivity. The aim is to identify antibacterial compounds from root material of C. lanceolata, therefore confirming the indigenous use of the plant. Antibacterial activity was examined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis using a micro broth dilution technique. Three compounds demonstrating considerable activity were isolated. The volatile phenolic compound 2'-hydroxyacetophenone and the lignan carinol both were reported for the first time from C. lanceolata, whereas this is the second account of the occurrence of carissone. All three compounds showed activity, with 2'-hydroxyacetophenone and carinol having a minimum inhibitory concentration of <1.25 mg mL⁻¹ against all four bacteria. Extracts and compounds isolated from C. lanceolata roots were found to possess a significant antibacterial activity, confirming the indigenous use of this plant.

  15. Young Australian Indigenous Students' Engagement with Numeracy: Actions that Assist to Bridge the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Elizabeth; deVries, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Many young Indigenous Australian students continue to underachieve in Western mathematics. National test results indicate that they are two years behind their peers. Success in mathematics is important to Indigenous students as it leads to employment opportunities and can assist in identifying power differences among socio-economic classes…

  16. PEARL: A Reflective Story about Decolonising Pedagogy in Indigenous Australian Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I take a creative and autoethnographic approach to reflect upon processes of decolonisation in Indigenous Australian studies classrooms. Positioning myself as a non-Indigenous educator, I take the reader on a journey through my search for pedagogy which makes space for the colonial, difficult and messy politics of race, whiteness…

  17. Pre-Service Teachers' Pedagogical Relationships and Experiences of Embedding Indigenous Australian Knowledge in Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Victor; Whatman, Susan; McLaughlin, Juliana; Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues from the standpoint that embedding Indigenous knowledge and perspectives in Australian curricula occurs within a space of tension, "the cultural interface", in negotiation and contestation with other dominant knowledge systems. In this interface, Indigenous knowledge is in a state of constancy and flux, invisible and…

  18. Study of intra-racial exclusion within Australian Indigenous communities using eco-maps.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Kerrie; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    In Australia, 'indigeneity' is not determined by skin colour, but rather by a person's heritage, acceptance by an indigenous community, and active participation in the affairs of that indigenous community. Some people who identify as indigenous, however, have experienced 'colourism' - that is, experiences of social exclusion because of the colour of their skin - from non-Indigenous and also Indigenous Australians. This paper describes research that explored the effect of intra-racial exclusion on the mental health and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on skin colour or 'manifest indigeneity'. Framed within a qualitative design, an eco-map was used to guide in-depth interviews with 32 participants that gave rise to personal stories that described the distress of experiencing intra-racial colourism. Findings were derived from a thematic analysis that identified four major themes: 'Growing up black', 'Living on black country', 'Looking black', and 'Fitting in black'. These findings are important because they suggest a way forward for mental health nurses to better understand and support the mental health and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians who have experienced social exclusion as a result of colourism.

  19. Designing an Australian Indigenous Studies Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Nakata's "Cultural Interface", Standpoints and Working beyond Binaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Michelle; Prince, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the recent reworking of Murdoch University's Australian Indigenous Studies major. For the discipline to realise its charter of decolonising knowledges about Indigenous peoples, it is necessary to move Indigenous Studies beyond the standard reversalist and unsustainable tropes that valorise romanticised notions of Indigeneity and…

  20. Media influences on body image and disordered eating among indigenous adolescent Australians.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males, 25 females) Australian adolescents (mean age 14.05, SD = 1.05). Consistent with past studies, girls were more likely to be dissatisfied with their weight and engage in strategies to lose weight. However, contrary to expectations, indigenous adolescents engaged in more strategies to lose weight, increase weight, and increase muscles than did non-indigenous adolescents, despite perceiving fewer media messages about losing weight. Additional factors that may explain the findings and the need for further research with different cultural groups are highlighted.

  1. Life, lifestyle and location: examining the complexities of psychological distress in young adult Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Davison, B; Nagel, T; Singh, G R

    2017-03-27

    Mental health is fundamental to an individual's health and well-being. Mental health disorders affect a substantial portion of the Australian population, with the most vulnerable time in adolescence and young adulthood. Indigenous Australians fare worse than other Australians on almost every measure of physical and mental health. Cross-sectional data from young adults (21-27 years) participating in the Life Course Program, Northern Territory, Australia, is presented. Rates of psychological distress were high in remote and urban residing Indigenous and urban non-Indigenous young adults. This rate was more pronounced in young women, particularly in Indigenous remote and urban residing women. Young adults with high psychological distress also had lower levels of positive well-being, higher perceived stress levels, experienced a higher number of major life events and were at an increased risk of suicidal ideation and/or self-harm. This study supports the need for a continued focus on early screening and treatment at this vulnerable age. The significant association seen between psychological distress and other markers of emotional well-being, particularly risk of suicidal ideation and/or self-harm, highlights the need for a holistic approach to mental health assessment and treatment. A concerted focus on improving the environs of young adults by lowering levels of stress, improving access to adequate housing, educational and employment opportunity, will assist in improving the emotional health of young adults.

  2. Personalised Medicine: A New Approach to Improving Health in Indigenous Australian Populations.

    PubMed

    Rae, Kym M; Grimson, Steve; Pringle, Kirsty G

    2017-01-06

    Personalised medicine is a newly emerging field with much to offer to all populations in improved clinical treatment options. Since the 1970s, clinicians and researchers have all been working towards improving the health of Indigenous Australians. However, there has been little research on the impact of genetics on Indigenous health, how genetic and environmental factors interact to contribute to poor health in Indigenous people, and how genetic factors specific to Indigenous people affect their responses to particular treatments. This short review highlights the urgent need for more genetic studies specific to Indigenous people in order to provide more appropriate care and to improve health outcomes. This paper explores why genetic work with Indigenous communities has been limited, how personalised medicine could benefit Indigenous communities, and highlights a number of specific instances in which personalised medicine has been critical for improving morbidity and mortality in other high-risk groups. In order to take the next step in advancing the health of Indigenous peoples, targeted research into the genetic factors behind chronic diseases is critically needed. This research may allow clinicians a better understanding of how genetic factors interact with environmental factors to influence an Indigenous Australian's individual risk of disease, prognosis, and response to therapies. It is hoped that this knowledge will produce clinical interventions that will help deliver clearly targeted, more appropriate care to this at-risk population.

  3. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  4. Primary health-care responses to methamphetamine use in Australian Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Sarah; Harney, Angela; Arabena, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Crystal methamphetamine (commonly known as 'ice') use is currently a deeply concerning problem for some Australian Indigenous peoples and can cause serious harms to individual, families and communities. This paper is intended to support best practice responses by primary health-care staff working with Australian Indigenous people who use methamphetamine. It draws on a systematic search of relevant databases to identify literature from January 1999 to February 2014, providing an overview of prevalence, treatment, education and harm reduction, and community responses. The prevalence of methamphetamine use is higher in Indigenous than non-Indigenous communities, particularly in urban and regional settings. No evidence was identified that specifically related to effective treatment and treatment outcomes for Indigenous Australians experiencing methamphetamine dependence or problematic use. While studies involving methamphetamine users in the mainstream population suggest that psychological and residential treatments show short-term promise, longer-term outcomes are less clear. Community-driven interventions involving Indigenous populations in Australia and internationally appear to have a high level of community acceptability; however, outcomes in terms of methamphetamine use are rarely evaluated. Improved national data on prevalence of methamphetamine use among Indigenous people and levels of treatment access would support service planning. We argue for the importance of a strength-based approach to addressing methamphetamine use, to counteract the stigma and despair that frequently accompanies it.

  5. The effect of social support on the health of Indigenous Australians in a metropolitan community.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Pippa; Rosenberg, Michael; Braham, Rebecca; Pescud, Melanie; Dimmock, James

    2014-10-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians continue to be poorly understood. Despite this, studies confirm that social connections are a very important part of Indigenous life, and it is likely these connections play an important role in influencing health outcomes among this population. Examining the support provided by social connections in relation to health behaviour may assist our understanding of health outcomes among Indigenous Australians. The current study is focused on exploring Indigenous participants' impressions of their social network and social support using Participatory Action Research methodology and qualitative methods. The objective was to identify the influence of social support on the health outcomes of Indigenous people within a Western Australian metropolitan community. Seventeen members of the community were interviewed during the study. The participants had extensive social networks that mainly comprised members of their kinship group. The consequences of this social network included: (1) the positive effects of social support from bonded relationships; (2) the negative effects of social support produced by over-obligation and unidirectional support involving bonded relationships; (3) limited or inadequate social support caused by withdrawal from bonded relationships; (4) lack of social support from bridging relationships; and (5) a strong desire for connection and a sense of belonging.

  6. Independent Correlates of Reported Gambling Problems amongst Indigenous Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Matthew; Young, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To identify independent correlates of reported gambling problems amongst the Indigenous population of Australia. A cross-sectional design was applied to a nationally representative sample of the Indigenous population. Estimates of reported gambling problems are presented by remoteness and jurisdiction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to…

  7. Indigenous Employment and Enterprise Agreements in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cath

    2014-01-01

    Considering the benefits that enterprise agreements (EAs) can bring to Indigenous employees, this paper considers the question of whether respectful cultural policies that are aligned with reconciliation and included in EAs can be achieved to Close the Gap on reducing Indigenous disadvantage. A document analysis of EAs at eight Australian…

  8. A Motivational Psychology for the Education of Indigenous Australian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores an integrative framework for a motivational psychology for the education of Indigenous students. Drawing on and adapting Graham's (1994) taxonomy for motivational psychology, it is suggested that enhancing the educational outcomes of Indigenous students involves addressing factors relevant to the self (positive identity,…

  9. Growth and Empowerment for Indigenous Australians in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Stacey L.; Crowe, T. P.; Deane, F. P.; Billingham, M.; Bhagerutty, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes psychosocial outcomes of an Indigenous residential substance abuse rehabilitation centre in Australia, examines the sensitivity to change of the new Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM), and explores the degree to which service users value cultural components of the treatment program. Participants were 57 Indigenous and 46…

  10. Developing a Collaborative Approach to Standpoint in Indigenous Australian Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tur, Simone Ulalka; Blanch, Faye Rosas; Wilson, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The notion of Indigenous epistemologies and "ways of knowing" continues to be undervalued within various academic disciplines, particularly those who continue to draw upon "scientific" approaches that colonise Indigenous peoples today. This paper will examine the politics of contested knowledge from the perspective of three…

  11. New Digital Technologies: Educational Opportunities for Australian Indigenous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Shalini

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a number of possibilities that digital technologies can offer to increase access for Indigenous people to higher education in Australia. Such technologies can assist Indigenous high school students acquire the knowledge and skills they require to be accepted into higher education courses. They can also assist Indigenous…

  12. Indigenous Australians' Access to Higher Education: A Catholic University's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Peter G.; McMullen, Gabrielle L.

    2006-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous peoples represent 2.5% of the national population but this number is increasing at a faster rate than the national average of other demographic groups. The history of the Indigenous peoples is one of dispossession and displacement, and a loss of cultures and languages. Access to and participation in education at all levels,…

  13. The Impact of Professional Development and Indigenous Education Officers on Australian Teachers' Indigenous Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Han, Feifei

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of professional development (PD) in Indigenous teaching on teachers' psychological and behavioural aspects, and Indigenous students' learning engagement. Adopting a multiple-indicator-multiple-indicator-cause model, frequency of PD was found to have positive paths to teachers' self-concept in Indigenous teaching…

  14. Total and unbound ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics in critically ill Australian Indigenous patients with severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Danny; Stewart, Penelope; Goud, Rajendra; Gourley, Stephen; Hewagama, Saliya; Krishnaswamy, Sushena; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of specific data to guide optimal dosing, this study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in severely septic Australian Indigenous patients and to assess achievement of the pharmacodynamic target of the regimens prescribed. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in a remote hospital intensive care unit in patients receiving ceftriaxone dosing of 1 g every 12 h (q12h). Serial blood and urine samples were collected over one dosing interval on two consecutive days. Samples were assayed using a validated chromatography method for total and unbound concentrations. Concentration-time data collected were analysed with a non-compartmental approach. A total of 100 plasma samples were collected from five subjects. Ceftriaxone clearance, volume of distribution at steady-state, elimination half-life and elimination rate constant estimates were 0.9 (0.6-1.5) L/h, 11.2 (7.6-13.4) L, 9.5 (3.2-10.2) h and 0.07 (0.07-0.21) h(-1), respectively. The unbound fraction of ceftriaxone ranged between 14% and 43%, with a higher unbound fraction present at higher total concentrations. The unbound concentrations at 720 min from the initiation of infusion for the first and second dosing intervals were 7.2 (4.8-10.7) mg/L and 7.8 (4.7-12.1) mg/L respectively, which exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration of all typical target pathogens. In conclusion, the regimen of ceftriaxone 1 g q12h is adequate for critically ill Australian Indigenous patients with severe sepsis caused by non-resistant pathogens.

  15. Literacy skills of Australian Indigenous school children with and without otitis media and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Timms, Lydia; Williams, Cori; Stokes, Stephanie F; Kane, Robert

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading, spelling, and the presence of otitis media (OM) and co-occurring hearing loss (HL) in metropolitan Indigenous Australian children, and compared their reading and spelling outcomes with those of their non-Indigenous peers. OM and HL may hinder language development and phonological awareness skills, but there is little empirical evidence to link OM/HL and literacy in this population. Eighty-six Indigenous and non-Indigenous children attending pre-primary, year one and year two at primary schools in the Perth metropolitan area participated in the study. The ear health of the participants was screened by Telethon Speech and Hearing Centre EarBus in 2011/2012. Participants' reading and spelling skills were tested with culturally modified sub-tests of the Queensland University Inventory of Literacy. Of the 46 Indigenous children, 18 presented with at least one episode of OM and one episode of HL. Results indicated that Indigenous participants had significantly poorer non-word and real word reading and spelling skills than their non-Indigenous peers. There was no significant difference between the groups of Indigenous participants with OM and HL and those with normal ear health on either measure. This research provides evidence to suggest that Indigenous children have ongoing literacy development difficulties and discusses the possibility of OM as one of many impacting factors.

  16. Teachers' Attitudes to Including Indigenous Knowledges in the Australian Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baynes, Renee

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction of the Australian National Curriculum containing the "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures" Cross-Curriculum Priority (CCP) and "Intercultural Understanding" General Capability, there has been a renewed push to embed Indigenous content into secondary school subjects. This paper…

  17. "Tone It down a Bit!": Euphemism as a Colonial Device in Australian Indigenous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGloin, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    In a previous article discussing the politics of language in Australian Indigenous Studies teaching and learning contexts, the author and her colleague stated their objective in writing that article was to ''instill'' a sense of the importance of the political nature of language to their student body (McGloin and Carlson 2013). They wanted to…

  18. Between Duty Statement and Reality--The "Linguist/Coordinator" at an Australian Indigenous Language Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olawsky, Knut J.

    2014-01-01

    The size of Australian Indigenous language centres varies from small programs with a single employment position up to large organisations which may involve several linguists, a manager and a range of support staff. This article is based on the linguist's work at an organisation at the smaller end of the scale--"Mirima Dawang…

  19. The School to Work Transition of Indigenous Australians: A Review of the Literature and Statistical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Mike; Frigo, Tracey; Batten, Margaret

    This report describes the current educational and employment situation of Australian Indigenous youth in terms of their pathways from school to work. A literature review and analysis of statistical data identify barriers to successful transition from school to work, including forms of teaching, curriculum, and assessment that pose greater…

  20. Children's Language Input: A Study of a Remote Multilingual Indigenous Australian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loakes, Deborah; Moses, Karin; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Simpson, Jane; Billington, Rosey

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous children growing up in the remote regions of Australia live in multilingual communities which are often undergoing rapid language shift. In these communities, children are exposed to a range of language input, including the traditional language of the area, a local creole and Standard Australian English. The extent to which the…

  1. Where Do We Look Now? The Future of Research in Indigenous Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Research in Indigenous Australian education is at a dead-end. Researchers are still heading out into the field to look for new knowledge to answer old questions. The same epistemology dominates how we look, and where, while the methodology provides the researcher with a forced choice, one where either the student or the teacher is blamed for the…

  2. Towards a Decolonising Pedagogy: Understanding Australian Indigenous Studies through Critical Whiteness Theory and Film Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Genine

    2012-01-01

    This article explores student and teacher engagement with Australian Indigenous Studies. In this article I identify key themes in the film "September" (2007) that demonstrate how the film can be used as a catalyst for student learning and discussion. Critical whiteness theory provides a framework to explore three themes, the invisibility…

  3. Menopause and the influence of culture: another gap for Indigenous Australian women?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is great variation in experience of menopause in women around the world. The purpose of this study was to review current understanding of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) women’s experiences of menopause. The literature pertaining to the perception, significance and experience of menopause from a number of cultural groups around the world has been included to provide context for why Indigenous women’s experience might be important for their health and differ from that reported in other studies of Australian women and menopause. Methods A search of databases including Ovid Medline, Pubmed, Web of Science, AUSThealth, AMED, EMBASE, Global Health and PsychINFO was undertaken from January 2011 to April 2011 using the search terms menopause, Indigenous, Aboriginal, attitudes, and perceptions and repeated in September 2012. Results Considerable research shows significant variation across cultures in the menopausal experience. Biological, psychological, social and cultural factors are associated with either positive or negative attitudes, perceptions or experiences of menopause in various cultures. Comparative international literature shows that neither biological nor social factors alone are sufficient to explain the variation in experiences of the menopausal transition. However, a strong influence of culture on the menopause experience can be found. The variation in women’s experience of menopause indicates that different cultural groups of women may have different understandings and needs during the menopausal transition. While considerable literature exists for Australian women as a whole, there has been little investigation of Australian Indigenous women, with only two research studies related to Indigenous women’s experiences of menopause identified. Conclusions Differences in biocultural experience of menopause around the world suggest the importance of biocultural research. For the Indigenous women of Australia

  4. Towards identification of immune and genetic correlates of severe influenza disease in Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Clemens, E Bridie; Grant, Emma J; Wang, Zhongfang; Gras, Stephanie; Tipping, Peta; Rossjohn, Jamie; Miller, Adrian; Tong, Steven Y C; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-04-01

    Indigenous populations, including Indigenous Australians, are highly susceptible to severe influenza disease and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We studied immune and genetic factors that could predicate severe influenza disease in Indigenous Australians enrolled in the LIFT study: looking into influenza T-cell immunity. To examine CD8(+) T-cell immunity, we characterised human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profiles. HLA typing confirmed previous studies showing predominant usage of HLA-A*02:01, 11:01, 24:02, 34:01 and HLA-B*13:01, 15:21, 40:01/02, 56:01/02 in Indigenous Australians. We identified two new HLA alleles (HLA-A*02:new and HLA-B*56:new). Modelling suggests that variations within HLA-A*02:new (but not HLA-B56:new) could affect peptide binding. There is a relative lack of known influenza epitopes for the majority of these HLAs, with the exception of a universal HLA-A*02:01-M158 epitope and proposed epitopes presented by HLA-A*11:01/HLA-A*24:02. To dissect universal CD8(+) T-cell responses, we analysed the magnitude, function and T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality of HLA-A*02:01-M158(+)CD8(+) T cells. We found comparable IFN-γ, TNF and CD107a and TCRαβ characteristics in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, suggesting that the ~15% of Indigenous people that express HLA-A*02:01 have universal influenza-specific CD8(+) T-cell immunity. Furthermore, the frequency of an influenza host risk factor, IFITM3-C/C, was comparable between Indigenous Australians and Europeans, suggesting that expression of this allele does not explain increased disease severity at a population level. Our study indicates a need to identify novel influenza-specific CD8(+) T-cell epitopes restricted by HLA-A and HLA-B alleles prevalent in Indigenous populations for the rational design of universal T-cell vaccines.

  5. Ibobbly mobile health intervention for suicide prevention in Australian Indigenous youth: a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shand, Fiona; Ridani, Rebecca; Mackinnon, Andrew; De La Mata, Nicole; Christensen, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Rates of youth suicide in Australian Indigenous communities are 4 times the national youth average and demand innovative interventions. Historical and persistent disadvantage is coupled with multiple barriers to help seeking. Mobile phone applications offer the opportunity to deliver therapeutic interventions directly to individuals in remote communities. The pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a self-help mobile app (ibobbly) targeting suicidal ideation, depression, psychological distress and impulsivity among Indigenous youth in remote Australia. Setting Remote and very remote communities in the Kimberley region of North Western Australia. Participants Indigenous Australians aged 18–35 years. Interventions 61 participants were recruited and randomised to receive either an app (ibobbly) which delivered acceptance-based therapy over 6 weeks or were waitlisted for 6 weeks and then received the app for the following 6 weeks. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the Depressive Symptom Inventory—Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS) to identify the frequency and intensity of suicidal ideation in the previous weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Results Although preintervention and postintervention changes on the (DSI-SS) were significant in the ibobbly arm (t=2.40; df=58.1; p=0.0195), these differences were not significant compared with the waitlist arm (t=1.05; df=57.8; p=0.2962). However, participants in the ibobbly group showed substantial and statistically significant reductions in PHQ-9 and K10 scores compared with waitlist. No differences were observed in impulsivity. Waitlist participants improved after 6 weeks of app use. Conclusions Apps for suicide prevention reduce distress and depression but do not show significant reductions on suicide ideation or impulsivity. A feasible

  6. Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population. This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. Methods A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. Results The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating the already widening

  7. The Impact of Prior Flavivirus Infections on the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Among the Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Alanna; Owens, Leigh; Caltabiano, Marie; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Hall, Roy; Govan, Brenda; Clancy, Paula

    2016-08-03

    It is estimated that 5% of Australians over the age of 18 have diabetes, with the number of new cases increasing every year. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) also represents a significant disease burden in the Australian indigenous population, where prevalence is three times greater than that of non-indigenous Australians. Prevalence of T2D has been found to be higher in rural and remote indigenous Australian populations compared with urban indigenous Australian populations. Several studies have also found that body mass index and waist circumference are not appropriate for the prediction of T2D risk in indigenous Australians. Regional and remote areas of Australia are endemic for a variety of mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Studies that have investigated seroprevalence of flaviviruses in remote aboriginal communities have found high proportions of seroconversion. The family Flaviviridae comprises several genera of viruses with non-segmented single-stranded positive sense RNA genomes, and includes the flaviviruses and hepaciviruses. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and subsequent development of T2D. Flaviviruses and HCV possess conserved proteins and subgenomic RNA structures that may play similar roles in the development of insulin resistance. Although dietary and lifestyle factors are associated with increased risk of developing T2D, the impact of infectious diseases such as arboviruses has not been assessed. Flaviviruses circulating in indigenous Australian communities may play a significant role in inducing glucose intolerance and exacerbating T2D.

  8. Bridging the Gap? A Comparative, Retrospective Analysis of Science Literacy and Interest in Science for Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australian Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConney, Andrew; Oliver, Mary; Woods-McConney, Amanda; Schibeci, Renato

    2011-09-01

    Previous research has shown that indigenous students in Australia do not enjoy equal educational outcomes with other Australians. This secondary analysis of PISA 2006 confirmed that this continues to be the case in science literacy for secondary students. However, the analysis also revealed that indigenous Australian students held interest in science equal to that of their non-indigenous peers, and that observed variations in science literacy performance were most strongly explained by variations in reading literacy. These findings hold important implications for teachers, teacher educators, policy-makers, and researchers. Firstly, acknowledging and publicly valuing indigenous Australian science knowledge through rethinking school science curriculum seems an important approach to engaging indigenous students and improving their literacy in science. Secondly, appropriate professional learning for practising teachers and the incorporation of indigenous knowing in science methods training in teacher preparation seems warranted. Additionally, we offer a number of questions for further reflection and research that would benefit our understanding of ways forward in closing the science literacy gap for indigenous students. Whilst this research remains firmly situated within the Australian educational context, we at the same time believe that the findings and implications offered here hold value for science education practitioners and researchers in other countries with similar populations striving to achieve science literacy for all.

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of overweight and obesity in indigenous Australian children: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Suzanne Marie; Gomersall, Judith Streak; Smithers, Lisa Gaye; Davy, Carol; Coleman, Dylan T; Street, Jackie Mary

    2017-05-03

    Evidence-based profiling of obesity and overweight in Indigenous Australian children has been poor. This study systematically reviewed evidence of the prevalence and patterns of obesity/overweight, with respect to gender, age, remoteness, and birth weight, in Indigenous Australian children, 0-18 years (PROSPERO CRD42014007626). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed. Twenty-five publications (21 studies) met inclusion criteria, with large variations in prevalence for obesity or overweight (11 to 54%) reported. A high degree of heterogeneity in study design was observed, few studies (6/21) were representative of the target population, and few appropriately recruited Indigenous children (8/21). Variability in study design, conduct, and small sample sizes mean that it is not possible to derive a single estimate for prevalence although two high-quality studies indicate at least one in four Indigenous Australian children are overweight or obese. Four of six studies reporting on gender, found overweight/obesity higher in girls and eight studies reporting on overweight/obesity by age suggest prevalence increases with age with one high quality large national study reporting total overweight/obesity as 22.4% of children aged 2-4 years, 27.5% of those aged 5-9, 38.5% aged 10-14, and 36.3% aged 15-17. Three of four studies, reporting obesity/overweight by region, found lower rates for children living in more remote areas than urban areas.

  10. The Legacy of Racism and Indigenous Australian Identity within Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Carlson, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    It may be argued that the emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for Australia's First Peoples (when compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts) are becoming increasingly dissociated with an understanding of the interplay between historical and current trends in racism.…

  11. Indigenous Australian Education: A New Millennium, a More Focused Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripcony, Penny

    Considerable progress has been made in Australia toward the attainment of equitable educational outcomes by Aboriginal people during the past 30 years, and by people of the Torres Strait Islands during the past 15 years. Although parity of outcomes has not yet been achieved, Indigenous education is now positioned within the core business of both…

  12. Story Telling: Australian Indigenous Women's Means of Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kaye; Acklin, F.; Newman, J.; Arbon, V.; Trindal, A.; Bermingham, M.; Thompson, B.

    Story-telling, an oral tradition of the indigenous peoples of Australia, was recorded on video as a vehicle for conveying health promotion messages in several urban Aboriginal (Koori) communities in Sydney, Australia. The video was made by a group of Koori women Elders and two female Aboriginal academics. The Elders integrated their personal…

  13. The Education of Indigenous Australian Students: Same Story, Different Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Australia's indigenous population is made up of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who each have distinctly different cultures. The former can be found in cities and towns and across the vast reaches of rural and remote Australia. The latter generally inhabit the coastal islands off the northeast coast and adjacent mainland areas.…

  14. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, low = 1.1-3.0%, low medium = 3.1-6.0%, high medium = 6.1-10.0%, high = 10.1-20.0%, very high = 20 + %). The analysis of health service utilisation also took into account age, remoteness and the Socioeconomic Indices for Areas (SEIFA). Results The rate of eye exams provided in areas with very high Indigenous populations was two-thirds of the rate of eye exams for areas with very low indigenous populations. The cataract surgery rates in areas with high medium to very high Indigenous populations were less than half that reference areas. In over a third of communities with very high Indigenous populations the cataract surgery rate fell below the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines compared to a cataract surgery rate of 3% in areas with very low Indigenous populations. Conclusions There remain serious disparities in access to eye health service in areas with high Indigenous populations. Addressing disparities requires a co-ordinated approach to improving Indigenous people’s access to eye health services. More extensive take-up of existing Medicare provisions is an important step in this process. Along with improving access to health services, community education concerning the importance of eye health and the effectiveness of treatment might reduce reluctance to seek help. PMID:22998612

  15. Burdens Too Difficult to Carry? A Case Study of Three Academically Able Indigenous Australian Masters Students Who Had to Withdraw

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirgwin, Sharon Kaye

    2015-01-01

    Previous research into attrition rates of Indigenous Australian Higher Degree by Research (HDR) candidates has focused on institutional barriers, highlighting cultural disparities. This case study of three academically able candidates who withdrew before completion from an institution designed to meet the needs of Indigenous students describes…

  16. A Discussion with Sandy O'Sullivan about Key Issues for the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article takes the form of an interview with Sandy O'Sullivan, who is a partner on the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network, about key issues that have arisen through Network discussions. She is a Wiradjuri woman and a Senior Aboriginal researcher at the Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education. O'Sullivan…

  17. Culture and PCR detection of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in Australian Indigenous children with bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Hare, K M; Binks, M J; Grimwood, K; Chang, A B; Leach, A J; Smith-Vaughan, H

    2012-07-01

    A PCR for protein D (hpd#3) was used to differentiate nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) from Haemophilus haemolyticus. While 90% of nasopharyngeal specimens and 100% of lower-airway specimens from 84 Indigenous Australian children with bronchiectasis had phenotypic NTHI isolates confirmed as H. influenzae, only 39% of oropharyngeal specimens with phenotypic NTHI had H. influenzae. The nasopharynx is therefore the preferred site for NTHI colonization studies, and NTHI is confirmed as an important lower-airway pathogen.

  18. Molecular virology of hepatitis B virus, sub-genotype C4 in northern Australian Indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, M; Davies, J; Yuen, L; Edwards, R; Sozzi, T; Jackson, K; Cowie, B; Tong, S; Davis, J; Locarnini, S

    2014-04-01

    Indigenous Australians experience a significant health burden from chronic hepatitis B infection; however, the strain of hepatitis B virus (HBV) found among Indigenous Australians has not been well characterized. Blood samples were collected from 65 Indigenous Australians with chronic HBV infection from across the Top End of Australia's Northern Territory. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV from these samples revealed that 100% of the isolates were genotype C, sub-genotype C4, expressing the serotype ayw3. This strain is a divergent group within the HBV/C genotype, and has only been described in Indigenous Australians. Evidence of recombination was suggested by discordant phylogenetic clustering of the C4 sequences when comparing the full genome to the surface region and confirmed by recombination analysis which showed the surface gene region to be most closely related to genotype J, while the remaining regions of the genome were most similar to genotype C sequences. Mutational analysis revealed the presence of multiple mutations that have been linked with more rapid liver disease progression and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. These mutations were detected in the majority of sequences examined. Variants associated with vaccine failure were detected as the predominant viral quasi-species in 3/35 samples. In summary, the HBV C4 variant found in this population has a high potential to cause advanced liver disease and to escape vaccination programs. Further in vitro functional and natural history studies are warranted in order to determine the clinical and public health consequences of infection with the HBV C4 variant in these communities.

  19. Exploring productivity and collaboration in Australian Indigenous health research, 1995–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Building research capacity in Indigenous health has been recognised as integral in efforts to reduce the significant health disparities between Indigenous and other Australian populations. The past few decades have seen substantial changes in funding policy for Australian Indigenous health research, including increases in overall expenditure and a greater focus on collaborative and priority-driven research. However, whether these policy shifts have resulted in any change to the structure of the research workforce in this field is unclear. We examine research publications in Australian Indigenous health from 1995–2008 to explore trends in publication output, key themes investigated, and research collaborations. Methods A comprehensive literature search was undertaken to identify research publications about Australian Indigenous health from 1995–2008. Abstracts of all publications identified were reviewed by two investigators for relevance. Eligible publications were classified according to key themes. Social network analyses of co-authorship patterns were used to examine collaboration in the periods 1995–1999, 2000–2004 and 2005–2008. Results Nine hundred and fifty three publications were identified. Over time, the number of publications per year increased, particularly after 2005, and there was a substantial increase in assessment of health service-related issues. Network analyses revealed a highly collaborative core group of authors responsible for the majority of outputs, in addition to a series of smaller separate groups. In the first two periods there was a small increase in the overall network size (from n = 583 to n = 642 authors) due to growth in collaborations around the core. In the last period, the network size increased considerably (n = 1,083), largely due to an increase in the number and size of separate groups. The general size of collaborations also increased in this period. Conclusions In the past few decades there

  20. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People

    PubMed Central

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people. PMID:26599437

  1. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-12-03

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993-2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden.

  2. Indigenous health and environmental risk factors: an Australian problem with global analogues?

    PubMed

    Knibbs, Luke D; Sly, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous people experience poorer health than non-Indigenous people, and this well-described inequality has been observed in many countries. The contribution of different risk factors to the health 'gap' has understandably focussed on those factors for which there are sufficient data. However, this has precluded environmental risk factors - those present in air, water, food, and soil - due to a lack of data describing exposures and outcomes. These risk factors are demonstrably important at the global scale, as highlighted by the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Here, we describe how a greater focus on environmental risk factors is required in order to define their role in the Indigenous health gap. We use the Australian context as a case study of an issue we feel has global analogues and relevance. Suggestions for how and why this situation should be remedied are presented and discussed.

  3. Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies.

    PubMed

    Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A

    2013-09-01

    Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.

  4. Health literacy and Australian Indigenous peoples: an analysis of the role of language and worldview.

    PubMed

    Vass, Alyssa; Mitchell, Alice; Dhurrkay, Yurranydjil

    2011-04-01

    This article delineates specific issues relating to health literacy for Indigenous Australians. Drawing on the extensive experience of the authors' work with Yolnu people (of north-east Arnhem Land) and using one model for health literacy described in the international literature, various components of health literacy are explored, including fundamental literacy, scientific literacy, community literacy and cultural literacy. By matching these components to the characteristics of Yolnu people, the authors argue that language and worldview form an integral part of health education methodology when working with Indigenous people whose first language is not English and who do not have a biomedical worldview in their history. Only through acknowledging and actively engaging with these characteristics of Indigenous people can all aspects of health literacy be addressed and health empowerment be attained.

  5. Indigenous health and environmental risk factors: an Australian problem with global analogues?

    PubMed Central

    Knibbs, Luke D.; Sly, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous people experience poorer health than non-Indigenous people, and this well-described inequality has been observed in many countries. The contribution of different risk factors to the health ‘gap’ has understandably focussed on those factors for which there are sufficient data. However, this has precluded environmental risk factors – those present in air, water, food, and soil – due to a lack of data describing exposures and outcomes. These risk factors are demonstrably important at the global scale, as highlighted by the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Here, we describe how a greater focus on environmental risk factors is required in order to define their role in the Indigenous health gap. We use the Australian context as a case study of an issue we feel has global analogues and relevance. Suggestions for how and why this situation should be remedied are presented and discussed. PMID:24802385

  6. Translation of tobacco policy into practice in disadvantaged and marginalized subpopulations: a study of challenges and opportunities in remote Australian Indigenous communities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Australia generally, smoking prevalence more than halved after 1980 and recently commenced to decline among Australia's disadvantaged Indigenous peoples. However, in some remote Indigenous Australian communities in the Northern Territory (NT), extremely high rates of up to 83% have not changed over the past 25 years. The World Health Organisation has called for public health and political leadership to address a global tobacco epidemic. For Indigenous Australians, unprecedented policies aim to overcome disadvantage and close the 'health gap' with reducing tobacco use the top priority. This study identifies challenges and opportunities to implementing these important new tobacco initiatives in remote Indigenous communities. Methods: With little empirical evidence available, we interviewed 82 key stakeholders across the NT representing operational- and management-level service providers, local Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants to identify challenges and opportunities for translating new policies into successful tobacco interventions. Data were analysed using qualitative approaches to identify emergent themes. Results The 20 emergent themes were classified using counts of occasions each theme occurred in the transcribed data as challenge or opportunity. The 'smoke-free policies' theme occurred most frequently as opportunity but infrequently as challenge while 'health workforce capacity' occurred most frequently as challenge but less frequently as opportunity, suggesting that policy implementation is constrained by lack of a skilled workforce. 'Smoking cessation support' occurred frequently as opportunity but also frequently as challenge suggesting that support for individuals requires additional input and attention. Conclusions These results from interviews with local and operational-level participants indicate that current tobacco policies in Australia targeting Indigenous smoking are sound and comprehensive. However, for remote Indigenous

  7. An online spatial database of Australian Indigenous Biocultural Knowledge for contemporary natural and cultural resource management.

    PubMed

    Pert, Petina L; Ens, Emilie J; Locke, John; Clarke, Philip A; Packer, Joanne M; Turpin, Gerry

    2015-11-15

    With growing international calls for the enhanced involvement of Indigenous peoples and their biocultural knowledge in managing conservation and the sustainable use of physical environment, it is timely to review the available literature and develop cross-cultural approaches to the management of biocultural resources. Online spatial databases are becoming common tools for educating land managers about Indigenous Biocultural Knowledge (IBK), specifically to raise a broad awareness of issues, identify knowledge gaps and opportunities, and to promote collaboration. Here we describe a novel approach to the application of internet and spatial analysis tools that provide an overview of publically available documented Australian IBK (AIBK) and outline the processes used to develop the online resource. By funding an AIBK working group, the Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (ACEAS) provided a unique opportunity to bring together cross-cultural, cross-disciplinary and trans-organizational contributors who developed these resources. Without such an intentionally collaborative process, this unique tool would not have been developed. The tool developed through this process is derived from a spatial and temporal literature review, case studies and a compilation of methods, as well as other relevant AIBK papers. The online resource illustrates the depth and breadth of documented IBK and identifies opportunities for further work, partnerships and investment for the benefit of not only Indigenous Australians, but all Australians. The database currently includes links to over 1500 publically available IBK documents, of which 568 are geo-referenced and were mapped. It is anticipated that as awareness of the online resource grows, more documents will be provided through the website to build the database. It is envisaged that this will become a well-used tool, integral to future natural and cultural resource management and maintenance.

  8. Socio-demographic factors and psychological distress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. Methods The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5), and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD) was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25). Results Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-16.0%) versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%). After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Conclusions Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic variables in

  9. Development and preliminary validation of the 'Caring for Country' questionnaire: measurement of an Indigenous Australian health determinant

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Christopher P; Berry, Helen L; Gunthorpe, Wendy; Bailie, Ross S

    2008-01-01

    Background 'Caring for Country' is defined as Indigenous participation in interrelated activities with the objective of promoting ecological and human health. Ecological services on Indigenous-owned lands are belatedly attracting some institutional investment. However, the health outcomes associated with Indigenous participation in 'caring for country' activities have never been investigated. The aims of this study were to pilot and validate a questionnaire measuring caring for country as an Indigenous health determinant and to relate it to an external reference, obesity. Methods Purposively sampled participants were 301 Indigenous adults aged 15 to 54 years, recruited during a cross-sectional program of preventive health checks in a remote Australian community. Questionnaire validation was undertaken with psychometric tests of internal consistency, reliability, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory one-factor congeneric modelling. Accurate item weightings were derived from the model and used to create a single weighted composite score for caring for country. Multiple linear regression modelling was used to test associations between the caring for country score and body mass index adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours. Results The questionnaire demonstrated adequate internal consistency, test-retest validity and proxy-respondent validity. Exploratory factor analysis of the 'caring for country' items produced a single factor solution that was confirmed via one-factor congeneric modelling. A significant and substantial association between greater participation in caring for country activities and lower body mass index was demonstrated. Adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours, an inter-quartile range rise in caring for country scores was associated with 6.1 Kg and 5.3 Kg less body weight for non-pregnant women and men respectively. Conclusion This study indicates preliminary support for the validity of the caring

  10. New Visions: Exploring Australian Identity through Films Highlighting Experiences of Indigenous Australians: Year 8 Film Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Monika; Wenlock, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Prior to 2011, Year 8 students studied a single film as text, "Yolngu Boy." This had been on the syllabus for several years, and the consensus was that it was time to review the unit, refresh the text and introduce multiple film texts that would present varying visions and perspectives of notions of what it is to be "Australian". The authors aimed…

  11. 'A politics of what': the enactment of peritoneal dialysis in indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Alexandra; Martin-McDonald, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores, on the one hand, the requirements of the technologies and practices that have been developed for a particular type of renal patient and health network in Australia. On the other, we examine the cultural and practical specificities entailed in the performance of these technologies and practices in the Indigenous Australian context. The praxiographic orientation of the actor-network approach - which has been called 'the politics of what' (Mol 2002) - enabled us to understand the difficulties involved in translating renal healthcare networks across cultural contexts in Australia; to understand the dynamic and contested nature of these networks; and to suggest possible strategies that make use of the tensions between these two disparate networks in ways that might ensure better healthcare for Indigenous renal patients.

  12. Petrol sniffing interventions among Australian indigenous communities through product substitution: from skunk juice to opal.

    PubMed

    d'Abbs, Peter; MacLean, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of petrol (gasoline) fumes has been prevalent in some Australian Indigenous communities since World War II, and has led to a continuing quest for an effective method of preventing the practice either by modifying the substance or by substituting nonharmful alternatives. This article traces the results of this search, beginning with the addition of ethyl mercaptan, then describing the substitution of aviation fuel for conventional vehicle fuel, and concluding with the staged introduction of Opal--a vehicle fuel containing low levels of aromatic hydrocarbons--throughout many communities from 2005. The article assesses the benefits and limitations of supply reduction methods.

  13. It's Special and It's Specific: Understanding the Early Childhood Education Experiences and Expectations of Young Indigenous Australian Children and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Whilst early childhood education is regarded as important for young Indigenous Australians and it has been a feature of policy since the 1960s, it does not receive the same attention as compulsory schooling for Indigenous Australian students. A serious lack of large-scale research contributes to the devaluing of early childhood education for young…

  14. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993–2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden. PMID:26633456

  15. An Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment: identifying young Australian Indigenous children's patterning skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papic, Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  16. Cervical Abnormalities Are More Common among Indigenous than Other Australian Women: A Retrospective Record-Linkage Study, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Whop, Lisa J; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Lokuge, Kamalini; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Diaz, Abbey; Roder, David; Gertig, Dorota M; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Australian women have much higher incidence of cervical cancer compared to non-Indigenous women. Despite an organised cervical screening program introduced 25 years ago, a paucity of Indigenous-identified data in Pap Smear Registers remains. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities detected among the screened Indigenous population has not previously been reported. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of population-based linked health records for 1,334,795 female Queensland residents aged 20-69 years who had one or more Pap smears during 2000-2011; from linked hospital records 23,483 were identified as Indigenous. Prevalence was calculated separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, for cytology-detected low-grade (cLGA) and high-grade abnormalities (cHGA), and histologically confirmed high-grade abnormalities (hHGA). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from logistic regression analysis. In 2010-2011 the prevalence of hHGA among Indigenous women (16.6 per 1000 women screened, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6-18.9) was twice that of non-Indigenous women (7.5 per 1000 women screened, CI 7.3-7.7). Adjusted for age, area-level disadvantage and place of residence, Indigenous women had higher prevalence of cLGA (OR 1.4, CI 1.3-1.4), cHGA (OR 2.2, CI 2.1-2.3) and hHGA (OR 2.0, CI 1.9-2.1). Our findings show that Indigenous women recorded on the Pap Smear Register have much higher prevalence for cLGA, cHGA and hHGA compared to non-Indigenous women. The renewed cervical screening program, to be implemented in 2017, offers opportunities to reduce the burden of abnormalities and invasive cancer among Indigenous women and address long-standing data deficiencies.

  17. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  18. Predictors of negative attitudes toward Indigenous Australians and a unit of study among undergraduate nursing students: A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Ramjan, Lucie; Hunt, Leanne; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-03-01

    Indigenous people are the most disadvantaged population within Australia. The Bachelor of Nursing program at a large university in Western Sydney embedded Indigenous health into the undergraduate teaching program. This paper reviews the negative responses received towards course content on evaluation of the Indigenous health unit and explores the predictors for the negative attitudes towards Indigenous Australians. Two surveys were used (baseline and follow-up) to: 1. Determine the main predictors for negative attitudes towards Indigenous people and; 2. Explore students' perceptions of the educational quality of the Indigenous health unit. The surveys allowed collection of socio-demographic, academic data and included the 18 item 'Attitude Toward Indigenous Australians' (ATIA) scale and open-ended responses. Students who were: 1. Overseas born, 2. Enrolment category: International student and; 3. Whose primary source of information about Indigenous Australians were the media and school were significantly more likely to have higher negative attitudes towards Indigenous Australians. Qualitative data revealed some unfavourable comments dismissing the value and educational quality of the content within the Indigenous health unit. Community engagement is paramount to enhancing the student experience. Movement away from media driven 'hype' to an educated perspective is necessary to create an accurate portrayal of the Indigenous community.

  19. A qualitative study of a social and emotional well-being service for a remote Indigenous Australian community: implications for access, effectiveness, and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People living in rural and remote Australia experience increased mental health problems compared with metropolitan Australians. Moreover, Indigenous Australians are twice as likely as non Indigenous Australians to report high or very high levels of mental health problems. It is imperative, therefore, that effective and sustainable social and emotional wellbeing services (Indigenous Australians prefer the term “social and emotional wellbeing” to “mental health”) are developed for Indigenous Australians living in remote communities. In response to significant and serious events such as suicides and relationship violence in a remote Indigenous community, a social and emotional wellbeing service (SEWBS) was developed. After the service had been running for over three years, an independent evaluation was initiated by the local health board. The aim of the evaluation was to explore the impact of SEWBS, including issues of effectiveness and sustainability, from the experiences of people involved in the development and delivery of the service. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit 21 people with different involvement in the service such as service providers, service participants, and referrers. These people were interviewed and their interviews were transcribed. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse the interview transcripts to identify superordinate themes and subthemes in the data. Results Two superordinate themes and nine subthemes were developed from the interview transcripts. The first superordinate theme was called “The Big Picture” and it had the sub themes: getting started; organizational factors; funding; the future, and; operational problems. The second superordinate theme was called “On the Ground” and it had the subthemes: personal struggles; program activities; measuring outcomes, and; results. Conclusions While the evaluation indicated that the service had been experienced as an effective local

  20. Challenges and strategies for cohort retention and data collection in an indigenous population: Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal prospective birth cohort studies are pivotal to identifying fundamental causes and determinants of disease and health over the life course. There is limited information about the challenges, retention, and collection strategies in the study of Indigenous populations. The aim is to describe the follow-up rates of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study and how they were achieved. Methods Participants were 686 babies enrolled between January 1987 and March 1990, born to a mother recorded in the Delivery Suite Register of the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) as a self-identified Aboriginal. The majority of the participants (70%) resided in Northern Territory within rural, remote and very remote Aboriginal communities that maintain traditional connections to their land and culture. The Aboriginal communities are within a sparsely populated (0.2 people/ km2) area of approximately 900,000 km2 (347sq miles), with poor communication and transport infrastructures. Follow-ups collecting biomedical and lifestyle data directly from participants in over 40 locations were conducted at 11.4 years (Wave-2) and 18.2 years (Wave-3), with Wave-4 follow-up currently underway. Results Follow-ups at 11 and 18 years of age successfully examined 86% and 72% of living participants respectively. Strategies addressing logistic, cultural and ethical challenges are documented. Conclusions Satisfactory follow-up rates of a prospective longitudinal Indigenous birth cohort with traditional characteristics are possible while maintaining scientific rigor in a challenging setting. Approaches included flexibility, respect, and transparent communication along with the adoption of culturally sensitive behaviours. This work should inform and assist researchers undertaking or planning similar studies in Indigenous and developing populations. PMID:24568142

  1. Study Protocol: establishing good relationships between patients and health care providers while providing cardiac care. Exploring how patient-clinician engagement contributes to health disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies that compare Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous patients who experience a cardiac event or chest pain are inconclusive about the reasons for the differences in-hospital and survival rates. The advances in diagnostic accuracy, medication and specialised workforce has contributed to a lower case fatality and lengthen survival rates however this is not evident in the Indigenous Australian population. A possible driver contributing to this disparity may be the impact of patient-clinician interface during key interactions during the health care process. Methods/Design This study will apply an Indigenous framework to describe the interaction between Indigenous patients and clinicians during the continuum of cardiac health care, i.e. from acute admission, secondary and rehabilitative care. Adopting an Indigenous framework is more aligned with Indigenous realities, knowledge, intellects, histories and experiences. A triple layered designed focus group will be employed to discuss patient-clinician engagement. Focus groups will be arranged by geographic clusters i.e. metropolitan and a regional centre. Patient informants will be identified by Indigenous status (i.e. Indigenous and non-Indigenous) and the focus groups will be convened separately. The health care provider focus groups will be convened on an organisational basis i.e. state health providers and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. Yarning will be used as a research method to facilitate discussion. Yarning is in congruence with the oral traditions that are still a reality in day-to-day Indigenous lives. Discussion This study is nestled in a larger research program that explores the drivers to the disparity of care and health outcomes for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians who experience an acute cardiac admission. A focus on health status, risk factors and clinical interventions may camouflage critical issues within a patient-clinician exchange. This approach may

  2. Living on climate-changed country: indigenous health, well-being and climate change in remote Australian communities.

    PubMed

    Green, Donna; Minchin, Liz

    2014-06-01

    Closing the gap between the health and well-being status of Indigenous people living in remote areas of northern Australia and non-Indigenous Australians has long been a major target of federal health policy. With climate projections suggesting large increases in hot spells in desert regions and more extremes in rainfall in other areas of the north, direct and indirect impacts resulting from these changes are likely to further entrench this health and well-being disparity. This paper argues that it is time to explicitly draw on Indigenous definitions of health, which directly address the need to connect individual and community health to the health of their country, in order to develop effective climate adaptation and health strategies. We detail how current health policies overlook this 'missing' dimension of Indigenous connection to country, and why that is likely to be detrimental to the health and well-being of people living in remote communities in a climate-changed future.

  3. Identification of antibacterial constituents from the indigenous Australian medicinal plant Eremophila duttonii F. Muell. (Myoporaceae).

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua E; Tucker, David; Watson, Kenneth; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2007-06-13

    This paper reports on the isolation and identification of antibacterial constituents from the indigenous Australian medicinal plant Eremophila duttonii F. Muell. (Myoporaceae). Preparations derived from this plant are used by indigenous populations in the topical treatment of minor wounds, otitis and ocular complaints, and as a gargle for sore throat. Several authors have reported extracts of this plant to effect rapid bacteriolysis and inhibit growth of a wide range of Gram-positive micro-organisms. In other studies involving screening of native medicinal plants for antibacterial activity, extracts of Eremophila duttonii have been reported to consistently exhibit the highest potency amongst all species included. From a hexane extract, we identified two diterpenes of the serrulatane class, the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity and present as major constituents of the resinous leaf cuticle: serrulat-14-en-7,8,20-triol (1) and serrulat-14-en-3,7,8,20-tetraol (2). In addition, a hydroxylated furanosesquiterpene with mild antibacterial activity which appeared to be a novel compound was isolated from the extract and tentatively identified as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-1-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5-methyl[2,3'-bifuran]-5-yl) pentan-2-one. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for each of the compounds against three Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ARL 10582), were determined using a micro-titre plate broth dilution assay.

  4. Using Mobile Phones as Placed Resources for Literacy Learning in a Remote Indigenous Community in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auld, Glenn; Snyder, Ilana; Henderson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite massive funding from the Australian government, the literacy achievement of Australian Indigenous children remains significantly lower than for non-Indigenous. With the aim of identifying innovative ways to improve Indigenous children's literacy achievement, this study explored the social practices surrounding everyday mobile phone use by…

  5. Lessons from the AIME Approach to the Teaching Relationship: Valuing Biepistemic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Samantha; Harwood, Valerie; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; O'Shea, Sarah; McKnight, Anthony; Chandler, Paul; Priestly, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience (AIME) is a national, extra-curricular mentoring programme that is closing the educational gap for young Indigenous Australians. So what is AIME doing that is working so well? This article draws on a large-scale classroom ethnography to describe the pedagogies that facilitate the teacher-student…

  6. Knowledge of and preferred sources of assistance for physical activity in a sample of urban Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alison L; Hunt, Julian; Jenkins, David

    2008-01-01

    Background To examine urban Indigenous Australians' knowledge of the current Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) and identify their preferred sources of assistance or advice regarding physical activity. Method Self-completed questionnaire data were collected from 194 participants; the questionnaires sought information on standard demographics including an assessment of their perceived physical activity level relative to peers. Outcome measures were agreement with five statements from the current PAG and indicators of preferred sources of assistance or advice regarding physical activity. Results Most participants demonstrated excellent knowledge of the current PAG, with 92% to 88% of participants agreeing with the statements. Significantly more older participants (> 44 years) identified that 'blocks of 10 minutes of activity are OK' compared to younger participants (aged 18–44 years: 60%; X2 = 6.23; p = .04). Significantly more higher educated participants agreed (96%) that 'brisk walking for half an hour most days was good for health' compared to the less educated participants (85%; X2 = 8.08; p = .02). The most preferred source of physical activity advice identified by men was the GP/health professional (62% vs. 53%; men and women respectively, NS), while for women it was a group to be active with (60% vs. 42%; women and men respectively; X2 = 6.09; p = .01). Conclusion Urban Indigenous Australians have similar levels of knowledge regarding the PAG to non-Indigenous Australians. However, the option of accumulating 10-minute activity bouts needs to be better communicated to younger Indigenous people. Most participants expressed a preference for advice about physical activity to be delivered via health professionals, and groups to be active with. Indigenous and age-specific resources that promote the unique aspects of the current PAG (e.g., that vigorous exercise is not essential for health and blocks of 10 minutes of activity are OK) should be developed and

  7. Study Protocol – Diabetes and related conditions in urban Indigenous people in the Darwin, Australia region: aims, methods and participation in the DRUID Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Joan; O'Dea, Kerin; Dunbar, Terry; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a serious and increasing health problem in Australia and is a designated national health priority. Diabetes and related conditions represent an even greater health burden among Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders), but there are critical gaps in knowledge relating to the incidence and prevalence, aetiology, and prevention of diabetes in this group, including a lack of information on the burden of disease among Indigenous people in urban areas. The DRUID Study (Diabetes and Related conditions in Urban Indigenous people in the Darwin region) was designed to address this knowledge gap. Methods/design The study was conducted in a specified geographic area in and around Darwin, Australia. Eligible participants underwent a health examination, including collection of blood and urine samples, clinical and anthropometric measurements, and administration of questionnaires, with an additional assessment for people with diabetes. The study was designed to incorporate local Indigenous leadership, facilitate community engagement, and provide employment and training opportunities for local Indigenous people. A variety of recruitment methods were used. A total of 1,004 eligible people gave consent and provided at least one measurement. When compared with census data for the Indigenous population living in the study area, there was a marked under-representation of males, but no substantial differences in age, place of residence, Indigenous group, or household income. Early participants were more likely than later participants to have previously diagnosed diabetes. Discussion Despite lower than anticipated recruitment, this is, to our knowledge, the largest study ever conducted on the health of Indigenous Australians living in urban areas, a group which comprises the majority of Australia's Indigenous population but about whose health and wellbeing relatively little is known. The study is well-placed to provide new

  8. Improving Health Promotion Using Quality Improvement Techniques in Australian Indigenous Primary Health Care.

    PubMed

    Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers.

  9. Improving Health Promotion Using Quality Improvement Techniques in Australian Indigenous Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Percival, Nikki; O’Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers. PMID:27066470

  10. Short-term predictive validity of the static-99 and static-99-R for indigenous and nonindigenous Australian sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Smallbone, Stephen; Rallings, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Actuarial risk assessment (Static-99 and Static-99-R) scores were obtained for 399 Australian adult sexual offenders who were subsequently released from prison and followed up with searches of police arrest records (mean follow-up period = 29 months; range = 15-53 months). Indigenous offenders (n = 67; 16.8%) scored significantly higher on both the Static-99 (M = 4.04 vs. 2.89, p < .001) and Static-99-R (M = 3.72 vs. 2.22, p < .001), were more than twice as likely to be arrested for sexual offenses (9.0% vs. 4.1%, ns), and were significantly more likely to be arrested for nonsexual violent (28.4% vs. 1.9%, p < .001), any violent (including sexual; 37% vs. 5.9%, p < .001), and any offenses (58.2% vs. 21.6%, p < .001). For the combined groups, predictive accuracy of both instruments was comparable to results reported elsewhere. Predictive accuracy of the Static-99 was similar for indigenous and nonindigenous offenders. The Static-99-R was only marginally predictive of any violent recidivism (AUC = .65, 95% CI = [.52, .79]), and did not predict sexual (AUC = .61, 95% CI = [.45, .77]) or nonsexual violent recidivism (AUC = .65, 95% CI = [.48, .78]), for indigenous offenders. Higher risk scores, indigenous race, and unsupervised release all contributed unique variance to any violent recidivism. Results suggest that the Static-99 may be appropriate for assessing Australian indigenous sexual offenders, but more research is needed to test the validity of the Static-99-R for this population. We conclude that practitioners should consider the potential effects of racial differences and postrelease factors, as well as static risk factors, in their assessments.

  11. Determinants of access to chronic illness care: a mixed-methods evaluation of a national multifaceted chronic disease package for Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    Bailie, Jodie; Schierhout, Gill; Laycock, Alison; Kelaher, Margaret; Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; McNeair, Tracy; Bailie, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Indigenous Australians have a disproportionately high burden of chronic illness, and relatively poor access to healthcare. This paper examines how a national multicomponent programme aimed at improving prevention and management of chronic disease among Australian Indigenous people addressed various dimensions of access. Design Data from a place-based, mixed-methods formative evaluation were analysed against a framework that defines supply and demand-side dimensions to access. The evaluation included 24 geographically bounded ‘sentinel sites’ that included a range of primary care service organisations. It drew on administrative data on service utilisation, focus group and interview data on community members’ and service providers’ perceptions of chronic illness care between 2010 and 2013. Setting Urban, regional and remote areas of Australia that have relatively large Indigenous populations. Participants 670 community members participated in focus groups; 374 practitioners and representatives of regional primary care support organisations participated in in-depth interviews. Results The programme largely addressed supply-side dimensions of access with less focus or impact on demand-side dimensions. Application of the access framework highlighted the complex inter-relationships between dimensions of access. Key ongoing challenges are achieving population coverage through a national programme, reaching high-need groups and ensuring provision of ongoing care. Conclusions Strategies to improve access to chronic illness care for this population need to be tailored to local circumstances and address the range of dimensions of access on both the demand and supply sides. These findings highlight the importance of flexibility in national programme guidelines to support locally determined strategies. PMID:26614617

  12. Mental health at the intersections: the impact of complex needs on police contact and custody for Indigenous Australian men.

    PubMed

    Trofimovs, Julian; Dowse, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience significant social risk, vulnerability and disadvantage. Nowhere is this more starkly demonstrated than in the levels of contact that Indigenous Australians have with the criminal justice system, particularly the police. Utilizing a linked dataset of extant criminal justice, human and health service administrative data in New South Wales (NSW) Australia, this paper explores patterns of police contact and custody for a cohort of Indigenous males with complex needs. Four significant factors are identified that alone or in combination appear to impact on the frequency with which these men experience police contact and custody, including young age at first police contact, experiencing out of home care as a child, alcohol misuse, and limited locational mobility. Whilst it might be expected that the presence of mental ill-health and/or cognitive disability would be a key predictor of the frequency and intensity of police contact and custody, the findings suggest rather that the presence of multiple disadvantages beginning in the early years and compounding throughout individuals' lives, in which mental illness may or may not be a factor, is more significant than the presence of any one diagnosis in precipitating police contact and custody for this group.

  13. Lectins from indigenous Australian wildflowers--detection of lectins from Bauhinia carronii, Hardenbergia comptoniana, Ptilotis obovatus and Rhadogia crassifolia.

    PubMed

    Flower, R L; Wilcox, G E; Chugg, V; Neal, J R

    1984-12-01

    Extracts from 21 indigenous Australian plant species, representing eight genera, were tested for haemagglutinating activity to human and animal erythrocytes. Extracts from Bauhinia carronii, Hardenbergia comptoniana, Ptilotis obovatus and Rhadogia crassifolia agglutinated at least one of the erythrocyte types tested. The extracts from B. carronii and R. crassifolia contained mitogens for human lymphocytes. Both the haemagglutinating and mitogenic activity of the B. carronii extract were inhibited by lactose. Both the haemagglutinating and mitogenic activity of R. crassifolia were inhibited by maltose and alpha-methyl-glucoside. The haemagglutinating activity of H. comptoniana was inhibited by raffinose and the haemagglutinating activity of P. obovatus by maltose and alpha-methylglucoside.

  14. Development of a Culturally Appropriate Bilingual Electronic App About Hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians: Towards Shared Understandings

    PubMed Central

    Bukulatjpi, Sarah; Sharma, Suresh; Caldwell, Luci; Johnston, Vanessa; Davis, Joshua Saul

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B is endemic in Indigenous communities in Northern Australia; however, there is a lack of culturally appropriate educational tools. Health care workers and educators in this setting have voiced a desire for visual, interactive tools in local languages. Mobile phones are increasingly used and available in remote Indigenous communities. In this context, we identified the need for a tablet-based health education app about hepatitis B, developed in partnership with an Australian remote Indigenous community. Objective To develop a culturally appropriate bilingual app about hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians in Arnhem Land using a participatory action research (PAR) framework. Methods This project was a partnership between the Menzies School of Health Research, Miwatj Aboriginal Health Corporation, Royal Darwin Hospital Liver Clinic, and Dreamedia Darwin. We have previously published a qualitative study that identified major knowledge gaps about hepatitis B in this community, and suggested that a tablet-based app would be an appropriate and popular tool to improve this knowledge. The process of developing the app was based on PAR principles, particularly ongoing consultation, evaluation, and discussion with the community throughout each iterative cycle. Stages included development of the storyboard, the translation process (forward translation and backtranslation), prelaunch community review, launch and initial community evaluation, and finally, wider launch and evaluation at a viral hepatitis conference. Results We produced an app called “Hep B Story” for use with iPad, iPhone, Android tablets, and mobile phones or personal computers. The app is culturally appropriate, audiovisual, interactive, and users can choose either English or Yolŋu Matha (the most common language in East Arnhem Land) as their preferred language. The initial evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in Hep B-related knowledge for 2 of 3 questions

  15. Mapping Indigenous land management for threatened species conservation: An Australian case-study

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Anna R.; Robinson, Catherine J.; Garnett, Stephen T.; Leiper, Ian; Possingham, Hugh P.; Carwardine, Josie

    2017-01-01

    Much biodiversity lives on lands to which Indigenous people retain strong legal and management rights. However this is rarely quantified. Here we provide the first quantitative overview of the importance of Indigenous land for a critical and vulnerable part of biodiversity, threatened species, using the continent of Australia as a case study. We find that three quarters of Australia’s 272 terrestrial or freshwater vertebrate species listed as threatened under national legislation have projected ranges that overlap Indigenous lands. On average this overlap represents 45% of the range of each threatened species while Indigenous land is 52% of the country. Hotspots where multiple threatened species ranges overlap occur predominantly in coastal Northern Australia. Our analysis quantifies the vast potential of Indigenous land in Australia for contributing to national level conservation goals, and identifies the main land management arrangements available to Indigenous people which may enable them to deliver those goals should they choose to do so. PMID:28291797

  16. Education resources in remote Australian Indigenous community dog health programs: a comparison of community and extra-community-produced resources.

    PubMed

    Constable, Sophie Elizabeth; Dixon, Roselyn May; Dixon, Robert John

    2013-09-01

    Commercial dog health programs in Australian Indigenous communities are a relatively recent occurrence. Health promotion for these programs is an even more recent development, and lacks data on effective practices. This paper analyses 38 resources created by veterinary-community partnerships in Indigenous communities, to 71 resources available through local veterinary service providers. On average, community-produced resources used significantly more of the resource area as image, more imagery as communicative rather than decorative images, larger fonts and smaller segments of text and used images of people with a range of skin tones. As well as informal registers of Standard Australian English, community-produced resources used Aboriginal English and/or Creole languages in their text, while extra-community (EC)-produced resources did not. The text of EC resources had Flesh-Kincaid reading grade levels that excluded a large proportion of community recipients. Also, they did not cover some topics of importance in communities, used academic, formal and technical language, and did not depict people of a representative range of skin tones. As such, community-produced resources were more relevant to the unique situations in remote communities, while EC resources were often inappropriate and in some cases could even distance recipients by using inappropriate language, formats and imagery.

  17. Exploring Anomalies in Indigenous Student Engagement: Findings from a National Australian Survey of Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmar, Christine; Page, Susan; Radloff, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Increases in participation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in higher education across Australia continue to be promising. However, it is also known that Indigenous students' attrition, retention and completion rates remain areas of concern. In this paper, we report our findings from an analysis of Indigenous student responses to…

  18. Changing the Teaching of Mathematics for Improved Indigenous Education in a Rural Australian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Transforming teachers and their approach to teaching Indigenous students requires partnerships with the Indigenous community, planning, small steps, and funds. This article illustrates how teachers can change when funds are available to assist schools and communities to implement appropriate and effective professional development, to establish…

  19. Addressing the Foundations for Improved Indigenous Secondary Student Outcomes: A South Australian Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Kiara

    2010-01-01

    It is well documented, that Indigenous students, compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts, attend school less frequently, and are more likely to develop anti-schooling attitudes leading to their early exit from school (Hayes et al., 2009; Gray & Partington, 2003; Hunter & Schwad, 2003). Although research does suggest that there has…

  20. Seeds of Myth: Exotic Disease Theory and Deconstructing the Australian Narrative of Indigenous Depopulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyton, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The theory that the rapid depopulation of Indigenous people post-colonisation was largely caused by European introduced or exotic disease to which Indigenous people had no immunity resonates through most narratives of the early years of colonisation. The question of whether this narrative is based on sound medical evidence or is better placed in…

  1. Retaining Indigenous Students in Tertiary Education: Lessons from the Griffith School of Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Catherine; Seini, Monica; Matthews, Chris; Dillon, Bronwyn; Hauser, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    Low retention of Indigenous peoples in all Australian universities has been identified as a problematic issue by the Australian Federal government. Griffith University (GU), Queensland, Australia, provided funding to examine the factors affecting Indigenous retention in higher education, with the aim of developing innovative participation and…

  2. Indigenizing Teacher Professional Development: Anticipating the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Zane Ma

    2012-01-01

    It is the Australian Government's intention that all teachers will have, as a minimum, a proficient level of demonstrable professional expertise in both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education and Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. A raft of government policies are giving shape to the engagement of the Australian…

  3. Improving forensic mental health care to Indigenous Australians: theorizing the intercultural space.

    PubMed

    Durey, A; Wynaden, D; O'Kane, M

    2014-05-01

    This paper uses the 'intercultural space' as an educational strategy to prepare nurses to work respectfully with Indigenous patients in a forensic mental health context; offers an educational approach that introduces nurses to Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values, examines power relations in colonized countries between the dominant white cultural group and the Indigenous population and encourages nurses to critically reflect on their health care practice; and explores the intercultural space as a shared space between cultures fostering open and robust inquiry where neither culture dominates and new positions, representations and understandings can emerge. Given the disproportionately high number of Indigenous people imprisoned in colonized countries, this paper responds to research from Western Australia on the need to prepare forensic mental health nurses to deliver care to Indigenous patients with mental health disorders. The paper highlights the nexus between theory, research and education that can inform the design and implementation of programmes to help nurses navigate the complex, layered and contested 'intercultural space' and deliver culturally safe care to Indigenous patients. Nurses are encouraged to critically reflect on how beliefs and values underpinning their cultural positioning impact on health care to Indigenous patients. The paper draws on intercultural theory to offer a pedagogical framework that acknowledges the negative impacts of colonization on Indigenous health and well-being, repositions and revalues Indigenous cultures and knowledges and fosters open and robust inquiry. This approach is seen as a step towards working more effectively in the intercultural space where ultimately binary oppositions that privilege one culture over another and inhibit robust inquiry are avoided, paving the way for new, more inclusive positions, representations and understandings to emerge. While the intercultural space can be a place of struggle, tension

  4. Screen Worlds, Sound Worlds and School: A Consideration of the Potential of the Ethnomusicology of Australian Indigenous Film for Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Michael; Fienberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article arises from the authors' belief that there is a need to develop motivating ways for students across Australia to meaningfully encounter Australian indigenous music, the breadth and richness of which is beginning to be conveyed via a diverse range of mainstream media texts. Engaging with theoretical insights from the ethnomusicology of…

  5. Longitudinal Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antibiotic Resistance of Respiratory Bacteria in Indigenous Australian and Alaska Native Children with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Kim M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Grimwood, Keith; Valery, Patricia C.; Cheng, Allen C.; Morris, Peter S.; Leach, Amanda J.; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C.; Chatfield, Mark; Redding, Greg; Reasonover, Alisa L.; McCallum, Gabrielle B.; Chikoyak, Lori; McDonald, Malcolm I.; Brown, Ngiare; Torzillo, Paul J.; Chang, Anne B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD)/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. Methods Indigenous children aged 0.5–8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79) and Alaska (n = 41) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004–8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. Results Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005–6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children); these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004–6 to 11% in 2010). While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs), in a ‘cumulative dose-response’ relationship. Conclusions

  6. Mental health first aid for Indigenous Australians: using Delphi consensus studies to develop guidelines for culturally appropriate responses to mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Laura M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kanowski, Leonard G; Kelly, Claire M; Langlands, Robyn L

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practice guidelines. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal mental health, participated in six independent Delphi studies investigating depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, deliberate self-injury, trauma and loss, and cultural considerations. The panel varied in size across the studies, from 20-24 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the survey content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as essential or important. Each study developed one guideline from the outcomes of three Delphi questionnaire rounds. At the end of the six Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 1,016 statements shown to the panel of experts, 536 statements were endorsed (94 for depression, 151 for psychosis, 52 for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, 53 for deliberate self-injury, 155 for trauma and loss, and 31 for cultural considerations). The methodology and the guidelines themselves were found to be useful and appropriate by the

  7. Homicide among Indigenous South Australians: a forty-year study (1969-2008).

    PubMed

    Temlett, Julia; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    A retrospective review of homicide cases among Aboriginal people in South Australia examined at Forensic Science SA was undertaken over a 40-year period from 1969 to 2008. A total of 90 Indigenous homicide victims were identified compared to 599 non-Indigenous victims over the same time period. Although homicide rates have fallen, the Indigenous homicide rate (ranging from 73.5 to 223.97 per 100,000) significantly exceeded the non-Indigenous rate (ranging from 8.16 to 12.6 per 100,000) for all decades (p<0.001). The most common methods of homicide in the Indigenous population involved blunt force and sharp force trauma, with gunshot, strangulation and other forms of homicides being encountered less often. While lack of access to firearms may explain the lower numbers of gunshot deaths it would not explain the low numbers of deaths due to strangulation. Considerable variability may, therefore, exist in the types of unnatural deaths that may be found in different cultural and ethnic groups, even within the same community.

  8. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Susan M; Mackerras, Dorothy; Singh, Gurmeet; Bucens, Ingrid; Flynn, Kathryn; Reid, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population. PMID:12659639

  9. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  10. Young Australian Indigenous Students' Growing Pattern Generalisations: The Role of Gesture When Generalising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jodie

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how young Indigenous students' (Year 2 and 3) generalise growing patterns. Piagetian clinical interviews were conducted to determine how students articulated growing pattern generalisations. Two case studies are presented displaying how students used gesture to support and articulate their generalisations of growing patterns.…

  11. Invented Tradition and How Physical Education Curricula in the Australian Capital Territory Has Resisted Indigenous Mention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John

    2016-01-01

    This article reports how "invented tradition" [Hobsbawm, E. (2012), "Introduction: Inventing traditions." In E. Hobsbawm & T. Ranger (Eds.), "The invention of tradition" (pp. 1-14). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press] as a long-term process has contributed to Indigenous students experiencing physical…

  12. Working together as a catalyst for change: the development of a peer mentoring model for the prevention of chronic disease in Australian Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Paasse, Gail; Adams, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a model for an Indigenous peer mentoring program. The aim of this program is to improve the health of Indigenous people living in the western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. Although the benefits of peer mentoring are well documented, particularly in relation to disease prevention, little has been written about the specific benefits for Indigenous people. While developing this model, it became apparent that to be successful, peer mentoring programs for Indigenous people need to be flexible, informal and draw on the knowledge and skills of the local community in partnership with local services.

  13. 'It's very difficult to get respite out here at the moment': Australian findings on end-of-life care for Indigenous people.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam; Patton, Mary Anne; McGrath, Zoë; Olgivie, Katherine; Rayner, Robert; Holewa, Hamish

    2006-03-01

    Whilst access to respite care has been found to represent an important source of support for terminally ill patients and their families, the availability of these services to Indigenous Australians has to date remained undocumented. This potential need for respite in Indigenous communities was explored as part of a National Health and Medical Research Council (NH&MRC) funded study designed to develop an innovative model for Indigenous palliative care. The data needed for model development were collected through a series of open-ended, qualitative interviews conducted with a cross-section of consumers and health professionals within the Northern Territory, Australia. The findings reflected a serious need for Indigenous respite services, coupled with a severe deficiency in the present availability of these services, especially within rural and regional areas. This lack of local respite services was documented to be negatively impacting upon the ability of carers to fulfil their caring duties and was found placing undue physical, emotional and economic stress upon carers, patients and their families. Furthermore, the lack of access to local respite services documented was found to be forcing rural and regional patients to relocate to metropolitan areas away from the family, community and land to which strong ties are held. The lack of Indigenous respite services was also found to obstruct patients' and carers' wishes for death to occur in the local community, rather than in far away cities. Significant obstacles were found to be hindering the provision of respite care to Indigenous Australians, namely beliefs about families looking after their own, resource restrictions, limited staff availability in local areas, as well as problems associated with hostel use in metropolitan areas. The conclusions drawn from this study suggest the importance of tackling the obstacles preventing local respite services being established in areas close to where patients and carers live.

  14. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196

  15. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-03-16

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change.

  16. Effect of ambient temperature on Australian northern territory public hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease among indigenous and non-indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Webb, Leanne; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Green, Donna; Alexander, Lisa

    2014-02-13

    Hospitalisations are associated with ambient temperature, but little is known about responses in population sub-groups. In this study, heat responses for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in two age groups were examined for two categories of cardiac diseases using daily hospital admissions from five Northern Territory hospitals (1992-2011). Admission rates during the hottest five per cent of days and the coolest five per cent of days were compared with rates at other times. Among 25-64 year olds, the Indigenous female population was more adversely affected by very hot days than the non-Indigenous female population, with admission rates for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) increasing by 32%. People older than 65 were more sensitive to cold, with non-Indigenous male admissions for heart failure increasing by 64%, and for IHD by 29%. For older Indigenous males, IHD admissions increased by 52% during cold conditions. For older non-Indigenous females, increases in admissions for heart failure were around 50% on these cold days, and 64% for older Indigenous females. We conclude that under projected climate change conditions, admissions for IHD amongst younger Indigenous people would increase in hot conditions, while admissions among elderly people during cold weather may be reduced. The responses to temperature, while showing significant relationships across the Northern Territory, may vary by region. These variations were not explored in this assessment.

  17. Meeting the challenges of recruitment and retention of Indigenous people into nursing: outcomes of the Indigenous Nurse Education Working Group.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Miller, Maria; Turale, Sue; Goold, Sally

    2005-07-01

    It has been recognised internationally that increasing the number of Indigenous people working as health professionals is linked to the improved health status of Indigenous people. When comparing Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations, Indigenous people continue to have poorer health standards and are much less likely to be involved in employment in health professions than other Australians. In 2000, the Indigenous Nurse Education Working Group (INEWG) was formed by government with the mandate to work collaboratively with universities and important professional nursing bodies across the nation in an attempt to increase the number of Indigenous registered nurses and to prepare nursing graduates with better understanding of, and skills to assist with, Indigenous health issues. This paper describes the work of the INEWG from 2000 to mid-2003; firstly in developing and implementing strategies aimed at increasing the recruitment and retention of Indigenous people into undergraduate nursing programs; and secondly by helping university schools of nursing increase faculty and student understanding of Indigenous culture, history and health issues through educational processes. Lastly, it summarises the INEWG's 2002 recommendations to achieve a higher rate of Indigenous participation in nursing. The results of research into the success of these recommendations will be the subject of a later paper.

  18. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Subtype C Molecular Variants among Indigenous Australians: New Insights into the Molecular Epidemiology of HTLV-1 in Australo-Melanesia

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Philippe V.; Gessain, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Background HTLV-1 infection is endemic among people of Melanesian descent in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Molecular studies reveal that these Melanesian strains belong to the highly divergent HTLV-1c subtype. In Australia, HTLV-1 is also endemic among the Indigenous people of central Australia; however, the molecular epidemiology of HTLV-1 infection in this population remains poorly documented. Findings Studying a series of 23 HTLV-1 strains from Indigenous residents of central Australia, we analyzed coding (gag, pol, env, tax) and non-coding (LTR) genomic proviral regions. Four complete HTLV-1 proviral sequences were also characterized. Phylogenetic analyses implemented with both Neighbor-Joining and Maximum Likelihood methods revealed that all proviral strains belong to the HTLV-1c subtype with a high genetic diversity, which varied with the geographic origin of the infected individuals. Two distinct Australians clades were found, the first including strains derived from most patients whose origins are in the North, and the second comprising a majority of those from the South of central Australia. Time divergence estimation suggests that the speciation of these two Australian clades probably occurred 9,120 years ago (38,000–4,500). Conclusions The HTLV-1c subtype is endemic to central Australia where the Indigenous population is infected with diverse subtype c variants. At least two Australian clades exist, which cluster according to the geographic origin of the human hosts. These molecular variants are probably of very ancient origin. Further studies could provide new insights into the evolution and modes of dissemination of these retrovirus variants and the associated ancient migration events through which early human settlement of Australia and Melanesia was achieved. PMID:24086779

  19. Communication: Are Australians Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansford, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the question of the distinctive nature of communication in Australia. Discusses nonverbal messages, gender concerns, historical influences on communication, the Australian accent, communication with indigenous persons, communication apprehension, and classroom communication. Argues that Australians' communication is relatively similar to…

  20. "From your own thinking you can't help us": intercultural collaboration to address inequities in services for Indigenous Australians in response to the World Report on Disability.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Anne

    2013-02-01

    Inequity in service provision for Indigenous Australians with communication disability is an issue requiring urgent attention. In the lead article, Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall (2013) note that, even in the relatively affluent Minority World, including Australia, equity in service provision for people with communication disability has not been achieved. In remote communities in the Northern Territory (NT) almost all residents speak a language other than English as their primary language. However, there are no speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the NT who speak an Indigenous language or who share their cultural background. Specific data on the prevalence of communication disability in this population are unavailable due to a range of factors. The disability data that are available, for example, demonstrating the high level of conductive hearing loss, indicates that the risk of communication disability in this population is particularly high. Change is urgently needed to address current inequities in both availability of, and access to, culturally responsive services for Indigenous people with communication disability. Such change must engage Indigenous people in a collaborative process that recognizes their expertise in identifying both their needs and the most effective form of response to these needs.

  1. What Predicts Health Students' Self-Reported Preparedness to Work in Indigenous Health Settings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Jonathan; Roberts, Lynne; Hoffman, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Australian undergraduate programs are implementing curriculum aimed at better preparing graduates to work in culturally diverse settings, but there remains uncertainty over the role of extant student attitudes towards Indigenous Australians. To begin to address this, we obtained baseline data on student attitudes upon entry to tertiary education.…

  2. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Emily G; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than half of the

  3. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Emily G.; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information–together with model outputs–would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia’s preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10–20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than

  4. Effect of 25% Sodium Reduction on Sales of a Top-Selling Bread in Remote Indigenous Australian Community Stores: A Controlled Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Emma; Webster, Jacqui; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Reducing sodium in the food supply is key to achieving population salt targets, but maintaining sales is important to ensuring commercial viability and maximising clinical impact. We investigated whether 25% sodium reduction in a top-selling bread affected sales in 26 remote Indigenous community stores. After a 23-week baseline period, 11 control stores received the regular-salt bread (400 mg Na/100 g) and 15 intervention stores received the reduced-salt version (300 mg Na/100 g) for 12-weeks. Sales data were collected to examine difference between groups in change from baseline to follow-up (effect size) in sales (primary outcome) or sodium density, analysed using a mixed model. There was no significant effect on market share (−0.31%; 95% CI −0.68, 0.07; p = 0.11) or weekly dollars ($58; −149, 266; p = 0.58). Sodium density of all purchases was not significantly reduced (−8 mg Na/MJ; −18, 2; p = 0.14), but 25% reduction across all bread could significantly reduce sodium (−12; −23, −1; p = 0.03). We found 25% salt reduction in a top-selling bread did not affect sales in remote Indigenous community stores. If achieved across all breads, estimated salt intake in remote Indigenous Australian communities would be reduced by approximately 15% of the magnitude needed to achieve population salt targets, which could lead to significant health gains at the population-level. PMID:28264485

  5. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Paul D.; Barzi, Federica; Cass, Alan; Hughes, Jaquelyne T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years) on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months) from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9) years. 1244 (79.3%) were Indigenous. 44.2% (n = 693) were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1) versus 57.4 (15.2), p < 0.001]) and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35) versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5), p < 0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522) versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0), p < 0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37) versus 28% (20–38), p = 0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2 = 0.11, p < 0.001), no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p < 0.001), and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p < 0.001), Indigenous ethnicity (p < 0.001), urea reduction ratio (p = 0.001), and gender (p < 0.001) after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation. PMID:28243472

  6. Study Protocol – Improving Access to Kidney Transplants (IMPAKT): A detailed account of a qualitative study investigating barriers to transplant for Australian Indigenous people with end-stage kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Jeannie; Cass, Alan; Cunningham, Joan; Preece, Cilla; Anderson, Kate; Snelling, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are slightly more than 2% of the total Australian population however, in recent years they have comprised between 6 and 10% of new patients beginning treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Although transplant is considered the optimal form of treatment for many ESKD patients there is a pronounced disparity between the rates at which Indigenous ESKD patients receive transplants compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts. The IMPAKT (Improving Access to Kidney Transplants) Interview study investigated reasons for this disparity through a large scale, in-depth interview study involving patients, nephrologists and key decision-making staff at selected Australian transplant and dialysis sites. Methods The design and conduct of the study reflected the multi-disciplinary membership of the core IMPAKT team. Promoting a participatory ethos, IMPAKT established partnerships with a network of hospital transplant units and hospital dialysis treatment centres that provide treatment to the vast majority of Indigenous patients across Australia. Under their auspices, the IMPAKT team conducted in-depth interviews in 26 treatment/service centres located in metropolitan, regional and remote Australia. Peer interviewing supported the engagement of Indigenous patients (146), and nephrologists (19). In total IMPAKT spoke with Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients (241), key renal nursing and other (non-specialist) staff (95) and a small number of relevant others (28). Data analysis was supported by QSR software. At each site, IMPAKT also documented educational programs and resources, mapped an hypothetical ‘patient journey’ to transplant through the local system and observed patient care and treatment routines. Discussion The national scope, inter-disciplinary approach and use of qualitative methods in an investigation of a significant health inequality affecting Indigenous people is, we believe, an Australian first. An exceptionally

  7. Community Involvement and Education in the 1991-2000 Australian Reconciliation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunstone, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In 1991, the Australian Parliament implemented a formal 10-year process of reconciliation. The aim of the process was to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous people by the end of 2000. The Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation (CAR) was established to promote the process. The process had three broad goals: improving education, addressing…

  8. How well is the National Cervical Screening Program performing for Indigenous Australian women? Why we don't really know, and what we can and should do about it.

    PubMed

    Whop, L J; Cunningham, J; Condon, J R

    2014-11-01

    Since its inception in 1991, Australia's organised approach to cervical screening, the National Cervical Screening Program (NCSP), has seen a 50% reduction in both incidence and mortality from cervical cancer in Australia. However, Indigenous Australian women continue to experience a disproportionately higher burden of cervical cancer. No national data on screening participation of Indigenous women currently exist, in large part because pathology forms, the primary source of data for Pap Test Registers (PTR), do not record Indigenous status. While including Indigenous status on pathology forms is the obvious solution for producing essential information about cervical screening of Indigenous women, this will require an appropriate consultative process and it will be many years before reliable data are available. One interim option being explored is the feasibility of linking the PTR to another data source which includes Indigenous status, such as hospital data. However, despite its promise, there remain major impediments to obtaining useful linked data in Australia, and it continues to be unclear whether such an approach is viable for routine reporting. If we are to understand and improve cervical screening participation and outcomes for Indigenous women in the foreseeable future, Australia needs to act now to include Indigenous status in pathology forms and (subsequently) PTRs.

  9. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  10. Review of Indigenous Health Curriculum in Nutrition and Dietetics at One Australian University: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Annabelle M.; Mehta, Kaye; Miller, Jacqueline; Yaxley, Alison; Thomas, Jolene; Jackson, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda; Miller, Michelle D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a review undertaken in 2012-2013 by Nutrition and Dietetics, Flinders University, to assess the Indigenous health curriculum of the Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics (BND) and Masters of Nutrition and Dietetics (MND). An action research framework was used to guide and inform inquiry. This involved four stages, each of…

  11. Double Power: English Literacy and Indigenous Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wignell, Peter, Ed.

    The collection of essays on the relationship between English literacy and indigenous education, particularly in the Australian context, includes: "Double Power" (Mandawuy Yunupingu); "History, Cultural Diversity & English Language Teaching" (Martin Nakata); "Scaffolding Reading and Writing for Indigenous Children in…

  12. Recognising Aspiration: The AIME Program's Effectiveness in Inspiring Indigenous Young People's Participation in Schooling and Opportunities for Further Education and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Valerie; McMahon, Samantha; O'Shea, Sarah; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Priestly, Amy

    2015-01-01

    A strong feature of the widening participation agenda is improving the aspirations of groups that are underrepresented in higher education. This paper seeks to reposition the utility of this as a focal point of educational interventions by showcasing the success of a mentoring program that takes a different approach. The Australian Indigenous…

  13. Body Image and Obesity among Australian Adolescents from Indigenous and Anglo-European Backgrounds: Implications for Health Promotion and Obesity Prevention among Aboriginal Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinelli, Renata Leah; O'Dea, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between body image and obesity, among 4367 indigenous and Anglo-European adolescents in Australia in 2006. It shows that indigenous adolescents, male and female, were more likely than their non-indigenous counterparts to desire and pursue weight gain. Indigenous males showed the greatest tendencies to gain…

  14. Improving maternity services for Indigenous women in Australia: moving from policy to practice.

    PubMed

    Kildea, Sue; Tracy, Sally; Sherwood, Juanita; Magick-Dennis, Fleur; Barclay, Lesley

    2016-10-17

    The well established disparities in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include a significant and concerning higher incidence of preterm birth, low birth weight and newborn mortality. Chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease) that are prevalent in Indigenous Australian adults have their genesis in utero and in early life. Applying interventions during pregnancy and early life that aim to improve maternal and infant health is likely to have long lasting consequences, as recognised by Australia's National Maternity Services Plan (NMSP), which set out a 5-year vision for 2010-2015 that was endorsed by all governments (federal and state and territory). We report on the actions targeting Indigenous women, and the progress that has been achieved in three priority areas: The Indigenous maternity workforce; Culturally competent maternity care; and; Developing dedicated programs for "Birthing on Country". The timeframe for the NMSP has expired without notable results in these priority areas. More urgent leadership is required from the Australian government. Funding needs to be allocated to the priority areas, including for scholarships and support to train and retain Indigenous midwives, greater commitment to culturally competent maternity care and the development and evaluation of Birthing on Country sites in urban, rural and particularly in remote and very remote communities. Tools such as the Australian Rural Birth Index and the National Maternity Services Capability Framework can help guide this work.

  15. Indigenous Partner Violence, Indigenous Sentencing Courts, and Pathways to Desistance.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Elena; Daly, Kathleen

    2016-09-13

    Mainstream sentencing courts do little to change the behavior of partner violence offenders, let alone members of more socially marginal groups. Indigenous offenders face a court system that has little relevance to the complexity of their relations and lived experiences. Assisted by respected Elders and Community Representatives, Australian Indigenous sentencing courts seek to create a more meaningful sentencing process that has a deeper impact on Indigenous offenders' attitudes and, ultimately, their behavior. Drawing from interviews with 30 Indigenous offenders, we explore the ways in which the courts can motivate Indigenous partner violence offenders on pathways to desistence.

  16. Motivation Matters: Profiling Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students' Motivational Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magson, Natasha R.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Nelson, Genevieve F.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explored gender and cross-cultural similarities and differences in the motivational profiles of Indigenous Papua New Guinean (PNG) and Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Secondary students (N = 1,792) completed self-report motivational measures. Invariance testing demonstrated that the Inventory of School Motivation…

  17. Exploring Multiple Pathways for Indigenous Students. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. Young Indigenous Australians are disproportionately represented among young people who do not successfully negotiate the transition from school to independence and employment. This paper focuses on issues of…

  18. The Limits of Cultural Competence: An Indigenous Studies Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Taking the Universities Australia report, "National best practice framework for Indigenous cultural competency in Australian universities" (2011) as the starting point for its discussion, this paper examines the applicability of cultural competence in the design and delivery of Australian Indigenous Studies. It argues that both the…

  19. Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to…

  20. Hepatitis B immunization for indigenous adults, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, J Kevin; Beard, Frank; Wesselingh, Steve; Cowie, Benjamin; Ward, James; Macartney, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify the disparity in incidence of hepatitis B between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia, and to estimate the potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults. Methods Using national data on persons with newly acquired hepatitis B disease notified between 2005 and 2012, we estimated incident infection rates and rate ratios comparing indigenous and non-indigenous people, with adjustments for underreporting. The potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults was projected using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation model. Findings Of the 54 522 persons with hepatitis B disease notified between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012, 1953  infections were newly acquired. Acute hepatitis B infection notification rates were significantly higher for indigenous than non-indigenous Australians. The rates per 100 000 population for all ages were 3.6 (156/4 368 511) and 1.1 (1797/168 449 302) for indigenous and non-indigenous people respectively. The rate ratio of age-standardized notifications was 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.7–4.3). If 50% of non-immune indigenous adults (20% of all indigenous adults) were vaccinated over a 10-year programme a projected 527–549 new cases of acute hepatitis B would be prevented. Conclusion There continues to be significant health inequity between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in relation to vaccine-preventable hepatitis B disease. An immunization programme targeting indigenous Australian adults could have considerable impact in terms of cases of acute hepatitis B prevented, with a relatively low number needed to vaccinate to prevent each case. PMID:27821885

  1. Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

  2. Supporting the Learning of Nomadic Communities across Transnational Contexts: Exploring Parallels in the Education of UK Roma Gypsies and Indigenous Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Martin; Hooley, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Deriving from the authors' respective ethnographic fieldwork (around two decades in each context), this position paper considers experiences of education across two communities: Gypsy/Roma in the UK and Indigenous in Australia. The article brings together understandings across these traditionally nomadic communities, with no shared history or…

  3. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  4. National Indigenous English Literacy and Numeracy Strategy, 2000-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Canberra.

    Australia's National Indigenous Literacy and Numeracy Strategy acknowledges that extra effort and resources will be required for Indigenous Australian children to achieve the recently enacted national educational goals. The principal objective of the strategy is to achieve English literacy and numeracy for Indigenous students at levels comparable…

  5. Learning through Indigenous Business: The Role of Vocational Education and Training in Indigenous Enterprise and Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flamsteed, Kate; Golding, Barry

    2005-01-01

    This report explores the ways in which Indigenous Australians are learning through enterprise and small business development. It reveals that this learning will be more effective if it takes into account that Indigenous experience differs by location, with remote areas offering a significant challenge. Learning through Indigenous business is most…

  6. Working Together: Strategies That Support Cross-Cultural Engagement of Indigenous Teacher Assistants Working in Indigenous Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Danielle; Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous teacher assistants (ITAs) are often employed in schools to assist in addressing educational issues relating to Indigenous students. While, this practice has occurred for over 40 years in most Australian states, little has been written about their contribution in assisting Indigenous students to learn. This paper explores the influence…

  7. How Do Pre-Service Teachers Cope with a Literacy Intervention Program in a Remote Indigenous Community? The Community Action Support Program in the Northern Territory, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a new community education initiative, Community Action Support (CAS) that helps facilitate learning in Indigenous young people from Tennant Creek in the Northern Territory. CAS is an innovative partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation and the University of Western Sydney. The core aim of the…

  8. Cultural Dimensions of Indigenous Participation in Education and Training. NCVER Monograph Series 02/2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Alfred Michael

    2009-01-01

    The preservation of Indigenous cultures is a controversial issue in Australia. On the one hand, the maintenance of traditional Indigenous culture has been viewed as a barrier to integration with mainstream society and the achievement of socio-economic equality between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. An alternative view sees maintenance…

  9. Positioning the School in the Landscape: Exploring Black History with a Regional Australian Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeegers, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with a project establishing an Indigenous Australian artists-in-residence program at a regional Australian primary school to foreground its Black History. Primary school students worked with Indigenous Australian story tellers, artists, dancers and musicians to explore ways in which they could examine print and non-print texts for…

  10. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes in the Australian National Eye Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Keel, Stuart; Xie, Jing; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Taylor, Hugh R.; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants in the National Eye Health Survey. Research Design and Methods 3098 non-Indigenous Australians aged 50–98 years and 1738 Indigenous Australians aged 40–92 years were examined in 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness. A history of diabetes was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results 13.91% (431/3098) of non-Indigenous Australians and 37.11% (645/1738) of Indigenous Australians had self-reported diabetes. The age-adjusted prevalence of self-reported diabetes for non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australians was 11.49% and 43.77%, respectively (p <0.001). The prevalence of self-reported diabetes increased markedly with age (OR = 1.04 per year, p = 0.017). Indigenous Australians living in very remote areas were more likely to have self-reported diabetes than those in major city areas (OR = 1.61, p = 0.038). Conclusions The prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Australia was high, with the prevalence being almost 4 times higher in Indigenous Australians compared with non-Indigenous Australians. With the prevalence of diabetes likely to increase, the results of this national survey may inform future policy, planning and funding allocation to assist in controlling the diabetes epidemic. PMID:28045990

  11. The Utility of General Self-Esteem and Domain-Specific Self-Concepts: Their Influence on Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students' Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; O'Rourke, Virginia; Craven, Rhonda G.

    2010-01-01

    It is only relatively recently that empirical research has begun to emerge that has sought to further understand the factors that may contribute to the educational inequities between Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous Australian students. Although it has been argued that research has typically employed small, unrepresentative case studies…

  12. REM: A Collaborative Framework for Building Indigenous Cultural Competence.

    PubMed

    Power, Tamara; Virdun, Claudia; Sherwood, Juanita; Parker, Nicola; Van Balen, Jane; Gray, Joanne; Jackson, Debra

    2016-09-01

    The well-documented health disparities between the Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous population mandates a comprehensive response from health professionals. This article outlines the approach taken by one faculty of health in a large urban Australian university to enhance cultural competence in students from a variety of fields. Here we outline a collaborative and deeply respectful process of Indigenous and non-Indigenous university staff collectively developing a model that has framed the embedding of a common faculty Indigenous graduate attribute across the curriculum. Through collaborative committee processes, the development of the principles of "Respect; Engagement and sharing; Moving forward" (REM) has provided both a framework and way of "being and doing" our work. By drawing together the recurring principles and qualities that characterize Indigenous cultural competence the result will be students and staff learning and bringing into their lives and practice, important Indigenous cultural understanding.

  13. Australian Aboriginal Language Early Childhood Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tony

    This report discusses the provision of culturally appropriate early childhood programs in Australian Aboriginal language in Australia, and the education of teachers for these programs. The first section of the report examines the education of indigenous peoples in the context of the current Australian education system. Evidence in support of the…

  14. Effects of fish oil supplementation on learning and behaviour of children from Australian Indigenous remote community schools: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Parletta, Natalie; Cooper, Patrick; Gent, Debra N; Petkov, John; O'Dea, Kerin

    2013-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain function. We recruited 409 children aged 3-13 years (M=8.27, SD=2.17) for a randomised controlled trial supplementing with placebo or fish oil capsules (providing 750mg docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids, and 60mg gamma linolenic acid/school day) for 20 school weeks (Phase 1) followed by one-way crossover to fish oil (Phase 2). Children undertook assessments of reading, spelling and non-verbal cognitive development (Draw-A-Person) at baseline, 20 and 40 weeks. Teachers completed Conners Behaviour Rating Scales (CBRS). The treatment group showed improvements in Draw-A-Person compared with the placebo during Phase 1 (p=0.029), with strongest effects in Indigenous 7-12 year olds (p=0.008). The placebo group showed significant within-group improvements after switching to treatment (p<0.001). There was no treatment effect for reading or spelling, and CBRS data were unable to be analysed. These findings may be understood in the context that sustained school attendance and nutrition interact to produce school-related achievement.

  15. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  16. Indigenous Tutorial Assistance Scheme. Tertiary Tuition and Beyond: Transitioning with Strengths and Promoting Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Judith; Fleeton, Ellen Radnidge; Wilson, Katie

    2017-01-01

    The Indigenous Tutorial Assistance Scheme-Tertiary Tuition (ITAS-TT) has provided Australian government funding for one-to-one and group tutorial study support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students attending Australian universities since 1989. It has been a central plank supporting Indigenous university students in their studies.…

  17. Indigenous Vocational Education and Training. At a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Katy

    2005-01-01

    This publication presents the results of a comprehensive research program on Indigenous Australians in vocational education and training (VET), along with feedback from over 200 people who attended the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) Research Forum on Indigenous VET in August 2005. The planning and implementation of the…

  18. Experiencing Indigenous Knowledge Online as a Community Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutay, Cat; Mooney, Janet; Riley, Lynette; Howard-Wagner, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a project at the Koori Centre, University of Sydney, funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) in 2011, titled "Indigenous On-Line Cultural Teaching and Sharing". One of the team members (Kutay) was also a project team member on the ALTC-funded project "Exploring PBL in Indigenous Australian…

  19. Indigenous Wellbeing Frameworks in Australia and the Quest for Quantification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    There is an emerging global recognition of the inadequacies of conventional socio-economic and demographic data in being able to reflect the relative wellbeing of Indigenous peoples. This paper emerges out of a recent desktop study commissioned by an Australian Indigenous organization who identified a need to enhance local literacies in data…

  20. Alternative VET Pathways to Indigenous Development. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughton, Bob

    Recent research and policy documents on indigenous Australians' development needs and aspirations were reviewed to determine their impact on current developments in vocational education and training (VET) research and policy. Special attention was paid to the work of indigenous community-controlled organizations in areas such the following: land;…

  1. Information Technology and Indigenous People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel, Ed.; Hendriks, Max, Ed.; Grant, Stephen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology and Indigenous People provides theoretical and empirical information related to the planning and execution of IT projects aimed at serving indigenous people. It explores many cultural concerns with IT implementation, including language issues and questions of cultural appropriateness, and brings together cutting-edge…

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Mobile Ear Screening and Surveillance Service versus an Outreach Screening, Surveillance and Surgical Service for Indigenous Children in Australia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Smith, Anthony C; Armfield, Nigel R; Bensink, Mark; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience a high rate of ear disease and hearing loss, yet they have a lower rate of service access and utilisation compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. Screening, surveillance and timely access to specialist ear, nose and throat (ENT) services are key components in detecting and preventing the recurrence of ear diseases. To address the low access and utilisation rate by Indigenous Australians, a collaborative, community-based mobile telemedicine-enabled screening and surveillance (MTESS) service was trialled in Cherbourg, the third largest Indigenous community in Queensland, Australia. This paper aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the MTESS service using a lifetime Markov model that compares two options: (i) the Deadly Ears Program alone (current practice involving an outreach ENT surgical service and screening program), and (ii) the Deadly Ears Program supplemented with the MTESS service. Data were obtained from the Deadly Ears Program, a feasibility study of the MTESS service and the literature. Incremental cost-utility ratios were calculated from a societal perspective with both costs (in 2013-14 Australian dollars) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) discounted at 5% annually. The model showed that compared with the Deadly Ears Program, the probability of an acceptable cost-utility ratio at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY was 98% for the MTESS service. This cost effectiveness arises from preventing hearing loss in the Indigenous population and the subsequent reduction in associated costs. Deterministic and probability sensitivity analyses indicated that the model was robust to parameter changes. We concluded that the MTESS service is a cost-effective strategy. It presents an opportunity to resolve major issues confronting Australia's health system such as the inequitable provision and access to quality healthcare for rural and remotes communities, and for Indigenous Australians. Additionally, it may

  3. Spaces for Learning: Policy and Practice for Indigenous Languages in a Remote Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disbray, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual and Indigenous language and culture programmes have run in remote Australian schools with significant and continuing local support. Developments such as the new national Indigenous languages curriculum offer a further opportunity to broaden and sustain Indigenous language teaching and learning activities in these schools. However, over…

  4. Murra: Guidelines for the Evaluation of Indigenous Content on the WWW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victorian Aboriginal Education Association, Fitzroy (Australia).

    There are over 600 sites on the World Wide Web with substantial Australian Indigenous content. This guide provides strategies for determining which Indigenous sites may be useful in an educational context. Section 1 deals with finding Indigenous content on the World Wide Web. The three main types of search engines are keyword, directory, and…

  5. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Products and Services: Indigenous Gamblers in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this paper reports on findings into risk and protective factors associated with gambling products and services by Indigenous Australians. Both Indigenous card gambling (traditional or unregulated) and commercial gambling (regulated) were investigated. Permission was granted by Indigenous Elders and by a university ethics…

  6. Indigenous Students' Wellbeing and the Mobilisation of Ethics of Care in the Contact Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGill, Bindi Mary; Blanch, Faye

    2013-01-01

    Schools have historically been a location of oppression for Indigenous students in Australian schools. This paper explores the processes of democratising (Giroux, 1992, p. 24) the school space by Aboriginal Community Education Officers (henceforward ACEOs) through an Indigenous ethics of care framework. The enactment of Indigenous ethics of care…

  7. Indigenous child health: are we making progress?

    PubMed

    Brewster, David R; Morris, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    We identified 244 relevant articles pertinent to indigenous health (4% of the total) with a steady increase in number since 1995. Most Australian publications in the journal (with a small Indigenous population) have focussed on conditions such as malnutrition, diarrhoeal disease, iron deficiency, rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and respiratory and ear infections, and in settings where nearly all affected children are Indigenous. In contrast, New Zealand publications (with a large Maori and Pacific Islander population) have addressed important health issues affecting all children but emphasised the over-representation of Maori and Pacific Islanders. Publications in the journal are largely descriptive studies with relatively few systematic reviews and randomised trials. Our review attempts to cover the important Indigenous health issues in our region as represented by articles published in the Journal. The studies do document definite improvements in indigenous child health over the last 50 years.

  8. A matched pair cluster randomized implementation trail to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to decrease perinatal mortality and increase institution-based obstetric care among indigenous women in Guatemala: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal and perinatal mortality continue to be a high priority problem on the health agendas of less developed countries. Despite the progress made in the last decade to quantify the magnitude of maternal mortality, few interventions have been implemented with the intent to measure impact directly on maternal or perinatal deaths. The success of interventions implemented in less developed countries to reduce mortality has been questioned, in terms of the tendency to maintain a clinical perspective with a focus on purely medical care separate from community-based approaches that take cultural and social aspects of maternal and perinatal deaths into account. Our innovative approach utilizes both the clinical and community perspectives; moreover, our study will report the weight that each of these components may have had on reducing perinatal mortality and increasing institution-based deliveries. Methods/Design A matched pair cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in clinics in four rural indigenous districts with the highest maternal mortality ratios in Guatemala. The individual clinic will serve as the unit of randomization, with 15 matched pairs of control and intervention clinics composing the final sample. Three interventions will be implemented in indigenous, rural and poor populations: a simulation training program for emergency obstetric and perinatal care, increased participation of the professional midwife in strengthening the link between traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the formal health care system, and a social marketing campaign to promote institution-based deliveries. No external intervention is planned for control clinics, although enhanced monitoring, surveillance and data collection will occur throughout the study in all clinics throughout the four districts. All obstetric events occurring in any of the participating health facilities and districts during the 18 months implementation period will be included in the analysis

  9. Parasitic diseases of remote Indigenous communities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James S; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-08-15

    Indigenous Australians suffer significant disadvantage in health outcomes and have a life expectancy well below that of non-Indigenous Australians. Mortality rates of Indigenous Australians are higher than that of Indigenous populations in developed countries elsewhere in the world. A number of parasitic diseases which are uncommon in the rest of the Australian population contribute to the high burden of disease in many remote Indigenous communities. High rates of infection with enteric parasites such as Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris have been recorded and infection of the skin with the ecto-parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei is also a substantial problem. Secondary infection of scabies lesions, including with Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus, can produce serious sequelae such as rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Transmission of many parasites in many remote communities is facilitated by overcrowded living conditions and infrastructure problems which result in poor sanitation and hygiene. Improvements in environmental health conditions must accompany medical initiatives to achieve sustainable improvement in the health of Indigenous Australians.

  10. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  11. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  12. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  13. Caries and periodontal disease in Indigenous adults in Australia: a case of limited and non-contemporary data.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Andrea M; Martin-Kerry, Jacqueline M; McKee, Katherine; Cole, Deborah

    2016-08-29

    Objective The aim of the present study was to identify all evidence about the prevalence and severity of clinically measured caries and periodontal disease in Indigenous adults in Australia published in peer-reviewed journals and to summarise trends over time. In addition, we examined whether the studies investigated associations between putative risk factors and levels of caries and periodontal disease.Methods PubMed was searched in September 2014, with no date limitations, for published peer-reviewed articles reporting the prevalence rates and/or severity of caries and periodontal disease in Indigenous adults living in Australia. Articles were excluded if measurement was not based on clinical assessment and if oral disease was reported only in a specific or targeted sample, and not the general population.Results The search identified 18 papers (reporting on 10 primary studies) that met the inclusion criteria. The studies published clinical data about dental caries and/or periodontal disease in Australian Indigenous adults. The studies reported on oral health for Indigenous adults living in rural (40%), urban (10%) and both urban and rural (50%) locations. Included studies showed that virtually all Indigenous adults living in rural locations had periodontal disease. The data also showed caries prevalence ranged from 46% to 93%. Although 10 studies were identified, the peer-reviewed literature was extremely limited and no published studies were identified that provided statistics for a significant proportion of Australia (Victoria, Tasmania, Queensland or the Australian Capital Territory). There were also inconsistencies in how the data were reported between studies, making comparisons difficult.Conclusions This review highlights a lack of robust and contemporary data to inform the development of policies and programs to address the disparities in oral health in Indigenous populations living in many parts of Australia.What is known about the topic? Many studies

  14. Effect of socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Indigenous status on hospital usage for Western Australian preterm infants under 12 months of age: a population-based data linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Natalie A; Peter, Sue; McAuley, Kimberley E; McAullay, Daniel R; Marriott, Rhonda; Edmond, Karen M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous and non-Indigenous preterm infants aged postdischarge from birth admission to 11 months in Western Australia. Secondary objectives were to assess incidence in the poorest infants from remote areas and to determine the primary causes of hospital usage in preterm infants. Design Prospective population-based linked data set. Setting and participants All preterm babies born in Western Australia during 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measures All-cause hospitalisations and emergency department presentations. Results There were 6.9% (4211/61 254) preterm infants, 13.1% (433/3311) Indigenous preterm infants and 6.5% (3778/57 943) non-Indigenous preterm infants born in Western Australia. Indigenous preterm infants had a higher incidence of hospital admission (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.42) and emergency department presentation (aIRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.02) compared with non-Indigenous preterm infants. The most disadvantaged preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the most advantaged infants (3.1/1000 person days) (aIRR 1.61, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.00). The most remote preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the least remote preterm infants (3.0/1000 person days; aIRR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.22). Conclusions In Western Australia, preterm infants have high hospital usage in their first year of life. Infants living in disadvantaged areas, remote area infants and Indigenous infants are at increased risk. Our data highlight the need for improved postdischarge care for preterm infants. PMID:28100563

  15. Gender determinants of smoking practice in Indigenous communities: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Knott, V E; Gilligan, G; Maksimovic, L; Shen, D; Murphy, M

    2016-03-01

    Despite the need to urgently reduce smoking rates among Indigenous Australians, in order to close-the-gap in life expectancy, little is known regarding how this can be achieved. This study aimed to explore whether a focus on gender specific determinants of smoking among Indigenous Australians could be identified, thus providing a potentially novel approach to underpin future efforts at intervention. A qualitative research design was employed. Eighty-two participants, comprised of 43 Indigenous women (mean age 32.15, SD, 12.47) and 39 Indigenous men (mean age 34.91, SD, 11.26), participated in one of 12 focus groups held in metropolitan, regional and rural locations in South Australia. Facilitators prompted discussion in response to the question: 'What is it like being a smoker these days?' Two experienced coders assessed data for themes using Attride-Stirling's (2002) method of analysis. Two global themes emerged for men and women. The first theme, 'It's Harder to Smoke Nowadays', encompassed sub-themes capturing changed smoking practices in response to tobacco control strategies implemented in Australia. Sub-themes of 'smoking in secrecy' coupled with an 'awareness of the effects of passive smoking' were identified among women. Among men, sub-themes that depicted tension between 'a desire to be a role model' and 'guilt about smoking' emerged. The second theme, 'Push and Pull Factors', identified a range of gender specific determinants of smoking. While similar reasons for smoking ('pull factors') were identified in men and women (e.g. addiction, boredom, stress, pleasure, mood stabiliser), different 'push factors' (reasons for not wanting to smoke) emerged. For men, sport, fitness and children were identified as reasons for not wanting to smoke, whereas women identified factors such as respect for non-smokers, and body image concerns. The current findings suggest that there may be fundamental differences in the determinants of smoking (pull factors) as well as

  16. It's Not Rocket Science: The Perspectives of Indigenous Early Childhood Workers on Supporting the Engagement of Indigenous Families in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Rebekah; Trudgett, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous Australian early childhood workers who were asked about how Indigenous families might be better supported to engage with early childhood education and care services. The workers identified three key barriers to family participation: transport difficulties, family…

  17. Are supernovae recorded in indigenous astronomical traditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the skywatching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in indigenous oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral traditions and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Aboriginal Australian traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Aboriginal traditions, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous Australian oral or material traditions.

  18. Dreamtime astronomy: development of a new indigenous program at Sydney Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Geoffrey; Stephenson, Toner; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    The Australian National Curriculum promotes Indigenous culture in school education programs. To foster a broader appreciation of cultural astronomy, to utilise the unique astronomical heritage of the site, and to develop an educational program within the framework of the National Curriculum, Sydney Observatory launched Dreamtime Astronomy - a program incorporating Australian Indigenous culture, astronomy, and Sydney's astronomical history and heritage. This paper reviews the development and implementation of this program and discusses modifications following an evaluation that was conducted by schools.

  19. Native Americans and Aboriginal Australian Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…

  20. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  1. A Community Engaged Dental Curriculum: A Rural Indigenous Outplacement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Abuzar, Menaka A.; Owen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. Design and Methods The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students’ feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale) and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0). They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8). Conclusions This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions. Significance for public health An oral health outreach programme is one of the suggested approaches to effectively address the endemic issues of poor oral health among Indigenous people around the world. An Indigenous dental clinical outplacement in Australia provides an example of beneficial outcomes of such an approach. It provides dental students with an opportunity to experience the health issues related to Australian Indigenous communities and prepare future graduates to work comfortably in the public health care system. Indigenous people also develop trust and feel

  2. Red Dirt Thinking on Child Wellbeing in Indigenous, Rural and Remote Australian Communities: The SpICE Model "I Just Don't Want my Kid to Struggle Like I Did at School"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Kendall; Denton, Marijke

    2013-01-01

    Supporting children in their early development and learning has long-term benefits for both them and the broader community. Yet in Australia we still have significant examples of inequality of opportunity (Allan, 2010) and other structural barriers to family wellbeing, particularly in Indigenous and rural and remote communities (Bourke, Humphreys,…

  3. Indigenous students transitioning to school: responses to pre-foundational mathematics.

    PubMed

    Sarra, Grace; Ewing, Bronwyn

    2014-01-01

    Australian Indigenous students' mathematics performance continues to be below that of non-Indigenous students. This occurs from the early years of school, due largely to knowledge and social differences on entry to formal schooling. This paper reports on a mathematics research project conducted in one Aboriginal community school in New South Wales, Australia. The project aimed to identify and explain the ways that young Australian Indigenous students (age 2-4 years) learn number language and processes, specifically attribute language, sorting, 1-1 correspondence and, counting. The project adopted a mixed methods approach. That is, the methodology was decolonising (Smith 1999) in that it collaborated with and gave benefit back to the Indigenous community and school being researched. It was qualitative and interpretative (Burns 2000) and incorporated an action-research teaching-experiment approach where and teachers collaborated with the researchers to try new teaching methods. This paper draws on data pertaining to students' response to diagnostic interview questions, the pre- and post-test results of the interview and photographic evidence as observations during mathematics learning time. Participants referred to in this paper include one female principal (N = 1), and the transition class of students' pre- (N = 6) and post-test (N = 3) results of the pre-foundational processes (also referred to as attributes). The results were encouraging with improvements in colour (34%), patterns (33%) and capacity (38%). As a result of this project, our epistemology regarding the importance of finding out about students' pre-foundational knowledge and understandings and providing a culturally appropriate learning environment with resources has been built upon.

  4. PA-EFL: A Phonological Awareness Program For Indigenous EFL Students with Hearing Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonovitz, L.; Yonovitz, A.; Palmer, Juan C.

    2000-01-01

    Australia's indigenous populations have endemic levels of otitis media with conductive hearing loss. PA-EFL is a phonological awareness program designed for indigenous Australians who are at high risk for hearing disabilities and who are learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Hearing support services were provided; remarkable literacy gains…

  5. Desert Harmony: Stories of Collaboration between Indigenous Musicians and University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartleet, Brydie-Leigh; Carfoot, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    This article will discuss the ways in which community service learning programs in music can foster meaningful collaborations between universities and Indigenous communities. Drawing on recent pedagogical literature on service learning and insights from a four-year partnership between Australian Indigenous musicians at the Winanjjikari Music…

  6. Inclusive and Empowering Discourse in an Early Childhood Literacy Classroom with Indigenous Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thwaite, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the classroom discourse and strategies of Marcia, an early childhood teacher of a class with a high percentage of Indigenous Australian students. These students have been demonstrably successful on standardised literacy tests, which is not the case for Indigenous students in general in Australia (e.g., MCEETYA,…

  7. Educator Perspectives on Indigenous Cultural Content in an Occupational Therapy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchert, Belinda; Gray, Marion; Miller, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals must understand Indigenous perspectives to deliver effective health services. This study set out to determine the amount, type and effectiveness of current Indigenous content in an occupational therapy curriculum at an Australian regional university and the progress in meeting the National Aboriginal Health Strategy (NAHS)…

  8. School (Non-)Attendance and "Mobile Cultures": Theoretical and Empirical Insights from Indigenous Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout Quicke, Sarah; Biddle, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians are significantly and substantially less likely to be attending school on a given day than their non-Indigenous counterparts. This has been shown to have long-term consequences for the development of the mainstream literacy and numeracy skills associated with formal schooling, as well…

  9. Education of Teachers of Indigenous Students in Early Childhood Services and Schools. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper reviews recent and current efforts to raise the quality of initial teacher education and presents a draft set of professional standards for accomplished teachers of Indigenous students in early…

  10. Indigenous Secondary Education in the Northern Territory: Building for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Jeannie; McInerney, Dennis M.; Fasoli, Lyn; Stephenson, Peter; Ford, Lysbeth

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an Australian Research Council (ARC) funded research project, "Building the future for Indigenous students", an investigation of the hopes and dreams for the future of over 1,000 secondary students, 733 of whom were Indigenous, living in very remote, remote, and urban locations in the Northern…

  11. Indigenous Students in the Tertiary Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…

  12. Refocusing on Oral Language and Rich Representations to Develop the Early Mathematical Understandings of Indigenous Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Susan; Warren, Elizabeth; DeVries, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the nature of oral language and representations used by teachers as they instruct young Indigenous Australian students at the beginning of formal schooling during play-based activities in mathematics. In particular, the use of Standard Australian English (SAE), the mathematical register used, and the interplay with…

  13. Research on indigenous elders: from positivistic to decolonizing methodologies.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kathryn L; Browne, Colette V; Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Kim, Bum Jung; Mokuau, Noreen

    2014-02-01

    Although indigenous peoples have lower life expectancies than the social majority populations in their countries, increasing numbers of indigenous people are living into old age. Research on indigenous elders is informed by a number of research traditions. Researchers have mined existing data sets to compare characteristics of indigenous populations with non-indigenous groups, and these findings have revealed significant disparities experienced by indigenous elders. Some investigators have attempted to validate standardized research tools for use in indigenous populations. Findings from these studies have furthered our knowledge about indigenous elders and have highlighted the ways in which tools may need to be adapted to better fit indigenous views of the constructs being measured. Qualitative approaches are popular, as they allow indigenous elders to tell their stories and challenge non-indigenous investigators to acknowledge values and worldviews different from their own. Recently, efforts have extended to participatory and decolonizing research methods, which aim to empower indigenous elders as researchers. Research approaches are discussed in light of the negative experiences many indigenous peoples have had with Eurocentric research. Acknowledgment of historical trauma, life-course perspectives, phenomenology, and critical gerontology should frame future research with, rather than on, indigenous elders.

  14. Indigenous Students' Persistence in Higher Education in Australia: Contextualising Models of Change from Psychology to Understand and Aid Students' Practices at a Cultural Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Andrew; Nakata, Vicky; Nakata, Martin; Martin, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The need to address the substantial inequities that exist between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in higher education is widely recognised. Those factors that affect the performance of Indigenous students in tertiary education have been reasonably well documented across different institutions, disciplines, and programme levels but there…

  15. Thinking Place: Animating the Indigenous Humanities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, Isobel M.; Findlay, Len; Henderson, James Youngblood

    2005-01-01

    Illustrating contexts for and voices of the Indigenous humanities, this essay aims to clarify what the Indigenous humanities can mean for reclaiming education as Indigenous knowledges and pedagogies. After interrogating the visual representation of education and place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the essay turns to media constructions of…

  16. Towards Growing Indigenous Culturally Competent Legal Professionals in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marcelle

    2013-01-01

    The Review of Australian Higher Education (Bradley Review, 2008) and the Review of Higher Education Access and Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People (Behrendt Review, 2012) identified the need for tertiary institutions to incorporate Indigenous knowledges into curriculum to improve educational outcomes for Indigenous…

  17. Situating the "beyond": Adventure-Learning and Indigenous Cultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Barbara; Mills, Jane

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, an Indigenous Elder from the Wiradjuri nation and a group of academics from Charles Sturt University travelled to Menindee, a small locality on the edge of the Australian outback. They were embarked upon an "adventure-learning" research journey to study ways of learning by creating a community of practice with an Elder from the…

  18. Listening to Hear: Critical Allies in Indigenous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGloin, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on a particular class in an undergraduate seminar in Australian Indigenous Studies where anecdote played a crucial role and where both the teacher and learners were challenged to consider their implication as racialised subjects in the teaching and learning process. The paper argues that student anecdote can be a vital bridge…

  19. Australian Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which

  20. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  1. An Exploration of the Role of Schema Theory and the (Non-Indigenous) Construction of Indigenous Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, D.; Boyd, W. E.

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement is increasingly important in environmental management. While such engagement has tended to comprise only one-way communication, genuine engagement often requires meaningful cross-cultural communication. This paper explores issues surrounding engagement with Australian indigenous communities, suggesting that the construction of…

  2. Counter-Colonial and Philosophical Claims: An Indigenous Observation of Western Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Providing an indigenous opinion on anything is a difficult task. To be sure, there is a multitude of possible indigenous responses to dominant Western philosophy. My aim in this paper is to assess dominant analytic Western philosophy in light of the general insistence of most indigenous authors that indigenous metaphysics is holistic, and to make…

  3. Indigenous Education in Mexico: Indigenous Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despagne, Colette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still…

  4. Why Indigenous Nations Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…

  5. Beyond the Biomedical Paradigm: The Formation and Development of Indigenous Community-Controlled Health Organizations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the formation and development of Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services in Australia, with emphasis on the Redfern Aboriginal Medical Service in Sydney. These organizations were established in the 1970s by Indigenous Australians who were excluded from and denied access to mainstream health services. The aim of this research was to explore notions of Indigenous agency against a historical backdrop of dispossession, colonialism, and racism. Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services act as a primary source of healthcare for many Indigenous communities in rural and urban areas. This study examined their philosophy of healthcare, the range of services provided, their problems with state bureaucracies and government funding bodies, and the imposition of managerialist techniques and strategies on their governance. Essentially, these organizations transcend individualistic, biomedical, and bureaucratic paradigms of health services by conceptualizing and responding to Indigenous health needs at a grassroots level and in a broad social and political context. They are based on a social model of health.

  6. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  7. Issues in health policy for indigenous peoples in Canada.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, J D

    1995-12-01

    This paper provides a preliminary report on the work of the Canadian Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. This commission has spent the past four years undertaking a comprehensive review of all matters pertaining to indigenous people in Canada, and will publish a final report in late 1995 or early 1996. The paper provides an overview of health policy issues examined by the commission. The author was employed by the commission in various capacities to contribute to this analysis of indigenous people's health policy concerns. A disproportionate burden of illness has been suffered by indigenous peoples in Canada. Past policy has systematically undermined the capacity of indigenous communities to develop their own health care systems. Current concerns about health problems and services, as expressed by indigenous people at the commission's community hearings, describe a need for a community-controlled and culturally appropriate approach to healing in indigenous communities. The commission's framework for developing an indigenous people's health strategy is intended to ensure that indigenous people have the capacity, the resources and the appropriate political environment in which to implement community healing. Its relevance to the Australian context may best be seen through a careful review of the commission's final report.

  8. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases.

  9. Principles and guidelines for good practice in Indigenous engagement in water planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Sue; Tan, Poh-Ling; Mooney, Carla; Hoverman, Suzanne; White, Ian

    2012-12-01

    SummaryIndigenous rights, values and interests relating to water have been identified by Australia's National Water Commission as a national priority area, requiring greater understanding, research attention and government action. Yet Indigenous water values are rarely addressed in water planning, despite objectives in national policy requiring Indigenous participation and the identification of Indigenous social, spiritual and customary values in water plans. Water planners are presently equipped with a very limited number of engagement tools tailored to the water resource management context to redress the historical neglect of Indigenous interests. In an Australian research project focused on water planning, seven participatory planning tools were employed in three Australian case studies with different social and hydrological characteristics to improve the way in which Indigenous values are elicited and incorporated and to enhance the status of Indigenous knowledge in water planning. The results from the two Murray Darling Basin (MDB) case studies reveal the many ways in which Indigenous values have been adversely affected by recent water resource developments and concomitant water scarcity. In the third case on the Tiwi Islands in the Northern Territory, where land title to the entire water planning area is vested in Indigenous traditional owners, methods were refined to ensure engagement and generate capacity to manage the development of a solely Indigenous-owned, first-generation Water Management Strategy, in collaboration with a range of stakeholders. This paper describes the needs and aspirations of Indigenous people, the engagement strategies employed to elicit Indigenous knowledge, assess Indigenous values, and incorporate the results into three developing water plans. In addition, it outlines a set of general principles to guide water planning in other regions and thereby to improve Indigenous access to water.

  10. Protecting indigenous rights. Guatemala.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Guatemala's recent ratification of the International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention regarding indigenous and tribal peoples (1989, No. 169) represents a commitment to guarantee the rights of the country's majority Mayan population. Ratifying governments are obligated to respect the traditional values and land rights of tribal and indigenous peoples and to consult with them on any decisions affecting their economic or social development. Ratification of this Convention was a key element in an eight-part UN-sponsored negotiation aimed at ending the civil war in Guatemala. Efforts are underway to promote dialogue between organized civil society and government. Negotiations in May 1996, conducted with ILO assistance, resulted in a socioeconomic agreement under which Guatemala will increase social investment in education, undertake agrarian reform, and institute tripartite consultation on all major social and economic issues. However, two key issues in the peace negotiations--the role of the army in civil society and constitutional reform--remain unresolved. The final global peace accord is expected to be signed in September 1996. UN organizations are already working to mobilize international support for transforming these agreements into political and social realities for the Guatemalan people.

  11. "No-One's Really Aware of Where They Are": A Case Study of Indigenous Student Mobilities in Australia's Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, Sarah; Yap, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous Australians have often been described as highly mobile people, particularly in historical and remote "wilderness" contexts. To date though, very little research has examined the relationship between Indigenous temporary mobilities and formal education systems, which assume and require "settled" residency practice.…

  12. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  13. An oral health literacy intervention for Indigenous adults in a rural setting in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians suffer substantially poorer oral health than their non-Indigenous counterparts and new approaches are needed to address these disparities. Previous work in Port Augusta, South Australia, a regional town with a large Indigenous community, revealed associations between low oral health literacy scores and self-reported oral health outcomes. This study aims to determine if implementation of a functional, context-specific oral health literacy intervention improves oral health literacy-related outcomes measured by use of dental services, and assessment of oral health knowledge, oral health self-care and oral health- related self-efficacy. Methods/design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that utilises a delayed intervention design. Participants are Indigenous adults, aged 18 years and older, who plan to reside in Port Augusta or a nearby community for the next two years. The intervention group will receive the intervention from the outset of the study while the control group will be offered the intervention 12 months following their enrolment in the study. The intervention consists of a series of five culturally sensitive, oral health education workshops delivered over a 12 month period by Indigenous project officers. Workshops consist of presentations, hands-on activities, interactive displays, group discussions and role plays. The themes addressed in the workshops are underpinned by oral health literacy concepts, and incorporate oral health-related self-efficacy, oral health-related fatalism, oral health knowledge, access to dental care and rights and entitlements as a patient. Data will be collected through a self-report questionnaire at baseline, at 12 months and at 24 months. The primary outcome measure is oral health literacy. Secondary outcome measures include oral health knowledge, oral health self-care, use of dental services, oral health-related self-efficacy and oral health-related fatalism. Discussion This study uses

  14. 'We don't tell people what to do': ethical practice and Indigenous health promotion.

    PubMed

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; Chelsea Bond, A; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion aspires to work in empowering, participatory ways, with the goal of supporting people to increase control over their health. However, buried in this goal is an ethical tension: while increasing people's autonomy, health promotion also imposes a particular, health promotion-sanctioned version of what is good. This tension positions practitioners precariously, where the ethos of empowerment risks increasing health promotion's paternalistic control over people, rather than people's control over their own health. Herein we argue that this ethical tension is amplified in Indigenous Australia, where colonial processes of control over Indigenous lands, lives and cultures are indistinguishable from contemporary health promotion 'interventions'. Moreover, the potential stigmatisation produced in any paternalistic acts 'done for their own good' cannot be assumed to have evaporated within the self-proclaimed 'empowering' narratives of health promotion. This issue's guest editor's call for health promotion to engage 'with politics and with philosophical ideas about the state and the citizen' is particularly relevant in an Indigenous Australian context. Indigenous Australians continue to experience health promotion as a moral project of control through intervention, which contradicts health promotion's central goal of empowerment. Therefore, Indigenous health promotion is an invaluable site for discussion and analysis of health promotion's broader ethical tensions. Given the persistent and alarming Indigenous health inequalities, this paper calls for systematic ethical reflection in order to redress health promotion's general failure to reduce health inequalities experienced by Indigenous Australians.

  15. Precision disablement aiming system

    SciTech Connect

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  16. Comparison of fracture rates between indigenous and non-indigenous populations: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Quirk, Shae E; Leslie, William D; Toombs, Maree; Holloway, Kara L; Hosking, Sarah M; Pasco, Julie A; Doolan, Brianna J; Page, Richard S; Williams, Lana J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over recent years, there has been concerted effort to ‘close the gap’ in the disproportionately reduced life expectancy and increased morbidity experienced by indigenous compared to non-indigenous persons. Specific to musculoskeletal health, some data suggest that indigenous peoples have a higher risk of sustaining a fracture compared to non-indigenous peoples. This creates an imperative to identify factors that could explain differences in fracture rates. This protocol presents our aim to conduct a systematic review, first, to determine whether differences in fracture rates exist for indigenous versus non-indigenous persons and, second, to identify any risk factors that might explain these differences. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic search of PubMed, OVID, MEDLINE, CINAHL and EMBASE to identify articles that compare all-cause fracture rates at any skeletal site between indigenous and non-indigenous persons of any age. Eligibility of studies will be determined by 2 independent reviewers. Studies will be assessed for methodological quality using a previously published process. We will conduct a meta-analysis and use established statistical methods to identify and control for heterogeneity where appropriate. Should heterogeneity prevents numerical syntheses, we will undertake a best-evidence analysis to determine the level of evidence for differences in fracture between indigenous and non-indigenous persons. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will use published data; thus, ethical permissions are not required. In addition to peer-reviewed publication, findings will be presented at (inter)national conferences, disseminated electronically and in print, and will be made available to key country-specific decision-makers with authority for indigenous health. PMID:27566641

  17. Australian orchids and the doctors they commemorate.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John H

    2013-01-21

    Botanical taxonomy is a repository of medical biographical information. Such botanical memorials include the names of some indigenous orchids of Australia. By searching reference texts and journals relating to Australian botany and Australian orchidology, as well as Australian and international medical and botanical biographical texts, I identified 30 orchids indigenous to Australia whose names commemorate doctors and other medical professionals. Of these, 24 have names that commemorate a total of 16 doctors who worked in Australia. The doctors and orchids I identified include: doctor-soldiers Richard Sanders Rogers (1862-1942), after whom the Rogers' Greenhood (Pterostylis rogersii) is named, and Robert Brown (1773-1858), after whom the Purple Enamel Orchid (Elythranthera brunonis) is named; navy surgeon Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), after whom the Hare Orchid (Leptoceras menziesii) is named; radiologist Hugo Flecker (1884-1957) after whom the Slender Sphinx Orchid (Cestichis fleckeri) is named; and general medical practitioner Hereward Leighton Kesteven (1881-1964), after whom the Kesteven's Orchid (Dendrobium kestevenii) is named. Biographic references in scientific names of plants comprise a select but important library of Australian medical history. Such botanical taxonomy commemorates, in an enduring manner, clinicians who have contributed to biology outside clinical practice.

  18. Increasing access by priority populations to Australian sexual health clinics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hammad; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y; O'Connor, Catherine C; Grulich, Andrew E; McNulty, Anna; Ryder, Nathan; Hellard, Margaret E; Guy, Rebecca J

    2013-10-01

    Data from a network of 35 Australian sexual health clinics, in geographically diverse locations, showed that the number and proportion of patients from priority populations (ie, young people, men who have sex with men, indigenous people, and female sex workers) increased significantly between 2004 and 2011.

  19. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  20. Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-06-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.

  1. Indigenous Healing Legacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliman, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    On a tour of Cuba, Native scholars from North and South America reconnected with the "extinct" Taino people and shared their knowledge of traditional healing herbs. Western science is just beginning to validate the tremendous knowledge base that indigenous healers have developed--most indigenous medicinal knowledge is useful for finding…

  2. Successful Principal Leadership: Australian Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie; Mulford, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an Australian perspective on successful school leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on case studies in two Australian states (Tasmania and Victoria). Case studies for each state were developed independently and are reported separately. Findings: The findings show a remarkable degree of…

  3. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  4. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring Indigenous peoples' involvement in water planning processes across South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz Quitian, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Gloria Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Indigenous peoples within the Murray-Darling Basin have traditionally struggled for the recognition of their cultural, social, environmental, spiritual, commercial and economic connection to the waters that they have traditionally used, as well as their right to engage in all stages of water planning processes. Despite Australian national and federal frameworks providing for the inclusion of Indigenous Australians' objectives in planning frameworks, water plans have rarely addressed these objectives in water, or the strategies to achieve them. Indeed, insufficient resources, a lack of institutional capacity in both Indigenous communities and agencies and an inadequate understanding of Indigenous people's objectives in water management have limited the extent to which Indigenous objectives are addressed in water plans within the Murray-Darling Basin. In this context, the adoption of specific guidelines to meet Indigenous requirements in relation to basin water resources is crucial to support Indigenous engagement in water planning processes. Using insights from participatory planning methods and human rights frameworks, this article outlines a set of alternative and collaborative guidelines to improve Indigenous involvement in water planning and to promote sustainable and just water allocations.

  5. Creating an Optimistic Future for Indigenous Research in Education: Re-Visioning Both Outcome and Process. Panel Presentation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Michelle; McKnight, Anthony; Lui-Chivizhe, Leah; Wray, Debbie; French, Kath; Sherwood, Juanita; Galleguillos, Sharon; Smith, Arthur

    A panel of Indigenous staff from the Koori Centre of the University of Sydney (Australia) presented challenges, issues, and opportunities facing the field of Indigenous research in education. A new paradigm for Indigenous research is emerging in Australia that recognizes the value and efficacy of Indigenous knowledge systems and that aims to…

  6. Precision laser aiming system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  7. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as "Indigenous") is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have searched published papers, publicly available government and health department reports web sites reporting relevant data on these three risk factors in the Northern Territory. The high rate of family and domestic violence and assaults in the Australian Territory indicates an increased correlation with high risk alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. Heavy drinking pattern and harmful use of alcohol among Indigenous people are more likely to be associated with the incidence of violent assaults and physical injuries in the Northern Territory. We are trying to emphasize our understanding of co-occurring risk factors on the alcohol - violence relationship and urging a need for interventional approaches to reduce the public health issues in the Northern Territory.

  8. AIM Spacecraft Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  9. Australian Brain Alliance.

    PubMed

    2016-11-02

    A proposal for an Australian Brain Initiative (ABI) is under development by members of the Australian Brain Alliance. Here we discuss the goals of the ABI, its areas of research focus, its context in the Australian research setting, and its necessity for ensuring continued success for Australian brain research.

  10. Reclaiming Indigenous Representations and Knowledges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke-Barnes, Judy; Danard, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This article explores contemporary Indigenous artists', activists', and scholars' use of the Internet to reclaim Indigenous knowledge, culture, art, history, and worldview; critique the political realities of dominant discourse; and address the genocidal history and ongoing repression of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Internet examples include…

  11. Indigenous Community-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen, Ed.

    After a long history as a tool of forced assimilation of indigenous populations, education is now a key arena in which indigenous peoples can reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures and thereby improve the academic success of indigenous students. Community-based education offers a means by which indigenous peoples can regain a measure of…

  12. Hemostatic factors in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaimin; Rowley, Kevin; Best, James; McDermott, Robyn; Taylor, Michael; O'Dea, Kerin

    2007-05-01

    Hemostatic processes are important in precipitating myocardial infarction and stroke. Elevated plasma fibrinogen is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the results of previous studies on the association of plasma factor VIIc activity with CVD and diabetes have been inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to explore the association of plasma fibrinogen and factor VIIc to clinical characteristics and estimated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Cross-sectional surveys of Australian Aboriginal people (n = 852) and Torres Strait Islanders (n = 276) aged 15 years and older were conducted from 1993 to 1995. Anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, fasting plasma fibrinogen, factor VIIc, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were measured. Levels of fibrinogen (mean, 95% confidence interval) for Aboriginal (3.52, 3.44-3.59 g/L) and Torres Strait Islander people (3.62, 3.49-3.75 g/L) were higher compared with previous reports from other populations. Factor VIIc (mean, 95% confidence interval) was especially high in Torres Strait Islanders (116%, 111%-122%) compared with Aboriginal people (99%, 97%-102%). Fibrinogen increased with age in both ethnic groups and sexes. Fibrinogen was independently associated with female sex, body mass index, renal dysfunction, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and diabetes, whereas the independent predictors for factor VIIc were Torres Strait Islander ethnicity, female sex, body mass index, renal dysfunction, and total cholesterol. Average fibrinogen levels were high (>3.5 mg/dL) even for people considered "below average risk of coronary heart disease" according to conventional risk factor levels. For Aboriginal women, levels of fibrinogen and factor VIIc were significantly higher for persons at high risk than those at below average risk. The data suggest that plasma fibrinogen and factor VIIc might

  13. The Honey Ant Readers: An Innovative and Bold Approach to Engaging Rural Indigenous Students in Print Literacy through Accessible, Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    On entering school, rural Australian children from Indigenous backgrounds are thrown into an unfamiliar environment, linguistically and culturally, which sets them up for failure. The author, working closely with elders and community in Alice Springs, has drawn on her considerable experience in both Indigenous education and TESOL to address this…

  14. Pathways and Barriers: Indigenous Schooling and Vocational Education and Training Participation in the Goulburn Valley Region. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Katrina; James, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) developed a national Indigenous VET research strategy in partnership with the former Australian Indigenous Training Advisory Council. The research strategy provides a comprehensive program until 2006 to fill the major gaps in knowledge identified through a midterm review of…

  15. Mathematics Registers in Indigenous Languages: Experiences from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Through reporting on an initiative in South Africa that aimed to provide epistemological access to teachers and learners of mathematics (and science) through translating mathematical concepts into two indigenous languages, this paper argues for the urgent development of mathematical registers in indigenous languages for mathematics and …

  16. AIM High Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX.

    The AIM High Program was developed for elementary school children in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District who demonstrate unusually high ability, interest, and motivation in language arts, mathematics, science, and art. Students are identified for the program through standardized test scores, teacher recommendation, student interest,…

  17. Yarning/Aboriginal storytelling: towards an understanding of an Indigenous perspective and its implications for research practice.

    PubMed

    Geia, Lynore K; Hayes, Barbara; Usher, Kim

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition of Indigenous perspectives from various parts of the world in relation to storytelling, research and its effects on practice. The recent emergence of storytelling or yarning as a research method in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island studies and other Indigenous peoples of the world is gaining momentum. Narratives, stories, storytelling and yarning are emerging methods in research and has wide ranging potential to shape conventional research discourse making research more meaningful and accessible for researchers. In this paper we argue for the importance of Indigenous research methods and Indigenous method(ology), within collaborative respectful partnerships with non-Indigenous researchers. It is imperative to take these challenging steps together towards better outcomes for Indigenous people and their communities. In the Australian context we as researchers cannot afford to allow the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and mainstream Australia health outcomes to grow even wider. One such pathway is the inclusion of Aboriginal storytelling or yarning from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait perspective within Indigenous and non-Indigenous research paradigms. Utilising Aboriginal storytelling or yarning will provide deeper understanding; complementing a two-way research paradigm for collaborative research. Furthermore, it has significant social implications for research and clinical practice amongst Indigenous populations; thus complementing the biomedical medical paradigm.

  18. Engagement with indigenous peoples and honoring traditional knowledge systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Julie; Bennett, Bull; Chief, Karletta; Cochran, Patricia; Cozetto, Karen; Gough, Bob; Hiza, Margaret M.; Lynn, Kathy; Maynard, Nancy; Voggesser, Garrit

    2016-01-01

    The organizers of the 2014 US National Climate Assessment (NCA) made a concerted effort to reach out to and collaborate with Indigenous peoples, resulting in the most comprehensive information to date on climate change impacts to Indigenous peoples in a US national assessment. Yet, there is still much room for improvement in assessment processes to ensure adequate recognition of Indigenous perspectives and Indigenous knowledge systems. This article discusses the process used in creating the Indigenous Peoples, Land, and Resources NCA chapter by a team comprised of tribal members, agencies, academics, and non-governmental organizations, who worked together to solicit, collect, and synthesize traditional knowledges and data from a diverse array of Indigenous communities across the US. It also discusses the synergy and discord between traditional knowledge systems and science and the emergence of cross-cutting issues and vulnerabilities for Indigenous peoples. The challenges of coalescing information about climate change and its impacts on Indigenous communities are outlined along with recommendations on the types of information to include in future assessment outputs. We recommend that future assessments – not only NCA, but other relevant local, regional, national, and international efforts aimed at the translation of climate information and assessments into meaningful actions – should support integration of Indigenous perspectives in a sustained way that builds respectful relationships and effectively engages Indigenous communities. Given the large number of tribes in the US and the current challenges and unique vulnerabilities of Indigenous communities, a special report focusing solely on climate change and Indigenous peoples is warranted.This article is part of a special issue on “The National Climate Assessment: Innovations in Science and Engagement” edited by Katharine Jacobs, Susanne Moser, and James Buizer.

  19. Recognising Change and Seeking Affirmation: Themes for Embedding Indigenous Knowledges on Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Juliana M.; Whatman, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    The imperative for Indigenous education in Australia is influenced by national political, social and economic discourses as Australian education systems continue to grapple with an agreed aspiration of full participation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Innovations within and policies guiding our education systems are often…

  20. Small Screen Technology Use among Indigenous Boarding School Adolescents from Remote Regions of Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Oliver, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of small screen technology by adolescents is widespread, particularly in industrial nations. Whether the same is true for Australian Aboriginal youth is less clear as there is a dearth of research in this regard. Therefore, in this exploratory study the use of small screen technology by Indigenous students was examined. Twenty-four…

  1. "Here and Now": The Attendance Issue in Indigenous Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anthea

    2010-01-01

    Concern about poor school attendance and participation, particularly of Indigenous children, is a key issue in Australian education; however, strategies to address this issue have been piecemeal and have met with limited success. While much has been written about the issue of school attendance, little attention has been given to absenteeism in…

  2. Schooling for Self-Determination through a Justice Politics of Indigenous Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data from a study of secondary school for girls, the majority of whom identify as Indigenous Australian. "Gamarada" High School is located in a suburban area of Queensland (Australia) and was established to provide quality education for disadvantaged girls. The paper draws on student and teacher interview data from a…

  3. Solid Foundations: Health and Education Partnership for Indigenous Children Aged 0 to 8 Years. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years…

  4. [Supply of health care in the Australian bush: human resources and government policy].

    PubMed

    Stuer, Anny

    2003-01-01

    The Australian bush--the heart of Australian folklore and a fascinating attraction for tourists, whether from within Australia or other countries--does not enjoy the same attraction for professionals across a range of industries including health, where there is a chronic shortage of human resources. Whilst data vary considerably between regions, in many cases, Australians from rural and remote regions have a lower health status than the overall population. This is particularly true of the population of Indigenous origin. There are about 250 medical practitioners for 100,000 people in Australia. This number varies between about 300 in the capital cities and just over 100 in the remote areas, the latter being mostly general practitioners as there are hardly any hospitals and specialists in those remote areas. The data change across professions--for example the number of nurses is about the same in capital cities and in remote areas: about 1000 full time equivalent for 100,000 people. They change too when we consider rural regions that are less or not isolated: in some instances, these are less supplied than remote areas, where access to care however remains more critical because of distance. The demographic profile of the professions examined in this paper also vary between regions, giving more urgency to workforce planning issues. The Australian government has embarked on the delivery of a major rural health strategy aimed at increasing access to health care in the rural and remote regions--through the provision of more and better services (specialist services; multipurpose centres); attracting more health professionals (scholarships for health students; setting up of rural universities); and retaining and supporting those professionals in rural and remote areas (on-going training; support programs for families and overseas trained doctors; practice management and financial incentives).

  5. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  6. The development and validation of the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS): a 13-item screening instrument for alcohol and drug and mental health risk.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Carla M; Ober, Coralie; McCarthy, Molly M; Watson, Joanne D; Seinen, Anita

    2007-03-01

    The study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS) as a screening instrument for determining (i) the presence of alcohol and drug and mental health risk in Indigenous adult Australians and (ii) the cut-off scores that discriminate most effectively between the presence and absence of risk. A cross-sectional survey was used in clinical and non-clinical Indigenous and non-Indigenous services across Queensland Australia. A total of 175 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from urban, rural, regional and remote locations in Queensland took part in the study. Measures included the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS), the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ). Additional Mental Health measures included the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ). Principle axis factoring analysis of the IRIS revealed two factors corresponding with (i) alcohol and drug and (ii) mental health. The IRIS alcohol and drug and mental health subscales demonstrated good convergent validity with other well-established screening instruments and both subscales showed high internal consistency. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to generate cut-offs for the two subscales and t-tests validated the utility of these cut-offs for determining risky levels of drinking. The study validated statistically the utility of the IRIS as a screen for alcohol and drug and mental health risk. The instrument is therefore recommended as a brief screening instrument for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

  7. Indigenous newborn care.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Susan M

    2009-12-01

    Infant mortality and morbidity disparities occur between non-Indigenous and Indigenous populations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Neonatal mortality is due to high-risk births, which vary according to prevalence of the maternal risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption, infection, and disorders of nutritional status, whereas postneonatal mortality is predominantly influenced by environmental factors. Aside from changing socioeconomic conditions, a continuum of maternal and child health care is likely to be the most effective measure in reducing these health disparities.

  8. Early Childhood and Education Services for Indigenous Children Prior to Starting School. Resource Sheet No. 7 for the Closing the Gap Clearinghouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The National Partnership Agreement for Indigenous Early Childhood Development (COAG 2008a) aims to halve the gap in mortality rates for Indigenous children under five within a decade, halve the gap for Indigenous students in reading, writing and numeracy within a decade, and ensure all Indigenous 4-year-olds have access to quality early childhood…

  9. Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Martin; Hamacher, Duane W.; Warren, John; Byrne, Alex; Pagnucco, Maurice; Harley, Ross; Venugopal, Srikumar; Thorpe, Kirsten; Neville, Richard; Bolt, Reuben

    2014-06-01

    Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project emerging between experts in the higher education, library, archive and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a culturally sensitive manner.

  10. Indigenous Continuance: Collaboration and Syncretism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    In this keynote address, the author talks about Indigenous peoples who are presently in a dynamic circumstance of constant change that they are facing courageously with creative collaboration and syncretism. In the address, the author speaks "of" an Indigenous consciousness and he speaks "with" an Indigenous consciousness so that Indigenous…

  11. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  12. Science, research and social change in Indigenous health--evolving ways of knowing.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Peter W

    2009-11-01

    History tells us of the overwhelming destructive influence of exotic culture, politics and knowledge forms upon the worldview and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians. The power of dominant culture to oppress, control and dominate traditional Indigenous ways of knowing and being has been identified as a being a crucial influence on the health status, future hopes and aspirations of Indigenous Australians. Fundamental to this assertion is that the alienating effect of the belief in and application of the scientific method in relation to learning and knowing is a phenomenon that is incompatible with the law and cultural ways of traditional Indigenous people. The establishment of the Centre of Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE) is predicated upon and responds to a deep need in our community today to synthesise the ideological and epistemological premises of an increasing range of cultures and world views. It recognises that clinical research, for example, is important to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, but also that the way such research is designed and carried out is also crucial to its potential to effect change in and improve the state of Indigenous health in Australia. This paper examines knowledge principles and processes associated with research in Indigenous communities, explores emerging research trends in science and proposes an epistemological framework for synthesis of traditional approaches with those of the scientific paradigm.

  13. Educational and Institutional Flexibility of Australian Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurville, Simon; O'Grady, Thomas; Mayall, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide context for papers in this special issue on Australasian e-learning. The paper aims to examine the background to Australian flexible and transnational education and to evaluate the educational and intuitional flexibility of three typical products of the Australian educational software industry.…

  14. Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

  15. An expanded nationwide view of chronic kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Susan A; Mc Donald, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We summarize new knowledge that has accrued in recent years on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Indigenous Australians. CKD refers to all stages of preterminal kidney disease, including end‐stage kidney failure (ESKF), whether or not a person receives renal replacement therapy (RRT). Recently recorded rates of ESKF, RRT, non‐dialysis CKD hospitalizations and CKD attributed deaths were, respectively, more than sixfold, eightfold, eightfold and threefold those of non‐Indigenous Australians, with age adjustment, although all except the RRT rates are still under‐enumerated. However, the nationwide average Indigenous incidence rate of RRT appears to have stabilized. The median age of Indigenous people with ESKF was about 30 years less than for non‐Indigenous people, and 84% of them received RTT, while only half of non‐Indigenous people with ESKF did so. The first‐ever (2012) nationwide health survey data showed elevated levels of CKD markers in Indigenous people at the community level. For all CKD parameters, rates among Indigenous people themselves were strikingly correlated with increasing remoteness of residence and socio‐economic disadvantage, and there was a female predominance in remote areas. The burden of renal disease in Australian Indigenous people is seriously understated by Global Burden of Disease Mortality methodology, because it employs underlying cause of death only, and because deaths of people on RRT are frequently attributed to non‐renal causes. These data give a much expanded view of CKD in Aboriginal people. Methodologic approaches must be remedied for a full appreciation of the burden, costs and outcomes of the disease, to direct appropriate policy development. PMID:27075933

  16. Crossing the Gap between Indigenous Worldview and Western Science: Millet Festival as a Bridge in the Teaching Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Chia-Ling; Lee, Huei

    2015-01-01

    The worldview within indigenous people's traditional knowledge and western science can be a world of difference. In order to help indigenous students cross the gap and develop a sense of cultural identification. Taking Bunun, one of the Taiwanese indigenous tribes, as our subject, this study aims to develop a teaching module through Bunun's Millet…

  17. Trypanosomes of Australian mammals: A review.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Craig K; Godfrey, Stephanie S; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 306 species of terrestrial and arboreal mammals are known to have inhabited the mainland and coastal islands of Australia at the time of European settlement in 1788. The exotic Trypanosoma lewisi was the first mammalian trypanosome identified in Australia in 1888, while the first native species, Trypanosoma pteropi, was taxonomically described in 1913. Since these discoveries, about 22% of the indigenous mammalian fauna have been examined during the surveillance of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia, including 46 species of marsupials, 9 rodents, 9 bats and both monotremes. Of those mammals examined, trypanosomes have been identified from 28 host species, with eight native species of Trypanosoma taxonomically described. These native trypanosomes include T. pteropi, Trypanosoma thylacis, Trypanosoma hipposideri, Trypanosoma binneyi, Trypanosoma irwini, Trypanosoma copemani, Trypanosoma gilletti and Trypanosoma vegrandis. Exotic trypanosomes have also been identified from the introduced mammalian fauna of Australia, and include T. lewisi, Trypanosoma melophagium, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma nabiasi and Trypanosoma evansi. Fortunately, T. evansi was eradicated soon after its introduction and did not establish in Australia. Of these exotic trypanosomes, T. lewisi is the sole representative that has been reported from indigenous Australian mammals; morphological forms were recorded from two indigenous species of rodents (Hydromys chrysogaster and Rattus fuscipes). Numerous Australian marsupial species are potentially at risk from the native T. copemani, which may be chronically pathogenic, while marsupials, rodents and monotremes appear at risk from exotic species, including T. lewisi, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi. This comprehensive review of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia highlights the negative impact of these parasites upon their mammalian hosts, as well as the threatening biosecurity concerns.

  18. Trypanosomes of Australian mammals: A review

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Craig K.; Godfrey, Stephanie S.; Thompson, R.C. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 306 species of terrestrial and arboreal mammals are known to have inhabited the mainland and coastal islands of Australia at the time of European settlement in 1788. The exotic Trypanosoma lewisi was the first mammalian trypanosome identified in Australia in 1888, while the first native species, Trypanosoma pteropi, was taxonomically described in 1913. Since these discoveries, about 22% of the indigenous mammalian fauna have been examined during the surveillance of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia, including 46 species of marsupials, 9 rodents, 9 bats and both monotremes. Of those mammals examined, trypanosomes have been identified from 28 host species, with eight native species of Trypanosoma taxonomically described. These native trypanosomes include T. pteropi, Trypanosoma thylacis, Trypanosoma hipposideri, Trypanosoma binneyi, Trypanosoma irwini, Trypanosoma copemani, Trypanosoma gilletti and Trypanosoma vegrandis. Exotic trypanosomes have also been identified from the introduced mammalian fauna of Australia, and include T. lewisi, Trypanosoma melophagium, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma nabiasi and Trypanosoma evansi. Fortunately, T. evansi was eradicated soon after its introduction and did not establish in Australia. Of these exotic trypanosomes, T. lewisi is the sole representative that has been reported from indigenous Australian mammals; morphological forms were recorded from two indigenous species of rodents (Hydromys chrysogaster and Rattus fuscipes). Numerous Australian marsupial species are potentially at risk from the native T. copemani, which may be chronically pathogenic, while marsupials, rodents and monotremes appear at risk from exotic species, including T. lewisi, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi. This comprehensive review of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia highlights the negative impact of these parasites upon their mammalian hosts, as well as the threatening biosecurity concerns. PMID:25161902

  19. Introducing Torres Strait Island Dance to the Australian High School Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out within the context of a requirement for every Australian Capital Territory Education and Training Directorate (ACT ETD) high school to include Indigenous perspectives across all areas of the curriculum. For the first time ever in the case study school reported in this article, two Torres Strait Island dances were taught…

  20. Putting History in Its Place: Grounding the Australian Curriculum--History in Local Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This position paper develops the case for a greater focus on the teaching of local histories in the Australian Curriculum: History. It takes as its starting point an Indigenous epistemology that understands knowledge to be embedded in the land. This connection between knowledge and country is used to examine recent literature on whether the…

  1. Equity Groups in Total VET Students and Courses 2014: Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides summary information on equity groups in vocational education and training (VET) delivered by 4601 Australian providers in 2014, under the first collection of "total VET activity" data. In 2014, there were: (1) 146,500 Indigenous students (3.7% of all students); (2) 201,000 students with a disability (5.1% of all…

  2. Chromosomal profile of indigenous pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Vishnu, P. Guru; Punyakumari, B.; Ekambaram, B.; Prakash, M. Gnana; Subramanyam, B. V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal profile of indigenous pigs by computing morphometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A cytogenetic study was carried out in 60 indigenous pigs to analyze the chromosomal profile by employing the short term peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique. Results: The modal chromosome number (2n) in indigenous pigs was found to be 38 and a fundamental number of 64 as in the exotic. First chromosome was the longest pair, and thirteenth pair was the second largest while Y-chromosome was the smallest in the karyotype of the pig. The mean relative length, arm ratio, centromeric indices and morphological indices of chromosomes varied from 1.99±0.01 to 11.23±0.09, 1.04±0.05 to 2.95±0.02, 0.51±0.14 to 0.75±0.09 and 2.08±0.07 to 8.08±0.15%, respectively in indigenous pigs. Sex had no significant effect (p>0.05) on all the morphometric measurements studied. Conclusion: The present study revealed that among autosomes first five pairs were sub metacentric, next two pairs were sub telocentric (6-7), subsequent five pairs were metacentric (8-12) and remaining six pairs were telocentric (13-18), while both allosomes were metacentric. The chromosomal number, morphology and various morphometric measurements of the chromosomes of the indigenous pigs were almost similar to those established breeds reported in the literature. PMID:27047069

  3. Australian Catholic Schools Today: School Identity and Leadership Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidhart, Helga; Lamb, Janeen T.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenge of faith leadership in Catholic schools. In particular, it reviews Australian research that has aimed to understand how principals conceptualize and enact their role as faith leaders. Consistent with American research, Australian research found that principals saw themselves as playing a leadership role in the…

  4. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  5. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  6. Investigating the Validity of the Australian Early Development Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Sally A.; Silburn, Sven; Lawrence, David; Goldfeld, Sharon; Sayers, Mary; Oberklaid, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the ongoing evaluation of the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) by investigating its construct and concurrent validity with a subsample of 642 children aged 4 to 5 years drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Construct validity was examined by considering the theoretical…

  7. Exposing the hidden curriculum influencing medical education on the health of Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand: the role of the Critical Reflection Tool.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Shaun; Mazel, Odette; Knoche, Debra

    2012-02-01

    The disparity in health status between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand is widely known, and efforts to address this through medical education are evidenced by initiatives such as the Committee of Deans of Australian Medical Schools' Indigenous Health Curriculum Framework. These efforts have focused primarily on formal curriculum reform. In this article, the authors discuss the role of the hidden curriculum in influencing the teaching and learning of Indigenous health (i.e., the health of Indigenous people) during medical training and suggest that in order to achieve significant changes in learning outcomes, there needs to be better alignment of the formal and hidden curriculum. They describe the Critical Reflection Tool as a potential resource through which educators might begin to identify the dimensions of their institution's hidden curricula. If used effectively, the process may guide institutions to better equip medical school graduates with the training necessary to advance changes in Indigenous health.

  8. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 1: the ethnobotany of the skyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2014-11-01

    In Aboriginal Australia, the corpus of cosmological beliefs was united by the centrality of the Skyworld, which was considered to be the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. Early historical accounts of classical Australian hunter-gatherer beliefs described the heavens as inhabited by human and spiritual ancestors who interacted with the same species of plants and animals as they had below. This paper is the first of two that describes Indigenous perceptions of the Skyworld flora and draws out major ethnobotanical themes from the corpus of ethnoastronomical records garnered from a diverse range of Australian Aboriginal cultures. It investigates how Indigenous perceptions of the flora are interwoven with Aboriginal traditions concerning the heavens, and provides examples of how the study of ethnoastronomy can provide insights into the Indigenous use and perception of plants.

  9. Engaging with holism in Australian Aboriginal health policy – a review

    PubMed Central

    Lutschini, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Background The ideal concept of Aboriginal holistic health is centrally placed in Australian Aboriginal health policies and strategies. Its effective uptake promises, as advocates suggest, reorienting the complex Australian health system to enable health improvements. However, continual reminders assail us that Aboriginal health is shocking, appalling, disastrous, disgraceful and damning. Could incapacity to engage effectively with the concept undermine health system improvements? The aim of this review of Australian literature was to identify the range of meanings attached to Aboriginal holistic health and engage with their implications for the health system. Results In terms of literature synthesis I found that policy makers cannot rely on this approach to provide coherent arguments for meaningful engagement with the concept because authors in general: are uncritical and un-reflexive in the use and interpretation of the concept; often provide no reference for their understandings; tend to alter the concept's definition and constituent elements without justification; ignore the wide range of mainstream literature about holism and health; and fail to acknowledge and examine the range of Aboriginal concepts of health. I used the ten themes from this literature to highlight implications for the health system, and found that a most profound contradiction exists in the acceptance of the English language concept 'holistic' as immutably Aboriginal. Additionally, a range of contradictions and mixed messages within the themes challenge the validity of the concept. Significantly, with the boundary of the concept constructed as diffuse and ethereal, the diverse and uncritical literature, and mixed thematic meanings, it is possible to justify any claim about the health system as holistic. Conclusion It seems not so much incapacity to engage, but incapacity to coherently articulate Aboriginal concepts of health, which prevents advisory bodies such as the National Indigenous

  10. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  11. Patagonian wines: the selection of an indigenous yeast starter.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Christian A; Rodríguez, María E; Sangorrín, Marcela; Querol, Amparo; Caballero, Adriana C

    2007-08-01

    The use of selected yeasts for winemaking has clear advantages over the traditional spontaneous fermentation. The aim of this study was to select an indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast isolate in order to develop a regional North Patagonian red wine starter culture. A two-step selection protocol developed according to physiological, technological and ecological criteria based on killer interactions was used. Following this methodology, S. cerevisiae isolate MMf9 was selected among 32 indigenous yeasts previously characterized as belonging to different strains according to molecular patterns and killer biotype. This isolate showed interesting technological and qualitative features including high fermentative power and low volatile acidity production, low foam and low sulphide production, as well as relevant ecological characteristics such as resistance to all indigenous and commercial S. cerevisiae killer strains assayed. Red wines with differential volatile profiles and interesting enological features were obtained at laboratory scale by using this selected indigenous strain.

  12. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  13. Commentary: Indigenous Health Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonmyr, Lil; Blackstock, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…

  14. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

  15. Indigenous Empowerment through Collective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enn, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…

  16. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

  17. Indigenization of urban mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zimo; Lian, Defu; Yuan, Nicholas Jing; Xie, Xing; Rui, Yong; Zhou, Tao

    2017-03-01

    The identification of urban mobility patterns is very important for predicting and controlling spatial events. In this study, we analyzed millions of geographical check-ins crawled from a leading Chinese location-based social networking service (Jiepang.com), which contains demographic information that facilitates group-specific studies. We determined the distinct mobility patterns of natives and non-natives in all five large cities that we considered. We used a mixed method to assign different algorithms to natives and non-natives, which greatly improved the accuracy of location prediction compared with the basic algorithms. We also propose so-called indigenization coefficients to quantify the extent to which an individual behaves like a native, which depends only on their check-in behavior, rather than requiring demographic information. Surprisingly, the hybrid algorithm weighted using the indigenization coefficients outperformed a mixed algorithm that used additional demographic information, suggesting the advantage of behavioral data in characterizing individual mobility compared with the demographic information. The present location prediction algorithms can find applications in urban planning, traffic forecasting, mobile recommendation, and so on.

  18. Indigenous Contributions to Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhardt, R.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the course of the Fourth International Polar Year(s), indigenous peoples have assumed a prominent role as significant partners in the pursuit of a broader and deeper understanding of the multifaceted dimensions of the human role in the Arctic region. Most salient in this partnership has been the substantial underlying differences in perspective, some political, some ideological, but most fundamental and intractable are the differences in world views, between those of the relative newcomers to the area (i.e. the miners, loggers, oil field workers, commercial fishermen, tourists, and even the occasional scientist), and the Native people with roots in the land that go back millennia. But no longer can these differences be cast in simplistic either/or terms, implying some kind of inherent dichotomy between those who live off the land vs. those tied to the cash economy, or traditional vs. modern technologies, or anecdotal vs. scientific evidence. These lines have been blurred with the realities that indigenous cultures are not static, and western structures are no longer dominant. Instead, we now have a much more fluid and dynamic situation in which once competing views of the world are striving toward reconciliation through new structures and frameworks that foster co-existence rather than domination and exploitation.

  19. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    PubMed

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  20. Variations in outcomes for Indigenous women with breast cancer in Australia: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, P; Baade, P D; Youlden, D R; Garvey, G; Aitken, J F; Wallington, I; Chynoweth, J; Zorbas, H; Roder, D; Youl, P H

    2017-02-10

    This systematic review examines variations in outcomes along the breast cancer continuum for Australian women by Indigenous status. Multiple databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles published from 1 January 1990 to 1 March 2015 focussing on adult female breast cancer patients in Australia and assessing survival, patient and tumour characteristics, diagnosis and treatment by Indigenous status. Sixteen quantitative studies were included with 12 rated high, 3 moderate and 1 as low quality. No eligible studies on referral, treatment choices, completion or follow-up were retrieved. Indigenous women had poorer survival most likely reflecting geographical isolation, advanced disease, patterns of care, comorbidities and disadvantage. They were also more likely to be diagnosed when younger, have advanced disease or comorbidities, reside in disadvantaged or remote areas, and less likely to undergo mammographic screening or surgery. Despite wide heterogeneity across studies, an overall pattern of poorer survival for Indigenous women and variations along the breast cancer continuum of care was evident. The predominance of state-specific studies and small numbers of included Indigenous women made forming a national perspective difficult. The review highlighted the need to improve Indigenous identification in cancer registries and administrative databases and identified key gaps notably the lack of qualitative studies in current literature.

  1. The future of Australia's Indigenous Population, 2011-61.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Tom

    2016-11-01

    Existing projections of Australia's Indigenous Population suffer from a number of limitations: problematic input data, unsatisfactory projection model design, and poor forecast performance. The aim of this study was to create a new model for projecting that population that better represents the demographic processes at work, and that makes use of a newly available data source on identification change. A new projection model is presented that explicitly incorporates ethnic-identification change, and mixed (Indigenous/Non-Indigenous) partnering and childbearing. It is a composite static-dynamic model which takes a multi-state form where data allow. The model was used to produce projections for the 2011-61 period. Rapid growth of the Indigenous Population is expected, with population momentum, identification change, and mixed partnering and childbearing shown to contribute more to growth than above-replacement fertility and increasing life expectancy. The future growth of Australia's Indigenous Population is thus intimately connected to its interaction with the Non-Indigenous Population.

  2. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses. PMID:27781012

  3. Intergenerational Challenges in Australian Jewish School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the intergenerational changes that have occurred in Australian Jewish day schools and the challenges these pose for religious and Jewish education. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss 1987), data from three sources (interviews [296], observations [27],…

  4. Indigenous Nations' Responses to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    On August 1st, 2007, Indigenous nations from within the United States, Canada, Australia, and Aotearoa (New Zealand) signed a treaty to found the United League of Indigenous Nations. The Treaty of Indigenous Nations offers a historic opportunity for sovereign Indigenous governments to build intertribal cooperation outside the framework of the…

  5. Touring the Indigenous or Transforming Consciousness? Reflections on Teaching Indigenous Tourism at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins-Desbiolles, Freya

    2007-01-01

    The role of the non-Indigenous educator and researcher in education on Indigenous issues is becoming the subject of critical scrutiny. Indigenous academics are successfully turning the gaze on non-Indigenous peers and practices. This paper narrates some of the experiences of a non-Indigenous educator teaching an undergraduate elective Indigenous…

  6. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.

  7. Cyber-Indigeneity: Urban Indigenous Identity on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Bronwyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses understandings and theorising of identity in cyberspace. In particular, it focuses on the construction, maintenance and performance of urban Indigenous identities on the contemporary internet social space, Facebook.

  8. Indigenous plant remedies in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chinemana, F; Drummond, R B; Mavi, S; de Zoysa, I

    1985-01-01

    Two household surveys undertaken in Zimbabwe between 1981 and 1983 revealed extensive use of indigenous plant remedies in the home-management of childhood diarrhoea and many adult illnesses. Names of the local plants, trees and shrubs are listed, together with the part of the plant used and the type of condition treated. The usage of medicinal plants underscores the need for further study of indigenous pharmacopoeias and the therapeutic properties of plants. The role of indigenous plant remedies within local health care systems is also worthy of closer investigation.

  9. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  10. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants…

  11. The Economic Value of Environmental Services on Indigenous-Held Lands in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    Australians could be willing to pay from $878m to $2b per year for Indigenous people to provide environmental services. This is up to 50 times the amount currently invested by government. This result was derived from a nationwide survey that included a choice experiment in which 70% of the 927 respondents were willing to contribute to a conservation fund that directly pays Indigenous people to carry out conservation activities. Of these the highest values were found for benefits that are likely to improve biodiversity outcomes, carbon emission reductions and improved recreational values. Of the activities that could be undertaken to provide the services, feral animal control attracted the highest level of support followed by coastal surveillance, weed control and fire management. Respondents' decisions to pay were not greatly influenced by the additional social benefits that can arise for Indigenous people spending time on country and providing the services, although there was approval for reduced welfare payments that might arise. PMID:21826234

  12. The economic value of environmental services on indigenous-held lands in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zander, Kerstin K; Garnett, Stephen T

    2011-01-01

    Australians could be willing to pay from $878m to $2b per year for Indigenous people to provide environmental services. This is up to 50 times the amount currently invested by government. This result was derived from a nationwide survey that included a choice experiment in which 70% of the 927 respondents were willing to contribute to a conservation fund that directly pays Indigenous people to carry out conservation activities. Of these the highest values were found for benefits that are likely to improve biodiversity outcomes, carbon emission reductions and improved recreational values. Of the activities that could be undertaken to provide the services, feral animal control attracted the highest level of support followed by coastal surveillance, weed control and fire management. Respondents' decisions to pay were not greatly influenced by the additional social benefits that can arise for Indigenous people spending time on country and providing the services, although there was approval for reduced welfare payments that might arise.

  13. Development of a Responsive Literacy Pedagogy Incorporating Technology for the Indigenous Learners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanabalan, T. Vanitha; Siraj, Saedah; Alias, Norlidah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a literacy pedagogy to facilitate literacy learning among the Indigenous community in Malaysia. The Developmental Research Approach method was used and thus various groups of people participated in the study. They included subject matter experts, English language teachers from schools with indigenous students,…

  14. Vocational Education, Indigenous Students and the Choice of Pathways. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This report looks at the pathways Indigenous students in the Northern Territory take between VET and higher education. The study explores the perspectives of students studying at higher-level VET and higher education qualifications, and aims to gain an understanding of the pathways adopted by Indigenous students, as well as their motivations to…

  15. Muskrat Theories, Tobacco in the Streets, and Living Chicago as Indigenous Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Megan; Curley, Lawrence; Kessel, Adam; Marin, Ananda; Suzukovich, Eli S., III; Strack, George

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to contribute to ongoing work to uncover the ways in which settler colonialism is entrenched and reified in educational environments and explore lessons learned from an urban Indigenous land-based education project. In this project, we worked to re-center our perceptual habits in Indigenous cosmologies, or land-based…

  16. Outward Bound Giwaykiwin: Connecting to Land and Culture through Indigenous Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowan, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Outward Bound Canada's (OBC) Giwaykiwin Program was founded in 1985 in response to a recognized need for programming specific to students from Indigenous backgrounds. The Giwaykiwin program aims to integrate Outward Bound (OB) and Indigenous philosophies and traditions. Giwaykiwin means "coming home" in Ojibwa and signifies the program's…

  17. Indigenous knowledge and science revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikenhead, Glen S.; Ogawa, Masakata

    2007-07-01

    This article provides a guided tour through three diverse cultural ways of understanding nature: an Indigenous way (with a focus on Indigenous nations in North America), a neo-indigenous way (a concept proposed to recognize many Asian nations' unique ways of knowing nature; in this case, Japan), and a Euro-American scientific way. An exploration of these three ways of knowing unfolds in a developmental way such that some key terms change to become more authentic terms that better represent each culture's collective, yet heterogeneous, worldview, metaphysics, epistemology, and values. For example, the three ways of understanding nature are eventually described as Indigenous ways of living in nature, a Japanese way of knowing seigyo-shizen, and Eurocentric sciences (plural). Characteristics of a postcolonial or anti-hegemonic discourse are suggested for science education, but some inherent difficulties with this discourse are also noted.

  18. Azithromycin for Indigenous children with bronchiectasis: study protocol for a multi-centre randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis (CF) among Indigenous children in Australia, New Zealand and Alaska is very high. Antibiotics are a major component of treatment and are used both on a short or long-term basis. One aim of long-term or maintenance antibiotics is to reduce the frequency of acute pulmonary exacerbations and symptoms. However, there are few studies investigating the efficacy of long-term antibiotic use for CSLD and non-CF bronchiectasis among children. This study tests the hypothesis that azithromycin administered once a week as maintenance antibiotic treatment will reduce the rate of pulmonary exacerbations in Indigenous children with bronchiectasis. Methods/design We are conducting a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial in Australia and New Zealand. Inclusion criteria are: Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, Maori or Pacific Island children aged 1 to 8 years, diagnosed with bronchiectasis (or probable bronchiectasis) with no underlying disease identified (such as CF or primary immunodeficiency), and having had at least one episode of pulmonary exacerbation in the last 12 months. After informed consent, children are randomised to receive either azithromycin (30 mg/kg once a week) or placebo (once a week) for 12–24 months from study entry. Primary outcomes are the rate of pulmonary exacerbations and time to pulmonary exacerbation determined by review of patient medical records. Secondary outcomes include length and severity of pulmonary exacerbation episodes, changes in growth, school loss, respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1; for children ≥6 years), and sputum characteristics. Safety endpoints include serious adverse events. Antibiotic resistance in respiratory bacterial pathogens colonising the nasopharynx is monitored. Data derived from medical records and clinical assessments every 3 to 4

  19. Animation of the AIM Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  20. Involving indigenous peoples in protected area management: comparative perspectives from Nepal, Thailand, and China.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Sanjay K

    2002-12-01

    Despite over two decades of efforts towards involving indigenous and traditional peoples in protected area management, there are few successful examples. Several international principles and guidelines on indigenous peoples' involvement in protected areas exist. However, because of the lack of evaluation of whether or not these principles and guidelines have been put into practice, there is hardly any information that indicates the actual involvement of indigenous peoples in protected areas. This paper attempts to compare efforts in partnership between indigenous peoples and protected area authority in three Asian countries: Nepal, Thailand, and China. It shows that the involvement of indigenous peoples is more successful where park planning is participatory and where political and socioeconomic reforms are underway. Indigenous peoples are in conflict with park authorities where park management is centralized and nonparticipatory. Unless concrete efforts are made to address livelihood issues of indigenous peoples living in and around protected areas, park management aimed to protect wildlife will rarely succeed. Participatory park management that involves indigenous peoples and that addresses livelihood issues of indigenous communities will ultimately succeed in its efforts toward wildlife conservation.

  1. The diverse aims of science.

    PubMed

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science.

  2. Extending Business Education beyond Traditional Boundaries: A Case Study in Negotiated Problem Resolution in a Remote Regional Indigenous Community in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Cecil A. L.; Chatterjee, Samir Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the concepts and practices of management can only be of benefit when they are anchored to the contextual architecture of people, processes, structures, and technologies. The challenge of establishing a bridging program for providing managerial competencies to Australian Indigenous people has become a serious one for…

  3. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  4. Ethnobotanical knowledge on indigenous fruits in Ohangwena and Oshikoto regions in Northern Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous communities in Namibia possess a rich indigenous knowledge expressed within many practices of these communities. Indigenous wild edible fruits are available along the Namibian 13 regions of which it forms a rich source of vitamins, fibres, minerals and a heterogeneous collection of bioactive compounds referred to as phytochemicals for indigenous people’s diet. The aim of this study was to record the different IKS practices on the indigenous fruit trees in Ohangwena and Oshikoto regions of Namibia. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from local communities from 23-29 October 2011. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips in the Ohangwena and Oshikoto regions. A total of 65 respondents were interviewed; 54%; women, 38%; men and 8%; both in group interviews. Results The majority of the people interviewed were in their thirty’s, with the youngest being 18 years old and the oldest being 98 years old. Forty three plant specimens were collected from the two regions; these specimens belong to 20 genera and 25 species. Regarding to the indigenous knowledge; 87%; of the respondents indicated that their knowledge on indigenous fruits was learnt mainly through their parent. Indigenous people’s perception on declining indigenous fruits revealed that 56.3%; of the respondents reported that indigenous fruits were declining. Only a 42.2%; indicated that the indigenous fruits populations are increasing. Regarding to the management practices to improve the production of these indigenous fruit trees; 38.6%; reported that there are some efforts on management practices; on the other hand 61.4%; reported there are no management practices on the indigenous fruit trees in their areas. Four species were found to be the most frequently used and mentioned fruits which need to be given high preference in terms of conservation are: Berchemia discolor, Hyphaene petersiana

  5. Indigenous Community Tree Inventory: Assessment of Data Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, M. F.; Idris, N. H.; Din, A. H. M.; Osman, M. J.; Idris, N. H.; Ishak, M. H. I.

    2016-09-01

    The citizen science program to supplement authoritative data in tree inventory has been well implemented in various countries. However, there is a lack of study that assesses correctness and accuracy of tree data supplied by citizens. This paper addresses the issue of tree data quality supplied by semi-literate indigenous group. The aim of this paper is to assess the correctness of attributes (tree species name, height and diameter at breast height) and the accuracy of tree horizontal positioning data supplied by indigenous people. The accuracy of the tree horizontal position recorded by GNSS-enable smart phone was found to have a RMSE value of ± 8m which is not suitable to accurately locate individual tree position in tropical rainforest such as the Royal Belum State Park. Consequently, the tree species names contributed by indigenous people were only 20 to 30 percent correct as compared with the reference data. However, the combination of indigenous respondents comprising of different ages, experience and knowledge working in a group influence less attribute error in data entry and increase the use of free text rather than audio methods. The indigenous community has a big potential to engage with scientific study due to their local knowledge with the research area, however intensive training must be given to empower their skills and several challenges need to be addressed.

  6. Aims, assessments and workplace needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Paul

    1997-03-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. Calling on evidence mainly from the UK, it reviews analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the senior physics professors in the UK. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  7. Indigenous Student Perspectives on Support and Impediments at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Grote, Ellen; Rochecouste, Judith; Dann, Tomzarni

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians are entering university in greater numbers than in past decades, yet many struggle to complete their degrees. This paper reports on the qualitative component of a research project aimed at enhancing understandings about this issue by investigating student perspectives about those structures that facilitate or impede their…

  8. Adult Learning, Transformative Education, and Indigenous Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.

  9. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-11-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  10. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  11. Aiming for the ideal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gaich, Tanja; Baran, Phil S

    2010-07-16

    The field of total synthesis has a rich history and a vibrant future. Landmark advances and revolutionary strides in the logic of synthesis have put the practicing chemist in the enviable position of being able to create nearly any molecule with enough time and effort. The stage is now set for organic chemists to aim for "ideality" in the way molecules are synthesized. This perspective presents a simple and informative definition of "ideality" and demonstrates its use during the self-evaluation of several syntheses from our laboratory.

  12. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA): Mediating and Mobilizing Indigenous Peoples' Educational Knowledge and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitinui, Paul; McIvor, Onowa; Robertson, Boni; Morcom, Lindsay; Cashman, Kimo; Arbon, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    There is an Indigenous resurgence in education occurring globally. For more than a century Euro-western approaches have controlled the provision and quality of education to, and for Indigenous peoples. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA) established in 2012, is a grass-roots movement of Indigenous scholars passionate about making a…

  13. Rationale and design of the Kanyini guidelines adherence with the polypill (Kanyini-GAP) study: a randomised controlled trial of a polypill-based strategy amongst Indigenous and non Indigenous people at high cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Kanyini Guidelines Adherence with the Polypill (Kanyini-GAP) Study aims to examine whether a polypill-based strategy (using a single capsule containing aspirin, a statin and two blood pressure-lowering agents) amongst Indigenous and non-Indigenous people at high risk of experiencing a cardiovascular event will improve adherence to guideline-indicated therapies, and lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Methods/Design The study is an open, randomised, controlled, multi-centre trial involving 1000 participants at high risk of cardiovascular events recruited from mainstream general practices and Aboriginal Medical Services, followed for an average of 18 months. The participants will be randomised to one of two versions of the polypill, the version chosen by the treating health professional according to clinical features of the patient, or to usual care. The primary study outcomes will be changes, from baseline measures, in serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressure and self-reported current use of aspirin, a statin and at least two blood pressure lowering agents. Secondary study outcomes include cardiovascular events, renal outcomes, self-reported barriers to indicated therapy, prescription of indicated therapy, occurrence of serious adverse events and changes in quality-of-life. The trial will be supplemented by formal economic and process evaluations. Discussion The Kanyini-GAP trial will provide new evidence as to whether or not a polypill-based strategy improves adherence to effective cardiovascular medications amongst individuals in whom these treatments are indicated. Trial Registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN126080005833347. PMID:20687931

  14. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Objective This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members’ experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Methods Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Results Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. Conclusions When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health

  15. Indigenous Intelligence: Have We Lost Our Indigenous Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Eurocentric intelligence is restricted to rational, linear, competitive, and hierarchical thinking. Indigenous intelligence encompasses the body, mind, heart, and experience in total responsiveness and total relationship to the whole environment, which includes the seven generations past and future. Implementation of major changes to indigenous…

  16. Trialling the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashman, Di

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, St. Leonards Primary School in Tasmania, along with other selected schools throughout Australia, trialled the draft Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. Mathematics had been a whole school focus at St. Leonards Primary School for several years, and the school found that the opportunity to be part of the trial strongly connected with their…

  17. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes…

  18. Numeracy and Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah

    2016-01-01

    Australian teachers, recruited via Facebook, completed an online survey about aspects of numeracy. The survey was designed to explore views on numeracy and capacity to respond to numeracy tasks. In this paper, we focus primarily on responses to two numeracy tasks--one numerical, the other requiring critical evaluation. On the first item, 40%…

  19. Music in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Graham

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of music in Australian schools. The survey included all types of schools, and includes facilities and equipment for musical education, and the use made of them. The courses of study, organization of musical activities, finance, supervision, teacher training, and…

  20. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  1. Indigenous Environmental Perspectives: A North American Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Winona

    1992-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of the nature of indigenous sustainable subsistence economies, and the present underdevelopment and dependency of North American indigenous economies resulting from colonialism and marginalization. Describes environmental and personal contamination on indigenous lands from uranium and coal mining, toxic and nuclear waste,…

  2. Indigenous Knowledge for Development: Opportunities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjestani, Nicolas

    Indigenous knowledge is a critical factor for sustainable development. Empowerment of local communities is a prerequisite for the integration of indigenous knowledge in the development process. The integration of appropriate indigenous knowledge systems into development programs has already contributed to efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainable…

  3. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts…

  4. Indigenous Studies and the Politics of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGloin, Colleen; Carlson, Bronwyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Language use changes over time. In Indigenous contexts, language alters to suit the shifting nature of cultural expression as this might fit with Indigenous peoples' preference or as a consequence of changes to outdated and colonial modes of expression. For students studying in the discipline of Indigenous Studies, learning to use appropriate…

  5. Indigenous Specializations: Dreams, Developments, Delivery and Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Cathy; Thomas, Robina; Green, Jacquie; Ormiston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the establishment of the Indigenous Specializations program in the School of Social Work at the University of Victoria. In the absence of funding for Indigenous programs, First Nations professors Robina Thomas and Jacquie Green developed the Indigenous Specializations program "off the side of their desk". This…

  6. Indigenous Studies as an International Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Robles, Rodolfo

    This paper proposes the development of Indigenous Studies as an international field, both in the sense of advancing the discipline internationally, wherever there are Indigenous peoples, and in the sense of incorporating international perspectives into curricula. In Canada, Indigenous Studies has been and is still treated as something to be done…

  7. More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunten, Alexis Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous…

  8. From Our Eyes: Learning from Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Sylvia, Ed.; West, Douglas A., Ed.

    The purpose of the conference and this book is to begin to establish the parameters of a new period of interaction between indigenous and non-Native peoples of North America through their experiences in university and academic practices and settings. The book exposes academic communities to indigenous learning and indigenous knowledge with the…

  9. China's educational aim and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang-Wei, Zou

    1985-12-01

    The aim and theory of Chinese socialist education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge so as to develop the productive forces and to meet the demands of the socialist cause. Since education is the main vehicle towards modernizing science and technology, any investment in education is viewed as being productive as it feeds directly into economics. Faced with the demands of industrial and agricultural production, training a technical as well as a labour force becomes crucial. This is made possible by the provision of two labour systems for workers both from rural as well as urban areas and by two kinds of educational systems for both urban and rural students. Chinese educational theory is seen as a fusion of principles from its own educational legacy with those of Marxist-Leninist principles.

  10. Systematic review of rheumatic disease phenotypes and outcomes in the Indigenous populations of Canada, the USA, Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Kelle; Barnabe, Cheryl

    2017-04-01

    We performed a systematic review designed to characterize clinical phenotypes and outcomes in Indigenous populations with rheumatic disease to enhance the understanding of how rheumatic disease presents in Indigenous populations and allow for better projection of the healthcare needs of the communities affected. A systematic search was performed in medical (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL), Indigenous and conference abstract databases (to June 2015). Search terms for Indigenous populations were combined with terms for inflammatory arthritis conditions, connective tissue disorders, crystal arthritis and osteoarthritis. Studies were included if they reported on disease features, disease activity measures, or patient-reported outcomes in Canadian, American, Australian or New Zealand Indigenous populations. Data were extracted in duplicate, and a narrative summary was prepared. A total of 5269 titles and abstracts were reviewed, of which 504 underwent full-text review and 85 met inclusion criteria. Nearly all the studies described outcomes in the North American populations (n = 77), with only four studies from Australia and four studies from New Zealand. The majority of studies were in rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) and systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 19). Indigenous patients with rheumatoid arthritis had higher disease activity and reported more significant impact on patient-reported outcomes and quality of life than non-Indigenous patients. Spondyloarthropathy features were described in North American populations, with most patients having advanced manifestations. In systemic lupus erythematosus, nephritis was more frequent in Indigenous populations. Gout and osteoarthritis were more severe in New Zealand Maori populations. The existing literature supports differences in disease phenotype and severity in Indigenous populations of Canada, America, Australia and New Zealand. We encourage investigators in this area of research to undertake contemporary studies that

  11. The Australian Education Union's Response to Kevin Donnelly's "The Australian Education Union: A History of Opposing School Choice and School Autonomy Down-Under"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopgood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This article is a response to Kevin Donnelly's article, "The Australian Education Union: A History of Opposing School Choice and School Autonomy Down-Under," and aims to correct specific errors and misrepresentations as found by Susan Hopgood, Federal Secretary of the Australian Education Union. She argues that the article is misleading…

  12. Using Indigenous Materials for Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Middle East and elsewhere. The raw materials considered for development of indigenous inorganic binders include volcanic deposits, laterite clay... laterite clay activated with soda ash and lime, where laterite clay moderately calcined in the presence of soda ash partially replaces natural laterite ...optionally formulated without Portland cement, and o use locally available materials (volcanic deposites, lime, soda ash, laterite clay, gypsum, etc.) [14

  13. Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

    2008-01-01

    Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…

  14. Biculturalism among Indigenous College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Colton D.

    2011-01-01

    "Indigenous" college students in both Canada and the United States have the lowest rates of obtaining postsecondary degrees, and their postsecondary dropout rates are higher than for any other minority (Freeman & Fox, 2005; Mendelson, 2004; Reddy, 1993). There has been very little research done to uncover possible reasons for such…

  15. Providing Space for Indigenous Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangihaere, Tracey Mihinoa; Twiname, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Colonial influences have generally failed to respect indigenous knowledge, languages, and cultures. Determination to reclaim First Nations identity is visible in many jurisdictions. First Nations Peoples continue to call on governments to facilitate changes needed to revitalize their economic, social, cultural, and spiritual well-being. This…

  16. Reconciling Indigenous and Western Knowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Neil

    Being able to consider the full range of social and economic issues from different cultural perspectives while maintaining respect and an open mind is a difficult task. The similarities between the latest thinking of Western cosmology and theoretical physics and Indigenous understandings of the bush and its components are striking and provide a…

  17. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…

  18. Exploring the Potential of Indigenous Foods to Address Hidden Hunger: Nutritive Value of Indigenous Foods of Santhal Tribal Community of Jharkhand, India

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Magsumbol, Melina S.; Kamboj, Preeti; Goldberg, Gail

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditional foods of indigenous communities can be explored as a sustainable means of addressing undernutrition. Our study aimed at identifying indigenous foods of the Santhal tribal community of Godda district of Jharkhand, India, assessing their nutritive value, and appraising their potential role in addressing hidden hunger. A cross-sectional survey using qualitative methods like focus group discussions with women of childbearing age (15–49 years), adult males, and elderly people was conducted for food identification. This was followed by taxonomic classification and quantitative estimate of nutritive value of the identified foods either in a certified laboratory or from secondary data. The community was well aware of the indigenous food resources in their environment. More than 100 different types of indigenous foods including a number of green leafy vegetables were identified. Taxonomic classification was available for 25 food items and an additional 26 food items were sent for taxonomic classification. Many indigenous foods (more than 50% of which were green leafy vegetables) were found to be rich sources of micronutrients like calcium, iron, vitamin A as beta carotene, and folate. Maximizing utilization of indigenous foods can be an important and sustainable dietary diversification strategy for addressing hidden hunger in this indigenous community. PMID:27867449

  19. Exploring the Potential of Indigenous Foods to Address Hidden Hunger: Nutritive Value of Indigenous Foods of Santhal Tribal Community of Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Magsumbol, Melina S; Kamboj, Preeti; Goldberg, Gail

    2016-10-01

    Traditional foods of indigenous communities can be explored as a sustainable means of addressing undernutrition. Our study aimed at identifying indigenous foods of the Santhal tribal community of Godda district of Jharkhand, India, assessing their nutritive value, and appraising their potential role in addressing hidden hunger. A cross-sectional survey using qualitative methods like focus group discussions with women of childbearing age (15-49 years), adult males, and elderly people was conducted for food identification. This was followed by taxonomic classification and quantitative estimate of nutritive value of the identified foods either in a certified laboratory or from secondary data. The community was well aware of the indigenous food resources in their environment. More than 100 different types of indigenous foods including a number of green leafy vegetables were identified. Taxonomic classification was available for 25 food items and an additional 26 food items were sent for taxonomic classification. Many indigenous foods (more than 50% of which were green leafy vegetables) were found to be rich sources of micronutrients like calcium, iron, vitamin A as beta carotene, and folate. Maximizing utilization of indigenous foods can be an important and sustainable dietary diversification strategy for addressing hidden hunger in this indigenous community.

  20. Population and Australian development assistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  1. A quest for indigenous truffle helper prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Gryndler, Milan; Soukupová, Lucie; Hršelová, Hana; Gryndlerová, Hana; Borovička, Jan; Streiblová, Eva; Jansa, Jan

    2013-06-01

    Tuber aestivum is the most common European truffle with significant commercial exploitation. Its production originates from natural habitats and from artificially inoculated host tree plantations. Formation of Tuber ectomycorrhizae in host seedling roots is often inefficient. One possible reason is the lack of indigenous associative microbes. Here we aimed at metagenetic characterization and cultivation of indigenous prokaryotes associated with T. aestivum in a field transect cutting through the fungus colony margin. Several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed close association with the T. aestivum in the ectomycorrhizae and in the soil, but there was no overlap between the associative prokaryotes in the two different habitats. Among those positively associated with the ectomycorrhizae, we identified several bacterial genera belonging to Pseudonocardineae. Extensive isolation efforts yielded many cultures of ectomycorrhizae-associative bacteria belonging to Rhizobiales and Streptomycineae, but none belonging to the Pseudonocardineae. The specific unculturable Tuber-associated prokaryotes are likely to play important roles in the biology of these ectomycorrhizal fungi, including modulation of competition with other symbiotic and saprotrophic microbes, facilitation of root penetration and/or accessing mineral nutrients in the soil. However, the ultimate proof of this hypothesis will require isolation of the microbes for metabolic studies, using novel cultivation approaches.

  2. Risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castles, Simon; Wainer, Zoe; Jayasekara, Harindra

    2016-01-01

    Cancer incidence in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is higher and survival lower compared with non-Indigenous Australians. A proportion of these cancers are potentially preventable if factors associated with carcinogenesis are known and successfully avoided. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Electronic databases Medline, Web of Science and the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Bibliographic Index were searched through August 2014 using broad search terms. Studies reporting a measure of association between a risk factor and any cancer site in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population were eligible for inclusion. Ten studies (1991-2014) were identified, mostly with small sample sizes, showing marked heterogeneity in terms of methods used to assess exposure and capture outcomes, and often using descriptive comparative analyses. Relatively young (as opposed to elderly) and geographically remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders were found to be at increased risk for selected cancers while most modifiable lifestyle and behavioural risk factors were rarely assessed. Further studies examining associations between potential risk factors and cancer will help define public health policy for cancer prevention in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population.

  3. Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genome variation – an increased understanding of population antiquity and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Nano; van Oven, Mannis; Wilcox, Stephen; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Ballantyne, Kaye N.; Wilcox, Leah; Papac, Luka; Cooke, Karen; van Oorschot, Roland A. H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R. John; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Comas, David; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Gaieski, Jill B.; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Hobbs, Angela; Javed, Asif; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Melé, Marta; Merchant, Nirav C.; Owings, Amanda C.; Parida, Laxmi; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Soodyall, Himla; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Vilar, Miguel G.; Wells, R. Spencer; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ~55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated both the uniqueness and antiquity of Aboriginal Australian genomes. We have further resolved known Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups and discovered novel indigenous lineages by sequencing the mitogenomes of 127 contemporary Aboriginal Australians. In particular, the more common haplogroups observed in our dataset included M42a, M42c, S, P5 and P12, followed by rarer haplogroups M15, M16, N13, O, P3, P6 and P8. We propose some major phylogenetic rearrangements, such as in haplogroup P where we delinked P4a and P4b and redefined them as P4 (New Guinean) and P11 (Australian), respectively. Haplogroup P2b was identified as a novel clade potentially restricted to Torres Strait Islanders. Nearly all Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups detected appear to be ancient, with no evidence of later introgression during the Holocene. Our findings greatly increase knowledge about the geographic distribution and phylogenetic structure of mitochondrial lineages that have survived in contemporary descendants of Australia’s first settlers. PMID:28287095

  4. Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genome variation – an increased understanding of population antiquity and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagle, Nano; van Oven, Mannis; Wilcox, Stephen; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Ballantyne, Kaye N.; Wilcox, Leah; Papac, Luka; Cooke, Karen; van Oorschot, Roland A. H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R. John; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Comas, David; Cooper, Alan; der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Hobbs, Angela; Javed, Asif; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Melé, Marta; Merchant, Nirav C.; Owings, Amanda C.; Parida, Laxmi; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Soodyall, Himla; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Vilar, Miguel G.; Wells, R. Spencer; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2017-03-01

    Aboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ~55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated both the uniqueness and antiquity of Aboriginal Australian genomes. We have further resolved known Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups and discovered novel indigenous lineages by sequencing the mitogenomes of 127 contemporary Aboriginal Australians. In particular, the more common haplogroups observed in our dataset included M42a, M42c, S, P5 and P12, followed by rarer haplogroups M15, M16, N13, O, P3, P6 and P8. We propose some major phylogenetic rearrangements, such as in haplogroup P where we delinked P4a and P4b and redefined them as P4 (New Guinean) and P11 (Australian), respectively. Haplogroup P2b was identified as a novel clade potentially restricted to Torres Strait Islanders. Nearly all Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups detected appear to be ancient, with no evidence of later introgression during the Holocene. Our findings greatly increase knowledge about the geographic distribution and phylogenetic structure of mitochondrial lineages that have survived in contemporary descendants of Australia’s first settlers.

  5. "I Don't Want to Grow Up and Not Be Smart": Urban Indigenous Young People's Perceptions of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Alison; Hay, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    In light of the policy and research interests in optimising the educational experiences and outcomes of Indigenous young people, this paper aims to give voice to young Indigenous students' experiences of school and to convey a sense of the varied and complex nature of their educational and life pathways. Using a qualitative, life history research…

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Health among Indigenous Kanak Women and Non-Kanak Women of New Caledonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Cyr, Diane; Gueguen, Alice; Lert, France

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by comparing indigenous Kanak to non-Kanak women in…

  7. The Struggle of Being Toba in Contemporary Argentina: Processes of Ethnic Identification of Indigenous Children in Contexts of Language Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study how children experience their ethnic identifications in relation to their knowledge of the Toba language through daily interactions with peers and adults (both indigenous and non-indigenous). The study is focused on an urban setting in Buenos Aires (Argentina) where monolingual (Spanish) practices are replacing…

  8. Hardening: Australian for Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    ADF towards homeland defense. For further details, see Jeffrey Grey. A Military History of Australia. Melbourne, Australia, Cambridge University...is a simplified explanation of the hardene d force structure proposed by FLW. The hardened concept encompasses other aspects that enhance Army...standardized with three rifle companies. A 196 Leahy “ A Land Force for the Future: The Australian Army in the Early 21st Century.” 2003: 19. 197 See Monk, Paul

  9. Functional Performance in Young Australian Children with Achondroplasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope Jane; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth M.; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine population-specific developmental milestones for independence in self-care, mobility, and social cognitive skills in children with achondroplasia, the most common skeletal dysplasia. Methods: Population-based recruitment from October 2008 to October 2010 identified 44 Australian children with…

  10. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied.

  11. Australians as International Students--Where They Go, What They Do and Why They Do It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerlich, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Current published information on the Australian student mobility offshore is reviewed as part of a long-term project aiming to determine the current propensity of Australian higher education students to study overseas and the return on investment that they can expect to achieve. It was found that limited data are available on the current extent of…

  12. Developing the Australian Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale (RACES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Kaine; Manderson, Lenore

    2015-01-01

    Existing Australian measures of racist attitudes focus on single groups or have not been validated across the lifespan. To redress this, the present research aimed to develop and validate a measure of racial, ethnic, cultural and religious acceptance--the Australian Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale (RACES)--for use with…

  13. Leading a New Pedagogical Approach to Australian Curriculum Mathematics: Using the Dual Mathematical Modelling Cycle Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Janeen; Kawakami, Takashi; Saeki, Akihiko; Matsuzaki, Akio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of the "dual mathematical modelling cycle framework" as one way to meet the espoused goals of the Australian Curriculum Mathematics. This study involved 23 Year 6 students from one Australian primary school who engaged in an "Oil Tank Task" that required them to develop two…

  14. The Identification of Four Characteristics of Children's Spirituality in Australian Catholic Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Brendan

    2008-01-01

    In taking its theoretical impetus from hermeneutic phenomenology, the qualitative research reported in this paper aimed to identify characteristics of children's spirituality in Australian Catholic primary schools. The videotaped life expressions of two groups of six children in each of three Australian Catholic primary schools formed the texts of…

  15. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  16. Brief communication: the Australian Barrineans and their relationship to Southeast Asian negritos: an investigation using mitochondrial genomics.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Peter; Nagle, Nano; Mitchell, Robert John

    2013-01-01

    The existence of a short-statured Aboriginal population in the Far North Queensland (FNQ) rainforest zone of Australia's northeast coast and Tasmania has long been an enigma in Australian anthropology. Based on their reduced stature and associated morphological traits such as tightly curled hair, Birdsell and Tindale proposed that these "Barrinean" peoples were closely related to "negrito" peoples of Southeast Asia and that their ancestors had been the original Pleistocene settlers of Sahul, eventually displaced by taller invaders. Subsequent craniometric and blood protein studies, however, have suggested an overall homogeneity of indigenous Australians, including Barrineans. To confirm this finding and determine the degree of relatedness between Barrinean people and Southeast Asian negritos, we compared indigenous Australian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences in populations from the FNQ rainforest ecozone and Tasmania with sequences from other Australian Aboriginal populations and from Southeast Asian negrito populations (Philippines Batek and Mamanwa, and mainland Southeast Asian Jahai, Mendriq, and Batak). The results confirm that FNQ and Tasmanian mtDNA haplogroups cluster with those of other Australian Aboriginal populations and are only very distantly related to Southeast Asian negrito haplogroups.

  17. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  18. Relationship of tooth wear to chronological age among indigenous Amazon populations.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elma Pinto; Barbosa, Mayara Silva; Quintão, Cátia Cardoso Abdo; Normando, David

    2015-01-01

    In indigenous populations, age can be estimated based on family structure and physical examination. However, the accuracy of such methods is questionable. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate occlusal tooth wear related to estimated age in the remote indigenous populations of the Xingu River, Amazon. Two hundred and twenty three semi-isolated indigenous subjects with permanent dentition from the Arara (n = 117), Xicrin-Kayapó (n = 60) and Assurini (n = 46) villages were examined. The control group consisted of 40 non-indigenous individuals living in an urban area in the Amazon basin (Belem). A modified tooth wear index was applied and then associated with chronological age by linear regression analysis. A strong association was found between tooth wear and chronological age in the indigenous populations (p <0.001). Tooth wear measurements were able to explain 86% of the variation in the ages of the Arara sample, 70% of the Xicrin-Kaiapó sample and 65% of the Assurini sample. In the urban control sample, only 12% of ages could be determined by tooth wear. These findings suggest that tooth wear is a poor estimator of chronological age in the urban population; however, it has a strong association with age for the more remote indigenous populations. Consequently, these findings suggest that a simple tooth wear evaluation method, as described and applied in this study, can be used to provide a straightforward and efficient means to assist in age determination of newly contacted indigenous groups.

  19. Relationship of Tooth Wear to Chronological Age among Indigenous Amazon Populations

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Elma Pinto; Barbosa, Mayara Silva; Quintão, Cátia Cardoso Abdo; Normando, David

    2015-01-01

    In indigenous populations, age can be estimated based on family structure and physical examination. However, the accuracy of such methods is questionable. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate occlusal tooth wear related to estimated age in the remote indigenous populations of the Xingu River, Amazon. Two hundred and twenty three semi-isolated indigenous subjects with permanent dentition from the Arara (n = 117), Xicrin-Kayapó (n = 60) and Assurini (n = 46) villages were examined. The control group consisted of 40 non-indigenous individuals living in an urban area in the Amazon basin (Belem). A modified tooth wear index was applied and then associated with chronological age by linear regression analysis. A strong association was found between tooth wear and chronological age in the indigenous populations (p <0.001). Tooth wear measurements were able to explain 86% of the variation in the ages of the Arara sample, 70% of the Xicrin-Kaiapó sample and 65% of the Assurini sample. In the urban control sample, only 12% of ages could be determined by tooth wear. These findings suggest that tooth wear is a poor estimator of chronological age in the urban population; however, it has a strong association with age for the more remote indigenous populations. Consequently, these findings suggest that a simple tooth wear evaluation method, as described and applied in this study, can be used to provide a straightforward and efficient means to assist in age determination of newly contacted indigenous groups. PMID:25602501

  20. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  1. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  2. Emerging Ideas for Innovation in Indigenous Education: A Research Synthesis of Indigenous Educative Roles in Mainstream and Flexi Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Marnee

    2017-01-01

    The Indigenous education agenda in Australia remains focused on mainstream schooling contexts. Although overlooked in Indigenous education discourse, flexi schools appear to be engaging with disproportionately high numbers of Indigenous students and staff. The educative roles of Indigenous peoples in broader Indigenous education discourse are…

  3. Preparing to Be Allies: Narratives of Non-Indigenous Researchers Working in Indigenous Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophey, Alison; Raptis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Insensitive research approaches have resulted in damaged relationships between non-Indigenous researchers and Indigenous communities, prompting scholars and funding agencies to call for more culturally compatible research methods. This paper addresses the qualities, skills and knowledge developed by six non-Indigenous researchers as they…

  4. Factors associated with anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity and genetic polymorphisms in indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Melissa M; Zembrzuski, Verônica M; Ota, Marcos M; Sacchi, Flavia P; Teixeira, Raquel L F; Cabello Acero, Pedro H; Cunha, Geraldo Marcelo; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Croda, Julio; Basta, Paulo C

    2016-12-01

    Anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs are responsible for the occurrence of several adverse drug reactions (ADRs), including hepatotoxicity. The aim was to estimate the incidence of hepatotoxicity and its association with genetic polymorphisms and clinical-epidemiological factors by comparing indigenous and non-indigenous TB patients. We investigated clinical-epidemiological variables, serum levels of liver enzymes and NAT2, CYP2E1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms. A non-conditional logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with hepatotoxicity. Odds ratios were used as the association measures. The incidence of hepatotoxicity was 19.7% for all patients. The risk of hepatotoxicity was almost four times higher in indigenous patients, comparing to non-indigenous. We identified a new nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism of NAT2 in indigenous patients. In total, 54.6% of the patients expressed a slow acetylation phenotype profile. The frequency of the null genotype of GSTM1 was higher in non-indigenous patients (p = 0.002), whereas no significant differences in relation to polymorphisms of CYP2E1 were observed between the groups. Hepatotoxicity was associated with patients older than 60 and indigenous (OR = 26.0; 95%CI:3.1-217.6; OR = 3.8; 95%CI:1.3-11.1, respectively). Furthermore, hepatotoxicity was associated with a slow acetylation profile in indigenous patients (OR = 10.7; 95%CI:1.2-97.2). Our findings suggest that there are distinct acetylation profiles in the Brazilian population, emphasizing the importance of pharmacogenetic analyses for achieving personalized therapeutic schemes and better outcomes.

  5. The making of indigenous vascular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, Madathipat; Viswanathan, Sidharth; Balasubramaniam, K.; Muraleedharan, C.V.; Lal, Arthur Vijayan; Mohanan, P.V.; Mohanty, Meera; Kapilamoorthy, Tirur Raman

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Vascular illnesses are on the rise in India, due to increase in lifestyle diseases and demographic transition, requiring intervention to save life, organ or limbs using vascular prosthesis. The aim of this study was to develop indigenous large diameter vascular graft for treatment of patients with vascular pathologies. Methods: The South India Textile Research Association, at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, developed seamless woven polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) graft at its research wing. Further characterization and testing followed by clinical trials were conducted at Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Fifteen in vivo experiments were carried out in 1992-1994 in pigs as animal model. Controlled (phase I) clinical trial in ten patients was performed along with control graft. Thereafter, phase II trial involved 22 patients who underwent multi-centre clinical trial in four centres across India. Results: Laboratory testing showed that polyester graft was non-toxic, non-leeching and non-haemolytic with preserved long-term quality, further confirming in pigs by implanting in thoracic aorta, comparable to control Dacron grafts. Perigraft incorporation and smooth neointima formation which are prime features of excellent healing characteristics, were noted at explantation at planned intervals. Subsequently in the phase I and II clinical trials, all patients had excellent recovery without mortality or device-related adverse events. Patients receiving the test graft were followed up for 10 and 5 years, respectively. Serial clinical, duplex scans and CT angiograms performed periodically confirmed excellent graft performance. Interpretation & conclusions: Indigenously developed Chitra vascular graft was comparable to commercially available Dacron graft, ready for clinical use at affordable cost to patients as against costly imported grafts. PMID:27748302

  6. [Proximal determinants of fertility: reproductive behavior among Chamibida indigenous women in Antioquia, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Arias-Valencia, Maria Mercedes

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive timing used by Chamibida indigenous women in Antioquia, Colombia. This socio-demographic study used the reproductive history technique and was conducted in the year 2000. Two hundred and thirty-four homes on the Cristianía indigenous reservation were visited to obtain 253 reproductive histories (83.1% of the women ages 15 to 49). Reproductive behavior was characterized by sexual debut at age 17.8 years (mean), with short intergenesic intervals in 69.0% and an adjusted fertility rate of 5.12 children. This reproductive pattern differs from all other indigenous groups and subgroups in Antioquia. As an explanation, Chamibida women are familiar with and accept Western birth control methods, besides having more access to formal schooling. Current Colombian health system policies are far from appropriate, since they fail to take the indigenous groups' specificities into account.

  7. Overlapping ontologies and Indigenous knowledge. From integration to ontological self-determination.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, David

    2016-10-01

    Current controversies about knowledge integration reflect conflicting ideas of what it means to "take Indigenous knowledge seriously". While there is increased interest in integrating Indigenous and Western scientific knowledge in various disciplines such as anthropology and ethnobiology, integration projects are often accused of recognizing Indigenous knowledge only insofar as it is useful for Western scientists. The aim of this article is to use tools from philosophy of science to develop a model of both successful integration and integration failures. On the one hand, I argue that cross-cultural recognition of property clusters leads to an ontological overlap that makes knowledge integration often epistemically productive and socially useful. On the other hand, I argue that knowledge integration is limited by ontological divergence. Adequate models of Indigenous knowledge will therefore have to take integration failures seriously and I argue that integration efforts need to be complemented by a political notion of ontological self-determination.

  8. Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…

  9. Embedding Indigenous Perspectives in Teaching School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appanna, Subhashni Devi

    2011-01-01

    Some Indigenous students are at risk of academic failure and science teachers have a role in salvaging these equally able students. This article firstly elucidates the research entailed in Indigenous science education in Australia and beyond. Secondly, it reviews the cultural and language barriers when learning science, faced by middle and senior…

  10. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  11. Science, Metaphoric Meaning, and Indigenous Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Western cultural approaches to teaching science have excluded Indigenous knowledges and culturally favored many non-Aboriginal science students. By asking the question "What connections exist between Western science and Indigenous knowledge?" elements of epistemological (how do we determine what is real?) and ontological (what is real?)…

  12. Performance in Basic Mathematics of Indigenous Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicat, Lolita V.; David, Ma. Elena D.

    2016-01-01

    This analytical study analyzed the performance in Basic Mathematics of the indigenous students, the Aeta students (Grade 6) of Sta. Juliana Elementary School, Capas, Tarlac, and the APC students of Malaybalay City, Bukidnon. Results were compared with regular students in rural, urban, private, and public schools to analyze indigenous students'…

  13. Race, Racialization and Indigeneity in Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; Kobayashi, Audrey; James, Carl; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.

    2017-01-01

    This article is based on data from a four-year national study of racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian universities. Its main conclusion is that whether one examines representation in terms of numbers of racialized and Indigenous faculty members and their positioning within the system, their earned income as compared to white faculty, their…

  14. Indigenizing Teacher Education: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Raynor, Marg

    2013-01-01

    This action research report focuses on a new elective course entitled "Indigenizing Education: Education for/about Aboriginal Peoples" that was developed and taught by two teacher educators--one Euro-Canadian and the other Metis. The purpose of the course was to increase understanding of Indigenous peoples and of the impact of…

  15. Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

  16. An Indigenous View of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Winona

    1998-01-01

    Uses stories of U.S. and Canadian indigenous individuals who defended their lands against uranium mining and hydroelectric development to contrast the thinking of indigenous people (natural law as pre-eminent, spiritual practice, intergenerational residency in the same place) with industrial thinking (man's dominion over nature, linear thinking,…

  17. Indigenous Peoples, Globalization, and Education: Making Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Denis, Verna

    2000-01-01

    Globalization pushes aside social, cultural, and ethical goals of education in favor of marketplace goals. Two stories of the indigenous Ju/'hoansi tribe in Botswana illustrate how even well-intentioned multicultural education programs can marginalize indigenous people, and how "globalization from below," fueled by communities of…

  18. Signatures of Quality Teaching for Indigenous Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen J.; Lewthwaite, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the validation of a survey instrument constructed in response to what Indigenous parents/carers and students believe constitutes culturally responsive pedagogies that positively influence Indigenous student learning. Characteristics of culturally responsive pedagogies established through interviews with Australian…

  19. Indigenous Studies Speaks to Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Laurie; Middleton, Beth Rose; Gilmer, Robert; Grossman, Zoltán; Janis, Terry; Lucero, Stephanie; Morgan, Tukoroirangi; Watson, Annette

    2013-11-01

    This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors’ hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices.

  20. Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

  1. The reproductive transition in an indigenous population of northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Norberto; Valeggia, Claudia; Peláez, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Latin America has been registering a fast decrease in fertility rates since the mid-twentieth century. This change can be linked to the modernization process these populations have been undergoing. However, research with Latin American indigenous populations, which are undergoing relatively similar lifestyle changes, shows very different trends in fertility. The aim of this study was to analyze fertility patterns in the indigenous Toba community of Cacique Sombrero Negro, which is experiencing a rapid process of economic and social Westernization. Fertility patterns were analyzed between 1981 and 1999, the period for which the most accurate records were found. Results showed an overall increase in fertility rates and changes in the age of peak fertility across time periods. It is hypothesized that the lifestyle transition this population is experiencing leads to better access to resources that, in the absence of contraception, allow for a higher number of offspring. Nevertheless, this higher resource availability would be differential, affecting mostly the fertility of younger mothers.

  2. DIRECTIONS IN INDIGENOUS RESILIENCE RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The last decade or so of research in Canada, reflected in this special issue, has increased our understanding of the distinction between Indigenous resilience and the research into Indigenous resilience. Measurement offers glimpses of resilience, mostly from the potentially distorted view of how resilient youth face specific adversity — adversity that is set by the funding opportunity: tobacco, substance abuse, suicide, or HIV infection. The driving role of funding has obvious problems; the priorities of funders may not be the priorities of communities and results can tell more about the funding opportunity than about resilience itself. Even so, this problem-focussed research has the very practical advantage of producing results geared to solutions. A major lesson of this body of work is that we should allow ourselves the space (and the modesty) to recognize that Aboriginal resilience is greater than we have been able to measure under specific funding opportunities. Even with this limitation, our results shows a large degree of specificity — what strengthens youth resilience to one type of adversity in one setting might well not work in another. Five proposals emerge from the findings. PMID:20835299

  3. Indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Jerman, Gregory; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Sipiera, Paul P.

    2004-11-01

    Indigenous embedded microbial filaments, bacterial cells and other microfossils were found in the Orgueil, Ivuna (CI1), Murchison, and Bells (CM2) carbonaceous meteorites. Biominerals, biofilms, framboids, magnetite platelets, and curious elemental iron ovoids covered with minute fibrils and carbon sheaths were also found. The S-4100 Hitachi Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) were used for in situ investigations of freshly fractured interior meteorite surfaces. EDAX x-ray spectra shows the microfossils bear signatures of the meteorite matrix and possess elemental ratios indicating they are indigenous and not recent microbial contaminants. Many of the well-preserved biogenic remains in the meteorites are encased within carbon-rich, sometimes electron transparent, sheaths. Their size, morphology and ultra microstructure are comparable to microfossils known from the phosphorites of Khubsughul, Mongolia and to some of the living cyanobacteria and other sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria known from the halophilic Microcoleus mats of Sivash Lagoon, Crimea and from Mono Lake in California.

  4. Language Experiences of Preverbal Children in Australian Childcare Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Berenice

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the language experiences of preverbal infants in Australian childcare centres with the aim of examining cultural regulation within the childcare context. Language is defined as a social and communicative act that is related to the development of voluntary action (Vygotsky 1962; Lock 1980; Leontiev 1994). The study uses…

  5. Australian Educational Institutions International Markets: A Correspondence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Timothy W.; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The global market for international students have become highly competitive and many institutions, particularly higher education institutions, rely heavily on fee income from overseas students. This study aims to examine the countries from which Australian education institutions draw such students and used this information to better…

  6. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  7. Proactive Coping in Community-Dwelling Older Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sougleris, Christina; Ranzijn, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of older community-dwelling Australian adults which aimed to test whether a relatively unexplored construct, proactive coping, could have a role in purpose in life, personal growth, and life satisfaction. A total of 109 women and 115 men (Mean age = 75.04 yrs, SD = 6.66) completed a questionnaire containing…

  8. Proclaimed Graduate Attributes of Australian Universities: Patterns, Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donleavy, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Graduate attributes are about to be policed by the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA) in Australia. All universities proclaim them on their public web sites. The aim of this paper is to determine whether distinct patterns or clusters are apparent in the declared graduate attributes declared by Australian universities…

  9. Ethical Blind Spots in Leading for Learning: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezzina, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the dynamics by which exposure to a moral rationale is given expression in schools, and how this is perceived as impacting on teaching, leadership practice and student outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 11 Australian schools were part of a project in which they were supported in applying a…

  10. Educating Refugee-Background Students in Australian Schools and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2015-01-01

    The Australian federal government recently set a challenging national aim: By 2020, 20% of higher education enrolment at the undergraduate level will include students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Although refugee-background students are often members of the targeted sub-population, their educational journeys frequently require special forms…

  11. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  12. Ultrastructural study on the morphological changes in indigenous bacteria of mucous layer and chyme throughout the rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Mantani, Youhei; Ito, Eri; Nishida, Miho; Yuasa, Hideto; Masuda, Natsumi; Qi, Wang-Mei; Kawano, Junichi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous bacteria in the alimentary tract are exposed to various bactericidal peptides and digestive enzymes, but the viability status and morphological changes of indigenous bacteria are unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to ultrastructurally clarify the degeneration and viability status of indigenous bacteria in the rat intestine. The majority of indigenous bacteria in the ileal mucous layer possessed intact cytoplasm, but the cytoplasm of a few bacteria contained vacuoles. The vacuoles were more frequently found in bacteria of ileal chyme than in those of ileal mucous layer and were found in a large majority of bacteria in both the mucous layer and chyme throughout the large intestine. In the dividing bacteria of the mucous layer and chyme throughout the intestine, the ratio of area occupied by vacuoles was almost always less than 10%. Lysis or detachment of the cell wall in the indigenous bacteria was more frequently found in the large intestine than in the ileum, whereas bacterial remnants, such as cell walls, were distributed almost evenly throughout the intestine. In an experimental control of long-time-cultured Staphylococcus epidermidis on agar, similar vacuoles were also found, but cell-wall degeneration was never observed. From these findings, indigenous bacteria in the mucous layer were ultrastructurally confirmed to be the source of indigenous bacteria in the chyme. Furthermore, the results suggested that indigenous bacteria were more severely degenerated toward the large intestine and were probably degraded in the intestine.

  13. Smoking Cessation in Indigenous Populations of Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States: Elements of Effective Interventions

    PubMed Central

    DiGiacomo, Michelle; Davidson, Patricia M.; Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce; Moore, Louise; Thompson, Sandra C.

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous people throughout the world suffer a higher burden of disease than their non-indigenous counterparts contributing to disproportionate rates of disability. A significant proportion of this disability can be attributed to the adverse effects of smoking. In this paper, we aimed to identify and discuss the key elements of individual-level smoking cessation interventions in indigenous people worldwide. An integrative review of published peer-reviewed literature was conducted. Literature on smoking cessation interventions in indigenous people was identified via search of electronic databases. Documents were selected for review if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal, written in English, published from 1990–2010, and documented an individual-level intervention to assist indigenous people to quit smoking. Studies that met inclusion criteria were limited to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA, despite seeking representation from other indigenous populations. Few interventions tailored for indigenous populations were identified and the level of detail included in evaluation reports was variable. Features associated with successful interventions were integrated, flexible, community-based approaches that addressed known barriers and facilitators to quitting smoking. More tailored and targeted approaches to smoking cessation interventions for indigenous populations are required. The complexity of achieving smoking cessation is underscored as is the need to collaboratively develop interventions that are acceptable and appropriate to local populations. PMID:21556193

  14. Sustaining oral health services in remote and indigenous communities: a review of 10 years experience in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Estie; Jacobs, Alissa; Tennant, Marc

    2010-04-01

    In line with findings throughout Australia, rural, remote and Indigenous Western Australians suffer from a higher burden of oral disease and have less access to dental practitioners and care than their urban and non-Indigenous counterparts. With workforce projections indicating an increase in the shortage of dental practitioners, especially in rural and remote areas, the Centre for Rural and Remote Oral Health (CRROH) in Western Australia set out to establish a sustainable programme to service such increasingly disadvantaged populations. Via the vertical integration of education, service and research CRROH pioneered a sustainable model to deliver much needed oral health services to some of Western Australia's most remote areas, while primarily focused on addressing the oral health needs of Indigenous Australians. One of the key lessons from the programme has been the development of a strong clinical governance framework and a support network to sustain services in remote locations. This study offers one way to provide and sustain dental care for those most in need, yet largely left out.

  15. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value). Design: Tobacco industry documents, articles from retail trade publications since 1990, and current brand advertising from retail trade publications were searched for information about Australian brands. Results: Cigarette manufacturers benefit from their competitors' brand equity as well as their own. The industry sees Australian smokers as far less brand loyal and strongly oriented to "low tar". A few predominantly local brands dominate the market, with variation by state. Successful Australian brands exist in one of three categories: premium, mainstream, and supervalue. Their brand identity essence is as follows. Premium: quality. Mainstream: a good humoured "fair go" for ordinary Australians. Supervalue: value for money. All supervalue brand identities also include freedom, escape, mildness, an aspirational attitude, blue tones, and waterside scenes. Brand image and brand identity is frequently congruent, even when marketing is restricted, and brand image is generally more positive for a smoker's own brand. Conclusions: Tobacco control activities have undermined cigarette brand equity. Further research is needed regarding brand loyalty, low tar, and brand categories. Smokers may respond more positively to tobacco control messages consistent with the identities of their chosen brand, and brand-as-organisation elements may assist. Further marketing restrictions should consider all elements of brand identity, and aim to undermine brand categories. PMID:14645952

  16. Myxosporean parasites in Australian frogs: Importance, implications and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Phalen, David N.; Šlapeta, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Myxosporean parasites have been identified in amphibians around the world yet very little is known about their diversity, biology and host impact. Several species of Australian frogs have recently been shown to be affected by myxosporidiosis caused by two new Cystodiscus species. In this manuscript, we review what is known about the myxosporean parasites Cystodiscus australis and Cystodiscus axonis that produce myxospores in gallbladders of Australian frogs and Myxobolus fallax and Myxobolus hylae that produce spores in gonads and the potential impact of these parasites on the conservation of Australian frogs. By doing so, we aim to highlight the importance of amphibian myxosporean parasites, suggest directions for future research and argue that the lessons learned about these parasites in Australia are directly transferable to amphibians around the world. PMID:24533318

  17. A scoping review of Indigenous suicide prevention in circumpolar regions

    PubMed Central

    Redvers, Jennifer; Bjerregaard, Peter; Eriksen, Heidi; Fanian, Sahar; Healey, Gwen; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Jong, Michael; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Linton, Janice; Pollock, Nathaniel; Silviken, Anne; Stoor, Petter; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is a serious public health challenge in circumpolar regions, especially among Indigenous youth. Indigenous communities, government agencies and health care providers are making concerted efforts to reduce the burden of suicide and strengthen protective factors for individuals, families and communities. The persistence of suicide has made it clear that more needs to be done. Objective Our aim was to undertake a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature on suicide prevention and interventions in Indigenous communities across the circumpolar north. Our objective was to determine the extent and types of interventions that have been reported during past decade. We want to use this knowledge to support community initiative and inform intervention development and evaluation. Design We conducted a scoping review of online databases to identify studies published between 2004 and 2014. We included articles that described interventions in differentiated circumpolar Indigenous populations and provided evaluation data. We retained grey literature publications for comparative reference. Results Our search identified 95 articles that focused on suicide in distinct circumpolar Indigenous populations; 19 articles discussed specific suicide-related interventions and 7 of these described program evaluation methods and results in detail. The majority of publications on specific interventions were found in North American countries. The majority of prevention or intervention documentation was found in supporting grey literature sources. Conclusion Despite widespread concern about suicide in the circumpolar world and active community efforts to promote resilience and mental well-being, we found few recorded programs or initiatives documented in the peer-reviewed literature, and even fewer focusing specifically on youth intervention. The interventions described in the studies we found had diverse program designs and content, and used varied evaluation methods and

  18. Towards an indigenous science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Elizabeth

    1996-06-01

    The recent development of a national science curriculum in Māori opened up space to contest whose knowledge and whose ways of knowing are included. This paper outlines the background to the curriculum development work in Aotearoa New Zealand with respect to the indigenous Māori people and science education. Concern is expressed about the fitting of one cultural framework into another and questions are raised about the approach used in the development of the science curriculum. Further research in the area of language, culture and science education is discussed along with how Māori might move forward in the endeavour of developing a curriculum that reflects Māori culture and language.

  19. Australian helminths in Australian rodents: an issue of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Warner, L R

    1998-06-01

    The Australian public as well as Australian funding bodies are generally unsympathetic to native murids, rats and mice, in spite of the fact that 36% have either become extinct or critically endangered since European settlement. The endemic Australian parasites of these rats and mice have been even less sympathetically regarded. Prior to 1958 very little work was carried out on the helminths of Australian rodents and little more is known today. Records are known from only 28% of the extant host species, comprising some 109 species of helminth identified at least to generic level. The rodents invaded Australia from the north, perhaps through New Guinea in at least two separate waves, 5-8 then about 1 million years ago. The parasites they brought with them have adapted and speciated and there has been some host switching between rodent groups and between rodents and the Australian marsupials. This is illustrated particularly in the Trichostrongyloidea. The origins of the rodents from Southeast Asia down the Indonesian island chain are reflected in the presence of the nematode genus Tikusnema in both Australia and Indonesia, and Cyclodontostomum purvisi across Southeast Asia and into New Guinea. Hydromys chrysogaster, the Australian water-rat, illustrates how the biogeographical influences of the host's distribution and lifestyle can affect its parasite fauna. Most of the research to date is merely indicative of where more data are needed. The links between Australian and New Guinean helminth fauna, as well as the links between rodent and marsupial hosts and their fauna, cannot be determined without further research.

  20. Indigenous Student Participation in Higher Education: Emergent Themes and Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseron, Johnnie; Wilde, Simon; Miller, Adrian; Kelly, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Educational processes directed at Indigenous peoples have long propagated a disparity between the educational successes of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students (May 1999), a contrast which can be acutely observed in Australia. It is not surprising, then, that the educational needs of Indigenous students have been poorly served, with the extant…

  1. Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…

  2. Planetary surface reactor shielding using indigenous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Michael G.; Poston, David I.; Trellue, Holly R.; Baca, Justin A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    1999-01-22

    The exploration and development of Mars will require abundant surface power. Nuclear reactors are a low-cost, low-mass means of providing that power. A significant fraction of the nuclear power system mass is radiation shielding necessary for protecting humans and/or equipment from radiation emitted by the reactor. For planetary surface missions, it may be desirable to provide some or all of the required shielding from indigenous materials. This paper examines shielding options that utilize either purely indigenous materials or a combination of indigenous and nonindigenous materials.

  3. Planetary surface reactor shielding using indigenous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Michael G.; Poston, David I.; Trellue, Holly R.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    1999-01-01

    The exploration and development of Mars will require abundant surface power. Nuclear reactors are a low-cost, low-mass means of providing that power. A significant fraction of the nuclear power system mass is radiation shielding necessary for protecting humans and/or equipment from radiation emitted by the reactor. For planetary surface missions, it may be desirable to provide some or all of the required shielding from indigenous materials. This paper examines shielding options that utilize either purely indigenous materials or a combination of indigenous and nonindigenous materials. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia.

  5. Non-communicable diseases, infection and survival in a retrospective cohort of Indigenous and non-Indigenous adults in central Australia

    PubMed Central

    Einsiedel, Lloyd; Fernandes, Liselle; Joseph, Sheela; Brown, Alex; Woodman, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesise that rising prevalence rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) increase infection risk and worsen outcomes among socially disadvantaged Indigenous Australians undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition. Design Available pathology, imaging and discharge morbidity codes were retrospectively reviewed for a period of 5 years prior to admission with a bloodstream infection (BSI), 1 January 2003 to 30 June 2007. Participants 558 Indigenous and 55 non-Indigenous community residents of central Australia. Outcome measures The effects of NCDs on risk of infection and death were determined after stratifying by ethnicity. Results The mean annual BSI incidence rates were far higher among Indigenous residents (Indigenous, 937/100 000; non-Indigenous, 64/100 000 person-years; IRR=14.6; 95% CI 14.61 to 14.65, p<0.001). Indigenous patients were also more likely to have previous bacterial infections (68.7% vs 34.6%; respectively, p<0.001), diabetes (44.3% vs 20%; p<0.001), harmful alcohol consumption (37% vs 12.7%; p<0.001) and other communicable diseases (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, 45.2%; strongyloidiasis, 36.1%; hepatitis B virus, 12.9%). Among Indigenous patients, diabetes increased the odds of current Staphylococcus aureus BSI (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5) and prior skin infections (adjusted OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.3). Harmful alcohol consumption increased the odds of current Streptococcus pneumoniae BSI (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.40) and of previous BSI (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5), skin infection (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6) or pneumonia (OR=4.3, 95% CI 2.8 to 6.7). Twenty-six per cent of Indigenous patients died at a mean (SD) age of 47±15 years. Complications of diabetes and harmful alcohol consumption predicted 28-day mortality (non-rheumatic heart disease, HR=2.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 6.2; chronic renal failure, HR=2.6, 95%CI 1.0 to 6.5; chronic liver disease, HR=3.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.7). Conclusions In a socially disadvantaged

  6. Honouring indigenous treaty rights for climate justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantyka-Pringle, C. S.; Westman, C. N.; Kythreotis, A. P.; Schindler, D. W.

    2015-09-01

    Expansion of the oil sands industry in Canada has caused land destruction and social friction. Canada could become a leader in climate governance by honouring treaty commitments made with indigenous peoples.

  7. [Health promotion in the Pankararu indigenous community].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jonas Welton Barros; Aquino, Jael Maria; Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to know how the Pankararu indigenous perceive their health situation and identify actions they prioritize as necessary to promote health in their community. Qualitative research, in which the declarations collected were subjected to the technique of analyzing the Collective Subject Discourse. It was identified that in the indigenous perception, as the health status of their community, there is a lack of general assistance, and a lack of professionals to assist them meeting their needs. In relation to actions that the Indigenous prioritize as necessary to promote the health of their community, it was highlighted provision of health unit with trained professionals and access to health education actions. It was, thus, proposed an overhaul of the organizations and establishments of the subsystems in promoting indigenous health.

  8. Recruiting and retaining indigenous farmworker participants

    PubMed Central

    Farquhar, Stephanie; de Jesus Gonzalez, Carmen; Hall, Jennifer; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information on the specific practices used to successfully recruit and retain indigenous and Latino farmworkers in research studies. This article describes the strategies used in a community-based participatory research project with indigenous agricultural workers. Participants were recruited through consulting with indigenous relatives and friends, identifying and meeting with indigenous leaders from hometown associations in countries of origin, and asking current participants to recruit fellow farmworkers. Adjustments were initiated to the second year protocol to enhance recruitment and retention. The difference in attrition rates between years one and two was statistically significant, a difference partially attributed to modifications to recruitment and retention protocol. Findings confirmed that active recruitment techniques and word-of-mouth recruitment were more effective than passive methods. Trust among academic, organization, and community partners, and shared language and culture between those doing the recruitment and the participants, contributed to sustained farmworker participation. PMID:23733354

  9. The Civic Mission of Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lawrence; Muirhead, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins and meaning of civic responsibility in the Australian model of the university, beginning with medieval European universities and progressing through Australian reforms of the 20th century. Warns against the university without a civic mission. (SLD)

  10. Breaking down barriers to eye care for Indigenous people: a new scheme for delivery of eye care in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Napper, Genevieve; Fricke, Tim; Anjou, Mitchell D; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the implementation of and outcomes from a new spectacle subsidy scheme and de-centralised care options for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme (VASSS) commenced in 2010, as an additional subsidy to the long-established Victorian Eyecare Service (VES). The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme aimed to improve access to and uptake of affordable spectacles and eye examinations by Indigenous Victorians. The scheme is overseen by a committee convened by the Victorian Government's Department of Health and Human Services and includes eye-health stakeholders from the Aboriginal community and government, not-for-profit, university and Aboriginal communities. Key features of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme include reduced and certain patient co-payments of $10, expanded spectacle frame range, broadened eligibility and community participation in service design and implementation. We describe the services implemented by the Australian College of Optometry (ACO) in Victoria and their impact on access to eye-care services. In 2014, optometric services were available at 36 service sites across Victoria, including 21 Aboriginal Health Services (AHS) sites. Patient services have increased from 400 services per year in 2009, to 1,800 services provided in 2014. During the first three years of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme program (2010 to 2013), 4,200 pairs of glasses (1,400 pairs per year) were provided. Further funding to 2016/17 will lift the number of glasses to be delivered to 6,600 pairs (1,650 per year). This compares to population projected needs of 2,400 pairs per year. Overcoming the barriers to using eye-care services by Indigenous people can be difficult and resource intensive; however the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme provides an example of positive outcomes achieved through carefully designed and

  11. Indigenous family violence: a statistical challenge.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Kyllie

    2008-12-01

    The issue of family violence and sexual abuse in Indigenous communities across Australia has attracted much attention throughout 2007, including significant intervention by the federal government into communities deemed to be in crisis. This paper critically examines the reporting and recording of Indigenous violence in Australia and reflects on what 'statistics' can offer as we grapple with how to respond appropriately to a problem defined as a 'national emergency'.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of depression among Australian women: a systematic literature review, January 1999- January 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of depression among Australian women. This systematic review of depression among women in Australia, the largest identified to date, highlights the prevalence and correlates of depression across the life span. Results The report adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement (PRISMA). Six health related databases were selected: Medline, PsychInfo, SCOPUS, Cinhal, Informit and Cochrane Systematic Reviews. 1,888 initial articles were found, and 111 articles were considered relevant for review. Prevalence rates of depression among women ranged from 2.6% to 43.9%. Higher rates were reported for younger women, or specific population groups. Most significant correlates included, age, adverse life events, tobacco use, sole motherhood, and previous mental health problems. Conclusions Limitations include the scope of the investigation’s aims and inclusion criteria, and the failure to identify gender specific data in most studies. Publication bias was likely, given that only papers reported (or translated) in English were included. Despite the breadth of information available, there were noticeable gaps in the literature. Some studies reported on affective disorders, but did not specifically report on depression; it is concluded that each mental illness warrants separate investigation. It was also common for studies to report a total prevalence rate without separating gender. This report recommends that it is vital to separate male and female data. The report concludes that more research is needed among mid-age women, Indigenous women, non-heterosexual women and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) women. PMID:24138703

  13. Southeast Asian and Australian paleoanthropology: a review of the last century.

    PubMed

    Durband, Arthur C

    2009-01-01

    A large and diverse body of scholarship has been developed around the fossil evidence discovered in Southeast Asia and Australia. However, despite its importance to many different aspects of paleoanthropological research, Australasia has often received significantly less attention than it deserves. This review will focus primarily on the evidence for the origins of modern humans from this region. Workers like Franz Weidenreich identified characteristics in the earliest inhabitants of Java that bore some resemblance to features found in modern indigenous Australians. More recent work by numerous scholars have built upon those initial observations, and have contributed to the perception that the fossil record ofAustralasia provides one of the better examples of regional continuity in the human fossil record. Other scholars disagree, insteadflnding evidence for discontinuity between these earliest Indonesians and modern Australian groups. These authorities cite support for an alternative hypothesis of extinction of the ancient Javan populations and their subsequent replacement by more recently arrived groups of modern humans. Presently, the bulk of the evidence supports this latter model. A dearth of credible regional characteristics linking the Pleistocene fossils from Java to early Australians, combined with a series offeatures indicating discontinuity between those same groups, indicate that the populations represented by the fossils from Sangiran and Ngandong went extinct without contributing genes to modern Australians.

  14. Learning from both sides: Experiences and opportunities in the investigation of Australian aboriginal medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Bradley S; Claudie, David J; Smith, Nicholas M; McKinnon, Ross A; Semple, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    With one of the oldest surviving cultures in the world, Australian Aboriginal people have developed immense knowledge about the diverse Australian flora. Western scientific investigation of some Australian Aboriginal medicinal plants has demonstrated interesting pharmacological activities and chemistry, however the majority of these species have not yet been extensively examined. We argue that research that is locally initiated and driven by Indigenous traditional owners in collaboration with Western scientists has significant potential to develop new plant-based products. Locally driven medicinal plants research in which traditional owners work as researchers in collaboration with University-based colleagues in the investigation of medicines rather than "stakeholders" or "informants" is one model that may be used in characterising plants with the potential to be developed into sustainable plant-based medicinal products with commercial value. Our team has taken this approach in research located both on traditional homelands and in the laboratory. Research being conducted by the University of South Australia and Chuulangun Aboriginal Corporation has led to patent filing for protection of intellectual property associated with novel compounds and extracts with the potential for development through cosmetic, complementary medicine and pharmaceutical routes. Ongoing research is examining the commercial developmental pathways and requirements for product development in these spaces. This review will address the opportunities that might exist for working in partnership with Australian Indigenous communities, some of the scientific knowledge which has been generated so far from our work together and the lessons learnt since the inception of the collaboration between the Chuulangun Aboriginal Corporation and scientists from the University of South Australia.

  15. Developing Responsive Indicators of Indigenous Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin

    2016-01-01

    How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is “at risk” is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086

  16. Resilience and Indigenous Spirituality: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, John; Ledogar, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous spirituality is a more complex phenomenon than the term spirituality alone, as generally understood, implies. Spirituality is closely bound up with culture and ways of living in Indigenous communities and requires a more holistic or comprehensive research approach. Two conceptual frameworks could help to orient Indigenous resilience research. One is the enculturation framework. Enculturation refers to the degree of integration within a culture, which can be protective in social behaviour, academic achievement, alcohol abuse and cessation, substance abuse, externalizing behaviours, and depressive symptoms. Instruments for measuring enculturation generally have three components: traditional activities, cultural identification, and traditional spirituality. A second conceptual framework is cultural spiritual orientation which distinguishes between cultural spiritual orientations and tribal spiritual beliefs. Enculturation and cultural orientations are protective against alcohol abuse, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. New tools are emerging for measuring the multidimensional nature of culturally rooted spirituality in Indigenous communities, tools that are context-specific and often the product of collaborative design processes. As the ability of researchers to measure these complex processes advances and Indigenous communities take increasing charge of their own research, it should become easier to design interventions that take advantage of the cultural/spiritual dimension of Indigenous traditions to promote individual, family, and community resilience. PMID:20963185

  17. An Australian secondary standard dosimetry laboratory participation in IAEA postal dose audits.

    PubMed

    Davies, J B; Izewska, J; Meriaty, H; Baldock, C

    2013-03-01

    For over 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have jointly monitored activities of secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs) through postal dose audits with the aim of achieving consistency in dosimetry throughout the world. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) maintains an SSDL and is a member of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. Postal dose audit results at this Australian SSDL from 2001 to 2011 demonstrate the consistency of absorbed dose to water measurements, underpinned by the primary standard maintained at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA).

  18. "English" in the "Australian Curriculum: English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the text of a paper given at the 2011 Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities on the theme, "Educating the Nation: The Humanities in the New Australian Curriculum", the 42nd Annual Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities at the University of Melbourne, 17 November 2011. It was presented in a session on…

  19. Embracing Babel: The "Framework for Australian Languages"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Jaky; Walsh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) has been developing language-specific curricula for a range of languages in the "Australian Curriculum: Language"s and has also undertaken development of a "Framework for Australian Languages", to provide guidance for the development of curricula for specific…

  20. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper…

  1. Assessment of exposure to mixture pollutants in Mexican indigenous children.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Pérez-Vázquez, F J; Cilia-López, V G; Zuki-Orozco, B A; Carrizales, L; Batres-Esquivel, L E; Palacios-Ramírez, A; Díaz-Barriga, F

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to complete an exposure assessment in three Mexican indigenous communities using the community-based health risk assessment, which is the first step in the CHILD framework. We used 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) as an exposure biomarker to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) as an exposure biomarker to benzene, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), lead, manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. Anthropometric measurements were also taken. In these communities, high percentages of children with chronic malnutrition were found (28 to 49 %) based on their weight and age. All communities showed a high percentage of children with detectable levels of four or more compounds (70 to 82 %). Additionally, our results showed that in indigenous communities, children are exposed to elevated levels of certain environmental pollutants, including manganese with 17.6, 16.8, and 7.3 μg/L from SMP, TOC, and CUA, respectively. Lead and HCB levels were similar in the indigenous communities (2.5, 3.1, and 4.2 μg/dL and 2.5, 3.1, and 3.7 ng/mL, respectively). 1-OHP and t,t-MA levels were higher in TOC (0.8 μmol/mol of creatinine, 476 μg/g of creatinine, respectively) when compared with SMP (0.1 μmol/mol of creatinine, 215.5 μg/g of creatinine, respectively) and CUA (0.1 μmol/mol of creatinine, 185.2 μg/g of creatinine, respectively). DDE levels were 30.7, 26.9, and 9.6 ng/mL in CUA, SMP, and TOC, respectively. The strength of this study is that it assesses exposure to pollutants with indications for the resultant risk before an intervention is made by the CHILD program to manage this risk in the indigenous communities. Considering the large number of people, especially children, exposed to multiple pollutants, it is important to design effective intervention programs that reduce exposure and the resultant risk in the numerous indigenous communities in Mexico.

  2. Indigenous values and water markets: Survey insights from northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakis, William D.; Grafton, R. Quentin; To, Hang

    2013-09-01

    Drawing upon on the literature on Indigenous values to water, water markets and the empirical findings from a survey of 120 Indigenous and non-Indigenous respondents across northern Australia, the paper makes important qualitative and statistical comparisons between Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets. The study is the first comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets based on the same survey instrument. Key results from Indigenous respondents include: (1) water markets are held to be an acceptable approach to managing water; (2) markets must be carefully designed to protect customary and ecological values; (3) the allocation of water rights need to encompass equity considerations; and (4) water and land rights should not be separated even if this enhances efficiency, as it runs counter to Indigenous holistic values. Overall, the survey results provide the basis for a proposed adaptive decision loop, which allows decision makers to incorporate stakeholder values in water markets.

  3. Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: case studies from Indigenous communities of South America.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Bilbao, Bibiana A; Berardi, Andrea

    2016-06-05

    Fire plays an increasingly significant role in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and impacting on biodiversity. Emerging research shows the potential role of Indigenous land-use practices for controlling deforestation and reducing CO2 emissions. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that Indigenous lands have the lowest incidence of wildfires, significantly contributing to maintaining carbon stocks and enhancing biodiversity. Yet acknowledgement of Indigenous peoples' role in fire management and control is limited, and in many cases dismissed, especially in policy-making circles. In this paper, we review existing data on Indigenous fire management and impact, focusing on examples from tropical forest and savanna ecosystems in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We highlight how the complexities of community owned solutions for fire management are being lost as well as undermined by continued efforts on fire suppression and firefighting, and emerging approaches to incorporate Indigenous fire management into market- and incentive-based mechanisms for climate change mitigation. Our aim is to build a case for supporting Indigenous fire practices within all scales of decision-making by strengthening Indigenous knowledge systems to ensure more effective and sustainable fire management.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.

  4. Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

  5. Indigenous Education, Mainstream Education, and Native Studies: Some Considerations when Incorporating Indigenous Pedagogy into Native Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambe, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    A person coming to know for him or herself while respecting differences characterizes the author's experience of Indigenous education. Based on his experience with Indigenous education, he has found that what constitutes validity is very different than mainstream education. In this article, the author presents characteristics of Indigenous…

  6. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  7. Indigenous Elementary Students' Science Instruction in Taiwan: Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Huei; Yen, Chiung-Fen; Aikenhead, Glen S.

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary ethnographic investigation focused on how Indigenous traditional wisdom can be incorporated into school science and what students learned as a result. Participants included community elders and knowledge keepers, as well as 4th grade (10-year-old) students, all of Amis ancestry, an Indigenous tribe in Taiwan. The students'…

  8. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity), or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians) was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions. PMID:21635787

  9. Second Languages and Australian Schooling. Australian Education Review No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    It is an underlying principle of Australian Education Review (AER) 54 that active efforts should be made to cultivate the latent bilingual potential within Australia's wider population and that this should be linked to major improvements in the quality of language teaching in schools. A combined approach of this kind will require investment in…

  10. E-Mental Health Innovations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study of Implementation Needs in Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Dingwall, Kylie M; Sweet, Michelle; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic mental health (e-mental health) interventions offer effective, easily accessible, and cost effective treatment and support for mental illness and well-being concerns. However, e-mental health approaches have not been well utilized by health services to date and little is known about their implementation in practice, particularly in diverse contexts and communities. Objective This study aims to understand stakeholder perspectives on the requirements for implementing e-mental health approaches in regional and remote health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 managers, directors, chief executive officers (CEOs), and senior practitioners of mental health, well-being, alcohol and other drug and chronic disease services. Results The implementation of e-mental health approaches in this context is likely to be influenced by characteristics related to the adopter (practitioner skill and knowledge, client characteristics, communication barriers), the innovation (engaging and supportive approach, culturally appropriate design, evidence base, data capture, professional development opportunities), and organizational systems (innovation-systems fit, implementation planning, investment). Conclusions There is potential for e-mental health approaches to address mental illness and poor social and emotional well-being amongst Indigenous people and to advance their quality of care. Health service stakeholders reported that e-mental health interventions are likely to be most effective when used to support or extend existing health services, including elements of client-driven and practitioner-supported use. Potential solutions to obstacles for integration of e-mental health approaches into practice were proposed including practitioner training, appropriate tool design using a consultative approach, internal organizational directives and support structures, adaptations to existing systems and policies

  11. Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be

  12. Exploring the New Challenges for Indigenous Education in Brazil: Some Lessons from Ticuna Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Alex; Hüttner, Édison

    2015-01-01

    Brazil appears to have one of the most advanced legislations on native Indians in the world. This was not always the case. During the colonial period (c. 1530-1825), indigenous communities were decimated by disease or massacred by white settlers. In the 20th century, the Brazilian government introduced integrationist policies, which aimed to…

  13. Transforming Pre-Service Teacher Education in Bolivia: From Indigenous Denial to Decolonisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2012-01-01

    In line with a broader Latin American turn to the left, since 2006 Bolivia's "politics of change" of president Evo Morales includes a new "decolonising" education reform called "Avelino Sinani Elizardo Perez" (ASEP). With the aim to break down deep historical processes of indigenous denial and exclusion in education,…

  14. Chwuech Manimba: Indigenous Creative Education among Women of the Luo Community of Western Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadende, Pamela Akinyi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to present the procedure and proceedings of an instructional research into the teaching and learning among Luo women of Western Kenya. The purposes of the research are threefold. First, it seeks to document a system of indigenous adult education that has proved sustainable among Luo women from generation to…

  15. Eco-Literacy Development through a Framework for Indigenous and Environmental Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulnieks, Andrejs; Longboat, Dan Roronhiakewan; Young, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    In response to the call of curriculum reforms at the international, national, and local levels, we conceptualize an eco-mentorship program and envision a learning garden alternative practica. We aim to advance a framework enabling the innovation of Indigenous environmental studies, eco-justice education, and Western scientific environmental…

  16. Crafting Europe's "Clean Slate" Advantage: World-System Expansion and the Indigenous Mississippians of North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Shirley A.

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the current understanding of how contact with and incorporation into the modern world-system may affect the trajectory of change among indigenous people. In order to understand deeply the process of incorporation and the current structural transformation, the author examines the following: (1) the nature of…

  17. Here We Are on Turtle Island: Indigenous Young Adults Navigating Places, Spaces and Terrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I aim to investigate the migration of Indigenous youth from the reserve to the urban environment. I will investigate the implications of an arts-based programme for youth and how they utilized my programme as a resource for learning. The goals of this paper are to provide a nuance thinking of and theorizing land as related to…

  18. Feeding ecology of indigenous and non-indigenous fish species within the family Sphyraenidae.

    PubMed

    Kalogirou, S; Mittermayer, F; Pihl, L; Wennhage, H

    2012-06-01

    The feeding ecology of two common indigenous (Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena sphyraena) and one abundant non-indigenous sphyraenid species, Sphyraena chrysotaenia, of Indo-Pacific Ocean origin, was investigated in an area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The stomach contents of 738 individuals of varying size, collected during the period December 2008 to August 2009, were examined. The dietary analyses revealed that all three species were specialized piscivores with a diet consisting of >90% fish, both by number and mass. Concurrent sampling of the fish assemblage made it possible to calculate selectivity as well as diet breadth and overlap of these strict piscivores. Even though several prey species were found in the stomachs of the three predators examined, selectivity towards Atherina boyeri was highly significant. For all species examined, >70% of the diet by mass was made up by three indigenous species of commercial value: Spicara smaris, Boops boops and A. boyeri. Diet breadth and size of prey increased with increasing body size for all predators. With increased body size, the diet overlap between indigenous and non-indigenous species decreased. This could be attributed to increased diet breadth and the specific life-history characteristics of indigenous species developing into larger individuals. During winter, the condition factor of the non-indigenous species was significantly lower than that of the indigenous, indicating that winter conditions in the Mediterranean Sea may limit its further expansion north and westward. With this study, the gap in knowledge of the feeding preferences of the most abundant piscivorous species found in coastal areas of the study region is filled. Additionally, the results indicate that non-indigenous species familial affiliation to indigenous ones does not facilitate invasion success.

  19. Is having a family member with chronic health concerns bad for young people's health? Cross-sectional evidence from a national survey of young Australians

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Young people's perspectives on the association between having a family member with a chronic health concern (FHC) and their own health are under-researched. This study used young people's reports to assess the prevalence of FHCs and their association with negative health outcomes, with an aim of identifying potential inequalities between marginalised and non-marginalised young people. Family cohesion was examined as a moderating factor. Design Cross-sectional data from the Australian Child Wellbeing Project survey were used. Respondents were asked whether someone in their family experienced one or more FHCs (disability, mental illness or drug/alcohol addiction). In addition, their experience of different psychosomatic symptoms (headache, sleeplessness, irritability, etc), aspects of family relationships and social and economic characteristics (disability, materially disadvantaged and Indigenous) were documented. Setting Nationally representative Australian sample. Participants 1531 students in school years 4 and 6 and 3846 students in year 8. Results A quarter of students reported having an FHC (years 4 and 6: 23.96% (95% CI 19.30% to 28.62%); year 8: 25.35% (95% CI 22.77% to 27.94%)). Significantly, more students with FHCs than those without reported experiencing 2 or more negative health symptoms at least weekly (OR=1.78; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.65; p<0.01). However, an independent relationship between FHCs and symptom load was only found in the case of FHC-drug/alcohol addiction. Marginalised students and students reporting low family cohesion had an increased prevalence of FHCs and notably higher symptom loads where FHCs were present. Level of family cohesion did not impact the relationship between FHCs and symptom load. Conclusions The burden of FHCs is inequitably distributed between marginalised and non-marginalised groups, and between young people experiencing different levels of family cohesion. More work is required regarding appropriate targets for

  20. Marksmanship Aiming and Tracking Analysis System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    1 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. U.S. ARMY HUMAN ENGINEERING LABORATORY Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 91- 10218 ®Disk...2 THEN - ISO .- ’ DEINE X AIM POINT ADJUSTMENTS 8125, 3 ThEN G3E - DEFINE Y AIM POINT ADJUSTMKSTS 18130 *F -. - ,:.NE’S. 780 SEFINE BAiMLESIGT RANGE

  1. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  2. Aims in Music Education: A Conceptual Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Constantijn

    1997-01-01

    Explores the concept of aims in music education through investigating the ideas of four philosophers: Wolfgang Brezinka, Richard S. Peters, Bennett Reimer, and David Elliott. Inquires into the empirical and logical aspects of aims and clarifies the relationships between "musical behaviors." Concludes by discussing the relevance of conceptual…

  3. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  4. Australian Circuses as Cooperative Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Beverley J.

    2000-01-01

    Studied how circus personnel of all ages interact in Australian circuses to preserve traditional circus lifestyles and entertainment. Interviews with 30 personnel from 4 circuses show the importance of learning to be a member of a cooperative society through immersion. Results provide information about the education of a community of occupational…

  5. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  6. The Spirituality of Young Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Webber, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    A research project conducted in 2003-2006, the Spirit of Generation Y, using both extended interviews and a nationwide survey, revealed three main strands in the spirituality of young Australians: traditional, alternative and humanist. Their involvement in traditional religions was declining, like that of their parents, and although some adopted…

  7. Catalogue of Australian Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A catalogue of all families, subfamilies, genera, and species of Cynipoidea present in Australia is presented here. The Australian cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with 37 genera cited: one each for Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, two for Cynipidae, and 32 for Figitidae. The first Austr...

  8. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  9. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  10. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  11. Big Ideas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Within weeks of taking office, Australia's new Labor government commissioned two major reviews--one of Australia's innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main…

  12. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  13. Prevalence and pattern of use of indigenous medicines in diabetic patients attending a tertiary care centre.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Ankur; Srivastava, Saurabh; Madhu, S V

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study was to see the pattern of use of indigenous medicines in diabetic patients and to find out its correlation with various demographic variables in patients of type 2 diabetes. A sample of 113 patients with diabetes (type 1 and type 2) was interviewed using a structured questionnaire by trained medical personnel about the intake of indigenous medicines. Correlation of intake of indigenous medicines with various demographic variables was assessed using appropriate statistical tests. Male to female ratio in the present study was 1:3. Mean duration of diabetes was 5.2 +/- 2 years. It was found that majority of patients 101/113 (89.4%) attending diabetic clinic were using indigenous medicines in one form or the other. Most common drugs used were karela (78.8%), jamun (65.5%), methi (38.9%) and neem (28.3%). Majority were taking on advice from fellow diabetics (41.6%) and were not sure (39.8%) about the effect. No significant correlation was found with their intake and demographic variables as age, sex, per capita income, duration of diabtes, occupation, cultural background and antidiabetic medicine used. There is a high percentage of indigenous drug use in patients with diabetes which is often not reported. Treating physicians need to be alert to this possibility while managing diabetic patients in order to correctly interpret glycaemic control, hypoglycaemic episodes and other unexplained comorbidities that might arise in them.

  14. Exploring the new challenges for indigenous education in Brazil: Some lessons from Ticuna schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilherme, Alex; Hüttner, Édison

    2015-08-01

    Brazil appears to have one of the most advanced legislations on native Indians in the world. This was not always the case. During the colonial period (c. 1530-1825), indigenous communities were decimated by disease or massacred by white settlers. In the 20th century, the Brazilian government introduced integrationist policies, which aimed to locate native populations and integrate them into mainstream society. These integrationist policies were implemented through education and the opening of new agricultural frontiers. However, in the last quarter of the 20th century, these integrationist policies were replaced by an approach valuing diversity and the right to a differentiated educational system, for indigenous communities to choose at their own discretion. Based on recent census data, this article begins with a discussion of the current situation of indigenous education in Brazil. Next, the authors focus on the Ticuna people, a group with considerable experience in indigenous education who have managed to maintain much of their cultural heritage and opted for a differentiated educational system. Finally, the authors examine some current challenges and propose a way forward for indigenous schools in Brazil.

  15. Narratives of dynamic lands: science education, indigenous knowledge and possible futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinty, Megan; Bang, Megan

    2016-06-01

    We aim to share some of our work currently focused on understanding and unearthing the multiplicities of ways the denial of culture in relation to science and knowledge construction is embedded in issues of climate change and climate change education. The issues become more troubling when we consider how effects of climate change are manifesting locally in ways that force shifts in Indigenous ways of living while simultaneously nation-states seem to think that continued or increased control of Indigenous practice is warranted. For us, taking the implications of such approaches seriously requires significant consideration of how climate education impacts Indigenous learners and whether learning western climate science is indeed part of making real change important. In our work we have focused on the ways in which settler-colonialism and the resultant racialized hierarchies permeate science education and contribute to an expectation of human entitlement to land and a notion of land permanence.

  16. The impact of the national policy on education on indigenous education in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, David W.

    1980-03-01

    Indigenous education in Nigeria is contrasted with Western orientated education. The former includes both the traditional and more recent locally generated modifications of educational procedures. Until recently the two have been in equilibrium but this is now under attack. Nigerian society is undergoing rapid change. The Government is aiming to create a national identity, eradicate regional inequities, and eliminate parochial and inefficient indigenous educational practices. But the author challenges the assumption that the school system alone can accomplish these tasks. Quick implementation of the plan to regulate indigenous private educational institutions and craft apprenticeships could aggravate the employment situation, while local communities under an increasingly centralised education system will have little authority to initiate local adaptive responses to perceived weaknesses.

  17. Constructing Health and Physical Education Curriculum for Indigenous Girls in a Remote Australian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatman, Susan L.; Singh, Parlo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the last 20 years, curriculum development in Health and Physical Education (HPE) (or Physical Education, Physical Education and Health, Sport Education as it is variously called) has repeatedly attempted to address issues of equity and social inclusion. Why then does systemic educational disadvantage persist, and why do the…

  18. Sea Country: Navigating Indigenous and Colonial Ontologies in Australian Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Hilary; Watkin Lui, Felecia; Sellwood, Juanita; Barrett, M. J.; Chigeza, Philemon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we contribute to land education research by focusing on the Torres Strait Islands in the Coral Sea at the far north of tip of Cape York, Australia. We describe the Torres Strait Islander concept of Sea Country and Torres Strait "Ailan Kastom" (translated as "Island Custom"). We then analyse some of the ways in…

  19. Grounded Theory and Focus Groups: Reconciling Methodologies in Indigenous Australian Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper captures an ideological moment in time in which I contemplated the methodological approach I was embarking upon. In my search for a more appropriate approach for conducting research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tertiary students at the University of Queensland, I chose focus groups set within the qualitative process of…

  20. Talking Books for Children's Home Use in a Minority Indigenous Australian Language Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auld, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Members of the Kunibidji community are the traditional owners of the lands and seas around Maningrida, a remote community in Northern Australia. Most of the 200 members of the Kunibidji Community speak Ndjebbana as their first language. This study reports on the complexities of transforming technology to provide Kunibidji children with access to…