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  1. Barriers and facilitators to the utilization of adult mental health services by Australia's Indigenous people: seeking a way forward.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Anton Neville; Pyett, Priscilla; Oakley-Browne, Mark A; Gruis, Hilton; Waples-Crowe, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Mental disorders are the second leading cause of disease burden among Australia's Indigenous people after cardiovascular disease. Yet Indigenous people do not access mental health services in proportion to their need. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators for Indigenous people seeking mental health services in Australia and identifies key elements in the development and maintenance of partnerships for improved service delivery and future research. The process of seeking help for mental illness has been conceptualized as four consecutive steps starting from recognizing that there is a problem to actually contacting the mental health service. We have attempted to explore the factors affecting each of these stages. While people in the general population experience barriers across all four stages of the process of seeking treatment for a mental disorder, there are many more barriers for Indigenous people at the stage of actually contacting a mental health service. These include a history of racism and discrimination and resultant lack of trust in mainstream services, misunderstandings due to cultural and language differences, and inadequate measures to reduce the stigma associated with mental illness. Further research is required to understand the mental health literacy of Indigenous people, their different perceptions of mental health and well-being, issues around stigma, and the natural history of mental illness among Indigenous people who do not access any form of professional help. Collaborations between mainstream mental health services and Aboriginal organizations have been promoted as a way to conduct research into developing appropriate services for Indigenous people.

  2. Information Technology and Indigenous People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel, Ed.; Hendriks, Max, Ed.; Grant, Stephen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology and Indigenous People provides theoretical and empirical information related to the planning and execution of IT projects aimed at serving indigenous people. It explores many cultural concerns with IT implementation, including language issues and questions of cultural appropriateness, and brings together cutting-edge…

  3. Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

  4. From Our Eyes: Learning from Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Sylvia, Ed.; West, Douglas A., Ed.

    The purpose of the conference and this book is to begin to establish the parameters of a new period of interaction between indigenous and non-Native peoples of North America through their experiences in university and academic practices and settings. The book exposes academic communities to indigenous learning and indigenous knowledge with the…

  5. Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems.

  6. Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems. PMID:23740348

  7. Indigenous People: Emancipatory Possibilities in Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I argue that emancipatory possibilities for Maori, the Indigenous people of New Zealand, rely on structural changes that enable them to have control over resources, decision making, and meaning, and that emancipation is a journey traveled by oppressed groups as they exercise their collective agency. The 1990s development of…

  8. Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.

    PubMed

    Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources.

  9. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA): Mediating and Mobilizing Indigenous Peoples' Educational Knowledge and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitinui, Paul; McIvor, Onowa; Robertson, Boni; Morcom, Lindsay; Cashman, Kimo; Arbon, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    There is an Indigenous resurgence in education occurring globally. For more than a century Euro-western approaches have controlled the provision and quality of education to, and for Indigenous peoples. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA) established in 2012, is a grass-roots movement of Indigenous scholars passionate about making a…

  10. Reflecting Visions. New Perspectives on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Linda, Ed.

    This book contains 14 papers: "Indigenous Peoples and Adult Education: A Growing Challenge" (Rodolfo Stavenhagen); "Indigenous Peoples: Progress in the International Recognition of Human Rights and the Role of Education" (Julian Burger); "Adult Learning in the Context of Indigenous Societies" (Linda King); "Linguistic Rights and the Role of…

  11. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes da Silva, Aracy

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Brazil was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Brazil's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

  12. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Russia. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschtyb, Nina

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Russia was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) engaged in adult education for Russia's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy…

  13. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Norway. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Svein

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Norway was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Norway's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

  14. Engagement with indigenous peoples and honoring traditional knowledge systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Julie; Bennett, Bull; Chief, Karletta; Cochran, Patricia; Cozetto, Karen; Gough, Bob; Hiza, Margaret M.; Lynn, Kathy; Maynard, Nancy; Voggesser, Garrit

    2015-01-01

    The organizers of the 2014 US National Climate Assessment (NCA) made a concerted effort to reach out to and collaborate with Indigenous peoples, resulting in the most comprehensive information to date on climate change impacts to Indigenous peoples in a US national assessment. Yet, there is still much room for improvement in assessment processes to ensure adequate recognition of Indigenous perspectives and Indigenous knowledge systems. This article discusses the process used in creating the Indigenous Peoples, Land, and Resources NCA chapter by a team comprised of tribal members, agencies, academics, and non-governmental organizations, who worked together to solicit, collect, and synthesize traditional knowledges and data from a diverse array of Indigenous communities across the US. It also discusses the synergy and discord between traditional knowledge systems and science and the emergence of cross-cutting issues and vulnerabilities for Indigenous peoples. The challenges of coalescing information about climate change and its impacts on Indigenous communities are outlined along with recommendations on the types of information to include in future assessment outputs. We recommend that future assessments – not only NCA, but other relevant local, regional, national, and international efforts aimed at the translation of climate information and assessments into meaningful actions – should support integration of Indigenous perspectives in a sustained way that builds respectful relationships and effectively engages Indigenous communities. Given the large number of tribes in the US and the current challenges and unique vulnerabilities of Indigenous communities, a special report focusing solely on climate change and Indigenous peoples is warranted.

  15. The State versus Indigenous Peoples: The Impact of Hydraulic Projects on Indigenous Peoples of Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thi Dieu, Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that many Asian nations, in their drive to industrialize, have chosen national identity and economic development over the survival of their indigenous peoples. Utilizes case studies in Malaysia, India, and China to examine the divergence between macro- and microinterests illustrated by the egregious examples of these hydraulic projects.…

  16. The challenges of developing a trauma system for Indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Plani, Frank; Carson, Phil

    2008-12-01

    Trauma systems have been shown to provide the best trauma care for injured patients. A trauma system developed for Indigenous people should take into account many factors including geographical remoteness and cultural diversity. Indigenous people suffer from a significant intentional and non-intentional burden of injury, often greater than non-Indigenous populations, and a public health approach in dealing with trauma can be adopted. This includes transport issues, prevention and control of intentional violence, cultural sensitization of health providers, community emergency responses, community rehabilitation and improving resilience. The ultimate aim is to decrease the trauma burden through a trauma system with which indigenous people can fully identify.

  17. Quest of Visual Literacy: Deconstructing Visual Images of Indigenous People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semali, Ladislaus

    This paper introduces five concepts that guide teachers' and students' critical inquiry in the understanding of media and visual representation. In a step-by-step process, the paper illustrates how these five concepts can become a tool with which to critique and examine film images of indigenous people. The Sani are indigenous people of the…

  18. Adult education and indigenous peoples in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a potential way out of educational stagnation of indigenous adults, which is one of the challenges clearly formulated by UNESCO member states during CONFINTEA VI as a priority to be faced. The article concludes arguing the case for intercultural education, not only among indigenous peoples, but for the whole of the population, to be a guiding philosophy for education in general and adult education in particular in Latin American countries. It emphasises the fact that this cannot be achieved without the active participation of indigenous peoples themselves.

  19. Globalization, states, and the health of indigenous peoples.

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, S J

    2000-01-01

    The consequences of globalization are mixed, and for the indigenous peoples of poor countries globalization has potentially important benefits. These are the result not of participation in the global economy but of participation in global networks of other indigenous peoples, environmental activists, and nongovernmental organizations. Since World War II, nonstate actors such as these have gained standing in international forums. It is indigenous peoples' growing visibility and ability to mobilize international support against the policies of their own national governments that has contributed in some important instances to their improved chances of survival. PMID:11029984

  20. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  1. Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen B., Ed.; Stabinsky, Doreen, Ed.

    Intellectual property enables individuals to gain financially from sharing unique and useful knowledge. Compensating indigenous people for sharing their knowledge and resources might both validate and be an equitable reward for indigenous knowledge of biological resources, and might promote the conservation of those resources. This book contains…

  2. Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…

  3. Indigenous Peoples and Education in the Circumpolar North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmert, William G., Jr., Ed.

    This collection of papers represents an attempt to define better the purposes and content of education among the indigenous peoples of the circumpolar north. All the papers, except one on the Soviet Union, were written by members of indigenous groups in the far north. They are professionally involved in the field of Native education in their…

  4. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

  5. Career Development for Young Indigenous People: A Project Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, Anna; Smith, Helen

    2009-01-01

    A range of career challenges and employment barriers confronting Indigenous people in Australia have been identified by census data and government reports. This paper describes a project that involved national consultation to determine the type of career programs and resources being used with Indigenous populations. Information was gathered with…

  6. Alternative Education Engaging Indigenous Young People: Flexi Schooling in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Marnee; Heck, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss some of the findings from a qualitative research project that explored the connections between alternative education and Indigenous learners. This study investigated how flexi school leaders reported they were supporting Indigenous young people to remain engaged in education. The results of the survey provide demographic…

  7. Moving toward culturally sensitive services for Indigenous people: a non-Indigenous mental health nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Anthony Tony

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous psychiatric morbidity, whilst culturally different in presentation to white communities has been suggested to run at a mean prevalence rate of 13.5% of the major disorders found in non-Indigenous communities. This paper discusses the socio-political and cross cultural issues to do with mental health for Australian Indigenous from a non-Indigenous perspective. The paper is particularly concerned with the effects of racism on Indigenous mental health and how racism effectively limits Indigenous people from full participation in the pluralist mainstream. Racism has been seen to be a major contributor to mental illness. The scope of this paper addresses the issue of transforming mainstream culture as well as highlighting the need for protection, participation and collaborative involvement in mental health service delivery.

  8. [Forum: health and indigenous peoples in Brazil. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Welch, James R

    2014-04-01

    This Forum on Health and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil explores contemporary challenges to indigenous health and health politics in Brazil. The short collection of articles that follow are based on presentations, originally given at the Indigenous Health Working Group panel at the 10th Brazilian Public Health Conference in Rio Grande do Sul State, by professors Carlos E. A. Coimbra Jr. (Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), Marina Denise Cardoso (Universidade Federal de São Carlos) and Eliana E. Diehl (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina) with Marcos A. Pellegrini (Universidade Federal de Roraima). In this short Introduction, I introduce these contributions, taking as a point of reference a local example of healthcare inequity derived from a presentation at the same panel by Paulo F. Supretaprã, indigenous community leader from Etênhiritipá village, Mato Grosso State.

  9. Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous Peoples: A Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Tom, Ed.

    This sourcebook presents a collection of papers focusing on the intellectual property rights (IPR) of indigenous peoples--their rights to protect and control their cultural knowledge. Subsidiary IPR goals are to manage the degree and process by which cultural knowledge is shared with outsiders and, in some instances, to be justly compensated for…

  10. Most lay people can correctly identify indigenous venomous snakes.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Stephen W; Anderson, Brian; Nelson, Brett; Bush, Sean; Hayes, William K; Cardwell, Mike D

    2005-10-01

    We attempted to determine how accurately members of the public can identify venomous snakes. Six different snakes indigenous to southern California were displayed in cages for 265 people to view at a street fair. These included 4 nonvenomous snakes and 2 venomous snakes. People were asked whether the snake was venomous and the name of the snake, if they knew it. Overall, people recognized whether a snake was venomous or nonvenomous 81% of the time. They were most accurate at identifying rattlesnakes as being venomous (95%) but incorrectly identified nonvenomous snakes as being venomous 25% of the time. Men were more accurate than women, and adults were more accurate than children. Subjects were less well able to identify the exact species of snakes. The results suggest that there may be no need to capture, kill, or bring a snake to the hospital for identification, at least in this geographic area.

  11. Social capital from carbon property: creating equity for indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Lindsay S; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Swingland, Ian R

    2002-08-15

    New incentives for protection and in situ use of forests and the services they provide raise hopes for the reversal of tropical and temperate deforestation. Past management of forests appropriated the rights of forest communities, providing incentives to convert natural forest into financial capital through logging, while destroying the underlying physical property. Carbon trading aims to provide a means to convert the forest property into financial capital, while protecting the physical property of forests, thereby providing new incentives for in situ forest management. The potential for carbon-emission trading as a contributor to these new incentives is tempered by concerns that it is another tool for capitalists to exploit the indigenous communities of the developing world. Estimates of annual emission trading amounting to US $200 billion raise alarm bells about the effect of such trade in the developing world. People are right to be concerned, as the history of exploitation of indigenous people, the appropriation of their rights, the loss of forests and their benefits is well documented. This exploitation resulted in the exclusion of forest communities from the basic tenets for development created by the wealth generated by traded property. However, one virtue of trade is that it can be made subject to constraints. Through international treaties and agreements, trade can be constrained and national governments obliged to observe the rules of trade. The value of tradable carbon credits will be discounted or invalid if they do not meet these criteria, providing all parties with strong incentives to achieve the necessary performance standards relating to both processes and contracts. For carbon trading to develop social capital from natural capital requires the admission of forest communities into the polity and management of forest resources. In this paper we argue for responsible carbon-emission trading based on the clear and appropriate definition of carbon

  12. Skylore of the Indigenous Peoples of Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Roslyn M.

    This chapter examines the skylore of the indigenous peoples of northern Eurasia, paying particular attention to the commonalities found among them as well as the differences. Special attention is placed on the motif of the Cosmic Hunt and its diverse manifestations across the study area as well as on the oral nature of the celestial beliefs of these groups. The stars of a variety of "Western" constellation figures are implicated in the narratives and in some cases are clearly utilized in social practice for celestial navigation. The role played by the underlying hunter-gatherer mode of subsistence in shaping their cultural conceptualizations, their skyscapes, and the overarching cosmology of these peoples is also addressed.

  13. Beyond Recovery: Colonization, Health and Healing for Indigenous People in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavallee, Lynn F.; Poole, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    How do we limit our focus to mental health when Indigenous teaching demands a much wider lens? How do we respond to mental health recovery when Indigenous experience speaks to a very different approach to healing, and how can we take up the health of Indigenous people in Canada without a discussion of identity and colonization? We cannot, for the…

  14. Reconstructing Indigenous ethnicities: the Arapium and Jaraqui peoples of the lower Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Omaira

    2010-01-01

    In Latin America, indigenous identity claims among people not previously recognized as such by the state have become a key topic of anthropological and sociological research. Scholars have analyzed the motivations and political implications of this trend and the impacts of indigenous population's growth on national demographic indicators. However, little is known about how people claiming indigenous status constructs the meaning of their indigenous ethnicity. Drawing from sixty-four indepth interviews, focus-group analyses, and participant observation, this article explores the double process of identity construction: the reconstruction of the Arapium indigenous identity and the creation of the Jaraqui indigenous identity in Brazil's Lower Amazon. The findings reveal six themes that contribute to the embodiment of a definition of indigenous identity and the establishment of a discursive basis to claim recognition: sense of rootedness, historical memory, historical transformation, consciousness, social exclusion, and identity politics.

  15. Reconstructing Indigenous ethnicities: the Arapium and Jaraqui peoples of the lower Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Omaira

    2010-01-01

    In Latin America, indigenous identity claims among people not previously recognized as such by the state have become a key topic of anthropological and sociological research. Scholars have analyzed the motivations and political implications of this trend and the impacts of indigenous population's growth on national demographic indicators. However, little is known about how people claiming indigenous status constructs the meaning of their indigenous ethnicity. Drawing from sixty-four indepth interviews, focus-group analyses, and participant observation, this article explores the double process of identity construction: the reconstruction of the Arapium indigenous identity and the creation of the Jaraqui indigenous identity in Brazil's Lower Amazon. The findings reveal six themes that contribute to the embodiment of a definition of indigenous identity and the establishment of a discursive basis to claim recognition: sense of rootedness, historical memory, historical transformation, consciousness, social exclusion, and identity politics. PMID:21188890

  16. Inclusion of Indigenous Peoples in CONFINTEA VI and Follow-Up Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Sandra L.; Vaioleti, Timote M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses key issues raised by indigenous peoples during CONFINTEA VI and proposes strategies to enable them to participate in ongoing processes. Indigenous peoples are not involved in the design, implementation and monitoring of adult education programmes, and this often results in a "one-size-fits-all" model. This article takes the…

  17. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People

    PubMed Central

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people. PMID:26599437

  18. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people.

  19. Cancer in indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Suzanne P; Forman, David; Piñeros, Marion; Fernández, Sdenka M; Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Bray, Freddie

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in Latin America but there have been few assessments of the cancer burden for the 10% of the population who are indigenous. Evidence from other world regions suggests cancer survival is poorer for indigenous people than for others due to a greater incidence of case-fatal cancers, later stage at diagnosis, and less cancer treatment. A status report on the cancer profile of indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is therefore clearly warranted. We undertook a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature in academic databases, and considered evidence from cancer registries from 1980, to assess cancer epidemiology among indigenous people in LAC. We identified 35 peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cancer in indigenous people. Rates of cervical cancer in parts of Brazil, Ecuador, and Guyana, stomach cancer rates in regions of Chile and gallbladder rates in Chile and Bolivia, were higher for indigenous compared to others. Breast cancer rates were lower in Ecuador, Brazil, and Chile. Six cancer registries in Brazil provided incidence data but no other reports of incidence, mortality, or survival were identified. There was a paucity of data surrounding the cancer burden of indigenous people in LAC. In view of predicted increases in cancer rates in ensuing decades, and the disparities in burden already experienced by indigenous people in the region, it is imperative that cancer profiles are obtained and cancer control measures identified and prioritized. PMID:24403278

  20. Cancer in indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Suzanne P; Forman, David; Piñeros, Marion; Fernández, Sdenka M; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Bray, Freddie

    2014-02-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in Latin America but there have been few assessments of the cancer burden for the 10% of the population who are indigenous. Evidence from other world regions suggests cancer survival is poorer for indigenous people than for others due to a greater incidence of case-fatal cancers, later stage at diagnosis, and less cancer treatment. A status report on the cancer profile of indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is therefore clearly warranted. We undertook a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature in academic databases, and considered evidence from cancer registries from 1980, to assess cancer epidemiology among indigenous people in LAC. We identified 35 peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cancer in indigenous people. Rates of cervical cancer in parts of Brazil, Ecuador, and Guyana, stomach cancer rates in regions of Chile and gallbladder rates in Chile and Bolivia, were higher for indigenous compared to others. Breast cancer rates were lower in Ecuador, Brazil, and Chile. Six cancer registries in Brazil provided incidence data but no other reports of incidence, mortality, or survival were identified. There was a paucity of data surrounding the cancer burden of indigenous people in LAC. In view of predicted increases in cancer rates in ensuing decades, and the disparities in burden already experienced by indigenous people in the region, it is imperative that cancer profiles are obtained and cancer control measures identified and prioritized.

  1. Inclusion of indigenous peoples in CONFINTEA VI and follow-up processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Sandra L.; Vaioleti, Timote M.

    2011-08-01

    This paper discusses key issues raised by indigenous peoples during CONFINTEA VI and proposes strategies to enable them to participate in ongoing processes. Indigenous peoples are not involved in the design, implementation and monitoring of adult education programmes, and this often results in a "one-size-fits-all" model. This article takes the position that indigenous people must have full and effective participation in all matters which concern them and that well-meaning policy statements are only as effective as the display of real effort to make them work. One example of an indigenous community taking initiative in order to free itself of overwhelming deficit positioning by mainstream educational and other systems is the Māori community of Aotearoa/New Zealand. The paper argues that through CONFINTEA VI, there is still space for the voice of indigenous peoples to be heard.

  2. Reduced nephron endowment in the neonates of Indigenous Australian peoples.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Y; Smith, R; Wright, I M R; Lumbers, E R

    2014-02-01

    Rates of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among Indigenous groups in Australia exceed non-Indigenous rates eight-fold. Using kidney volume as a surrogate for nephron number, we carried out a study to determine if Indigenous neonates have a smaller kidney volume (and thus a reduced nephron number) from birth compared with non-Indigenous neonates. We recruited term and preterm neonates (<32 weeks) at a tertiary care neonatal unit over a 12 months period. Preterm neonates were assessed (renal sonography and renal function measurement) at 32 weeks corrected age (CA) and again at 38 weeks CA when blood pressure was also measured. All term neonates were assessed in the first post-natal week, including renal sonography, renal function and blood pressure measurement. The primary outcome measured was total kidney volume (TKV) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was a secondary outcome. Data was available for 44 preterm (11 Indigenous) and 39 term (13 Indigenous) neonates. TKV of Indigenous neonates was significantly lower at 32 weeks [12.0 (2.0) v. 15.4 (5.1) ml; P=0.03] and 38 weeks CA [18.6 (4.0) v. 22.6 (5.9) ml; P=0.04] respectively. Term Indigenous neonates also had smaller kidney volumes compared with non-Indigenous neonates. Despite a smaller kidney volume (and reduced nephron number), Indigenous neonates did not have a significantly lower eGFR. Indigenous neonates achieve similar eGFRs to Non-Indigenous neonates, presumably through a higher single nephron filtration rate. This places Indigenous neonates at a greater risk of long-term kidney damage later in life.

  3. Amazingly resilient Indigenous people! Using transformative learning to facilitate positive student engagement with sensitive material.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Sherwood, Juanita; Geia, Lynore

    2013-12-01

    If health professionals are to effectively contribute to improving the health of Indigenous people, understanding of the historical, political, and social disadvantage that has lead to health disparity is essential. This paper describes a teaching and learning experience in which four Australian Indigenous academics in collaboration with a non-Indigenous colleague delivered an intensive workshop for masters level post-graduate students. Drawing upon the paedagogy of Transformative Learning, the objectives of the day included facilitating students to explore their existing understandings of Indigenous people, the impact of ongoing colonisation, the diversity of Australia's Indigenous people, and developing respect for alternative worldviews. Drawing on a range of resources including personal stories, autobiography, film and interactive sessions, students were challenged intellectually and emotionally by the content. Students experienced the workshop as a significant educational event, and described feeling transformed by the content, better informed, more appreciative of other worldviews and Indigenous resilience and better equipped to contribute in a more meaningful way to improving the quality of health care for Indigenous people. Where this workshop differs from other Indigenous classes was in the involvement of an Indigenous teaching team. Rather than a lone academic who can often feel vulnerable teaching a large cohort of non-Indigenous students, an Indigenous teaching team reinforced Indigenous authority and created an emotionally and culturally safe space within which students were allowed to confront and explore difficult truths. Findings support the value of multiple teaching strategies underpinned by the theory of transformational learning, and the potential benefits of facilitating emotional as well as intellectual student engagement when presenting sensitive material.

  4. Declining mortality among HIV-positive indigenous people at a Vancouver indigenous-focused urban-core health care centre

    PubMed Central

    Klakowicz, Piotr; Zhang, Wen; Colley, Guillaume; Moore, David; Tu, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine mortality rates among HIV-positive indigenous people and others after initiation of HIV care improvements based on the chronic care model to address high HIV-related mortality. Design Retrospective cohort preintervention-to-postintervention evaluation study. Setting Urban-core primary health care centre focused on indigenous people in Vancouver, BC. Participants Individuals infected with HIV. Intervention Adoption of the chronic care model to improve HIV care over time. Main outcome measures All-cause mortality and HIV-related mortality rates, overall and from preintervention (2007 to 2009) to postintervention (2010 to 2012), by indigenous ethnicity, were calculated from clinical data linked with the provincial HIV treatment clinical registry. Results Of the 546 eligible study patients, 323 (59%) self-identified as indigenous. Indigenous persons had higher all-cause mortality compared with other patients (14% vs 8%, P = .035; 6.25 vs 4.02 per 100 person-years [PYRs], P = .113), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.77 (95% CI 0.95 to 3.30). Indigenous persons also had higher HIV-related mortality (6% vs 2%, P = .027; 2.50 vs 0.89 per 100 PYRs, P = .063), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.88 (95% CI 0.93 to 8.92). Between 2007 to 2009 and 2010 to 2012, a significant decline was observed in all-cause mortality for indigenous patients (10.00 to 5.00 per 100 PYRs, P = .023) and a non-significant decline was observed in other patients (7.21 to 2.97 per 100 PYRs, P = .061). A significant decline in HIV-related mortality was also seen for indigenous patients (5.56 to 1.80 per 100 PYRs, P = .005). Conclusion Despite the overall higher risk of death among indigenous patients compared with others, the decline in mortality in HIV-positive indigenous patients after the initiation of efforts to improve HIV care at the clinic further support HIV primary care informed by indigenous issues and the adoption of the chronic care model.

  5. What Explains Child Malnutrition of Indigenous People of Northeast India?

    PubMed Central

    Dinachandra Singh, Konsam; Alagarajan, Manoj; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    Household risk factors affecting child health, particularly malnutrition, are mainly basic amenities like drinking water, toilet facility, housing and fuel used for cooking. This paper considered the collective impact of basic amenities measured by an index specially constructed as the contextual factor of child malnutrition. The contextual factor operates at both the macro and micro levels namely the state level and the household level. The importance of local contextual factors is especially important when studying the nutritional status of children of indigenous people living in remote and inaccessible regions. This study has shown the contextual factors as potential factors of malnutrition among children in northeast India, which is home to the largest number of tribes in the country. In terms of macro level contextual factor it has been found that 8.9 per cent, 3.7 per cent and 3.6 per cent of children in high, medium and low risk households respectively, are severely wasted. Lower micro level household health risks, literate household heads, and scheduled tribe households have a negating effect on child malnutrition. Children who received colostrum feeding at the time of birth and those who were vaccinated against measles are also less subject to wasting compared to other children, and these differences are statistically significant. PMID:26121475

  6. Therapeutic landscapes of home: Exploring Indigenous peoples' experiences of a Housing First intervention in Winnipeg.

    PubMed

    Alaazi, Dominic A; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Evans, Joshua; Distasio, Jino

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we explore Indigenous perspectives of culture, place, and health among participants in a landmark Canadian Housing First initiative: At Home/Chez Soi (AHCS) project. Implemented from 2009 to 2013 in Winnipeg and four other Canadian cities, AHCS was a multi-city randomized control trial that sought to test the effectiveness of Housing First as a model for addressing chronic homelessness among people living with mental illnesses. As Winnipeg's homeless population is over 70% Indigenous, significant efforts were made to accommodate the culturally specific health, spiritual, and lifestyle preferences of the project's Indigenous participants. While a daunting challenge from an intervention perspective, Winnipeg's experience also provides a unique opportunity to examine how Indigenous participants' experiences can inform improved housing and mental health policy in Canada. In our study, conducted independently from, but with endorsement of the AHCS project, we utilized a case study approach to explore the experiences of the project's Indigenous participants. Data were collected by means of in-depth qualitative interviews with Indigenous participants (N = 14) and key informant project staff and investigators (N = 6). Our exploratory work demonstrates that despite relative satisfaction with the AHCS intervention, Indigenous peoples' sense of place in the city remains largely disconnected from their housing experiences. We found that structural factors, particularly the shortage of affordable housing and systemic erasure of Indigeneity from the urban sociocultural and political landscape, have adversely impacted Indigenous peoples' sense of place and home.

  7. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  8. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  9. Indigenous Thought, Appropriation, and Non-Aboriginal People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig-Brown, Celia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I explore the question, "What is the relationship between appropriation of Indigenous thought and what might be called "deep learning" based in years of education in Indigenous contexts." Beginning with an examination of meanings ascribed to cultural appropriation, I bring texts from Gee on secondary discourses, Foucault on the…

  10. Indigenous Peoples and Indicators of Well-Being: Australian Perspectives on United Nations Global Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John

    2008-01-01

    One of the major tasks of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) following its establishment in 2000 has been to establish statistical profiles of the world's Indigenous peoples. As part of this broad task, it has recommended that the Millennium Development Goals and other global reporting frameworks should be assessed…

  11. Adult Education and Indigenous People: Addressing Gender in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nitya; Robinson-Pant, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Adult education programmes developed for or by indigenous communities rarely seem to have addressed gender inequalities. Yet, compared to mainstream adult educational interventions promoting instrumental approaches to "functional literacy", such programmes often appear highly politicised, starting from a standpoint of promoting indigenous peoples'…

  12. Improvements in HIV treatment outcomes among indigenous and non-indigenous people who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting

    PubMed Central

    Milloy, M-J; King, Alexandra; Kerr, Thomas; Adams, Evan; Samji, Hasina; Guillemi, Silvia; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In many settings worldwide, members of indigenous groups experience a disproportionate burden of HIV. In Canada, there is an urgent need to improve HIV treatment outcomes for indigenous people living with HIV (IPLWH), to not only reduce HIV/AIDS-associated morbidity and mortality but also curb elevated rates of viral transmission. Thus, by comparing indigenous and non-indigenous participants in an ongoing longitudinal cohort of HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs, we sought to investigate longitudinal changes in three HIV treatment indicators for IPLWH who use illicit drugs during a community-wide treatment-as-prevention (TasP) initiative in British Columbia, Canada. Methods We used data from the ACCESS study, an ongoing observational prospective cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users recruited from community settings in Vancouver, British Columbia. Cohort data are linked to comprehensive retrospective and prospective clinical records in a setting of no-cost HIV/AIDS treatment and care. We used multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE) to evaluate longitudinal changes in the proportion of participants with exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the previous 180 days, optimal adherence to ART (i.e. ≥95% vs. <95%) and non-detectable HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL <50 copies/mL plasma). Results Between 2005 and 2014, 845 individuals were recruited, including 326 (39%) self-reporting any indigenous ancestry, and contributed 6732 interviews and 13,495 VL measurements. Among indigenous participants, the proportion with recent ART increased from 51 to 94% and non-detectable VL from 23 to 65%. In multivariable models, later interview period was positively associated with recent ART (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.16 per interview period, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11 to 1.20) and non-detectable VL (AOR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.10). In adjusted models comparing indigenous and non-indigenous participants, we did not observe differences

  13. Reclaiming Indigenous Voice and Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiste, Marie, Ed.

    This book springs from a 1996 International Summer Institute, held at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, on the cultural restoration of oppressed Indigenous peoples. Essays draw on many perspectives and experiences to seek ways of healing and rebuilding nations, peoples, and communities by restoring Indigenous ecologies, consciousnesses,…

  14. When Ants Carry Elephants: Applying the Wisdom of Indigenous Peoples to Library Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    Explores what the library profession can learn from indigenous peoples. Highlights include cooperation, decision making, improving management, using workplace stories to provide reinforcement for success, generosity in service principles, patience, developing information networks, and diversity. (AEF)

  15. An explanatory analysis of economic and health inequality changes among Mexican indigenous people, 2000-2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mexico faces important problems concerning income and health inequity. Mexico’s national public agenda prioritizes remedying current inequities between its indigenous and non-indigenous population groups. This study explores the changes in social inequalities among Mexico’s indigenous and non-indigenous populations for the time period 2000 to 2010 using routinely collected poverty, welfare and health indicator data. Methods We described changes in socioeconomic indicators (housing condition), poverty (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke and Sen-Shorrocks-Sen indexes), health indicators (childhood stunting and infant mortality) using diverse sources of nationally representative data. Results This analysis provides consistent evidence of disparities in the Mexican indigenous population regarding both basic and crucial developmental indicators. Although developmental indicators have improved among the indigenous population, when we compare indigenous and non-indigenous people, the gap in socio-economic and developmental indicators persists. Conclusions Despite a decade of efforts to promote public programs, poverty persists and is a particular burden for indigenous populations within Mexican society. In light of the results, it would be advisable to review public policy and to specifically target future policy to the needs of the indigenous population. PMID:24576113

  16. Structural factors that increase HIV/STI vulnerability among indigenous people in the Peruvian amazon.

    PubMed

    Orellana, E Roberto; Alva, Isaac E; Cárcamo, Cesar P; García, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    We examined structural factors-social, political, economic, and environmental-that increase vulnerability to HIV among indigenous people in the Peruvian Amazon. Indigenous adults belonging to 12 different ethnic groups were purposively recruited in four Amazonian river ports and 16 indigenous villages. Qualitative data revealed a complex set of structural factors that give rise to environments of risk where health is constantly challenged. Ferryboats that cross Amazonian rivers are settings where unprotected sex-including transactional sex between passengers and boat crew and commercial sex work-often take place. Population mobility and mixing also occurs in settings like the river docks, mining sites, and other resource extraction camps, where heavy drinking and unprotected sex work are common. Multilevel, combination prevention strategies that integrate empirically based interventions with indigenous knowledge are urgently needed, not only to reduce vulnerability to HIV transmission, but also to eliminate the structural determinants of indigenous people's health.

  17. Structural factors that increase HIV/STI vulnerability among indigenous people in the Peruvian amazon.

    PubMed

    Orellana, E Roberto; Alva, Isaac E; Cárcamo, Cesar P; García, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    We examined structural factors-social, political, economic, and environmental-that increase vulnerability to HIV among indigenous people in the Peruvian Amazon. Indigenous adults belonging to 12 different ethnic groups were purposively recruited in four Amazonian river ports and 16 indigenous villages. Qualitative data revealed a complex set of structural factors that give rise to environments of risk where health is constantly challenged. Ferryboats that cross Amazonian rivers are settings where unprotected sex-including transactional sex between passengers and boat crew and commercial sex work-often take place. Population mobility and mixing also occurs in settings like the river docks, mining sites, and other resource extraction camps, where heavy drinking and unprotected sex work are common. Multilevel, combination prevention strategies that integrate empirically based interventions with indigenous knowledge are urgently needed, not only to reduce vulnerability to HIV transmission, but also to eliminate the structural determinants of indigenous people's health. PMID:23925407

  18. Indigenous Peoples of the World: An Introduction to Their Past, Present, and Future. Purich's Aboriginal Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehring, Brian

    Suitable for introductory courses on indigenous peoples, this book analyzes the effects of industrial capitalism and modernity on indigenous people and their economies. Specifically, the book traces world history and synthesizes common themes regarding the detrimental effects of European expansionism on indigenous populations. Currently, there are…

  19. Historical Trauma, Substance Use, and Indigenous Peoples: Seven Generations of Harm From a "Big Event".

    PubMed

    Nutton, Jennifer; Fast, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous peoples the world over have and continue to experience the devastating effects of colonialism including loss of life, land, language, culture, and identity. Indigenous peoples suffer disproportionately across many health risk factors including an increased risk of substance use. We use the term "Big Event" to describe the historical trauma attributed to colonial policies as a potential pathway to explain the disparity in rates of substance use among many Indigenous populations. We present "Big Solutions" that have the potential to buffer the negative effects of the Big Event, including: (1) decolonizing strategies, (2) identity development, and (3) culturally adapted interventions. Study limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested. PMID:26158749

  20. Historical Trauma, Substance Use, and Indigenous Peoples: Seven Generations of Harm From a "Big Event".

    PubMed

    Nutton, Jennifer; Fast, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous peoples the world over have and continue to experience the devastating effects of colonialism including loss of life, land, language, culture, and identity. Indigenous peoples suffer disproportionately across many health risk factors including an increased risk of substance use. We use the term "Big Event" to describe the historical trauma attributed to colonial policies as a potential pathway to explain the disparity in rates of substance use among many Indigenous populations. We present "Big Solutions" that have the potential to buffer the negative effects of the Big Event, including: (1) decolonizing strategies, (2) identity development, and (3) culturally adapted interventions. Study limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested.

  1. [The Sanumá-Yanomami medical system and indigenous peoples' health policy in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Sílvia Maria Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss how the Sanumá indigenous people, a subgroup of the Yanomami linguistic family, located in northern Roraima State, Brazil, interacts with and relates to the public policy for indigenous people's health. Missionaries and Brazilian government and non-governmental organization employees are the agents with whom the Sanumá had to deal during the implementation of a healthcare policy. The ethnography of this interrelationship, permeated by moments of epidemic outbreaks, clashes, and attempts at collaboration, raises questions on the implementation of health services in indigenous territories.

  2. 'We don't tell people what to do': ethical practice and Indigenous health promotion.

    PubMed

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; Chelsea Bond, A; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion aspires to work in empowering, participatory ways, with the goal of supporting people to increase control over their health. However, buried in this goal is an ethical tension: while increasing people's autonomy, health promotion also imposes a particular, health promotion-sanctioned version of what is good. This tension positions practitioners precariously, where the ethos of empowerment risks increasing health promotion's paternalistic control over people, rather than people's control over their own health. Herein we argue that this ethical tension is amplified in Indigenous Australia, where colonial processes of control over Indigenous lands, lives and cultures are indistinguishable from contemporary health promotion 'interventions'. Moreover, the potential stigmatisation produced in any paternalistic acts 'done for their own good' cannot be assumed to have evaporated within the self-proclaimed 'empowering' narratives of health promotion. This issue's guest editor's call for health promotion to engage 'with politics and with philosophical ideas about the state and the citizen' is particularly relevant in an Indigenous Australian context. Indigenous Australians continue to experience health promotion as a moral project of control through intervention, which contradicts health promotion's central goal of empowerment. Therefore, Indigenous health promotion is an invaluable site for discussion and analysis of health promotion's broader ethical tensions. Given the persistent and alarming Indigenous health inequalities, this paper calls for systematic ethical reflection in order to redress health promotion's general failure to reduce health inequalities experienced by Indigenous Australians. PMID:26599355

  3. Observations on the State of Indigenous Human Rights in Light of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cultural Survival, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1996 Peace Accords ended the Guatemalan civil war, the country has made strides to legally recognize the rights of its indigenous peoples and has criminalized racial discrimination. However, political exclusion, discrimination, and economic marginalization of indigenous peoples still regularly occur due to the lack of resources and…

  4. Indigenous well-being in four countries: An application of the UNDP'S Human Development Index to Indigenous Peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Martin; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Guimond, Eric; Beavon, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Background Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI) rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in recent decades, and it remains generally unknown whether the overall conditions of Indigenous peoples are improving and whether the gaps between Indigenous peoples and other citizens have indeed narrowed. There is unsettling evidence that they may not have. It was the purpose of this study to determine how these gaps have narrowed or widened during the decade 1990 to 2000. Methods Census data and life expectancy estimates from government sources were used to adapt the Human Development Index (HDI) to examine how the broad social, economic, and health status of Indigenous populations in these countries have changed since 1990. Three indices – life expectancy, educational attainment, and income – were combined into a single HDI measure. Results Between 1990 and 2000, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples in North America and New Zealand improved at a faster rate than the general populations, closing the gap in human development. In Australia, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples decreased while the general populations improved, widening the gap in human development. While these countries are considered to have high human development according to the UNDP, the Indigenous populations that reside within them have only medium levels of human development. Conclusion The inconsistent progress in the health and well-being of Indigenous populations over time, and relative to non-Indigenous populations, points to the need for further efforts to improve the social, economic, and physical health of Indigenous peoples. PMID:18096029

  5. Compliance, culture, and the health of Indigenous people.

    PubMed

    McConnel, F

    2003-01-01

    From the medical literature of the 70's to recent research, compliance has been named as an issue in the management of chronic disease, particularly in Indigenous contexts. Compliance can also be thought of as a universal problem that has different names in different contexts. In this paper compliance is described as a measure, with a numerator and a denominator, and progress towards better compliance is discussed in terms of manipulation of each element. The numerator is adherence, which has proven resistant to significant improvement, and the denominator is the advice and treatment, based on Western scientific medicine. Reduced to its most elemental terms, compliance compares the beliefs of patients with those of Western medicine. Proposed solutions to improve compliance have included moving to 'concordance' by reaching shared understanding of treatment goals, or forgetting compliance altogether and concentrating on institutional and organisational change to better align services with expectations of the population of interest. Indigenous Australian health care has been particularly beset with treatment failure as a result of 'poor compliance'. This paper suggests that compliance per se is not the problem. Rather, the extent to which it is apparent is a measure of dissonance between the belief systems. This gap between the culture of Western medicine and Indigenous culture should not be narrowed by the extinction of Indigenous belief, but by the development of a shared knowledge which includes Indigenous health beliefs and practices. PMID:15877497

  6. [The Development of Research Ethics Involving Indigenous People in Taiwan: A Brief Introduction].

    PubMed

    Tansikian, Tunkan; Huang, Yu-Chao

    2016-06-01

    Adhering to ethics protocols has become increasingly important in the process of doing research in Taiwan since the introduction of research-ethics mechanisms. Adhering to these protocols affects research on Taiwan's indigenous peoples due to the vulnerability of indigenous groups and to their increasing rights consciousness. The present paper explains the context of group rights from a national self-determination perspective and then discusses the current indigenous research-ethics mechanisms in Taiwan. The ethical guidelines for indigenous research in Canada, TCPS2 2014-Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans are referenced as a model for protocols that may foster positive and mutually trusting relationships between academic researchers and indigenous communities in Taiwan. PMID:27250956

  7. Structural Factors That Increase HIV/STI Vulnerability Among Indigenous People in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, E. Roberto; Alva, Isaac E.; Cárcamo, Cesar P.; García, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined structural factors—social, political, economic, and environmental—that increase vulnerability to HIV among indigenous people in the Peruvian Amazon. Indigenous adults belonging to 12 different ethnic groups were purposively recruited in four Amazonian river ports and 16 indigenous villages. Qualitative data revealed a complex set of structural factors that give rise to environments of risk where health is constantly challenged. Ferryboats that cross Amazonian rivers are settings where unprotected sex—including transactional sex between passengers and boat crew and commercial sex work—often take place. Population mobility and mixing also occurs in settings like the river docks, mining sites, and other resource extraction camps, where heavy drinking and unprotected sex work are common. Multilevel, combination prevention strategies that integrate empirically based interventions with indigenous knowledge are urgently needed, not only to reduce vulnerability to HIV transmission, but also to eliminate the structural determinants of indigenous people’s health. PMID:23925407

  8. [The Development of Research Ethics Involving Indigenous People in Taiwan: A Brief Introduction].

    PubMed

    Tansikian, Tunkan; Huang, Yu-Chao

    2016-06-01

    Adhering to ethics protocols has become increasingly important in the process of doing research in Taiwan since the introduction of research-ethics mechanisms. Adhering to these protocols affects research on Taiwan's indigenous peoples due to the vulnerability of indigenous groups and to their increasing rights consciousness. The present paper explains the context of group rights from a national self-determination perspective and then discusses the current indigenous research-ethics mechanisms in Taiwan. The ethical guidelines for indigenous research in Canada, TCPS2 2014-Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans are referenced as a model for protocols that may foster positive and mutually trusting relationships between academic researchers and indigenous communities in Taiwan.

  9. Research integrity and rights of indigenous peoples: appropriating Foucault's critique of knowledge/power.

    PubMed

    Swazo, Norman K

    2005-09-01

    In this paper I appropriate the philosophical critique of Michel Foucault as it applies to the engagement of Western science and indigenous peoples in the context of biomedical research. The science of population genetics, specifically as pursued in the Human Genome Diversity Project, is the obvious example to illustrate (a) the contraposition of modern science and 'indigenous science', (b) the tendency to depreciate and marginalize indigenous knowledge systems, and (c) the subsumption of indigenous moral preferences in the juridical armature of international human rights law. I suggest that international bioethicists may learn from Foucault's critique, specifically of the need for vigilance about the knowledge/power relation expressed by the contraposition of modern science and 'indigeneity'.

  10. Indigenous Peoples of North America: Environmental Exposures and Reproductive Justice

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Katsi; Plain, Ron; Sanchez, Kathy; Waghiyi, Vi; Miller, Pamela; Dufault, Renee; Sislin, Caitlin; Carpenter, David O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Indigenous American communities face disproportionate health burdens and environmental health risks compared with the average North American population. These health impacts are issues of both environmental and reproductive justice. Objectives: In this commentary, we review five indigenous communities in various stages of environmental health research and discuss the intersection of environmental health and reproductive justice issues in these communities as well as the limitations of legal recourse. Discussion: The health disparities impacting life expectancy and reproductive capabilities in indigenous communities are due to a combination of social, economic, and environmental factors. The system of federal environmental and Indian law is insufficient to protect indigenous communities from environmental contamination. Many communities are interested in developing appropriate research partnerships in order to discern the full impact of environmental contamination and prevent further damage. Conclusions: Continued research involving collaborative partnerships among scientific researchers, community members, and health care providers is needed to determine the impacts of this contamination and to develop approaches for remediation and policy interventions. PMID:22899635

  11. Indigenous Peoples and the United Nations: A Curriculum Project for Grades VII-XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Judith P.

    Indigenous peoples number over 200 million and constitute four percent of the world's population. They live in every part of the world and share a tragic common history: invasion of their lands and alteration of their environment, abrogation of treaties, continuing violence against their peoples, discrimination and abuse, poor health care and…

  12. Indigenous Young People in the Juvenile Justice System: 2010-11. Bulletin No. 109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kirsten; Schlumpp, Arianne

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people are substantially over-represented in the juvenile justice system in Australia, and this over-representation is highest in the most serious processes and outcomes--particularly in detention. This bulletin examines the numbers and characteristics of Indigenous young people in the juvenile justice…

  13. Incidence, aetiology, and outcomes of cancer in Indigenous peoples in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Joan; Rumbold, Alice R; Zhang, Xiaohua; Condon, John R

    2008-06-01

    An assessment of recent data on cancer in Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders) shows that, although they are less likely to have some types of cancer than other Australians, Indigenous people are significantly more likely to have cancers that have a poor prognosis, but are largely preventable, such as lung and liver cancer. Indigenous people with cancer are diagnosed at a later stage, are less likely to receive adequate treatment, and are more likely to die from their cancers than other Australians. Inadequate identification of Indigenous people in cancer registers precludes reporting for some parts of Australia, but sufficient information is available to identify priorities and inform appropriate remedial action. Health-risk factors, especially smoking, and inadequate health-system performance largely explain the patterns of cancer incidence and mortality in areas with adequate data. Effective tobacco control programmes, improvements across a range of health services, and meaningful Indigenous engagement are all needed to decrease the burden of cancer in Indigenous Australians.

  14. Happiness and Social Exclusion of Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan - A Social Sustainability Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiun-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Happiness and social inclusion are important indicators of social sustainability, as recommended in the Sustainable Development Goals; however, little is known about the social sustainable development of ethnic minorities. To fill this knowledge gap, special attention is paid to understanding the issues of social exclusion and happiness in relation to the indigenous peoples in Taiwan. Methods Data used were drawn from a nationwide representativeness survey of the Taiwanese Indigenous People in 2007; it included 2,200 respondents. This study employed binary logistic regression to examine the effects of different domains of social exclusion on the likelihood of perceiving happiness; other exogenous factors, were controlled. Results The results show that among the respondents, mountain indigenous peoples, females, the elderly and those who are healthier, wealthier, highly educated, possessing western beliefs, and are more likely to be happy, compared to their counterparts. As expected, the results reveal that the likelihood of being happy is higher for those who have received medical benefits, as well as those persons without housing problems or financial difficulties, compared to their excluded counterparts. However, no significant association is found between happiness and some social exclusion domains, such as child and youth benefits, and unemployment benefits. Conclusions The disengagement of the indigenous peoples in mainstream society, with respect to the accessibility of welfare provisions, is a crucial element in regard to social exclusion and happiness. Several policy implications for the social sustainability of indigenous peoples can be inferred from these findings. For example, providing a mobile clinical tour, on-site health counseling, or homecare service can contribute to the removal of institutional and geographic barriers to medical welfare provisions for the mountain indigenes. Moreover, the government may devote more welfare resources

  15. Historical trauma among Indigenous Peoples of the Americas: concepts, research, and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Heart, Maria Yellow Horse Brave; Chase, Josephine; Elkins, Jennifer; Altschul, Deborah B

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous Peoples of the Americas have experienced devastating collective, intergenerational massive group trauma and compounding discrimination, racism, and oppression. There is increasing evidence of emotional responses to collective trauma and losses among Indigenous Peoples, which may help to inform ways of alleviating psychological suffering and unresolved grief. Tribal cultural and regional differences exist which may impact how the wounding across generations and within an individual's lifespan are experienced and addressed. This article will review the conceptual framework of historical trauma, current efforts to measure the impact of historical trauma upon emotional distress, and research as well as clinical innovations aimed at addressing historical trauma among American Indians/Alaska Natives and other Indigenous Peoples of the Americas. We will discuss assessment of historical trauma and implications for research and clinical as well as community interventions, and conclude with recommendations.

  16. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Philippe; Vanclay, Frank; Langdon, Esther Jean; Arts, Jos

    2014-04-01

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environmental licensing procedures (IBAMA, FUNAI and others). We analyze the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure for situations involving Indigenous peoples, Maroons (Quilombolas) or other traditional communities in order to identify potential improvements for Brazil and potentially other countries. Although Brazilian procedures are consistent with international best practice in environmental licensing, in practice social impacts are inadequately addressed, mitigation measures are poorly implemented, and there is a lack of enforcement and compliance. The paper is based on document analysis and interviews with key actors in governmental and non-governmental organizations and Indigenous leaders. We suggest that Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) processes need to be conducted at the earliest stages of project planning, and that Indigenous peoples should actively participate in impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation processes. In order to achieve a social licence to operate, there needs to be full recognition of traditional knowledge and acceptance of Indigenous values and concepts. We also recommend increased involvement of social experts and mediators as well as improved accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms in the licensing process. - Highlights: • The Brazilian environmental licensing system needs to address social impacts better. • Communities need to be consulted at the earliest stage possible. • Indigenous peoples need to be invited to participate in impact assessment teams. • Independent Indigenous committees to monitor implementation of mitigation measures. • Accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms need to be

  17. [Adaptation-compensatory response in adolescents, indigenous people North of Irkutsk region].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Darenskaia, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Osipova, E V; Dolgikh, M I; Semenova, N V

    2014-01-01

    A study of pro- and antioxidant status in healthy boys and girls adolescents' representatives Tofalars and Evenks compared to Caucasians newcomers. Revealed activation of the adaptive-compensatory processes in the body young men and women, indigenous peoples of the North as compared to Caucasians alien population, which was reflected statistically significant increase in non-enzymatic components of antioxidant defense system. PMID:25272710

  18. Rangers, Mounties, and the Subjugation of Indigenous Peoples, 1870-1885

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graybill, Andrew R.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1840s and 1850s, more than 300,000 traders and overland emigrants followed the Platte and Arkansas rivers westward across the Central Plains, the winter habitat of the bison. By the mid-1870s indigenous peoples at both ends of the grasslands, in places such as the Texas Panhandle and the upper Missouri River valley, fiercely defended…

  19. The intersection of a military culture and indigenous peoples in conservation issues.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    Military operations impose various positive and negative consequences on the environment. Three case studies are presented illuminating how local indigenous peoples as stakeholders may be vulnerable to being disenfranchised from important discussions concerning military activities. The study of ecological issues associated with sustaining a military footprint may be particularly useful for informing the global debate that pits strict conservation against human well-being.

  20. Nationalism and Media Coverage of Indigenous People's Collective Action in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, Rima; Corrigall-Brown, Catherine; Ricard, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades indigenous people in Canada have mounted hundreds of collective action events such as marches, demonstrations, road blockades, and land occupations. What the general public knows about these events and their causes overwhelmingly comes from the mainstream mass media. For this reason, media coverage of these events…

  1. Privileged Biofuels, Marginalized Indigenous Peoples: The Coevolution of Biofuels Development in the Tropics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montefrio, Marvin Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels development has assumed an important role in integrating Indigenous peoples and other marginalized populations in the production of biofuels for global consumption. By combining the theories of commoditization and the environmental sociology of networks and flows, the author analyzed emerging trends and possible changes in institutions…

  2. [Adaptation-compensatory response in adolescents, indigenous people North of Irkutsk region].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Darenskaia, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Osipova, E V; Dolgikh, M I; Semenova, N V

    2014-01-01

    A study of pro- and antioxidant status in healthy boys and girls adolescents' representatives Tofalars and Evenks compared to Caucasians newcomers. Revealed activation of the adaptive-compensatory processes in the body young men and women, indigenous peoples of the North as compared to Caucasians alien population, which was reflected statistically significant increase in non-enzymatic components of antioxidant defense system.

  3. The River of Life: Sustainable Practices of Native Americans and Indigenous Peoples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Michael E.

    Examination of how Indigenous People have been forced to make adaptations from exploitation by Colonial powers for survival and explains how the resultant decision making models of Indigenous people, based on their traditions and culture, have promoted sustainable growth and development more in harmony with ecological systems. Grand Coulee Dam was built in 1942 in Washington state, destroying a major salmon fishery at Kettle Falls, thereby ending a 10,000 year lifestyle for the Colville Indians who lived on the river. This tribe and others on the Columbia River have subsequently been working to mitigate negative dam environmental impacts to restore fish and wildlife, so that they can maintain their cultural practices, and the entire region benefits from their efforts also. A key factor has been the oral traditions passed down from one generation to the next over thousands of years stressing the importance of protecting the environment for future generations Other examples are examined with other Indigenous people. The long range Indigenous goals and practices are compared versus more typical short range goals of modern economies in general.

  4. The River of Life: Sustainable Practices of Native Americans and Indigenous Peoples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Michael E.

    Examination of how Indigenous People have been forced to make adaptations from exploitation by Colonial powers for survival and explains how the resultant decision making models of Indigenous people, based on their traditions and culture, have promoted sustainable growth and development more in harmony with ecological systems. Grand Coulee Dam was built in 1942 in Washington state, destroying a major salmon fishery at Kettle Falls, thereby ending a 10,000 year lifestyle for the Colville Indians who lived on the river. This tribe and others on the Columbia River have subsequently been working to mitigate negative dam environmental impacts to restore fish and wildlife, so that they can maintain their cultural practices, and the entire region benefits from their efforts also. A key factor has been the oral traditions passed down from one generation to the next over thousands of years stressing the importance of protecting the environment for future generations Other examples are examined with other Indigenous people. The long range Indigenous goals and practices are compared versus more typical short range goals of modern economies in general.

  5. HIV Among Indigenous peoples: A Review of the Literature on HIV-Related Behaviour Since the Beginning of the Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Negin, Joel; Aspin, Clive; Gadsden, Thomas; Reading, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    From the early days of the HIV epidemic, Indigenous peoples were identified as a population group that experiences social and economic determinants-including colonialism and racism-that increase exposure to HIV. There are now substantial disparities in HIV rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in some countries. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess the evidence on HIV-related behaviors and determinants in four countries-Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States-in which Indigenous peoples share important features of colonization and marginalization. We identified 107 articles over more than 20 years. The review highlights the determinants of HIV-related behaviors including domestic violence, stigma and discrimination, and injecting drug use. Many of the factors associated with HIV risk also contribute to mistrust of health services, which in turn contributes to poor HIV and health outcomes among Indigenous peoples.

  6. Do Online Mental Health Services Improve Help-Seeking for Young People? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, Cheryl; Sanci, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Background Young people regularly use online services to seek help and look for information about mental health problems. Yet little is known about the effects that online services have on mental health and whether these services facilitate help-seeking in young people. Objective This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of online services in facilitating mental health help-seeking in young people. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, literature searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library. Out of 608 publications identified, 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria of investigating online mental health services and help-seeking in young people aged 14-25 years. Results Two qualitative, 12 cross-sectional, one quasi-experimental, and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed. There was no change in help-seeking behavior found in the RCTs, while the quasi-experimental study found a slight but significant increase in help-seeking. The cross-sectional studies reported that online services facilitated seeking help from a professional source for an average of 35% of users. The majority of the studies included small sample sizes and a high proportion of young women. Help-seeking was often a secondary outcome, with only 22% (4/18) of studies using adequate measures of help-seeking. The majority of studies identified in this review were of low quality and likely to be biased. Across all studies, young people regularly used and were generally satisfied with online mental health resources. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking were also identified. Conclusions Few studies examine the effects of online services on mental health help-seeking. Further research is needed to determine whether online mental health services effectively facilitate help-seeking for young people. PMID:24594922

  7. Impact of residential schooling and of child abuse on substance use problem in Indigenous Peoples.

    PubMed

    Ross, Amélie; Dion, Jacinthe; Cantinotti, Michael; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Paquette, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Residential schools were the institutions, in operation from the 19th century to the late 20th century, which Indigenous children in Canada were forced to attend. The literature shows that many young people who attended these institutions were victims of neglect and abuse. Negative psychological effects resulting from child abuse have been amply documented. However, very few studies on this subject have been carried out among Canada's Indigenous Peoples. The objective of this study is to evaluate, for an Indigenous population in Quebec (Canada), the impact of residential schooling as well as self-reported experiences of sexual and physical abuse during childhood on the development of alcohol and drug use problems in adulthood. A total of 358 Indigenous participants were interviewed (164 men [45.8%] and 194 women [54.2%]). Alcoholism was evaluated using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST). Drug abuse was assessed with the Drug Abuse Screening Test-20 (DAST). Child abuse and residential schooling were assessed with dichotomous questions (yes/no). Among the participants, 28.5% (n=102) had attended residential schools, 35.2% (n=121) reported having experienced sexual abuse, and 34.1% (n=117) reported having experienced physical abuse before adulthood. Results of the exact logistic regression analyses indicated that residential school attendance was linked to alcohol problems, while child abuse was related to drug use problems. The results of this study highlight the importance of considering the consequences of historical traumas related to residential schools to better understand the current situation of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. PMID:26280378

  8. Impact of residential schooling and of child abuse on substance use problem in Indigenous Peoples.

    PubMed

    Ross, Amélie; Dion, Jacinthe; Cantinotti, Michael; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Paquette, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Residential schools were the institutions, in operation from the 19th century to the late 20th century, which Indigenous children in Canada were forced to attend. The literature shows that many young people who attended these institutions were victims of neglect and abuse. Negative psychological effects resulting from child abuse have been amply documented. However, very few studies on this subject have been carried out among Canada's Indigenous Peoples. The objective of this study is to evaluate, for an Indigenous population in Quebec (Canada), the impact of residential schooling as well as self-reported experiences of sexual and physical abuse during childhood on the development of alcohol and drug use problems in adulthood. A total of 358 Indigenous participants were interviewed (164 men [45.8%] and 194 women [54.2%]). Alcoholism was evaluated using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST). Drug abuse was assessed with the Drug Abuse Screening Test-20 (DAST). Child abuse and residential schooling were assessed with dichotomous questions (yes/no). Among the participants, 28.5% (n=102) had attended residential schools, 35.2% (n=121) reported having experienced sexual abuse, and 34.1% (n=117) reported having experienced physical abuse before adulthood. Results of the exact logistic regression analyses indicated that residential school attendance was linked to alcohol problems, while child abuse was related to drug use problems. The results of this study highlight the importance of considering the consequences of historical traumas related to residential schools to better understand the current situation of Indigenous Peoples in Canada.

  9. [Health, globalization and interculturalism: an anthropological approach to the situation of indigenous peoples in South America].

    PubMed

    Hita, Susana Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    This article reflects upon the impact of globalization and interculturalism on the living conditions of indigenous peoples in South America. Through two examples - Bolivia and Argentina - it is seen how health interculturalism has transformed into a discourse and a practice that both global organizations and most Latin American countries have used to assimilate and attract indigenous communities. Traditional medicine is respected and valued without proposing changes to improve the living conditions of these population groups. This is especially true in those areas where land is being expropriated or contaminated with the extraction of gas, oil, minerals and the construction of dams, along with indiscriminate deforestation of the rainforest. Health/illness cannot be separated from the territorial conditions of these peoples since environmental health is critical for their survival. PMID:25272115

  10. [Health, globalization and interculturalism: an anthropological approach to the situation of indigenous peoples in South America].

    PubMed

    Hita, Susana Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    This article reflects upon the impact of globalization and interculturalism on the living conditions of indigenous peoples in South America. Through two examples - Bolivia and Argentina - it is seen how health interculturalism has transformed into a discourse and a practice that both global organizations and most Latin American countries have used to assimilate and attract indigenous communities. Traditional medicine is respected and valued without proposing changes to improve the living conditions of these population groups. This is especially true in those areas where land is being expropriated or contaminated with the extraction of gas, oil, minerals and the construction of dams, along with indiscriminate deforestation of the rainforest. Health/illness cannot be separated from the territorial conditions of these peoples since environmental health is critical for their survival.

  11. Ecocultural effects on self-concept. A study with young indigenous people from different sociodemographic contexts.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Guitart, Moisès; Borke, Jörn; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar

    2015-08-01

    This study explores self-concept among indigenous young people from different ecocultural niches in Chiapas (Mexico) through a particular self-concept task. Previous theory and research has described 3 cultural models linked with specific sociodemographic settings that foster particular psychologies. Our aim was to compare the results of the self-concept test among indigenous groups from different sociodemographic settings in order to observed possible differences. We predicted that individuals from rural communities with little formal education (hypothesised to be Interdependent) would have self-concepts with more social and less personal components than would those with an urban, highly educated (hypothesised to be Independent), and we expected a third group of highly educated young people living in an urban context but with a rural background (hypothesised to be autonomous-related group) to value social and personal components equally. The results supported this hypothesis. Based on ecocultural theory, it is suggested that sociodemographic contexts affect the self-concept.

  12. Exploring Indigenous Mental Health Practices: The Roles of Healers and Helpers in Promoting Well-Being in People of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Myers, Linda James; Kindaichi, Mai; Moore, James L., III

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an extensive literature review and discuss the cultural relevance of indigenous healing practices in promoting psychological, physical, and spiritual well-being in people of color. Suggestions are also presented for ways counselors might work with indigenous healing resources to promote the well-being of people…

  13. Indigenous People in a Landscape of Risk: Teaching Social Work Students about Socially Just Social Work Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Hilary; Congress, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The need for social justice in social work practice is particularly apparent in work with indigenous populations. In spite of the social work profession's commitment to social justice, social workers have often done significant harm in their work with indigenous peoples. Social work educators are ideally positioned to close this gap between social…

  14. "Don't Take Our Voices Away": A Role Play on the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Julie Treick; Swinehart, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The Indigenous Peoples' Climate Summit role play grew out of the Portland Area Rethinking Schools Earth in Crisis Curriculum Workgroup and the Oregon Writing Project. It was designed to introduce students to the broad injustice of the climate crisis and to familiarize them with some of the specific issues faced by different indigenous groups…

  15. The intersection of a military culture and indigenous peoples in conservation issues

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Military operations impose various positive and negative consequences on the environment. Three case studies are presented illuminating how local indigenous peoples as stakeholders may be vulnerable to being disenfranchised from important discussions concerning military activities. The study of ecological issues associated with sustaining a military footprint may be particularly useful for informing the global debate that pits strict conservation against human well-being. PMID:24567778

  16. Recognising Change and Seeking Affirmation: Themes for Embedding Indigenous Knowledges on Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Juliana M.; Whatman, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    The imperative for Indigenous education in Australia is influenced by national political, social and economic discourses as Australian education systems continue to grapple with an agreed aspiration of full participation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Innovations within and policies guiding our education systems are often…

  17. Seeing white: a critical exploration of occupational therapy with Indigenous Australian people.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Alison

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to critique current occupational therapy practice and theory using Indigenous Australian people as a case example. Critical race theory will be used to help question the privileged position of an occupational therapist from a dominant Westernized culture. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 (eight female and seven male) Indigenous Australian young people about their perspectives of health and physical activity. In addition, the Kawa model was used as an alternative data-collection tool and detailed field notes and researcher reflections were used as data sources. Preliminary analysis of data is used to illustrate the ways in which critical race theory can inform occupational therapy practitioners and researchers about the ways Indigenous Australian young people view their health. Methodological dilemmas are also discussed. The paper is based on preliminary findings and further analysis needs to continue. Cross-cultural research is inherently complex but can offer those from the dominant culture valuable insights into their taken-for-granted assumptions. Further use of critical race theory may prove useful as the occupational therapy profession continues to evolve its understanding of cultural safety. PMID:17973335

  18. [Health and indigenous peoples in Brazil: the challenge of professional training and continuing education of workers in intercultural contexts].

    PubMed

    Diehl, Eliana Elisabeth; Pellegrini, Marcos Antonio

    2014-04-01

    This article discusses training and continuing medical education for indigenous health workers and health professionals in indigenous health under the guidelines of the Brazilian National Healthcare Policy for Indigenous Peoples, which is currently behind schedule and incomplete as part of the official government agenda. Based on inter-sector proposals for health training by the Ministries of Health and Education, the article highlights the case of indigenous healthcare, emphasizing that government initiatives in this area still need to incorporate the concept of continuing education, a powerful tool for fostering intercultural dialogue and orienting health practices. PMID:24896062

  19. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  20. Ethical problems in health research with indigenous or originary peoples in Peru.

    PubMed

    Minaya, Gabriela; Roque, Joel

    2015-07-01

    The varied, abrupt and amazing geography of the land of Peru is home of one of the major concentrations of indigenous peoples in the world. The asymmetry of power, however, in their relationship with the rest of society and the State is still very evident in their social exclusion, their gap in social and economic development, barriers in their access to health services as well as their marginalization and exploitation as subjects of health research. In this paper, we analyse two cases of research on indigenous populations in Peru, discuss them from the point of view of bioethics and reflect on important issues for researchers, research participants and the society, such as the need to respect different cultures, the need that the research being done is relevant to the needs of the population in which it is conducted and the necessity to empower indigenous communities in participatory research, to strengthen the institutions and to protect human rights, namely through ethics committees for research and the free, informed and meaningful informed consent. This approach should foster quality research, while at the same time fully respecting human rights and bioethics. We cannot forget that advancements in genetics, throughout the world, are very much in debt to indigenous populations.

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Help-Seeking Intentions in Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Coralie Joy; Rickwood, Debra; Deane, Frank Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Whether the help-negation effect as demonstrated for suicidal thoughts was also evident for depressive symptoms was investigated in three studies of young people from diverse urban areas. The studies involved a large sample of younger high school students (years 7-10), a sample of older high school students (years 8-12), and first year university…

  2. Cooperatives for “fair globalization”? Indigenous people, cooperatives, and corporate social responsibility in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Burke, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Cooperatives and socially responsible corporations are being hailed as possible correctives to the socioeconomic and ecological exploitation of transnational capitalism. AmazonCoop—a cooperative linking indigenous Brazil nut harvesters and the multinational firm The Body Shop through trade and development projects—capitalized on indigenous symbolism to generate significant material benefits for both parties. At the same time, however, it made indigenous people more vulnerable and dependent, failed to promote participatory development, masked the effects of unfavorable state policies, and perpetuated discriminatory distinctions among indigenous people. Furthermore, the cooperative did not provide an organizational framework to ameliorate the vulnerabilities of indigenous identity politics or transform symbolic capital into enduring political-economic change. This case strongly supports arguments that cooperatives must be rooted in participation, democratic member control, and autonomy if they are to promote “fair globalization” or social transformation rather than institutionalize existing patterns of exploitation.

  3. Indigenous Autoethnography: Formulating Our Knowledge, Our Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to engage the cultural interface where Indigenous knowledge meets Western academia, by questioning the validity of traditional research methods. Firstly, it is a response to the challenges facing Indigenous people confronted with the ethical and methodological issues arising from academic research. Secondly, it is a journey "into"…

  4. Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescents and young adults frequently experience mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. This systematic review aims to summarise reported barriers and facilitators of help-seeking in young people using both qualitative research from surveys, focus groups, and interviews and quantitative data from published surveys. It extends previous reviews through its systematic research methodology and by the inclusion of published studies describing what young people themselves perceive are the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Methods Twenty two published studies of perceived barriers or facilitators in adolescents or young adults were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the results reported in the qualitative literature and quantitative literature. Results Fifteen qualitative and seven quantitative studies were identified. Young people perceived stigma and embarrassment, problems recognising symptoms (poor mental health literacy), and a preference for self-reliance as the most important barriers to help-seeking. Facilitators were comparatively under-researched. However, there was evidence that young people perceived positive past experiences, and social support and encouragement from others as aids to the help-seeking process. Conclusions Strategies for improving help-seeking by adolescents and young adults should focus on improving mental health literacy, reducing stigma, and taking into account the desire of young people for self-reliance. PMID:21192795

  5. Mycotoxins and cyanogenic glycosides in staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the incidence and levels of mycotoxins in the main staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon. A total of 20 corn, 24 rice and 59 cassava samples were analysed by a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method covering the major classes of mycotoxins. In addition, cassava samples were also analysed for cyanogenic glycosides. The indigenous Amazon communities tested are exposed to potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins (particularly aflatoxins), as well as other mycotoxins, mainly through the intake of locally grown corn. Citrinin content in this corn was unusually high and has not been reported elsewhere. Two cassava samples contained high levels of cyanogenic glycosides. It is strongly recommended not to grow corn in the Amazon but instead purchase it from vendors capable of guaranteeing mycotoxin levels below the maximum allowable concentration in Colombia.

  6. The Information-Seeking Practices of Engineers: Searching for Documents as Well as for People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzum, Morten; Pejtersen, Annelise Mark

    2000-01-01

    Investigates engineers' information-seeking practices based on case studies in two organizations. Results show engineers search for documents to find people, search for people to get documents, and interact socially to get information without engaging in explicit searches. Discusses the design task and how computer systems could support searches…

  7. Observations on the State of Indigenous Human Rights in Light of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cultural Survival, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Since the ascent of King Mohammed VI in 1999, Morocco has made strides to recognize the rights of its Amazigh (Berber) population. But the pace of progress is far too slow. One significant problem is the government's unwillingness to recognize the Amazigh as an indigenous people, which in turn undermines the Amazigh's ability to participate in…

  8. Indigenous Education around the World. Workshop Papers from the World Indigenous People's Conference: Education (Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 15-22, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray, Comp.

    This proceedings contains 35 reports, presentations, and workshop summaries from the fourth triennial World Indigenous People's Conference: Education, held in June 1996. The papers are organized around six broad headings: research papers and reports, tertiary program descriptions, teacher education, community initiatives, language, and health…

  9. Observations on the State of Indigenous Human Rights in Light of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cultural Survival, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Japan has taken legislative and symbolic steps to recognize the Ainu as an indigenous people and to eliminate state-sanctioned racial discrimination. But the Ainu still experience discrimination from other sectors of society as a result of Japan's mono-cultural national identity, and the lack of judicial remedies to respond…

  10. Can We Move beyond "Indigenous Good, Non-Indigenous Bad" in Thinking about People and the Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Bucknell & Mannion (2007) commented that student responses in the 2006 VCE Outdoor and Environmental Studies (OES) exam could be boiled down to the simple formula of "Indigenous good, non-Indigenous bad" (p. 8). They suggest that the subject of OES is to rich for such pat answers. This paper uses this formula of "Indigenous…

  11. Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity, and Indigenous Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. Methodology/Principal Findings We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or “blocks” that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover ∼688,000 km2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. Conclusions/Significance Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories. PMID:18716679

  12. Cadmium in arctic Alaska wildlife: Kidney and liver residues and potential exposure in indigenous people

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, T.; Fairbrother, A.; Becker, P.; Tarpley, R.

    1995-12-31

    In arctic Alaska, cadmium (Cd) levels are of concern in kidney and liver of terrestrial and marine mammals including: bowhead whale, beluga whale, walrus, caribou, and ringed seal. Cd levels in some animals exceed threshold criteria in kidney for renal dysfunction and other effects, tolerance levels for human consumption (liver = 1 ppm, kidney = 3 ppm), and WHO weekly intake limits (500 ug Cd/week). An assessment of risk to indigenous people and to wildlife populations, will be presented. Cigarette smoking is another major source of Cd to be considered. Reports from Greenland have concluded a health risk from Cd exposure from marine dietary sources and smoking exist for these residents. Bowhead whale kidney and walrus kidney and liver represent major dietary sources of Cd (blubber and meat have very little Cd). Followed by: ringed seal liver (kidney data not available), beluga whale liver and kidney, and caribou kidney. Small portions of bowhead and walrus kidney (< 10g/week) exceed weekly intake levels. Age positively correlates with Cd levels in kidney indicating that avoiding older (larger) animals would reduce exposure. Adverse effects of Cd in wildlife were not grossly evident, however, with no historic data, it is difficult to determine if tissue concentrations are elevated. Harvest of wildlife is important to many arctic people for nutritional and cultural survival. Assessing risks associated with contaminants is essential for the wellbeing of indigenous people and wildlife. The nutritional value of the local resources and the potential inadequate alternatives must be considered.

  13. Trust, Autonomy and Relationships: The Help-Seeking Preferences of Young People in Secondary Level Schools in London (UK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavey, Gerard; Rothi, Despina; Paul, Rini

    2011-01-01

    Help-seeking among young people is complicated, often determined vicariously by the ability of adults, family or professionals, to recognize, and respond to, their difficulties. We know very little about the complex concerns of teenage young people and how they impact on help-seeking preferences. We aimed to ascertain the help-seeking preferences…

  14. The forsaken mental health of the Indigenous Peoples - a moral case of outrageous exclusion in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental health is neglected in most parts of the world. For the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America, the plight is even more severe as there are no specific mental health services designed for them altogether. Given the high importance of mental health for general health, the status quo is unacceptable. Lack of research on the subject of Indigenous Peoples' mental health means that statistics are virtually unavailable. To illustrate their mental health status, one can nonetheless point to the high rates of poverty and extreme poverty in their communities, overcrowded housing, illiteracy, and lack of basic sanitary services such as water, electricity and sewage. At the dawn of the XXI century, they remain poor, powerless, and voiceless. They remain severely excluded from mainstream society despite being the first inhabitants of this continent and being an estimated of 48 million people. This paper comments, specifically, on the limited impact of the Pan American Health Organization's mental health initiative on the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America. Discussion The Pan American Health Organization's sponsored workshop "Programas y Servicios de Salud Mental en Communidades Indígenas" [Mental Health Programs and Services for the Indigenous Communities] in the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia on July16 - 18, 1998, appeared promising. However, eleven years later, no specific mental health program has been designed nor developed for the Indigenous Peoples in Latin America. This paper makes four specific recommendations for improvements in the approach of the Pan American Health Organization: (1) focus activities on what can be done; (2) build partnerships with the Indigenous Peoples; (3) consider traditional healers as essential partners in any mental health effort; and (4) conduct basic research on the mental health status of the Indigenous Peoples prior to the programming of any mental health service. Summary The persistent neglect of the Indigenous Peoples

  15. Reexamining the Underrepresentation of Indigenous Peoples in Astronomy: A Hawaiian Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-08-01

    As we look toward a future of ever increasing challenges in astronomy, there is widespread consensus that solutions depend on expanding human capitol. While we contemplate pathways to increase astronomy/STEM capacity across multinational settings, we are theoretically hindered by our failure to fully develop the capacity of ethnic and racial groups. Indigenous peoples continue to be underrepresented in astronomy at one-sixth of their share of the total U.S. population, despite investment of substantial resources from the public and private sectors. At the extreme, Native Hawaiians participate in astronomy at rates that are almost incalculably low. This 14-year case study of astronomy in the Hawaiian context suggests that national efforts (e.g. standards-based reform and agency-funded education and public outreach) have been, and are likely to continue to be, ineffective, as these efforts do not address the source of the problem. An examination of K-12, informal science, and "broader impacts" settings in Hawai'i, suggest that the disparity is ultimately rooted in a failure of relationships. Research across these settings indicates that many current common-sense efforts fail to transmit across cultures, and that effective efforts must primarily foster authentic trust and respect between Western and Indigenous perspective-holders. Specifically, findings suggest that much of our failure has been a result of human resource decisions. Although extensive research on effective practices at the indigenous/mainstream culture interface suggests that appropriate “bridge” persons are essential to creating authentic trust and respect between groups, in the Hawaiian context, we have often failed to do the work required to employ and empower “bridge” people. With critical examination of best- and worst-practices, this session focuses on immediate actions that can be taken to positively impact diverse participation in astronomy.

  16. Benefits and risks of traditional food for Indigenous Peoples: focus on dietary intakes of Arctic men.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, H V

    1995-06-01

    A variety of community and external pressures on Indigenous Peoples are leading to increased use of food that is available through industrialization and market economics; food in traditional food systems derived from local, natural environments is declining in use. This report focusses on dietary intake of Arctic men. While nutrient density of Arctic traditional food systems is superior to that of the composite of market food consumed in the North, the percentage of men's daily energy derived from market food is more than double that from traditional food in some communities. Older members of communities consume more traditional food than younger members; men consume more traditional food than do women. In addition to providing excellent nutrition and opportunities for physical exercise. Indigenous Peoples identify many sociocultural benefits to the harvest and use of traditional food. Evaluation of environmental accumulation of organochlorines in wildlife animal food species shows that risk of organochlorine consumption is higher in food systems containing sea mammals, and that tolerance levels for some organochlorines may be exceeded. PMID:7585351

  17. One little, too little: Counting Canada's indigenous people for improved health reporting.

    PubMed

    Elias, Brenda; Busby, Karen; Martens, Pat

    2015-08-01

    The way state governments, worldwide, count or do not count Indigenous peoples has contributed to inconsistent reporting of Indigenous health statistics. To address unreliable reporting in Canada, we reviewed laws on Indian status and the development of a national Indian Registration System (IRS) to track Indian status and eligibility. With this information as a guide, we linked the IRS to the Manitoba provincial health registry systems and were able to identify individuals with Indian status for health reporting. To improve reporting, we identified individuals often missed in this type of linkage. For instance, we identified children and adult children who were eligible for Indian status but not yet registered. Equally as important, we identified individuals not eligible for Indian status but have Indian heritage and/or represent potential individual Indian status eligibility cases before the courts to right a historic form of identity sex discrimination that has made them invisible in Canadian society and health reporting. A familial kinship approach was used to identify Indian children and adult children typically missed when a strict legal entitlement criteria is used for data linkage. Our reflective socio-legal data linkage approach expanded the number of Indian peoples for health reporting purposes and demonstrated a feasible, inclusive way to report on the health of Indians in Canada.

  18. Phylogeography of Camassia quamash in western North America: postglacial colonization and transport by indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Tomimatsu, Hiroshi; Kephart, Susan R; Vellend, Mark

    2009-09-01

    Recent human activities have spread numerous plant species across the globe, yet it is unclear to what degree historical human activities influenced plant dispersal. In western North America, Camassia quamash was one of the most important food plants for indigenous peoples, who transported its propagules either intentionally or accidentally. We investigated how human and natural dispersal might have contributed to the current pattern of spatial genetic structure in C. quamash by performing phylogeographical surveys at two geographical scales. We sequenced two noncoding regions of chloroplast deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in 226 individuals from 53 populations of C. quamash as well as 126 individuals from 21 populations of the non-food plant Zigadenus venenosus. Contrary to the expectation of anthropogenic transport, C. quamash populations did not exhibit weaker genetic structure than Z. venenosus populations. We also failed to find convincing evidence for signatures of transport. Instead, our data showed strong effects of past glaciation and geographical barriers of the mountains in the Cascade Range, Olympic Peninsula and Vancouver Island. West of the Cascades, the species appears to have largely migrated northward from a southern refugium after deglaciation, whereas few populations having a highly divergent haplotype might have survived in southwestern Washington. Our data suggest that despite substantial ethnobotanical evidence for anthropogenic transport, the current pattern of genetic structure of C. quamash does not show any detectable signatures of transport by indigenous peoples and is better understood as the result of natural dispersal processes. PMID:19732332

  19. Ecocultural effects on self-concept. A study with young indigenous people from different sociodemographic contexts.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Guitart, Moisès; Borke, Jörn; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar

    2015-08-01

    This study explores self-concept among indigenous young people from different ecocultural niches in Chiapas (Mexico) through a particular self-concept task. Previous theory and research has described 3 cultural models linked with specific sociodemographic settings that foster particular psychologies. Our aim was to compare the results of the self-concept test among indigenous groups from different sociodemographic settings in order to observed possible differences. We predicted that individuals from rural communities with little formal education (hypothesised to be Interdependent) would have self-concepts with more social and less personal components than would those with an urban, highly educated (hypothesised to be Independent), and we expected a third group of highly educated young people living in an urban context but with a rural background (hypothesised to be autonomous-related group) to value social and personal components equally. The results supported this hypothesis. Based on ecocultural theory, it is suggested that sociodemographic contexts affect the self-concept. PMID:25354051

  20. One little, too little: Counting Canada's indigenous people for improved health reporting.

    PubMed

    Elias, Brenda; Busby, Karen; Martens, Pat

    2015-08-01

    The way state governments, worldwide, count or do not count Indigenous peoples has contributed to inconsistent reporting of Indigenous health statistics. To address unreliable reporting in Canada, we reviewed laws on Indian status and the development of a national Indian Registration System (IRS) to track Indian status and eligibility. With this information as a guide, we linked the IRS to the Manitoba provincial health registry systems and were able to identify individuals with Indian status for health reporting. To improve reporting, we identified individuals often missed in this type of linkage. For instance, we identified children and adult children who were eligible for Indian status but not yet registered. Equally as important, we identified individuals not eligible for Indian status but have Indian heritage and/or represent potential individual Indian status eligibility cases before the courts to right a historic form of identity sex discrimination that has made them invisible in Canadian society and health reporting. A familial kinship approach was used to identify Indian children and adult children typically missed when a strict legal entitlement criteria is used for data linkage. Our reflective socio-legal data linkage approach expanded the number of Indian peoples for health reporting purposes and demonstrated a feasible, inclusive way to report on the health of Indians in Canada. PMID:26112164

  1. Phylogeography of Camassia quamash in western North America: postglacial colonization and transport by indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Tomimatsu, Hiroshi; Kephart, Susan R; Vellend, Mark

    2009-09-01

    Recent human activities have spread numerous plant species across the globe, yet it is unclear to what degree historical human activities influenced plant dispersal. In western North America, Camassia quamash was one of the most important food plants for indigenous peoples, who transported its propagules either intentionally or accidentally. We investigated how human and natural dispersal might have contributed to the current pattern of spatial genetic structure in C. quamash by performing phylogeographical surveys at two geographical scales. We sequenced two noncoding regions of chloroplast deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in 226 individuals from 53 populations of C. quamash as well as 126 individuals from 21 populations of the non-food plant Zigadenus venenosus. Contrary to the expectation of anthropogenic transport, C. quamash populations did not exhibit weaker genetic structure than Z. venenosus populations. We also failed to find convincing evidence for signatures of transport. Instead, our data showed strong effects of past glaciation and geographical barriers of the mountains in the Cascade Range, Olympic Peninsula and Vancouver Island. West of the Cascades, the species appears to have largely migrated northward from a southern refugium after deglaciation, whereas few populations having a highly divergent haplotype might have survived in southwestern Washington. Our data suggest that despite substantial ethnobotanical evidence for anthropogenic transport, the current pattern of genetic structure of C. quamash does not show any detectable signatures of transport by indigenous peoples and is better understood as the result of natural dispersal processes.

  2. Understanding the Online Information-Seeking Behaviours of Young People: The Role of Networks of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, R.; Malmberg, L.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Information seeking is one of the most popular online activities for young people and can provide an additional information channel, which may enhance learning. In this study, we propose and test a model that adds to the existing literature by examining the ways in which parents, schools, and friends (what we call networks of support) effect young…

  3. Young People and the Learning Partnerships Program: Shifting Negative Attitudes to Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…

  4. Effects of individual resilience intervention on indigenous people who experienced Typhoon Morkot in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Su-Fen; Cheng, Chi-Wei; Hsieh, Wen-Chung; Chi, Meng-Chun; Lin, Szu-Ju; Liao, Yi-Ting

    2012-02-01

    In 2009, Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan and caused serious harm to the indigenous peoples living in the southern mountainous regions. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of and the factors involved in individual resilience intervention of typhoon victims. Quantitative research was performed from October 2009 through September 2010. Purposive sampling yielded 77 indigenous persons who were willing to serve as participants in this study. These participants all maintained legal or actual residence in the areas of Kaohsiung that were affected by the typhoon. An individual resilience intervention program was implemented. The findings show the following: (1) after completing the individual resilience intervention program, the participants had higher individual resilience scores than before participating in the intervention program; and (2) individual resilience scores were significantly affected by residency after the typhoon. These findings suggest that an individual resilience intervention program is a useful approach that can be used to enhance the individual resilience of a victim and that professionals should pay more attention to victims who have to leave their hometowns after disasters.

  5. [A Reflection on the Policy of Transcultural Long-Term Care for the Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Subeq, Yi-Maun; Hsu, Mutsu

    2016-06-01

    Giving high-profile attention to socio-cultural and traditional beliefs in the promotion of long-term care policies enjoys strong, consensus support in the field of transcultural nursing. To protect the rights of indigenous people in Taiwan, the Ministry of Health and Welfare incorporated the concept of cultural care into the Long-term Care Services Act, which was approved by the Legislature in May 2014. However, the policies, resource strategies, manpower allocations, and staff educations and trainings related to this act are still await implementation in indigenous areas. Beyond the concept of professional healthcare, which considers cultural sensitivity, suitability, and ability, cultural care gives greater priority to crossing cultural barriers, integrating with the lifestyle of clients, and addressing their concerns in order to improve the well-being of target populations. The present article reviews current long-term care policy to highlight the importance of considering the cultural needs of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan in order to enhance the efficiency and impact of long-term care programs. Furthermore, the findings strongly recommend that additional resources be provided in order to meet the long-term care needs of indigenous communities. Finally, cultural-specific, long-term care service strategies should be promulgated in order to upgrade well-being in order to ease and comfort the feelings of indigenous people. PMID:27250953

  6. [Health inequality among vulnerable groups in Mexico: older adults, indigenous people, and migrants].

    PubMed

    Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Salgado de Snyder, Nelly; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Ruelas-González, María Guadalupe; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    2014-04-01

    Health vulnerability refers to a lack of protection for specific population groups with specific health problems, as well as the disadvantages they face in solving them in comparison with other population groups. This major public health problem has multiple and diverse causes, including a shortage of trained health care personnel and the lack of family, social, economic, and institutional support in obtaining care and minimizing health risks. Health vulnerability is a dynamic condition arising from the confluence of multiple social determinants. This article attempts to describe the health situation of three vulnerable groups in Mexico-older adults, indigenous people, and migrants-and, after defining the needs of each, explore measures that could contribute to the design and implementation of public health policies better tailored to their respective needs.

  7. Vecinos y Rehabilitation (Phase III): Assessing the Needs and Resources of Indigenous People with Disabilities in the Sierre Mixe. Final Report. [English Version].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine A.; Gotto, George S., IV

    Since 1994, the American Indian Rehabilitation Research and Training Center has been sharing successful research strategies related to disabilities and rehabilitation with indigenous people in Oaxaca, Mexico. Its first two projects identified the needs of indigenous people with disabilities in three geographic regions of Oaxaca and worked with a…

  8. Indigenous Peoples in Modern Nation-States. Proceedings from an International Workshop (Tromso, Norway, October 13-16, 1997). Occasional Papers Series A, No. 90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saugestad, Sidsel, Ed.

    The relationship between indigenous peoples and nation-states has long been of academic interest, and is also an emerging topic in the international debate about human rights and development. Universities and museums play an important part in this debate as producers, managers, and communicators of knowledge about indigenous peoples. In these…

  9. Educacion y Pueblos Indigenas en Centroamerica: Un Balance Critico (Education and Indigenous People in Central America: A Critical Balance).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadio, Massimo, Comp.; And Others

    Global society is polarized between the modern capitalist sector and the marginal sector, which is composed of indigenous, poor, and ethnic, tribal people. The problems of education for groups in Latin America, key issues in planning to meet their needs, and strategies to resolve them, are the focus of this publication. Nine papers provide a…

  10. Growing the Desert: Educational Pathways for Remote Indigenous People. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Metta; Guenther, John; Boyle, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    This report maps the picture of Indigenous people's participation in vocational education and training and other educational services across Australia's desert regions. The report identifies a range of innovations and barriers experienced in enabling pathways through learning into work and other meaningful livelihood opportunities. (Contains 6…

  11. For a Sustainable Future: Indigenous Transborder Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quijada, Adrian; Cassadore, Edison; Perry, Gaye Bumsted; Geronimo, Ronald; Lund, Kimberley; Miguel, Phillip; Montes-Helu, Mario; Newberry, Teresa; Robertson, Paul; Thornbrugh, Casey

    2015-01-01

    The U.S.-Mexico border region of the Sonoran Desert is home to 30 Native nations in the United States, and about 15 Indigenous communities in Mexico. Imposed on Indigenous peoples' ancestral lands, the border is an artificial line created in 1848, following the war between the U.S. and Mexico. Tohono O'odham Community College (TOCC) seeks to…

  12. A systematic review of suicide prevention interventions targeting indigenous peoples in Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand experience disproportionately high rates of suicide. As such, the methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting these Indigenous populations should be rigorously examined, in order to determine the extent to which they are effective for reducing rates of Indigenous suicide and suicidal behaviours. This systematic review aims to: 1) identify published evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting Indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand; 2) critique their methodological quality; and 3) describe their main characteristics. Methods A systematic search of 17 electronic databases and 13 websites for the period 1981–2012 (inclusive) was undertaken. The reference lists of reviews of suicide prevention interventions were hand-searched for additional relevant studies not identified by the electronic and web search. The methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions was assessed using a standardised assessment tool. Results Nine evaluations of suicide prevention interventions were identified: five targeting Native Americans; three targeting Aboriginal Australians; and one First Nation Canadians. The main intervention strategies employed included: Community Prevention, Gatekeeper Training, and Education. Only three of the nine evaluations measured changes in rates of suicide or suicidal behaviour, all of which reported significant improvements. The methodological quality of evaluations was variable. Particular problems included weak study designs, reliance on self-report measures, highly variable consent and follow-up rates, and the absence of economic or cost analyses. Conclusions There is an urgent need for an increase in the number of evaluations of preventive interventions targeting reductions in Indigenous suicide using methodologically rigorous study designs across geographically

  13. The potential influence of KIR cluster profiles on disease patterns of Canadian Aboriginals and other indigenous peoples of the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Julia D; Hawkins, Kim; Lande, Erin; Nickerson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Genetic differences in immune regulators influence disease resistance and susceptibility patterns. There are major health discrepancies in immune-mediated diseases between Caucasians and Canadian Aboriginal people, as well as with other indigenous people of the Americas. Environmental factors offer a limited explanation as Aboriginal people also demonstrate a rare resistance to chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are known modulators of viral responses and autoimmune diseases. The possibility that variation in KIR cluster profiles contribute to the health outcomes of Aboriginal people was evaluated with Canadian Caucasian (n=93, population controls) and Aboriginal (n=86) individuals. Relative to Caucasians, the Aboriginal KIR cluster displayed a greater immune activating phenotype associated with genes of the B haplotype situated within the telomeric region. In conjunction, there was a decrease in the genes of the B haplotype from the centromeric region. Caucasian and Aboriginal cohorts further demonstrated distinct genotype and haplotype relationships enforcing the disconnect between the B haplotype centromeric and telomeric regions within the Aboriginal population. Moreover, Caucasian KIR cluster patterns reflected studies of Caucasians globally, as well as Asians. In contrast, the unique pattern of the Canadian Aboriginal cohort mirrored the phenotype of other indigenous peoples of the Americas, but not that of Caucasians or Asians. Taken together, these data suggest that historically indigenous peoples of the Americas were subject to immune selection processes that could be influencing the current disease resistance and susceptibility patterns of their descendents. PMID:21731058

  14. Questions of Khoesan continuity: dental affinities among the indigenous Holocene peoples of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Irish, Joel D; Black, Wendy; Sealy, Judith; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers

    2014-09-01

    The present report follows up on the findings of previous research, including recent bioarchaeological study of well-dated Khoesan skeletal remains, that posits long term biological continuity among the indigenous peoples of South Africa after the Pleistocene. The Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System was used to record key crown, root, and intraoral osseous nonmetric traits in six early-through-late Holocene samples from the Cape coasts. Based on these data, phenetic affinities and an identification of traits most important in driving intersample variation were determined using principal components analysis and the mean measure of divergence distance statistic. To expand biological affinity comparisons into more recent times, and thus preliminarily assess the dental impact of disproportionate non-Khoesan gene flow into local peoples, dental data from historic Khoekhoe and San were also included. Results from the prehistoric comparisons are supportive of population continuity, though a sample from Matjes River Rockshelter exhibits slight phenetic distance from other early samples. This and some insignificant regional divergence among these coastal samples may be related to environmental and cultural factors that drove low-level reproductive isolation. Finally, a close affinity of historic San to all samples, and a significant difference of Khoekhoe from most early samples is reflective of documented population history following immigration of Bantu-speakers and, later, Europeans into South Africa.

  15. Learning from the past: young Indigenous people's accounts of blood-borne viral and sexually transmitted infections as resilience narratives.

    PubMed

    Mooney-Somers, Julie; Olsen, Anna; Erick, Wani; Scott, Robert; Akee, Angie; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

    2011-02-01

    The Indigenous Resilience Project is an Australian community-based participatory research project using qualitative methods to explore young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people's views of blood-borne viral and sexually transmitted infections (BBV/STI) affecting their communities. In this paper we present an analysis of narratives from young people who had a previous BBV/STI diagnosis to explore how they actively negotiate the experience of BBV/STI infection to construct a classic resilience narrative. We examine two overarching themes: first, the context of infection and diagnosis, including ignorance of STI/BBV prior to infection/diagnosis and, second, turning points and transformations in the form of insights, behaviours, roles and agency. Responding to critical writing on resilience theory, we argue that providing situated accounts of adversity from the perspectives of young Indigenous people prioritises their subjective understandings and challenges normative definitions of resilience.

  16. The Marginalisation of Indigenous Students within School Mathematics and the Math Wars: Seeking Resolutions within Ethical Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gale L.; Chernoff, Egan J.

    2013-01-01

    In mathematics education, there are (at least) two seemingly disparate and unethical issues that have been allowed to continue unresolved for decades: the math wars (traditional versus reform teaching and learning of mathematics) and the marginalisation of Indigenous students within K-12 mathematics. Willie Ermine, an Indigenous scholar, has…

  17. A review of psychosocial stress and chronic disease for 4th world indigenous peoples and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Paradies, Yin

    2006-01-01

    Public health literature indicates that psychosocial stress is an important contributor to chronic disease development. However, there is scant research on the health effects of stress for minority groups, who suffer from a high burden of chronic disease. This paper provides a review of studies that examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and chronic disease for 4th world indigenous groups and African Americans. A total of 50 associational and 15 intervention studies fit the inclusion criteria for this review. A range of chronic diseases, as well as harmful health behaviors, were associated with psychosocial stress for indigenous peoples and African Americans, with much stronger findings for mental rather than physical health outcomes. Several stress moderating factors were also identified and a small body of intervention research suggests that transcendental meditation and group-oriented stress management may be effective in reducing psychosocial stress and its effects for African Americans and 4th world indigenous groups respectively.

  18. Exposing the hidden curriculum influencing medical education on the health of Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand: the role of the Critical Reflection Tool.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Shaun; Mazel, Odette; Knoche, Debra

    2012-02-01

    The disparity in health status between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand is widely known, and efforts to address this through medical education are evidenced by initiatives such as the Committee of Deans of Australian Medical Schools' Indigenous Health Curriculum Framework. These efforts have focused primarily on formal curriculum reform. In this article, the authors discuss the role of the hidden curriculum in influencing the teaching and learning of Indigenous health (i.e., the health of Indigenous people) during medical training and suggest that in order to achieve significant changes in learning outcomes, there needs to be better alignment of the formal and hidden curriculum. They describe the Critical Reflection Tool as a potential resource through which educators might begin to identify the dimensions of their institution's hidden curricula. If used effectively, the process may guide institutions to better equip medical school graduates with the training necessary to advance changes in Indigenous health. PMID:22189879

  19. Insights from paleomicrobiology into the indigenous peoples of pre-colonial America - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Millie I; Donoghue, Helen D

    2014-01-01

    This review investigates ancient infectious diseases in the Americas dated to the pre-colonial period and considers what these findings can tell us about the history of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. It gives an overview, but focuses on four microbial pathogens from this period: Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Trypanosoma cruzi and Coccidioides immitis, which cause stomach ulceration and gastric cancer, tuberculosis, Chagas disease and valley fever, respectively. These pathogens were selected as H. pylori can give insight into ancient human migrations into the Americas, M. tuberculosis is associated with population density and urban development, T. cruzi can elucidate human living conditions and C. immitis can indicate agricultural development. A range of methods are used to diagnose infectious disease in ancient human remains, with DNA analysis by polymerase chain reaction one of the most reliable, provided strict precautions are taken against cross contamination. The review concludes with a brief summary of the changes that took place after European exploration and colonisation. PMID:24714964

  20. Talking Teacher Education: Factors Impacting on Teacher Education for Indigenous People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jo-Anne; Santoro, Ninetta; Crawford, Laurie; Simpson, Lee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the findings of research that has examined, from first-hand accounts, the career pathways of Indigenous Australians who have studied to become teachers. We focus on one key aspect of the larger study: the nature and experience of initial teacher education for Indigenous student teachers. Elsewhere we have reported on…

  1. Manifesting Destiny: Re/Presentations of Indigenous Peoples in K-12 U.S. History Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shear, Sarah B.; Knowles, Ryan T.; Soden, Gregory J.; Castro, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we use a postcolonial framework to investigate how state standards represent Indigenous histories and cultures. The research questions that guided this study include: (a) What is the frequency of Indigenous content (histories, cultures, current issues) covered in state-level U.S. history standards for K-12? (b) What is…

  2. Help-Seeking in People with Exceptional Experiences: Results from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. Methods: An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Results: Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Conclusion: Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other

  3. The marginalisation of Indigenous students within school mathematics and the math wars: seeking resolutions within ethical spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Gale L.; Chernoff, Egan J.

    2013-03-01

    In mathematics education, there are (at least) two seemingly disparate and unethical issues that have been allowed to continue unresolved for decades: the math wars (traditional versus reform teaching and learning of mathematics) and the marginalisation of Indigenous students within K-12 mathematics. Willie Ermine, an Indigenous scholar, has proposed the use of ethical spaces to explore and analyse occurrences of unethical situations arising between the "intersection of Indigenous law and Canadian Legal systems" (Ermine, Indigenous Law Journal 6(1):193-203, 2007). This paper brings Ermine's notion of ethical spaces to the field of mathematics education research as the theoretical framework for analysing the aforementioned issues. The result of this analysis is a potential single theoretical resolution to both dilemmas that can also serve as a significant factor in the processes of decolonisation.

  4. Exploring functions of the lost seeking devices for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Ching; Leung, Cherng-Yee

    2012-01-01

    This paper utilized a user-centered design approach as the foundation for technology in dementia care in order to improve the quality of telemedicine service. A status-quo analysis and questionnaire survey were conducted to explore the actual needs of the elders in using the lost seeking devices and the problems they encountered. In total, 37 caregivers for people with dementia were surveyed (20 female, 17 male, M = 50.08, SD = 15.47). The dementia-patients: 16 are male, 21 female (M = 72.75, SD = 10.23). Through analysis and induction, 3 problems were identified: poor information transmission, low user acceptance, individual material security anxiety. 2-4 improvement proposals are suggested for each problem. Most care-givers hope technological products would increase the efficiency and safety, but they also think it's too expensive and lack of computer skills. This result demonstrates the choice of seeking methods depends on the education level of the caregivers and most of them are elders. The concern of data leakage is also related to today's fraud issue, which may be the reason limiting the promotion of electronic products and biometrics. Further research is required, suggesting researchers should pursue improvements in lost seeking design devices in dementia for caregivers. PMID:22317189

  5. [ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR RESEARCH INVOLVING INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN FRANCE: A COMMENT OF THE CNRS ETHICS COMMITTEE OPINION ON THE IMPERATIVE OF FAIRNESS IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESEARCHERS AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES].

    PubMed

    Burelli, Thomas; Bambridge, Tamatoa

    2015-12-01

    Historically, scientific research and colonization process have maintained very close ties. In order to frame research involving indigenous peoples and to avoid situations of abuse, some States have developed very detailed ethicalframeworks. In France, there are no ethicalframework comparable to those observed in particular in Anglo-Saxon countries like Canada. Extensive discussions were conducted by the Ethics Committee of the CNRS leading to the adoption of an opinion of a high quality but which appears largely unknown and under-exploited. This opinion deals with "the delicate question of the rights of local and indigenous populations during the research projected conducted with their support in developed and developing countries (DCs)". In this paper, we propose to analyze how this opinion can be considered remarkable because it recognizes the current challenges of research projects involving indigenous people, but also because of his recommendations. We still see that the scope of its recommendations is however limited so far although some encouraging experiences like the recent adoption of the CRIOBE centre code of ethics in French Polynesia can be observed. PMID:27120824

  6. [ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR RESEARCH INVOLVING INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN FRANCE: A COMMENT OF THE CNRS ETHICS COMMITTEE OPINION ON THE IMPERATIVE OF FAIRNESS IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESEARCHERS AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES].

    PubMed

    Burelli, Thomas; Bambridge, Tamatoa

    2015-12-01

    Historically, scientific research and colonization process have maintained very close ties. In order to frame research involving indigenous peoples and to avoid situations of abuse, some States have developed very detailed ethicalframeworks. In France, there are no ethicalframework comparable to those observed in particular in Anglo-Saxon countries like Canada. Extensive discussions were conducted by the Ethics Committee of the CNRS leading to the adoption of an opinion of a high quality but which appears largely unknown and under-exploited. This opinion deals with "the delicate question of the rights of local and indigenous populations during the research projected conducted with their support in developed and developing countries (DCs)". In this paper, we propose to analyze how this opinion can be considered remarkable because it recognizes the current challenges of research projects involving indigenous people, but also because of his recommendations. We still see that the scope of its recommendations is however limited so far although some encouraging experiences like the recent adoption of the CRIOBE centre code of ethics in French Polynesia can be observed.

  7. Non-professional-help-seeking among young people with depression: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents and young adults often suffer from depression, but tend to avoid seeking professional help. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons for non-professional-help-seeking in a sample of young adults resident in Catalonia with depressive symptoms through a qualitative study. In addition, the subjects were invited to offer their recommendations for making mental health care services more accessible. Methods We recruited 105 young persons (17–21 years of age) who had participated in a national survey on adolescents. The sample was divided into thirds, with 37 who had a previous diagnosis of depression, 33 who had self-perceived emotional distress, and 35 controls. The participants were interviewed in depth about their reasons for avoiding professional mental health care services, and the interview results were analyzed using both qualitative and cultural domain techniques and corroborated through comparison with the results of three focus groups. Results Participants’ reasons for avoidance varied both by gender and according to prior experience with health services. Male study participants and female controls mainly understood depressive symptoms as normal and therefore not requiring treatment. Female participants with self-perceived distress were more likely to cite problems of access to treatment and fear of speaking to an unknown person about their problems. Females with a diagnosis expressed lack of trust in the benefits of treatment and fear of the social consequences of help-seeking. In their recommendations for best practices, the study participants suggested educational initiatives, as well as changes in the organization of mental health care services. Conclusions A better understanding of the views of young people and a greater effort to involve them as active participants is important for facilitating help-seeking in this age group, and for adapting mental health care services to adolescent users and their social context. PMID

  8. Declining Use of Wild Resources by Indigenous Peoples of the Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clark L.; Bozigar, Matthew; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Wild product harvesting by forest-dwelling peoples, including hunting, fishing, forest product collection and timber harvesting, is believed to be a major threat to the biodiversity of tropical forests worldwide. Despite this threat, few studies have attempted to quantify these activities across time or across large spatial scales. We use a unique longitudinal household survey (n = 480) to describe changes in these activities over time in 32 indigenous communities from five ethnicities in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. To provide insight into the drivers of these changes, we also estimate multilevel statistical models of these activities as a function of household and community characteristics. These analyses reveal that participation in hunting, fishing, and forest product collection is high but declining across time and across ethnicities, with no evidence for a parallel decline in resource quality. However, participation in timber harvesting did not significantly decline and there is evidence of a decline in resource quality. Multilevel statistical models additionally reveal that household and community characteristics such as ethnicity, demographic characteristics, wealth, livelihood diversification, access to forest, participation in conservation programs and exposure to external markets are significant predictors of wild product harvesting. These characteristics have changed over time but cannot account for declining participation in resource harvesting. This finding suggests that participation is declining due to changes in the regional-scale social and economic context, including urbanization and the expansion of government infrastructure and services. The lesson for conservationists is that macro-scale social and economic conditions can drive reductions in wild product harvesting even in the absence of successful conservation interventions. PMID:25620805

  9. Other people, other drugs: the policy response to petrol sniffing among indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    d'Abbs, Peter; Brady, Maggie

    2004-09-01

    This paper examines the policy response of Australian governments to petrol sniffing in Indigenous communities from the 1980s until the present. During this period, despite the formation of numerous inquiries, working parties and intergovernmental committees, there has been little accumulation of knowledge about the nature and causes of sniffing, or about the effectiveness of interventions. Policies are fragmentary; programmes are rarely evaluated, and most rely on short-term funding. The paper sets out to explain why this should be so. It draws upon a conceptual framework known as 'analytics of government' to examine the ways in which petrol sniffing comes to the attention of government agencies and is perceived as an issue; the mechanisms deployed by governments to address petrol sniffing; ways in which knowledge about sniffing is generated; and the underlying assumptions about people that inform policy-making. Drawing upon case studies of policy responses, the paper argues that a number of structural factors combine to marginalize petrol sniffing as an issue, and to encourage reliance on short-term, one-off interventions in place of a sustained policy commitment. Four recommendations are advanced to help overcome these factors: (1) agreements should be reached within and between levels of government on steps to be taken to reduce risk factors before the eruption of petrol-sniffing crises; (2) the evidence base relevant to petrol sniffing (and other inhalants) should be improved by funding and directing one or more existing national drug research centres to collate data on inhalant-caused mortality and morbidity, and to conduct or commission research into prevalence patterns, effectiveness of interventions and other gaps in knowledge; (3) the current pattern of short-term, pilot and project funding should be replaced with longer-term, evidence-based interventions that address the multiple risk and protective factors present in communities; and (4) insistence by

  10. Other people, other drugs: the policy response to petrol sniffing among indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    d'Abbs, Peter; Brady, Maggie

    2004-09-01

    This paper examines the policy response of Australian governments to petrol sniffing in Indigenous communities from the 1980s until the present. During this period, despite the formation of numerous inquiries, working parties and intergovernmental committees, there has been little accumulation of knowledge about the nature and causes of sniffing, or about the effectiveness of interventions. Policies are fragmentary; programmes are rarely evaluated, and most rely on short-term funding. The paper sets out to explain why this should be so. It draws upon a conceptual framework known as 'analytics of government' to examine the ways in which petrol sniffing comes to the attention of government agencies and is perceived as an issue; the mechanisms deployed by governments to address petrol sniffing; ways in which knowledge about sniffing is generated; and the underlying assumptions about people that inform policy-making. Drawing upon case studies of policy responses, the paper argues that a number of structural factors combine to marginalize petrol sniffing as an issue, and to encourage reliance on short-term, one-off interventions in place of a sustained policy commitment. Four recommendations are advanced to help overcome these factors: (1) agreements should be reached within and between levels of government on steps to be taken to reduce risk factors before the eruption of petrol-sniffing crises; (2) the evidence base relevant to petrol sniffing (and other inhalants) should be improved by funding and directing one or more existing national drug research centres to collate data on inhalant-caused mortality and morbidity, and to conduct or commission research into prevalence patterns, effectiveness of interventions and other gaps in knowledge; (3) the current pattern of short-term, pilot and project funding should be replaced with longer-term, evidence-based interventions that address the multiple risk and protective factors present in communities; and (4) insistence by

  11. Working together as Neighbors: Rehabilitation Researchers and Indigenous People with Disabilities in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine A.; Gotto, George S., IV; Perez Cruz, German; Flores Rey, Pedro; Garcia Juarez, Gabriela

    1998-01-01

    Participatory research with American Indians with disabilities was extended to Mexico. Interviews with 232 indigenous persons with disabilities revealed a low level of education, high unemployment, and a majority of children not in school. Access to education, rural outreach, and increased employment opportunities were recommended. (SK)

  12. Coloniality and Cognitive Justice: Reinterpreting Formal Education for the Indigenous Peoples in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veintie, Truija

    2013-01-01

    This article examines intercultural bilingual education (IBE) as a reterritorialization of a globalized Western model of formal education into the Ecuadorian indigenous context. This reterritorialization is explored through an IBE teacher education institute. First, the article discusses the instructional practices that attempt to break with…

  13. Cultural Safety Circles and Indigenous Peoples' Perspectives: Inclusive Practices for Participation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseron, Johnnie; Greymorning, S. Neyooxet; Miller, Adrian; Wilde, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous experiences, as found within traditional ways and cultural practices, are an acknowledgement of traditional methods for sharing, learning, and collective knowledge development and maintenance. The application of Cultural Safety Circles can help provide a collective space where definitions for cultural and educational exchange can take…

  14. Associations between stigma and help-seeking intentions and beliefs: findings from an Australian national survey of young people.

    PubMed

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2013-12-30

    To reduce stigma and improve help seeking by young people for mental illness, we need a better understanding of the associations between various dimensions of stigma and young people's help-seeking intentions and helpfulness beliefs for various sources of help and for different disorders. This study assessed stigmatizing attitudes and help-seeking intentions and helpfulness beliefs via a national telephone survey of 3021 youths aged 15-25. Five stigma scales were used: social distance, personally held weak-not-sick and dangerousness beliefs, and weak-not-sick and dangerousness beliefs perceived in others. Respondents were presented with a vignette of a young person portraying depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, depression with alcohol abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, or psychosis. Beliefs that mental illness is a sign of personal weakness and preference for social distance were associated with less intention to seek professional help and less endorsement of their helpfulness. In contrast, dangerousness/unpredictability beliefs were associated with more intention to seek professional help and more endorsement of their helpfulness. Findings highlight the importance of examining the associations between different dimensions of stigma with different sources of help, specifically for various mental disorders, to better inform future efforts to reduce stigma and increase help seeking in young people.

  15. The Role of Cultural and Spiritual Expressions in Affirming a Sense of Self, Place, and Purpose among Young Urban, Indigenous Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Marian; Rymarz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This article sets out to discuss the impact that urban living has had on the lives of young Indigenous people. It will seek to discover some of the problems that occur when there is a meeting of two cultures, in this case the Indigenous culture of Australian Aboriginal people and the mainstream culture that has been derived largely from west…

  16. Shame as a barrier to health seeking among indigenous Huichol migrant labourers: an interpretive approach of the "violence continuum" and "authoritative knowledge".

    PubMed

    Gamlin, Jennie B

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses the manner in which social and historical factors impact upon indigenous conceptions of health and health-seeking behaviour, reinforcing their authoritative knowledge about birth and wellbeing. It explores how Mexican indigenous Huichol migrant labourers experience structural, everyday and symbolic violence while away working, and in their home communities. The study was based on semi-structured interviews and observations with 33 Huichol migrant labourers and 12 key informants from the community (traditional healthcare providers), health sector (medical doctors based in the highlands) and tobacco industry (farmers, tobacco union leader and pesticide sellers) during 2010-11. Findings show how the continuum of violence is experienced by these migrants as shame, timidity and humiliation, expressions of symbolic violence that have helped define their tradition of birthing alone and their feeling of entitlement to the conditional welfare payments which sustain their marginalised subsistence lifestyle. This paper proposes that there is a cyclical relationship between structural violence and authoritative knowledge as the former reinforces their adherence to a set of cultural beliefs and practices which are the basis of racial discrimination against them.

  17. Indigenous People and Development in Latin America: A Literature Survey and Recommendations. Latin American Monograph & Document Series 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, J. Montgomery; Frechione, John; DeWalt, Billie R.

    This report presents findings and conclusions gleaned from a review of 42 cases of indigenous development in Latin America. Findings indicate that the lack of a legal framework for indigenous rights presents a basic obstacle to indigenous self-development; the most common aspect of successful indigenous development was involvement of indigenous…

  18. Indigenous Community-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen, Ed.

    After a long history as a tool of forced assimilation of indigenous populations, education is now a key arena in which indigenous peoples can reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures and thereby improve the academic success of indigenous students. Community-based education offers a means by which indigenous peoples can regain a measure of…

  19. Vitamin D status of northern indigenous people of Russia leading traditional and “modernized” way of life

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrew; Khabarova, Yulia; Vershubsky, Galina; Ateeva, Yulia; Ryzhaenkov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D status in groups of northern indigenous people of Russia leading close to traditional (seminomadic reindeer herding), post-traditional (in settlements) or “modernized” (in towns) way of life was analysed. Design The survey study groups consisted of 178 Nenets and Komi aged 18–60 living in the Arctic (66–67°N). Urban Komi, Udmurts and Komi-Permiaks (n=150) living in a non-Arctic area (57–61°N) formed a control group. The concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), as a transport form of vitamin D, was assessed by enzyme immunoassay analysis. Results The group average 25OHD levels in both rural and urban Arctic residents are within the range of values seen in the non-Arctic urban subjects adjusted for season: 39.7–47.7 nmol/l. Abandoning traditional lifestyle associates with lower vitamin D levels in indigenous Arctic people. Mean±standard deviation 25OHD values among Nenets were lower in those living in the administrative centre (a big settlement) with a population of 1,460 (32.2±12.90 nmol/l) than in the residents of small settlements (39.6±14.08 nmol/l), and in reindeer herders (42.4±13.45 nmol/l; p<0.05 in both cases). Komi townspeople had lower 25OHD concentrations (47.7±12.00 nmol/l) than Komi reindeer herders (68.7±25.20; p<0.01). Conclusions The transition from seminomadic to post-traditional and “modernized” way of life has led to a decrease in the consumption of traditional foods among the indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Our data support the notion that the traditional northern diet promotes healthy vitamin D levels, while adherence to the “western” type of diet correlates with a lower 25OHD concentration. PMID:25472642

  20. Acculturation and self-rated health among Arctic indigenous peoples: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acculturation is for indigenous peoples related to the process of colonisation over centuries as well as the on-going social transition experienced in the Arctic today. Changing living conditions and lifestyle affect health in numerous ways in Arctic indigenous populations. Self-rated health (SRH) is a relevant variable in primary health care and in general public health assessments and monitoring. Exploring the relationship between acculturation and SRH in indigenous populations having experienced great societal and cultural change is thus of great importance. Methods The principal method in the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA) was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, whilst a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. Acculturation was conceptualised as certain traditional subsistence activities being of lesser importance for people’s ethnic identity, and poorer spoken indigenous language ability (SILA). Acculturation was included in six separate gender- and country-specific ordinal logistic regressions to assess qualitative effects on SRH. Results Multivariable analyses showed that acculturation significantly predicted poorer SRH in Greenland. An increased subsistence score gave an OR of 2.32 (P<0.001) for reporting poorer SRH among Greenlandic men, while an increased score for Greenlandic women generated an OR of 1.71 (P=0.01). Poorer SILA generated an OR of 1.59 in men (p=0.03). In Alaska, no evidence of acculturation effects was detected among Iñupiaq men. Among Iñupiaq women, an increased subsistence score represented an increased odds of 73% (p=0.026) for reporting poorer SRH. No significant effects of acculturation on SRH were detected in Norway. Conclusions This study shows that aggregate acculturation is a strong risk factor for poorer SRH among the Kalaallit of Greenland and female Iñupiat of Alaska, but

  1. Language Shift of Taiwan's Indigenous Peoples: A Case Study of Kanakanavu and Saaroa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dorinda Tsai-Hsiu; Chang, Ying-Hwa; Li, Paul Jen-Kuei; Lin, Ji-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study covers two issues: (1) the language shift process relating to two highly endangered aboriginal languages of Taiwan and (2) the correlations between some variables and their language shift. Both Kanakanavu and Saaroa peoples underwent two waves of migration: (1) a massive in-migration of another Formosan ethnic group (Bunun people) in…

  2. Multicultural social policy and community participation in health: new opportunities and challenges for indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2012-01-01

    Community participation in local health has assumed a central role in the reforms of public healthcare, being increasingly associated with the issue of decentralization of the health system. The aim of this paper is to raise questions regarding the structural approaches to multicultural social policy in Chile and to analyze the results of its implementation. The article analyzes the case study of Makewe Hospital, one of the pioneering experiences of intercultural health initiative in Chile. The Makewe Hospital, which involves the indigenous community of the Mapuche, provides interesting insights to understand the dynamics of multicultural social policy and presents an example of a successful initiative that has succeeded in involving local communities in multicultural health policy. This case study discusses the effectiveness of grassroots participation in multicultural healthcare provision and presents the main strengths and challenges for the replicability of this experience in other settings. PMID:21837643

  3. Northwest African and Middle Eastern food and dietary change of indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, Harriet V; Johns, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes cultural and ecological characteristics of Northwest African and Middle Eastern food patterns and discusses the forces contributing to rapid dietary change. Focus is given to indigenous/tribal/ethnic/minorities in these areas with contributions to definitions of these groups, the extent of their diversity, and the importance of their traditional knowledge of local food resources. Urbanization, particularly for those facing extreme poverty in the urban environment, is recognized as a significant force to dietary change and consequent poor nutrition, especially for children. Examples of food systems are given for the coastal zone of West Africa and the semi-arid and desert zones of North Africa and the Middle East, also including the food system of Pharaonic times. Trends in dietary change are presented as data derived from FAO Food Balance Sheets.

  4. Healthcare Access and Health Beliefs of the Indigenous Peoples in Remote Amazonian Peru

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, Charlotte K.; Suarez, Nicolas; Arora, Gitanjli; Graham, Devon

    2014-01-01

    Little is published about the health issues of traditional communities in the remote Peruvian Amazon. This study assessed healthcare access, health perceptions, and beliefs of the indigenous population along the Ampiyacu and Yaguasyacu rivers in north-eastern Peru. One hundred and seventy-nine adult inhabitants of 10 remote settlements attending health clinics were interviewed during a medical services trip in April 2012. Demographics, health status, access to healthcare, health education, sanitation, alcohol use, and smoke exposure were recorded. Our findings indicate that poverty, household overcrowding, and poor sanitation remain commonplace in this group. Furthermore, there are poor levels of health education and on-going barriers to accessing healthcare. Healthcare access and health education remain poor in the remote Peruvian Amazon. This combined with poverty and its sequelae render this population vulnerable to disease. PMID:24277789

  5. Vecinos y Rehabilitation: Assessing the Needs of Indigenous People with Disabilities in Mexico. Final Report [English Version] = Vecinos y Rehabilitation: Evaluacion de las Necesidades de los Indigenas con Discapacidades en Mexico. Reporte Final [Version en Espanol].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine A.; And Others

    Available in English and Spanish, this document reports on a survey of the circumstances and needs of disabled indigenous people in Oaxaca state, Mexico. Assisted by a Oaxaca disabilities consumer organization and an advisory committee of government officials, health care educators, community service providers, and indigenous people with…

  6. Vecinos y Rehabilitation (Phase II): Assessing the Needs and Resources of Indigenous People with Disabilities in the Mixteca Region of Oaxaca, Mexico. Final Report. [English Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine A.; Gotto, George S., IV

    This report describes the second phase of a project that identified the circumstances and needs of disabled indigenous people in three geographic areas of Oaxaca state, Mexico. Assisted by a Mixteca disabilities consumer organization and an advisory committee of government officials, health care educators, community service providers, and…

  7. Las bases y fundamentos del derecho indigena del pueblo maya de Guatemala (The Foundations and Principles of Indigenous Rights of the Maya People of Guatemala).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Marcela; Chavajay, Miriam

    2000-01-01

    The Guatemalan peace accord recognizes the institutions and local authorities of indigenous peoples, as well as their customs, common lands, and the "customary right" (common law) that structures intracommunity relations. However, it is difficult to define "customary right" and its applications and limits. A systematic study of traditional…

  8. Indigenous knowledge of plants in local healthcare management practices by tribal people of Malda district, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Sarker, Dilip De; Kar, Pallab; Gupta, Piyali Sen; Sen, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed at exploring the indigenous knowledge of native tribes on the utilization of wild plant species for local healthcare management in Malda district of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Successive field surveys were carried out from July 2012 to August 2013 in search of traditional healers or practitioners who ceaselessly use their worthy knowledge to treat several ailments for human purposes. The information was collected by means of open-ended conversations, semi-structured questionnaire, group discussion, etc. Information obtained from the informants was also cross verified to check the authenticity. Results: The present study revealed that a total of 53 medicinal plants belonging to the 37 families are frequently used to treat 44 types of ailments with 88 herbal preparations. Of 53 plants, herbs possess the highest growth forms (32%) that were used in making traditional preparation, followed by shrubs (24%), trees (23%), climbers (17%), and parasites (4%). Roots comprised the major plant parts used (25%), followed by leaves (21%), seeds (17%), bark (13%), whole plant (8%) and fruits (6%) to prepare the medicinal formulations. The chief ailments treated in this province were azoospermia, diabetes, menstrual disorder, dysentery, rheumatism, etc. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the documentation of the ethnobotanical knowledge in management of local healthcare is the first step, which will open new door for the researchers in the field of modern drug development. PMID:26401370

  9. Reclaiming Indigenous Representations and Knowledges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke-Barnes, Judy; Danard, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This article explores contemporary Indigenous artists', activists', and scholars' use of the Internet to reclaim Indigenous knowledge, culture, art, history, and worldview; critique the political realities of dominant discourse; and address the genocidal history and ongoing repression of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Internet examples include…

  10. Using Indigenist and Indigenous methodologies to connect to deeper understandings of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kite, Elaine; Davy, Carol

    2015-12-01

    The lack of a common description makes measuring the concept of quality of life (QoL) a challenge. Whether QoL incorporates broader social features or is attributed to health conditions, the diverse range of descriptions applied by various disciplines has resulted in a concept that is multidimensional and vague. The variety of theoretical conceptualisations of QoL confounds and confuses even the most astute. Measuring QoL in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is even more challenging. Instruments commonly developed and used to measure QoL are often derived from research methodologies shaped by Western cultural perspectives. Often they are simply translated for use among culturally and linguistically diverse Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. This has implications for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations whose perceptions of health are derived from within their specific cultures, value systems and ways of knowing and being. Interconnections and relationships between themselves, their communities, their environment and the natural and spiritual worlds are complex. The way in which their QoL is currently measured indicates that very little attention is given to the diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' beliefs or the ways in which those beliefs shape or give structure and meaning to their health and their lives. The use of Indigenist or Indigenous methodologies in defining what Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples believe gives quality to their lives is imperative. These methodologies have the potential to increase the congruency between their perceptions of QoL and instruments to measure it. PMID:26686300

  11. Using Indigenist and Indigenous methodologies to connect to deeper understandings of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kite, Elaine; Davy, Carol

    2015-12-01

    The lack of a common description makes measuring the concept of quality of life (QoL) a challenge. Whether QoL incorporates broader social features or is attributed to health conditions, the diverse range of descriptions applied by various disciplines has resulted in a concept that is multidimensional and vague. The variety of theoretical conceptualisations of QoL confounds and confuses even the most astute. Measuring QoL in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is even more challenging. Instruments commonly developed and used to measure QoL are often derived from research methodologies shaped by Western cultural perspectives. Often they are simply translated for use among culturally and linguistically diverse Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. This has implications for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations whose perceptions of health are derived from within their specific cultures, value systems and ways of knowing and being. Interconnections and relationships between themselves, their communities, their environment and the natural and spiritual worlds are complex. The way in which their QoL is currently measured indicates that very little attention is given to the diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' beliefs or the ways in which those beliefs shape or give structure and meaning to their health and their lives. The use of Indigenist or Indigenous methodologies in defining what Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples believe gives quality to their lives is imperative. These methodologies have the potential to increase the congruency between their perceptions of QoL and instruments to measure it.

  12. Breaking down barriers to eye care for Indigenous people: a new scheme for delivery of eye care in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Napper, Genevieve; Fricke, Tim; Anjou, Mitchell D; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the implementation of and outcomes from a new spectacle subsidy scheme and de-centralised care options for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme (VASSS) commenced in 2010, as an additional subsidy to the long-established Victorian Eyecare Service (VES). The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme aimed to improve access to and uptake of affordable spectacles and eye examinations by Indigenous Victorians. The scheme is overseen by a committee convened by the Victorian Government's Department of Health and Human Services and includes eye-health stakeholders from the Aboriginal community and government, not-for-profit, university and Aboriginal communities. Key features of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme include reduced and certain patient co-payments of $10, expanded spectacle frame range, broadened eligibility and community participation in service design and implementation. We describe the services implemented by the Australian College of Optometry (ACO) in Victoria and their impact on access to eye-care services. In 2014, optometric services were available at 36 service sites across Victoria, including 21 Aboriginal Health Services (AHS) sites. Patient services have increased from 400 services per year in 2009, to 1,800 services provided in 2014. During the first three years of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme program (2010 to 2013), 4,200 pairs of glasses (1,400 pairs per year) were provided. Further funding to 2016/17 will lift the number of glasses to be delivered to 6,600 pairs (1,650 per year). This compares to population projected needs of 2,400 pairs per year. Overcoming the barriers to using eye-care services by Indigenous people can be difficult and resource intensive; however the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme provides an example of positive outcomes achieved through carefully designed and

  13. Breaking down barriers to eye care for Indigenous people: a new scheme for delivery of eye care in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Napper, Genevieve; Fricke, Tim; Anjou, Mitchell D; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the implementation of and outcomes from a new spectacle subsidy scheme and de-centralised care options for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme (VASSS) commenced in 2010, as an additional subsidy to the long-established Victorian Eyecare Service (VES). The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme aimed to improve access to and uptake of affordable spectacles and eye examinations by Indigenous Victorians. The scheme is overseen by a committee convened by the Victorian Government's Department of Health and Human Services and includes eye-health stakeholders from the Aboriginal community and government, not-for-profit, university and Aboriginal communities. Key features of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme include reduced and certain patient co-payments of $10, expanded spectacle frame range, broadened eligibility and community participation in service design and implementation. We describe the services implemented by the Australian College of Optometry (ACO) in Victoria and their impact on access to eye-care services. In 2014, optometric services were available at 36 service sites across Victoria, including 21 Aboriginal Health Services (AHS) sites. Patient services have increased from 400 services per year in 2009, to 1,800 services provided in 2014. During the first three years of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme program (2010 to 2013), 4,200 pairs of glasses (1,400 pairs per year) were provided. Further funding to 2016/17 will lift the number of glasses to be delivered to 6,600 pairs (1,650 per year). This compares to population projected needs of 2,400 pairs per year. Overcoming the barriers to using eye-care services by Indigenous people can be difficult and resource intensive; however the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme provides an example of positive outcomes achieved through carefully designed and

  14. Health and indigenous people: intercultural health as a new paradigm toward the reduction of cultural and social marginalization?

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2010-01-01

    The precarious socio-economic and health conditions of indigenous populations legitimize claims of marginalization and attest to the inherent inequality that indigenous groups suffer. In the last few years, advocates have urged the use of traditional indigenous health practices as more culturally fitting for most indigenous populations. An intercultural health program can reduce the conditions of social and cultural marginalization in an indigenous population. However, accepting and integrating indigenous medicine into a westernized health system presents a major challenge to intercultural healthcare in Latin America. The objective of this paper is to analyze the case of Makewe hospital, one of the first and few examples of intercultural health initiatives in Chile. The paper will examine the implementation of this initiative and the main challenges in creating an effective intercultural health program. PMID:21157190

  15. Help-Seeking for Suicidal Thoughts and Self-Harm in Young People: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelmore, Lisa; Hindley, Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that only a minority of young people experiencing suicidal thoughts or self-harm present to any health services. This is of concern given that young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm often require treatment for mental illness as well as to reduce their risk of completed suicide. We reviewed…

  16. Tuberculosis in Indigenous Peoples in the U.S., 2003–2008

    PubMed Central

    Bloss, Emily; Holtz, Timothy H.; Jereb, John; Redd, John T.; Podewils, Laura Jean; Cheek, James E.; McCray, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We examined trends and epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) across racial/ethnic groups to better understand TB disparities in the United States, with particular focus on American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders (NH/PIs). Methods We analyzed cases in the U.S. National Tuberculosis Surveillance System and calculated TB case rates among all racial/ethnic groups from 2003 to 2008. Socioeconomic and health indicators for counties in which TB cases were reported came from the Health Resources and Services Administration Area Resource File. Results Among the 82,836 TB cases, 914 (1.1%) were in AI/ANs and 362 (0.4%) were in NH/PIs. In 2008, TB case rates for AI/ANs and NH/PIs were 5.9 and 14.7 per 100,000 population, respectively, rates that were more than five and 13 times greater than for non-Hispanic white people (1.1 per 100,000 population). From 2003 to 2008, AI/ANs had the largest percentage decline in TB case rates (−27.4%) for any racial/ethnic group, but NH/PIs had the smallest percentage decline (−3.5%). AI/ANs were more likely than other racial/ethnic groups to be homeless, excessively use alcohol, receive totally directly observed therapy, and come from counties with a greater proportion of people living in poverty and without health insurance. A greater proportion of NH/PIs had extrapulmonary disease and came from counties with a higher proportion of people with a high school diploma. Conclusions There is a need to develop flexible TB-control strategies that address the social determinants of health and that are tailored to the specific needs of AI/ANs and NH/PIs in the U.S. PMID:21886328

  17. Not of African Descent: Dental Modification among Indigenous Caribbean People from Canímar Abajo, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Alarie, Kaitlynn; Rodríguez Suárez, Roberto; Huebner, Erwin; Roksandic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Dental modifications in the Caribbean are considered to be an African practice introduced to the Caribbean archipelago by the influx of enslaved Africans during colonial times. Skeletal remains which exhibited dental modifications are by default considered to be Africans, African descendants, or post-contact indigenous people influenced by an African practice. Individual E-105 from the site of Canímar Abajo (Cuba), with a direct 14C AMS date of 990-800 cal BC, provides the first unequivocal evidence of dental modifications in the Antilles prior to contact with Europeans in AD 1492. Central incisors showing evidence of significant crown reduction (loss of crown volume regardless of its etiology) were examined macroscopically and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine if the observed alterations were due to deliberate modification or other (unintentional) factors considered: postmortem breakage, violent accidental breakage, non-dietary use of teeth, and wear caused by habitual or repeated actions. The pattern of crown reduction is consistent with deliberate dental modification of the type commonly encountered among African and African descendent communities in post-contact Caribbean archaeological assemblages. Six additional individuals show similar pattern of crown reduction of maxillary incisors with no analogous wear in corresponding mandibular dentition. PMID:27071012

  18. Not of African Descent: Dental Modification among Indigenous Caribbean People from Canímar Abajo, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Alarie, Kaitlynn; Rodríguez Suárez, Roberto; Huebner, Erwin; Roksandic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Dental modifications in the Caribbean are considered to be an African practice introduced to the Caribbean archipelago by the influx of enslaved Africans during colonial times. Skeletal remains which exhibited dental modifications are by default considered to be Africans, African descendants, or post-contact indigenous people influenced by an African practice. Individual E-105 from the site of Canímar Abajo (Cuba), with a direct 14C AMS date of 990–800 cal BC, provides the first unequivocal evidence of dental modifications in the Antilles prior to contact with Europeans in AD 1492. Central incisors showing evidence of significant crown reduction (loss of crown volume regardless of its etiology) were examined macroscopically and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine if the observed alterations were due to deliberate modification or other (unintentional) factors considered: postmortem breakage, violent accidental breakage, non-dietary use of teeth, and wear caused by habitual or repeated actions. The pattern of crown reduction is consistent with deliberate dental modification of the type commonly encountered among African and African descendent communities in post-contact Caribbean archaeological assemblages. Six additional individuals show similar pattern of crown reduction of maxillary incisors with no analogous wear in corresponding mandibular dentition. PMID:27071012

  19. Are ecologically important tree species the most useful? A case study from indigenous people in the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have argued that indigenous peoples preferably use the most apparent plant species, particularly for medicinal uses. However, the association between the ecological importance of a species and its usefulness remains unclear. In this paper we quantify such association for six use categories (firewood, construction, materials, food, medicines and other uses). We collected data on the uses of 58 tree species, as reported by 93 informants in 22 villages in the Tsimane’ territory (Bolivian Amazon). We calculated the ecological importance of the same species by deriving their importance value index (IVI) in 48 0.1-ha old-growth forest plots. Matching both data sets, we found a positive relation between the IVI of a species and its overall use value (UV) as well as with its UV for construction and materials. We found a negative relation between IVI and UV for species that were reportedly used for medicine and food uses, and no clear pattern for the other categories. We hypothesize that species used for construction or crafting purposes because of their physical properties are more easily substitutable than species used for medicinal or edible purposes because of their chemical properties. PMID:26097243

  20. Not of African Descent: Dental Modification among Indigenous Caribbean People from Canímar Abajo, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Alarie, Kaitlynn; Rodríguez Suárez, Roberto; Huebner, Erwin; Roksandic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Dental modifications in the Caribbean are considered to be an African practice introduced to the Caribbean archipelago by the influx of enslaved Africans during colonial times. Skeletal remains which exhibited dental modifications are by default considered to be Africans, African descendants, or post-contact indigenous people influenced by an African practice. Individual E-105 from the site of Canímar Abajo (Cuba), with a direct 14C AMS date of 990-800 cal BC, provides the first unequivocal evidence of dental modifications in the Antilles prior to contact with Europeans in AD 1492. Central incisors showing evidence of significant crown reduction (loss of crown volume regardless of its etiology) were examined macroscopically and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine if the observed alterations were due to deliberate modification or other (unintentional) factors considered: postmortem breakage, violent accidental breakage, non-dietary use of teeth, and wear caused by habitual or repeated actions. The pattern of crown reduction is consistent with deliberate dental modification of the type commonly encountered among African and African descendent communities in post-contact Caribbean archaeological assemblages. Six additional individuals show similar pattern of crown reduction of maxillary incisors with no analogous wear in corresponding mandibular dentition.

  1. Settlers Unsettled: Using Field Schools and Digital Stories to Transform Geographies of Ignorance about Indigenous Peoples in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleden, Heather; Daley, Kiley; Sloan Morgan, Vanessa; Sylvestre, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Geography is a product of colonial processes, and in Canada, the exclusion from educational curricula of Indigenous worldviews and their lived realities has produced "geographies of ignorance". Transformative learning is an approach geographers can use to initiate changes in non-Indigenous student attitudes about Indigenous…

  2. Microbiological and physicochemical characterisation of caxiri, an alcoholic beverage produced by the indigenous Juruna people of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Claudia Cristina Auler do Amaral; Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga de; Melo, Gilberto Vinícius Pereira de; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2012-05-15

    Caxiri is a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage produced from cassava and sweet potatoes by the indigenous Juruna or Yudjá people in Brazil. Our results showed that caxiri fermentation is invariably associated with the following: (i) an increase in the total microbial population, with yeast being the largest group detected; (ii) a decrease in reducing sugars, malic, tartaric, succinic, oxalic and propionic acid; and (iii) a final product characterised by a high content of ethanol and a high concentration of lactic acid. The microbial community dynamics were investigated by culture-based and culture-independent approaches. Fermentation was assisted by a complex microbial community that changed in structure and composition during the fermentative process. The bacterial population ranged from 3.05 to 5.33 log/mL, and the yeast population varied from 3.27 log CFU/mL to 7.34 log CFU/mL, showing that yeasts dominated the fermentation process after 48 h. A total of 343 colonies of bacteria and 205 colonies of yeasts were isolated and initially grouped by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and by biochemical features. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of representative isolates showed that the bacteria were mainly represented by endospore-forming low-G+C content Gram-positive bacilli (Bacillus spp.; 61.5% of the isolates), with Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus spp. (Bacillus cereus group), and Bacillus subtilis being the main species identified. The species Sphingomonas sp. and Pediococcus acidilactici were also found. The dominant yeast identified was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pichia membranifaciens, Pichia guilliermondii and Cryptococcus luteolus were also found. According to the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, the microbial communities present during fermentation were probably from the raw materials, ambient or present on the utensils used during

  3. Microbiological and physicochemical characterisation of caxiri, an alcoholic beverage produced by the indigenous Juruna people of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Claudia Cristina Auler do Amaral; Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga de; Melo, Gilberto Vinícius Pereira de; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2012-05-15

    Caxiri is a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage produced from cassava and sweet potatoes by the indigenous Juruna or Yudjá people in Brazil. Our results showed that caxiri fermentation is invariably associated with the following: (i) an increase in the total microbial population, with yeast being the largest group detected; (ii) a decrease in reducing sugars, malic, tartaric, succinic, oxalic and propionic acid; and (iii) a final product characterised by a high content of ethanol and a high concentration of lactic acid. The microbial community dynamics were investigated by culture-based and culture-independent approaches. Fermentation was assisted by a complex microbial community that changed in structure and composition during the fermentative process. The bacterial population ranged from 3.05 to 5.33 log/mL, and the yeast population varied from 3.27 log CFU/mL to 7.34 log CFU/mL, showing that yeasts dominated the fermentation process after 48 h. A total of 343 colonies of bacteria and 205 colonies of yeasts were isolated and initially grouped by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and by biochemical features. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of representative isolates showed that the bacteria were mainly represented by endospore-forming low-G+C content Gram-positive bacilli (Bacillus spp.; 61.5% of the isolates), with Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus spp. (Bacillus cereus group), and Bacillus subtilis being the main species identified. The species Sphingomonas sp. and Pediococcus acidilactici were also found. The dominant yeast identified was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pichia membranifaciens, Pichia guilliermondii and Cryptococcus luteolus were also found. According to the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, the microbial communities present during fermentation were probably from the raw materials, ambient or present on the utensils used during

  4. Social Cognition Deficits and Psychopathic Traits in Young People Seeking Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Zwieten, Anita; Meyer, Johanna; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.; Hawes, David J.; Glozier, Nicholas; Naismith, Sharon L.; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Lee, Rico S. C.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Antisocial behaviours and psychopathic traits place an individual at risk for criminality, mental illness, substance dependence, and psychosocial dysfunction. Social cognition deficits appear to be associated with psychopathic traits and are believed to contribute to interpersonal dysfunction. Most research investigating the relationship of these traits with social cognition has been conducted either in children or adult forensic settings. We investigated whether psychopathic traits were associated with social cognition in 91 young people presenting for mental healthcare (aged between 15 and 25 years). Participants completed symptom severity measures, neuropsychological tests, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test of social cognition (RMET), and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to assess psychopathic personality traits. Correlation analyses showed poorer social cognition was associated with greater psychopathic traits (r = −.36, p = .01). Interestingly, social cognition performance predicted unique variance in concurrent psychopathic personality traits above gender, IQ sustained attention, and working memory performance. These findings suggest that social cognitive impairments are associated with psychopathic tendencies in young people presenting for community mental healthcare. Research is needed to establish the directionality of this relationship and to determine whether social cognition training is an effective treatment amongst young people with psychopathic tendencies. PMID:23861799

  5. Why do people google movement disorders? An infodemiological study of information seeking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Erro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Millions of people worldwide everyday search Google or Wikipedia to look for health-related information. Aim of this study was to evaluate and interpret web search queries for terms related to movement disorders (MD) in English-speaking countries and their changes over time. We analyzed information regarding the volume of online searches in Google and Wikipedia for the most common MD and their treatments. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. The volume of searches for some queries related to MD entered in Google enormously increased over time. Most queries were related to definition, subtypes, symptoms and treatment (mostly to adverse effects, or alternatively, to possible alternative treatments). The highest peaks of MD search queries were temporally related to news about celebrities suffering from MD, to specific mass-media events or to news concerning pharmaceutic companies or scientific discoveries on MD. An increasing number of people use Google and Wikipedia to look for terms related to MD to obtain information on definitions, causes and symptoms, possibly to aid initial self-diagnosis. MD information demand and the actual prevalence of different MDs do not travel together: web search volume may mirrors patients' fears and worries about some particular disorders perceived as more serious than others, or may be driven by release of news about celebrities suffering from MD, "breaking news" or specific mass-media events regarding MD.

  6. Why do people google movement disorders? An infodemiological study of information seeking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Erro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Millions of people worldwide everyday search Google or Wikipedia to look for health-related information. Aim of this study was to evaluate and interpret web search queries for terms related to movement disorders (MD) in English-speaking countries and their changes over time. We analyzed information regarding the volume of online searches in Google and Wikipedia for the most common MD and their treatments. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. The volume of searches for some queries related to MD entered in Google enormously increased over time. Most queries were related to definition, subtypes, symptoms and treatment (mostly to adverse effects, or alternatively, to possible alternative treatments). The highest peaks of MD search queries were temporally related to news about celebrities suffering from MD, to specific mass-media events or to news concerning pharmaceutic companies or scientific discoveries on MD. An increasing number of people use Google and Wikipedia to look for terms related to MD to obtain information on definitions, causes and symptoms, possibly to aid initial self-diagnosis. MD information demand and the actual prevalence of different MDs do not travel together: web search volume may mirrors patients' fears and worries about some particular disorders perceived as more serious than others, or may be driven by release of news about celebrities suffering from MD, "breaking news" or specific mass-media events regarding MD. PMID:26846327

  7. Examining the relationships between resources and online health information seeking among patients with chronic diseases and healthy people.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Sam; Cho, Youngmin

    2015-01-01

    The Internet is increasingly used as an important source of health and medical-related information for people with chronic diseases. It is recognized that online health information seeking (OHIS) is influenced by individuals' multi-dimensional factors, such as demographics, socio-economic factors, perceptions of the Internet, and health conditions. This study applies the conservation of resource theory to examine relationships between various multi-dimensional factors, daily challenges, and OHIS depending on individuals' health conditions. The data used in this study was taken from the U.S. Health Tracking Survey (2012). In this study, Internet users aged 18 and older were classified into patients (N = 518) and healthy people (N = 677) based on their health status related to chronic diseases. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between multi-dimensional factors (resources), self-rated health, and OHIS. Patients' various resources (e.g., age, income, education, having a smartphone, and health tracking) significantly predicted their self-rated health and OHIS; in addition, self-rated health significantly mediated the relationships between focal resources and OHIS. However, the mediating effects of self-rated health were not found in healthy people. PMID:25674723

  8. Doing Climate Science in Indigenous Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to

  9. Indigenous Healing Legacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliman, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    On a tour of Cuba, Native scholars from North and South America reconnected with the "extinct" Taino people and shared their knowledge of traditional healing herbs. Western science is just beginning to validate the tremendous knowledge base that indigenous healers have developed--most indigenous medicinal knowledge is useful for finding new…

  10. Indigenous Continuance: Collaboration and Syncretism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    In this keynote address, the author talks about Indigenous peoples who are presently in a dynamic circumstance of constant change that they are facing courageously with creative collaboration and syncretism. In the address, the author speaks "of" an Indigenous consciousness and he speaks "with" an Indigenous consciousness so that Indigenous…

  11. Health-Seeking Behaviors and Self-Care Practices of People with Filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Pokharel, Amrit; Devkota, Pramila; Mishra, Durga; Ghimire, Yadu Chandra; Gelal, Khageshwor; Paudel, Rajan; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices. PMID:25694785

  12. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  13. The Stories Are the People and the Land: Three Educators Respond to Environmental Teachings in Indigenous Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korteweg, Lisa; Gonzalez, Ismel; Guillet, Jojo

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how Indigenous Canadian children's literature might challenge adult and child readers to consider different meanings and worldviews of the environment as a land-based value system. As three teacher educators from elementary and university classrooms, we use reader-response theory to explore a collection of rich alternative…

  14. SEROPOSITIVITY FOR ASCARIOSIS AND TOXOCARIOSIS AND CYTOKINE EXPRESSION AMONG THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN THE VENEZUELAN DELTA REGION

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Zaida; Brandes, Sietze; Pinelli, Elena; Bochichio, María A.; Palacios, Andrea; Wide, Albina; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Jiménez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at measuring seropositivities for infection by Ascaris suum and Toxocara canis using the excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens from Ascaris suum (AES) and Toxocara canis (TES) within an indigenous population. In addition, quantification of cytokine expressions in peripheral blood cells was determined. A total of 50 Warao indigenous were included; of which 43 were adults and seven children. In adults, 44.1% were seropositive for both parasites; whereas children had only seropositivity to one or the other helminth. For ascariosis, the percentage of AES seropositivity in adults and children was high; 23.3% and 57.1%, respectively. While that for toxocariosis, the percentage of TES seropositivity in adults and children was low; 9.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The percentage of seronegativity was comparable for AES and TES antigens in adults (27.9%) and children (28.6%). When positive sera were analyzed by Western blotting technique using AES antigens; three bands of 97.2, 193.6 and 200.2 kDas were mostly recognized. When the TES antigens were used, nine major bands were mostly identified; 47.4, 52.2, 84.9, 98.2, 119.1, 131.3, 175.6, 184.4 and 193.6 kDas. Stool examinations showed that Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Entamoeba coli were the most commonly observed intestinal parasites. Quantification of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 expressions showed that there was only a significant increased expression of IL-4 in indigenous with TES seropositivity (p < 0.002). Ascaris and Toxocara seropositivity was prevalent among Warao indigenous. PMID:25651326

  15. Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…

  16. Anthropogenic landscape in southeastern Amazonia: contemporary impacts of low-intensity harvesting and dispersal of Brazil nuts by the Kayapó Indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria Beatriz N; Jerozolimski, Adriano; de Robert, Pascale; Salles, Nilson V; Kayapó, Biribiri; Pimentel, Tania P; Magnusson, William E

    2014-01-01

    Brazil nut, the Bertholletia excelsa seed, is one of the most important non-timber forest products in the Amazon Forest and the livelihoods of thousands of traditional Amazonian families depend on its commercialization. B. excelsa has been frequently cited as an indicator of anthropogenic forests and there is strong evidence that past human management has significantly contributed to its present distribution across the Amazon, suggesting that low levels of harvesting may play a positive role in B. excelsa recruitment. Here, we evaluate the effects of Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó Indigenous people of southeastern Amazonia on seedling recruitment in 20 B. excelsa groves subjected to different harvesting intensities, and investigated if management by harvesters influences patterns of B. excelsa distribution. The number of years of low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó over the past two decades was positively related to B. excelsa seedling density in groves. One of the mechanisms behind the higher seedling density in harvested sites seems to be seed dispersal by harvesters along trails. The Kayapó also intentionally plant B. excelsa seeds and seedlings across their territories. Our results show not only that low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó people does not reduce recruitment of seedlings, but that harvesting and/or associated activities conducted by traditional harvesters may benefit B. excelsa beyond grove borders. Our study supports the hypothesis that B. excelsa dispersal throughout the Amazon was, at least in part, influenced by indigenous groups, and strongly suggests that current human management contributes to the maintenance and formation of B. excelsa groves. We suggest that changes in Brazil nut management practices by traditional people to prevent harvesting impacts may be unnecessary and even counterproductive in many areas, and should be carefully evaluated before implementation.

  17. Anthropogenic Landscape in Southeastern Amazonia: Contemporary Impacts of Low-Intensity Harvesting and Dispersal of Brazil Nuts by the Kayapó Indigenous People

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria Beatriz N.; Jerozolimski, Adriano; de Robert, Pascale; Salles, Nilson V.; Kayapó, Biribiri; Pimentel, Tania P.; Magnusson, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil nut, the Bertholletia excelsa seed, is one of the most important non-timber forest products in the Amazon Forest and the livelihoods of thousands of traditional Amazonian families depend on its commercialization. B. excelsa has been frequently cited as an indicator of anthropogenic forests and there is strong evidence that past human management has significantly contributed to its present distribution across the Amazon, suggesting that low levels of harvesting may play a positive role in B. excelsa recruitment. Here, we evaluate the effects of Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó Indigenous people of southeastern Amazonia on seedling recruitment in 20 B. excelsa groves subjected to different harvesting intensities, and investigated if management by harvesters influences patterns of B. excelsa distribution. The number of years of low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó over the past two decades was positively related to B. excelsa seedling density in groves. One of the mechanisms behind the higher seedling density in harvested sites seems to be seed dispersal by harvesters along trails. The Kayapó also intentionally plant B. excelsa seeds and seedlings across their territories. Our results show not only that low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó people does not reduce recruitment of seedlings, but that harvesting and/or associated activities conducted by traditional harvesters may benefit B. excelsa beyond grove borders. Our study supports the hypothesis that B. excelsa dispersal throughout the Amazon was, at least in part, influenced by indigenous groups, and strongly suggests that current human management contributes to the maintenance and formation of B. excelsa groves. We suggest that changes in Brazil nut management practices by traditional people to prevent harvesting impacts may be unnecessary and even counterproductive in many areas, and should be carefully evaluated before implementation. PMID:25029191

  18. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  19. Self-labelling and stigma as predictors of attitudes towards help-seeking among people at risk of psychosis: 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ziyan; Müller, Mario; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Dvorsky, Diane; Metzler, Sibylle; Brabban, Alison; Corrigan, Patrick W; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Mental health service use is helpful but rare among young people at risk of psychosis. The label and stigma associated with mental illness may affect attitudes towards help-seeking. We examined 67 individuals at risk of psychosis over the course of 1 year. An increase of self-labelling as "mentally ill" predicted more positive attitudes towards psychiatric medication, while increased perceived stigma and the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor predicted poorer attitudes towards psychotherapy after 1 year. Early intervention could improve non-stigmatizing awareness of at-risk mental state and reduce the public stigma associated with at-risk status to facilitate help-seeking.

  20. Does the granting of legal privileges as an indigenous people help to reduce health disparities? Evidence from New Zealand and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit

    2009-11-01

    Both the Maori of New Zealand and the Orang Asli of Malaysia are indigenous peoples who have been subjected to prejudice, discrimination and displacement in its various forms by other ethnic groups in their respective countries. However, owing to changes in the socio-political climate, they have been granted rights (including legal privileges) in more recent times. Data pertaining to the health and socio-economic status of the Maori and the Orang Asli are analysed to see if the granting of legal privileges has made any difference for the two communities. One conclusion is that legal privileges (and the granting of special status) do not appear to work well in terms of reducing health and socio-economic gaps. PMID:20443525

  1. Does the granting of legal privileges as an indigenous people help to reduce health disparities? Evidence from New Zealand and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit

    2009-11-01

    Both the Maori of New Zealand and the Orang Asli of Malaysia are indigenous peoples who have been subjected to prejudice, discrimination and displacement in its various forms by other ethnic groups in their respective countries. However, owing to changes in the socio-political climate, they have been granted rights (including legal privileges) in more recent times. Data pertaining to the health and socio-economic status of the Maori and the Orang Asli are analysed to see if the granting of legal privileges has made any difference for the two communities. One conclusion is that legal privileges (and the granting of special status) do not appear to work well in terms of reducing health and socio-economic gaps.

  2. Revitalising Marginalised Communities by Increasing Social Capital through Holistic Education and the Lifelong Learning Strategies of Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collister, Rupert

    The Western model of education is based on reductionism and linear thinking motivated by profit for those at the top. Globalization is the zenith of this Western reductionist philosophy. Its proponents talk about technology providing access to new vocational opportunities, yet fewer people control more of the resources and services. People find…

  3. Cultural Citizenship in the 21st Century: Adult Learning and Indigenous Peoples. Adult Learning and the Challenges of the 21st Century. A Series of 29 Booklets Documenting Workshops Held at the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education. (Hamburg, Germany, July 14-18, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Education.

    This booklet, which was produced as a follow-up to the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education, examines cultural citizenship in the 21st century: adult learning, and indigenous peoples. The booklet begins with an introduction and overview of the current situation of indigenous peoples throughout the world, including recent changes in…

  4. ``Just Another Hoop to Jump Through?'' Using Environmental Laws and Processes to Protect Indigenous Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a “back door” to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes—the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)—to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  5. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes. PMID:23232791

  6. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  7. Virologic and genetic studies relate Amerind origins to the indigenous people of the Mongolia/Manchuria/southeastern Siberia region.

    PubMed Central

    Neel, J V; Biggar, R J; Sukernik, R I

    1994-01-01

    A commonly held theory is that the first wave of migrants into the New World was derivative from the ethnic groups then inhibiting eastern Siberia. However, these ethnic groups lack a mtDNA haplogroup (B) that is well represented in Amerindian tribes. Also, the time depth of the other three mtDNA haplogroups found in Amerindians (A, C, and D) appears to be greater in the Amerindians than in the eastern Siberian ethnic groups. In this communication we demonstrate that the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type II, present in 11 of the 38 Amerindian tribes thus far examined, is not present in any of the 10 ethnic groups of eastern Siberia that we have studied. However, the virus has just been reported in the indigenous population of Mongolia, and mtDNA haplogroup B is also represented in this region. On the basis of these facts, we propose that the ancestors of the first migrants to the New World were not derived from north and central Siberia but from populations to the south, inhabiting the regions of Mongolia, Manchuria, and/or the extreme southeastern tip of Siberia. Images PMID:7938021

  8. Determinants of exposure to mass media family planning messages among indigenous people in Bangladesh: a study on the Garo.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Rakibul; Islam, M Amirul; Banowary, Banya

    2009-03-01

    This paper evaluates exposure to mass media family planning (FP) messages among the Garo, an indigenous community in Bangladesh. A sample of 223 currently married Garo women were selected purposively from two districts where most of the Garo population live. The analysis demonstrated that television was the most significant form of mass media to disseminate FP messages among the recipients - more so than radio and newspapers. About 80.6% of the respondents had heard of FP messages through television, while for the radio and newspapers the percentages were 55.3% and 22.7% respectively. The contraceptive prevalence rate is much higher (79.5%) in the study area than the national level (55.8%). A linear logistic regression model was employed to identify the confluence of different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on mass media FP messages. Regarding exposure to FP messages, four independent variables out of six had significant effects on the exposure to FP messages through any one of the types of media, i.e. radio, television and newspapers. These independent variables were age, level of education, occupation and number of children.

  9. Methylmercury and the health of indigenous peoples: a risk management challenge for physical and social sciences and for public health policy.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, B; Wheatley, M A

    2000-10-01

    health policies that address the risks posed by environmental methylmercury. Therefore, the standard physical sciences approach of the past three decades now needs to be linked with the social sciences approach, with its focus on the indirect impacts of exposure to methylmercury, to provide a comprehensive approach to public health policy development. With this objective in mind, this paper reviews methylmercury-related data from both physical and social sciences. It attempts to draw on the findings in both disciplines to provide suggestions for an integrated approach in policy development relating to human health and human exposure to methylmercury, especially among indigenous peoples in remote areas and in developing countries. An integrated approach such as this may help to limit adverse health effects in the indigenous communities affected.

  10. Methylmercury and the health of indigenous peoples: a risk management challenge for physical and social sciences and for public health policy.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, B; Wheatley, M A

    2000-10-01

    health policies that address the risks posed by environmental methylmercury. Therefore, the standard physical sciences approach of the past three decades now needs to be linked with the social sciences approach, with its focus on the indirect impacts of exposure to methylmercury, to provide a comprehensive approach to public health policy development. With this objective in mind, this paper reviews methylmercury-related data from both physical and social sciences. It attempts to draw on the findings in both disciplines to provide suggestions for an integrated approach in policy development relating to human health and human exposure to methylmercury, especially among indigenous peoples in remote areas and in developing countries. An integrated approach such as this may help to limit adverse health effects in the indigenous communities affected. PMID:11032132

  11. High Stakes Down Under for Indigenous Peoples: Learning from Maori Education in New Zealand; An Outsiders Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Dale

    This paper examines the education of New Zealand's Maori people, noting historical achievement and enrollment gaps between Maori and non-Maori students. This gap is due to family economics, educational resources, cultural and racial barriers at school, negative school attitudes among older Maori students, and the student achievement testing…

  12. A Combined Ecological and Epidemiologic Investigation of Metals Exposure amongst Indigenous Peoples Near the Marlin Mine in Western Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Abare, Marce; Buchanan, Susan; Cryderman, Diana; Nam, Dong-Ha; Sirkin, Susannah; Schmitt, Stefan; Hu, Howard

    2016-01-01

    In August 2009 a combined epidemiological and ecological pilot study was conducted to investigate allegations of human rights abuses in the form of exposures to toxic metals experienced by mine workers and Indigenous Mam Mayan near the Marlin Mine in Guatemala. In the human study there were no differences in blood and urine metals when comparing five mine workers with eighteen non-mine workers, and there were no discernible relationships between metals exposures and self-reported health measures in any study group. On the other hand, individuals residing closest to the mine had significantly higher levels of certain metals (urinary mercury, copper, arsenic, zinc) when compared to those living further away. Levels of blood aluminum, manganese, and cobalt were elevated in comparison to established normal ranges in many individuals; however, there was no apparent relationship to proximity to the mine or occupation, and thus are of unclear significance. In the ecological study, several metals (aluminum, manganese, cobalt) were found significantly elevated in the river water and sediment sites directly below the mine when compared to sites elsewhere. When the results of the human and ecological results are combined, they suggest that exposures to certain metals may be elevated in sites near the mine but it is not clear if the current magnitude of these elevations poses a significant threat to health. The authors conclude that more robust studies are needed while parallel efforts to minimize the ecological and human impacts of mining proceed. This is critical particularly as the impact of the exposures found could be greatly magnified by expected increases in mining activity over time, synergistic toxicity between metals, and susceptibility for the young and those with pre-existing disease. PMID:20952048

  13. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

  14. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  15. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

  16. Sexual Health Information Seeking Online: A Mixed-Methods Study among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Joshua C.; Bigelow, Louisa; DeHaan, Samantha; Mustanski, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    The current study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the positive and negative aspects of Internet use for sexual health information among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young people. A diverse community sample of 32 LGBT young people (aged 16-24 years) completed qualitative interviews focusing on how, where, and when…

  17. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts to gain…

  18. Indigenous Studies and the Politics of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGloin, Colleen; Carlson, Bronwyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Language use changes over time. In Indigenous contexts, language alters to suit the shifting nature of cultural expression as this might fit with Indigenous peoples' preference or as a consequence of changes to outdated and colonial modes of expression. For students studying in the discipline of Indigenous Studies, learning to use appropriate…

  19. Indigenous Studies as an International Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Robles, Rodolfo

    This paper proposes the development of Indigenous Studies as an international field, both in the sense of advancing the discipline internationally, wherever there are Indigenous peoples, and in the sense of incorporating international perspectives into curricula. In Canada, Indigenous Studies has been and is still treated as something to be done…

  20. Indigenous Education and Empowerment: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Saad, Ismael, Ed.; Champagne, Duane, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Indigenous people have often been confronted with education systems that ignore their cultural and historical perspectives. This insightful volume contributes to the understanding of indigenous empowerment through education, and creates a new foundation for implementing specialized indigenous/minority education worldwide, engaging the simultaneous…

  1. Indigeneity and Homeland: Land, History, Ceremony, and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerma, Michael

    2012-01-01

    What is the relationship between Indigenous peoples and violent reactions to contemporary states? This research explores differing, culturally informed notions of attachment to land or place territory. Mechanistic ties and organic ties to land are linked to a key distinction between Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous peoples. Utilizing the…

  2. The conflicts and dialogues among techno-developmental, ecological, and indigenous paradigms in a globalized modernity: A case study of the U'wa people's resistance against oil development in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehwa

    The literature regarding indigenous eco-politics often provides only a partial explanation about interactions among indigenous peoples, environmental NGOs, and players of resource extraction activities. The dissertation argues that previous studies often fossilize indigenous people in time and space by treating them and their worldviews as static. Against this background, the dissertation draws on paradigm analysis and demonstrates how this approach can help tease out the dynamism and complexity inherent to the interactions between paradigm actors, thus helping us reanalyze indigenous peoples and their paradigms as dynamic and evolving venues for creative possibilities. Extensive literature review and field observation are utilized to examine the case study of interactions among the U'wa, environmental NGOs, Occidental Petroleum, Ecopetrol, and the Colombian government. The case study reveals that oil development activities have heralded sharp conflicts among various paradigm actors. It shows how such conflicts and ensuing dialogues among paradigm actors have led to paradigm changes over time and across scales of organization. We find that the U'wa indigenous paradigm poses a legal, political, and cultural challenge to the techno-developmental paradigm of oil development. We find further that paradigm conflicts are both opportunities and challenges for the U'wa to engage with the modern legal system of Colombia. The case study also reveals that complementarities between paradigms are useful starting points for coalitions between the U'wa and environmental NGOs. The ability to cross scales of socio-political organization enabled by modern communication technologies has helped the U'wa and environmental NGOs to successfully challenge the dominant paradigm and its resource extraction activities. However, it also shows that additional political conditions are necessary for successful coalitions between two actors. The case study demonstrates that the U

  3. [The demographic revolution among Brazilian indigenous peoples: the case of the Kayabí in the Xingu Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1970-2007].

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Heloisa

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic dynamics of the Kayabí, a Tupi people in the Xingu Indian Reservation in Central Brazil, from 1970 to 2007. Data were gathered from vital statistics for the Xingu Indian Reservation at the Federal University in São Paulo. Contact with Brazilian national society from 1920 to 1950 in the Upper Teles Pires River Valley led to a population decrease due to clashes and epidemics. In 1952, part of the Kayabí group gradually began migrating to the Xingu, where they still live. In 1970 there were 204 Kayabí in Xingu villages, and by 2007 there were 1,162, representing a 4.8% annual growth rate. For 2000-2007 the crude birth rate was 51 per thousand inhabitants; total fertility rate 7.8 children per women; crude death crude 3.5 per thousand inhabitants; and infant mortality rate 17.5 per thousand live births. The majority of the population is under 15 years of age (55.9%). The results show a population recovery process, similar to that of some other indigenous group in Brazil.

  4. [The demographic revolution among Brazilian indigenous peoples: the case of the Kayabí in the Xingu Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1970-2007].

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Heloisa

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic dynamics of the Kayabí, a Tupi people in the Xingu Indian Reservation in Central Brazil, from 1970 to 2007. Data were gathered from vital statistics for the Xingu Indian Reservation at the Federal University in São Paulo. Contact with Brazilian national society from 1920 to 1950 in the Upper Teles Pires River Valley led to a population decrease due to clashes and epidemics. In 1952, part of the Kayabí group gradually began migrating to the Xingu, where they still live. In 1970 there were 204 Kayabí in Xingu villages, and by 2007 there were 1,162, representing a 4.8% annual growth rate. For 2000-2007 the crude birth rate was 51 per thousand inhabitants; total fertility rate 7.8 children per women; crude death crude 3.5 per thousand inhabitants; and infant mortality rate 17.5 per thousand live births. The majority of the population is under 15 years of age (55.9%). The results show a population recovery process, similar to that of some other indigenous group in Brazil. PMID:20464076

  5. Study Protocol – Improving Access to Kidney Transplants (IMPAKT): A detailed account of a qualitative study investigating barriers to transplant for Australian Indigenous people with end-stage kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Jeannie; Cass, Alan; Cunningham, Joan; Preece, Cilla; Anderson, Kate; Snelling, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are slightly more than 2% of the total Australian population however, in recent years they have comprised between 6 and 10% of new patients beginning treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Although transplant is considered the optimal form of treatment for many ESKD patients there is a pronounced disparity between the rates at which Indigenous ESKD patients receive transplants compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts. The IMPAKT (Improving Access to Kidney Transplants) Interview study investigated reasons for this disparity through a large scale, in-depth interview study involving patients, nephrologists and key decision-making staff at selected Australian transplant and dialysis sites. Methods The design and conduct of the study reflected the multi-disciplinary membership of the core IMPAKT team. Promoting a participatory ethos, IMPAKT established partnerships with a network of hospital transplant units and hospital dialysis treatment centres that provide treatment to the vast majority of Indigenous patients across Australia. Under their auspices, the IMPAKT team conducted in-depth interviews in 26 treatment/service centres located in metropolitan, regional and remote Australia. Peer interviewing supported the engagement of Indigenous patients (146), and nephrologists (19). In total IMPAKT spoke with Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients (241), key renal nursing and other (non-specialist) staff (95) and a small number of relevant others (28). Data analysis was supported by QSR software. At each site, IMPAKT also documented educational programs and resources, mapped an hypothetical ‘patient journey’ to transplant through the local system and observed patient care and treatment routines. Discussion The national scope, inter-disciplinary approach and use of qualitative methods in an investigation of a significant health inequality affecting Indigenous people is, we believe, an Australian first. An exceptionally

  6. Mexico and Guatemala: A Portfolio of Supplementary Lessons on Indigenous People. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Pamela

    At the present time, approximately 50% of the population of Guatemala is classified as indigenous, while in Mexico the figure is estimated to be between 10% and 15%. The figures are deceptive, however, since there is no legal definition of what constitutes an Indian in either country. This unit contains lessons that focus on indigenous groups in…

  7. A qualitative study on primary health care professionals’ perceptions of mental health, suicidal problems and help-seeking among young people in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health problems among young peoples are a growing public health issue around the world. In low- income countries health systems are characterized by lack of facilities, human resources and primary health care is rarely an integrated part of overall health care services. This study aims at exploring how primary health care professionals in Nicaragua perceive young people’s mental health problems, suicidal problems and help–seeking behaviour. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses and doctors working in primary health care services in León, Nicaragua. A qualitative research design was applied. Data was analysed using thematic analysis approach. Results This study revealed that doctors and nurses were reluctant to deal with young people presenting with suicidal problems at the primary health care. This was more likely to stem from feelings of incompetence rather than from negative attitudes. Other barriers in providing appropriate care to young people with mental health problems were identified such as lack of time, lack of privacy, lack of human resources, lack of trained professionals and difficulties in communicating with young people. The primary health care (PHC) professionals suggested different solutions to improve care for young people with suicidal problems. Conclusion PHC doctors and nurses in Nicaragua felt that providing skilled mental health services to young people was a priority for them but they also identified a number of barriers to be able to do so. They discussed ways to improve young people’s willingness to share sensitive issues with them and suggested ways to make PHC more appreciated by young people. PMID:24989871

  8. Companion Versus Comparison: Examining Seeking Social Companionship or Social Comparison as Characteristics That Differentiate Happy and Unhappy People.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhyung; Hong, Emily K; Choi, Incheol; Hicks, Joshua A

    2016-03-01

    Which friend do you want to spend time with-a happy friend who performs better than you or an unhappy friend who performs worse than you? The present research demonstrates that in such conflicting situations, when the desires for companionship and comparison are pitted against each other, one's level of happiness plays an important role in one's choice. Using hypothetical scenarios, we found that compared with unhappy people, happy people expected that spending time with a happy, superior friend would be more pleasant than spending time with an unhappy, inferior friend (Studies 1B through 2) and were more willing to socialize with a happy, superior friend than with an unhappy, inferior friend (Studies 1B through 2). Moreover, this pattern was not explained by self-esteem (Study 2) or the similarity-attraction hypothesis (Study 3). The present findings suggest that happy people place more value on companionship than on comparison. PMID:26865287

  9. Persuasive Design: An Information-Systems Design-Theory Approach to Persuade Employment-Seeking Behavior among People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Buhairan, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    People with disabilities face a number of societal challenges that influence this vulnerable population to be less interested and motivated to pursue working. According to researchers, persuasive technologies are able to motivate intended users to change a targeted behavior. This study included the design, development, and evaluation of an…

  10. An Ecological Approach to Seeking and Utilising the Views of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities in Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Neil; Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Transition planning using a person-centred approach has, in the main, failed to shape service provision. We offer an alternative based on an ecological understanding of human development linked to public health approaches that prioritise whole system planning. A total of 43 young people with intellectual disabilities, in Bradford, England, who…

  11. Indigenous Student Participation in Higher Education: Emergent Themes and Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseron, Johnnie; Wilde, Simon; Miller, Adrian; Kelly, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Educational processes directed at Indigenous peoples have long propagated a disparity between the educational successes of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students (May 1999), a contrast which can be acutely observed in Australia. It is not surprising, then, that the educational needs of Indigenous students have been poorly served, with the extant…

  12. ‘This isn't what mine looked like’: a qualitative study of symptom appraisal and help seeking in people recently diagnosed with melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Fiona M; Birt, Linda; Cavers, Debbie; Scott, Suzanne; Emery, Jon; Burrows, Nigel; Cavanagh, Gina; MacKie, Rona; Weller, David; Campbell, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions among patients recently diagnosed with melanomas, and to compare experiences of people with ‘thinner’ (<1 mm) and ‘thicker’ (>2 mm) melanomas, as thickness at diagnosis is an important prognostic feature. Methods In-depth interviews with patients within 10 weeks of melanoma diagnosis explored the factors impacting on their pathways to diagnosis. Framework analysis, underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment, was used to explore the data with particular focus on patients’ beliefs and experiences, disease factors, and healthcare professional (HCP) influences. Results 63 patients were interviewed (29–93 years, 31 women, 30 thicker melanomas). All described their skin changes using rich lay vocabulary. Many included unassuming features such as ‘just a little spot’ as well as common features of changes in size, colour and shape. There appeared to be subtly different patterns of symptoms: descriptions of vertical growth, bleeding, oozing and itch were features of thicker melanomas irrespective of pathological type. Appraisal was influenced by explanations such as normal life changes, prior beliefs and whether skin changes matched known melanoma descriptions. Most decisions to seek help were triggered by common factors such as advice from family and friends. 11 patients reported previous reassurance about their skin changes by a HCP, with little guidance on monitoring change or when it would be appropriate to re-consult. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with both thinner and thicker melanomas often did not initially recognise or interpret their skin changes as warning signs or prompts to seek timely medical attention. The findings provide guidance for melanoma awareness campaigns on more appropriate images, helpful descriptive language and the need to stress the often apparently innocuous nature of potentially serious skin changes. The importance of appropriate advice

  13. Help seeking in older Asian people with dementia in Melbourne: using the Cultural Exchange Model to explore barriers and enablers.

    PubMed

    Haralambous, Betty; Dow, Briony; Tinney, Jean; Lin, Xiaoping; Blackberry, Irene; Rayner, Victoria; Lee, Sook-Meng; Vrantsidis, Freda; Lautenschlager, Nicola; Logiudice, Dina

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing in Australia. Limited research is available on access to Cognitive Dementia and Memory Services (CDAMS) for people with dementia from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) communities. This study aimed to determine the barriers and enablers to accessing CDAMS for people with dementia and their families of Chinese and Vietnamese backgrounds. Consultations with community members, community workers and health professionals were conducted using the "Cultural Exchange Model" framework. For carers, barriers to accessing services included the complexity of the health system, lack of time, travel required to get to services, language barriers, interpreters and lack of knowledge of services. Similarly, community workers and health professionals identified language, interpreters, and community perceptions as key barriers to service access. Strategies to increase knowledge included providing information via radio, printed material and education in community group settings. The "Cultural Exchange Model" enabled engagement with and modification of the approaches to meet the needs of the targeted CALD communities.

  14. An ecological approach to seeking and utilising the views of young people with intellectual disabilities in transition planning.

    PubMed

    Small, Neil; Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Transition planning using a person-centred approach has, in the main, failed to shape service provision. We offer an alternative based on an ecological understanding of human development linked to public health approaches that prioritise whole system planning. A total of 43 young people with intellectual disabilities, in Bradford, England, who were approaching transition from school or college were recruited to a qualitative study. Their ethnic breakdown was as follows: 16 white British, 24 Pakistani, 2 Bangladeshi and 1 Black African. Each young person was interviewed twice, at recruitment and a year later, to observe any changes in their social networks during transition. Interviews were undertaken with a semi-structured interview schedule and with the pictorial approach of Talking Mats. Both the networks the young people live within, and their sense of what the future might hold for them, are described and linked to Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development. The importance of the family and school is emphasised, as is the absence of engagement in leisure activities and work. Transition planning needs to start with mapping the systems individuals live within, areas of strength should be supported and parts of the system, which are not fit for purpose for these young people, should be prioritised for interventions.

  15. Indigenous Labor and Indigenous History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Mary Jane Logan

    2009-01-01

    This article was originally a response to a call from the Western History Association for papers by Indigenous academics. The call aimed to showcase Indigenous scholarship on certain terms: that it delves into some of the opportunities, challenges, and obstacles involved with "working from home" or doing research that bridges a space called "home"…

  16. Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

  17. Indigenizing Teacher Education: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Raynor, Marg

    2013-01-01

    This action research report focuses on a new elective course entitled "Indigenizing Education: Education for/about Aboriginal Peoples" that was developed and taught by two teacher educators--one Euro-Canadian and the other Metis. The purpose of the course was to increase understanding of Indigenous peoples and of the impact of…

  18. Food variety score is associated with dual burden of malnutrition in Orang Asli (Malaysian indigenous peoples) households: implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Saibul, Nurfaizah; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Ghani, Nawalyah Abdul; Rahman, Hejar Abdul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the presence of dual burden households in Orang Asli (OA, indigenous people) communities and its associated factors. A total of 182 OA households in two districts in Selangor with the required criteria (182 non-pregnant women of child bearing age and 284 children aged 2-9 years old) participated in the study. Height and weight of both women and children were measured. Energy intake and food variety score (FVS) were determined using three 24-hour diet recalls. While 58% were underweight and 64% of the children were stunted, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women were 31% and 20% respectively. The percentage of dual burden households (overweight mother/underweight child) was 25.8% while 14.8% households had normal weight mother/normal weight child. The mean food variety score (FVS) was similar for women (7.0+/-2.1) and children (6.9+/-1.9). Dual burden households were associated with women's employment status (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 2.65-5.66), FVS of children (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.95) and FVS of women (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02- 1.89). The FVS of children (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.89) and women (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.64-2.77) remained significant even when dual burden households were compared to only households with normal weight mother/normal weight child. In these OA communities, food variety may predict a healthier diet in children, but may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adults. Efforts to address households with dual burden malnutrition should consider promotion of healthy diets and lifestyle for all members. PMID:19786390

  19. [Politics and inter-medicality in the Upper Xingu: from model to practice in indigenous health care].

    PubMed

    Novo, Marina Pereira

    2011-07-01

    The indigenous healthcare model in Brazil is premised on comprehensive care combined with the notion of differentiated care and provides for respect for cultural diversity, seeking to incorporate traditional therapeutic practices into the health services that serve indigenous peoples. This study aimed to determine how to reconcile universal access to health goods and services with a model of care that guarantees differentiation, without interfering in the quality of services. It is also necessary to define which parameters should be used for evaluating the quality and efficacy of such services in an intercultural context. Based on a case study - the implementation of health services in the Upper Xingu - the author addresses some issues related to the political uses and "dangers" associated with "health spaces" and the distinct concepts (indigenous and non-indigenous) of what constitutes health and quality of health services. These issues affect not only health services but also the local political situation. PMID:21808820

  20. [Politics and inter-medicality in the Upper Xingu: from model to practice in indigenous health care].

    PubMed

    Novo, Marina Pereira

    2011-07-01

    The indigenous healthcare model in Brazil is premised on comprehensive care combined with the notion of differentiated care and provides for respect for cultural diversity, seeking to incorporate traditional therapeutic practices into the health services that serve indigenous peoples. This study aimed to determine how to reconcile universal access to health goods and services with a model of care that guarantees differentiation, without interfering in the quality of services. It is also necessary to define which parameters should be used for evaluating the quality and efficacy of such services in an intercultural context. Based on a case study - the implementation of health services in the Upper Xingu - the author addresses some issues related to the political uses and "dangers" associated with "health spaces" and the distinct concepts (indigenous and non-indigenous) of what constitutes health and quality of health services. These issues affect not only health services but also the local political situation.

  1. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    PubMed

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility. PMID:25241484

  2. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    PubMed

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility.

  3. From Montana to Brazil: Sparking an International Indigenous Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarlott, David, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    As president of Little Big Horn College, David Yarlott writes that he had the good fortune to be involved in several events with Indigenous peoples from other countries. He has participated in several World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium (WINHEC) conferences and also a World Indigenous Peoples Conference on Education (WIPCE). The…

  4. Toward health and wellbeing for indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    van Holst Pellekaan, S M; Clague, L

    2005-10-01

    The health of indigenous Australians remains well below that of non-indigenous Australians and indigenous peoples in Canada and New Zealand. Although recent planning has initiated many outstanding, culturally appropriate programmes with indigenous involvement, health statistics only reflect marginal improvement in recent years. It is crucial that positive programmes are sustained with appropriately directed funding. An approach that includes respect for the emotional and spiritual wellbeing of Australia's indigenous peoples will assist to redress some of the disadvantage caused by dispossession of country, language, and identity. It is clear from many programmes that are in place, that primary health care delivered locally through community controlled organisations, will minimise the impact of serious illnesses that currently threaten whole families and communities. Westernized health care systems are slow to learn from indigenous peoples in Australia and other places, that maintenance of wellness, not management of illness should be the goal.

  5. User charges in public health facilities in Tanzania: effect on revenues, quality of services and people's health-seeking behaviour for malaria illnesses in Korogwe district.

    PubMed

    Mubyazi, Godfrey; Massaga, Julius; Kamugisha, Mathias; Mubyazi, J-Nyangoma; Magogo, Grace C; Mdira, K-Yahya; Gesase, Samuel; Sukwa, Tom

    2006-02-01

    User charges in public health facilities are aimed at improving efficiency and quality of health services. In Africa, evidence about their effect on patient attendance and community health-seeking behaviour are mixed. This paper reports a study of the effect of user charges on revenue collection, quality of services and people's health-seeking behaviour in relation to malaria in Korogwe district, Tanzania. Data were collected through focus-group discussions with community members, interviewing community leaders and health workers, field observations and review of patient registers. Generally, there was no distinct difference in the trends of patient attendances before and after user fee introduction. Public awareness about cost-sharing policy was high, but had low appreciation in the administration of exemptions and waivers. Shortage of drugs, laboratory facilities, and inhospitality of nurses lowered their confidence in the user-fee system. Autonomy to collect and prioritize expenditure of user-fee revenue at the health-facility level was appreciated by community leaders and health workers who, however, had reservations with funds being held at the district level and delays by the DMO's office in approving budgets submitted in request for expenditure of such revenues. Thus, despite the potential of user charges for revenue mobilization, problems with their administration lowers public confidence in the user-fee system improving quality and accessibility of services to the poor.

  6. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses. PMID:27781012

  7. Seeking information about HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study of health literacy among people living with HIV/AIDS in a low prevalence context.

    PubMed

    Zukoski, Ann P; Thorburn, Sheryl; Stroud, Josh

    2011-11-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS in rural and low HIV prevalence areas face a number of challenges including stigma, limited access to specialized medical care, lack of an HIV/AIDS specialist and fear which may interfere with their ability to find and use information to manage their health. With a large number of HIV cases located in non-metropolitan and rural areas in the US, more research is needed to better understand the health seeking behaviors of individuals living in this context. This study examined how 16 individuals living with HIV sought out information to meet their health needs. In qualitative semi-structured interviews, we explored participants' primary sources of information, types of information sought, and barriers to accessing information. The sample was comprised of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who resided in a predominantly rural area with low HIV prevalence. The majority of participants relied on a combination of sources including their HIV/AIDS physician, the Internet, a Ryan-White caseworker and a staff member of a community-based support organization to meet their informational needs. Information sought focused primarily on drug regimens, drug side effects, or drug research. Participants shared barriers to accessing information including stigma, fear, concern about disclosure, and feelings of futility and anger. Findings point to a need to expand health literacy research and interventions to address broader social and structural barriers to health improvement for PLWHA, especially among those living in rural and low HIV prevalence areas.

  8. Ambivalent helpers and unhealthy choices: public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Emma; Paradies, Yin

    2005-03-01

    Public health practitioners in Australian indigenous health work in a complex political environment. Public health training is limited in providing them with conceptual tools needed to unpack the postcolonial nexus of 'fourth-world' health. A workshop was designed by the authors to facilitate critical reflection on how the concepts of race and culture are used in constructions of indigenous ill-health. It was attended by researchers, students, clinicians and bureaucrats working in public health in northern Australia. A thematic analysis of the workshop minutes provided insight into public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health. The major themes that emerged included tension between structure and agency and between sameness and difference, and ambivalence surrounding the 'helper' identity of public health practitioners. We suggest that these narratives can be understood as attempts to maintain the moral integrity of both Indigenous people and practitioners. This task is necessitated by the specter of cultural relativism intrinsic to contemporary liberal discourses of multiculturalism that attempt to reconcile the universal rights of the citizen with the special rights of minority groups. We argue that the concepts of self-determination and neocolonialism mark the spaces where universal and particular discourses overlap and clash. Practitioners who seek to escape neocolonialism must inhabit only the discursive space of public health congruent with self-determination, leaving them in a bind common to many postcolonial situations. They must relieve the ill-health of indigenous people without acting upon them; change them without declaring that change is required.

  9. Indigenous Knowledge as a Tool for Self-Determination and Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Dawn Martin

    This paper explores aspects of Indigenous knowledge on several levels and examines the role of Indigenous knowledge in Indigenous empowerment as the number and influence of Native people in academia increases. Indigenous peoples worldwide have a common set of assumptions that forms a context or paradigm--a collective core of interrelated…

  10. Mental and substance use disorders from early adolescence to young adulthood among indigenous young people: final diagnostic results from an 8-year panel study

    PubMed Central

    Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Crawford, Devan M.; Walls, Melissa L.; Gentzler, Kari C.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to investigate change in prevalence rates for mental and substance abuse disorders between early adolescence and young adulthood in a cohort of indigenous adolescents who participated in an 8-year panel study. Method The data are from a lagged, sequential study of 671 indigenous adolescents (Wave 1) from a single culture in the Northern Midwest USA and Canada. At Wave 1 (mean age 11.3 years, Wave 4 (mean age 14.3 years), Wave 6 (mean age 16.2 years), and at Wave 8 (mean age 18.3 years) the tribally enrolled adolescents completed a computer-assisted personal interview that included DISC-R assessment for 11 diagnoses. Our yearly retention rates by diagnostic wave were: Wave 2, 94.7 %; Wave 4, 87.7 %; Wave 6, 88.0 %; Wave 8, 78.5 %. Results The findings show a dramatic increase in lifetime prevalence rates for substance use disorders. By young adulthood, over half had met criteria of substance abuse or dependence disorder. Also at young adulthood, 58.2 % had met lifetime criteria of a single substance use or mental disorder and 37.2 % for two or more substance use or mental disorders. The results are compared to other indigenous diagnostic studies and to the general population. Conclusions A mental health crisis exists within the indigenous populations that participated in this study. Innovations within current mental health service systems are needed to address the unmet demand of adolescents and families. PMID:24488151

  11. Research on Indigenous Elders: From Positivistic to Decolonizing Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Although indigenous peoples have lower life expectancies than the social majority populations in their countries, increasing numbers of indigenous people are living into old age. Research on indigenous elders is informed by a number of research traditions. Researchers have mined existing data sets to compare characteristics of indigenous populations with non-indigenous groups, and these findings have revealed significant disparities experienced by indigenous elders. Some investigators have attempted to validate standardized research tools for use in indigenous populations. Findings from these studies have furthered our knowledge about indigenous elders and have highlighted the ways in which tools may need to be adapted to better fit indigenous views of the constructs being measured. Qualitative approaches are popular, as they allow indigenous elders to tell their stories and challenge non-indigenous investigators to acknowledge values and worldviews different from their own. Recently, efforts have extended to participatory and decolonizing research methods, which aim to empower indigenous elders as researchers. Research approaches are discussed in light of the negative experiences many indigenous peoples have had with Eurocentric research. Acknowledgment of historical trauma, life-course perspectives, phenomenology, and critical gerontology should frame future research with, rather than on, indigenous elders. PMID:23841952

  12. Trajectories of Suicidal Ideation in People Seeking Web-Based Help for Suicidality: Secondary Analysis of a Dutch Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Spijker, Bregje; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Nordentoft, Merete; Kerkhof, Ad JFM

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation (SI) is a common mental health problem. Variability in intensity of SI over time has been linked to suicidal behavior, yet little is known about the temporal course of SI. Objective The primary aim was to identify prototypical trajectories of SI in the general population and, secondarily, to examine whether receiving Web-based self-help for SI, psychiatric symptoms, or sociodemographics predicted membership in the identified SI trajectories. Methods We enrolled 236 people, from the general Dutch population seeking Web-based help for SI, in a randomized controlled trial comparing a Web-based self-help for SI group with a control group. We assessed participants at inclusion and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was applied at all assessments and was included in latent growth mixture modeling analysis to empirically identify trajectories. Results We identified 4 SI trajectories. The high stable trajectory represented 51.7% (122/236) of participants and was characterized by constant high level of SI. The high decreasing trajectory (50/236, 21.2%) consisted of people with a high baseline SI score followed by a gradual decrease to a very low score. The third trajectory, high increasing (12/236, 5.1%), also had high initial SI score, followed by an increase to the highest level of SI at 6 weeks. The fourth trajectory, low stable (52/236, 22.0%) had a constant low level of SI. Previous attempted suicide and having received Web-based self-help for SI predicted membership in the high decreasing trajectory. Conclusions Many adults experience high persisting levels of SI, though results encouragingly indicate that receiving Web-based self-help for SI increased membership in a decreasing trajectory of SI. PMID:27363482

  13. Positive Educational Responses to Indigenous Student Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Angela; Lynch, Andrea; Dalley-Trim, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    Engaging positively with the mobility of Indigenous students has been the centre of a 5-year action research project in Queensland, Australia. Drawing on responses developed for other marginalised mobile populations, and with consideration for the extent of mobility amongst many Indigenous people in Australia, this paper focuses on the…

  14. An Indigenous View of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Winona

    1998-01-01

    Uses stories of U.S. and Canadian indigenous individuals who defended their lands against uranium mining and hydroelectric development to contrast the thinking of indigenous people (natural law as pre-eminent, spiritual practice, intergenerational residency in the same place) with industrial thinking (man's dominion over nature, linear thinking,…

  15. Maynard Participation in Alaska Forum on the Environment Panel Discussion on Increasing Input to the US National Climate Assessment (NCA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Processes from Alaska, with Emphasis on Indigenous Peoples Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Nancy Maynard was invited by the Alaska Forum on the Environment to participate in a Panel Discussion to discuss (1) background about what the US NCA and International IPCC assessments are, (2) the impact the assessments have on policy-making, (3) the process for participation in both assessments, (4) how we can increase participation by Indigenous Peoples such as Native Americans and Alaska Natives, (5) How we can increase historical and current impacts input from Native communities through stories, oral history, "grey" literature, etc. The session will be chaired by Dr. Bull Bennett, a cochair of the US NCA's chapter on "Native and Tribal Lands and Resources" and Dr. Maynard is the other co-chair of that chapter and they will discuss the latest activities under the NCA process relevant to Native Americans and Alaska Natives. Dr. Maynard is also a Lead Author of the "Polar Regions" chapter of the IPCC WG2 (5th Assessment) and she will describes some of the latest approaches by the IPCC to entrain more Indigenous peoples into the IPCC process.

  16. Narratives of race and indigeneity in the Genographic Project.

    PubMed

    TallBear, Kim

    2007-01-01

    In its quest to sample 100,000 "indigenous and traditional peoples," the Genographic Project deploys five problematic narratives: (1) that "we are all African"; (2) that "genetic science can end racism"; (3) that "indigenous peoples are vanishing"; (4) that "we are all related"; and (5) that Genographic "collaborates" with indigenous peoples. In so doing, Genographic perpetuates much critiqued, yet longstanding notions of race and colonial scientific practice.

  17. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  18. Career Decision-Making: What Matters to Indigenous Australians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helme, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This article brings together and discusses three research projects that examined the vocational education and career-decision making of Indigenous Australians. These studies focused on the experiences of Indigenous people themselves, in order to provide an Indigenous perspective on vocational and career development. Four main barriers that limit…

  19. Indigenous Digital Storytelling in Video: Witnessing with Alma Desjarlais

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke, Judy M.

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous digital storytelling in video is a way of witnessing the stories of Indigenous communities and Elders, including what has happened and is happening in the lives and work of Indigenous peoples. Witnessing includes acts of remembrance in which we look back to reinterpret and recreate our relationship to the past in order to understand the…

  20. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  1. Honouring indigenous treaty rights for climate justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantyka-Pringle, C. S.; Westman, C. N.; Kythreotis, A. P.; Schindler, D. W.

    2015-09-01

    Expansion of the oil sands industry in Canada has caused land destruction and social friction. Canada could become a leader in climate governance by honouring treaty commitments made with indigenous peoples.

  2. Providing Space for Indigenous Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangihaere, Tracey Mihinoa; Twiname, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Colonial influences have generally failed to respect indigenous knowledge, languages, and cultures. Determination to reclaim First Nations identity is visible in many jurisdictions. First Nations Peoples continue to call on governments to facilitate changes needed to revitalize their economic, social, cultural, and spiritual well-being. This…

  3. Protecting indigenous rights. Guatemala.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Guatemala's recent ratification of the International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention regarding indigenous and tribal peoples (1989, No. 169) represents a commitment to guarantee the rights of the country's majority Mayan population. Ratifying governments are obligated to respect the traditional values and land rights of tribal and indigenous peoples and to consult with them on any decisions affecting their economic or social development. Ratification of this Convention was a key element in an eight-part UN-sponsored negotiation aimed at ending the civil war in Guatemala. Efforts are underway to promote dialogue between organized civil society and government. Negotiations in May 1996, conducted with ILO assistance, resulted in a socioeconomic agreement under which Guatemala will increase social investment in education, undertake agrarian reform, and institute tripartite consultation on all major social and economic issues. However, two key issues in the peace negotiations--the role of the army in civil society and constitutional reform--remain unresolved. The final global peace accord is expected to be signed in September 1996. UN organizations are already working to mobilize international support for transforming these agreements into political and social realities for the Guatemalan people. PMID:12320524

  4. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  5. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and

  6. Addressing the Pedagogical Purpose of Indigenous Displays: The Case of the National Museum of the American Indian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofanenko, Brenda; Segall, Avner

    2012-01-01

    In museums with Indigenous objects, the exhibits present a particular representation of the culture and history of Indigenous peoples. More recently, the move toward partnerships with Indigenous communities represents a radical departure from long-held attitudes about the relationship between Indigenous people and museums. This article both…

  7. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  8. Academic Staff Perceptions of Factors Underlying Program Completion by Australian Indigenous Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim; Stewart, Lee

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the number of Indigenous health professionals is one way to help reduce the poor health outcomes of Australia's Indigenous people. However, while Indigenous students are enrolling in Australian tertiary undergraduate nursing courses in increasing numbers, their completion rates remain lower than non-Indigenous students and many…

  9. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  10. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  11. The Importance of Place in Indigenous Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Dawn; Swayze, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education, Mack and colleagues (Mack et al. "2011") seek to identify the necessary components of science education in Indigenous settings. Using a review of current research in informal science education in Indigenous settings, along with personal interviews with American educators engaged in these…

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in indigenous Maya-Yucateco people: a cross-sectional community-based study.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Ballestas, I; Alvarez-Nemegyei, J; Loyola-Sánchez, A; Escudero, M L

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in indigenous Maya-Yucateco communities using Community-Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology. The study population comprised subjects aged ≥18 years from 11 communities in the municipality of Chankom, Yucatan. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed, and a census was used. Subjects positive for musculoskeletal (MSK) pain were examined by trained physicians. A total of 1523 community members were interviewed. The mean age was 45.2 years (standard deviation (SD) 17.9), and 917 (60.2 %) were women. Overall, 592 individuals (38.8 %; 95 % CI 36.3-41.3 %) had experienced MSK pain in the last 7 days. The pain intensity was reported as "strong" to "severe" in 43.4 %. The diagnoses were rheumatic regional pain syndromes in 165 (10.8 %; 95 % CI 9.4-12.5), low back pain in 153 (10.0 %; 95 % CI 8.5-11.6), osteoarthritis in 144 (9.4 %; 95 % CI 8.0-11.0), fibromyalgia in 35 (2.2 %; 95 % CI 1.6-3.1), rheumatoid arthritis in 17 (1.1 %; 95 % CI 0.6-1.7), undifferentiated arthritis in 8 (0.5 %; 95 % CI 0.2-0.8), and gout in 1 (0.06 %; 95 % CI 0.001-0.3). Older age, being female, disability, and physically demanding work were associated with a greater likelihood of having a rheumatic disease. In conclusion, MSK pain and rheumatic diseases were highly prevalent. The high impact of rheumatic diseases on daily activities in this indigenous population suggests the need to organize culturally-sensitive community interventions for the prevention of disabilities caused by MSK disorders and diseases.

  13. Putting Indigenous cultural training into nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Downing, Rosie; Kowal, Emma

    The provision of Indigenous cultural training for non-Indigenous health workers has been widely promoted as a method of improving health service provision to 'close the gap' in Indigenous health. However, in the absence of strong evidence, the power of Indigenous cultural training to meaningfully contribute to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples remains questionable. This research explored how six hospital-based nurses consider the role of Indigenous cultural training and the impact it has had on their practice through individual semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis revealed the significance of individual professionals' attitudes in determining the impact of Indigenous cultural training, as well as the need for institutional support to assist in translating Indigenous cultural training into practice. Utilising post-colonial theory, two key findings emerge. First, the way in which Indigenous cultural training conceptualises 'identity' and 'culture' is critical to its ultimate outcomes. Second, deficits in institutional support limit the efficacy of Indigenous cultural training by placing the onus for institutional change on the shoulders of individual health workers.

  14. Putting Indigenous cultural training into nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Downing, Rosie; Kowal, Emma

    The provision of Indigenous cultural training for non-Indigenous health workers has been widely promoted as a method of improving health service provision to 'close the gap' in Indigenous health. However, in the absence of strong evidence, the power of Indigenous cultural training to meaningfully contribute to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples remains questionable. This research explored how six hospital-based nurses consider the role of Indigenous cultural training and the impact it has had on their practice through individual semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis revealed the significance of individual professionals' attitudes in determining the impact of Indigenous cultural training, as well as the need for institutional support to assist in translating Indigenous cultural training into practice. Utilising post-colonial theory, two key findings emerge. First, the way in which Indigenous cultural training conceptualises 'identity' and 'culture' is critical to its ultimate outcomes. Second, deficits in institutional support limit the efficacy of Indigenous cultural training by placing the onus for institutional change on the shoulders of individual health workers. PMID:21591822

  15. Indigenous Contributions to Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhardt, R.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the course of the Fourth International Polar Year(s), indigenous peoples have assumed a prominent role as significant partners in the pursuit of a broader and deeper understanding of the multifaceted dimensions of the human role in the Arctic region. Most salient in this partnership has been the substantial underlying differences in perspective, some political, some ideological, but most fundamental and intractable are the differences in world views, between those of the relative newcomers to the area (i.e. the miners, loggers, oil field workers, commercial fishermen, tourists, and even the occasional scientist), and the Native people with roots in the land that go back millennia. But no longer can these differences be cast in simplistic either/or terms, implying some kind of inherent dichotomy between those who live off the land vs. those tied to the cash economy, or traditional vs. modern technologies, or anecdotal vs. scientific evidence. These lines have been blurred with the realities that indigenous cultures are not static, and western structures are no longer dominant. Instead, we now have a much more fluid and dynamic situation in which once competing views of the world are striving toward reconciliation through new structures and frameworks that foster co-existence rather than domination and exploitation.

  16. (Un)Disturbing Exhibitions: Indigenous Historical Memory at the NMAI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpio, Myla Vicenti

    2006-01-01

    Museums in particular are educational tools used to create and perpetuate specific ideologies and historical memories. They have played a prominent role in defining the visibility of Indigenous peoples and cultures in America historical memory by creating exhibits of Indigenous peoples based on perceptions and views that benefit and justify…

  17. Indigenous Australians' Access to Higher Education: A Catholic University's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Peter G.; McMullen, Gabrielle L.

    2006-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous peoples represent 2.5% of the national population but this number is increasing at a faster rate than the national average of other demographic groups. The history of the Indigenous peoples is one of dispossession and displacement, and a loss of cultures and languages. Access to and participation in education at all levels,…

  18. Four Scholars Speak to Navigating the Complexities of Naming in Indigenous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bronwyn; Berglund, Jeff; Harris, Michelle; Poata-Smith, Evan Te Ahu

    2014-01-01

    Universities in Australia are expanding their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies programs to include Indigenous populations from around the globe. This is also the case for the Indigenous Studies Unit at the University of Wollongong (UOW). Although systems of nomenclature in Indigenous Studies seek to be respectful of difference, the…

  19. Global Marketing of Indigenous Culture: Discovering Native America with Lee Tiger and the Florida Miccosukee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedman, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous scholars such as Seminole/Shawnee historian, Donald Fixico, drew attention to the lack of academic literature about the proactive, planned, and strategic actions of indigenous peoples. Most histories portray indigenous peoples as responding, accommodating, and assimilating to non-Indians and the US government. This article highlights…

  20. On a Dream and a Prayer: The Promise of World Indigenous Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreve, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Today, Indigenous peoples worldwide are coming together to assert greater self-determination in higher education. The movement is built on shared experiences and underscores the importance of Indigenous ways of knowing. This article describes the ventures taken in pursuit of ensuring the future of higher education for Indigenous peoples. On behalf…

  1. Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Dandeneau, Stéphane; Marshall, Elizabeth; Phillips, Morgan Kahentonni; Williamson, Karla Jessen

    2011-02-01

    The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice.

  2. Epidemiology of high blood pressure among the Kaingang people on the Xapecó Indigenous Land in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, 2013.

    PubMed

    Bresan, Deise; Bastos, João Luiz; Leite, Maurício Soares

    2015-02-01

    This cross-sectional study describes the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP; measured at one setting, and suggestive of a clinical diagnosis of arterial hypertension) and mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and their associations with socio-demographic and anthropometric variables among 355 Kaingang adults (≥ 20 years) on the Xapecó Indigenous Land in Brazil. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC), SBP, and DBP were measured and socio-demographic data were collected. Prevalence of HBP was 53.2% (95%CI: 45.3; 61.1) in men and 40.7% (95%CI: 33.8; 47.6) in women. In women, age and WC were directly associated with HBP; age was associated with SBP and schooling with DBP. In men, HBP was statistically associated with high body mass index (BMI) and tile floor in the home (as a socioeconomic proxy); BMI and WC were associated with SBP; BMI and WC were associated with DBP. The study highlights the need for measures to control risk factors for HBP, especially due to its relevance for cardiovascular diseases and their consequences.

  3. Bioethics, culture and infanticide in Brazilian indigenous communities: the Zuruahá case.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Saulo Ferreira; Garrafa, Volnei; Cornelli, Gabriele; Tardivo, Carla; Carvalho, Samuel José de

    2010-05-01

    This article analyzes the practice of infanticide in indigenous communities in Brazil. Taking as a reference point a specific case involving two children of the Zuruahá people, it takes a broader look at the issue and discusses how infanticide is understood among other indigenous peoples. A debate focusing specifically on this topic that took place during a public hearing held in the Brazilian National Congress in December 2005 has also been taken into consideration in this discussion. In view of the positions adopted as a result of the hearing, this paper seeks to identify the ethical problems and moral dilemmas relating to the subject, by putting them into context and analyzing them in the light of respect for cultural pluralism. Seeking to contribute to the debate, the authors analyze the possibilities for intervention in the traditional practices of infanticide, while rejecting those positions that are not anchored in an attitude of profound respect for other people's cultures or that do not create conditions for dialogue between individuals or groups with different moralities.

  4. Education and Indigenous Knowledge in Africa: Traditional Bonesetting and Orthopaedic Medicine in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezeanya, Chika A.

    The underlying philosophy of education in contemporary Africa has been established to be alien, and detached from the indigenous knowledge of the people. Modern day formal education in sub-Saharan Africa came about, for the most part, as a result of missionary activities and colonial efforts of Europe. The education bequeathed to Africa was, therefore, fundamentally European in paradigm and lacking in authenticity. The end of colonialism across sub-Saharan Africa did not herald any tangible transformation in the curriculum of study. Education in Africa is still dependent on foreign input for sustainability, thereby stifling research, creativity and innovation. Sustainable development is founded on indigenous knowledge. When such grassroots knowledge assumes the foundation of learning, home-grown development is easily fostered in all sectors of a national economy. In the field of medicine, indigenous knowledge of healing has been considered unscientific by western biomedical practitioners. Since the days of the missionaries, many Africans have considered indigenous medicine to be fetish; the Christian converts would not be associated with its practice and patronage. However, traditional bonesetting has been proven to be highly efficacious with little supernatural content, it continues to attract huge patronage from Africans, cutting across social and religious boundaries. This study attempts an exploration of the disconnect between indigenous knowledge, practices and learning, on the one hand, and formal education in Africa, on the other. With a focus on traditional bonesetting, the study seeks to determine why that branch of indigenous medicine attracts huge patronage, but is granted very little recognition by modern orthopaedic medical education.

  5. Indigenous Youth Migration and Language Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Leisy T.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies ethnographically detail how Indigenous young people's mobility intersects with sociolinguistic transformation in an interconnected world. Drawing on a decade-long study of youth and language contact, I analyze Yup'ik young people's migration in relation to emerging language ideologies and patterns of language use in "Piniq,"…

  6. Risk-Taking, Harm and Help-Seeking: Reported by Young People in Treatment at a Youth Alcohol and Drug Counselling Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cassandra; Kelly, John

    2012-01-01

    Regarded as a normative component of development, risk-taking by young people is a well-researched subject, and some risk-taking behaviours, such as substance use, are particularly well covered because of their potential to adversely affect health and wellbeing. What has remained unclear is the extent of young people's risk-taking while engaged in…

  7. "Can You Get Pregnant When U R in the Pool?": Young People's Information Seeking from a Sexual Health Text Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Jackson, Kennon, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Young people have questions about sex and development but may have trouble getting answers to them. Text messaging services can serve as a resource. This study analysed 1351 text messages sent to a sexual health text message service designed for young people in North Carolina to determine the types of questions asked of a confidential, accurate…

  8. Who's Most Likely to Seek Infertility Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159678.html Who's Most Likely to Seek Infertility Help They're more likely to be better ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of people with infertility problems don't seek treatment, according to a ...

  9. Indigenous health part 2: the underlying causes of the health gap.

    PubMed

    King, Malcolm; Smith, Alexandra; Gracey, Michael

    2009-07-01

    In this Review we delve into the underlying causes of health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people and provide an Indigenous perspective to understanding these inequalities. We are able to present only a snapshot of the many research publications about Indigenous health. Our aim is to provide clinicians with a framework to better understand such matters. Applying this lens, placed in context for each patient, will promote more culturally appropriate ways to interact with, to assess, and to treat Indigenous peoples. The topics covered include Indigenous notions of health and identity; mental health and addictions; urbanisation and environmental stresses; whole health and healing; and reconciliation.

  10. Comparison of fracture rates between indigenous and non-indigenous populations: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Quirk, Shae E; Leslie, William D; Toombs, Maree; Holloway, Kara L; Hosking, Sarah M; Pasco, Julie A; Doolan, Brianna J; Page, Richard S; Williams, Lana J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over recent years, there has been concerted effort to ‘close the gap’ in the disproportionately reduced life expectancy and increased morbidity experienced by indigenous compared to non-indigenous persons. Specific to musculoskeletal health, some data suggest that indigenous peoples have a higher risk of sustaining a fracture compared to non-indigenous peoples. This creates an imperative to identify factors that could explain differences in fracture rates. This protocol presents our aim to conduct a systematic review, first, to determine whether differences in fracture rates exist for indigenous versus non-indigenous persons and, second, to identify any risk factors that might explain these differences. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic search of PubMed, OVID, MEDLINE, CINAHL and EMBASE to identify articles that compare all-cause fracture rates at any skeletal site between indigenous and non-indigenous persons of any age. Eligibility of studies will be determined by 2 independent reviewers. Studies will be assessed for methodological quality using a previously published process. We will conduct a meta-analysis and use established statistical methods to identify and control for heterogeneity where appropriate. Should heterogeneity prevents numerical syntheses, we will undertake a best-evidence analysis to determine the level of evidence for differences in fracture between indigenous and non-indigenous persons. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will use published data; thus, ethical permissions are not required. In addition to peer-reviewed publication, findings will be presented at (inter)national conferences, disseminated electronically and in print, and will be made available to key country-specific decision-makers with authority for indigenous health. PMID:27566641

  11. Contrasting Colonist and Indigenous Impacts on Amazonian Forests

    PubMed Central

    LU, FLORA; GRAY, CLARK; BILSBORROW, RICHARD E.; MENA, CARLOS F.; ERLIEN, CHRISTINE M.; BREMNER, JASON; BARBIERI, ALISSON; WALSH, STEPHEN J.

    2012-01-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups. PMID:20337669

  12. Designing an Australian Indigenous Studies Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Nakata's "Cultural Interface", Standpoints and Working beyond Binaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Michelle; Prince, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the recent reworking of Murdoch University's Australian Indigenous Studies major. For the discipline to realise its charter of decolonising knowledges about Indigenous peoples, it is necessary to move Indigenous Studies beyond the standard reversalist and unsustainable tropes that valorise romanticised notions of Indigeneity and…

  13. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by traditional healers and indigenous people in chittagong hill tracts, bangladesh, for the treatment of snakebite.

    PubMed

    Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Karmoker, James Regun; Alam, Md Rashedul; Jahan, Syeda Rawnak; Mahbub, Sami; Mia, M M K

    2015-01-01

    Snakebites are common in tropical countries like Bangladesh where most snakebite victims dwell in rural areas. Among the management options after snakebite in Bangladesh, snake charmers (Ozha in Bengali language) are the first contact following a snakebite for more than 80% of the victims and they are treated mostly with the help of some medicinal plants. Our aim of the study is to compile plants used for the treatment of snakebite occurrence in Bangladesh. The field survey was carried out in a period of almost 3 years. Fieldwork was undertaken in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, including Chittagong, Rangamati, Bandarban, and Khagrachari. Open-ended and semistructured questionnaire was used to interview a total of 110 people including traditional healers and local people. A total of 116 plant species of 48 families were listed. Leaves were the most cited plant part used against snake venom. Most of the reported species were herb in nature and paste mostly used externally is the mode of preparation. The survey represents the preliminary information of certain medicinal plants having neutralizing effects against snake venoms, though further phytochemical investigation, validation, and clinical trials should be conducted before using these plants as an alternative to popular antivenom.

  14. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers and Indigenous People in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, for the Treatment of Snakebite

    PubMed Central

    Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Karmoker, James Regun; Alam, Md. Rashedul; Jahan, Syeda Rawnak; Mahbub, Sami; Mia, M. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Snakebites are common in tropical countries like Bangladesh where most snakebite victims dwell in rural areas. Among the management options after snakebite in Bangladesh, snake charmers (Ozha in Bengali language) are the first contact following a snakebite for more than 80% of the victims and they are treated mostly with the help of some medicinal plants. Our aim of the study is to compile plants used for the treatment of snakebite occurrence in Bangladesh. The field survey was carried out in a period of almost 3 years. Fieldwork was undertaken in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, including Chittagong, Rangamati, Bandarban, and Khagrachari. Open-ended and semistructured questionnaire was used to interview a total of 110 people including traditional healers and local people. A total of 116 plant species of 48 families were listed. Leaves were the most cited plant part used against snake venom. Most of the reported species were herb in nature and paste mostly used externally is the mode of preparation. The survey represents the preliminary information of certain medicinal plants having neutralizing effects against snake venoms, though further phytochemical investigation, validation, and clinical trials should be conducted before using these plants as an alternative to popular antivenom. PMID:25878719

  15. Indigenous Education in Mexico: Indigenous Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despagne, Colette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still…

  16. Build It and They Will Come: Building the Capacity of Indigenous Units in Universities to Provide Better Support for Indigenous Australian Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudgett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous participation rates in higher education are significantly lower than the rates reported for non-Indigenous people in Australia--with the greatest disparity evident in the area of postgraduate studies. This problem needs to be addressed by providing culturally appropriate support mechanisms to Indigenous postgraduate students. This…

  17. Blending Aboriginal and Western healing methods to treat intergenerational trauma with substance use disorder in Aboriginal peoples who live in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Teresa Naseba; Coholic, Diana; Cote-Meek, Sheila; Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    As with many Indigenous groups around the world, Aboriginal communities in Canada face significant challenges with trauma and substance use. The complexity of symptoms that accompany intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders represents major challenges in the treatment of both disorders. There appears to be an underutilization of substance use and mental health services, substantial client dropout rates, and an increase in HIV infections in Aboriginal communities in Canada. The aim of this paper is to explore and evaluate current literature on how traditional Aboriginal healing methods and the Western treatment model "Seeking Safety" could be blended to help Aboriginal peoples heal from intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders. A literature search was conducted using the keywords: intergenerational trauma, historical trauma, Seeking Safety, substance use, Two-Eyed Seeing, Aboriginal spirituality, and Aboriginal traditional healing. Through a literature review of Indigenous knowledge, most Indigenous scholars proposed that the wellness of an Aboriginal community can only be adequately measured from within an Indigenous knowledge framework that is holistic, inclusive, and respectful of the balance between the spiritual, emotional, physical, and social realms of life. Their findings indicate that treatment interventions must honour the historical context and history of Indigenous peoples. Furthermore, there appears to be strong evidence that strengthening cultural identity, community integration, and political empowerment can enhance and improve mental health and substance use disorders in Aboriginal populations. In addition, Seeking Safety was highlighted as a well-studied model with most populations, resulting in healing. The provided recommendations seek to improve the treatment and healing of Aboriginal peoples presenting with intergenerational trauma and addiction. Other recommendations include the input of qualitative and quantitative

  18. Developing Responsive Indicators of Indigenous Community Health.

    PubMed

    Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin

    2016-01-01

    How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is "at risk" is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086

  19. Developing Responsive Indicators of Indigenous Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin

    2016-01-01

    How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is “at risk” is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086

  20. The abundance and host-seeking behavior of culicine species (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles sinensis in Yongcheng city, people's Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of mosquito species diversity and the level of anthropophily exhibited by each species in a region are of great importance to the integrated vector control. Culicine species are the primary vectors of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus and filariasis in China. Anopheles sinensis plays a major role in the maintenance of Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission in China. The goal of this study was to compare the abundance and host-seeking behavior of culicine species and An. sinensis in Yongcheng city, a representative region of P. vivax malaria. Specifically, we wished to determine the relative attractiveness of different animal baits versus human bait to culicine species and An. sinensis. Results Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most prevalent mosquito species and An. sinensis was the sole potential vector of P. vivax malaria in Yongcheng city. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) in the abundance of both An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected in distinct baited traps. The relative attractiveness of animal versus human bait was similar towards both An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The ranking derived from the mean number of mosquitoes per bait indicated that pigs, goats and calves frequently attracted more mosquitoes than the other hosts tested (dogs, humans, and chickens). These trends were similar across all capture nights at three distinct villages. The human blood index (HBI) of female An. sinensis was 2.94% when computed with mixed meals while 3.70% computed with only the single meal. 19:00~21:00 was the primary peak of host-seeking female An. sinensis while 4:00~5:00 was the smaller peak at night. There was significant correlation between the density of female An. sinensis and the average relative humidity (P < 0.05) in Wangshanzhuang village. Conclusions Pigs, goats and calves were more attractive to An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus than dogs, humans, and chickens. Female An. sinensis host-seeking activity

  1. National Education Policies for Aboriginal Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Roger; And Others

    Written as a reference for students, teachers, educationists, lawyers, and researchers, the book provides information on the education of indigenous peoples and a variety of other interests, such as characteristics of individual countries, history of native peoples, country's definition of indigenous people, statistics on educational performance,…

  2. Building Indigenous Community Resilience in the Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, B.

    2014-12-01

    Indigenous community resilience is rooted in the seasoned lifeways, developed over generations, incorporated into systems of knowledge, and realized in artifacts of infrastructure through keen observations of the truth and consequences of their interactions with the environment found in place over time. Their value lies, not in their nature as artifacts, but in the underlying patterns and processes of culture: how previous adaptations were derived and evolved, and how the principles and processes of detailed observation may inform future adaptations. This presentation examines how such holistic community approaches, reflected in design and practice, can be applied to contemporary issues of energy and housing in a rapidly changing climate. The Indigenous Peoples of the Great Plains seek to utilize the latest scientific climate modeling to support the development of large, utility scale distributed renewable energy projects and to re-invigorate an indigenous housing concept of straw bale construction, originating in this region. In the energy context, we explore the potential for the development of an intertribal wind energy dynamo on the Great Plains, utilizing elements of existing federal policies for Indian energy development and existing federal infrastructure initially created to serve hydropower resources, which may be significantly altered under current and prospective drought scenarios. For housing, we consider the opportunity to address the built environment in Indian Country, where Tribes have greater control as it consists largely of residences needed for their growing populations. Straw bale construction allows for greater use of local natural and renewable materials in a strategy for preparedness for the weather extremes and insurance perils already common to the region, provides solutions to chronic unemployment and increasing energy costs, while offering greater affordable comfort in both low and high temperature extremes. The development of large

  3. Interrogating the Ethics of Literacy Intervention in Indigenous Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostogriz, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Recognising that literacy is fundamental to the educational success of Indigenous students, this essay reviews current literacy intervention programs from a social justice perspective. It reveals the tension between policies and initiatives that have addressed the two key rights of Indigenous people--the right to access mainstream knowledge and…

  4. Across the Colonial Divide: Conversations about Evaluation in Indigenous Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavino, Hayley Marama

    2013-01-01

    This essay engages questions of evaluator role and indigenous peoples participation in evaluation within colonial and decolonization contexts. Specifically, I critique the Western emphasis on cultural competence and contrast the utility of "mainstream" evaluation approaches alongside three indigenous inquiry models (Te Kotahitanga,…

  5. The Science of Storytelling: Indigenous Perspective in Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Low, R.; Zepeda, O.; Valdez, S.

    2013-04-01

    The 2-hour workshop was devoted to sharing indigenous approaches to understanding and communicating the environment around us. Topics focused on weather and climate change. Two indigenous peoples from the Tohono O'odham and Pueblo of Laguna Nations immersed participants in their perspectives of knowing through storytelling.

  6. New Digital Technologies: Educational Opportunities for Australian Indigenous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Shalini

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a number of possibilities that digital technologies can offer to increase access for Indigenous people to higher education in Australia. Such technologies can assist Indigenous high school students acquire the knowledge and skills they require to be accepted into higher education courses. They can also assist Indigenous…

  7. Indigenous Vocational Education and Training. At a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Katy

    2005-01-01

    This publication presents the results of a comprehensive research program on Indigenous Australians in vocational education and training (VET), along with feedback from over 200 people who attended the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) Research Forum on Indigenous VET in August 2005. The planning and implementation of the…

  8. One Approach to Improving Indigenous Health Care through Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Australia's newest medical school, located at James Cook University (Queensland), is committed to improving Aboriginal health care. At least five Indigenous students must be admitted per year, and Indigenous people sit on committees responsible for student selection, curriculum design, staff selection, training, and research. All staff receive…

  9. Illuminating the Lived Experiences of Research with Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Catherine E.; Sanders, Sara; Butcher, Howard K.; Salois, Emily Matt

    2011-01-01

    The historical exploitation experienced by indigenous people in the United States has left a number of negative legacies, including distrust toward research. This distrust poses a barrier to progress made through culturally sensitive research. Given the complex history of research with indigenous groups, the purpose of this descriptive…

  10. Repatriating Indigenous Technologies in an Urban Indian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda; Faber, Lori; Suzukovich, Eli S., III

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous people are significantly underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). The solution to this problem requires a more robust lens than representation or access alone. Specifically, it will require careful consideration of the ecological contexts of Indigenous school age youth, of which more than 70%…

  11. Indigenous Wellbeing Frameworks in Australia and the Quest for Quantification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    There is an emerging global recognition of the inadequacies of conventional socio-economic and demographic data in being able to reflect the relative wellbeing of Indigenous peoples. This paper emerges out of a recent desktop study commissioned by an Australian Indigenous organization who identified a need to enhance local literacies in data…

  12. Indian Peoples of Central America: Oppression Continues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Paul; Schaeffer, Dolores

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the historical and contemporary social situation of the indigenous peoples of Guatemala and Nicaragua, including the current conflict between the Sandinista government and the Miskitu Indians. (GC)

  13. Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be

  14. Relating Practice to Theory in Indigenous Entrepreneurship: A Pilot Investigation of the Kitsaki Partnership Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindle, Kevin; Anderson, Robert B.; Giberson, Robert J.; Kayseas, Bob

    2005-01-01

    In Canada and elsewhere around the world, Indigenous Peoples are struggling to rebuild their "nations" and improve the socioeconomic circumstances of their people. Many see economic development as the key to success. Recognizing the challenges they face in attempting to compete in the global economy on their own terms, Indigenous people are…

  15. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Dylan C; Walker, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  16. Geographic Distribution of Isolated Indigenous Societies in Amazonia and the Efficacy of Indigenous Territories

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world’s last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples. PMID:25970612

  17. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Dylan C; Walker, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples. PMID:25970612

  18. Indigenous Education and Empowerment: International Perspectives. Contemporary Native American Communities #17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Saad, Ismael, Ed.; Champagne, Duane, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous people have often been confronted with education systems that ignore their cultural and historical perspectives. Largely unsuccessful projects of assimilation have been the predominant outcome of indigenous communities' encounters with state schools, as many indigenous students fail to conform to mainstream cultural norms. This…

  19. Indigenous Metissage: A Decolonizing Research Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donald, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report on the theoretical origins of a decolonizing research sensibility called Indigenous Metissage. This research praxis emerged parallel to personal and ongoing inquiries into historic and current relations connecting Aboriginal peoples and Canadians in the place now called Canada. I frame the colonial frontier origins of these…

  20. [Globalization and infectious diseases in Mexico's indigenous population].

    PubMed

    Castro, Roberto; Erviti, Joaquina; Leyva, René

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the health status of indigenous populations in Mexico. The first section characterizes the concept of globalization and its links to the population's health. Based on available statistical data, the second section documents the current indigenous populations' health status in the country. The article then argues that the presupposition of equity, crucial to globalization theory, does not apply to this case. Using the Mexican National Health Survey (2000), the third section further analyzes the health status of indigenous populations and identifies important inconsistencies in the data. The discussion section contends that these inconsistencies derive from the fact that such health surveys fail to contemplate the cultural specificities of indigenous peoples, thus leading to erroneous interpretations of the data. The article concludes that statistics on indigenous peoples' health must be interpreted with extreme caution and always with the support of social science theories and research methods.

  1. Indigenous observations of climate change in the Lower Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman-Mercer, Nicole M.; Schuster, Paul F.; Maracle, Karonhiakt'tie

    2011-01-01

    Natural science climate change studies have led to an overwhelming amount of evidence that the Arctic and Subarctic are among the world's first locations to begin experiencing climate change. Indigenous knowledge of northern regions is a valuable resource to assess the effects of climate change on the people and the landscape. Most studies, however, have focused on coastal Arctic and Subarctic communities with relatively little focus on inland communities. This paper relates the findings from fieldwork conducted in the Lower Yukon River Basin of Alaska in the spring of 2009. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with hunters and elders in the villages of St. Mary's and Pitka's Point, Alaska to document observations of climate change. This study assumes that scientific findings and indigenous knowledge are complementary and seeks to overcome the false dichotomy that these two ways of knowing are in opposition. The observed changes in the climate communicated by the hunters and elders of St. Mary's and Pitka's Point, Alaska are impacting the community in ways ranging from subsistence (shifting flora and fauna patterns), concerns about safety (unpredictable weather patterns and dangerous ice conditions), and a changing resource base (increased reliance on fossil fuels). Here we attempt to address the challenges of integrating these two ways of knowing while relating indigenous observations as described by elders and hunters of the study area to those described by scientific literature.

  2. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-12-03

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993-2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden.

  3. Intellectual Property and Indigenous Peoples' Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorcroft, Heather; Byrne, Alex

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the lack of protection given to the intellectual and cultural property rights of Aboriginal publications and archival materials. Raises issues regarding ownership of materials, cultural documentation, primary property rights for nonphysical materials, and the related legislation. Offers collection development strategies for librarians to…

  4. Problems, solutions and actions: addressing barriers in acute hospital care for indigenous Australians and New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia M; MacIsaac, Andrew; Cameron, James; Jeremy, Richmond; Mahar, Leo; Anderson, Ian

    2012-10-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease for Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand is high and reflects the failings of our health care system to meet their needs. Improving the hospital care for Indigenous people is critical in improving health outcomes. This paper provides the results from a facilitated discussion on the disparities in acute hospital care and workforce issues. The workshop was held in Alice Springs, Australia at the second Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ) Indigenous Cardiovascular Health Conference. Critical issues to be addressed include: addressing systemic racism; reconfiguring models of care to address the needs of Indigenous people; cultural competence training for all health professionals; increasing participation of Indigenous people in the health workforce; improving information systems and facilitating communication across the health care sector and with Indigenous communities.

  5. Indigenous-Centered Pedagogies: Strategies for Teaching Native American Literature and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portillo, Annette

    2013-01-01

    As a reflection on pedagogy, this essay seeks to provide strategic tools for teaching Native American literature and culture to non-native students. My teaching philosophy is informed by the indigenous-centered, decolonial methodologies as defined by Devon Mihesuah who calls for "indigenizing" the academy by challenging the status quo and debating…

  6. Hawks and Baby Chickens: Cultivating the Sources of Indigenous Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    In this response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper on indigenous knowledge (IK) and science teaching in South Africa, I seek to broaden the debate by setting the enterprise of integrating IK into science education in its cultural and socio-political context. I begin by exploring the multiple meanings of indigenous knowledge in Africa, next consider…

  7. Survival disparities in Australia: an analysis of patterns of care and comorbidities among indigenous and non-indigenous cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians have lower overall cancer survival which has not yet been fully explained. To address this knowledge deficit, we investigated the associations between comorbidities, cancer treatment and survival in Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Queensland, Australia. Methods A cohort study of 956 Indigenous and 869 non-Indigenous patients diagnosed with cancer during 1998–2004, frequency-matched on age, sex, remoteness of residence and cancer type, and treated in Queensland public hospitals. Survival after cancer diagnosis, and effect of stage, treatment, and comorbidities on survival were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall Indigenous people had more advanced cancer stage (p = 0.03), more comorbidities (p < 0.001), and received less cancer treatment (77% vs. 86%, p = 0.001). Among patients without comorbidities and social disadvantage, there was a lower uptake of treatment among Indigenous patients compared to non-Indigenous patients. For those who received treatment, time to commencement, duration and dose of treatment were comparable. Unadjusted cancer survival (HR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.15-1.48) and non-cancer survival (HR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.57-3.63) were lower in the Indigenous relative to non-Indigenous patients over the follow-up period. When adjusted for clinical factors, there was no difference in cancer-specific survival between the groups (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.96-1.27). One-year survival was lower for Indigenous people for all-causes of death (adjusted HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.83). Conclusion In this study, Indigenous Australians received less cancer treatment, had more comorbidities and had more advanced cancer stage at diagnosis, factors which contribute to poorer cancer survival. Moreover, for patients with a more favourable distribution of such prognostic factors, Indigenous patients received less treatment overall relative to non-Indigenous patients. Personalised cancer care

  8. Implications of Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease in Canada’s Indigenous Population

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Julia Petrasek; Barnes, Deborah E.; Middleton, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Indigenous peoples in Canada have higher prevalence of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The relative importance of these risk factors on AD risk management is poorly understood. Methods Relative risks from literature and prevalence of risk factors from Statistics Canada or the First Nations Regional Health Survey were used to determine projected population attributable risk (PAR) associated with modifiable risk factors for AD (low education and vascular risk factors) among on- and off-reserve Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada using the Levin formula. Results Physical inactivity had the highest PAR for AD among Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in Canada (32.5% [10.1%–51.1%] and 30.5% [9.2%–48.8%] respectively). The PAR for most modifiable risk factors was higher among Indigenous peoples in Canada, particularly among on-reserve groups. The greatest differences in PAR were for low educational attainment and smoking, which were approximately 10% higher among Indigenous peoples in Canada. The combined PAR for AD for all six modifiable risk factors was 79.6% among on-reserve Indigenous, 74.9% among off-reserve Indigenous, and 67.1% among non-Indigenous peoples in Canada. (All differences significant to p < .001.) Conclusions Modifiable risk factors are responsible for the most AD cases among Indigenous peoples in Canada. Further research is necessary to determine the prevalence of AD and the impact of risk factor modification among Indigenous peoples in Canada. PMID:26495049

  9. Globalisation And Local Indigenous Education In Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinke, Leanne

    2004-11-01

    Globalisation is often viewed as a threat to cultural and linguistic diversity and therefore is a central concern of educational practices and policy. The present study challenges this common view by demonstrating that local communities can use global means to support and enhance their specific practices and policies. An historical exploration of education policy in Mexico reveals that there has been a continuing struggle by indigenous peoples to maintain locally relevant modes of teaching. Indigenous peoples have increasingly used technology to maintain their languages and local cultural practices. Such accentuation of the local in a global context is exemplified by the people of Chiapas: They live in subsistence-type communities, yet their recent education movements and appeals to international solidarity (such as in the Zapatista rebellion) have employed computer-aided technologies.

  10. Health-service performance of TB treatment for indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health-service evaluation studies are fundamental for proposing interventions and ensuring improvements in healthcare quality. The present study assesses the performance of health services for indigenous and non-indigenous populations with regard to tuberculosis (TB) control. Methods Interviews with TB patients who underwent treatment between 2009 and 2011 were conducted using the Primary Care Assessment Tool adapted for TB care in Brazil. Results Primary healthcare (PHC) was the first treatment for most patients at symptom onset, and the diagnoses were typically performed by specialized services. Many patients experienced delayed TB diagnoses that required more than three medical appointments (51% and 47% for indigenous and non-indigenous populations, respectively). Indigenous people received social support, such as basic-needs grocery packages (2.19 ± 1.63 vs. 1.13 ± 0.49 for non-indigenous people, p < 0.01) and home visits from health professionals, with an emphasis on the performance of directly observed treatment strategies (DOT; 4.57 ± 0.89 vs. 1.68 ± 1.04 for non-indigenous people, p < 0.01). Conclusions Regardless of the differences between indigenous and non-indigenous populations, the time needed to receive a TB diagnosis was unsatisfactory for both groups. Furthermore, DOT must be performed with better coverage among non-indigenous patients. PMID:24885134

  11. Evaluation of a Digital Story Pedagogical Module for the Indigenous Learners Using the Stake Countenance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanabalan, T. Vanitha; Siraj, Saedah; Alias, Norlidah

    2015-01-01

    This study involved the development of a literacy pedagogy for the indigenous people in Malaysia. The Developmental Research Approach was used where insights about the indigenous people and their lifestyle were gathered and analysed for content in developing a literacy pedagogical module. Several principles emerged from the data collected and…

  12. Seeds of Myth: Exotic Disease Theory and Deconstructing the Australian Narrative of Indigenous Depopulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyton, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The theory that the rapid depopulation of Indigenous people post-colonisation was largely caused by European introduced or exotic disease to which Indigenous people had no immunity resonates through most narratives of the early years of colonisation. The question of whether this narrative is based on sound medical evidence or is better placed in…

  13. An Integrative Review on the San of Botswana's Indigenous Literacy and Formal Schooling Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketsitlile, Lone

    2012-01-01

    The San are Southern Africa's first indigenous peoples. They can be found in South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Namibia. The San peoples in Botswana still face discrimination, especially in the education sector, as their indigenous literacy and way of life are largely ignored. Their languages are not part of the school curriculum in Botswana and…

  14. Indigenous Nutrition: Using Traditional Food Knowledge to Solve Contemporary Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the need to change current dietary patterns and of the value of traditional foodways. The Center for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, based at McGill University in Montreal, is a research and education resource for Indigenous Peoples created by Canada's Aboriginal Leaders to support traditional…

  15. Indigenous Ways of Knowing: Implications for Participatory Research and Community

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Patricia A. L.; Marshall, Catherine A.; Garcia-Downing, Carmen; Kendall, Elizabeth; Cook, Doris; McCubbin, Laurie; Gover, Reva Mariah S.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have a responsibility to cause no harm, but research has been a source of distress for indigenous people because of inappropriate methods and practices. The way researchers acquire knowledge in indigenous communities may be as critical for eliminating health disparities as the actual knowledge that is gained about a particular health problem. Researchers working with indigenous communities must continue to resolve conflict between the values of the academic setting and those of the community. It is important to consider the ways of knowing that exist in indigenous communities when developing research methods. Challenges to research partnerships include how to distribute the benefits of the research findings when academic or external needs contrast with the need to protect indigenous knowledge. PMID:18048800

  16. Indigenous ways of knowing: implications for participatory research and community.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Patricia A L; Marshall, Catherine A; Garcia-Downing, Carmen; Kendall, Elizabeth; Cook, Doris; McCubbin, Laurie; Gover, Reva Mariah S

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have a responsibility to cause no harm, but research has been a source of distress for indigenous people because of inappropriate methods and practices. The way researchers acquire knowledge in indigenous communities may be as critical for eliminating health disparities as the actual knowledge that is gained about a particular health problem. Researchers working with indigenous communities must continue to resolve conflict between the values of the academic setting and those of the community. It is important to consider the ways of knowing that exist in indigenous communities when developing research methods. Challenges to research partnerships include how to distribute the benefits of the research findings when academic or external needs contrast with the need to protect indigenous knowledge. PMID:18048800

  17. Issues and challenges for systematic reviews in indigenous health.

    PubMed

    McDonald, E; Priest, N; Doyle, J; Bailie, R; Anderson, I; Waters, E

    2010-07-01

    This essay outlines key issues raised during a project that aimed to (1) identify the gaps in the international evidence base of systematic reviews of intervention effectiveness relevant to public health decision making to address health inequalities experienced by indigenous people, and (2) identify priority areas and topics for future reviews. A number of indigenous researchers and clinicians invited to participate in the project expressed reservations about the appropriateness and value of conventional systematic reviews of intervention evidence to indigenous health. Ensuring that systematic review methods for indigenous health research meet the needs of those that use them, including indigenous communities themselves, needs to be a key area of ongoing work. The public health group within the Cochrane Collaboration has recognised this as a priority area and initiated exploration of these issues.

  18. Ethical genetic research in Indigenous communities: challenges and successful approaches.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Rebekah E; Mununggirritj, Djapirri; Marika, Dipililnga; Dickinson, Joanne L; Condon, John R

    2012-12-01

    Indigenous populations, in common with all populations, stand to benefit from the potential of genetic research to lead to improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic tools for a wide range of complex diseases. However, many Indigenous communities, especially ones that are isolated, are not included in genetic research efforts. This situation is largely a consequence of the challenges of ethically conducting genetic research in Indigenous communities and compounded by Indigenous peoples' negative past experiences with genetic issues. To examine ways of addressing these challenges, we review one investigation of a cancer cluster in remote Aboriginal communities in Arnhem Land, Australia. Our experiences demonstrate that genetic research can be both ethically and successfully conducted with Indigenous communities by respecting the authority of the community, involving community members, and including regular community review throughout the research process.

  19. Ainu Right to Education and Ainu Practice of "Education": Current Situation and Imminent Issues in Light of Indigenous Education Rights and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayman, Jeffry

    2011-01-01

    Several years have passed since the adoption by the United Nations of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). Yet, what changes have happened in the lives of Indigenous peoples for whom the Declaration was written? This paper employs a framework of Indigenous educational theory to focus on the case of the Ainu of Japan and…

  20. Deviant Constructions: How Governments Preserve Colonial Narratives of Addictions and Poor Mental Health to Intervene into the Lives of Indigenous Children and Families in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Sarah; Greenwood, Margo; Cameron, Emilie

    2010-01-01

    Colonial projects in Canada have a long history of violently intervening into the personal lives and social structures of Indigenous peoples. These interventions are associated with elevated rates of addictions and mental health issues among Indigenous peoples. In this paper we employ an indigenized social determinants approach to mental health…

  1. Indigenous housing and health in the Canadian North: Revisiting cultural safety.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia

    2016-07-01

    In this article, I explore the relationship between housing, home and health amongst Indigenous homeless people living in the Canadian North. In particular, I examine the ways in which Indigenous homemaking practices conflict with housing policy, and exacerbate individual pathways to homelessness. I argue that integral components in northern Indigenous conceptualizations of home and, in turn, health are not only unrecognized in housing policy, but actively discouraged. The potential for homemaking to inform health and housing policy speaks to the relevance of cultural safety not only to Indigenous health services, but also to a comprehensive framing of Indigenous health. PMID:27206162

  2. Kitchen Table Discourse: Negotiating the "Tricky Ground" of Indigenous Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jay T.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author seeks a middle path through which to traverse the "tricky ground" of Indigenous research; a middle path that will hopefully find "in-between spaces" open to new epistemological pathways, through which new voices and ideas can be heard within the social sciences and, in particular, within geography. This middle path…

  3. Bilingual-Intercultural Education for Indigenous Children: The Case of Mexico in an Era of Globalization and Uprisings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinajero, Guadalupe; Englander, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The past 25 years have brought upheaval to the indigenous people of Mexico due to two opposing forces: modernization and globalization, on the one hand, and indigenous uprisings on the other. Suddenly, the topic of indigenous languages and education was brought into official discussions at the national level. This paper examines the tensions that…

  4. Katu Kalpa: Report on the Inquiry into the Effectiveness of Education and Training Programs for Indigenous Australians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australia Parliament, Canberra. Senate Employment, Workplace Relations, Small Business and Education References Committee.

    An inquiry into Indigenous education by an Australian Senate committee examined government reports produced in 1989-99 and conducted school site visits and public hearings. During the inquiry, it became clear that educational equity for Indigenous people had not been achieved, and Indigenous participation and achievement rates lagged behind those…

  5. Wrong Directions and New Maps of Voice, Representation, and Engagement: Theorizing Cultural Tourism, Indigenous Commodities, and the Intelligence of Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Doreen E.

    2012-01-01

    This research delves into the impact of established intellectual imperialistic representations and codes of culture imposed on Indigenous populations. The author offers new ways of viewing the critiques of Indigenous peoples and discussions of those representation acts by situating them within Indigenous identity and the manifestations of…

  6. Crossing the Gap between Indigenous Worldview and Western Science: Millet Festival as a Bridge in the Teaching Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Chia-Ling; Lee, Huei

    2015-01-01

    The worldview within indigenous people's traditional knowledge and western science can be a world of difference. In order to help indigenous students cross the gap and develop a sense of cultural identification. Taking Bunun, one of the Taiwanese indigenous tribes, as our subject, this study aims to develop a teaching module through Bunun's Millet…

  7. Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of Dominican women with lymphoedema of the leg: implications for lymphoedema management programs

    PubMed Central

    Person, Bobbie; Addiss, David G; Bartholomew, L Kay; Meijer, Cecilia; Pou, Victor; van den Borne, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Background In the Dominican Republic, a Latin American country with filariasis-endemic areas, more than 63,000 people have lymphatic filariasis and more than 400,000 people are at risk of future infection. In this paper, we explore the health beliefs, health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of women with lymphoedema in filariasis-endemic areas to better understand the needs of women when developing lymphoedema morbidity control programs. Methods Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 28 women, 3 focus group discussions with 28 women, field notes and photographs. Results Women described exhaustive and expensive attempts at seeking a cure for their lymphoedema. Family members were influential in providing women with initial care seeking referrals to indigenous healers credited with influence over physical, mental, spiritual and supernatural properties of illness. When indigenous treatments proved to be ineffectual, the women sought care from trained healthcare providers. Most healthcare providers incorrectly diagnosed the edema, failed to adequately treat and meet the needs of women and were viewed as expensive. Most women resorted to self-prescribing injectable, oral, or topical antibiotics along with oral analgesics as a standard practice of self-care. Conclusion Healthcare providers must understand a woman's cultural perspectives of illness, her natural networks of support and referral, her behavioural practices of care-seeking and self-care and the financial burden of seeking care. In the culture of the Dominican Republic family members and traditional healthcare providers are influential advisors on initial health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices. For this reason family-oriented interventions, support groups for women and their families, community education and training on simple, low cost lymphoedema management techniques for indigenous healers are viable ways to influence the early detection, diagnosis and

  8. Socially Indigenous Help: The Community Cares for Itself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Ronald; Young, Richard D.

    Recently, interest has increased in self-help groups, lay referral networks, social support networks, natural helpers, and others which may be placed under a single conceptual umbrella--socially indigenous help--because they all deal with the issue of how people use other people, social groups, and lay institutions to alleviate problems in living,…

  9. Biopiracy and Native Knowledge: Indigenous Rights on the Last Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Craig

    1997-01-01

    In the past few years, transnational corporations and university researchers received patents for traditional medicines and for food and textile plants used by indigenous peoples without returning any benefits to those peoples. In light of U.S. and Canadian government claims that traditional knowledge is not intellectual property, indigenous…

  10. Coming Full Circle: Indigenous Knowledge, Environment, and Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) as a construct of broader society is a relatively recent phenomenon, and the field that supports the acquisition of environmental knowledge from Aboriginal people has rapidly grown over the last two decades. In part, TEK has emerged from the growing recognition that Indigenous people all over the world…

  11. The role of the CSANZ in 'closing the gap': an Indigenous cardiologists perspective.

    PubMed

    Burchill, Luke J

    2009-04-01

    The definition of Indigenous health as a human rights issue has signaled a major change in ideology, which has the potential to unite governments, health organisations and the Indigenous community to achieve improved health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) people. Whilst much of the debate will focus on specific policies, programs and interventions, the greatest challenge lies in bridging the divide between mainstream and Indigenous definitions of health, wellbeing and identity. This article provides an Indigenous perspective on the role that the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand might play in bridging this divide so that we can 'close the gap' in life expectancy for ATSI people.

  12. Towards an indigenous science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Elizabeth

    1996-06-01

    The recent development of a national science curriculum in Māori opened up space to contest whose knowledge and whose ways of knowing are included. This paper outlines the background to the curriculum development work in Aotearoa New Zealand with respect to the indigenous Māori people and science education. Concern is expressed about the fitting of one cultural framework into another and questions are raised about the approach used in the development of the science curriculum. Further research in the area of language, culture and science education is discussed along with how Māori might move forward in the endeavour of developing a curriculum that reflects Māori culture and language.

  13. First People, Firsthand Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    We are infatuated with our abilities to predict and analyze, yet we need to listen and observe, behaviors that made Native Americans wise environmental managers. European Americans, who are new to this hemisphere, and indigenous people must forge a world view that synthesizes Western science and traditional environmental knowledge in order to…

  14. Indigenous newborn care.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Susan M

    2009-12-01

    Infant mortality and morbidity disparities occur between non-Indigenous and Indigenous populations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Neonatal mortality is due to high-risk births, which vary according to prevalence of the maternal risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption, infection, and disorders of nutritional status, whereas postneonatal mortality is predominantly influenced by environmental factors. Aside from changing socioeconomic conditions, a continuum of maternal and child health care is likely to be the most effective measure in reducing these health disparities.

  15. Indigenous community-based fisheries in Australia.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jennifer; Hill, Greg

    2007-12-01

    The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources.

  16. Building on People's Strengths: The Case for Contextual Child Development. Studies and Evaluation Papers 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salole, Gerard

    It is often the case that lip service is paid to the strength of indigenous culture while the implications of indigenous peoples' strengths are disregarded in actual project design. This paper shows that indigenous peoples and societies are able to cope with an extraordinary number of permutations, and that their coping mechanisms are both…

  17. Australian Indigenous Knowledge and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Martin, Ed.; Langton, Marcia, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and academics…

  18. Reclaiming Indigenous Youth in Australia: Families and Schools Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechielsen,Jack; Galbraith, Mal; White, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Australia's Northern Territory is twice the size of Texas, with only 230,000 people living in its enormous space. About half reside in the capital Darwin in the tropical far north; the next biggest town with a population of 25,000 people is Alice Springs, 1600 kilometers south in the central desert. Some 70,000 Indigenous people form 30% of…

  19. Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

  20. Is resilience relevant to smoking abstinence for Indigenous Australians?

    PubMed

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking.

  1. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people. PMID:26887312

  2. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people.

  3. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  4. Spirituality and Creativity of Indigenous Societies in Brazil and Their Legacy to Brazilian Culture and Creative Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.; Braga, Nívea Pimenta; Prado, Renata Muniz; Chagas-Ferreira, Jane Farias

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores connections between spirituality and creativity in indigenous communities, and their link to spiritual intelligence. Some spiritual and creative characteristics of Brazilian indigenous peoples are described, as well as their legacy to Brazilian culture and creative giftedness. The paper concludes that Brazilian people have…

  5. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993–2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden. PMID:26633456

  6. Comparative Trends in National Indigenous Policies in the United States and in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Mary Katharine

    1993-01-01

    Compares U.S. and New Zealand histories of the relationship between the central government and indigenous peoples (American Indians/Maoris). Discusses major treaties, cyclical conservative/liberal swings between denial of treaty provisions and rectification, and the question of indigenous self-determination as interpreted disparately by national…

  7. Responding to Cultural Loss: Providing an Integral Indigenous Perspective of a "Kichwa Child"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maigua, Yolanda Terán; Gutierrez-Gomez, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    As Indigenous populations around the world migrate, urbanize, and come into contact with a variety of other cultures, they risk loss of their ancient languages and cultural practices. In 2007, the UN General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. In addition to the broader human rights like employment, security, and…

  8. The Indigenous World, 1998-99 = El Mundo Indigena, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erni, Christian, Ed.

    This annual publication examines political, legal, social, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world in 1998-99. Part I highlights news events and ongoing situations in specific countries. In North America, these include court decisions on the legal status of Alaska Native tribal governments, indigenous subsistence…

  9. The Indigenous World, 1995-96 = El Mundo Indigena, 1995-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Marianne, Comp.

    This annual publication examines political, legal, social, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world during 1995-96. Part I highlights news events and ongoing situations in specific countries, including threats to indigenous territories, human rights violations, political victories, developments at the United Nations,…

  10. Ho'okulaiwi and the Lived Experiences of Indigenous Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, K. Laiana; Maaka, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Each article in this journal describes not only a unique journey, it also describes an effort to build a homeland of some form or another. The authors refer to these journeys as the "loved experiences" of indigenous peoples. The idea then, that research is a lived experience that reflects the macrocosms and microcosms of indigenous well…

  11. Development of a Responsive Literacy Pedagogy Incorporating Technology for the Indigenous Learners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanabalan, T. Vanitha; Siraj, Saedah; Alias, Norlidah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a literacy pedagogy to facilitate literacy learning among the Indigenous community in Malaysia. The Developmental Research Approach method was used and thus various groups of people participated in the study. They included subject matter experts, English language teachers from schools with indigenous students,…

  12. Maori in Partnership: A Peer Mentoring Model for Tertiary Indigenous Staff in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Ratima, Matiu

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a professional development programme which brought an indigenous minority group of tertiary staff together. We describe a peer-mentoring model, piloted in 2009 at The University of Auckland, New Zealand with university staff in order to promote staff advancement. The participants were all Maori, the indigenous people of New…

  13. "Urban-Rural" Dynamics and Indigenous Urbanization: The Case of Inuit Language Use in Ottawa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Donna; Budach, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of cities in Canada has played a pivotal role in the displacement, dispossession, and marginalization of Indigenous peoples. Yet, more than half of the Indigenous population now resides in cities, and urbanization continues to increase. This paper addresses a specific aspect of Inuit mobility--namely, migration and the dynamic…

  14. Rigoberta Menchu Tum: Nobel Laureate Leads International Movement for Peace and Indigenous Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Paula

    1997-01-01

    Profiles Rigoberta Menchu Tum, a Maya-Quiche woman from Guatemala who in 1992, was the first indigenous person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. The prize's youngest recipient, Menchu Tum is using the prize money and prestige to promote the international movement for peace and the rights of indigenous peoples and to contribute to indigenous…

  15. Taming Malaria: A New Health Model for the Indigenous Populations in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Leda Leitao

    1999-01-01

    In the late 1980s, a gold rush in Roraima state, Brazil, had devastating effects on the health of indigenous populations. Since then, a new health system emerged combining the assets of nongovernmental organizations, government agencies, and Native peoples such as the Macuxi. Community-chosen indigenous health workers and microscope technicians…

  16. Exploring Ethnohistory and Indigenous Scholarship: What Is the Relevance to Educational Historians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Heather E.

    2014-01-01

    For educational historians involved in the representation of Indigenous contexts and peoples, what is the relevance of ethnohistory as a discipline or methodology, and what is lost or gained in using it? This article reviews ethnohistorical literature, and brings it in conversation with literature by Indigenous scholars on research methodologies,…

  17. Journeys around the Medicine Wheel: A Story of Indigenous Research in a Western University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Polly

    2001-01-01

    Spiritual experience is a taboo topic within Western institutions of higher learning. The silencing of this integral aspect of Indigenous people's lives often results in research findings that are inaccurate, incomplete, and invalid. Indigenous scholars are speaking out about how they integrate their spirituality into formal academic research,…

  18. The Intersection of Modernity, Globalization, Indigeneity, and Postcolonialism: Theorizing Contemporary Saskatchewan Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Michael; Preston, Jane P.; Pearce, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Viewing education as a contested site in the intersection of modernity, indigeneity, globalization, and postcolonialism, we explore relations between Aboriginal peoples and public schools in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Posing a profound challenge to provincial policy underpinned by global educational culture, indigeneity constitutes a…

  19. Unknown and Unknowing Possibilities: Transformative Learning, Social Justice, and Decolonising Pedagogy in Indigenous Australian Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    For tertiary educators in Indigenous Australian Studies, decolonising discourse in education has held much promise to make space for the diversity of Indigenous Australian peoples to be included, accessed, understood, discussed, and engaged with in meaningful ways. However, Tuck and Yang provide us with the stark reminder that decolonisation…

  20. An Indigenous Model of Career Satisfaction: Exploring the Role of Workplace Cultural Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haar, Jarrod M.; Brougham, Dave M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite career satisfaction models being well established, little is understood about the career satisfaction of indigenous employees. Using a sample of 172 Maori employees, the indigenous people of New Zealand, we tested a career satisfaction model with a cultural wellbeing factor over and above established factors of human capital,…

  1. Education Reform, Indigenous Politics, and Decolonisation in the Bolivia of Evo Morales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rosaleen

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between education reform and Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) for Bolivia's majority indigenous peoples, as this has evolved since the 1990s into the era of Evo Morales, Latin America's first indigenous president, elected in 2005. In order to bring out the significance of the new Education Bill awaiting…

  2. Are supernovae recorded in indigenous astronomical traditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the skywatching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in indigenous oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral traditions and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Aboriginal Australian traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Aboriginal traditions, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous Australian oral or material traditions.

  3. Therapeutic itineraries and explanations for tuberculosis: an indigenous perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Laura Maria Vidal; Teixeira, Elizabeth; Basta, Paulo Cesar; da Motta, Maria Catarina Salvador

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze explanations for tuberculosis and therapeutic itineraries of Brazilian indigenous people. METHODS Case study with a qualitative-descriptive approach. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 Munduruku indigenous, including direct observation of treatment for tuberculosis in the municipality of Jacareacanga, south-western region of the state of Para, Brazil. To identify explanations for tuberculosis and therapeutic itineraries, we performed thematic content analysis. RESULTS Traditional medicine was the first therapeutic option chosen by the indigenous. However, biomedicine was also employed, which indicates a circulation between different therapeutic contexts and health concepts among the Munduruku. The explanations provided ranged from recognition of the signs and symptoms specific to tuberculosis to the attribution of the disease to a spirit that leaves the body and wanders in the woods, returning ill into the body. Unlike the biomedical model, which links tuberculosis transmission strictly to interpersonal contact, in closed spaces without natural lighting and ventilation (preferably domestic environments), the Munduruku associate the disease to an indirect contact between people socially distant (enemies or adversaries) in public and open places. CONCLUSIONS The explanations made by the indigenous are unique and deserve the attention of those who are responsible for developing health public policies, as well as of the teams who work on the villages. To guarantee an efficient control of tuberculosis in these regions, it is necessary that the developed actions integrate biomedicine knowledge and the traditional medicine of the indigenous people, in addition to respecting and welcoming local culture manifestations. PMID:26815161

  4. Commentary on "National Education Policies for Aboriginal Peoples."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews educational policies for indigenous peoples in the United States, Canada, Australia, Scandinavia, New Zealand, Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and South Africa. Suggests that the continued survival of indigenous people requires cultural equality, achieved through self-determined, culturally relevant education; plus cooperation with…

  5. Australian indigenous children with low cognitive ability: Family and cultural participation.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, John; Emerson, Eric

    2016-09-01

    Family and cultural inclusion are essential for the healthy development of young Australian Indigenous peoples with low cognitive ability. To date, this issue has received limited research attention. A secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 4 of Footprints in Time, Australia's Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children, was conducted to help address this research gap. The study results indicated that in some areas, Indigenous children with low cognitive ability are at a higher risk of social exclusion than their peers. We discuss the policy implications of these findings with regards to addressing Indigenous disadvantage. PMID:27286466

  6. Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.

    2011-07-15

    The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

  7. Early Post-School Outcomes of Indigenous Youth: The Role of Literacy and Numeracy. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Briefing Paper 22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Nhi

    2010-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in the areas of education and employment, the gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth remain. Across some indicators--for example, university participation--the gap has actually widened. This is mainly because improvements for non-Indigenous young people have matched or surpassed the gains made by…

  8. Identifying Training Needs to Improve Indigenous Community Representatives Input into Environmental Resource Management Consultative Processes: A Case Study of the Bundjalung Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, David; Norrie, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    Despite increased engagement of Indigenous representatives as participants on consultative panels charged with processes of natural resource management, concerns have been raised by both Indigenous representatives and management agencies regarding the ability of Indigenous people to have quality input into the decisions these processes produce. In…

  9. Principles and guidelines for good practice in Indigenous engagement in water planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Sue; Tan, Poh-Ling; Mooney, Carla; Hoverman, Suzanne; White, Ian

    2012-12-01

    SummaryIndigenous rights, values and interests relating to water have been identified by Australia's National Water Commission as a national priority area, requiring greater understanding, research attention and government action. Yet Indigenous water values are rarely addressed in water planning, despite objectives in national policy requiring Indigenous participation and the identification of Indigenous social, spiritual and customary values in water plans. Water planners are presently equipped with a very limited number of engagement tools tailored to the water resource management context to redress the historical neglect of Indigenous interests. In an Australian research project focused on water planning, seven participatory planning tools were employed in three Australian case studies with different social and hydrological characteristics to improve the way in which Indigenous values are elicited and incorporated and to enhance the status of Indigenous knowledge in water planning. The results from the two Murray Darling Basin (MDB) case studies reveal the many ways in which Indigenous values have been adversely affected by recent water resource developments and concomitant water scarcity. In the third case on the Tiwi Islands in the Northern Territory, where land title to the entire water planning area is vested in Indigenous traditional owners, methods were refined to ensure engagement and generate capacity to manage the development of a solely Indigenous-owned, first-generation Water Management Strategy, in collaboration with a range of stakeholders. This paper describes the needs and aspirations of Indigenous people, the engagement strategies employed to elicit Indigenous knowledge, assess Indigenous values, and incorporate the results into three developing water plans. In addition, it outlines a set of general principles to guide water planning in other regions and thereby to improve Indigenous access to water.

  10. Genetic Counseling for Indigenous Australians: an Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Genetic Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Emma; Gallacher, Lyndon; Macciocca, Ivan; Sahhar, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Indigenous populations are thought to have particularly low levels of access to genetic health services, and cultural issues may be a contributing factor. This article presents the findings of the first study of genetic health service provision to Indigenous Australians. This qualitative study aimed to identify elements of culturally-competent genetic health service provision in Indigenous Australian contexts. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with genetic counselors and clinical geneticists from around Australia who had delivered services to Indigenous Australians. Participants were asked to describe their experiences and identify any collective cultural needs of Indigenous clients, as well as comment on specific training and resources they had received or used. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed with thematic analysis conducted on the data. The findings show that participants were reluctant to generalize the needs of Indigenous peoples. Some participants asserted that Indigenous peoples have needs that differ from the general population, while others felt that there were no collective cultural needs, instead advocating an individualized approach. Being flexible and practical, taking time to build rapport, recognizing different family structures and decision-making processes, as well as socio-economic disadvantage were all identified as important factors in participants' interactions with Indigenous clients. Indigenous support workers and hospital liaison officers were seen as valuable resources for effective service provision. The implications of this study for training and practice are discussed.

  11. [Health policy and legislation concerning traditional indigenous medicine in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Page, J T

    1995-01-01

    Various Mexican federal and state government agencies dealing with indigenous affairs are trying to establish control over traditional medicine and by recognizing it achieve cost decreases for health care directed towards Indian groups, bolstering it as a first-care level. The result is that the community absorbs the costs of medical care, leading to a reduction in the number of patients seeking government-run health care services. Traditional indigenous healers and their organizations consider the law a two-edged sword. On the one hand it provides them with legal measures for their protection, but on the other, they perceive it as a dangerous threat to their culture and practices. This has led them to seek legal advice, training, and active participation in the drafting process for such legislation. The result of this project is that they have been able to learn about the law, discuss their demands, and work out a proposal which is included in this document.

  12. Nutrition-related disorders in Indigenous Australians: how things have changed.

    PubMed

    Gracey, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    Awareness of a serious Indigenous health problem in Australia did not emerge until the 1960s and 1970s. Much attention was focused at the time on poor pregnancy outcomes, high infant and young child mortality rates, and childhood malnutrition and impaired growth, often associated with high infectious disease burdens. Although that situation has improved somewhat, Indigenous infant and child health is still poor compared with that of other Australian children. Over recent decades, there has been a rapid rise among Indigenous people of nutrition-related "lifestyle" disorders such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic renal disease and their complications. This epidemic of disabling and often fatal chronic diseases in Indigenous Australians is also occurring in disadvantaged groups in many other countries. Control of this potentially disastrous epidemic must become a much higher priority in Indigenous health programs. Governments must commit to this task in cooperation and collaboration with Indigenous organisations and communities. PMID:17229025

  13. Huntington disease in indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, P K; McGrath, F

    2008-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) in indigenous Australians is a poorly analysed and difficult problem. This study addresses the issue of HD in remote indigenous Australian populations in the north-west of Western Australia. Proband identification, clinical assessment, neurogenetic studies and pedigree analysis led to the discovery of HD in the 63-year-old male proband and his family. HD in remote indigenous Australian communities is a challenging diagnostic and management problem compounded by the complexity of distance. PMID:18290828

  14. Literacy Campaigns and the Indigenization of Modernity: Rearticulations of Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialostok, Steve; Whitman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many current literacy campaigns intended for indigenous peoples in Third World countries are reconceptualizations of earlier colonial projects and conform to the needs of late-modern capitalism. Early anthropology may have influenced the discourses surrounding literacy, but current anthropologists have charted important cultural and linguistic…

  15. Towards Growing Indigenous Culturally Competent Legal Professionals in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marcelle

    2013-01-01

    The Review of Australian Higher Education (Bradley Review, 2008) and the Review of Higher Education Access and Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People (Behrendt Review, 2012) identified the need for tertiary institutions to incorporate Indigenous knowledges into curriculum to improve educational outcomes for Indigenous…

  16. The Legacy of Racism and Indigenous Australian Identity within Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Carlson, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    It may be argued that the emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for Australia's First Peoples (when compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts) are becoming increasingly dissociated with an understanding of the interplay between historical and current trends in racism.…

  17. Story Telling: Australian Indigenous Women's Means of Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kaye; Acklin, F.; Newman, J.; Arbon, V.; Trindal, A.; Bermingham, M.; Thompson, B.

    Story-telling, an oral tradition of the indigenous peoples of Australia, was recorded on video as a vehicle for conveying health promotion messages in several urban Aboriginal (Koori) communities in Sydney, Australia. The video was made by a group of Koori women Elders and two female Aboriginal academics. The Elders integrated their personal…

  18. The Education of Indigenous Australian Students: Same Story, Different Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Australia's indigenous population is made up of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who each have distinctly different cultures. The former can be found in cities and towns and across the vast reaches of rural and remote Australia. The latter generally inhabit the coastal islands off the northeast coast and adjacent mainland areas.…

  19. Beyond "Discovery": Lewis & Clark from an Indigenous Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlebear, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Recontextualizes the history of the Lewis and Clark expedition from a Native American perspective. Argues that the success of the expedition hastened killing of American Indians and more firmly entrenched U.S. government policies toward indigenous peoples. Stresses that education, particularly at tribal colleges, is the key to success for…

  20. Meemul Tziij: An Indigenous Sign Language Complex of Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tree, Erich Fox

    2009-01-01

    This article examines sign languages that belong to a complex of indigenous sign languages in Mesoamerica that K'iche'an Maya people of Guatemala refer to collectively as Meemul Tziij. It explains the relationship between the Meemul Tziij variety of the Yukatek Maya village of Chican (state of Yucatan, Mexico) and the hitherto undescribed Meemul…

  1. Dropout Prevention Initiatives for Malaysian Indigenous Orang Asli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…

  2. Lung disease in indigenous children.

    PubMed

    Chang, A B; Brown, N; Toombs, M; Marsh, R L; Redding, G J

    2014-12-01

    Children in indigenous populations have substantially higher respiratory morbidity than non-indigenous children. Indigenous children have more frequent respiratory infections that are, more severe and, associated with long-term sequelae. Post-infectious sequelae such as chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis are especially prevalent among indigenous groups and have lifelong impact on lung function. Also, although estimates of asthma prevalence among indigenous children are similar to non-indigenous groups the morbidity of asthma is higher in indigenous children. To reduce the morbidity of respiratory illness, best-practice medicine is essential in addition to improving socio-economic factors, (eg household crowding), tobacco smoke exposure, and access to health care and illness prevention programs that likely contribute to these issues. Although each indigenous group may have unique health beliefs and interfaces with modern health care, a culturally sensitive and community-based comprehensive care system of preventive and long term care can improve outcomes for all these conditions. This article focuses on common respiratory conditions encountered by indigenous children living in affluent countries where data is available.

  3. Indigenous Community Tree Inventory: Assessment of Data Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, M. F.; Idris, N. H.; Din, A. H. M.; Osman, M. J.; Idris, N. H.; Ishak, M. H. I.

    2016-09-01

    The citizen science program to supplement authoritative data in tree inventory has been well implemented in various countries. However, there is a lack of study that assesses correctness and accuracy of tree data supplied by citizens. This paper addresses the issue of tree data quality supplied by semi-literate indigenous group. The aim of this paper is to assess the correctness of attributes (tree species name, height and diameter at breast height) and the accuracy of tree horizontal positioning data supplied by indigenous people. The accuracy of the tree horizontal position recorded by GNSS-enable smart phone was found to have a RMSE value of ± 8m which is not suitable to accurately locate individual tree position in tropical rainforest such as the Royal Belum State Park. Consequently, the tree species names contributed by indigenous people were only 20 to 30 percent correct as compared with the reference data. However, the combination of indigenous respondents comprising of different ages, experience and knowledge working in a group influence less attribute error in data entry and increase the use of free text rather than audio methods. The indigenous community has a big potential to engage with scientific study due to their local knowledge with the research area, however intensive training must be given to empower their skills and several challenges need to be addressed.

  4. Perceptions of Native Americans: Indigenous science and connections to ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellcourt, Mark Alan

    2005-11-01

    Indigenous peoples of Turtle Island (North America) have had a special connection to and understanding of Mother Earth and Father Sky, and a long tradition of respect for the earth's resources. Based on this connection, understanding and respect, they have developed and used their own scientific theories and methods, and have used sustainable environmental practices. However, the problem is that despite centuries of scientific environmental practice and knowledge, Indigenous wisdom is virtually absent from the dominant mainstream Western science curriculums, literature, and practice. The purpose of this study is to explore Indigenous wisdom and how it might be better integrated into science and ecology education programs which are currently taught almost exclusively from Western perspectives. This study addresses the following two research questions: (1) What are the worldviews of Native American and science? (2) How can these worldviews be brought into mainstream Western science? The study of Indigenous wisdom involves an exploration of the stories a population of people whose core beliefs can not be easily quantified. A qualitative research approach, in-depth interviews and observations, have been selected for this study. The interviews and observations will be transcribed and the text will be reviewed and analyzed to find Indigenous worldviews and strategies for including these worldviews in current science curriculums.

  5. The Indigenous Researcher as Individual and Collective: Building a Research Practice Ethic within the Context of Indigenous Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Sacco, Gail

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her experience as an Indigenous researcher conducting dissertation research on Passamaquoddy ideas of health and decision making in her home community and how these can be applied in contemporary tribal health decision-making processes. The author comes from Sibyig, on the edge, she is related to the people of…

  6. Indigenous Burning as Conservation Practice: Neotropical Savanna Recovery amid Agribusiness Deforestation in Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Welch, James R.; Brondízio, Eduardo S.; Hetrick, Scott S.; Coimbra, Carlos E. A.

    2013-01-01

    International efforts to address climate change by reducing tropical deforestation increasingly rely on indigenous reserves as conservation units and indigenous peoples as strategic partners. Considered win-win situations where global conservation measures also contribute to cultural preservation, such alliances also frame indigenous peoples in diverse ecological settings with the responsibility to offset global carbon budgets through fire suppression based on the presumed positive value of non-alteration of tropical landscapes. Anthropogenic fire associated with indigenous ceremonial and collective hunting practices in the Neotropical savannas (cerrado) of Central Brazil is routinely represented in public and scientific conservation discourse as a cause of deforestation and increased CO2 emissions despite a lack of supporting evidence. We evaluate this claim for the Xavante people of Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve, Brazil. Building upon 23 years of longitudinal interdisciplinary research in the area, we used multi-temporal spatial analyses to compare land cover change under indigenous and agribusiness management over the last four decades (1973–2010) and quantify the contemporary Xavante burning regime contributing to observed patterns based on a four year sample at the end of this sequence (2007–2010). The overall proportion of deforested land remained stable inside the reserve (0.6%) but increased sharply outside (1.5% to 26.0%). Vegetation recovery occurred where reserve boundary adjustments transferred lands previously deforested by agribusiness to indigenous management. Periodic traditional burning by the Xavante had a large spatial distribution but repeated burning in consecutive years was restricted. Our results suggest a need to reassess overreaching conservation narratives about the purported destructiveness of indigenous anthropogenic fire in the cerrado. The real challenge to conservation in the fire-adapted cerrado biome is the long

  7. Indigenous burning as conservation practice: neotropical savanna recovery amid agribusiness deforestation in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Welch, James R; Brondízio, Eduardo S; Hetrick, Scott S; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2013-01-01

    International efforts to address climate change by reducing tropical deforestation increasingly rely on indigenous reserves as conservation units and indigenous peoples as strategic partners. Considered win-win situations where global conservation measures also contribute to cultural preservation, such alliances also frame indigenous peoples in diverse ecological settings with the responsibility to offset global carbon budgets through fire suppression based on the presumed positive value of non-alteration of tropical landscapes. Anthropogenic fire associated with indigenous ceremonial and collective hunting practices in the Neotropical savannas (cerrado) of Central Brazil is routinely represented in public and scientific conservation discourse as a cause of deforestation and increased CO2 emissions despite a lack of supporting evidence. We evaluate this claim for the Xavante people of Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve, Brazil. Building upon 23 years of longitudinal interdisciplinary research in the area, we used multi-temporal spatial analyses to compare land cover change under indigenous and agribusiness management over the last four decades (1973-2010) and quantify the contemporary Xavante burning regime contributing to observed patterns based on a four year sample at the end of this sequence (2007-2010). The overall proportion of deforested land remained stable inside the reserve (0.6%) but increased sharply outside (1.5% to 26.0%). Vegetation recovery occurred where reserve boundary adjustments transferred lands previously deforested by agribusiness to indigenous management. Periodic traditional burning by the Xavante had a large spatial distribution but repeated burning in consecutive years was restricted. Our results suggest a need to reassess overreaching conservation narratives about the purported destructiveness of indigenous anthropogenic fire in the cerrado. The real challenge to conservation in the fire-adapted cerrado biome is the long

  8. Anger in Australian Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Peter; Mergler, Amanda; Furlong, Michael; Caltabiano, Nerina

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive pilot study examined the cultural differences in the dimensions of self-reported anger in Indigenous and non-Indigenous (Caucasian) students aged 10-13 years in Far North Queensland, Australia. The Multidimensional School Anger Inventory-Revised (MSAI-R) (Boman, Curtis, Furlong, & Smith, 2006) was used to measure affective,…

  9. Indigenous Language Immersion Schools for Strong Indigenous Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…

  10. A Rosetta Stone for Nature’s Benefits to People

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Sandra; Demissew, Sebsebe; Joly, Carlos; Lonsdale, W. Mark; Larigauderie, Anne

    2015-01-01

    After a long incubation period, the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is now underway. Underpinning all its activities is the IPBES Conceptual Framework (CF), a simplified model of the interactions between nature and people. Drawing on the legacy of previous large-scale environmental assessments, the CF goes further in explicitly embracing different disciplines and knowledge systems (including indigenous and local knowledge) in the co-construction of assessments of the state of the world’s biodiversity and the benefits it provides to humans. The CF can be thought of as a kind of “Rosetta Stone” that highlights commonalities between diverse value sets and seeks to facilitate crossdisciplinary and crosscultural understanding. We argue that the CF will contribute to the increasing trend towards interdisciplinarity in understanding and managing the environment. Rather than displacing disciplinary science, however, we believe that the CF will provide new contexts of discovery and policy applications for it. PMID:25585296

  11. Diversifying science: Recognizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems as scientific worldviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipe, Daniel J.

    In this dissertation I examine Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) and Western science, critically analyzing the underlying values of each, and exploring ways in which both systems can be utilized side by side. In general, Western science has arguably become the worldview utilized in dealing with the many complex multi-level issues of today. Research has shown that as issues increase in both size and complexity, so does the need for cultural and intellectual diverse frames of reference for identifying solutions to problems. By necessity Indigenous peoples have developed their own science-based understandings of the world. Passed on through oral traditions, Indigenous peoples have both maintained and expanded their understandings over time. Until recently Indigenous worldviews have been forcefully removed and placed outside of the realm of science. Focusing on Indigenous stories as scientific knowledge-wells and storytelling as a vital means of transmitting that knowledge, I discuss science through the stories of four Indigenous educators and practitioners. In addition, I highlight the importance of relationships: relationships to place, to each other, to the stories, and to the storyteller. In particular I examine relational accountability, a framework in which the researcher is held accountable to the people, research, and elements around him or her because of their strong foundational relationships to them. Using relational accountability as a base and stories and storytelling as the methodology, I argue that although IKS look and feel different than the colonizer's dominant Western science paradigm, IKS are supersaturated with scientific information that needs to be brought into the scientific discussions for policy and practice today.

  12. Indigenous Empowerment through Collective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enn, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…

  13. Commentary: Indigenous Health Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonmyr, Lil; Blackstock, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…

  14. Reducing the health disparities of Indigenous Australians: time to change focus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous peoples have worse health than non-Indigenous, are over-represented amongst the poor and disadvantaged, have lower life expectancies, and success in improving disparities is limited. To address this, research usually focuses on disadvantaged and marginalised groups, offering only partial understanding of influences underpinning slow progress. Critical analysis is also required of those with the power to perpetuate or improve health inequities. In this paper, using Australia as a case example, we explore the effects of ‘White’, Anglo-Australian cultural dominance in health service delivery to Indigenous Australians. We address the issue using race as an organising principle, underpinned by relations of power. Methods Interviews with non-Indigenous medical practitioners in Western Australia with extensive experience in Indigenous health encouraged reflection and articulation of their insights into factors promoting or impeding quality health care to Indigenous Australians. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. An inductive, exploratory analysis identified key themes that were reviewed and interrogated in light of existing literature on health care to Indigenous people, race and disadvantage. The researchers’ past experience, knowledge and understanding of health care and Indigenous health assisted with data interpretation. Informal discussions were also held with colleagues working professionally in Indigenous policy, practice and community settings. Results Racism emerged as a key issue, leading us to more deeply interrogate the role ‘Whiteness’ plays in Indigenous health care. While Whiteness can refer to skin colour, it also represents a racialized social structure where Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values are subjugated to the dominant western biomedical model in policy and practice. Racism towards Indigenous patients in health services was institutional and interpersonal. Internalised racism was manifest when

  15. Understanding the social determinants of health among Indigenous Canadians: priorities for health promotion policies and actions

    PubMed Central

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Nader, Forouz; Yi, Kyoung J.; Sharma, Sangita

    2015-01-01

    Background Indigenous Canadians have a life expectancy 12 years lower than the national average and experience higher rates of preventable chronic diseases compared with non-Indigenous Canadians. Transgenerational trauma from past assimilation policies have affected the health of Indigenous populations. Objective The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively examine the social determinants of health (SDH), in order to identify priorities for health promotion policies and actions. Design We undertook a series of systematic reviews focusing on four major SDH (i.e. income, education, employment, and housing) among Indigenous peoples in Alberta, following the protocol Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis-Equity. Results We found that the four SDH disproportionately affect the health of Indigenous peoples. Our systematic review highlighted 1) limited information regarding relationships and interactions among income, personal and social circumstances, and health outcomes; 2) limited knowledge of factors contributing to current housing status and its impacts on health outcomes; and 3) the limited number of studies involving the barriers to, and opportunities for, education. Conclusions These findings may help to inform efforts to promote health equity and improve health outcomes of Indigenous Canadians. However, there is still a great need for in-depth subgroup studies to understand SDH (e.g. age, Indigenous ethnicity, dwelling area, etc.) and intersectoral collaborations (e.g. community and various government departments) to reduce health disparities faced by Indigenous Canadians. PMID:26187697

  16. Interests and Stimulus Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, George B.; Donnenwerth, Gregory V.

    1969-01-01

    Examines relationships between Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) and vocational interests measured by the Kuder and Strong Vocational Interest Blank, among alcoholics and undergraduates. Results support construct validity of the SSS and provide further evidence of modes of expression of stimulus-seeking needs in personality. (Author/CJ)

  17. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation in Urban and Indigenous Populations of Mexico: Patterns of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Lineages.

    PubMed

    González-Sobrino, Blanca Z; Pintado-Cortina, Ana P; Sebastián-Medina, Leticia; Morales-Mandujano, Fabiola; Contreras, Alejandra V; Aguilar, Yasnaya E; Chávez-Benavides, Juan; Carrillo-Rodríguez, Aurelio; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Medrano-González, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Aside from the admixture between indigenous people and people from overseas, populations in Mexico changed drastically after the Spanish conquest of the sixteenth century, forming an intricate history that has been underutilized in understanding the genetic population structure of Mexicans. To infer historical processes of isolation, dispersal, and assimilation, we examined the phylogeography of mitochondrial (mt) DNA and Y-chromosome lineages in 3,026 individuals from 10 urban and nine indigenous populations by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms. A geographic array with a predominance of Amerindian lineages was observed for mtDNA, with northern indigenous populations being divergent from the central and southern indigenous populations; urban populations showed low differentiation with isolation by distance. Y-chromosome variation distinguished urban and indigenous populations through the Amerindian haplogroup Q frequency. The MtDNA and the Y-chromosome together primarily distinguished urban and indigenous populations, with different geographic arrays for both. Gene flow across geographical distance and between the urban and indigenous realms appears to have altered the pre-Hispanic phylogeography in central and southern Mexico, mainly by displacement of women, while maintaining the indigenous isolation in the north, southeast, and Zapotec regions. Most Amerindian mtDNA diversity currently occurs in urban populations and appears to be reduced among indigenous people. PMID:27050033

  18. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation in Urban and Indigenous Populations of Mexico: Patterns of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Lineages.

    PubMed

    González-Sobrino, Blanca Z; Pintado-Cortina, Ana P; Sebastián-Medina, Leticia; Morales-Mandujano, Fabiola; Contreras, Alejandra V; Aguilar, Yasnaya E; Chávez-Benavides, Juan; Carrillo-Rodríguez, Aurelio; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Medrano-González, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Aside from the admixture between indigenous people and people from overseas, populations in Mexico changed drastically after the Spanish conquest of the sixteenth century, forming an intricate history that has been underutilized in understanding the genetic population structure of Mexicans. To infer historical processes of isolation, dispersal, and assimilation, we examined the phylogeography of mitochondrial (mt) DNA and Y-chromosome lineages in 3,026 individuals from 10 urban and nine indigenous populations by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms. A geographic array with a predominance of Amerindian lineages was observed for mtDNA, with northern indigenous populations being divergent from the central and southern indigenous populations; urban populations showed low differentiation with isolation by distance. Y-chromosome variation distinguished urban and indigenous populations through the Amerindian haplogroup Q frequency. The MtDNA and the Y-chromosome together primarily distinguished urban and indigenous populations, with different geographic arrays for both. Gene flow across geographical distance and between the urban and indigenous realms appears to have altered the pre-Hispanic phylogeography in central and southern Mexico, mainly by displacement of women, while maintaining the indigenous isolation in the north, southeast, and Zapotec regions. Most Amerindian mtDNA diversity currently occurs in urban populations and appears to be reduced among indigenous people.

  19. Primary health-care responses to methamphetamine use in Australian Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Sarah; Harney, Angela; Arabena, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Crystal methamphetamine (commonly known as 'ice') use is currently a deeply concerning problem for some Australian Indigenous peoples and can cause serious harms to individual, families and communities. This paper is intended to support best practice responses by primary health-care staff working with Australian Indigenous people who use methamphetamine. It draws on a systematic search of relevant databases to identify literature from January 1999 to February 2014, providing an overview of prevalence, treatment, education and harm reduction, and community responses. The prevalence of methamphetamine use is higher in Indigenous than non-Indigenous communities, particularly in urban and regional settings. No evidence was identified that specifically related to effective treatment and treatment outcomes for Indigenous Australians experiencing methamphetamine dependence or problematic use. While studies involving methamphetamine users in the mainstream population suggest that psychological and residential treatments show short-term promise, longer-term outcomes are less clear. Community-driven interventions involving Indigenous populations in Australia and internationally appear to have a high level of community acceptability; however, outcomes in terms of methamphetamine use are rarely evaluated. Improved national data on prevalence of methamphetamine use among Indigenous people and levels of treatment access would support service planning. We argue for the importance of a strength-based approach to addressing methamphetamine use, to counteract the stigma and despair that frequently accompanies it. PMID:25704260

  20. Primary health-care responses to methamphetamine use in Australian Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Sarah; Harney, Angela; Arabena, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Crystal methamphetamine (commonly known as 'ice') use is currently a deeply concerning problem for some Australian Indigenous peoples and can cause serious harms to individual, families and communities. This paper is intended to support best practice responses by primary health-care staff working with Australian Indigenous people who use methamphetamine. It draws on a systematic search of relevant databases to identify literature from January 1999 to February 2014, providing an overview of prevalence, treatment, education and harm reduction, and community responses. The prevalence of methamphetamine use is higher in Indigenous than non-Indigenous communities, particularly in urban and regional settings. No evidence was identified that specifically related to effective treatment and treatment outcomes for Indigenous Australians experiencing methamphetamine dependence or problematic use. While studies involving methamphetamine users in the mainstream population suggest that psychological and residential treatments show short-term promise, longer-term outcomes are less clear. Community-driven interventions involving Indigenous populations in Australia and internationally appear to have a high level of community acceptability; however, outcomes in terms of methamphetamine use are rarely evaluated. Improved national data on prevalence of methamphetamine use among Indigenous people and levels of treatment access would support service planning. We argue for the importance of a strength-based approach to addressing methamphetamine use, to counteract the stigma and despair that frequently accompanies it.

  1. Smoking behaviours in a remote Australian Indigenous community: the influence of family and other factors.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Vanessa; Thomas, David P

    2008-12-01

    In Australia, tobacco smoking is more than twice as common among Indigenous people as non-Indigenous people. Some of the highest smoking rates in the country are in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. Owing to this high prevalence, tobacco use today is the single biggest contributing risk factor for excess morbidity and mortality among Indigenous Australians. Despite this, there is a lack of published research which qualitatively explores the social context of Indigenous smoking behaviour or of meanings and perceptions of smoking among Indigenous people. The aim of this study was to understand why Indigenous people start to smoke, the reasons why they persist in smoking and the obstacles and drivers of quitting. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 25 Indigenous community members in two remote communities in the Northern Territory and 13 health staff. The results indicate that there is a complex interplay of historical, social, cultural, psychological and physiological factors which influence the smoking behaviours of Indigenous adults in these communities. In particular, the results signal the importance of the family and kin relations in determining smoking behaviours. While most community participants were influenced by family to initiate and continue to smoke, the health and well being of the family was also cited as a key driver of quit attempts. The results highlight the importance of attending to social and cultural context when designing tobacco control programs for this population. Specifically, this research supports the development of family-centred tobacco control interventions alongside wider policy initiatives to counter the normalisation of smoking and assist individuals to quit.

  2. Changing Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    Despite the increasing acceptance of the value of psychotherapy, there are still those who think people should solve their own problems. A study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of college students toward seeking professional help before and after taking a course in abnormal psychology to determine whether exposure to the purposes and…

  3. Contingent, Contested and Changing: De-Constructing Indigenous Knowledge in a Science Curriculum Resource from the South Coast of New South Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    The nature and status of Indigenous knowledge is often debated, but the idea that Indigenous people's knowledge is local knowledge seems widely accepted: knowledge is place-based and may reference a range of places, from traditional land to other places known from social and cultural connections. Through collaboration with Koori people from the…

  4. Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking among Social Isolates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.

    2011-01-01

    To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…

  5. The People Capability Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wademan, Mark R.; Spuches, Charles M.; Doughty, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The People Capability Maturity Model[R] (People CMM[R]) advocates a staged approach to organizational change. Developed by the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute, this model seeks to bring discipline to the people side of management by promoting a structured, repeatable, and predictable approach for improving an…

  6. Indigenous Nations' Responses to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    On August 1st, 2007, Indigenous nations from within the United States, Canada, Australia, and Aotearoa (New Zealand) signed a treaty to found the United League of Indigenous Nations. The Treaty of Indigenous Nations offers a historic opportunity for sovereign Indigenous governments to build intertribal cooperation outside the framework of the…

  7. Touring the Indigenous or Transforming Consciousness? Reflections on Teaching Indigenous Tourism at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins-Desbiolles, Freya

    2007-01-01

    The role of the non-Indigenous educator and researcher in education on Indigenous issues is becoming the subject of critical scrutiny. Indigenous academics are successfully turning the gaze on non-Indigenous peers and practices. This paper narrates some of the experiences of a non-Indigenous educator teaching an undergraduate elective Indigenous…

  8. Cyber-Indigeneity: Urban Indigenous Identity on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Bronwyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses understandings and theorising of identity in cyberspace. In particular, it focuses on the construction, maintenance and performance of urban Indigenous identities on the contemporary internet social space, Facebook.

  9. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health.

  10. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  11. Is hunting still healthy? Understanding the interrelationships between indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health.

    PubMed

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-05-28

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically.

  12. Is Hunting Still Healthy? Understanding the Interrelationships between Indigenous Participation in Land-Based Practices and Human-Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically. PMID:24879487

  13. Educacion en Poblaciones Indigenas: Politicas y Estrategias en America Latina. (Education for Indigenous Populations: Policies and Strategies in Latin America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Madeleine, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a compilation of 20 papers from a seminar on educational policy and strategy for educating the indigenous peoples of Latin America and Mexico. There is a growing awareness among linguistics and anthropology specialists and educators of the necessity to validate education that respects the values of an indigenous culture. This…

  14. The Experiences of Immigrants from Mexico Who Speak Indigenous Languages: A Sociocultural and Postcolonial Perspective on Language, Culture, and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Frausto, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This study dealt with the experiences of immigrants from Latin America, specifically Mexico, who speak indigenous languages. This study was guided by a theoretical framework in terms of issues such as power struggle, cultural hierarchy, and identity ambiguity, which are social realities of indigenous people who have immigrated to the United…

  15. Information and Communication Technologies and Social Mobilization: The Case of the Indigenous Movement in Ecuador, 2007-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Barber, Lindsay N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades Indigenous people in Ecuador have faced government policies threatening their internationally recognized Indigenous human rights. Although a national social movement emerged in Ecuador in 1990, the level of mobilization has since varied. This dissertation project proposes to address the question, under what conditions…

  16. "No-One's Really Aware of Where They Are": A Case Study of Indigenous Student Mobilities in Australia's Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, Sarah; Yap, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous Australians have often been described as highly mobile people, particularly in historical and remote "wilderness" contexts. To date though, very little research has examined the relationship between Indigenous temporary mobilities and formal education systems, which assume and require "settled" residency practice. This paper situates…

  17. What Works to Overcome Indigenous Disadvantage: Key Learnings and Gaps in the Evidence. Closing the Gap Clearinghouse. 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yaman, Fadwa; Higgins, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    The Closing the Gap Clearinghouse was established by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) to bring together evidence-based research on overcoming disadvantage for Indigenous Australians. The Clearinghouse provides access to a collection of information on what works to improve Indigenous people's lives across the building blocks identified…

  18. Ethnicity, development and gender: Tsáchila indigenous women in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, Sarah; Pequeño, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, indigenous populations have become the subjects and agents of development in national and international multicultural policy that acknowledges poverty among indigenous peoples and their historic marginalization from power over development. Although the impact of these legal and programmatic efforts is growing, one persistent axis of disadvantage, male–female difference, is rarely taken into account in ethno-development policy and practice. This article argues that assumptions that inform policy related to indigenous women fail to engage with indigenous women's development concerns. The institutional separation between gender and development policy (GAD) and multiculturalism means that provisions for gender in multicultural policies are inadequate, and ethnic rights in GAD policies are invisible. Drawing on post-colonial feminism, the paper examines ethnicity and gender as interlocking systems that structure indigenous women's development experiences. These arguments are illustrated in relation to the case of the Tsáchila ethno-cultural group in the South American country of Ecuador.

  19. Patenting nature or protecting culture? Ethnopharmacology and indigenous intellectual property rights

    PubMed Central

    McGonigle, Ian Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacologists are scientists and anthropologists that study indigenous medicines and healing practices, and who often develop new therapies and medicines for wider use. Ethnopharmacologists do fieldwork with indigenous peoples in traditional societies, where they encounter a wide range of cultural values and varying ideas about the nature of property relations. This poses difficulties for protecting indigenous intellectual property and for making just trade agreements. This Note reviews the legal issues relevant to the protection of indigenous resources in ethnopharmacology trade agreements, and suggests that recent developments in anthropology and the social study of science could be instructive in furthering the legal discourse and in providing policy directions. Specifically, the Note introduces the concepts of ‘ontological pluralism’ and ‘epistemic subsidiarity’, which could help lawmakers write sui generis trade agreements to better protect indigenous knowledge and resources. PMID:27774245

  20. Ethnicity, development and gender: Tsáchila indigenous women in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, Sarah; Pequeño, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, indigenous populations have become the subjects and agents of development in national and international multicultural policy that acknowledges poverty among indigenous peoples and their historic marginalization from power over development. Although the impact of these legal and programmatic efforts is growing, one persistent axis of disadvantage, male–female difference, is rarely taken into account in ethno-development policy and practice. This article argues that assumptions that inform policy related to indigenous women fail to engage with indigenous women's development concerns. The institutional separation between gender and development policy (GAD) and multiculturalism means that provisions for gender in multicultural policies are inadequate, and ethnic rights in GAD policies are invisible. Drawing on post-colonial feminism, the paper examines ethnicity and gender as interlocking systems that structure indigenous women's development experiences. These arguments are illustrated in relation to the case of the Tsáchila ethno-cultural group in the South American country of Ecuador. PMID:21125766

  1. Health professional's perspectives of the barriers and enablers to cancer care for Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Meiklejohn, J A; Adams, J; Valery, P C; Walpole, E T; Martin, J H; Williams, H M; Garvey, G

    2016-03-01

    To investigate health professionals' perspectives about factors that impede or facilitate cancer care for Indigenous people. Semi-structured interviews with 22 health professionals involved in Indigenous cancer care. Data were interpreted using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Participants presented their perspectives on a number of barriers and enablers to Indigenous cancer care. Barriers were related to challenges with communication, the health system and coordination of care, issues around individual and community priorities and views of cancer treatment and health professional judgement. Enablers to cancer care were related to the importance of trust and rapport as well as health care system and support factors. The findings highlighted the need for recording of Indigenous status in medical records and a coordinated approach to the provision of evidence-based and culturally appropriate cancer care. This could go some way to improving Indigenous patient's engagement with tertiary cancer care services.

  2. Ethnobotanical knowledge on indigenous fruits in Ohangwena and Oshikoto regions in Northern Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous communities in Namibia possess a rich indigenous knowledge expressed within many practices of these communities. Indigenous wild edible fruits are available along the Namibian 13 regions of which it forms a rich source of vitamins, fibres, minerals and a heterogeneous collection of bioactive compounds referred to as phytochemicals for indigenous people’s diet. The aim of this study was to record the different IKS practices on the indigenous fruit trees in Ohangwena and Oshikoto regions of Namibia. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from local communities from 23-29 October 2011. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips in the Ohangwena and Oshikoto regions. A total of 65 respondents were interviewed; 54%; women, 38%; men and 8%; both in group interviews. Results The majority of the people interviewed were in their thirty’s, with the youngest being 18 years old and the oldest being 98 years old. Forty three plant specimens were collected from the two regions; these specimens belong to 20 genera and 25 species. Regarding to the indigenous knowledge; 87%; of the respondents indicated that their knowledge on indigenous fruits was learnt mainly through their parent. Indigenous people’s perception on declining indigenous fruits revealed that 56.3%; of the respondents reported that indigenous fruits were declining. Only a 42.2%; indicated that the indigenous fruits populations are increasing. Regarding to the management practices to improve the production of these indigenous fruit trees; 38.6%; reported that there are some efforts on management practices; on the other hand 61.4%; reported there are no management practices on the indigenous fruit trees in their areas. Four species were found to be the most frequently used and mentioned fruits which need to be given high preference in terms of conservation are: Berchemia discolor, Hyphaene petersiana

  3. Indigenous knowledge as decision support tool in rainwater harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbilinyi, B. P.; Tumbo, S. D.; Mahoo, H. F.; Senkondo, E. M.; Hatibu, N.

    Rainfall patterns in semi-arid areas are typically highly variable, both spatially and temporally. As a result, people who rely completely on rainwater for their survival have over the centuries developed indigenous knowledge/techniques to harvest rainwater. These traditional water-harvesting systems have been sustainable for centuries. The reason for this is that they are compatible with local lifestyles, local institutional patterns and local social systems. In order to develop sustainable strategies, it is therefore important to take into account of, and learn from, what local people already know and do, and to build on this. This paper explores how indigenous knowledge is used by farmers in the Makanya catchment, Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania to identify potential sites for rainwater harvesting (RWH). The paper draws on participatory research methods including focus group discussions, key informant interviews, field visits and participatory workshops. Initial findings indicate that farmers do hold a substantial amount of knowledge about the resources around them. As there are spatially typical aspects to indigenous knowledge, it could be extrapolated over a wider geographic extent. From the preliminary findings, it is being recommended that geographic information system (GIS) could be an important tool to collect and upscale the utility of diverse indigenous knowledge in the decision-making process.

  4. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil: results from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency globally, affecting about a quarter of the world population. In Brazil, about one-fifth of children under five years of age are anemic. Previous case studies indicate prevalence rates much higher among indigenous peoples in the country. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first survey based on a nationwide representative sample to study the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil. Methods The survey assessed the health and nutritional status of indigenous children < 5 years of age based on a representative sample of major Brazilian geopolitical regions. A stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for indigenous villages. Within villages, children < 5 years of age in sampled households were included in the study. Prevalence rates of anemia were calculated for independent variables and hierarchical multivariate analysis were conducted to assess associations. Results Evaluation of hemoglobin levels was conducted for 5,397 children (88.1% of the total sample). The overall prevalence of anemia was 51.2%. Higher risk of presenting anemia was documented for boys, lower maternal schooling, lower household socioeconomic status, poorer sanitary conditions, presence of maternal anemia, and anthropometric deficits. Regional differences were observed, with the highest rate being observed in the North. Conclusions The prevalence rates of anemia in indigenous children were approximately double than those reported for non-indigenous Brazilian children in the same age group. Similarly notable differences in the occurrence of anemia in indigenous and non-indigenous children have been reported for other countries. Deeper knowledge about the etiology of anemia in indigenous children in Brazil is essential to its proper treatment and prevention. PMID:23714275

  5. Uneasy Terrain: Image, Text, Landscape, and Contemporary Indigenous Artists in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohnesorge, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Like many contemporary Indigenous artists in the United States, Flathead artist Jaune Quick-to-See Smith seeks to clarify existing relationships among race, place, and economics as well as to create new relationships. In particular, she and her peers combine image and text to interrogate the genre of landscape painting as a stage for fantasies of…

  6. "Greco-Roman Knowledge Only" in Arizona Schools: Indigenous Wisdom Outlawed Once Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Roberto Cintli

    2010-01-01

    Students at Tucson High School in Arizona, part of Tucson Unified School District's highly successful Mexican American Studies (MAS) K-12 program, the largest in the nation, are taught Indigenous concepts, including Panche Be (seek the root of the truth), and the Aztec and Maya calendars. The author speaks to the students about the relationship…

  7. Chwuech Manimba: Indigenous Creative Education among Women of the Luo Community of Western Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadende, Pamela Akinyi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to present the procedure and proceedings of an instructional research into the teaching and learning among Luo women of Western Kenya. The purposes of the research are threefold. First, it seeks to document a system of indigenous adult education that has proved sustainable among Luo women from generation to…

  8. Psychology Brewed in an African Pot: Indigenous Philosophies and the Quest for Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandawe, Chiwoza R.

    2005-01-01

    Higher education has often been targeted for criticism with regard to its lack of relevance when seeking to address the harsh realities of poor health, poverty and conflict in African countries. African universities have been seen as producing Western-influenced graduates who become an elite out of touch with their own indigenous worldview. In…

  9. Building partnerships with Indigenous communities around climate change: A new UCAR initiative.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    The atmospheric and related sciences have one of the lowest rates of participation by American Indians of any physical science. This not only disadvantages the atmospheric sciences by isolating them from a rich and relevant intellectual heritage, it disadvantages tribal communities who seek to apply the insights from atmospheric sciences to planning their own future. In a time of rapid environmental change and its impact on tribal lands and all lands, the need for connection between these two communities is especially urgent. In 2007, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research launched a new Community Building Program, in order to catalyze and coordinate activities that contribute to UCAR's strategic goal of developing a diverse atmospheric science workforce. A key goal of this program has been to look for partnerships with the American Indian community around climate change issues. The goal of these partnerships is to support North American tribal efforts to enhance their own scientific and adaptive capacity around climate change. In the early stages of this partnership, we have listened to some important messages from Indigenous communities: •Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to identity and sovereignty • Scientific expertise is one among many skills indigenous people employ in their relation with their homelands • Climate change research and education are embedded in decision-making about economic development, energy, public health as well as cultural preservation, language, and tribal sovereignty This presentation will be an opportunity to check and extend these insights discuss and use them as a basis for a long-term partnership between UCAR and tribal communities.

  10. Yarning/Aboriginal storytelling: towards an understanding of an Indigenous perspective and its implications for research practice.

    PubMed

    Geia, Lynore K; Hayes, Barbara; Usher, Kim

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition of Indigenous perspectives from various parts of the world in relation to storytelling, research and its effects on practice. The recent emergence of storytelling or yarning as a research method in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island studies and other Indigenous peoples of the world is gaining momentum. Narratives, stories, storytelling and yarning are emerging methods in research and has wide ranging potential to shape conventional research discourse making research more meaningful and accessible for researchers. In this paper we argue for the importance of Indigenous research methods and Indigenous method(ology), within collaborative respectful partnerships with non-Indigenous researchers. It is imperative to take these challenging steps together towards better outcomes for Indigenous people and their communities. In the Australian context we as researchers cannot afford to allow the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and mainstream Australia health outcomes to grow even wider. One such pathway is the inclusion of Aboriginal storytelling or yarning from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait perspective within Indigenous and non-Indigenous research paradigms. Utilising Aboriginal storytelling or yarning will provide deeper understanding; complementing a two-way research paradigm for collaborative research. Furthermore, it has significant social implications for research and clinical practice amongst Indigenous populations; thus complementing the biomedical medical paradigm. PMID:24716757

  11. Indigenous Māori perspectives on urban transport patterns linked to health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Raerino Ngāti Awa Te Arawa, K; Macmillan, Alex K; Jones Ngāti Kahungunu, Rhys G

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing body of research linking urban transport systems to inequities in health. However, there is a lack of research providing evidence of the effect of transport systems on indigenous family wellbeing. We examined the connections between urban transport and the health and wellbeing of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. We provide an indigenous exploration of current urban transport systems, with a particular focus on the impacts of car dependence and the need for culturally relevant travel. We interviewed nineteen Māori participants utilising qualitative research techniques underpinned by an indigenous research methodology (Kaupapa Māori). The data highlighted the importance of accessing cultural activities and sites relevant to 'being Māori', and issues with affordability and safety of public transport. Understanding the relationship between indigenous wellbeing and transport systems that goes further than limited discourses of inequity is essential to improving transport for indigenous wellbeing. Providing an indigenous voice in transport decision-making will make it more likely that indigenous health and wellbeing is prioritised in transport planning.

  12. Risk factors for problem gambling among indigenous Australians: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Despite a long history of gambling amongst many Indigenous peoples, knowledge about contemporary Indigenous gambling is sparse. In Australia, previous studies of Indigenous gambling have been severely limited in number, scope and rigour. The research reported in this paper is based on the first Indigenous-specific quantitative gambling research undertaken in Australia since 1996 and draws on the largest sample to date. This study examined numerous aspects of gambling among Indigenous Australians. After appropriate consultations and permission, the study collected surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults in 2011 at three Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. This paper draws on these data to identify problem gambling risk factors by comparing selected socio-demographic characteristics, early exposure to gambling, gambling motivations, gambling behaviour, gambling cognitions, and substance use while gambling, amongst non-problem, low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers. A logistic regression investigated the difference between problem gamblers and all other PGSI groups. Risk factors associated with being a problem gambler were: being older, commencing gambling when under 10 years old, always being exposed to adults gambling as a child, using alcohol and/or drugs while gambling, having family and friends who gamble, having an addiction to gambling and not gambling to socialise, having a high expenditure on commercial gambling, and living in a state or territory other than NSW or QLD. Public health measures to address these risk factors are identified. PMID:23378227

  13. Indigenous Māori perspectives on urban transport patterns linked to health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Raerino Ngāti Awa Te Arawa, K; Macmillan, Alex K; Jones Ngāti Kahungunu, Rhys G

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing body of research linking urban transport systems to inequities in health. However, there is a lack of research providing evidence of the effect of transport systems on indigenous family wellbeing. We examined the connections between urban transport and the health and wellbeing of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. We provide an indigenous exploration of current urban transport systems, with a particular focus on the impacts of car dependence and the need for culturally relevant travel. We interviewed nineteen Māori participants utilising qualitative research techniques underpinned by an indigenous research methodology (Kaupapa Māori). The data highlighted the importance of accessing cultural activities and sites relevant to 'being Māori', and issues with affordability and safety of public transport. Understanding the relationship between indigenous wellbeing and transport systems that goes further than limited discourses of inequity is essential to improving transport for indigenous wellbeing. Providing an indigenous voice in transport decision-making will make it more likely that indigenous health and wellbeing is prioritised in transport planning. PMID:23751175

  14. Indigenous Bilingual EC Programmes in Aotearoa, Wales and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tony

    This paper examines bilingual early childhood programs in Aotearoa, New Zealand, in Wales, and among the indigenous people of the United States. The first section of the paper describes bicultural programs as programs that promote an acknowledgement of the ways people of each culture live, communicate with one another, and understand their world.…

  15. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  16. Ethical issues in developing pharmacogenetic research partnerships with American Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Boyer, B B; Dillard, D; Woodahl, E L; Whitener, R; Thummel, K E; Burke, W

    2011-03-01

    Pharmacogenetic research offers the potential to improve the safety and efficacy of drug prescribing. Assuring that the benefits of this research reach indigenous and other medically underserved people is an important justice concern. First, however, a legacy of mistrust, derived from traditional research practices that disempower communities, must be overcome. Linking pharmacogenetic research to collaborative, power-sharing research partnerships provides a valuable opportunity to develop new and positive precedents for genetic research in indigenous communities. PMID:21326261

  17. Indigenous trauma: a New Zealand perspective.

    PubMed

    Koea, Jonathan B

    2008-12-01

    The study of indigenous health is an emerging specialty and differs from other health disciplines in that the traditions and beliefs of indigenous people must be considered in developing health policy. New Zealand Maori and Australian Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islanders face similar health issues but have followed a different historical path. New Zealand was settled by the Maori from Eastern Polynesia in approximately 1300AD. A structured and settled society had developed by the time of British colonization in the 1800s. Because of Maori's obvious sovereignty over New Zealand the British negotiated a treaty in 1840 (The Treaty of Waitangi) with Maori that gave provision for their rights as British and later New Zealand citizens. Maori health indices suffered after the start of colonization but slowly rebounded in the 1900s linked to a resurgence in Maori culture, sporting and combat achievements. A sustained period of protest in the years following World War II has resulted in the inclusion of the provisions of the Treaty of Waitangi in legislation. Historical grievances of Maori relating to land confiscations and injustice are being addressed with formal apology and compensation. This process has allowed Maori to create their own infrastructure, to begin to develop their own health-care initiatives and to advise health-care authorities and governments on interventions to reduce health disparities between Maori and non-Maori New Zealanders. PMID:19130912

  18. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C; Hill, Kim R

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  19. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Hill, Kim R.

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a “leave them alone” strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10–14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction. PMID:26954672

  20. Health Status of Kanaka Maoli (Indigenous Hawaiians).

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Richard Kekuni

    1993-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE PAPER: To summarize the current health status of Kanaka Maoli (indigenous Hawaiians) with historical background, underlying factors responsible for the Kanaka Maoli health plight and recommendations. METHODS: The author reviewed the available literature and some not readily available, unpublished information. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Kanaka Maoli continue to have the worst health and socio­economic indicators of the various ethnic groups in their home islands of Ka Pae'aina (Hawai'i). Cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, obstructive lung disease, maternal and infant health and mental distress are the prominent maladies. Tobacco smoking, high­fat diet, alcohol drinking, hyperlipidemia and obesity are the major lifestyle risk factors. Societal factors, such as depopulation, foreign transmigration, colonial exploitation, coercive assimilation, cultural conflict and racism persist. Since 1990, Kanaka Maoli communities have established five island­wide Native Hawaiian Health Care Systems to improve availability, accessibility, and acceptability of health services to their people, but with inadequate resources. CONCLUSIONS: Under present conditions, while the future may bring some amelioration of Kanaka Maoli ill health, the price will be progressive acculturation and loss of Kanaka Maoli identity. Accordingly, recommendations include augmented revitalization of the traditional culture, effective recontrol by the Kanaka Maoli of their lives and natural resources and thus, improved total health. KEY WORDS: Pacific Islander Americans, Kanaka Maoli, Hawaiians, Indigenous Health, Culture, Ethnicity, Racism, Colonialism, Sovereignty

  1. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C; Hill, Kim R

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction. PMID:26954672

  2. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations. PMID:26793283

  3. Who Seeks Help Online for Self-Injury?

    PubMed

    Frost, Mareka; Casey, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between young people who seek help online for self-injury and those who self-injure but do not seek help online, in order to improve online services for young people at high risk of suicide. Young people reporting a history of self-injury (N = 679) were identified as part of larger study (N = 1,463) exploring help-seeking. One third of young people with a history of self-injury reported online help-seeking for self-injury. Online help-seekers were significantly more distressed, suicidal, and had a greater degree of self-injury compared to those who did not seek help online. The Internet provides an important form of support to the most at risk young people in this population, and may be a proximal step to face-to-face help-seeking. Further research is required to investigate the forms of support currently accessed by young people online, and their effectiveness.

  4. Looking across three generations of Alaska Natives to explore how culture fosters indigenous resilience.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Research has established connection between indigenous culture--often described in terms of cultural identity, enculturation, and participation in traditional activities--and resilience, the process by which people overcome acute and ongoing challenges. Despite correlations between culture and resilience, research has seldom described the ways these concepts are linked in indigenous people's narratives. Furthermore, little attention has been paid to the affect of historical trauma on different generations' understanding and deployment of "culture" in the context of hardship. This project, conducted in the summer of 2008 in an indigenous Arctic community, focuses on narratives from three generations who have experienced different degrees of cultural suppression in their lifetimes. From this starting point, the study explores how individuals make meaning and take strength from particular notions of culture, and illuminates the ways each generation accesses and deploys their cultural understandings in the face of hardship. By identifying the similarities and differences in both the challenges and sources of strength for each generation, the paper highlights how understandings of culture are shaped by historical experiences and modified through time. The differing ways that culture fosters strength, purpose, and fortitude (or does not) in indigenous young people's, adults' and Elders' life stories provide clues for enhancing indigenous youth resilience. Findings suggest that "culture" can galvanize Inupiaq people's sense of identity, feeling of commitment, and purpose, all of which are protective. However, young people need support in developing particular ideas around cultural identity and group membership that can contribute to resilience.

  5. Dublin Core: The Base for an Indigenous Culture Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevile, Liddy; Lissonnet, Sophie

    A day in Cape York, in the far north east of Australia, can change the life of a modern Australian. In that time, one can see hundreds of examples of rock art that are up to 36,000 years old, sharply contrasting the history of Indigenous people and the immigration of Europeans.One such visit led to a proposed collaboration between the Quinkan…

  6. Indigenous traditional medicine and intercultural healthcare in Bolivia: a case study from the Potosi region.

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza; Hollenberg, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples have the worst socio-demographic indicators and the largest inequalities in terms of access to social services and health in the Latin American region, Bolivia included. In the last few years, attempts to implement policies that support indigenous people's health rights led to the development of intercultural health approaches. Yet, acceptance and integration of indigenous medicine into the biomedical health system presents a major challenge to intercultural health in Latin America. The objective of this article is to analyze the case of a health center in Tinguipaya, one of the first and few examples of intercultural health initiatives in Bolivia. This intercultural health project, which represents a pioneer experience with regard to the creation of intercultural health services in Bolivia, aims to create a network between local communities, traditional healers, and biomedical staff and offer a more culturally sensitive and holistic health service for indigenous people living in the area. The aim of this article is to critically assess this initiative and to analyze the main challenges met in the creation of a more effective intercultural health policy. The extent to which this initiative succeeded in promoting the integration between indigenous health practitioners and biomedical staff as well as in improving access to health care for local indigenous patients will also be examined. PMID:24219641

  7. Indigenous traditional medicine and intercultural healthcare in Bolivia: a case study from the Potosi region.

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza; Hollenberg, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples have the worst socio-demographic indicators and the largest inequalities in terms of access to social services and health in the Latin American region, Bolivia included. In the last few years, attempts to implement policies that support indigenous people's health rights led to the development of intercultural health approaches. Yet, acceptance and integration of indigenous medicine into the biomedical health system presents a major challenge to intercultural health in Latin America. The objective of this article is to analyze the case of a health center in Tinguipaya, one of the first and few examples of intercultural health initiatives in Bolivia. This intercultural health project, which represents a pioneer experience with regard to the creation of intercultural health services in Bolivia, aims to create a network between local communities, traditional healers, and biomedical staff and offer a more culturally sensitive and holistic health service for indigenous people living in the area. The aim of this article is to critically assess this initiative and to analyze the main challenges met in the creation of a more effective intercultural health policy. The extent to which this initiative succeeded in promoting the integration between indigenous health practitioners and biomedical staff as well as in improving access to health care for local indigenous patients will also be examined.

  8. Improving Sexual Health for Young People: Making Sexuality Education a Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmer, Janet; Senior, Kate; Davison, Belinda; Vodic, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    How well do young people understand their developing sexuality and what this means? This paper reports on findings from the Our Lives: Culture, Context and Risk project, which investigated sexual behaviour and decision-making in the context of the everyday life experience and aspirations of Indigenous and non-Indigenous young people (16-25 years)…

  9. North America's Native Peoples: A Social Justice and Trauma Counseling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherri L.; Pope, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article understands North America's indigenous peoples in the context of social justice. The authors discuss the role of legislation in shaping cultural contexts of indigenous people and influencing mental health issues in Native American communities. Trauma counseling with Native Americans is explored.

  10. Science Engagement and Literacy: A Retrospective Analysis for Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students in Aotearoa New Zealand and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Oliver, Mary C.; McConney, Andrew; Maor, Dorit; Schibeci, Renato

    2013-02-01

    Previous research has underlined the importance of school students' engagement in science (including students' attitudes, interests and self beliefs). Engagement in science is important as a correlate of scientific literacy and attainment, and as an educational outcome in its own right. Students positively engaged with science are more likely to pursue science related careers, and to support science related policies and initiatives. This retrospective, secondary analysis of PISA 2006 national data for Aotearoa New Zealand and Australia examines and compares the factors associated with science literacy and with science engagement for indigenous and non-indigenous 15 year old students. Using a four step hierarchical regression model, our secondary analyses showed consistent patterns of influence on engagement in science for both indigenous and non-indigenous students in Aotearoa and Australia. Variations in students' interest, enjoyment, personal and general valuing, self-efficacy, and self concept in science were most strongly associated with the extent to which students engaged in science activities outside of school. In contrast, socioeconomic status, time spent on science lessons and study, and the character of science teaching experienced by students in their schools were the factors most explanatory of variations in science literacy. Yet, the factors that explained variation in science literacy had only quite weak associations with the suite of variables comprising engagement in science. We discuss the implications of these findings for science educators and researchers interested in enhancing students' engagement with science, and committed to contributing positively to closing the persistent gap in educational outcomes between indigenous and non-indigenous peoples.

  11. Making progress: the role of cancer councils in Australia in indigenous cancer control

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians have poorer outcomes from cancer for a variety of reasons including poorer participation in screening programs, later diagnosis, higher rates of cancer with poor prognosis and poorer uptake and completion of treatment. Cancer prevention and support for people with cancer is part of the core business of the State and Territory Cancer Councils. To support sharing of lessons learned, this paper reports an environmental scan undertaken in 2010 in cancer councils (CCs) nationwide that aimed to support Indigenous cancer control. Methods The methods replicated the approach used in a 2006 environmental scan of Indigenous related activity in CCs. The Chief Executive Officer of each CC nominated individuals for interview. Interviews explored staffing, projects, programs and activities to progress cancer control issues for Indigenous Australians, through phone or face-to-face interviews. Reported initiatives were tabulated using predetermined categories of activity and summaries were returned to interviewees, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Subcommittee and Chief Executive Officers for verification. Results All CCs participated and modest increases in activity had occurred in most states since 2006 through different means. Indigenous staff numbers were low and no Indigenous person had yet been employed in smaller CCs; no CC had an Indigenous Board member and efforts at capacity building were often directed outside of the organisation. Developing partnerships with Indigenous organisations were ongoing. Acknowledgement and specific mention of Indigenous people in policy was increasing. Momentum increased following the establishment of a national subcommittee which increased the profile of Indigenous issues and provided collegial and practical support for those committed to reducing Indigenous cancer disparities. Government funding of “Closing the Gap” and research in the larger CCs have been other avenues for increasing knowledge

  12. Dealing with drug-seeking behaviour.

    PubMed

    James, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    People who misuse prescription drugs most commonly seek prescriptions for opioids and benzodiazepines. Other prescription drugs that are misused include the newer antipsychotics such as quetiapine and olanzapine, and stimulants such as dexamphetamine and methylphenidate. Health professionals should be aware of behaviours that may indicate drug seeking, but dependency on prescription drugs can occur at any age, within any cultural group and across any educational class. Patients with dependencies may not necessarily display obvious drug-seeking behaviours. All general practices should have a practice policy on prescribing drugs of dependence. GPs should register with the Prescription Shopping Information Service. There is strong evidence in Australia of increasing harms from prescription drugs of dependence, including deaths from overdose. Before prescribing any drug of dependence, health professionals require an understanding of the patient's biopsychosocial status, and the evidence-based indications and potential significant harms of these drugs. PMID:27346918

  13. Dealing with drug-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    James, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY People who misuse prescription drugs most commonly seek prescriptions for opioids and benzodiazepines. Other prescription drugs that are misused include the newer antipsychotics such as quetiapine and olanzapine, and stimulants such as dexamphetamine and methylphenidate. Health professionals should be aware of behaviours that may indicate drug seeking, but dependency on prescription drugs can occur at any age, within any cultural group and across any educational class. Patients with dependencies may not necessarily display obvious drug-seeking behaviours. All general practices should have a practice policy on prescribing drugs of dependence. GPs should register with the Prescription Shopping Information Service. There is strong evidence in Australia of increasing harms from prescription drugs of dependence, including deaths from overdose. Before prescribing any drug of dependence, health professionals require an understanding of the patient’s biopsychosocial status, and the evidence-based indications and potential significant harms of these drugs. PMID:27346918

  14. Seeking Clarity About Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagstrom, David

    1999-01-01

    The "clearness committee," a Quaker practice, might provide an avenue for educators grappling with crises and seeking clarity about their worries and concerns over time. A Lewis and Clark College seminar held in April 1998 dealt with an administrator's fears about carrying on following a former student's suicide. Steps for freeing one's "inner…

  15. Does Australia have the appropriate health reform agenda to close the gap in Indigenous health?

    PubMed

    Donato, Ronald; Segal, Leonie

    2013-05-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the national Indigenous reform strategy - known as Closing the Gap - in the context of broader health system reforms underway to assess whether current attempts at addressing Indigenous disadvantage are likely to be successful. Drawing upon economic theory and empirical evidence, the paper analyses key structural features necessary for securing system performance gains capable of reducing health disparities. Conceptual and empirical attention is given to the features of comprehensive primary healthcare, which encompasses the social determinants impacting on Indigenous health. An important structural prerequisite for securing genuine improvements in health outcomes is the unifying of all funding and policy responsibilities for comprehensive primary healthcare for Indigenous Australians within a single jurisdictional framework. This would provide the basis for implementing several key mutually reinforcing components necessary for enhancing primary healthcare system performance. The announcement to introduce a long-term health equality plan in partnership with Aboriginal people represents a promising development and may provide the window of opportunity needed for implementing structural reforms to primary healthcare. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Notwithstanding the intention of previous policies, considerable health disparity exists between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Australia has now embarked on its most ambitious national Indigenous health reform strategy, but there has been little academic analysis of whether such reforms are capable of eliminating health disadvantage for Aboriginal people.WHAT DOES THE PAPER ADD? This paper provides a critical analysis of Indigenous health reforms to assess whether such policy initiatives are likely to be successful and outlines key structural changes to primary healthcare system arrangements that are necessary to secure genuine system performance gains and improve health

  16. The Economic Value of Environmental Services on Indigenous-Held Lands in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    Australians could be willing to pay from $878m to $2b per year for Indigenous people to provide environmental services. This is up to 50 times the amount currently invested by government. This result was derived from a nationwide survey that included a choice experiment in which 70% of the 927 respondents were willing to contribute to a conservation fund that directly pays Indigenous people to carry out conservation activities. Of these the highest values were found for benefits that are likely to improve biodiversity outcomes, carbon emission reductions and improved recreational values. Of the activities that could be undertaken to provide the services, feral animal control attracted the highest level of support followed by coastal surveillance, weed control and fire management. Respondents' decisions to pay were not greatly influenced by the additional social benefits that can arise for Indigenous people spending time on country and providing the services, although there was approval for reduced welfare payments that might arise. PMID:21826234

  17. The economic value of environmental services on indigenous-held lands in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zander, Kerstin K; Garnett, Stephen T

    2011-01-01

    Australians could be willing to pay from $878m to $2b per year for Indigenous people to provide environmental services. This is up to 50 times the amount currently invested by government. This result was derived from a nationwide survey that included a choice experiment in which 70% of the 927 respondents were willing to contribute to a conservation fund that directly pays Indigenous people to carry out conservation activities. Of these the highest values were found for benefits that are likely to improve biodiversity outcomes, carbon emission reductions and improved recreational values. Of the activities that could be undertaken to provide the services, feral animal control attracted the highest level of support followed by coastal surveillance, weed control and fire management. Respondents' decisions to pay were not greatly influenced by the additional social benefits that can arise for Indigenous people spending time on country and providing the services, although there was approval for reduced welfare payments that might arise.

  18. Indigenous Intelligence: Have We Lost Our Indigenous Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Eurocentric intelligence is restricted to rational, linear, competitive, and hierarchical thinking. Indigenous intelligence encompasses the body, mind, heart, and experience in total responsiveness and total relationship to the whole environment, which includes the seven generations past and future. Implementation of major changes to indigenous…

  19. Nutritional status of indigenous children: findings from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of undernutrition, which is closely associated with socioeconomic and sanitation conditions, is often higher among indigenous than non-indigenous children in many countries. In Brazil, in spite of overall reductions in the prevalence of undernutrition in recent decades, the nutritional situation of indigenous children remains worrying. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first study to evaluate a nationwide representative sample of indigenous peoples. This paper presents findings from this study on the nutritional status of indigenous children < 5 years of age in Brazil. Methods A multi-stage sampling was employed to obtain a representative sample of the indigenous population residing in villages in four Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, and Southeast/South). Initially, a stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for indigenous villages located in these regions. Households in sampled villages were selected by census or systematic sampling depending on the village population. The survey evaluated the health and nutritional status of children < 5 years, in addition to interviewing mothers or caretakers. Results Height and weight measurements were taken of 6,050 and 6,075 children, respectively. Prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 25.7%, 5.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. Even after controlling for confounding, the prevalence rates of underweight and stunting were higher among children in the North region, in low socioeconomic status households, in households with poorer sanitary conditions, with anemic mothers, with low birthweight, and who were hospitalized during the prior 6 months. A protective effect of breastfeeding for underweight was observed for children under 12 months. Conclusions The elevated rate of stunting observed in indigenous children approximates that of non-indigenous Brazilians four

  20. Indigenous Environmental Perspectives: A North American Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Winona

    1992-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of the nature of indigenous sustainable subsistence economies, and the present underdevelopment and dependency of North American indigenous economies resulting from colonialism and marginalization. Describes environmental and personal contamination on indigenous lands from uranium and coal mining, toxic and nuclear waste,…

  1. More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunten, Alexis Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous…

  2. Indigenous Knowledge for Development: Opportunities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjestani, Nicolas

    Indigenous knowledge is a critical factor for sustainable development. Empowerment of local communities is a prerequisite for the integration of indigenous knowledge in the development process. The integration of appropriate indigenous knowledge systems into development programs has already contributed to efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainable…

  3. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors.

  4. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. PMID:27211240

  5. Local co-ordination and case management can enhance Indigenous eye care – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous adults suffer six times more blindness than other Australians but 94% of this vision loss is unnecessary being preventable or treatable. We have explored the barriers and solutions to improve Indigenous eye health and proposed significant system changes required to close the gap for Indigenous eye health. This paper aims to identify the local co-ordination and case management requirements necessary to improve eye care for Indigenous Australians. Methods A qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews, focus groups, stakeholder workshops and meetings was conducted in community, private practice, hospital, non-government organisation and government settings. Data were collected at 21 sites across Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 289 people working in Indigenous health and eye care; focus group discussions with 81 community members; stakeholder workshops involving 86 individuals; and separate meetings with 75 people. 531 people participated in the consultations. Barriers and issues were identified through thematic analysis and policy solutions developed through iterative consultation. Results Poorly co-ordinated eye care services for Indigenous Australians are inefficient and costly and result in poorer outcomes for patients, communities and health care providers. Services are more effective where there is good co-ordination of services and case management of patients along the pathway of care. The establishment of clear pathways of care, development local and regional partnerships to manage services and service providers and the application of sufficient workforce with clear roles and responsibilities have the potential to achieve important improvements in eye care. Conclusions Co-ordination is a key to close the gap in eye care for Indigenous Australians. Properly co-ordinated care and support along the patient pathway through case management will save money by preventing dropout of patients who haven’t received

  6. Biculturalism among Indigenous College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Colton D.

    2011-01-01

    "Indigenous" college students in both Canada and the United States have the lowest rates of obtaining postsecondary degrees, and their postsecondary dropout rates are higher than for any other minority (Freeman & Fox, 2005; Mendelson, 2004; Reddy, 1993). There has been very little research done to uncover possible reasons for such low academic…

  7. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…

  8. Maintaining and Developing Indigenous Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, John

    Dr. Joshua Fishman, a world renowned sociolinguist and expert on endangered languages, postulates a continuum of eight stages of language loss for indigenous languages. The most-endangered languages are in stage 8 and only have a few elderly speakers. In stage 7 only adults beyond child-bearing age still speak the tribal language. In stage 6 there…

  9. Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

    2008-01-01

    Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…

  10. Development of the "Indigenous Self" in Indigenous-Centered Student Services: An Examination of the Kokua a Puni Summer Enrichment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frietas, Antoinette; Wright, Erin Kahunawaikaala; Balutski, Brandi Jean Nalani; Wu, Pearl

    2013-01-01

    Conventional theories of student development are often used to explain student persistence, attrition, amd marticulation in education and thus formulate the basis for student retention models. Student development theories fail to consider the diverse set of socioeconomic cultural and academic experiences of Indigenous peoples, in this case…

  11. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people

    PubMed Central

    Irene Olmedo, Sofía; Valeggia, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant’s energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0–2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value. PMID:24862808

  12. What if Indigenous Knowledge Contradicts Accepted Scientific Findings?--The Hidden Agenda: Respect, Caring and Passion towards Aboriginal Research in the Context of Applying Western Academic Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    The statement in the title, what if Indigenous Knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings (Fowler, 2000), is an expression of the dilemma people who research Indigenous Knowledge think they find themselves in when they are confronted with different interpretations of what it means to be human, or, as I may summarize it, with different…

  13. Building up indigenous technological capabilities in African developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lubunga, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    For all the vast natural resources and the praiseworthy efforts of governments and peoples, the African economy still remains basically underdeveloped. Faced with this situation, there have been increased awareness and concern in recent years among political leaders, decision-makers, and socioeconomic planners of the fact that the chronic low-level productivity in almost all spheres of economic activity in that region can be attributed, to a large extent, to the low level of indigenous capability and appropriate utilization of science and technology. Few countries in Africa, however, as yet have a science and technology policy formulated toward long-term goals and objectives, and for overall economic and social development. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop progressively the systems and methodology for identifying, selecting, and planning indigenous scientific and technological activity. International cooperation can be useful, but only within the context of a strong national capability. 14 references.

  14. Global Systematic Review of the Cost-Effectiveness of Indigenous Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Angell, Blake J.; Muhunthan, Janani; Irving, Michelle; Eades, Sandra; Jan, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Indigenous populations around the world have consistently been shown to bear a greater burden of disease, death and disability than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Despite this, little is known about what constitutes cost-effective interventions in these groups. The objective of this paper was to assess the global cost-effectiveness literature in Indigenous health to identify characteristics of successful and unsuccessful interventions and highlight areas for further research. Methods and Findings A systematic review of the published literature was carried out. MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, ECONLIT, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched with terms to identify cost-effectiveness evaluations of interventions in Indigenous populations around the world. The WHO definition was followed in identifying Indigenous populations. 19 studies reporting on 27 interventions were included in the review. The majority of studies came from high-income nations with only two studies of interventions in low and middle-income nations. 22 of the 27 interventions included in the analysis were found to be cost-effective or cost-saving by the respective studies. There were only two studies that focused on Indigenous communities in urban areas, neither of which was found to be cost-effective. There was little attention paid to Indigenous conceptions of health in included studies. Of the 27 included studies, 23 were interventions that specifically targeted Indigenous populations. Outreach programs were shown to be consistently cost-effective. Conclusion The comprehensive review found only a small number of studies examining the cost-effectiveness of interventions into Indigenous communities around the world. Given the persistent disparities in health outcomes faced by these populations and commitments from governments around the world to improving these outcomes, it is an area where the health economics and public health fields can play an important role in improving the health of

  15. Improving forensic mental health care to Indigenous Australians: theorizing the intercultural space.

    PubMed

    Durey, A; Wynaden, D; O'Kane, M

    2014-05-01

    This paper uses the 'intercultural space' as an educational strategy to prepare nurses to work respectfully with Indigenous patients in a forensic mental health context; offers an educational approach that introduces nurses to Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values, examines power relations in colonized countries between the dominant white cultural group and the Indigenous population and encourages nurses to critically reflect on their health care practice; and explores the intercultural space as a shared space between cultures fostering open and robust inquiry where neither culture dominates and new positions, representations and understandings can emerge. Given the disproportionately high number of Indigenous people imprisoned in colonized countries, this paper responds to research from Western Australia on the need to prepare forensic mental health nurses to deliver care to Indigenous patients with mental health disorders. The paper highlights the nexus between theory, research and education that can inform the design and implementation of programmes to help nurses navigate the complex, layered and contested 'intercultural space' and deliver culturally safe care to Indigenous patients. Nurses are encouraged to critically reflect on how beliefs and values underpinning their cultural positioning impact on health care to Indigenous patients. The paper draws on intercultural theory to offer a pedagogical framework that acknowledges the negative impacts of colonization on Indigenous health and well-being, repositions and revalues Indigenous cultures and knowledges and fosters open and robust inquiry. This approach is seen as a step towards working more effectively in the intercultural space where ultimately binary oppositions that privilege one culture over another and inhibit robust inquiry are avoided, paving the way for new, more inclusive positions, representations and understandings to emerge. While the intercultural space can be a place of struggle, tension

  16. Improving forensic mental health care to Indigenous Australians: theorizing the intercultural space.

    PubMed

    Durey, A; Wynaden, D; O'Kane, M

    2014-05-01

    This paper uses the 'intercultural space' as an educational strategy to prepare nurses to work respectfully with Indigenous patients in a forensic mental health context; offers an educational approach that introduces nurses to Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values, examines power relations in colonized countries between the dominant white cultural group and the Indigenous population and encourages nurses to critically reflect on their health care practice; and explores the intercultural space as a shared space between cultures fostering open and robust inquiry where neither culture dominates and new positions, representations and understandings can emerge. Given the disproportionately high number of Indigenous people imprisoned in colonized countries, this paper responds to research from Western Australia on the need to prepare forensic mental health nurses to deliver care to Indigenous patients with mental health disorders. The paper highlights the nexus between theory, research and education that can inform the design and implementation of programmes to help nurses navigate the complex, layered and contested 'intercultural space' and deliver culturally safe care to Indigenous patients. Nurses are encouraged to critically reflect on how beliefs and values underpinning their cultural positioning impact on health care to Indigenous patients. The paper draws on intercultural theory to offer a pedagogical framework that acknowledges the negative impacts of colonization on Indigenous health and well-being, repositions and revalues Indigenous cultures and knowledges and fosters open and robust inquiry. This approach is seen as a step towards working more effectively in the intercultural space where ultimately binary oppositions that privilege one culture over another and inhibit robust inquiry are avoided, paving the way for new, more inclusive positions, representations and understandings to emerge. While the intercultural space can be a place of struggle, tension

  17. Getting the Canadian HIV epidemic to zero: Valuing indigenous cultures through holistic research

    PubMed Central

    Nowgesic, Earl

    2016-01-01

    This paper was orally presented at the Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network, Wise Practices IV – Community-Based Research Gathering on September 25, 2013 in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada as the LaVerne Monette Memorial Lecture. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to describe the HIV epidemic among Aboriginal people living in Canada; and (2) to examine the value of incorporating indigenous cultures into research within the context of holistic research perspectives. The methodology used to address the objectives was an integrative review (i.e., structured review) of the literature. The major results of this review revealed that while Aboriginal people make up 3.8% of the Canadian population, they represent 12.2% of all new HIV infections in 2011. In 2011, a full 81% of newly diagnosed HIV cases in the Province of Saskatchewan were of Aboriginal ethnicity. Although there are diverse approaches to conducting research involving Aboriginal populations (e.g., critical social paradigm, indigenous research paradigm, and critical indigenous pedagogy vis-à-vis critical, indigenous qualitative research), each has its unique challenges. This paper concludes that Aboriginal people are overrepresented in the Canadian HIV epidemic and that valuing indigenous cultures through holistic research perspectives has the potential to get the Canadian HIV epidemic to zero. PMID:27398111

  18. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  19. Genes, ownership, and indigenous reality.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant; McKergow, Felicity

    2007-11-01

    Recent genetic research has led to questions about the ownership of genetic material. These questions have been addressed within a discussion about information and ownership but not all cultures accept this framework. Indigenous groups may have concepts that are either ignored or translated into the language of ownership. We explore the problematic notion of ownership of the body and genetic material in some cultural settings and shift the "conceptual lens" through which the issue is viewed to one that is more appropriate to indigenous thoughts about genes and DNA. We then use the example of New Zealand to indicate some ways in which culturally informed conceptualisations can transform some of the ethical issues involved in genetic information and property disputes and underpin recommendations in this area of bioethics and health care research.

  20. Starting to smoke: a qualitative study of the experiences of Australian indigenous youth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adult smoking has its roots in adolescence. If individuals do not initiate smoking during this period it is unlikely they ever will. In high income countries, smoking rates among Indigenous youth are disproportionately high. However, despite a wealth of literature in other populations, there is less evidence on the determinants of smoking initiation among Indigenous youth. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of smoking among Australian Indigenous young people with a particular emphasis on the social and cultural processes that underlie tobacco use patterns among this group. Methods This project was undertaken in northern Australia. We undertook group interviews with 65 participants and individual in-depth interviews with 11 youth aged 13–20 years led by trained youth ‘peer researchers.’ We also used visual methods (photo-elicitation) with individual interviewees to investigate the social context in which young people do or do not smoke. Included in the sample were a smaller number of non-Indigenous youth to explore any significant differences between ethnic groups in determinants of early smoking experiences. The theory of triadic influence, an ecological model of health behaviour, was used as an organising theory for analysis. Results Family and peer influences play a central role in smoking uptake among Indigenous youth. Social influences to smoke are similar between Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth but are more pervasive (especially in the family domain) among Indigenous youth. While Indigenous youth report high levels of exposure to smoking role models and smoking socialisation practices among their family and social networks, this study provides some indication of a progressive denormalisation of smoking among some Indigenous youth. Conclusions Future initiatives aimed at preventing smoking uptake in this population need to focus on changing social normative beliefs around smoking, both at a population level and within