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  1. Seeking consent for research with indigenous communities: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Emily F M; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; D'Antoine, Heather; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-22

    When conducting research with Indigenous populations consent should be sought from both individual participants and the local community. We aimed to search and summarise the literature about methods for seeking consent for research with Indigenous populations. A systematic literature search was conducted for articles that describe or evaluate the process of seeking informed consent for research with Indigenous participants. Guidelines for ethical research and for seeking consent with Indigenous people are also included in our review. Of 1447 articles found 1391 were excluded (duplicates, irrelevant, not in English); 56 were relevant and included. Articles were categorised into original research that evaluated the consent process (n = 5) or publications detailing the process of seeking consent (n = 13) and guidelines for ethical research (n = 38). Guidelines were categorised into international (n = 8); national (n = 20) and state/regional/local guidelines (n = 10). In five studies based in Australia, Canada and The United States of America the consent process with Indigenous people was objectively evaluated. In 13 other studies interpreters, voice recording, videos, pictures, flipcharts and "plain language" forms were used to assist in seeking consent but these processes were not evaluated. Some Indigenous organisations provide examples of community-designed resources for seeking consent and describe methods of community engagement, but none are evaluated. International, national and local ethical guidelines stress the importance of upholding Indigenous values but fail to specify methods for engaging communities or obtaining individual consent. In the 'Grey literature' concerns about the consent process are identified but no solutions are offered. Consultation with Indigenous communities is needed to determine how consent should be sought from the community and the individual, and how to evaluate this process.

  2. Information Technology and Indigenous People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel, Ed.; Hendriks, Max, Ed.; Grant, Stephen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology and Indigenous People provides theoretical and empirical information related to the planning and execution of IT projects aimed at serving indigenous people. It explores many cultural concerns with IT implementation, including language issues and questions of cultural appropriateness, and brings together cutting-edge…

  3. Information Technology and Indigenous People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel, Ed.; Hendriks, Max, Ed.; Grant, Stephen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology and Indigenous People provides theoretical and empirical information related to the planning and execution of IT projects aimed at serving indigenous people. It explores many cultural concerns with IT implementation, including language issues and questions of cultural appropriateness, and brings together cutting-edge…

  4. Health of Indigenous people in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ohenjo, Nyang'ori; Willis, Ruth; Jackson, Dorothy; Nettleton, Clive; Good, Kenneth; Mugarura, Benon

    2006-06-10

    Our paper is part of a series focusing on Indigenous peoples' health in different world regions. Indigenous peoples worldwide are subject to marginalisation and discrimination, systematically experiencing poorer health than do majority groups. In Africa, poor health in the general population is widely recognised, but the consistently lower health position and social status of Indigenous peoples are rarely noted. Disputed conceptual understandings of indigeneity, a history of discriminatory colonial and post-colonial policies, and non-recognition of Indigenous groups by some governments complicate the situation. We discuss two case studies, of the central African Pygmy peoples and the San of southern Africa, to illustrate recurring issues in Indigenous health in the continent. We make recommendations for the recognition of Indigenous peoples in Africa and improvements needed in the collection of health data and the provision of services. Finally, we argue that wider changes are needed to address the social determinants of Indigenous peoples' health.

  5. Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

  6. Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

  7. From Our Eyes: Learning from Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Sylvia, Ed.; West, Douglas A., Ed.

    The purpose of the conference and this book is to begin to establish the parameters of a new period of interaction between indigenous and non-Native peoples of North America through their experiences in university and academic practices and settings. The book exposes academic communities to indigenous learning and indigenous knowledge with the…

  8. From Our Eyes: Learning from Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Sylvia, Ed.; West, Douglas A., Ed.

    The purpose of the conference and this book is to begin to establish the parameters of a new period of interaction between indigenous and non-Native peoples of North America through their experiences in university and academic practices and settings. The book exposes academic communities to indigenous learning and indigenous knowledge with the…

  9. Indigenous Peoples, Globalization, and Education: Making Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Denis, Verna

    2000-01-01

    Globalization pushes aside social, cultural, and ethical goals of education in favor of marketplace goals. Two stories of the indigenous Ju/'hoansi tribe in Botswana illustrate how even well-intentioned multicultural education programs can marginalize indigenous people, and how "globalization from below," fueled by communities of…

  10. Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems.

  11. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA): Mediating and Mobilizing Indigenous Peoples' Educational Knowledge and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitinui, Paul; McIvor, Onowa; Robertson, Boni; Morcom, Lindsay; Cashman, Kimo; Arbon, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    There is an Indigenous resurgence in education occurring globally. For more than a century Euro-western approaches have controlled the provision and quality of education to, and for Indigenous peoples. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA) established in 2012, is a grass-roots movement of Indigenous scholars passionate about making a…

  12. Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.

    PubMed

    Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Social networks among Indigenous peoples in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Skoufias, Emmanuel; Lunde, Trine; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We examine the extent to which social networks among indigenous peoples in Mexico have a significant effect on a variety of human capital investment and economic activities, such as school attendance and work among teenage boys and girls, and migration, welfare participation, employment status, occupation, and sector of employment among adult males and females. Using data from the 10 percent population sample of the 2000 Population and Housing Census of Mexico and the empirical strategy that Bertrand, Luttmer, and Mullainathan (2000) propose, which allows us to take into account the role of municipality and language group fixed effects, we confirm empirically that social network effects play an important role in the economic decisions of indigenous people, especially in rural areas. Our analysis also provides evidence that better access to basic services such as water and electricity increases the size and strength of network effects in rural areas.

  14. The Impact of Immigration on Bilingualism among Indigenous American Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahler, Janet Goldenstein

    2007-01-01

    Early federal government policies for American indigenous people alternated between extermination and assimilation. Imposing the colonists' and immigrants' language on indigenous people was important for achieving the latter. In the 1970-90's, federally funded grants for bilingual education for indigenous schools were offered to accommodate Native…

  15. Reflecting Visions. New Perspectives on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Linda, Ed.

    This book contains 14 papers: "Indigenous Peoples and Adult Education: A Growing Challenge" (Rodolfo Stavenhagen); "Indigenous Peoples: Progress in the International Recognition of Human Rights and the Role of Education" (Julian Burger); "Adult Learning in the Context of Indigenous Societies" (Linda King); "Linguistic Rights and the Role of…

  16. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Norway. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Svein

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Norway was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Norway's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

  17. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Russia. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschtyb, Nina

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Russia was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) engaged in adult education for Russia's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy…

  18. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes da Silva, Aracy

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Brazil was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Brazil's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

  19. Traumatic brain injury amongst indigenous people: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Ali; Townsend, Clare; Bishara, Jason

    2017-09-19

    To identify the types of research focusing on Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) amongst Indigenous people in order to (i) synthesise their findings and (ii) ascertain where research gaps exist. A systematic review using the PRISMA approach was employed. Eight databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature published at any date. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The majority of studies focused on the prevalence or incidence of TBI amongst Indigenous people (n = 15). Twelve of these found Indigenous people had a higher prevalence or incidence of TBI compared to non-Indigenous people. Under-researched areas include (with number of articles identified in brackets): Indigenous level of injury or recovery (n = 2), neuropsychological assessment and TBI (n = 3), Indigenous perspectives of TBI (n = 2), Indigenous intervention for TBI (n = 1), and rehabilitation for TBI (n = 4). Published studies demonstrate that Indigenous people have a higher prevalence or incidence of TBI compared to non-Indigenous people. Limited studies explore culturally appropriate rehabilitation and intervention methods and Indigenous understandings of TBI. It is imperative that future research consider the nature and efficacy of culturally appropriate approaches and their contribution towards better outcomes for Indigenous people with TBI, and their families and communities.

  20. The State versus Indigenous Peoples: The Impact of Hydraulic Projects on Indigenous Peoples of Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thi Dieu, Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that many Asian nations, in their drive to industrialize, have chosen national identity and economic development over the survival of their indigenous peoples. Utilizes case studies in Malaysia, India, and China to examine the divergence between macro- and microinterests illustrated by the egregious examples of these hydraulic projects.…

  1. The State versus Indigenous Peoples: The Impact of Hydraulic Projects on Indigenous Peoples of Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thi Dieu, Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that many Asian nations, in their drive to industrialize, have chosen national identity and economic development over the survival of their indigenous peoples. Utilizes case studies in Malaysia, India, and China to examine the divergence between macro- and microinterests illustrated by the egregious examples of these hydraulic projects.…

  2. Colorectal cancer among Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Queensland, Australia: Toward survival equality.

    PubMed

    Moore, Suzanne P; Green, Adèle C; Bray, Freddie; Coory, Michael; Garvey, Gail; Sabesan, Sabe; Valery, Patricia C

    2016-06-01

    While Indigenous people in Queensland have lower colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality than the rest of the population, CRC remains the third most frequent cancer among Australian Indigenous people overall. This study aimed to investigate patterns of care and survival between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians with CRC. Through a matched-cohort design we compared 80 Indigenous and 85 non-Indigenous people all diagnosed with CRC and treated in Queensland public hospitals during 1998-2004 (frequency matched on age, sex, geographical remoteness). We compared clinical and treatment data (Pearson's chi-square) and all-cause and cancer survival (Cox regression analysis). Indigenous patients with CRC were not significantly more likely to have comorbidity, advanced disease at diagnosis or less treatment than non-Indigenous people. There was also no statistically significant difference in all-cause survival (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.69, 1.89) or cancer survival (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.60, 1.69) between the two groups. Similar CRC mortality among Indigenous and other Australians may reflect both the lower incidence and adequate management. Increasing life expectancy and exposures to risk factors suggests that Indigenous people are vulnerable to a growing burden of CRC. Primary prevention and early detection will be of paramount importance to future CRC control among Indigenous Australians. Current CRC management must be maintained and include prevention measures to ensure that predicted increases in CRC burden are minimized. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Quest of Visual Literacy: Deconstructing Visual Images of Indigenous People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semali, Ladislaus

    This paper introduces five concepts that guide teachers' and students' critical inquiry in the understanding of media and visual representation. In a step-by-step process, the paper illustrates how these five concepts can become a tool with which to critique and examine film images of indigenous people. The Sani are indigenous people of the…

  4. Minority aspirations and the revival of indigenous peoples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Varennes, Fernand

    1996-07-01

    The growing world-wide sensitivity to the aspirations of indigenous peoples is to be welcomed. However, there is still a tendency which should be avoided: to lump the claims of indigenous peoples with those of minorities. Indigenous peoples are the heirs of long-established political, social and cultural communities which have been oppressed for centuries or victimized by policies of genocide or forced assimilation into the approved language and religion of the dominating community. These forms of destruction can only be truly ended by returning to indigenous peoples a degree of autonomy which will ensure that they have real control over their future. Indigenous peoples should be able to create institutions, including schools, where their languages, religions and cultures are permitted to flourish without interference.

  5. Issues in health policy for indigenous peoples in Canada.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, J D

    1995-12-01

    This paper provides a preliminary report on the work of the Canadian Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. This commission has spent the past four years undertaking a comprehensive review of all matters pertaining to indigenous people in Canada, and will publish a final report in late 1995 or early 1996. The paper provides an overview of health policy issues examined by the commission. The author was employed by the commission in various capacities to contribute to this analysis of indigenous people's health policy concerns. A disproportionate burden of illness has been suffered by indigenous peoples in Canada. Past policy has systematically undermined the capacity of indigenous communities to develop their own health care systems. Current concerns about health problems and services, as expressed by indigenous people at the commission's community hearings, describe a need for a community-controlled and culturally appropriate approach to healing in indigenous communities. The commission's framework for developing an indigenous people's health strategy is intended to ensure that indigenous people have the capacity, the resources and the appropriate political environment in which to implement community healing. Its relevance to the Australian context may best be seen through a careful review of the commission's final report.

  6. Engagement with indigenous peoples and honoring traditional knowledge systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Julie; Bennett, Bull; Chief, Karletta; Cochran, Patricia; Cozetto, Karen; Gough, Bob; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret M.; Lynn, Kathy; Maynard, Nancy; Voggesser, Garrit

    2016-01-01

    The organizers of the 2014 US National Climate Assessment (NCA) made a concerted effort to reach out to and collaborate with Indigenous peoples, resulting in the most comprehensive information to date on climate change impacts to Indigenous peoples in a US national assessment. Yet, there is still much room for improvement in assessment processes to ensure adequate recognition of Indigenous perspectives and Indigenous knowledge systems. This article discusses the process used in creating the Indigenous Peoples, Land, and Resources NCA chapter by a team comprised of tribal members, agencies, academics, and non-governmental organizations, who worked together to solicit, collect, and synthesize traditional knowledges and data from a diverse array of Indigenous communities across the US. It also discusses the synergy and discord between traditional knowledge systems and science and the emergence of cross-cutting issues and vulnerabilities for Indigenous peoples. The challenges of coalescing information about climate change and its impacts on Indigenous communities are outlined along with recommendations on the types of information to include in future assessment outputs. We recommend that future assessments – not only NCA, but other relevant local, regional, national, and international efforts aimed at the translation of climate information and assessments into meaningful actions – should support integration of Indigenous perspectives in a sustained way that builds respectful relationships and effectively engages Indigenous communities. Given the large number of tribes in the US and the current challenges and unique vulnerabilities of Indigenous communities, a special report focusing solely on climate change and Indigenous peoples is warranted.This article is part of a special issue on “The National Climate Assessment: Innovations in Science and Engagement” edited by Katharine Jacobs, Susanne Moser, and James Buizer.

  7. Adult education and indigenous peoples in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a potential way out of educational stagnation of indigenous adults, which is one of the challenges clearly formulated by UNESCO member states during CONFINTEA VI as a priority to be faced. The article concludes arguing the case for intercultural education, not only among indigenous peoples, but for the whole of the population, to be a guiding philosophy for education in general and adult education in particular in Latin American countries. It emphasises the fact that this cannot be achieved without the active participation of indigenous peoples themselves.

  8. Globalization, states, and the health of indigenous peoples.

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, S J

    2000-01-01

    The consequences of globalization are mixed, and for the indigenous peoples of poor countries globalization has potentially important benefits. These are the result not of participation in the global economy but of participation in global networks of other indigenous peoples, environmental activists, and nongovernmental organizations. Since World War II, nonstate actors such as these have gained standing in international forums. It is indigenous peoples' growing visibility and ability to mobilize international support against the policies of their own national governments that has contributed in some important instances to their improved chances of survival. PMID:11029984

  9. Alternative Education Engaging Indigenous Young People: Flexi Schooling in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Marnee; Heck, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss some of the findings from a qualitative research project that explored the connections between alternative education and Indigenous learners. This study investigated how flexi school leaders reported they were supporting Indigenous young people to remain engaged in education. The results of the survey provide demographic…

  10. Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among…

  11. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

  12. Career Development for Young Indigenous People: A Project Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, Anna; Smith, Helen

    2009-01-01

    A range of career challenges and employment barriers confronting Indigenous people in Australia have been identified by census data and government reports. This paper describes a project that involved national consultation to determine the type of career programs and resources being used with Indigenous populations. Information was gathered with…

  13. Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen B., Ed.; Stabinsky, Doreen, Ed.

    Intellectual property enables individuals to gain financially from sharing unique and useful knowledge. Compensating indigenous people for sharing their knowledge and resources might both validate and be an equitable reward for indigenous knowledge of biological resources, and might promote the conservation of those resources. This book contains…

  14. Indigenous Peoples and Education in the Circumpolar North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmert, William G., Jr., Ed.

    This collection of papers represents an attempt to define better the purposes and content of education among the indigenous peoples of the circumpolar north. All the papers, except one on the Soviet Union, were written by members of indigenous groups in the far north. They are professionally involved in the field of Native education in their…

  15. Alternative Education Engaging Indigenous Young People: Flexi Schooling in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Marnee; Heck, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss some of the findings from a qualitative research project that explored the connections between alternative education and Indigenous learners. This study investigated how flexi school leaders reported they were supporting Indigenous young people to remain engaged in education. The results of the survey provide demographic…

  16. Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among…

  17. The Languages of Indigenous Peoples in Chukotka and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diatchkova, Galina

    In the first half of the 20th century, the social functions of the indigenous languages in Chukotka, in northeast Asia, increased due to the development of written languages, local press, and broadcasting on radio and television. From 1933 to 1989, the local press of indigenous peoples in Chukotka was used for Communist Party propaganda. However,…

  18. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

  19. Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen B., Ed.; Stabinsky, Doreen, Ed.

    Intellectual property enables individuals to gain financially from sharing unique and useful knowledge. Compensating indigenous people for sharing their knowledge and resources might both validate and be an equitable reward for indigenous knowledge of biological resources, and might promote the conservation of those resources. This book contains…

  20. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  1. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  2. A Global Estimate of Seafood Consumption by Coastal Indigenous Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Daniel; Weatherdon, Lauren V.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal Indigenous peoples rely on ocean resources and are highly vulnerable to ecosystem and economic change. Their challenges have been observed and recognized at local and regional scales, yet there are no global-scale analyses to inform international policies. We compile available data for over 1,900 coastal Indigenous communities around the world representing 27 million people across 87 countries. Based on available data at local and regional levels, we estimate a total global yearly seafood consumption of 2.1 million (1.5 million–2.8 million) metric tonnes by coastal Indigenous peoples, equal to around 2% of global yearly commercial fisheries catch. Results reflect the crucial role of seafood for these communities; on average, consumption per capita is 15 times higher than non-Indigenous country populations. These findings contribute to an urgently needed sense of scale to coastal Indigenous issues, and will hopefully prompt increased recognition and directed research regarding the marine knowledge and resource needs of Indigenous peoples. Marine resources are crucial to the continued existence of coastal Indigenous peoples, and their needs must be explicitly incorporated into management policies. PMID:27918581

  3. A Global Estimate of Seafood Consumption by Coastal Indigenous Peoples.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Montemayor, Andrés M; Pauly, Daniel; Weatherdon, Lauren V; Ota, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Coastal Indigenous peoples rely on ocean resources and are highly vulnerable to ecosystem and economic change. Their challenges have been observed and recognized at local and regional scales, yet there are no global-scale analyses to inform international policies. We compile available data for over 1,900 coastal Indigenous communities around the world representing 27 million people across 87 countries. Based on available data at local and regional levels, we estimate a total global yearly seafood consumption of 2.1 million (1.5 million-2.8 million) metric tonnes by coastal Indigenous peoples, equal to around 2% of global yearly commercial fisheries catch. Results reflect the crucial role of seafood for these communities; on average, consumption per capita is 15 times higher than non-Indigenous country populations. These findings contribute to an urgently needed sense of scale to coastal Indigenous issues, and will hopefully prompt increased recognition and directed research regarding the marine knowledge and resource needs of Indigenous peoples. Marine resources are crucial to the continued existence of coastal Indigenous peoples, and their needs must be explicitly incorporated into management policies.

  4. Arctic indigenous peoples as representations and representatives of climate change.

    PubMed

    Martello, Marybeth Long

    2008-06-01

    Recent scientific findings, as presented in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), indicate that climate change in the Arctic is happening now, at a faster rate than elsewhere in the world, and with major implications for peoples of the Arctic (especially indigenous peoples) and the rest of the planet. This paper examines scientific and political representations of Arctic indigenous peoples that have been central to the production and articulation of these claims. ACIA employs novel forms and strategies of representation that reflect changing conceptual models and practices of global change science and depict indigenous peoples as expert, exotic, and at-risk. These portrayals emerge alongside the growing political activism of Arctic indigenous peoples who present themselves as representatives or embodiments of climate change itself as they advocate for climate change mitigation policies. These mutually constitutive forms of representation suggest that scientific ways of seeing the global environment shape and are shaped by the public image and voice of global citizens. Likewise, the authority, credibility, and visibility of Arctic indigenous activists derive, in part, from their status as at-risk experts, a status buttressed by new scientific frameworks and methods that recognize and rely on the local experiences and knowledges of indigenous peoples. Analyses of these relationships linking scientific and political representations of Arctic climate change build upon science and technology studies (STS) scholarship on visualization, challenge conventional notions of globalization, and raise questions about power and accountability in global climate change research.

  5. Transnational indigenous exchange: rethinking global interactions of indigenous peoples at the 1904 St. Louis Exposition.

    PubMed

    Medak-Saltzman, Danika

    2010-01-01

    When the St. Louis Exposition opened in 1904 it became host to the largest gathering of the world's Indigenous peoples to that date. However, questions about how Native peoples understood these transnational Indigenous interactions have remained largely out of the realm of academic inquiry-a fact often attributed to the "absence" of primary sources. This article counters such assertions by providing a rereading that interrogates colonial assumptions embedded in both archival materials and contemporary scholarly interpretations. By analyzing a candid photograph of two Native women-one Tzoneca, the other Ainu-taken at the fair by Jessie Tarbox Beals and utilizing Frederick Starr's journal, this article ultimately questions whether the Exposition's celebration of empire may have inadvertently served anti-colonial purposes. Namely, by presenting Indigenous participants with opportunities to forge relationships across the globe, a fact that may have served to inform the late 20th century emergence of a global Indigenous consciousness.

  6. Indigenous peoples' food systems for health: finding interventions that work.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, Harriet; Erasmus, Bill; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Englberger, Lois; Okeke, Chinwe; Turner, Nancy; Allen, Lindsay; Bhattacharjee, Lalita

    2006-12-01

    This is a short report of a 'safari' held in conjunction with the International Congress of Nutrition in September 2005, in Futululu, St. Lucia, South Africa. Participants were several members of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences Task Force on Indigenous Peoples' Food Systems and Nutrition, other interested scientists and members of the Kwa Zulu indigenous community. The paper describes the rationale for and contributions towards understanding what might be successful interventions that would resonate among indigenous communities in many areas of the world. A summary of possible evaluation strategies of such interventions is also given.

  7. Traditional food systems research with Canadian Indigenous Peoples.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, H V; Receveur, O; Chan, H M

    2001-04-01

    Traditional food systems research with Canadian Indigenous Peoples has revealed many aspects of benefits and risks of the use of this food. Traditions based in hunting, fishing and gathering contain a great variety of species of wildlife plants and animals that provide rich cultural and nutritional benefits. Dietary change for Indigenous Peoples in Canada has resulted in the use of traditional food to provide usually less than 30% of total dietary energy; however this portion of the total diet contributes significantly more of essential nutrients. It also results in exposure to organochlorine and heavy metal contaminants that exceed the tolerable intake levels for some areas. A successful research and education intervention program with one British Columbia community demonstrated that increasing traditional food use can improve health status for vitamin A, iron and folic acid. It is concluded that traditional food systems are rich with potential for research and public health education intervention programs for Indigenous Peoples.

  8. [Forum: health and indigenous peoples in Brazil. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Welch, James R

    2014-04-01

    This Forum on Health and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil explores contemporary challenges to indigenous health and health politics in Brazil. The short collection of articles that follow are based on presentations, originally given at the Indigenous Health Working Group panel at the 10th Brazilian Public Health Conference in Rio Grande do Sul State, by professors Carlos E. A. Coimbra Jr. (Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), Marina Denise Cardoso (Universidade Federal de São Carlos) and Eliana E. Diehl (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina) with Marcos A. Pellegrini (Universidade Federal de Roraima). In this short Introduction, I introduce these contributions, taking as a point of reference a local example of healthcare inequity derived from a presentation at the same panel by Paulo F. Supretaprã, indigenous community leader from Etênhiritipá village, Mato Grosso State.

  9. Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous Peoples: A Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Tom, Ed.

    This sourcebook presents a collection of papers focusing on the intellectual property rights (IPR) of indigenous peoples--their rights to protect and control their cultural knowledge. Subsidiary IPR goals are to manage the degree and process by which cultural knowledge is shared with outsiders and, in some instances, to be justly compensated for…

  10. Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous Peoples: A Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Tom, Ed.

    This sourcebook presents a collection of papers focusing on the intellectual property rights (IPR) of indigenous peoples--their rights to protect and control their cultural knowledge. Subsidiary IPR goals are to manage the degree and process by which cultural knowledge is shared with outsiders and, in some instances, to be justly compensated for…

  11. Meeting the challenges of recruitment and retention of Indigenous people into nursing: outcomes of the Indigenous Nurse Education Working Group.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Miller, Maria; Turale, Sue; Goold, Sally

    2005-07-01

    It has been recognised internationally that increasing the number of Indigenous people working as health professionals is linked to the improved health status of Indigenous people. When comparing Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations, Indigenous people continue to have poorer health standards and are much less likely to be involved in employment in health professions than other Australians. In 2000, the Indigenous Nurse Education Working Group (INEWG) was formed by government with the mandate to work collaboratively with universities and important professional nursing bodies across the nation in an attempt to increase the number of Indigenous registered nurses and to prepare nursing graduates with better understanding of, and skills to assist with, Indigenous health issues. This paper describes the work of the INEWG from 2000 to mid-2003; firstly in developing and implementing strategies aimed at increasing the recruitment and retention of Indigenous people into undergraduate nursing programs; and secondly by helping university schools of nursing increase faculty and student understanding of Indigenous culture, history and health issues through educational processes. Lastly, it summarises the INEWG's 2002 recommendations to achieve a higher rate of Indigenous participation in nursing. The results of research into the success of these recommendations will be the subject of a later paper.

  12. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bette; Roffenbender, Jason; Collmann, Jeff; Cherry, Kate; Bitsói, LeManuel Lee; Bassett, Kim; Evans, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    The new science of genomics endeavors to chart the genomes of individuals around the world, with the dual goals of understanding the role genetic factors play in human health and solving problems of disease and disability. From the perspective of indigenous peoples and developing countries, the promises and perils of genomic science appear against a backdrop of global health disparity and political vulnerability. These conditions pose a dilemma for many communities when attempting to decide about participating in genomic research or any other biomedical research. Genomic research offers the possibility of improved technologies for managing the acute and chronic diseases that plague their members. Yet, the history of particularly biomedical research among people in indigenous and developing nations offers salient examples of unethical practice, misuse of data, and failed promises. This dilemma creates risks for communities who decide either to participate or not to participate in genomic science research. Some argue that the history of poor scientific practice justifies refusal to join genomic research projects. Others argue that disease poses such great threats to the well-being of people in indigenous communities and developing nations that not participating in genomic research risks irrevocable harm. Thus, some communities particularly among indigenous peoples have declined to participate as subjects in genomic research. At the same time, some communities have begun developing new guidelines, procedures, and practices for engaging with the scientific community that offer opportunities to bridge the gap between genomic science and indigenous and/or developing communities. Four new approaches warrant special attention and further support: consulting with local communities; negotiating the complexities of consent; training members of local communities in science and health care; and training scientists to work with indigenous communities. Implicit is a new

  13. Indigenous people's experiences at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Duggleby, Wendy; Kuchera, Samantha; MacLeod, Rod; Holyoke, Paul; Scott, Tracy; Holtslander, Lorraine; Letendre, Angeline; Moeke-Maxwell, Tess; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Chambers, Thane

    2015-12-01

    The primary purpose of this metasynthesis study was to explore the end-of-life experiences of Indigenous peoples by synthesizing the findings of qualitative research. Sandelowski and Barroso's methodology for synthesizing qualitative research was used and included (a) a comprehensive search, (b) appraising reports of qualitative studies, (c) classification of studies, and (d) synthesis of the findings. Research team members guided this process. This team was multidisciplinary and included Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers from Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. Following a comprehensive search, 2255 studies were reviewed and assessed against five inclusion criteria: (a) studies on the experiences of Indigenous populations (all genders, 18 + years of age) at the end of life, (b) studies published in English from any country, (c) studies using qualitative and mixed-methods designs, and (d) studies published between 1993 and 2013. Some 18 studies met the inclusion criteria, and their findings were synthesized. "Preparing the spirit" for transition to the next life was the overarching theme. "Preparing the spirit" occurred within the context of "where we come from." Processes involved in "preparing the spirit" were healing, connecting, and protecting; through these processes, "what I want at the end of life" was realized. Although not the focus of the metasynthesis, a significant finding was that the studies reviewed identified very clear barriers within healthcare systems and current healthcare provider practices to "preparing the spirit." The findings provide a beginning understanding of the end-of-life experiences of Indigenous peoples and a foundation for future research. More interpretive qualitative research is critical if palliative care services, the healthcare system, and healthcare providers are to reduce current barriers to "preparing the spirit" for the journey at the end of life.

  14. Social marketing targeting Indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kubacki, Krzysztof; Szablewska, Natalia

    2017-09-07

    Social marketing is a discipline focused on the application of marketing principles to induce socially desirable behaviour change. As social marketing remains one of the main behaviour change approaches pursued by governments and international organisations, it is important to consider its use in relation to vulnerable groups that are particularly exposed to discriminatory practices, marginalisation, exclusion and destitution. The aim of this systematic review is to identify the extent to which Andreasen's (2002) six social marketing benchmark criteria were reported in social marketing interventions targeting Indigenous peoples. A total of 20 articles covering 13 social marketing interventions were identified for review. Although none of the interventions gave evidence that they addressed all six of the benchmark criteria, they appear to have been effective in challenging some of the issues faced by Indigenous peoples. However, the criteria of segmentation, exchange and competition remain underused in the identified interventions. Social marketing interventions targeting Indigenous peoples tend to rely on television and radio advertising, showing potential for more use of product, place and price to influence, facilitate and maintain socially desirable behaviour change. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Abuse and discrimination towards indigenous people in public health care facilities: experiences from rural Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Cerón, Alejandro; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Sánchez, Silvia; Chew, Aiken S; Díaz, Diego; Hernández, Alison; Flores, Walter

    2016-05-13

    Health inequalities disproportionally affect indigenous people in Guatemala. Previous studies have noted that the disadvantageous situation of indigenous people is the result of complex and structural elements such as social exclusion, racism and discrimination. These elements need to be addressed in order to tackle the social determinants of health. This research was part of a larger participatory collaboration between Centro de Estudios para la Equidad y Gobernanza en los Servicios de Salud (CEGSS) and community based organizations aiming to implement social accountability in rural indigenous municipalities of Guatemala. Discrimination while seeking health care services in public facilities was ranked among the top three problems by communities and that should be addressed in the social accountability intervention. This study aimed to understand and categorize the episodes of discrimination as reported by indigenous communities. A participatory approach was used, involving CEGSS's researchers and field staff and community leaders. One focus group in one rural village of 13 different municipalities was implemented. Focus groups were aimed at identifying instances of mistreatment in health care services and documenting the account of those who were affected or who witnessed them. All of the 132 obtained episodes were transcribed and scrutinized using a thematic analysis. Episodes described by participants ranged from indifference to violence (psychological, symbolic, and physical), including coercion, mockery, deception and racism. Different expressions of discrimination and mistreatment associated to poverty, language barriers, gender, ethnicity and social class were narrated by participants. Addressing mistreatment in public health settings will involve tackling the prevalent forms of discrimination, including racism. This will likely require profound, complex and sustained interventions at the programmatic and policy levels beyond the strict realm of public

  16. Young people, social support and help-seeking.

    PubMed

    Barker, Gary; Olukoya, Adepeju; Aggleton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to understanding of young people's help-seeking behaviour. A conceptual framework is proposed that seeks to integrate differing sources of influence and their implications for policy and programme development. Data was collected by means of an international literature review followed by a purposive international survey of expert informants. Findings suggest that it is important to distinguish between individual and structural determinants of young people's help-seeking behaviour. Policy and programme influences also impact upon the demand for help and the supply of social support that is available. It is important to focus on the normative needs of young people as well as specific health needs and problems. Creating trust, rethinking adult attitudes toward young people, and reducing the stigma associated with seeking help are key to promoting help-seeking behaviour. Many young people are hindered from seeking help, or are not offered help because of social exclusion, violence, poverty, prejudice (including homophobia) and gender inequalities. Future actions to promote help-seeking and enhance social support must consider these structural barriers, making special efforts to reach and work with excluded populations.

  17. The mental health of Indigenous peoples in Canada: A critical review of research.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Sarah E; Wilson, Kathi

    2017-03-01

    Many scholars assert that Indigenous peoples across the globe suffer a disproportionate burden of mental illness. Research indicates that colonialism and its associated processes are important determinants of Indigenous peoples' health internationally. In Canada, despite an abundance of health research documenting inequalities in morbidity and mortality rates for Indigenous peoples, relatively little research has focused on mental health. This paper provides a critical scoping review of the literature related to Indigenous mental health in Canada. We searched eleven databases and two Indigenous health-focused journals for research related to mental health, Indigenous peoples, and Canada, for the years 2006-2016. Over two hundred papers are included in the review and coded according to research theme, population group, and geography. Results demonstrate that the literature is overwhelmingly concerned with issues related to colonialism in mental health services and the prevalence and causes of mental illness among Indigenous peoples in Canada, but with several significant gaps. Mental health research related to Indigenous peoples in Canada overemphasizes suicide and problematic substance use; a more critical use of the concepts of colonialism and historical trauma is advised; and several population groups are underrepresented in research, including Métis peoples and urban or off-reserve Indigenous peoples. The findings are useful in an international context by providing a starting point for discussions, dialogue, and further study regarding mental health research for Indigenous peoples around the world.

  18. Nurturing spiritual well-being among older people in Australia: Drawing on Indigenous and non-Indigenous way of knowing.

    PubMed

    Love, Pettina; Moore, Melissa; Warburton, Jeni

    2017-09-01

    The meaning of spiritual well-being as a health dimension is often contested and neglected in policy and practice. This paper explores spiritual well-being from both an Indigenous and a non-Indigenous perspective. We drew on Indigenous and non-Indigenous methodologies to explore the existing knowledge around spiritual well-being and its relationship with health. The Indigenous perspective proposed that spiritual well-being is founded in The Dreaming, informs everyday relationships and can impact on health. The non-Indigenous perspective suggested that spiritual well-being is shaped by culture and religion, is of increased importance as one ages, and can improve coping and resilience stressors. Situating these perspectives side by side allows us to learn from both, and understand the importance of spirituality in people's lives. Further research is required to better address the spiritual well-being/health connection in policy and practice. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  19. Social capital from carbon property: creating equity for indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Lindsay S; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Swingland, Ian R

    2002-08-15

    New incentives for protection and in situ use of forests and the services they provide raise hopes for the reversal of tropical and temperate deforestation. Past management of forests appropriated the rights of forest communities, providing incentives to convert natural forest into financial capital through logging, while destroying the underlying physical property. Carbon trading aims to provide a means to convert the forest property into financial capital, while protecting the physical property of forests, thereby providing new incentives for in situ forest management. The potential for carbon-emission trading as a contributor to these new incentives is tempered by concerns that it is another tool for capitalists to exploit the indigenous communities of the developing world. Estimates of annual emission trading amounting to US $200 billion raise alarm bells about the effect of such trade in the developing world. People are right to be concerned, as the history of exploitation of indigenous people, the appropriation of their rights, the loss of forests and their benefits is well documented. This exploitation resulted in the exclusion of forest communities from the basic tenets for development created by the wealth generated by traded property. However, one virtue of trade is that it can be made subject to constraints. Through international treaties and agreements, trade can be constrained and national governments obliged to observe the rules of trade. The value of tradable carbon credits will be discounted or invalid if they do not meet these criteria, providing all parties with strong incentives to achieve the necessary performance standards relating to both processes and contracts. For carbon trading to develop social capital from natural capital requires the admission of forest communities into the polity and management of forest resources. In this paper we argue for responsible carbon-emission trading based on the clear and appropriate definition of carbon

  20. A systematic review of barriers and facilitators to participation in randomized controlled trials by Indigenous people from New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Johnston, Vanessa; Walker, Natalie; Thomas, David; Chang, Anne B; Bullen, Chris; Segan, C J; Brown, Ngiare

    2015-03-01

    Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conducted each year but only a small proportion is specifically designed for Indigenous people. In this review we consider the challenges of participation in RCTs for Indigenous peoples from New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the United States and the opportunities for increasing participation. The literature was systematically searched for published articles including information on the barriers and facilitators for Indigenous people's participation in health-related RCTs. Articles were identified using a key word search of electronic databases (Scopus, Medline and EMBASE). To be included, papers had to include in their published work at least one aspect of their RCT that was either a barrier and/or facilitator for participation identified from, for example, design of intervention, or discussion sections of articles. Articles that were reviews, discussions, opinion pieces or rationale/methodology were excluded. Results were analysed inductively, allowing themes to emerge from the data. Facilitators enabling Indigenous people's participation in RCTs included relationship and partnership building, employing Indigenous staff, drawing on Indigenous knowledge models, targeted recruitment techniques and adapting study material. Challenges for participation included both participant-level factors (such as a distrust of research) and RCT-level factors (including inadequately addressing likely participant barriers (phone availability, travel costs), and a lack of recognition or incorporation of Indigenous knowledge systems. The findings from our review add to the body of knowledge on elimination of health disparities, by identifying effective and practical strategies for conducting and engaging Indigenous peoples with RCTs. Future trials that seek to benefit Indigenous peoples should actively involve Indigenous research partners, and respect and draw on pertinent Indigenous knowledge and values. This review has the potential to

  1. We Are Still Here: Learning about Indigenous Peoples of the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moquino, Trisha

    2002-01-01

    Describes a year-long study of the indigenous peoples of the Americas conducted by an intern at a Montessori school, focusing on the Pueblo people and emphasizing contemporary indigenous people. Highlights introducing the study to students, creating materials that capture the essence of a Montessori lesson, structuring lessons through an…

  2. We Are Still Here: Learning about Indigenous Peoples of the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moquino, Trisha

    2002-01-01

    Describes a year-long study of the indigenous peoples of the Americas conducted by an intern at a Montessori school, focusing on the Pueblo people and emphasizing contemporary indigenous people. Highlights introducing the study to students, creating materials that capture the essence of a Montessori lesson, structuring lessons through an…

  3. Indigenous People and Poverty in Latin America: An Empirical Analysis. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George, Ed.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony, Ed.

    The indigenous peoples of Latin America live in conditions of extreme poverty. This book uses empirical data from national survey sources to determine the extent of poverty among Latin American indigenous populations; to compare indigenous and nonindigenous populations with regard to socioeconomic status, living conditions, educational attainment,…

  4. Beyond Recovery: Colonization, Health and Healing for Indigenous People in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavallee, Lynn F.; Poole, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    How do we limit our focus to mental health when Indigenous teaching demands a much wider lens? How do we respond to mental health recovery when Indigenous experience speaks to a very different approach to healing, and how can we take up the health of Indigenous people in Canada without a discussion of identity and colonization? We cannot, for the…

  5. Indigenous People and Poverty in Latin America: An Empirical Analysis. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George, Ed.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony, Ed.

    The indigenous peoples of Latin America live in conditions of extreme poverty. This book uses empirical data from national survey sources to determine the extent of poverty among Latin American indigenous populations; to compare indigenous and nonindigenous populations with regard to socioeconomic status, living conditions, educational attainment,…

  6. Beyond Recovery: Colonization, Health and Healing for Indigenous People in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavallee, Lynn F.; Poole, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    How do we limit our focus to mental health when Indigenous teaching demands a much wider lens? How do we respond to mental health recovery when Indigenous experience speaks to a very different approach to healing, and how can we take up the health of Indigenous people in Canada without a discussion of identity and colonization? We cannot, for the…

  7. Patterns of drug dependence in a Queensland (Australia) sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Andrew; Kemp, Robert; Ward, James; Henderson, Suzanna; Williams, Sidney; Dev, Abhilash; Najman, Jake M

    2016-09-01

    Despite over-representation of Indigenous Australians in sentinel studies of injecting drug use, little is known about relevant patterns of drug use and dependence. This study compares drug dependence and possible contributing factors in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians who inject drugs. Respondent-driven sampling was used in major cities and 'peer recruitment' in regional towns of Queensland to obtain a community sample of Indigenous (n = 282) and non-Indigenous (n = 267) injectors. Data are cross sectional. Multinomial models were developed for each group to examine types of dependence on injected drugs (no dependence, methamphetamine-dependent only, opioid-dependent only, dependent on methamphetamine and opioids). Around one-fifth of Indigenous and non-Indigenous injectors were dependent on both methamphetamine and opioids in the previous 12 months. Psychological distress was associated with dual dependence on these drugs for Indigenous [adjusted relative risk (ARR) 4.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.08-11.34] and non-Indigenous (ARR 4.14, 95% CI 1.59-10.78) participants. Unemployment (ARR 8.98, 95% CI 2.25-35.82) and repeated (> once) incarceration as an adult (ARR 3.78, 95% CI 1.43-9.97) were associated with dual dependence for Indigenous participants only. Indigenous participants had high rates of alcohol dependence, except for those dependent on opioids only. The drug dependence patterns of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs were similar, including the proportions dependent on both methamphetamine and opioids. However, for Indigenous injectors, there was a stronger association between drug dependence and contextual factors such as unemployment and incarceration. Expansion of treatment options and community-level programs may be required. [Smirnov A, Kemp R, Ward J, Henderson S, Williams S, Dev A, Najman J M. Patterns of drug dependence in a Queensland (Australia) sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who

  8. Ethnoichthyology of the indigenous Truká people, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos Alberto Batista; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega

    2016-01-06

    Historically, fishing is an important activity for riverine communities established along the São Francisco River, including indigenous communities. In the present study, we researched fishing activities in two villages of the Truká ethnic group, both located in the State of Pernambuco along the sub-middle section of the São Francisco River, Northeast Brazil. We recorded the richness and uses of the fished species and the ecological knowledge on these species, the fishing techniques employed and the perception of the indigenous people regarding current environmental impacts on the São Francisco River that influence local fishing. The information was obtained through interviews with 33 Truká fishers (27 men and six women), including 17 interviewees from Central Village (Cabrobó) and 16 from Tapera Village (Orocó). Using five fishing techniques, the interviewees caught 25 fish species, including 21 native and four exotic species. All species are used as food, and two species are used in traditional Truká medicine. The interviewees revealed that fishing currently has less importance in their subsistence. They indicated that this situation is occurring because of several factors, such as the introduction of exotic species, pollution and urbanization, that have impacted the São Francisco River, resulting in a decline of fishing resources. Nevertheless, we found that the indigenous people who are still fishing have a broad knowledge of the habitat and ecology of the target fishing. Although fishing is declining in importance among the Truká, we found that the individuals who are still practicing this activity have a broad knowledge about the habitat and ecology of the target species and apply that knowledge to fishing methods. Knowledge about the ecology of the species and the environmental impacts that have affected them can support basic research on local fish populations and research investigating the environmental impacts, resource management and

  9. Persuading people with depression to seek help: respect the boomerang.

    PubMed

    Lienemann, Brianna A; Siegel, Jason T; Crano, William D

    2013-01-01

    People with depression are likely to process information with a negative bias when confronted with self-relevant information. Accordingly, we feared exposing depressed people to a public service announcement (PSA) addressing the stigma of depression would possibly boomerang and result in less intention to seek help and in increased self-stigma. College students (N = 271; Mage  = 22.51, SD = 4.71; 63.1% female; 37.3% White, 31.9% Hispanic, 12.9% Asian, 6.8% multiethnic, 3.4% Black, 7.6% other) were randomly assigned to receive a print ad focused on depression or a nonrelevant comparison ad. A paper-and-pencil survey consisting of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Self-Stigma of Seeking Help scale, help-seeking intentions, and demographics followed. Regression analysis indicated that viewing a depression ad caused people with greater depressive symptoms to experience greater levels of self-stigma than depressed people exposed to a nonrelevant comparison ad. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that for individuals who viewed a depression PSA, self-stigma mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and professional help-seeking intentions. While this current study offers no direct evidence in regard to the utility of current and past depression campaigns, results indicate a definite need for caution when developing materials targeting people with depression to seek help.

  10. Involving indigenous peoples in protected area management: comparative perspectives from Nepal, Thailand, and China.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Sanjay K

    2002-12-01

    Despite over two decades of efforts towards involving indigenous and traditional peoples in protected area management, there are few successful examples. Several international principles and guidelines on indigenous peoples' involvement in protected areas exist. However, because of the lack of evaluation of whether or not these principles and guidelines have been put into practice, there is hardly any information that indicates the actual involvement of indigenous peoples in protected areas. This paper attempts to compare efforts in partnership between indigenous peoples and protected area authority in three Asian countries: Nepal, Thailand, and China. It shows that the involvement of indigenous peoples is more successful where park planning is participatory and where political and socioeconomic reforms are underway. Indigenous peoples are in conflict with park authorities where park management is centralized and nonparticipatory. Unless concrete efforts are made to address livelihood issues of indigenous peoples living in and around protected areas, park management aimed to protect wildlife will rarely succeed. Participatory park management that involves indigenous peoples and that addresses livelihood issues of indigenous communities will ultimately succeed in its efforts toward wildlife conservation.

  11. Nursing students' perspectives of the health and healthcare issues of Australian Indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Leanne; Ramjan, Lucie; McDonald, Glenda; Koch, Jane; Baird, David; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-03-01

    Indigenous people are the most disadvantaged population within Australia with living conditions comparable to developing countries. The Bachelor of Nursing programme at the University of Western Sydney has embedded Indigenous health into the undergraduate teaching programme, with an expectation that students develop an awareness of Indigenous health and healthcare issues. To gain insight into students' perceptions of Indigenous people and whether the course learning and teaching strategies implemented improved students' learning outcomes and attitude towards Indigenous people and Indigenous health in Australia. A mixed methods prospective survey design was chosen. Students enrolled in the Indigenous health subject in 2013 were invited to complete pre- and post-subject surveys that contained closed- and open-ended questions. Students' socio-demographic data was collected at baseline, but the 'Attitude Toward Indigenous Australians' (ATIA) scale, and the 3-item Knowledge, Interest and Confidence to nursing Australian Indigenous peoples scale were administered at both pre- and post-subject surveys. 502 students completed the baseline survey and 249 students completed the follow-up survey. There was a statistically significant attitudinal change towards Indigenous Australians, measured by the ATIA scale, and participants' knowledge, intent to work with Indigenous Australians and confidence in caring for them increased significantly at follow-up. Based on the participants' responses to open-ended questions, four key themes emerged: a) understanding Indigenous history, culture and healthcare; b) development of cultural competence; c) enhanced respect for Indigenous Australians' culture and traditional practices; and d) enhanced awareness of the inherent disadvantages for Indigenous Australians in education and healthcare. There were no statistically significant socio-demographic group differences among those who commented on key themes. Addressing health inequalities for

  12. Offending, custody and opioid substitution therapy treatment utilisation among opioid-dependent people in contact with the criminal justice system: comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Gisev, Natasa; Gibson, Amy; Larney, Sarah; Kimber, Jo; Williams, Megan; Clifford, Anton; Doyle, Michael; Burns, Lucy; Butler, Tony; Weatherburn, Don J; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-09-06

    Although Indigenous Australians are over-represented among heroin users, there has been no study examining offending, time in custody, and opioid substitution therapy (OST) treatment utilisation among Indigenous opioid-dependent (including heroin) people at the population level, nor comparing these to non-Indigenous opioid-dependent people. The aims of this study were to compare the nature and types of charges, time in custody and OST treatment utilisation between opioid-dependent Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in contact with the criminal justice system. This was a population-based, retrospective data linkage study using records of OST entrants in New South Wales, Australia (1985-2010), court appearances (1993-2011) and custody episodes (2000-2012). Charge rates per 100 person-years were compared between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians by sex, age and calendar year. Statistical comparisons were made for variables describing the cumulative time and percentage of follow-up time spent in custody, as well as characteristics of OST initiation and overall OST treatment utilisation. Of the 34,962 people in the cohort, 6,830 (19.5%) were Indigenous and 28,132 (80.5%) non-Indigenous. Among the 6,830 Indigenous people, 4,615 (67.6%) were male and 2,215 (32.4%) female. The median number of charges per person against Indigenous people (25, IQR 31) was significantly greater than non-Indigenous people (9, IQR 16) (p < 0.001). Overall, Indigenous people were charged with 33.2% of the total number of charges against the cohort and 44.0% of all violent offences. The median percentage of follow-up time that Indigenous males and females spent in custody was twice that of non-Indigenous males (21.7% vs. 10.1%, p < 0.001) and females (6.0% vs. 2.9%, p < 0.001). The percentage of Indigenous people who first commenced OST in prison (30.2%) was three times that of non-Indigenous people (11.2%) (p < 0.001). Indigenous males spent less time in OST compared to non-Indigenous

  13. Reconstructing Indigenous ethnicities: the Arapium and Jaraqui peoples of the lower Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Omaira

    2010-01-01

    In Latin America, indigenous identity claims among people not previously recognized as such by the state have become a key topic of anthropological and sociological research. Scholars have analyzed the motivations and political implications of this trend and the impacts of indigenous population's growth on national demographic indicators. However, little is known about how people claiming indigenous status constructs the meaning of their indigenous ethnicity. Drawing from sixty-four indepth interviews, focus-group analyses, and participant observation, this article explores the double process of identity construction: the reconstruction of the Arapium indigenous identity and the creation of the Jaraqui indigenous identity in Brazil's Lower Amazon. The findings reveal six themes that contribute to the embodiment of a definition of indigenous identity and the establishment of a discursive basis to claim recognition: sense of rootedness, historical memory, historical transformation, consciousness, social exclusion, and identity politics.

  14. Inclusion of Indigenous Peoples in CONFINTEA VI and Follow-Up Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Sandra L.; Vaioleti, Timote M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses key issues raised by indigenous peoples during CONFINTEA VI and proposes strategies to enable them to participate in ongoing processes. Indigenous peoples are not involved in the design, implementation and monitoring of adult education programmes, and this often results in a "one-size-fits-all" model. This article…

  15. Expanding the Circle of Knowledge: Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among North American Older Indigenous Peoples.

    PubMed

    Pace, Jessica E; Grenier, Amanda

    2017-03-01

    Indigenous older peoples' voices and experiences remain largely absent in the dominant models and critical scholarship on aging and late life. This article examines the relevance of the model of successful aging for Indigenous peoples in North America. This article presents the results of a review of the published conceptual literature on successful aging among Indigenous peoples. Our intent was to explore the current state of the field of successful aging among Indigenous peoples and suggest dimensions that may be more reflective of Indigenous voices and experiences that leads to a more inclusive model of successful aging. Based on our review, we suggest four dimensions that may broaden understandings of successful aging to be more inclusive of Indigenous older people: health and wellness, empowerment and resilience, engagement and behavior, and connectedness. Our review suggests that Indigenous peoples' voices and experiences are beginning to be included in academic literature on successful aging. However, we suggest that understandings of successful aging be broadened based on our summative findings and a process of community involvement. Such processes can lead to the development of models that are more inclusive to a wide range of older people, including Indigenous older peoples.

  16. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People

    PubMed Central

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people. PMID:26599437

  17. Trends in cancer incidence and survival for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Condon, John R; Zhang, Xiaohua; Dempsey, Karen; Garling, Lindy; Guthridge, Steven

    2016-11-21

    To assess trends in cancer incidence and survival for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory. Retrospective analysis of population-based cancer registration data. New cancer diagnoses in the NT, 1991-2012. Age-adjusted incidence rates; rate ratios comparing incidence in NT Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations with that for other Australians; 5-year survival; multivariable Poisson regression of excess mortality. The incidence of most cancers in the NT non-Indigenous population was similar to that for other Australians. For the NT Indigenous population, the incidence of cancer at several sites was much higher (v other Australians: lung, 84% higher; head and neck, 325% higher; liver, 366% higher; cervix, 120% higher). With the exception of cervical cancer (65% decrease), incidence rates in the Indigenous population did not fall between 1991-1996 and 2007-2012. The incidence of several other cancers (breast, bowel, prostate, melanoma) was much lower in 1991-1996 than for other Australians, but had increased markedly by 2007-2012 (breast, 274% increase; bowel, 120% increase; prostate, 116% increase). Five-year survival was lower for NT Indigenous than for NT non-Indigenous patients, but had increased for both populations between 1991-2000 and 2001-2010. The incidence of several cancers that were formerly less common in NT Indigenous people has increased, without a concomitant reduction in the incidence of higher incidence cancers (several of which are smoking-related). The excess burden of cancer in this population will persist until lifestyle risks are mitigated, particularly by reducing the extraordinarily high prevalence of smoking.

  18. Cancer in indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Suzanne P; Forman, David; Piñeros, Marion; Fernández, Sdenka M; Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Bray, Freddie

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in Latin America but there have been few assessments of the cancer burden for the 10% of the population who are indigenous. Evidence from other world regions suggests cancer survival is poorer for indigenous people than for others due to a greater incidence of case-fatal cancers, later stage at diagnosis, and less cancer treatment. A status report on the cancer profile of indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is therefore clearly warranted. We undertook a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature in academic databases, and considered evidence from cancer registries from 1980, to assess cancer epidemiology among indigenous people in LAC. We identified 35 peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cancer in indigenous people. Rates of cervical cancer in parts of Brazil, Ecuador, and Guyana, stomach cancer rates in regions of Chile and gallbladder rates in Chile and Bolivia, were higher for indigenous compared to others. Breast cancer rates were lower in Ecuador, Brazil, and Chile. Six cancer registries in Brazil provided incidence data but no other reports of incidence, mortality, or survival were identified. There was a paucity of data surrounding the cancer burden of indigenous people in LAC. In view of predicted increases in cancer rates in ensuing decades, and the disparities in burden already experienced by indigenous people in the region, it is imperative that cancer profiles are obtained and cancer control measures identified and prioritized. PMID:24403278

  19. Inclusion of indigenous peoples in CONFINTEA VI and follow-up processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Sandra L.; Vaioleti, Timote M.

    2011-08-01

    This paper discusses key issues raised by indigenous peoples during CONFINTEA VI and proposes strategies to enable them to participate in ongoing processes. Indigenous peoples are not involved in the design, implementation and monitoring of adult education programmes, and this often results in a "one-size-fits-all" model. This article takes the position that indigenous people must have full and effective participation in all matters which concern them and that well-meaning policy statements are only as effective as the display of real effort to make them work. One example of an indigenous community taking initiative in order to free itself of overwhelming deficit positioning by mainstream educational and other systems is the Māori community of Aotearoa/New Zealand. The paper argues that through CONFINTEA VI, there is still space for the voice of indigenous peoples to be heard.

  20. Reclaiming Indigenous Voice and Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiste, Marie, Ed.

    This book springs from a 1996 International Summer Institute, held at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, on the cultural restoration of oppressed Indigenous peoples. Essays draw on many perspectives and experiences to seek ways of healing and rebuilding nations, peoples, and communities by restoring Indigenous ecologies, consciousnesses,…

  1. Insufficient evidence on health literacy amongst Indigenous people with cancer: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Thewes, Belinda; McCaffery, Kirsten; Davis, Esther; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-20

    Indigenous people experience poorer cancer survival outcomes compared with non-Indigenous people. Currently, there is growing awareness of poor health literacy as a determinant of cancer outcomes. However, little attention has been given to researching cancer-related health literacy amongst Indigenous people. To systematically review empirical studies of cancer health literacy amongst Indigenous people worldwide. Articles were identified in Medline (1946-2013); Pre-Medline; CINAHL; PsycINFO (1967-2013); PubMed; Current Contents/All Editions (1993-2013); Allied Health and Complimentary Medicine (1985-2013), and in the reference lists of retrieved articles and by expert consultation. 64 abstracts were screened for inclusion and 16 articles were retained. There is a paucity of high-quality research concerning of health literacy amongst Indigenous cancer patients. No articles used formal measures of health literacy and data on the prevalence of health literacy was not reported. Of the 7 articles describing interventions only one included a control group and the remainder employed quasi-experimental methods. Research is needed to explore the cultural relevance of existing measures of health literacy and to document the prevalence of health literacy amongst Indigenous people with cancer. A better understanding of Indigenous cancer patients' health literacy is required before health literacy interventions can be designed to improve Indigenous cancer outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Call to action: A new path for improving diabetes care for Indigenous peoples, a global review.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stewart B; Tompkins, Jordan W; TeHiwi, Braden

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in Indigenous populations around the globe, and there is an urgent need to improve the health and health equity of Indigenous peoples with diabetes through timely and appropriate diabetes prevention and management strategies. This review describes the evolution of the diabetes epidemic in Indigenous populations and associated risk factors, highlighting gestational diabetes and intergenerational risk, lifestyle risk factors and social determinants as having particular importance and impact on Indigenous peoples. This review further describes the impact of chronic disease and diabetes on Indigenous peoples and communities, specifically diabetes-related comorbidities and complications. This review provides continued evidence that dramatic changes are necessary to reduce diabetes-related inequities in Indigenous populations, with a call to action to support programmatic primary healthcare transformation capable of empowering Indigenous peoples and communities and improving chronic disease prevention and management. Promising strategies for transforming health services and care for Indigenous peoples include quality improvement initiatives, facilitating diabetes and chronic disease registry and surveillance systems to identify care gaps, and prioritizing evaluation to build the evidence-base necessary to guide future health policy and planning locally and on a global scale. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Food system sustainability for health and well-being of Indigenous Peoples.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2015-09-01

    To describe how Indigenous Peoples understand how to enhance use of their food systems to promote sustainability, as demonstrated in several food-based interventions. Comments contributed by partners from case studies of Indigenous Peoples and their food systems attending an international meeting were implemented with public health interventions at the community level in nine countries. The Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Conference Center in Bellagio, Italy, where experiences from case studies of Indigenous Peoples were considered and then conducted in their home communities in rural areas. Leaders of the Indigenous Peoples' case studies, their communities and their academic partners. Reported strategies on how to improve use of local food systems in case study communities of Indigenous Peoples. Indigenous Peoples' reflections on their local food systems should be encouraged and acted upon to protect and promote sustainability of the cultures and ecosystems that derive their food systems. Promoting use of local traditional food biodiversity is an essential driver of food system sustainability for Indigenous Peoples, and contributes to global consciousness for protecting food biodiversity and food system sustainability more broadly. Key lessons learned, key messages and good practices for nutrition and public health practitioners and policy makers are given.

  4. Declining mortality among HIV-positive indigenous people at a Vancouver indigenous-focused urban-core health care centre

    PubMed Central

    Klakowicz, Piotr; Zhang, Wen; Colley, Guillaume; Moore, David; Tu, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine mortality rates among HIV-positive indigenous people and others after initiation of HIV care improvements based on the chronic care model to address high HIV-related mortality. Design Retrospective cohort preintervention-to-postintervention evaluation study. Setting Urban-core primary health care centre focused on indigenous people in Vancouver, BC. Participants Individuals infected with HIV. Intervention Adoption of the chronic care model to improve HIV care over time. Main outcome measures All-cause mortality and HIV-related mortality rates, overall and from preintervention (2007 to 2009) to postintervention (2010 to 2012), by indigenous ethnicity, were calculated from clinical data linked with the provincial HIV treatment clinical registry. Results Of the 546 eligible study patients, 323 (59%) self-identified as indigenous. Indigenous persons had higher all-cause mortality compared with other patients (14% vs 8%, P = .035; 6.25 vs 4.02 per 100 person-years [PYRs], P = .113), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.77 (95% CI 0.95 to 3.30). Indigenous persons also had higher HIV-related mortality (6% vs 2%, P = .027; 2.50 vs 0.89 per 100 PYRs, P = .063), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.88 (95% CI 0.93 to 8.92). Between 2007 to 2009 and 2010 to 2012, a significant decline was observed in all-cause mortality for indigenous patients (10.00 to 5.00 per 100 PYRs, P = .023) and a non-significant decline was observed in other patients (7.21 to 2.97 per 100 PYRs, P = .061). A significant decline in HIV-related mortality was also seen for indigenous patients (5.56 to 1.80 per 100 PYRs, P = .005). Conclusion Despite the overall higher risk of death among indigenous patients compared with others, the decline in mortality in HIV-positive indigenous patients after the initiation of efforts to improve HIV care at the clinic further support HIV primary care informed by indigenous issues and the adoption of the chronic care model.

  5. Amazingly resilient Indigenous people! Using transformative learning to facilitate positive student engagement with sensitive material.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Sherwood, Juanita; Geia, Lynore

    2013-12-01

    If health professionals are to effectively contribute to improving the health of Indigenous people, understanding of the historical, political, and social disadvantage that has lead to health disparity is essential. This paper describes a teaching and learning experience in which four Australian Indigenous academics in collaboration with a non-Indigenous colleague delivered an intensive workshop for masters level post-graduate students. Drawing upon the paedagogy of Transformative Learning, the objectives of the day included facilitating students to explore their existing understandings of Indigenous people, the impact of ongoing colonisation, the diversity of Australia's Indigenous people, and developing respect for alternative worldviews. Drawing on a range of resources including personal stories, autobiography, film and interactive sessions, students were challenged intellectually and emotionally by the content. Students experienced the workshop as a significant educational event, and described feeling transformed by the content, better informed, more appreciative of other worldviews and Indigenous resilience and better equipped to contribute in a more meaningful way to improving the quality of health care for Indigenous people. Where this workshop differs from other Indigenous classes was in the involvement of an Indigenous teaching team. Rather than a lone academic who can often feel vulnerable teaching a large cohort of non-Indigenous students, an Indigenous teaching team reinforced Indigenous authority and created an emotionally and culturally safe space within which students were allowed to confront and explore difficult truths. Findings support the value of multiple teaching strategies underpinned by the theory of transformational learning, and the potential benefits of facilitating emotional as well as intellectual student engagement when presenting sensitive material.

  6. Therapeutic landscapes of home: Exploring Indigenous peoples' experiences of a Housing First intervention in Winnipeg.

    PubMed

    Alaazi, Dominic A; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Evans, Joshua; Distasio, Jino

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we explore Indigenous perspectives of culture, place, and health among participants in a landmark Canadian Housing First initiative: At Home/Chez Soi (AHCS) project. Implemented from 2009 to 2013 in Winnipeg and four other Canadian cities, AHCS was a multi-city randomized control trial that sought to test the effectiveness of Housing First as a model for addressing chronic homelessness among people living with mental illnesses. As Winnipeg's homeless population is over 70% Indigenous, significant efforts were made to accommodate the culturally specific health, spiritual, and lifestyle preferences of the project's Indigenous participants. While a daunting challenge from an intervention perspective, Winnipeg's experience also provides a unique opportunity to examine how Indigenous participants' experiences can inform improved housing and mental health policy in Canada. In our study, conducted independently from, but with endorsement of the AHCS project, we utilized a case study approach to explore the experiences of the project's Indigenous participants. Data were collected by means of in-depth qualitative interviews with Indigenous participants (N = 14) and key informant project staff and investigators (N = 6). Our exploratory work demonstrates that despite relative satisfaction with the AHCS intervention, Indigenous peoples' sense of place in the city remains largely disconnected from their housing experiences. We found that structural factors, particularly the shortage of affordable housing and systemic erasure of Indigeneity from the urban sociocultural and political landscape, have adversely impacted Indigenous peoples' sense of place and home.

  7. [Interventions to improve access to health services by indigenous peoples in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Araujo, Miguel; Moraga, Cecilia; Chapman, Evelina; Barreto, Jorge; Illanes, Eduardo

    2016-11-01

    Synthesize evidence on effectiveness of interventions designed to improve access to health services by indigenous populations. Review of systematic reviews published as of July 2015, selecting and analyzing only studies in the Region of the Americas. The bibliographic search encompassed MEDLINE, Lilacs, SciELO, EMBASE, DARE, HTA, The Cochrane Library, and organization websites. Two independent reviewers selected studies and analyzed their methodological quality. A narrative summary of the results was produced. Twenty-two reviews met the inclusion criteria. All selected studies were conducted in Canada and the United States of America. The majority of the interventions were preventive, to surmount geographical barriers, increase use of effective measures, develop human resources, and improve people's skills or willingness to seek care. Topics included pregnancy, cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes, substance abuse, child development, cancer, mental health, oral health, and injuries. Some interventions showed effectiveness with moderate or high quality studies: educational strategies to prevent depression, interventions to prevent childhood caries, and multicomponent programs to promote use of child safety seats. In general, results for chronic non-communicable diseases were negative or inconsistent. Interventions do exist that have potential for producing positive effects on access to health services by indigenous populations in the Americas, but available studies are limited to Canada and the U.S. There is a significant research gap on the topic in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  8. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  9. Access to primary health care services for Indigenous peoples: A framework synthesis.

    PubMed

    Davy, Carol; Harfield, Stephen; McArthur, Alexa; Munn, Zachary; Brown, Alex

    2016-09-30

    Indigenous peoples often find it difficult to access appropriate mainstream primary health care services. Securing access to primary health care services requires more than just services that are situated within easy reach. Ensuring the accessibility of health care for Indigenous peoples who are often faced with a vast array of additional barriers including experiences of discrimination and racism, can be complex. This framework synthesis aimed to identify issues that hindered Indigenous peoples from accessing primary health care and then explore how, if at all, these were addressed by Indigenous health care services. To be included in this framework synthesis papers must have presented findings focused on access to (factors relating to Indigenous peoples, their families and their communities) or accessibility of Indigenous primary health care services. Findings were imported into NVivo and a framework analysis undertaken whereby findings were coded to and then thematically analysed using Levesque and colleague's accessibility framework. Issues relating to the cultural and social determinants of health such as unemployment and low levels of education influenced whether Indigenous patients, their families and communities were able to access health care. Indigenous health care services addressed these issues in a number of ways including the provision of transport to and from appointments, a reduction in health care costs for people on low incomes and close consultation with, if not the direct involvement of, community members in identifying and then addressing health care needs. Indigenous health care services appear to be best placed to overcome both the social and cultural determinants of health which hamper Indigenous peoples from accessing health care. Findings of this synthesis also suggest that Levesque and colleague's accessibility framework should be broadened to include factors related to the health care system such as funding.

  10. Indigenous Peoples and Indicators of Well-Being: Australian Perspectives on United Nations Global Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John

    2008-01-01

    One of the major tasks of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) following its establishment in 2000 has been to establish statistical profiles of the world's Indigenous peoples. As part of this broad task, it has recommended that the Millennium Development Goals and other global reporting frameworks should be assessed…

  11. What Explains Child Malnutrition of Indigenous People of Northeast India?

    PubMed Central

    Dinachandra Singh, Konsam; Alagarajan, Manoj; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    Household risk factors affecting child health, particularly malnutrition, are mainly basic amenities like drinking water, toilet facility, housing and fuel used for cooking. This paper considered the collective impact of basic amenities measured by an index specially constructed as the contextual factor of child malnutrition. The contextual factor operates at both the macro and micro levels namely the state level and the household level. The importance of local contextual factors is especially important when studying the nutritional status of children of indigenous people living in remote and inaccessible regions. This study has shown the contextual factors as potential factors of malnutrition among children in northeast India, which is home to the largest number of tribes in the country. In terms of macro level contextual factor it has been found that 8.9 per cent, 3.7 per cent and 3.6 per cent of children in high, medium and low risk households respectively, are severely wasted. Lower micro level household health risks, literate household heads, and scheduled tribe households have a negating effect on child malnutrition. Children who received colostrum feeding at the time of birth and those who were vaccinated against measles are also less subject to wasting compared to other children, and these differences are statistically significant. PMID:26121475

  12. What Explains Child Malnutrition of Indigenous People of Northeast India?

    PubMed

    Dinachandra Singh, Konsam; Alagarajan, Manoj; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    Household risk factors affecting child health, particularly malnutrition, are mainly basic amenities like drinking water, toilet facility, housing and fuel used for cooking. This paper considered the collective impact of basic amenities measured by an index specially constructed as the contextual factor of child malnutrition. The contextual factor operates at both the macro and micro levels namely the state level and the household level. The importance of local contextual factors is especially important when studying the nutritional status of children of indigenous people living in remote and inaccessible regions. This study has shown the contextual factors as potential factors of malnutrition among children in northeast India, which is home to the largest number of tribes in the country. In terms of macro level contextual factor it has been found that 8.9 per cent, 3.7 per cent and 3.6 per cent of children in high, medium and low risk households respectively, are severely wasted. Lower micro level household health risks, literate household heads, and scheduled tribe households have a negating effect on child malnutrition. Children who received colostrum feeding at the time of birth and those who were vaccinated against measles are also less subject to wasting compared to other children, and these differences are statistically significant.

  13. Indigenous Thought, Appropriation, and Non-Aboriginal People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig-Brown, Celia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I explore the question, "What is the relationship between appropriation of Indigenous thought and what might be called "deep learning" based in years of education in Indigenous contexts." Beginning with an examination of meanings ascribed to cultural appropriation, I bring texts from Gee on secondary…

  14. An explanatory analysis of economic and health inequality changes among Mexican indigenous people, 2000-2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mexico faces important problems concerning income and health inequity. Mexico’s national public agenda prioritizes remedying current inequities between its indigenous and non-indigenous population groups. This study explores the changes in social inequalities among Mexico’s indigenous and non-indigenous populations for the time period 2000 to 2010 using routinely collected poverty, welfare and health indicator data. Methods We described changes in socioeconomic indicators (housing condition), poverty (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke and Sen-Shorrocks-Sen indexes), health indicators (childhood stunting and infant mortality) using diverse sources of nationally representative data. Results This analysis provides consistent evidence of disparities in the Mexican indigenous population regarding both basic and crucial developmental indicators. Although developmental indicators have improved among the indigenous population, when we compare indigenous and non-indigenous people, the gap in socio-economic and developmental indicators persists. Conclusions Despite a decade of efforts to promote public programs, poverty persists and is a particular burden for indigenous populations within Mexican society. In light of the results, it would be advisable to review public policy and to specifically target future policy to the needs of the indigenous population. PMID:24576113

  15. When Ants Carry Elephants: Applying the Wisdom of Indigenous Peoples to Library Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    Explores what the library profession can learn from indigenous peoples. Highlights include cooperation, decision making, improving management, using workplace stories to provide reinforcement for success, generosity in service principles, patience, developing information networks, and diversity. (AEF)

  16. Indigenous Peoples of the World: An Introduction to Their Past, Present, and Future. Purich's Aboriginal Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehring, Brian

    Suitable for introductory courses on indigenous peoples, this book analyzes the effects of industrial capitalism and modernity on indigenous people and their economies. Specifically, the book traces world history and synthesizes common themes regarding the detrimental effects of European expansionism on indigenous populations. Currently, there are…

  17. Structural factors that increase HIV/STI vulnerability among indigenous people in the Peruvian amazon.

    PubMed

    Orellana, E Roberto; Alva, Isaac E; Cárcamo, Cesar P; García, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    We examined structural factors-social, political, economic, and environmental-that increase vulnerability to HIV among indigenous people in the Peruvian Amazon. Indigenous adults belonging to 12 different ethnic groups were purposively recruited in four Amazonian river ports and 16 indigenous villages. Qualitative data revealed a complex set of structural factors that give rise to environments of risk where health is constantly challenged. Ferryboats that cross Amazonian rivers are settings where unprotected sex-including transactional sex between passengers and boat crew and commercial sex work-often take place. Population mobility and mixing also occurs in settings like the river docks, mining sites, and other resource extraction camps, where heavy drinking and unprotected sex work are common. Multilevel, combination prevention strategies that integrate empirically based interventions with indigenous knowledge are urgently needed, not only to reduce vulnerability to HIV transmission, but also to eliminate the structural determinants of indigenous people's health.

  18. Anemia among indigenous women in Brazil: findings from the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Borges, Maria Carolina; Buffarini, Romina; Santos, Ricardo V; Cardoso, Andrey M; Welch, James R; Garnelo, Luiza; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Horta, Bernardo L

    2016-02-01

    Anemia is recognized as a major public health problem that disproportionately affects vulnerable populations. Indigenous women of reproductive age in Brazil are thought to be at high risk, but lack of nationwide data limits knowledge about the burden of disease and its main determinants. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in this population using data from The First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition in Brazil. Data were collected from Indigenous women between 15 and 49 years old based on a nationwide sample of villages. The outcomes of interest were hemoglobin levels (g/dL) and anemia (< 12 g/dL for nonpregnant and < 11 g/dL for pregnant women). Multilevel models were used to explore associations with contextual (village) and individual (household/woman) level variables. Based on data for 6692 Indigenous women, the nationwide mean hemoglobin level was 12.39 g/dL (95% CI: 12.29-12.50). Anemia prevalence was high (33.0%; 95% CI: 30.40-35.61%) and showed pronounced regional disparities. No village-level characteristics were associated with anemia or hemoglobin levels in the multilevel model. Even after controlling for upper level variables, socioeconomic status, parity, body mass index, and having been treated for malaria were associated with anemia and hemoglobin levels. The prevalence of anemia in Brazilian Indigenous women was 12% greater than the national estimates for women of reproductive age. Anemia prevalence and mean hemoglobin levels among Indigenous women appear to be partly explained by some previously recognized risk factors, such as socioeconomic status, body mass index, and malaria; however, part of the variability in these outcomes remains unexplained. Knowledge of health status and its potential determinants is essential to guide public policies aimed at controlling anemia burden in Indigenous communities.

  19. Use of telehealth for health care of Indigenous peoples with chronic conditions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Sarah; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Hunter, Kate; Towers, Kurt; Ivers, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Telehealth may be a cost effective modality in healthcare delivery, but how well used or how appropriate it is for the care of Indigenous peoples is unclear. This review examines the evidence for telehealth in facilitating chronic conditions management with Indigenous peoples. Databases were systematically searched for qualitative or quantitative primary research studies that investigated telehealth use for chronic conditions management with Indigenous peoples worldwide. Evidence of effectiveness was by consumer health outcomes, evidence of acceptability was through consumer and user perception, and health service feasibility was evident by service impact. Data were assessed for quality and data extracted using pre-defined tools. Articles (n=32) examined effectiveness (n=11), critiqued telehealth from the perspectives of the client (n=10) and healthcare professionals (n=8), and examined feasibility (n=12). Studies reported Indigenous people tend to be satisfied with telehealth, but are sceptical about its cultural safety. Evidence for the effectiveness of telehealth from a western biomedical perspective was found. Telehealth is promising; however, a lack of robust studies in this review make tangible conclusions difficult. A better overall understanding of telehealth use with Indigenous peoples, including delivery of culturally competent health care, true consultation and cultural competency of the professionals involved, would be helpful. Telehealth may have the potential to improve health care for Indigenous people, however the modality needs to be culturally competent and the care received must be culturally safe.

  20. 'We don't tell people what to do': ethical practice and Indigenous health promotion.

    PubMed

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; Chelsea Bond, A; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion aspires to work in empowering, participatory ways, with the goal of supporting people to increase control over their health. However, buried in this goal is an ethical tension: while increasing people's autonomy, health promotion also imposes a particular, health promotion-sanctioned version of what is good. This tension positions practitioners precariously, where the ethos of empowerment risks increasing health promotion's paternalistic control over people, rather than people's control over their own health. Herein we argue that this ethical tension is amplified in Indigenous Australia, where colonial processes of control over Indigenous lands, lives and cultures are indistinguishable from contemporary health promotion 'interventions'. Moreover, the potential stigmatisation produced in any paternalistic acts 'done for their own good' cannot be assumed to have evaporated within the self-proclaimed 'empowering' narratives of health promotion. This issue's guest editor's call for health promotion to engage 'with politics and with philosophical ideas about the state and the citizen' is particularly relevant in an Indigenous Australian context. Indigenous Australians continue to experience health promotion as a moral project of control through intervention, which contradicts health promotion's central goal of empowerment. Therefore, Indigenous health promotion is an invaluable site for discussion and analysis of health promotion's broader ethical tensions. Given the persistent and alarming Indigenous health inequalities, this paper calls for systematic ethical reflection in order to redress health promotion's general failure to reduce health inequalities experienced by Indigenous Australians.

  1. Observations on the State of Indigenous Human Rights in Light of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cultural Survival, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1996 Peace Accords ended the Guatemalan civil war, the country has made strides to legally recognize the rights of its indigenous peoples and has criminalized racial discrimination. However, political exclusion, discrimination, and economic marginalization of indigenous peoples still regularly occur due to the lack of resources and…

  2. Indigenous well-being in four countries: An application of the UNDP'S Human Development Index to Indigenous Peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Martin; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Guimond, Eric; Beavon, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Background Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI) rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in recent decades, and it remains generally unknown whether the overall conditions of Indigenous peoples are improving and whether the gaps between Indigenous peoples and other citizens have indeed narrowed. There is unsettling evidence that they may not have. It was the purpose of this study to determine how these gaps have narrowed or widened during the decade 1990 to 2000. Methods Census data and life expectancy estimates from government sources were used to adapt the Human Development Index (HDI) to examine how the broad social, economic, and health status of Indigenous populations in these countries have changed since 1990. Three indices – life expectancy, educational attainment, and income – were combined into a single HDI measure. Results Between 1990 and 2000, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples in North America and New Zealand improved at a faster rate than the general populations, closing the gap in human development. In Australia, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples decreased while the general populations improved, widening the gap in human development. While these countries are considered to have high human development according to the UNDP, the Indigenous populations that reside within them have only medium levels of human development. Conclusion The inconsistent progress in the health and well-being of Indigenous populations over time, and relative to non-Indigenous populations, points to the need for further efforts to improve the social, economic, and physical health of Indigenous peoples. PMID:18096029

  3. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring Indigenous peoples' involvement in water planning processes across South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz Quitian, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Gloria Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Indigenous peoples within the Murray-Darling Basin have traditionally struggled for the recognition of their cultural, social, environmental, spiritual, commercial and economic connection to the waters that they have traditionally used, as well as their right to engage in all stages of water planning processes. Despite Australian national and federal frameworks providing for the inclusion of Indigenous Australians' objectives in planning frameworks, water plans have rarely addressed these objectives in water, or the strategies to achieve them. Indeed, insufficient resources, a lack of institutional capacity in both Indigenous communities and agencies and an inadequate understanding of Indigenous people's objectives in water management have limited the extent to which Indigenous objectives are addressed in water plans within the Murray-Darling Basin. In this context, the adoption of specific guidelines to meet Indigenous requirements in relation to basin water resources is crucial to support Indigenous engagement in water planning processes. Using insights from participatory planning methods and human rights frameworks, this article outlines a set of alternative and collaborative guidelines to improve Indigenous involvement in water planning and to promote sustainable and just water allocations.

  4. The development of a supportive care needs assessment tool for Indigenous people with cancer.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Gail; Beesley, Vanessa L; Janda, Monika; Jacka, Catherine; Green, Adèle C; O'Rourke, Peter; Valery, Patricia C

    2012-07-20

    Little is known about the supportive care needs of Indigenous people with cancer and to date, existing needs assessment tools have not considered cultural issues for this population. We aimed to adapt an existing supportive care needs assessment tool for use with Indigenous Australians with cancer. Face-to-face interviews with Indigenous cancer patients (n = 29) and five focus groups with Indigenous key-informants (n = 23) were conducted to assess the face and content validity, cultural acceptability, utility and relevance of the Supportive Care Needs Survey - Short Form 34 (SCNS-SF34) for use with Indigenous patients with cancer. All items from the SCNS-SF34 were shortened and changed to use more appropriate language (e.g. the word 'anxiety' was substituted with 'worry'). Seven questions were omitted (e.g. items on death and future considerations) as they were deemed culturally inappropriate or irrelevant and 12 items were added (e.g. accessible transport). Optional instructions were added before the sexual items. The design and response format of the SCNS-SF34 was modified to make it easier to use for Indigenous cancer patients. Given the extensive modifications to the SCNS-SF34 and the liklihood of a different factor structure we consider this tool to be a new tool rather than a modification. The Supportive care needs assessment tool for Indigenous people (SCNAT-IP) shows promising face and content validity and will be useful in informing services where they need to direct their attention for these patients. Indigenous people with cancer have language, customs and specific needs that are not accommodated within the standard SCNS-SF34. Our SCNAT-IP improves acceptability, relevance and face validity for Indigenous-specific concerns. Our SCNAT-IP will allow screening for supportive care needs that are specific to Indigenous cancer patients' and greatly inform targeted policy development and practice.

  5. The development of a supportive care needs assessment tool for Indigenous people with cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the supportive care needs of Indigenous people with cancer and to date, existing needs assessment tools have not considered cultural issues for this population. We aimed to adapt an existing supportive care needs assessment tool for use with Indigenous Australians with cancer. Methods Face-to-face interviews with Indigenous cancer patients (n = 29) and five focus groups with Indigenous key-informants (n = 23) were conducted to assess the face and content validity, cultural acceptability, utility and relevance of the Supportive Care Needs Survey - Short Form 34 (SCNS-SF34) for use with Indigenous patients with cancer. Results All items from the SCNS-SF34 were shortened and changed to use more appropriate language (e.g. the word 'anxiety' was substituted with 'worry'). Seven questions were omitted (e.g. items on death and future considerations) as they were deemed culturally inappropriate or irrelevant and 12 items were added (e.g. accessible transport). Optional instructions were added before the sexual items. The design and response format of the SCNS-SF34 was modified to make it easier to use for Indigenous cancer patients. Given the extensive modifications to the SCNS-SF34 and the liklihood of a different factor structure we consider this tool to be a new tool rather than a modification. The Supportive care needs assessment tool for Indigenous people (SCNAT-IP) shows promising face and content validity and will be useful in informing services where they need to direct their attention for these patients. Conclusions Indigenous people with cancer have language, customs and specific needs that are not accommodated within the standard SCNS-SF34. Our SCNAT-IP improves acceptability, relevance and face validity for Indigenous-specific concerns. Our SCNAT-IP will allow screening for supportive care needs that are specific to Indigenous cancer patients' and greatly inform targeted policy development and practice. PMID:22817614

  6. Structural Factors That Increase HIV/STI Vulnerability Among Indigenous People in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, E. Roberto; Alva, Isaac E.; Cárcamo, Cesar P.; García, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined structural factors—social, political, economic, and environmental—that increase vulnerability to HIV among indigenous people in the Peruvian Amazon. Indigenous adults belonging to 12 different ethnic groups were purposively recruited in four Amazonian river ports and 16 indigenous villages. Qualitative data revealed a complex set of structural factors that give rise to environments of risk where health is constantly challenged. Ferryboats that cross Amazonian rivers are settings where unprotected sex—including transactional sex between passengers and boat crew and commercial sex work—often take place. Population mobility and mixing also occurs in settings like the river docks, mining sites, and other resource extraction camps, where heavy drinking and unprotected sex work are common. Multilevel, combination prevention strategies that integrate empirically based interventions with indigenous knowledge are urgently needed, not only to reduce vulnerability to HIV transmission, but also to eliminate the structural determinants of indigenous people’s health. PMID:23925407

  7. [The Development of Research Ethics Involving Indigenous People in Taiwan: A Brief Introduction].

    PubMed

    Tansikian, Tunkan; Huang, Yu-Chao

    2016-06-01

    Adhering to ethics protocols has become increasingly important in the process of doing research in Taiwan since the introduction of research-ethics mechanisms. Adhering to these protocols affects research on Taiwan's indigenous peoples due to the vulnerability of indigenous groups and to their increasing rights consciousness. The present paper explains the context of group rights from a national self-determination perspective and then discusses the current indigenous research-ethics mechanisms in Taiwan. The ethical guidelines for indigenous research in Canada, TCPS2 2014-Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans are referenced as a model for protocols that may foster positive and mutually trusting relationships between academic researchers and indigenous communities in Taiwan.

  8. Research integrity and rights of indigenous peoples: appropriating Foucault's critique of knowledge/power.

    PubMed

    Swazo, Norman K

    2005-09-01

    In this paper I appropriate the philosophical critique of Michel Foucault as it applies to the engagement of Western science and indigenous peoples in the context of biomedical research. The science of population genetics, specifically as pursued in the Human Genome Diversity Project, is the obvious example to illustrate (a) the contraposition of modern science and 'indigenous science', (b) the tendency to depreciate and marginalize indigenous knowledge systems, and (c) the subsumption of indigenous moral preferences in the juridical armature of international human rights law. I suggest that international bioethicists may learn from Foucault's critique, specifically of the need for vigilance about the knowledge/power relation expressed by the contraposition of modern science and 'indigeneity'.

  9. Essential health care among Mexican indigenous people in a universal coverage context.

    PubMed

    Servan-Mori, Edson; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Montoya-Rodríguez, Arain

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the influence of indigenous condition on essential health care among Mexican children, older people and women in reproductive age. The influence of indigenous condition on the probability of receiving medical care due to acute respiratory infection (ARI) and acute diarrheal disease (ADD), vaccination coverage; and antenatal care (ANC) was analyzed using the 2012 National Health Survey and non-experimental matching methods. Indigenous condition does not influence per-se vaccination coverage (in < 1 year), probability of attention of ARI's and ADD's as well as, timely, frequent, and quality ANC. Being indigenous and older adult increases 9% the probability of receiving a fulfilled vaccination schedule. Unfavorable structural conditions in which Mexican indigenous live constitutes the persistent mechanisms of their health vulnerability. Public policy should consider this level of intervention, in a way that intensive and focalized health strategies contribute to improve their health condition and life.

  10. Injuries and injury prevention among indigenous children and young people.

    PubMed

    Berger, Lawrence R; Wallace, L J David; Bill, Nancy M

    2009-12-01

    Throughout the world, injuries and violence are a leading cause of mortality and suffering among Indigenous communities. Among American Indian and Alaska Native children aged 1 to 19 years, 71% of deaths are from injuries. Motor-vehicle accidents, attempted suicide, and interpersonal violence are the most common causes of injuries in highly industrialized countries. For Indigenous populations in middle- and low-income countries, trauma caused by motor-vehicle accidents, agricultural injuries, interpersonal violence, child labor, and the ravages of war are priorities for intervention. To be effective, injury-prevention efforts should be based on scientific evidence, be developmentally and culturally appropriate, and draw on the inherent strengths of Indigenous communities.

  11. Perspectives of Indigenous people in the Pilbara about the delivery of healthcare services.

    PubMed

    Walker, Bruce F; Stomski, Norman J; Price, Anne; Jackson-Barrett, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    To identify Indigenous people's views about gaps and practical solutions for the delivery of healthcare services in the Pilbara. A structured guide was used to interview three Indigenous language groups from the Pilbara region of Western Australia. The responses were analysed with the use of content analysis. In the first stage, codes were developed by assigning names to small sections of the interview transcripts. Next, the most salient incisive codes were identified and developed into themes that captured the most important issues. Many respondents said that there were insufficient health professionals near country, which was compounded by a lack of adequate transport to reach healthcare services. Moreover, respondents commonly indicated that they would be unable to secure adequate accommodation for themselves and any carer when needing to leave country to undergo medical care. The importance of secondary healthcare interventions was highlighted, particularly health promotion initiatives that improved diet and exercise levels and reduced substance abuse. Assuming responsibility for one's own health was seen as integral to improving the overall health of communities. The respondents saw role models as the most important influence in leading people to take responsibility for improving their own health. This study provides Indigenous perspectives about gaps and solutions in healthcare service delivery in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Although initiatives have commenced to address the shortfall in health professionals and inadequate transport to healthcare, there are still gaps in service provision. Mobile health services were strongly supported as an integral measure to address these gaps. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THIS TOPIC? About two out of every three Indigenous adults in the Pilbara experience a chronic health condition. Moreover, compared with non-Indigenous people in the region, Indigenous people experience a significantly higher mortality rate for

  12. 'Women are supposed to be the leaders': intersections of gender, race and colonisation in HIV prevention with Indigenous young people.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Vanessa; Flicker, Sarah; Danforth, Jessica; Konsmo, Erin; Wilson, Ciann; Jackson, Randy; Restoule, Jean-Paul; Prentice, Tracey; Larkin, June; Mitchell, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on gender, race and colonialism, this paper foregrounds the voices of Indigenous young people, their histories of oppression, their legacies of resistance and the continuing strengths rooted in Indigenous peoples, their cultures and their communities. Exploring the relationship between gender and colonialism, the paper speaks to the lived realities of young people from Indigenous communities across Canada. Over 85 young people participated in six different Indigenous community workshops to create artistic pieces that explored the connections between HIV, individual risk and structural inequalities. In the course of the research, Indigenous young people, and young Indigenous women in particular, talked about how gender intersects with race and colonisation to create experiences that are, at times, especially difficult for them. In this paper, young people discuss the ways in which colonialism has demeaned women's roles and degraded women's sexuality, and how continuing cultural erasure and assimilationist policies impact on their lives and on their bodies.

  13. Health literacy and Australian Indigenous peoples: an analysis of the role of language and worldview.

    PubMed

    Vass, Alyssa; Mitchell, Alice; Dhurrkay, Yurranydjil

    2011-04-01

    This article delineates specific issues relating to health literacy for Indigenous Australians. Drawing on the extensive experience of the authors' work with Yolnu people (of north-east Arnhem Land) and using one model for health literacy described in the international literature, various components of health literacy are explored, including fundamental literacy, scientific literacy, community literacy and cultural literacy. By matching these components to the characteristics of Yolnu people, the authors argue that language and worldview form an integral part of health education methodology when working with Indigenous people whose first language is not English and who do not have a biomedical worldview in their history. Only through acknowledging and actively engaging with these characteristics of Indigenous people can all aspects of health literacy be addressed and health empowerment be attained.

  14. Mental health care for Indigenous young people: moving culture from the margins to the centre.

    PubMed

    Vance, Alasdair; McGaw, Janet; Winther, Jo; Rayner, Moira; White, Selena; Smith, Alison

    2017-04-01

    Recently, Indigenous academics have evolved an Indigenist discourse that centralises Indigenous 'ways of knowing, being and doing'. Through this dialogue, Indigenous 'ways of knowing and being' augment Western biopsychosocial treatments. This paper outlines the authors' clinical encounters with young people from the Koori community and ongoing consultation with Koori community Elders in Victoria that led to engaging young people and their families in an Indigenist dialogue. The Indigenist dialogue facilitates deeper engagement in the therapeutic process, opportunities to mirror and reflect on young people's experiences, and drawing parallels between Western health interventions and Aboriginal cultural ways of doing health and being healthy. The young people and their families evince greater faith in the management process and a deeper focus, centred awareness and knowledge of their Cultural rights and responsibilities. Future developments should include a systematic database with qualitative and quantitative data to support its evaluation and iterative development and improved community engagement to ensure holistic health gains are maintained.

  15. Indigenous Peoples of North America: Environmental Exposures and Reproductive Justice

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Katsi; Plain, Ron; Sanchez, Kathy; Waghiyi, Vi; Miller, Pamela; Dufault, Renee; Sislin, Caitlin; Carpenter, David O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Indigenous American communities face disproportionate health burdens and environmental health risks compared with the average North American population. These health impacts are issues of both environmental and reproductive justice. Objectives: In this commentary, we review five indigenous communities in various stages of environmental health research and discuss the intersection of environmental health and reproductive justice issues in these communities as well as the limitations of legal recourse. Discussion: The health disparities impacting life expectancy and reproductive capabilities in indigenous communities are due to a combination of social, economic, and environmental factors. The system of federal environmental and Indian law is insufficient to protect indigenous communities from environmental contamination. Many communities are interested in developing appropriate research partnerships in order to discern the full impact of environmental contamination and prevent further damage. Conclusions: Continued research involving collaborative partnerships among scientific researchers, community members, and health care providers is needed to determine the impacts of this contamination and to develop approaches for remediation and policy interventions. PMID:22899635

  16. Indigenous Peoples and the United Nations: A Curriculum Project for Grades VII-XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Judith P.

    Indigenous peoples number over 200 million and constitute four percent of the world's population. They live in every part of the world and share a tragic common history: invasion of their lands and alteration of their environment, abrogation of treaties, continuing violence against their peoples, discrimination and abuse, poor health care and…

  17. Indigenous Young People in the Juvenile Justice System: 2010-11. Bulletin No. 109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kirsten; Schlumpp, Arianne

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people are substantially over-represented in the juvenile justice system in Australia, and this over-representation is highest in the most serious processes and outcomes--particularly in detention. This bulletin examines the numbers and characteristics of Indigenous young people in the juvenile justice…

  18. Happiness and social exclusion of indigenous peoples in Taiwan--a social sustainability perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiun-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Happiness and social inclusion are important indicators of social sustainability, as recommended in the Sustainable Development Goals; however, little is known about the social sustainable development of ethnic minorities. To fill this knowledge gap, special attention is paid to understanding the issues of social exclusion and happiness in relation to the indigenous peoples in Taiwan. Data used were drawn from a nationwide representativeness survey of the Taiwanese Indigenous People in 2007; it included 2,200 respondents. This study employed binary logistic regression to examine the effects of different domains of social exclusion on the likelihood of perceiving happiness; other exogenous factors, were controlled. The results show that among the respondents, mountain indigenous peoples, females, the elderly and those who are healthier, wealthier, highly educated, possessing western beliefs, and are more likely to be happy, compared to their counterparts. As expected, the results reveal that the likelihood of being happy is higher for those who have received medical benefits, as well as those persons without housing problems or financial difficulties, compared to their excluded counterparts. However, no significant association is found between happiness and some social exclusion domains, such as child and youth benefits, and unemployment benefits. The disengagement of the indigenous peoples in mainstream society, with respect to the accessibility of welfare provisions, is a crucial element in regard to social exclusion and happiness. Several policy implications for the social sustainability of indigenous peoples can be inferred from these findings. For example, providing a mobile clinical tour, on-site health counseling, or homecare service can contribute to the removal of institutional and geographic barriers to medical welfare provisions for the mountain indigenes. Moreover, the government may devote more welfare resources to assist indigenous families and tribal

  19. Happiness and Social Exclusion of Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan - A Social Sustainability Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiun-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Happiness and social inclusion are important indicators of social sustainability, as recommended in the Sustainable Development Goals; however, little is known about the social sustainable development of ethnic minorities. To fill this knowledge gap, special attention is paid to understanding the issues of social exclusion and happiness in relation to the indigenous peoples in Taiwan. Methods Data used were drawn from a nationwide representativeness survey of the Taiwanese Indigenous People in 2007; it included 2,200 respondents. This study employed binary logistic regression to examine the effects of different domains of social exclusion on the likelihood of perceiving happiness; other exogenous factors, were controlled. Results The results show that among the respondents, mountain indigenous peoples, females, the elderly and those who are healthier, wealthier, highly educated, possessing western beliefs, and are more likely to be happy, compared to their counterparts. As expected, the results reveal that the likelihood of being happy is higher for those who have received medical benefits, as well as those persons without housing problems or financial difficulties, compared to their excluded counterparts. However, no significant association is found between happiness and some social exclusion domains, such as child and youth benefits, and unemployment benefits. Conclusions The disengagement of the indigenous peoples in mainstream society, with respect to the accessibility of welfare provisions, is a crucial element in regard to social exclusion and happiness. Several policy implications for the social sustainability of indigenous peoples can be inferred from these findings. For example, providing a mobile clinical tour, on-site health counseling, or homecare service can contribute to the removal of institutional and geographic barriers to medical welfare provisions for the mountain indigenes. Moreover, the government may devote more welfare resources

  20. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Philippe; Vanclay, Frank; Langdon, Esther Jean; Arts, Jos

    2014-04-01

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environmental licensing procedures (IBAMA, FUNAI and others). We analyze the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure for situations involving Indigenous peoples, Maroons (Quilombolas) or other traditional communities in order to identify potential improvements for Brazil and potentially other countries. Although Brazilian procedures are consistent with international best practice in environmental licensing, in practice social impacts are inadequately addressed, mitigation measures are poorly implemented, and there is a lack of enforcement and compliance. The paper is based on document analysis and interviews with key actors in governmental and non-governmental organizations and Indigenous leaders. We suggest that Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) processes need to be conducted at the earliest stages of project planning, and that Indigenous peoples should actively participate in impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation processes. In order to achieve a social licence to operate, there needs to be full recognition of traditional knowledge and acceptance of Indigenous values and concepts. We also recommend increased involvement of social experts and mediators as well as improved accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms in the licensing process. - Highlights: • The Brazilian environmental licensing system needs to address social impacts better. • Communities need to be consulted at the earliest stage possible. • Indigenous peoples need to be invited to participate in impact assessment teams. • Independent Indigenous committees to monitor implementation of mitigation measures. • Accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms need to be

  1. Illicit and injecting drug use among Indigenous young people in urban, regional and remote Australia.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Joanne; Ward, James; Wand, Handan; Byron, Kat; Bamblett, Andrew; Waples-Crowe, Peter; Betts, Sarah; Coburn, Tony; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Worth, Heather; Kaldor, John; Pitts, Marian

    2016-07-01

    To examine patterns of illicit drug use among Australian Indigenous young people, identify correlates of frequent use separately in urban, regional and remote settings and characterise those who inject. Cross-sectional design at 40 Indigenous events. Self-complete surveys were administered to Indigenous people aged 16-29 years using mobile devices. 2,877 participants completed the survey. One in five reported using cannabis at least weekly in the previous year, but the use of other drugs was less prevalent. Patterns of drug use were largely similar across regions, although more participants in urban and regional areas reported using ecstasy (12% vs 11% vs 5%) and cocaine (6% vs 3% vs 1%) and more reported weekly cannabis use (18% vs 22% vs 14%). Injecting was rare (3%) but those who did inject reported a high incidence of needle sharing (37%). Methamphetamine (37%), heroin (36%) and methadone (26%) were the most commonly injected drugs, and injecting was related to prison experience (AOR 5.3 95% CI 2.8-10.0). Attention is needed in relation to cannabis use, particularly among those Indigenous young people living in regional and urban settings. Also, although injecting is uncommon, it is associated with prison involvement. Priority must be given to reducing the numbers of Indigenous youth entering justice settings, delaying the age at first entry to justice settings, and reducing the risk of BBV acquisition while in custody through, for example, prison-based NSP, BBV education, and Indigenous-specific treatment that emphasises connection to country and culture. [Bryant J, Ward J, Wand H, Byron K, Bamblett A, Waples-Crowe P, Betts S, Coburn T, Delaney-Thiele D, Worth H, Kaldor J, Pitts M. Illicit and injecting drug use among Indigenous young people in urban, regional and remote Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:447-455]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Health care experiences of Indigenous people living with type 2 diabetes in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Jacklin, Kristen M.; Henderson, Rita I.; Green, Michael E.; Walker, Leah M.; Calam, Betty; Crowshoe, Lynden J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Indigenous social determinants of health, including the ongoing impacts of colonization, contribute to increased rates of chronic disease and a health equity gap for Indigenous people. We sought to examine the health care experiences of Indigenous people with type 2 diabetes to understand how such determinants are embodied and enacted during clinical encounters. METHODS: Sequential focus groups and interviews were conducted in 5 Indigenous communities. Focus groups occurred over 5 sessions at 4 sites; 3 participants were interviewed at a 5th site. Participants self-identified as Indigenous, were more than 18 years of age, lived with type 2 diabetes, had received care from the same physician for the previous 12 months and spoke English. We used a phenomenological thematic analysis framework to categorize diabetes experiences. RESULTS: Patient experiences clustered into 4 themes: the colonial legacy of health care; the perpetuation of inequalities; structural barriers to care; and the role of the health care relationship in mitigating harm. There was consistency across the diverse sites concerning the root causes of mistrust of health care systems. INTERPRETATION: Patients’ interactions and engagement with diabetes care were influenced by personal and collective historical experiences with health care providers and contemporary exposures to culturally unsafe health care. These experiences led to nondisclosure during health care interactions. Our findings show that health care relationships are central to addressing the ongoing colonial dynamics in Indigenous health care and have a role in mitigating past harms. PMID:28246155

  3. Gender differences among Alaska Native people seeking alcohol withdrawal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bear, Ursula Running; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K.; Manson, Spero M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies focus on gender differences among patients who utilize detoxification services; even fewer focus on detoxification for Alaska Native people. This analysis focused on gender differences at admission among a sample of Alaska Native patients seeking alcohol withdrawal treatment. Methods The sample included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to an inpatient alcohol detoxification unit during 2006 and 2007. Logistic regression was used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted associations with gender. Results Women were 88% more likely to have stable housing than men (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 3.05, P = .01). Women were 87% less likely to be seasonal workers (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.48, P = .003) and 50% less likely than men to be seeking employment (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.84, P = .01) at admission. Women had more than 5 times the odds of having children in the home at admission (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 3.03, 10.56, P < .001) and almost 3 times the odds of experiencing physical abuse than men (OR = 2.96, 95% CI = 1.31, 6.66, P = .01). Additionally, women were 50% less likely to accept a referral to substance abuse treatment following detoxification (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.30, 0.83, P = .01). Conclusions The study found significant differences based upon gender. For instance, women are in need of services that accommodate women with children and services that address histories of physical abuse. Conversely, men are in need of housing and employment opportunities. Post detoxification follow-up, case management, and transition to care should include gender as a factor in treatment planning. PMID:26731436

  4. Indigenous and tribal peoples' health (The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): a population study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ian; Robson, Bridget; Connolly, Michele; Al-Yaman, Fadwa; Bjertness, Espen; King, Alexandra; Tynan, Michael; Madden, Richard; Bang, Abhay; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Pesantes, Maria Amalia; Amigo, Hugo; Andronov, Sergei; Armien, Blas; Obando, Daniel Ayala; Axelsson, Per; Bhatti, Zaid Shakoor; Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Marius B; Briceno-Leon, Roberto; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Bustos, Patricia; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Chu, Jiayou; Deji; Gouda, Jitendra; Harikumar, Rachakulla; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Kamaka, Martina; King, Malcolm; Kodavanti, Mallikharjuna Rao; Lara, Macarena; Laxmaiah, Avula; Lema, Claudia; Taborda, Ana María León; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Lobanov, Andrey; Melhus, Marita; Meshram, Indrapal; Miranda, J Jaime; Mu, Thet Thet; Nagalla, Balkrishna; Nimmathota, Arlappa; Popov, Andrey Ivanovich; Poveda, Ana María Peñuela; Ram, Faujdar; Reich, Hannah; Santos, Ricardo V; Sein, Aye Aye; Shekhar, Chander; Sherpa, Lhamo Y; Skold, Peter; Tano, Sofia; Tanywe, Asahngwa; Ugwu, Chidi; Ugwu, Fabian; Vapattanawong, Patama; Wan, Xia; Welch, James R; Yang, Gonghuan; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yap, Leslie

    2016-07-09

    International studies of the health of Indigenous and tribal peoples provide important public health insights. Reliable data are required for the development of policy and health services. Previous studies document poorer outcomes for Indigenous peoples compared with benchmark populations, but have been restricted in their coverage of countries or the range of health indicators. Our objective is to describe the health and social status of Indigenous and tribal peoples relative to benchmark populations from a sample of countries. Collaborators with expertise in Indigenous health data systems were identified for each country. Data were obtained for population, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, low and high birthweight, maternal mortality, nutritional status, educational attainment, and economic status. Data sources consisted of governmental data, data from non-governmental organisations such as UNICEF, and other research. Absolute and relative differences were calculated. Our data (23 countries, 28 populations) provide evidence of poorer health and social outcomes for Indigenous peoples than for non-Indigenous populations. However, this is not uniformly the case, and the size of the rate difference varies. We document poorer outcomes for Indigenous populations for: life expectancy at birth for 16 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1 year in 15 populations; infant mortality rate for 18 of 19 populations with a rate difference greater than one per 1000 livebirths in 16 populations; maternal mortality in ten populations; low birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in three populations; high birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in one population; child malnutrition for ten of 16 populations with a difference greater than 10% in five populations; child obesity for eight of 12 populations with a difference greater than 5% in four populations; adult obesity for seven of 13 populations with a difference greater than 10% in

  5. Healthy country: healthy people? Exploring the health benefits of indigenous natural resource management.

    PubMed

    Burgess, C P; Johnston, F H; Bowman, D M J S; Whitehead, P J

    2005-04-01

    Decades of health-related research have produced a large body of knowledge describing alarming rates of morbidity, mortality and social/cultural disruption among Indigenous Australians, but have failed to deliver sustainable interventions to arrest the deepening spiral of ill-health. This paper explores the potential of Indigenous natural resource management (NRM) activities to promote and preserve Indigenous health in remote areas of northern Australia. A literature review of the health, social science and ecology peer-reviewed journals and secondary literature. Effective interventions in Indigenous health will require trans-disciplinary, holistic approaches that explicitly incorporate Indigenous health beliefs and engage with the social and cultural drivers of health. Aboriginal peoples maintain a strong belief that continued association with and caring for ancestral lands is a key determinant of health. Individual engagement with 'country' provides opportunities for physical activity and improved diet as well as boosting individual autonomy and self-esteem. Internationally, such culturally congruent health promotion activities have been successful in programs targeting substance abuse and chronic diseases. NRM is fundamental to the maintenance of biodiversity of northern Australia. Increased support for Indigenous involvement in land and sea NRM programs would also deliver concrete social benefits for communities including opportunities for sustainable and culturally apt regional employment, applied education and economic development. NRM may also reinvigorate societal/cultural constructs, increasing collective esteem and social cohesion.

  6. Factors influencing cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tranberg, Rona; Alexander, Susan; Hatcher, Deborah; Mackey, Sandra; Shahid, Shaouli; Holden, Lynda; Kwok, Cannas

    2016-02-01

    We aim to systematically review studies that identify factors influencing cancer treatment decision-making among indigenous peoples. Following the outline suggested by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, a rigorous systematic review and meta-synthesis were conducted of factors that influence cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous peoples. A total of 733 articles were retrieved from eight databases and a manual search. After screening the titles and abstracts, the full text of 26 articles were critically appraised, resulting in five articles that met inclusion criteria for the review. Because the five articles to be reviewed were qualitative studies, the Critical Appraisal Skills Program toolkit was used to evaluate the methodological quality. A thematic synthesis was employed to identify common themes across the studies. Multiple socio-economic and cultural factors were identified that all had the potential to influence cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous people. These factors were distilled into four themes: spiritual beliefs, cultural influences, communication and existing healthcare systems and structures. Although existing research identified multiple factors influencing decision-making, this review identified that quality studies in this domain are scarce. There is scope for further investigation, both into decision-making factors and into the subsequent design of culturally appropriate programmes and services that meet the needs of indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Climate change and indigenous peoples: a synthesis of current impacts and experiences

    Treesearch

    Kathryn Norton-Smith; Kathy Lynn; Karletta Chief; Karen Cozzetto; Jamie Donatuto; Margaret Hiza Redsteer; Linda E. Kruger; Julie Maldonado; Carson Viles; Kyle P. Whyte

    2016-01-01

    growing body of literature examines the vulnerability, risk, resilience, and adaptation of indigenous peoples to climate change. This synthesis of literature brings together research pertaining to the impacts of climate change on sovereignty, culture, health, and economies that are currently being experienced by Alaska Native and American Indian tribes and other...

  8. Privileged Biofuels, Marginalized Indigenous Peoples: The Coevolution of Biofuels Development in the Tropics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montefrio, Marvin Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels development has assumed an important role in integrating Indigenous peoples and other marginalized populations in the production of biofuels for global consumption. By combining the theories of commoditization and the environmental sociology of networks and flows, the author analyzed emerging trends and possible changes in institutions…

  9. Rangers, Mounties, and the Subjugation of Indigenous Peoples, 1870-1885

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graybill, Andrew R.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1840s and 1850s, more than 300,000 traders and overland emigrants followed the Platte and Arkansas rivers westward across the Central Plains, the winter habitat of the bison. By the mid-1870s indigenous peoples at both ends of the grasslands, in places such as the Texas Panhandle and the upper Missouri River valley, fiercely defended…

  10. Privileged Biofuels, Marginalized Indigenous Peoples: The Coevolution of Biofuels Development in the Tropics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montefrio, Marvin Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels development has assumed an important role in integrating Indigenous peoples and other marginalized populations in the production of biofuels for global consumption. By combining the theories of commoditization and the environmental sociology of networks and flows, the author analyzed emerging trends and possible changes in institutions…

  11. Reactions of Indigenous People to the Writings of Behavioral and Social Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislin, Richard W.; Holwill, Fahy

    1977-01-01

    Assesses systematically the opinions of indigenous people about the writings of social scientists in an effort to change their negative opinions of requests made by social scientists conducting research studies in their cultures. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers-The State…

  12. The intersection of a military culture and indigenous peoples in conservation issues.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    Military operations impose various positive and negative consequences on the environment. Three case studies are presented illuminating how local indigenous peoples as stakeholders may be vulnerable to being disenfranchised from important discussions concerning military activities. The study of ecological issues associated with sustaining a military footprint may be particularly useful for informing the global debate that pits strict conservation against human well-being.

  13. Indigenous Peoples Knowledge Community (IPKC): Self-Determination in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Harrison, Irvin D.

    2017-01-01

    Special interest groups (SIGs) offer spaces for interests that may not be supported or adequately addressed by the larger organization. NASPA: Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education (NASPA) calls its SIGs "knowledge communities." This article describes the ways the members of the Indigenous Peoples knowledge community (IPKC)…

  14. Rangers, Mounties, and the Subjugation of Indigenous Peoples, 1870-1885

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graybill, Andrew R.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1840s and 1850s, more than 300,000 traders and overland emigrants followed the Platte and Arkansas rivers westward across the Central Plains, the winter habitat of the bison. By the mid-1870s indigenous peoples at both ends of the grasslands, in places such as the Texas Panhandle and the upper Missouri River valley, fiercely defended…

  15. Nationalism and Media Coverage of Indigenous People's Collective Action in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, Rima; Corrigall-Brown, Catherine; Ricard, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades indigenous people in Canada have mounted hundreds of collective action events such as marches, demonstrations, road blockades, and land occupations. What the general public knows about these events and their causes overwhelmingly comes from the mainstream mass media. For this reason, media coverage of these events…

  16. Nationalism and Media Coverage of Indigenous People's Collective Action in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, Rima; Corrigall-Brown, Catherine; Ricard, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades indigenous people in Canada have mounted hundreds of collective action events such as marches, demonstrations, road blockades, and land occupations. What the general public knows about these events and their causes overwhelmingly comes from the mainstream mass media. For this reason, media coverage of these events…

  17. Social media and digital technology use among Indigenous young people in Australia: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Rice, Emma S; Haynes, Emma; Royce, Paul; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-05-25

    The use of social media and digital technologies has grown rapidly in Australia and around the world, including among Indigenous young people who face social disadvantage. Given the potential to use social media for communication, providing information and as part of creating and responding to social change, this paper explores published literature to understand how Indigenous Australian youth use digital technologies and social media, and its positive and negative impacts. Online literature searches were conducted in three databases: PubMed, Google Scholar and Informit in August 2014; with further searches of additional relevant databases (Engineering Village; Communication & mass media complete; Computers & applied sciences complete; Web of Science) undertaken in May 2015. In addition, relevant literature was gathered using citation snowballing so that additional peer-reviewed and grey literature was included. Articles were deemed relevant if they discussed social media and/or digital technologies and Indigenous Australians. After reading and reviewing all relevant articles, a thematic analysis was used to identify overall themes and identify specific examples. A total of 22 papers were included in the review. Several major themes were identified about how and why Indigenous young people use social media: identity, power and control, cultural compatibility and community and family connections. Examples of marketing for health and health promotion approaches that utilize social media and digital technologies were identified. Negative uses of social media such as cyber bullying, cyber racism and the exchange of sexually explicit content between minors are common with limited approaches to dealing with this at the community level. Strong cultural identity and community and family connections, which can be enhanced through social media, are linked to improved educational and health outcomes. The confidence that Indigenous young people demonstrate when approaching the

  18. Intervention mapping to address social and economic factors impacting indigenous people's health in Suriname's interior region.

    PubMed

    Peplow, Daniel; Augustine, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies found that while internationally financed economic development projects reduced poverty when measured in terms of per capita GDP, they also caused indigenous people to become disassociated, impoverished and alienated minorities whose health status has declined to unacceptable lows when measured in terms of mercury poisoning and the burgeoning rate of suicide. In this study, we developed a needs assessment and a policy-oriented causal diagram to determine whether the impaired health of the people in this region was at least partially due to the role the country has played within the global economy. Specifically, could the health and well-being of indigenous people in Suriname be understood in terms of the foreign investment programs and economic development policies traceable to the Inter-American Development Bank's Suriname Land Management Project. Interviews took place from 2004 through 2015 involving stakeholders with an interest in public health and economic development. A policy-oriented causal diagram was created to model a complex community health system and weave together a wide range of ideas and views captured during the interview process. Converting land and resources held by indigenous people into private ownership has created an active market for land, increased investment and productivity, and reduced poverty when measured in terms of per capita GDP. However, it has also caused indigenous people to become disassociated, impoverished and alienated minorities whose health status has declined to unacceptable lows. While the effects of economic development programs on the health of vulnerable indigenous communities are clear, the governance response is not. The governance response appeared to be determined less by the urgency of the public health issue or by the compelling logic of an appropriate response, and more by competing economic interests and the exercise of power. The health and well-being of the indigenous Wayana in Suriname

  19. Making the right to health a reality for Brazil's indigenous peoples: innovation, decentralization and equity.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Vera; Shankland, Alex

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an overview of governance arrangements and changes in the Brazilian public health system since 1988, when the "Citizen's Constitution" declared health to be a universal right. Since then, population coverage has grown substantially and health indicators have improved. Despite these achievements, inequities in access remain an important barrier to universal coverage, in particular for marginalized groups such as indigenous peoples. This article discusses the innovation cycle that produced the gains and recent efforts to guarantee more equitable access to health services for the indigenous population in a continent-sized country historically plagued by great inequalities.

  20. The River of Life: Sustainable Practices of Native Americans and Indigenous Peoples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Michael E.

    Examination of how Indigenous People have been forced to make adaptations from exploitation by Colonial powers for survival and explains how the resultant decision making models of Indigenous people, based on their traditions and culture, have promoted sustainable growth and development more in harmony with ecological systems. Grand Coulee Dam was built in 1942 in Washington state, destroying a major salmon fishery at Kettle Falls, thereby ending a 10,000 year lifestyle for the Colville Indians who lived on the river. This tribe and others on the Columbia River have subsequently been working to mitigate negative dam environmental impacts to restore fish and wildlife, so that they can maintain their cultural practices, and the entire region benefits from their efforts also. A key factor has been the oral traditions passed down from one generation to the next over thousands of years stressing the importance of protecting the environment for future generations Other examples are examined with other Indigenous people. The long range Indigenous goals and practices are compared versus more typical short range goals of modern economies in general.

  1. Trends of indigenous healing among people with psychiatric disorders: comparative study of Arabic and Kurdish ethnicities in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Twana Abdulrahman; Saeed, Banaz Adnan; Farhan, Hafidh Muhammed; Aziz, Rosh Rauf

    2015-02-01

    Indigenous healing is commonly practiced in Middle East. Little is known about trends of indigenous therapies among patients with psychiatric disorders in Iraq. To determine and compare rates and predictors of indigenous healings by individuals with psychiatric disorders, and the practiced rituals among Arabic and Kurdish ethnicities in Iraq, patients aged 18 year and older attending outpatients in Erbil and Najaf were assessed for their prior contacts with indigenous healers. About 48.9 % had indigenous healer's consultations before visiting their psychiatrists; the figure was three times higher among Arabs than Kurds. Higher consultation rate was detected among younger and less formally educated patients. Fourteen types of religious therapeutic rituals have been practiced. Indigenous healing is widespread in Iraq. It is more common among Arabs, younger and less educated people with psychiatric disorders. Participants consider indigenous healing for their psychiatric more than non-psychiatric disorders.

  2. A qualitative study on the intersectional social determinants for indigenous people who become infected with HIV in their youth.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, Roberta L; Zurba, Melanie; Tennent, Pauline; Cochrane, Carla; Payne, Mike; Mignone, Javier

    2017-07-21

    Indigenous young people are currently highly overrepresented in the HIV epidemic in Canada, especially in the Prairie Provinces, such as Manitoba. Understanding HIV-vulnerability in Indigenous peoples must begin with understanding that social determinants are intersectional and linked to the historical legacy of European colonization. In this paper findings that detail the influence of the intersectional social determinants on Indigenous people who become infected with HIV in their youth are presented. The qualitative research design of phenomenology was used as it afforded the opportunity to understand Indigenous young people from their frames of reference and experiences of reality, resulting in a phenomenological understanding of their perspectives and experiences of the early years of living with HIV. A total of 21 Indigenous young people took part open-ended interviews. The stories that the Indigenous young people shared revealed their deeply interconnected social worlds, and how social determinants including abuse, trauma, being part of the child welfare system, and housing and food security were connected throughout various stages of their lives. Such stages included childhood, adolescence and young adulthood (the time of HIV infection), and later adulthood for older participants with the social determinants having multiple influences on their health trajectories. The findings highlight the need for policies and programs that are broadly focused, addressing multiple social determinants together. Overall, there needs to be more emphasis on the multiple social determinants in the life situations of all Indigenous youth. Reducing the health and social disparities in Indigenous youth is key to reducing the number of young Indigenous people diagnosed with HIV. The findings also shed light on the importance of listening to young Indigenous people who have experienced HIV diagnosis and life following diagnosis.

  3. Impact of residential schooling and of child abuse on substance use problem in Indigenous Peoples.

    PubMed

    Ross, Amélie; Dion, Jacinthe; Cantinotti, Michael; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Paquette, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Residential schools were the institutions, in operation from the 19th century to the late 20th century, which Indigenous children in Canada were forced to attend. The literature shows that many young people who attended these institutions were victims of neglect and abuse. Negative psychological effects resulting from child abuse have been amply documented. However, very few studies on this subject have been carried out among Canada's Indigenous Peoples. The objective of this study is to evaluate, for an Indigenous population in Quebec (Canada), the impact of residential schooling as well as self-reported experiences of sexual and physical abuse during childhood on the development of alcohol and drug use problems in adulthood. A total of 358 Indigenous participants were interviewed (164 men [45.8%] and 194 women [54.2%]). Alcoholism was evaluated using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST). Drug abuse was assessed with the Drug Abuse Screening Test-20 (DAST). Child abuse and residential schooling were assessed with dichotomous questions (yes/no). Among the participants, 28.5% (n=102) had attended residential schools, 35.2% (n=121) reported having experienced sexual abuse, and 34.1% (n=117) reported having experienced physical abuse before adulthood. Results of the exact logistic regression analyses indicated that residential school attendance was linked to alcohol problems, while child abuse was related to drug use problems. The results of this study highlight the importance of considering the consequences of historical traumas related to residential schools to better understand the current situation of Indigenous Peoples in Canada.

  4. Recognising Change and Seeking Affirmation: Themes for Embedding Indigenous Knowledges on Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Juliana M.; Whatman, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    The imperative for Indigenous education in Australia is influenced by national political, social and economic discourses as Australian education systems continue to grapple with an agreed aspiration of full participation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Innovations within and policies guiding our education systems are often…

  5. Do Online Mental Health Services Improve Help-Seeking for Young People? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, Cheryl; Sanci, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Background Young people regularly use online services to seek help and look for information about mental health problems. Yet little is known about the effects that online services have on mental health and whether these services facilitate help-seeking in young people. Objective This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of online services in facilitating mental health help-seeking in young people. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, literature searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library. Out of 608 publications identified, 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria of investigating online mental health services and help-seeking in young people aged 14-25 years. Results Two qualitative, 12 cross-sectional, one quasi-experimental, and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed. There was no change in help-seeking behavior found in the RCTs, while the quasi-experimental study found a slight but significant increase in help-seeking. The cross-sectional studies reported that online services facilitated seeking help from a professional source for an average of 35% of users. The majority of the studies included small sample sizes and a high proportion of young women. Help-seeking was often a secondary outcome, with only 22% (4/18) of studies using adequate measures of help-seeking. The majority of studies identified in this review were of low quality and likely to be biased. Across all studies, young people regularly used and were generally satisfied with online mental health resources. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking were also identified. Conclusions Few studies examine the effects of online services on mental health help-seeking. Further research is needed to determine whether online mental health services effectively facilitate help-seeking for young people. PMID:24594922

  6. Harvesting the Past: The Social Mobilization of Bolivia’s Indigenous Peoples. Strategic Insights v4 n5 May 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Ethnicity-framed (but not necessarily generated or led) social movements produced violent insurgent groups, such as the Movimiento Revolucionario Tupac...Harvesting the Past: The Social Mobilization of Bolivia’s Indigenous Peoples[1] Strategic Insights, Volume IV, Issue 5 (May 2005) by Maj...transformation into networked social movements. This transformation provided indigenous groups with the resources and tools necessary to increase

  7. "I Don't Want to Grow Up and Not Be Smart": Urban Indigenous Young People's Perceptions of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Alison; Hay, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    In light of the policy and research interests in optimising the educational experiences and outcomes of Indigenous young people, this paper aims to give voice to young Indigenous students' experiences of school and to convey a sense of the varied and complex nature of their educational and life pathways. Using a qualitative, life history research…

  8. "Don't Take Our Voices Away": A Role Play on the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Julie Treick; Swinehart, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The Indigenous Peoples' Climate Summit role play grew out of the Portland Area Rethinking Schools Earth in Crisis Curriculum Workgroup and the Oregon Writing Project. It was designed to introduce students to the broad injustice of the climate crisis and to familiarize them with some of the specific issues faced by different indigenous groups…

  9. "Don't Take Our Voices Away": A Role Play on the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Julie Treick; Swinehart, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The Indigenous Peoples' Climate Summit role play grew out of the Portland Area Rethinking Schools Earth in Crisis Curriculum Workgroup and the Oregon Writing Project. It was designed to introduce students to the broad injustice of the climate crisis and to familiarize them with some of the specific issues faced by different indigenous groups…

  10. "I Don't Want to Grow Up and Not Be Smart": Urban Indigenous Young People's Perceptions of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Alison; Hay, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    In light of the policy and research interests in optimising the educational experiences and outcomes of Indigenous young people, this paper aims to give voice to young Indigenous students' experiences of school and to convey a sense of the varied and complex nature of their educational and life pathways. Using a qualitative, life history research…

  11. [Health, globalization and interculturalism: an anthropological approach to the situation of indigenous peoples in South America].

    PubMed

    Hita, Susana Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    This article reflects upon the impact of globalization and interculturalism on the living conditions of indigenous peoples in South America. Through two examples - Bolivia and Argentina - it is seen how health interculturalism has transformed into a discourse and a practice that both global organizations and most Latin American countries have used to assimilate and attract indigenous communities. Traditional medicine is respected and valued without proposing changes to improve the living conditions of these population groups. This is especially true in those areas where land is being expropriated or contaminated with the extraction of gas, oil, minerals and the construction of dams, along with indiscriminate deforestation of the rainforest. Health/illness cannot be separated from the territorial conditions of these peoples since environmental health is critical for their survival.

  12. [Health and indigenous peoples in Brazil: the challenge of professional training and continuing education of workers in intercultural contexts].

    PubMed

    Diehl, Eliana Elisabeth; Pellegrini, Marcos Antonio

    2014-04-01

    This article discusses training and continuing medical education for indigenous health workers and health professionals in indigenous health under the guidelines of the Brazilian National Healthcare Policy for Indigenous Peoples, which is currently behind schedule and incomplete as part of the official government agenda. Based on inter-sector proposals for health training by the Ministries of Health and Education, the article highlights the case of indigenous healthcare, emphasizing that government initiatives in this area still need to incorporate the concept of continuing education, a powerful tool for fostering intercultural dialogue and orienting health practices.

  13. The intersection of a military culture and indigenous peoples in conservation issues

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Military operations impose various positive and negative consequences on the environment. Three case studies are presented illuminating how local indigenous peoples as stakeholders may be vulnerable to being disenfranchised from important discussions concerning military activities. The study of ecological issues associated with sustaining a military footprint may be particularly useful for informing the global debate that pits strict conservation against human well-being. PMID:24567778

  14. Determinants of antenatal and postnatal care visits among Indigenous people in Bangladesh: a study of the Mru community.

    PubMed

    Islam, M R; Odland, J O

    2011-01-01

    Antenatal and postnatal care services are significant interventions to improve maternal health and prevent maternal and infant deaths. However, these services are poorly developed in Bangladesh, particularly among Indigenous women. This study examined factors associated with antenatal and postnatal care visits among the Mru, the most underprivileged Indigenous people in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. In total, 374 currently married Mru women with at least one child aged 5 years or younger were selected from 3 upazilas (sub-districts) of Bandarban District, Bangladesh for survey. In addition, in-depth interviews were performed with 26 Mru leaders, Mru women, traditional midwives, village 'doctors', school teachers, health and non-government organization workers. Associations between antenatal and postnatal care visits and the women's backgrounds characteristics were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. The traditional Mru prenatal and postnatal practices potentially inhibited women from seeking care. Both antenatal (11.2%) and postnatal (6.4%) care visits among the Mru women were lower than the national level. Most visits were to traditional midwives in their rural villages, rather than to health complexes or hospitals. The main reasons for lack of antenatal and postnatal care were travelling distance to care and transportation problems. Multivariate analysis revealed factors associated with antenatal care were the respondent's place of residence, age, level of education, distance to the service centers and exposure to any mass media. Similar results were obtained with regard to postnatal care visits. This study suggests that cultural issues, distance, infrastructure and socioeconomic status are important determinants of maternal healthcare-seeking behavior. Healthcare delivery systems and appropriate education programs should be developed at the village level to improve the health of mothers and

  15. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  16. Seeing white: a critical exploration of occupational therapy with Indigenous Australian people.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Alison

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to critique current occupational therapy practice and theory using Indigenous Australian people as a case example. Critical race theory will be used to help question the privileged position of an occupational therapist from a dominant Westernized culture. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 (eight female and seven male) Indigenous Australian young people about their perspectives of health and physical activity. In addition, the Kawa model was used as an alternative data-collection tool and detailed field notes and researcher reflections were used as data sources. Preliminary analysis of data is used to illustrate the ways in which critical race theory can inform occupational therapy practitioners and researchers about the ways Indigenous Australian young people view their health. Methodological dilemmas are also discussed. The paper is based on preliminary findings and further analysis needs to continue. Cross-cultural research is inherently complex but can offer those from the dominant culture valuable insights into their taken-for-granted assumptions. Further use of critical race theory may prove useful as the occupational therapy profession continues to evolve its understanding of cultural safety.

  17. Cooperatives for “fair globalization”? Indigenous people, cooperatives, and corporate social responsibility in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Burke, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Cooperatives and socially responsible corporations are being hailed as possible correctives to the socioeconomic and ecological exploitation of transnational capitalism. AmazonCoop—a cooperative linking indigenous Brazil nut harvesters and the multinational firm The Body Shop through trade and development projects—capitalized on indigenous symbolism to generate significant material benefits for both parties. At the same time, however, it made indigenous people more vulnerable and dependent, failed to promote participatory development, masked the effects of unfavorable state policies, and perpetuated discriminatory distinctions among indigenous people. Furthermore, the cooperative did not provide an organizational framework to ameliorate the vulnerabilities of indigenous identity politics or transform symbolic capital into enduring political-economic change. This case strongly supports arguments that cooperatives must be rooted in participation, democratic member control, and autonomy if they are to promote “fair globalization” or social transformation rather than institutionalize existing patterns of exploitation.

  18. A study of the use of free nicotine patches by Indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Ivers, Rowena G; Farrington, Melissa; Burns, Chris B; Bailie, Ross S; D'Abbs, Peter H; Richmond, Robyn L; Tipiloura, Eric

    2003-10-01

    To assess use of free nicotine patches by Indigenous people when offered a brief intervention for smoking cessation, and to assess changes in smoking behaviour at six months. We conducted a pre and post study in three Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory. Forty Indigenous smokers self-selected to receive free nicotine patches and a brief intervention for smoking cessation, and 71 chose the brief intervention only. Eighty-four per cent of participants were followed up; 14% of participants could not be located. Fifteen per cent of the nicotine patches group (10% with CO validation) and 1% (CO validated) of the brief intervention only group reported that they had quit at six months. Seventy-six per cent of the nicotine patches group and 51% of the brief intervention only group had reduced their consumption of tobacco. No participant completed a full course of patches. One possible side effect--the experience of bad dreams--was attributed in one community to the person concerned having been 'sung' or cursed. Free nicotine patches might benefit a small number of Indigenous smokers. Cessation rates for the use of both nicotine patches and brief intervention alone were lower than those in other populations, possibly because the study was conducted in a primary care setting and because of barriers to cessation such as widespread use of tobacco in these communities and the perception of tobacco use as non-problematic.

  19. Identity and sociocultural change: Comparing young indigenous people in Chiapas who have different sociodemographic trajectories.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Guitart, Moisès; Perera, Santi; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar; Bastiani, José

    2016-08-22

    One of the most commonly used distinctions in cross-cultural studies is the one between individualism and collectivism. One of the criticisms levelled at this distinction is that it fails to incorporate the differences that may exist when comparing people from a rural context with little formal education to people from the same group who live in an urban context where formal education is the norm. Bearing in mind these sociodemographic factors, we have compared the self-concepts among 104 young indigenous people in Chiapas (Mexico), having divided them into three groups: "rural-traditional," "rural-urban" and "urban." These people's self-concepts were analysed using a task that contrasts personal self-concept with social self-concept and a technique in which participants draw themselves along with the things and people they consider most important to them. The results reveal significant differences between the three groups. The personal categories are given a higher value in the "urban" group while the social categories score higher in the "rural-traditional" group. Regarding the results of the indigenous self-portraits, from the content analysis of the drawings, 16 categories emerged. These findings are discussed in the light of Greenfield's theory of social change and human development.

  20. Relationship between alcohol drinking and arterial hypertension in indigenous people of the Mura ethnics, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Filho, Zilmar Augusto; Gonçalves, Maria Jacirema F.; Santos, Juliano; Pierin, Angela Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify the consumption of alcoholic beverage and the relation with hypertension, their prevalence and associated factors, in indigenous Mura, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 455 adult indigenous aged 18 years or more of Mura ethnics in Amazonia, Brazil. Interview was conducted and the alcohol intake was assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Blood pressure was measured in three measurements and the mean of the last two measurements was used. Physical examination included the following data: weight, height, waist and neck circumference, bioimpedance, and capillary measurement of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Through multivariate Logistic regression in stepwise, the odds ratios for alcohol consumption and associated factors were identified. Results The prevalence of alcoholic beverage was 40.2%, with no significant difference for hypertension in those who drink (23.0%) and those who did not drink (29.0%). Referred hypertension in indigenous was associated to less use of alcoholic beverages (14.2% vs 24.3%, P = 0.009). After an adjusted analysis (Odds Ratio, 95% CI), there was a positive association between alcoholic drink intake and male sex (10.27, CI: 5.76–18.30), smoking (4.72, CI: 2.35–9.46) and live in rural areas (9.77, CI: 5.08–18.79). On the other hand, age (0.95, IC: 0.94–0.97), and absence of dyslipidemia (0.41, CI: 0.19–0.89) were associated to lower alcohol consumption. Conclusion The prevalence of alcoholic beverage was high and associated with referred hypertension, but this association was not maintained after adjusted analysis. Changes to habits and inappropriate lifestyles in indigenous populations and living in urban areas may contribute to increase risk for cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, health policies should be implemented to meet the uniqueness of indigenous people. PMID:28777805

  1. Education Preferences of People with Gout: Exploring Differences Between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Peoples from Rural and Urban Locations.

    PubMed

    Treharne, Gareth J; Richardson, Aimee C; Neha, Tia; Fanning, Niamh; Janes, Ronald; Hudson, Ben; Judd, Andrea; Pitama, Suzanne; Stamp, Lisa K

    2017-05-02

    Gout typically responds well to medications but adherence might be improved by education that meets individuals' needs in a way that is inclusive of their ethnicity and rurality. The aim of this study was to compare educational preferences of: 1) Māori and New Zealand European (NZEuropean) individuals with gout; and 2) those living in rural or urban areas. People with gout managed in primary care were recruited from two rural regions and one city within Aotearoa/New Zealand. Focus groups were held with 26 Māori and 42 NZEuropean participants (44 rural, 24 urban). Participants discussed educational preferences for diet, medication, and ways of communicating. The nominal group technique was employed whereby the group compiled a list of ideas and then participants individually ranked the three most important ideas for each topic. The most frequently prioritized ideas for the three topics were: knowing one's own food triggers, knowing side-effects of medications, and communicating via a general practitioner (GP) or specialist. More Māori participants prioritized natural remedies, easy to understand information, and communicating via television. More NZEuropean participants prioritized knowing kinds of alcohol that trigger gout, communicating via GP/specialist, and receiving written information. More urban participants prioritized knowing to stay hydrated and medication dosages as important information. Māori and NZEuropean individuals with gout report different understandings and educational preferences around personal triggers of gout, treatment options, and ways of receiving information about gout. Further research is required to develop ethnicity-specific gout education resources internationally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Indigenous Education around the World. Workshop Papers from the World Indigenous People's Conference: Education (Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 15-22, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray, Comp.

    This proceedings contains 35 reports, presentations, and workshop summaries from the fourth triennial World Indigenous People's Conference: Education, held in June 1996. The papers are organized around six broad headings: research papers and reports, tertiary program descriptions, teacher education, community initiatives, language, and health…

  3. Observations on the State of Indigenous Human Rights in Light of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cultural Survival, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Japan has taken legislative and symbolic steps to recognize the Ainu as an indigenous people and to eliminate state-sanctioned racial discrimination. But the Ainu still experience discrimination from other sectors of society as a result of Japan's mono-cultural national identity, and the lack of judicial remedies to respond…

  4. Observations on the State of Indigenous Human Rights in Light of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cultural Survival, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Since the ascent of King Mohammed VI in 1999, Morocco has made strides to recognize the rights of its Amazigh (Berber) population. But the pace of progress is far too slow. One significant problem is the government's unwillingness to recognize the Amazigh as an indigenous people, which in turn undermines the Amazigh's ability to participate in…

  5. Historical Oppression, Resilience, and Transcendence: Can a Holistic Framework Help Explain Violence Experienced by Indigenous People?

    PubMed

    Burnette, Catherine Elizabeth; Figley, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    Although all minorities experience inequalities, indigenous peoples in the United States tend to experience the most severe violent victimization. Until now, an organizing framework to explain or address the disproportionate rates of violent victimization was absent. Thus, the purpose of this conceptual article is to (a) introduce the concept of historical oppression, expanding the concept of historical trauma to make it inclusive of contemporary oppression; (b) describe the framework of historical oppression, resilience, and transcendence, which draws from distinct but related theoretical frameworks (that is, critical theory and resilience theory); and (c) apply the framework of historical oppression, resilience, and transcendence to the problem of violence against indigenous women. The proposed framework of historical oppression, resilience, and transcendence prioritizes social justice and strengths; it provides a culturally relevant framework, which can be used to explain, predict, and prevent violence. The article concludes with recommendations for future research, implications for practice, and recommended applications to other problems and populations.

  6. Mycotoxins and cyanogenic glycosides in staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the incidence and levels of mycotoxins in the main staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon. A total of 20 corn, 24 rice and 59 cassava samples were analysed by a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method covering the major classes of mycotoxins. In addition, cassava samples were also analysed for cyanogenic glycosides. The indigenous Amazon communities tested are exposed to potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins (particularly aflatoxins), as well as other mycotoxins, mainly through the intake of locally grown corn. Citrinin content in this corn was unusually high and has not been reported elsewhere. Two cassava samples contained high levels of cyanogenic glycosides. It is strongly recommended not to grow corn in the Amazon but instead purchase it from vendors capable of guaranteeing mycotoxin levels below the maximum allowable concentration in Colombia.

  7. Human rights and access to healthcare services for indigenous peoples in Africa.

    PubMed

    Durojaye, Ebenezer

    2017-09-20

    In September 2015, the United Nations adopted the sustainable development goals (SDGs) to address among others poverty and inequality within and among countries of the world. In particular, the SDGs aim at ameliorating the position of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups in societies. One of the over-arching goals of the SDGs is to ensure that no one is left behind in the realisation of their access to health care. African governments are obligated under international and regional human rights law to ensure access to healthcare services for everyone, including indigenous populations, on a non-discriminatory basis. This requires the governments to adopt appropriate measures that will remove barriers to healthcare services for disadvantaged and marginalised groups such as indigenous peoples.

  8. [The nutritional status of Kaingang and Guarani indigenous peoples in the State of Paraná, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Boaretto, Juliana Dias; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Pimentel, Giuliano Gomes de Assis

    2015-08-01

    This study arose from the need to comprehend epidemiological aspects to establish a policy for physical activity for indigenous peoples. Although infectious diseases are still the main causes of suffering in these ethnic groups, chronic diseases have emerged due to the process of epidemiological/nutritional change in indigenous peoples subject to the policy of life on reservations. The scope of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of indigenous peoples belonging to two ethnic groups in the State of Paraná. Anthropometric data were collected on 178 adults belonging to the Kaingang (n = 117) and Guarani (n = 61) indigenous ethnic groups. The prevalence of being overweight in Guarani and Kaingang adults was 32.3% and 41%, respectively, detecting a prevalence of obesity in the order of 3.2% among the Guarani indigenous people and 12.8% among the Kaingang ethnic group. Anthropometric changes observed among the Guarani and Kaingang indigenous peoples of Paraná are of increasing concern according to some studies. Thus, the results of this study reinforce the need for integrated actions such as nutritional guidance and physical activity during leisure time for the promotion of the health of these populations.

  9. Charity seeks consistent level of care for people with Parkinson's.

    PubMed

    Sprinks, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    IN ITS 2015-19 strategy, Parkinson's UK has set out a vision that high-quality services will be available to meet the needs of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) at every point of their journey. The charity envisages greater consistency in standards across the UK, so that wherever PD patients are treated in the country, they will receive the same level of care.

  10. The Information-Seeking Practices of Engineers: Searching for Documents as Well as for People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzum, Morten; Pejtersen, Annelise Mark

    2000-01-01

    Investigates engineers' information-seeking practices based on case studies in two organizations. Results show engineers search for documents to find people, search for people to get documents, and interact socially to get information without engaging in explicit searches. Discusses the design task and how computer systems could support searches…

  11. In Hospital We Trust: Experiences of older peoples' decision to seek hospital care.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Jenny; Ernsth Bravell, Marie; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Josephson, Iréne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how older people experience and perceive decisions to seek hospital care while receiving home health care. Twenty-two Swedish older persons were interviewed about their experiences of decision to seek hospital while receiving home health care. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings consist of one interpretative theme describing an overall confidence in hospital staff to deliver both medical and psychosocial health care, In Hospital We Trust, with three underlying categories: Superior Health Care, People's Worries, and Biomedical Needs. Findings indicate a need for establishing confidence and ensuring sufficient qualifications, both medical and psychological, in home health care staff to meet the needs of older people. Understanding older peoples' arguments for seeking hospital care may have implications for how home care staff address individuals' perceived needs. Fulfillment of perceived health needs may reduce avoidable hospitalizations and consequently improve quality of life.

  12. Oral health in transition: the case of Indigenous peoples from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Rui; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Frazão, Paulo

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarise epidemiological information about the distribution of dental caries among Indigenous peoples in Brazil. The authors also present a case study of a specific group of Xavante Indians, one of the most numerous of Brazil's Indigenous peoples, describing how their oral health has deteriorated over recent decades, and showing how an oral health programme is attempting to reverse the present trend of increase in caries. The programme at Etenheritipá Xavante village incorporated three principal components: educational, preventive, and clinical. From the beginning, the programme included epidemiological record keeping for monitoring the level of caries in the population. Transversal studies of the condition of oral health among the Xavante of Etenheritipá were undertaken in 1999, 2004, and 2007. In the period from 2004 to 2007 the DMFS values in the 11-15 age cohort had a significant reduction in caries experience. The mean DMFS score fell from 4.95 in 2004 to 2.39 in 2007 (p < 0.01). An increase in the percent of individuals who were free from caries was also noted: in 1999, 20% of adolescents 11-15 had no caries; in 2007, the proportion had risen to 47%. The Xavante case is a prime example of the transition in oral health that is taking place among the Indigenous peoples of the Americas, and it highlights the importance of oral health promotion through preventive measures such as access to fluoridation and basic care in reducing the inequality between Indians and non-Indians.

  13. Vitamin D status of northern indigenous people of Russia leading traditional and "modernized" way of life.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Andrew; Khabarova, Yulia; Vershubsky, Galina; Ateeva, Yulia; Ryzhaenkov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D status in groups of northern indigenous people of Russia leading close to traditional (seminomadic reindeer herding), post-traditional (in settlements) or "modernized" (in towns) way of life was analysed. The survey study groups consisted of 178 Nenets and Komi aged 18-60 living in the Arctic (66-67°N). Urban Komi, Udmurts and Komi-Permiaks (n=150) living in a non-Arctic area (57-61°N) formed a control group. The concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), as a transport form of vitamin D, was assessed by enzyme immunoassay analysis. The group average 25OHD levels in both rural and urban Arctic residents are within the range of values seen in the non-Arctic urban subjects adjusted for season: 39.7-47.7 nmol/l. Abandoning traditional lifestyle associates with lower vitamin D levels in indigenous Arctic people. Mean±standard deviation 25OHD values among Nenets were lower in those living in the administrative centre (a big settlement) with a population of 1,460 (32.2±12.90 nmol/l) than in the residents of small settlements (39.6±14.08 nmol/l), and in reindeer herders (42.4±13.45 nmol/l; p<0.05 in both cases). Komi townspeople had lower 25OHD concentrations (47.7±12.00 nmol/l) than Komi reindeer herders (68.7±25.20; p<0.01). The transition from seminomadic to post-traditional and "modernized" way of life has led to a decrease in the consumption of traditional foods among the indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Our data support the notion that the traditional northern diet promotes healthy vitamin D levels, while adherence to the "western" type of diet correlates with a lower 25OHD concentration.

  14. Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity, and Indigenous Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. Methodology/Principal Findings We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or “blocks” that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover ∼688,000 km2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. Conclusions/Significance Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories. PMID:18716679

  15. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Pimm, Stuart L; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-08-13

    The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2) of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

  16. Cadmium in arctic Alaska wildlife: Kidney and liver residues and potential exposure in indigenous people

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, T.; Fairbrother, A.; Becker, P.; Tarpley, R.

    1995-12-31

    In arctic Alaska, cadmium (Cd) levels are of concern in kidney and liver of terrestrial and marine mammals including: bowhead whale, beluga whale, walrus, caribou, and ringed seal. Cd levels in some animals exceed threshold criteria in kidney for renal dysfunction and other effects, tolerance levels for human consumption (liver = 1 ppm, kidney = 3 ppm), and WHO weekly intake limits (500 ug Cd/week). An assessment of risk to indigenous people and to wildlife populations, will be presented. Cigarette smoking is another major source of Cd to be considered. Reports from Greenland have concluded a health risk from Cd exposure from marine dietary sources and smoking exist for these residents. Bowhead whale kidney and walrus kidney and liver represent major dietary sources of Cd (blubber and meat have very little Cd). Followed by: ringed seal liver (kidney data not available), beluga whale liver and kidney, and caribou kidney. Small portions of bowhead and walrus kidney (< 10g/week) exceed weekly intake levels. Age positively correlates with Cd levels in kidney indicating that avoiding older (larger) animals would reduce exposure. Adverse effects of Cd in wildlife were not grossly evident, however, with no historic data, it is difficult to determine if tissue concentrations are elevated. Harvest of wildlife is important to many arctic people for nutritional and cultural survival. Assessing risks associated with contaminants is essential for the wellbeing of indigenous people and wildlife. The nutritional value of the local resources and the potential inadequate alternatives must be considered.

  17. Self-Injury, Help-Seeking, and the Internet: Informing Online Service Provision for Young People.

    PubMed

    Frost, Mareka; Casey, Leanne; Rando, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of young people are seeking help online for self-injury, relatively little is known about their online help-seeking preferences. To investigate the perspectives of young people who self-injure regarding online services, with the aim of informing online service delivery. A mixed-methods exploratory analysis regarding the perspectives of a subsample of young people who reported a history of self-injury and responded to questions regarding preferences for future online help-seeking (N = 457). The sample was identified as part of a larger study (N = 1,463) exploring self-injury and help-seeking. Seven themes emerged in relation to preferences for future online help-seeking: information, guidance, reduced isolation, online culture, facilitation of help-seeking, access, and privacy. Direct contact with a professional via instant messaging was the most highly endorsed form of online support. Young people expressed clear preferences regarding online services for self-injury, supporting the importance of consumer consultation in development of online services.

  18. Cancer incidence in indigenous people in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA: a comparative population-based study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Suzanne P; Antoni, Sébastien; Colquhoun, Amy; Healy, Bonnie; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Potter, John D; Garvey, Gail; Bray, Freddie

    2015-11-01

    Indigenous people have disproportionally worse health and lower life expectancy than their non-indigenous counterparts in high-income countries. Cancer data for indigenous people are scarce and incidence has not previously been collectively reported in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA. We aimed to investigate and compare, for the first time, the cancer burden in indigenous populations in these countries. We derived incidence data from population-based cancer registries in three states of Australia (Queensland, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory), New Zealand, the province of Alberta in Canada, and the Contract Health Service Delivery Areas of the USA. Summary rates for First Nations and Inuit in Alberta, Canada, were provided directly by Alberta Health Services. We compared age-standardised rates by registry, sex, cancer site, and ethnicity for all incident cancer cases, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers, diagnosed between 2002 and 2006. Standardised rate ratios (SRRs) and 95% CIs were computed to compare the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of each jurisdiction, except for the Alaska Native population, which was compared with the white population from the USA. We included 24 815 cases of cancer in indigenous people and 5 685 264 in non-indigenous people from all jurisdictions, not including Alberta, Canada. The overall cancer burden in indigenous populations was substantially lower in the USA except in Alaska, similar or slightly lower in Australia and Canada, and higher in New Zealand compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. Among the most commonly occurring cancers in indigenous men were lung, prostate, and colorectal cancer. In most jurisdictions, breast cancer was the most common cancer in women followed by lung and colorectal cancer. The incidence of lung cancer was higher in indigenous men in all Australian regions, in Alberta, and in US Alaska Natives than in their non-indigenous counterparts. For breast cancer

  19. How Power Affects People: Activating, Wanting, and Goal Seeking.

    PubMed

    Guinote, Ana

    2017-01-03

    Sociocognitive research has demonstrated that power affects how people feel, think, and act. In this article, I review literature from social psychology, neuroscience, management, and animal research and propose an integrated framework of power as an intensifier of goal-related approach motivation. A growing literature shows that power energizes thought, speech, and action and orients individuals toward salient goals linked to power roles, predispositions, tasks, and opportunities. Power magnifies self-expression linked to active parts of the self (the active self), enhancing confidence, self-regulation, and prioritization of efforts toward advancing focal goals. The effects of power on cognitive processes, goal preferences, performance, and corruption are discussed, and its potentially detrimental effects on social attention, perspective taking, and objectification of subordinates are examined. Several inconsistencies in the literature are explained by viewing power holders as more flexible and dynamic than is usually assumed.

  20. The forsaken mental health of the Indigenous Peoples - a moral case of outrageous exclusion in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental health is neglected in most parts of the world. For the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America, the plight is even more severe as there are no specific mental health services designed for them altogether. Given the high importance of mental health for general health, the status quo is unacceptable. Lack of research on the subject of Indigenous Peoples' mental health means that statistics are virtually unavailable. To illustrate their mental health status, one can nonetheless point to the high rates of poverty and extreme poverty in their communities, overcrowded housing, illiteracy, and lack of basic sanitary services such as water, electricity and sewage. At the dawn of the XXI century, they remain poor, powerless, and voiceless. They remain severely excluded from mainstream society despite being the first inhabitants of this continent and being an estimated of 48 million people. This paper comments, specifically, on the limited impact of the Pan American Health Organization's mental health initiative on the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America. Discussion The Pan American Health Organization's sponsored workshop "Programas y Servicios de Salud Mental en Communidades Indígenas" [Mental Health Programs and Services for the Indigenous Communities] in the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia on July16 - 18, 1998, appeared promising. However, eleven years later, no specific mental health program has been designed nor developed for the Indigenous Peoples in Latin America. This paper makes four specific recommendations for improvements in the approach of the Pan American Health Organization: (1) focus activities on what can be done; (2) build partnerships with the Indigenous Peoples; (3) consider traditional healers as essential partners in any mental health effort; and (4) conduct basic research on the mental health status of the Indigenous Peoples prior to the programming of any mental health service. Summary The persistent neglect of the Indigenous Peoples

  1. The forsaken mental health of the Indigenous Peoples - a moral case of outrageous exclusion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Incayawar, Mario; Maldonado-Bouchard, Sioui

    2009-10-29

    Mental health is neglected in most parts of the world. For the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America, the plight is even more severe as there are no specific mental health services designed for them altogether. Given the high importance of mental health for general health, the status quo is unacceptable. Lack of research on the subject of Indigenous Peoples' mental health means that statistics are virtually unavailable. To illustrate their mental health status, one can nonetheless point to the high rates of poverty and extreme poverty in their communities, overcrowded housing, illiteracy, and lack of basic sanitary services such as water, electricity and sewage. At the dawn of the XXI century, they remain poor, powerless, and voiceless. They remain severely excluded from mainstream society despite being the first inhabitants of this continent and being an estimated of 48 million people. This paper comments, specifically, on the limited impact of the Pan American Health Organization's mental health initiative on the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America. The Pan American Health Organization's sponsored workshop "Programas y Servicios de Salud Mental en Communidades Indígenas" [Mental Health Programs and Services for the Indigenous Communities] in the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia on July16 - 18, 1998, appeared promising. However, eleven years later, no specific mental health program has been designed nor developed for the Indigenous Peoples in Latin America. This paper makes four specific recommendations for improvements in the approach of the Pan American Health Organization: (1) focus activities on what can be done; (2) build partnerships with the Indigenous Peoples; (3) consider traditional healers as essential partners in any mental health effort; and (4) conduct basic research on the mental health status of the Indigenous Peoples prior to the programming of any mental health service. The persistent neglect of the Indigenous Peoples' mental health in Latin America

  2. Trust, Autonomy and Relationships: The Help-Seeking Preferences of Young People in Secondary Level Schools in London (UK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavey, Gerard; Rothi, Despina; Paul, Rini

    2011-01-01

    Help-seeking among young people is complicated, often determined vicariously by the ability of adults, family or professionals, to recognize, and respond to, their difficulties. We know very little about the complex concerns of teenage young people and how they impact on help-seeking preferences. We aimed to ascertain the help-seeking preferences…

  3. Trust, Autonomy and Relationships: The Help-Seeking Preferences of Young People in Secondary Level Schools in London (UK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavey, Gerard; Rothi, Despina; Paul, Rini

    2011-01-01

    Help-seeking among young people is complicated, often determined vicariously by the ability of adults, family or professionals, to recognize, and respond to, their difficulties. We know very little about the complex concerns of teenage young people and how they impact on help-seeking preferences. We aimed to ascertain the help-seeking preferences…

  4. Genetic characterization of indigenous peoples from Oaxaca, Mexico, and its relation to linguistic and geographic isolation.

    PubMed

    Quinto-Cortés, Consuelo D; Arriola, Luis A; García-Hughes, Gianella; García-López, Rodrigo; Molina, Diana P; Flores, Margarita; Palacios, Rafael; Piñero, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    We used 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) to genetically characterize 361 individuals from 11 indigenous populations (Amuzgo, Chinanteco, Chontal, Huave, Mazateco, Mixe, Mixteco, Triqui, Zapoteco del Istmo, Zapoteco del Valle, and Zoque) from Oaxaca, Mexico. We also used previously published data from other Mexican peoples (Maya, Chol, Tepehua, Otomí, and Mestizos from northern and central Mexico) to delineate genetic relations, for a total of 541 individuals. Average heterozygosity (H) was lower in most populations from Oaxaca (range 0.687 in Zoque to 0.756 in Chontal) than values observed in Mestizo populations from Mexico (0.758 and 0.793 in central and northern Mestizo, respectively) but higher than values observed in other Amerindian populations from South America; the same relation was true for the number of alleles (n(a) ). We tested (using the software Structure) whether major geographic or linguistic barriers to gene flow existed among the populations of Oaxaca and found that the populations appeared to constitute one or two genetic groups, suggesting that neither geographic location nor linguistics had an effect on the genetic structure of these culturally and linguistically highly diverse indigenous peoples. Moreover, we found a low but statistically significant between-population differentiation. In addition, the genetic structure of Oaxacan populations did not fit an isolation-by-distance model. Finally, using AMOVA and a Bayesian clustering approach, we did not detect significant geographic or linguistic barriers to gene flow within Oaxaca. These results suggest that the indigenous communities of Oaxaca, although culturally isolated, can be genetically defined as a large, nearly panmictic population in which migration could be a more important population mechanism than genetic drift. Finally, compared with outgroups in Mexico (both

  5. A protocol for a systematic literature review: comparing the impact of seasonal and meteorological parameters on acute respiratory infections in Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Williams, Katherine E; Sargeant, Jan M; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Edge, Victoria L; Cunsolo, Ashlee; Harper, Sherilee L

    2017-01-26

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and are often linked to seasonal and/or meteorological conditions. Globally, Indigenous peoples may experience a different burden of ARI compared to non-Indigenous peoples. This protocol outlines our process for conducting a systematic review to investigate whether associations between ARI and seasonal or meteorological parameters differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous groups residing in the same geographical region. A search string will be used to search PubMed(®), CAB Abstracts/CAB Direct(©), and Science Citation Index(®) aggregator databases. Articles will be screened using inclusion/exclusion criteria applied first at the title and abstract level, and then at the full article level by two independent reviewers. Articles maintained after full article screening will undergo risk of bias assessment and data will be extracted. Heterogeneity tests, meta-analysis, and forest and funnel plots will be used to synthesize the results of eligible studies. This protocol paper describes our systematic review methods to identify and analyze relevant ARI, season, and meteorological literature with robust reporting. The results are intended to improve our understanding of potential associations between seasonal and meteorological parameters and ARI and, if identified, whether this association varies by place, population, or other characteristics. The protocol is registered in the PROSPERO database (#38051).

  6. Reexamining the Underrepresentation of Indigenous Peoples in Astronomy: A Hawaiian Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-08-01

    As we look toward a future of ever increasing challenges in astronomy, there is widespread consensus that solutions depend on expanding human capitol. While we contemplate pathways to increase astronomy/STEM capacity across multinational settings, we are theoretically hindered by our failure to fully develop the capacity of ethnic and racial groups. Indigenous peoples continue to be underrepresented in astronomy at one-sixth of their share of the total U.S. population, despite investment of substantial resources from the public and private sectors. At the extreme, Native Hawaiians participate in astronomy at rates that are almost incalculably low. This 14-year case study of astronomy in the Hawaiian context suggests that national efforts (e.g. standards-based reform and agency-funded education and public outreach) have been, and are likely to continue to be, ineffective, as these efforts do not address the source of the problem. An examination of K-12, informal science, and "broader impacts" settings in Hawai'i, suggest that the disparity is ultimately rooted in a failure of relationships. Research across these settings indicates that many current common-sense efforts fail to transmit across cultures, and that effective efforts must primarily foster authentic trust and respect between Western and Indigenous perspective-holders. Specifically, findings suggest that much of our failure has been a result of human resource decisions. Although extensive research on effective practices at the indigenous/mainstream culture interface suggests that appropriate “bridge” persons are essential to creating authentic trust and respect between groups, in the Hawaiian context, we have often failed to do the work required to employ and empower “bridge” people. With critical examination of best- and worst-practices, this session focuses on immediate actions that can be taken to positively impact diverse participation in astronomy.

  7. Attitudes towards help-seeking and stigma among young people at risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Dvorsky, Diane; Müller, Mario; Paust, Tobias; Corrigan, Patrick W; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-12-30

    The role of self-labeling as 'mentally ill' and of stigma-related stress for help-seeking among young people at risk for psychosis is unknown. Stronger self-labeling and less stigma stress predicted better attitudes towards psychiatric medication and psychotherapy, controlling for clinical and sociodemographic variables. Interventions could target stigma-related stress to increase help-seeking. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecocultural effects on self-concept. A study with young indigenous people from different sociodemographic contexts.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Guitart, Moisès; Borke, Jörn; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar

    2015-08-01

    This study explores self-concept among indigenous young people from different ecocultural niches in Chiapas (Mexico) through a particular self-concept task. Previous theory and research has described 3 cultural models linked with specific sociodemographic settings that foster particular psychologies. Our aim was to compare the results of the self-concept test among indigenous groups from different sociodemographic settings in order to observed possible differences. We predicted that individuals from rural communities with little formal education (hypothesised to be Interdependent) would have self-concepts with more social and less personal components than would those with an urban, highly educated (hypothesised to be Independent), and we expected a third group of highly educated young people living in an urban context but with a rural background (hypothesised to be autonomous-related group) to value social and personal components equally. The results supported this hypothesis. Based on ecocultural theory, it is suggested that sociodemographic contexts affect the self-concept. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Phylogeography of Camassia quamash in western North America: postglacial colonization and transport by indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Tomimatsu, Hiroshi; Kephart, Susan R; Vellend, Mark

    2009-09-01

    Recent human activities have spread numerous plant species across the globe, yet it is unclear to what degree historical human activities influenced plant dispersal. In western North America, Camassia quamash was one of the most important food plants for indigenous peoples, who transported its propagules either intentionally or accidentally. We investigated how human and natural dispersal might have contributed to the current pattern of spatial genetic structure in C. quamash by performing phylogeographical surveys at two geographical scales. We sequenced two noncoding regions of chloroplast deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in 226 individuals from 53 populations of C. quamash as well as 126 individuals from 21 populations of the non-food plant Zigadenus venenosus. Contrary to the expectation of anthropogenic transport, C. quamash populations did not exhibit weaker genetic structure than Z. venenosus populations. We also failed to find convincing evidence for signatures of transport. Instead, our data showed strong effects of past glaciation and geographical barriers of the mountains in the Cascade Range, Olympic Peninsula and Vancouver Island. West of the Cascades, the species appears to have largely migrated northward from a southern refugium after deglaciation, whereas few populations having a highly divergent haplotype might have survived in southwestern Washington. Our data suggest that despite substantial ethnobotanical evidence for anthropogenic transport, the current pattern of genetic structure of C. quamash does not show any detectable signatures of transport by indigenous peoples and is better understood as the result of natural dispersal processes.

  10. A clash of paradigms? Western and indigenous views on health research involving Aboriginal peoples.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Theresa Diane

    2014-07-01

    To explore the issues of data management and data ownership with regard to health research conducted in aboriginal or indigenous populations in Canada. Research with aboriginal communities in Canada has often been conducted by researchers who had little or no understanding of the community in which the research was taking place. This led to 'helicopter' research, which benefitted the researcher but not the community. National aboriginal leadership developed the ownership, control, access, and possession (OCAP) principles, which outline how to manage research data regarding aboriginal people and to counteract disrespectful methodologies. However, these principles present their own set of challenges to those who would conduct research with aboriginal populations. Documents from the Assembly of First Nations, the Government of Canada, Aboriginal writers and researchers, and Nursing theorists and researchers. This is a methodology paper that reviews the issues of data ownership when conducting research with Aboriginal populations. The authors explore indigenous and Western views of knowledge development, outline and discuss the OCAP principles, and present the Canadian Institute of Health Research's guidelines for health research involving aboriginal people as a guide for those who want to carry out ethical and culturally competent research, do no harm and produce research that can benefit aboriginal peoples. There are special considerations associated with conducting research with Aboriginal populations. The Assembly of First Nations wants researchers to use the Ownership, Control, Access and Possession (OCAP) principles with First Nations data. These principles are restrictive and need to be discussed with stakeholders before research is undertaken. In Canada, it is imperative that researchers use the Canadian Institute of Health Research Guidelines for Health Research Involving Aboriginal People to ensure culturally sensitive and ethical conduct during the course of

  11. Diarrhea and health inequity among Indigenous children in Brazil: results from the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Ana Lúcia; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Welch, James R; Horta, Bernardo L; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Cardoso, Andrey M

    2015-02-27

    Globally, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children under five. In Brazil, mortality due to diarrhea underwent a significant reduction in recent decades principally due to expansion of the primary healthcare network, use of oral rehydration therapy, reduced child undernutrition, and improved access to safe drinking water. The First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008-2009, was the first survey based on a nationwide representative sample to study the prevalence of diarrhea and associated factors among Indigenous children in the country. The survey assessed the health and nutritional status of Indigenous children < 5 years of age based on a representative sample of major Brazilian geopolitical regions. A stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for Indigenous villages. Within villages, children < 5 years of age in sampled households were included in the study. Interviews were based on a seven day recall period. Prevalence rates of acute diarrhea were calculated for independent variables and hierarchical multivariable analyses were conducted to assess associations. Information on diarrhea was obtained for 5,828 children (95.1% of the total sample). The overall prevalence of diarrhea was 23.5%. Regional differences were observed, with the highest rate being in the North (38.1%). Higher risk of diarrhea was observed among younger children and those who had less maternal schooling, lower household socioeconomic status, undernutrition (weight-for-age deficit), presence of another child with diarrhea in the household, and occurrence of upper respiratory infection. According to results of the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition, almost a quarter of Indigenous children throughout the country had diarrhea during the previous week. This prevalence is substantially higher than that documented in 2006 for Brazilian children < 5 years generally (9.4%). Due

  12. Moving toward holistic wellness, empowerment and self-determination for Indigenous peoples in Canada: Can traditional Indigenous health care practices increase ownership over health and health care decisions?

    PubMed

    Auger, Monique; Howell, Teresa; Gomes, Tonya

    2016-12-27

    This study aimed to understand the role that traditional Indigenous health care practices can play in increasing individual-level self-determination over health care and improving health outcomes for urban Indigenous peoples in Canada. This project took place in Vancouver, British Columbia and included the creation and delivery of holistic workshops to engage community members (n = 35) in learning about aspects of traditional health care practices. Short-term and intermediate outcomes were discussed through two gatherings involving focus groups and surveys. Data were transcribed, reviewed, thematically analyzed, and presented to the working group for validation. When participants compared their experiences with traditional health care to western health care, they described barriers to care that they had experienced in accessing medical doctors (e.g., racism, mistrust), as well as the benefits of traditional healing (e.g., based on relationships, holistic approach). All participants also noted that they had increased ownership over their choices around, and access to, health care, inclusive of both western and traditional options. They stressed that increased access to traditional health care is crucial within urban settings. Self-determination within Indigenous urban communities, and on a smaller scale, ownership for individuals, is a key determinant of health for Indigenous individuals and communities; this was made clear through the analysis of the research findings and is also supported within the literature. This research also demonstrates that access to traditional healing can enhance ownership for community members. These findings emphasize that there is a continued and growing need for support to aid urban Indigenous peoples in accessing traditional health care supports.

  13. Interventions that increase the intention to seek voluntary HIV testing in young people: a review.

    PubMed

    Bumgarner, Kelly Feist; Pharr, Jennifer; Buttner, Mark; Ezeanolue, Echezona

    2017-03-01

    Young people 15-24 years old represent 39% of new HIV infections globally. However, they are the least likely age demographic to seek HIV testing and the most likely to be unaware of their HIV status. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to identify interventions that increase either rates of HIV testing or intentions to seek HIV testing in young people 10-24 years old. In total, 1601 manuscripts were systematically examined and five manuscripts were included in the final review. Two common themes identified in the interventions were education and test delivery methods. Educational programs were found to be effective when delivered in classroom or entertainment-based formats. Health providers offering testing and home testing increased the rate of testing. Additional research is needed on programs aimed at young people not enrolled in schools, interventions that measure testing rates, and educating healthcare providers about offering HIV tests to young people.

  14. For a Sustainable Future: Indigenous Transborder Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quijada, Adrian; Cassadore, Edison; Perry, Gaye Bumsted; Geronimo, Ronald; Lund, Kimberley; Miguel, Phillip; Montes-Helu, Mario; Newberry, Teresa; Robertson, Paul; Thornbrugh, Casey

    2015-01-01

    The U.S.-Mexico border region of the Sonoran Desert is home to 30 Native nations in the United States, and about 15 Indigenous communities in Mexico. Imposed on Indigenous peoples' ancestral lands, the border is an artificial line created in 1848, following the war between the U.S. and Mexico. Tohono O'odham Community College (TOCC) seeks to…

  15. For a Sustainable Future: Indigenous Transborder Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quijada, Adrian; Cassadore, Edison; Perry, Gaye Bumsted; Geronimo, Ronald; Lund, Kimberley; Miguel, Phillip; Montes-Helu, Mario; Newberry, Teresa; Robertson, Paul; Thornbrugh, Casey

    2015-01-01

    The U.S.-Mexico border region of the Sonoran Desert is home to 30 Native nations in the United States, and about 15 Indigenous communities in Mexico. Imposed on Indigenous peoples' ancestral lands, the border is an artificial line created in 1848, following the war between the U.S. and Mexico. Tohono O'odham Community College (TOCC) seeks to…

  16. What keeps you strong? A systematic review identifying how primary health-care and aged-care services can support the well-being of older Indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Davy, Carol; Kite, Elaine; Aitken, Graham; Dodd, Garth; Rigney, Janice; Hayes, Jenny; Van Emden, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify primary health-care or aged-care strategies that have or could support the well-being of older Indigenous peoples. A search was undertaken of primary databases including Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Papers which reported on the perspectives of older Indigenous peoples, community members and provider participants were included. Findings were pooled using a meta-aggregative approach. Three high-level synthesised findings - maintaining Indigenous identity, promoting independence and delivering culturally safe care - were believed to be important for supporting the well-being of older Indigenous peoples. As physical independence often diminishes with age, having the support of culturally safe primary health-care and aged-care services that understand the importance of maintaining an Indigenous identity and promoting independence will be crucial for the well-being of older Indigenous peoples. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  17. Antimalarial plants used by indigenous people of the Upper Rio Negro in Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kffuri, Carolina Weber; Lopes, Moisés Ahkʉtó; Ming, Lin Chau; Odonne, Guillaume; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira

    2016-02-03

    This is the first intercultural report of antimalarial plants in this region. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal plants used against malaria by indigenous people in the Upper Rio Negro region and to review the literature on antimalarial activity and traditional use of the cited species. Participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and ethnobotanical walks were conducted with 89 informants in five indigenous communities between April 2010 and November 2013 to obtain information on the use of medicinal plants against malaria. We reviewed academic databases for papers published in scientific journals up to January 2014 in order to find works on ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany, and antimalarial activity of the species cited. Forty-six plant species belonging to 24 families are mentioned. Fabaceae (17.4%), Arecaceae (13.0%) and Euphorbiaceae (6.5%) account together for 36.9% of these species. Only seven plant species showed a relatively high consensus. Among the plant parts, barks (34.0%) and roots (28.0%) were the most widely used. Of the 46 species cited, 18 (39.1%) have already been studied for their antimalarial properties according to the literature, and 26 species (56.5%) have no laboratory essays on antimalarial activity. Local traditional knowledge of the use of antimalarials is still widespread in indigenous communities of the Upper Rio Negro, where 46 plants species used against malaria were recorded. Our studies highlight promising new plants for future studies: Glycidendron amazonicum, Heteropsis tenuispadix, Monopteryx uaucu, Phenakospermum guianensis, Pouteria ucuqui, Sagotia brachysepala and notably Aspidosperma schultesii, Ampelozizyphus amazonicus, Euterpe catinga, E. precatoria, Physalis angulata, Cocos nucifera and Swartzia argentea with high-use consensus. Experimental validation of these remedies may help in developing new drugs for malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in indigenous people of the Americas: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Alichniewicz, Karolina Katarzyna; Black, Emma B; Siskind, Dan; Spurling, Geoffrey; Toombs, Maree

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous populations are considered at higher risk of psychiatric disorder but many studies do not include direct comparisons with similar non-Indigenous controls. We undertook a meta-analysis of studies that compared the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in Indigenous populations in the Americas with those of non-Indigenous groups with similar socio-demographic features (Registration number: CRD42015025854). A systematic search of PubMed, Medline, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and article bibliographies was performed. We included comparisons of lifetime rates and prevalence of up to 12 months. We found 19 studies (n = 250, 959) from Latin America, Canada and the US. There were no differences between Indigenous and similar non-Indigenous groups in the 12-month prevalence of depressive, generalised anxiety and panic disorders. However, Indigenous people were at greater risk of PTSD. For lifetime prevalence, rates of generalised anxiety, panic and all the depressive disorders were significantly lower in Indigenous participants, whilst PTSD (on adjusted analyses) and social phobia were significantly higher. Results were similar for sub-analyses of Latin America, Canada and the US, and sensitivity analyses by study quality or setting (e.g. health, community etc.). Risk factors for psychiatric illness may therefore be a complex interaction of biological, educational, economic and socio-cultural factors that may vary between disorders. Accordingly, interventions should reflect that the association between disadvantage and psychiatric illness is rarely due to one factor. However, it is also possible that assessment tools don't accurately measure psychiatric symptoms in Indigenous populations and that further cross-cultural validation of diagnostic instruments may be needed too. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [A Reflection on the Policy of Transcultural Long-Term Care for the Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Subeq, Yi-Maun; Hsu, Mutsu

    2016-06-01

    Giving high-profile attention to socio-cultural and traditional beliefs in the promotion of long-term care policies enjoys strong, consensus support in the field of transcultural nursing. To protect the rights of indigenous people in Taiwan, the Ministry of Health and Welfare incorporated the concept of cultural care into the Long-term Care Services Act, which was approved by the Legislature in May 2014. However, the policies, resource strategies, manpower allocations, and staff educations and trainings related to this act are still await implementation in indigenous areas. Beyond the concept of professional healthcare, which considers cultural sensitivity, suitability, and ability, cultural care gives greater priority to crossing cultural barriers, integrating with the lifestyle of clients, and addressing their concerns in order to improve the well-being of target populations. The present article reviews current long-term care policy to highlight the importance of considering the cultural needs of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan in order to enhance the efficiency and impact of long-term care programs. Furthermore, the findings strongly recommend that additional resources be provided in order to meet the long-term care needs of indigenous communities. Finally, cultural-specific, long-term care service strategies should be promulgated in order to upgrade well-being in order to ease and comfort the feelings of indigenous people.

  20. Understanding the Online Information-Seeking Behaviours of Young People: The Role of Networks of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, R.; Malmberg, L.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Information seeking is one of the most popular online activities for young people and can provide an additional information channel, which may enhance learning. In this study, we propose and test a model that adds to the existing literature by examining the ways in which parents, schools, and friends (what we call networks of support) effect young…

  1. Understanding the Online Information-Seeking Behaviours of Young People: The Role of Networks of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, R.; Malmberg, L.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Information seeking is one of the most popular online activities for young people and can provide an additional information channel, which may enhance learning. In this study, we propose and test a model that adds to the existing literature by examining the ways in which parents, schools, and friends (what we call networks of support) effect young…

  2. Young People and the Learning Partnerships Program: Shifting Negative Attitudes to Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…

  3. Young People and the Learning Partnerships Program: Shifting Negative Attitudes to Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…

  4. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia’s Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. Methods PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: <1.0 mmol/L. Analyses of primary data associating measures of HDL-C with other CVD risk factors were also performed. Results Fifteen of 93 retrieved studies were identified for inclusion. These provided 58 mean HDL-C levels; 29 for each sex, most obtained in rural/regional (20%) or remote settings (60%) and including 51–1641 participants. For Australian Aborigines, mean HDL-C values ranged between 0.81-1.50 mmol/L in females and 0.76-1.60 mmol/L in males. Two of 15 studies reported HDL-C levels for Torres Strait Islander populations, mean HDL-C: 1.00 or 1.11 mmol/L for females and 1.01 or 1.13 mmol/L for males. Low HDL-C was observed only in rural/regional and remote settings - not in national or urban studies (n = 3) in either gender. Diabetes prevalence, mean/median waist-to-hip ratio and circulating C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with HDL-C levels (all P < 0.05). Thirty-four per cent of studies reported lower mean HDL-C levels in females than in males. Conclusions Very low mean HDL-C levels are common in Australian Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes

  5. Vecinos y Rehabilitation (Phase III): Assessing the Needs and Resources of Indigenous People with Disabilities in the Sierre Mixe. Final Report. [English Version].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine A.; Gotto, George S., IV

    Since 1994, the American Indian Rehabilitation Research and Training Center has been sharing successful research strategies related to disabilities and rehabilitation with indigenous people in Oaxaca, Mexico. Its first two projects identified the needs of indigenous people with disabilities in three geographic regions of Oaxaca and worked with a…

  6. Indigenous Peoples in Modern Nation-States. Proceedings from an International Workshop (Tromso, Norway, October 13-16, 1997). Occasional Papers Series A, No. 90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saugestad, Sidsel, Ed.

    The relationship between indigenous peoples and nation-states has long been of academic interest, and is also an emerging topic in the international debate about human rights and development. Universities and museums play an important part in this debate as producers, managers, and communicators of knowledge about indigenous peoples. In these…

  7. Insights from paleomicrobiology into the indigenous peoples of pre-colonial America - a review.

    PubMed

    Darling, Millie I; Donoghue, Helen D

    2014-04-01

    This review investigates ancient infectious diseases in the Americas dated to the pre-colonial period and considers what these findings can tell us about the history of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. It gives an overview, but focuses on four microbial pathogens from this period: Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Trypanosoma cruzi and Coccidioides immitis, which cause stomach ulceration and gastric cancer, tuberculosis, Chagas disease and valley fever, respectively. These pathogens were selected as H. pylori can give insight into ancient human migrations into the Americas, M. tuberculosis is associated with population density and urban development, T. cruzi can elucidate human living conditions and C. immitis can indicate agricultural development. A range of methods are used to diagnose infectious disease in ancient human remains, with DNA analysis by polymerase chain reaction one of the most reliable, provided strict precautions are taken against cross contamination. The review concludes with a brief summary of the changes that took place after European exploration and colonisation.

  8. [Implementation of indigenous people's health policy in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: obstacles and prospects].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Maria de Betania Garcia; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Almeida, Celia

    2006-02-01

    This article discusses the Brazilian National Policy for Indigenous People's Health, formulated in the 1990s as part of the national Health Reform Movement and based on the creation (in 1999) of the Indigenous Healthcare Sub-System. Coordinated at the central government level under the administration of the National Health Foundation/Ministry of Health, the implementation of this sub-system required adaptations in the organization of health services systems at the local level, with the creation of Special Indigenous Health Districts. This configuration showed the need for dialogue and negotiation among the various institutions involved with indigenous affairs, from the perspective of overcoming various conflicts and operational difficulties. The current analysis identifies the difficulties in the implementation of a differentiated indigenous health policy under federal responsibility and within the decentralized Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), since the absence of specific mechanisms and instruments regulating the operationalization of these services at the local level and the lack of more effective supervision and on-going evaluation of this policy mean that differentiated care for the indigenous population is subject to both the vices and virtues of local policy.

  9. Educacion y Pueblos Indigenas en Centroamerica: Un Balance Critico (Education and Indigenous People in Central America: A Critical Balance).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadio, Massimo, Comp.; And Others

    Global society is polarized between the modern capitalist sector and the marginal sector, which is composed of indigenous, poor, and ethnic, tribal people. The problems of education for groups in Latin America, key issues in planning to meet their needs, and strategies to resolve them, are the focus of this publication. Nine papers provide a…

  10. Educacion y Pueblos Indigenas en Centroamerica: Un Balance Critico (Education and Indigenous People in Central America: A Critical Balance).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadio, Massimo, Comp.; And Others

    Global society is polarized between the modern capitalist sector and the marginal sector, which is composed of indigenous, poor, and ethnic, tribal people. The problems of education for groups in Latin America, key issues in planning to meet their needs, and strategies to resolve them, are the focus of this publication. Nine papers provide a…

  11. Growing the Desert: Educational Pathways for Remote Indigenous People. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Metta; Guenther, John; Boyle, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    This report maps the picture of Indigenous people's participation in vocational education and training and other educational services across Australia's desert regions. The report identifies a range of innovations and barriers experienced in enabling pathways through learning into work and other meaningful livelihood opportunities. (Contains 6…

  12. A systematic review of suicide prevention interventions targeting indigenous peoples in Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand experience disproportionately high rates of suicide. As such, the methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting these Indigenous populations should be rigorously examined, in order to determine the extent to which they are effective for reducing rates of Indigenous suicide and suicidal behaviours. This systematic review aims to: 1) identify published evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting Indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand; 2) critique their methodological quality; and 3) describe their main characteristics. Methods A systematic search of 17 electronic databases and 13 websites for the period 1981–2012 (inclusive) was undertaken. The reference lists of reviews of suicide prevention interventions were hand-searched for additional relevant studies not identified by the electronic and web search. The methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions was assessed using a standardised assessment tool. Results Nine evaluations of suicide prevention interventions were identified: five targeting Native Americans; three targeting Aboriginal Australians; and one First Nation Canadians. The main intervention strategies employed included: Community Prevention, Gatekeeper Training, and Education. Only three of the nine evaluations measured changes in rates of suicide or suicidal behaviour, all of which reported significant improvements. The methodological quality of evaluations was variable. Particular problems included weak study designs, reliance on self-report measures, highly variable consent and follow-up rates, and the absence of economic or cost analyses. Conclusions There is an urgent need for an increase in the number of evaluations of preventive interventions targeting reductions in Indigenous suicide using methodologically rigorous study designs across geographically

  13. The Marginalisation of Indigenous Students within School Mathematics and the Math Wars: Seeking Resolutions within Ethical Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gale L.; Chernoff, Egan J.

    2013-01-01

    In mathematics education, there are (at least) two seemingly disparate and unethical issues that have been allowed to continue unresolved for decades: the math wars (traditional versus reform teaching and learning of mathematics) and the marginalisation of Indigenous students within K-12 mathematics. Willie Ermine, an Indigenous scholar, has…

  14. The Marginalisation of Indigenous Students within School Mathematics and the Math Wars: Seeking Resolutions within Ethical Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gale L.; Chernoff, Egan J.

    2013-01-01

    In mathematics education, there are (at least) two seemingly disparate and unethical issues that have been allowed to continue unresolved for decades: the math wars (traditional versus reform teaching and learning of mathematics) and the marginalisation of Indigenous students within K-12 mathematics. Willie Ermine, an Indigenous scholar, has…

  15. Help-seeking for fecal incontinence in people with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Norton, Christine; Dibley, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance our understanding of factors that influence help-seeking in people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related fecal incontinence (FI), and their needs or desire for continence services. We conducted a survey of FI in community-dwelling people with IBD, all members of a United Kingdom IBD charity, and received 3264 responses. As part of the study, we asked 3 questions about help-seeking for IBD-related FI to which respondents were able to give free-text responses. We analyzed the responses to these help-seeking questions, continuing until data saturation when no new themes emerged (617 free text comments analyzed, 19% of total respondents). For the full survey, a mixed-methods design was used to collect and analyze quantitative and qualitative data. Qualitative (free-text) responses relating to help-seeking behavior reported in this article were analyzed using a pragmatic thematic approach. Seventy-four percent of the total sample (2415 out of 3264 respondents) reported some degree of FI. Of these, only 38% (n = 927) reported seeking help for FI. In the data reported in this article (n = 617), only 13.5% reported seeking help for FI. Help was described as satisfactory, unsatisfactory, or alternative (acupuncture, counseling, hypnotherapy). Reasons for not seeking help included believing nothing could be done, not knowing who to ask, feeling too embarrassed, ashamed or dirty, and perceived lack of interest, sympathy, or understanding from health care professionals. Although respondents wanted to talk to "someone with specialist knowledge about incontinence" only 6 out of 617 (0.9%) reported awareness of specialist continence services. Standard treatments were rarely mentioned (n = 2). Respondents' focus was on better management of FI rather than on cure. Many people with IBD-related FI are not aware of the services or treatments that are available to help them manage this distressing problem, and most do not seek help

  16. Health Belief Model deterrents of social support seeking among people coping with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Akey, Jessica E; Rintamaki, Lance S; Kane, Tera L

    2013-02-20

    Eating disorders have the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric diagnosis (Sullivan, 1995). Understanding what prevents people from seeking or accessing that which can help them manage these disorders is critical to improving eating disorder outcomes. This study identifies specific barriers and deterrents individuals living with eating disorders perceive when deciding if and when they will seek eating disorder-specific social support. 34 men and women living with eating disorders were recruited and interviewed regarding their experiences with managing their disorders, including reasons why they may forego seeking social support to help cope with these conditions. Participant-reported reasons as to why they would forego seeking social support for the management of their eating disorders were framed against the five main constructs of the Health Belief Model. These include (a) perceived susceptibility to a health threat, (b) perceived severity of the health threat, (c) perceived benefit of protective health behaviors, (d) perceived self-efficacy with these protective behaviors, and (e) perceived barriers to performing these behaviors. It could be argued that since this study does not focus solely on one type of eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia, the barriers to social support may differ depending upon the characteristics inherent to the specific disorders. Findings can be used to inform and improve therapeutic interventions to produce better long-term outcomes among people struggling with eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposing the hidden curriculum influencing medical education on the health of Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand: the role of the Critical Reflection Tool.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Shaun; Mazel, Odette; Knoche, Debra

    2012-02-01

    The disparity in health status between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand is widely known, and efforts to address this through medical education are evidenced by initiatives such as the Committee of Deans of Australian Medical Schools' Indigenous Health Curriculum Framework. These efforts have focused primarily on formal curriculum reform. In this article, the authors discuss the role of the hidden curriculum in influencing the teaching and learning of Indigenous health (i.e., the health of Indigenous people) during medical training and suggest that in order to achieve significant changes in learning outcomes, there needs to be better alignment of the formal and hidden curriculum. They describe the Critical Reflection Tool as a potential resource through which educators might begin to identify the dimensions of their institution's hidden curricula. If used effectively, the process may guide institutions to better equip medical school graduates with the training necessary to advance changes in Indigenous health.

  18. Stakeholder's perceptions of help-seeking behaviour among people with mental health problems in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mental health facilities in Uganda remain underutilized, despite efforts to decentralize the services. One of the possible explanations for this is the help-seeking behaviours of people with mental health problems. Unfortunately little is known about the factors that influence the help-seeking behaviours. Delays in seeking proper treatment are known to compromise the outcome of the care. Aim To examine the help-seeking behaviours of individuals with mental health problems, and the factors that may influence such behaviours in Uganda. Method Sixty-two interviews and six focus groups were conducted with stakeholders drawn from national and district levels. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using a framework analysis approach. Results The findings revealed that in some Ugandan communities, help is mostly sought from traditional healers initially, whereas western form of care is usually considered as a last resort. The factors found to influence help-seeking behaviour within the community include: beliefs about the causes of mental illness, the nature of service delivery, accessibility and cost, stigma. Conclusion Increasing the uptake of mental health services requires dedicating more human and financial resources to conventional mental health services. Better understanding of socio-cultural factors that may influence accessibility, engagement and collaboration with traditional healers and conventional practitioners is also urgently required. PMID:21314989

  19. Trust, autonomy and relationships: the help-seeking preferences of young people in secondary level schools in London (UK).

    PubMed

    Leavey, Gerard; Rothi, Despina; Paul, Rini

    2011-08-01

    Help-seeking among young people is complicated, often determined vicariously by the ability of adults, family or professionals, to recognize, and respond to, their difficulties. We know very little about the complex concerns of teenage young people and how they impact on help-seeking preferences. We aimed to ascertain the help-seeking preferences for a range of mental health problems among adolescents attending schools in an inner-city area of London. In particular we sought to examine the relationship between such adolescents and their family doctor. Using a mixed methods approach we explored help-seeking attitudes of young people. Emotional and mental health problems are not seen by young people as the domain of General practitioners. Moreover, there is a worrying lack of confidence and trust placed in family doctor and other professionals by young people. Young people do not tend easily to trust adults to help them with emotional difficulties.

  20. Mental health, substance use and suicidal behaviour among young indigenous people in the Arctic: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lehti, Venla; Niemelä, Solja; Hoven, Christina; Mandell, Donald; Sourander, Andre

    2009-10-01

    The Arctic has been a subject to various socio-cultural changes; indigenous people living in the region have experienced injustice and oppression in different forms. Furthermore, there are currently various new social, political and environmental challenges. It has been assumed that the continuous socio-cultural transition has an influence on indigenous people's wellbeing. We conducted a systematic literature review with regard to epidemiological mental health research on Arctic indigenous children and adolescents. The aim was to describe the nature and scope of research conducted and to explore for possible regional and ethnic differences in mental health. It was found that current epidemiological knowledge is based mainly on cross-sectional studies from selected regions and limited to substance use and suicidal behaviour. Youth suicide rates are alarmingly high in many parts of the Arctic, particularly in Greenland and Alaska. Differences between indigenous and non-indigenous groups are also most evident and uniform across suicide studies, with rates being systematically higher among indigenous youth. Substance use is common throughout the Arctic, however, regional and ethnic differences in usage vary considerably. Other psychosocial problems remain largely unexplored. In addition, very little is known about the causes of mental health problems in general and the impact of rapid socio-cultural changes in particular. There are several methodological limitations in the studies included here, many related to the validity of research instruments in different cultural contexts. There is a need for longitudinal comparative studies from the entire Arctic with culturally relevant instruments addressing mental health in early childhood as well.

  1. The marginalisation of Indigenous students within school mathematics and the math wars: seeking resolutions within ethical spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Gale L.; Chernoff, Egan J.

    2013-03-01

    In mathematics education, there are (at least) two seemingly disparate and unethical issues that have been allowed to continue unresolved for decades: the math wars (traditional versus reform teaching and learning of mathematics) and the marginalisation of Indigenous students within K-12 mathematics. Willie Ermine, an Indigenous scholar, has proposed the use of ethical spaces to explore and analyse occurrences of unethical situations arising between the "intersection of Indigenous law and Canadian Legal systems" (Ermine, Indigenous Law Journal 6(1):193-203, 2007). This paper brings Ermine's notion of ethical spaces to the field of mathematics education research as the theoretical framework for analysing the aforementioned issues. The result of this analysis is a potential single theoretical resolution to both dilemmas that can also serve as a significant factor in the processes of decolonisation.

  2. Perceptions of support-seeking in young people attending a Youth Offending Team: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    King, Emma; Brown, Dora; Petch, Victoria; Wright, Angela

    2014-01-01

    High levels of mental health problems have been identified in young people who have offended (committed/been convicted of a criminal offence). However, as with many young people, they tend not to seek support for their difficulties. This research aimed to explore support-seeking in this population by asking 'What are the perceptions of support-seeking in young people attending a Youth Offending Team?' Semi-structured interviews were carried out with six males (aged 13-18) and the transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four master themes were revealed: Youth Offending Team attendance prompting reflection, Damaged self, Complexity of relationships and Internal conflicts. Generally participants perceived support-seeking as beneficial, but various barriers meant that they did not tend to view it as a viable coping strategy for themselves. Interventions aimed at addressing these barriers may help young people who have offended to seek support.

  3. Navigating between illness paradigms: treatment seeking by Samoan people in Samoa and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Norris, Pauline; Fa'alau, Fuafiva; Va'ai, Cecilia; Churchward, Marianna; Arroll, Bruce

    2009-10-01

    There are substantial Samoan communities in New Zealand. Most Samoan people use both palagi (Western) and traditional Samoan health care. Western practitioners sometimes comment on Samoan patients' seemingly erratic patterns of seeking and using health care. Within a larger study on knowledge and the use of antibiotics, we carried out semistructured interviews with 31 Samoan people in Samoa and New Zealand.Accounts of participants' responses to illness and patterns of treatment seeking reveal how Samoan people draw on traditional and Western models of treatment and healing resources. Samoan people are very active interpreters of illness symptoms, using (at least) the two illness paradigms they know of to make sense of symptoms.These paradigms and systems of treatment are sometimes used experimentally, to determine whether illnesses are Samoan or Western. Symptom interpretation and decision making about treatment are done at the family level as well as the individual level. The individual might hold a particular view of what symptoms mean and what to do about them, but might not act on this if overruled or persuaded by other family members.

  4. Gender Differences in Substance Use, Consequences, Motivation to Change, and Treatment Seeking in People With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Drapalski, Amy; Bennett, Melanie; Bellack, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Gender differences in patterns and consequences of substance use, treatment-seeking, and motivation to change were examined in two samples of people with serious mental illness (SMI) and comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs): a community sample not currently seeking substance abuse treatment (N = 175) and a treatment-seeking sample (N = 137). In both groups, women and men demonstrated more similarities in the pattern and severity of their substance use than differences. However, treatment-seeking women showed greater readiness to change their substance use. Mental health problems and traumatic experiences may prompt people with SMI and SUD to enter substance abuse treatment, regardless of gender. PMID:21174496

  5. Arctic indigenous peoples experience the nutrition transition with changing dietary patterns and obesity.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, H V; Receveur, O; Soueida, R; Egeland, G M

    2004-06-01

    Indigenous Peoples globally are part of the nutrition transition. They may be among the most extreme for the extent of dietary change experienced in the last few decades. In this paper, we report survey data from 44 representative communities from 3 large cultural areas of the Canadian Arctic: the Yukon First Nations, Dene/Métis, and Inuit communities. Dietary change was represented in 2 ways: 1) considering the current proportion of traditional food (TF) in contrast to the precontact period (100% TF); and 2) the amount of TF consumed by older vs. younger generations. Total diet, TF, and BMI data from adults were investigated. On days when TF was consumed, there was significantly less (P < 0.01) fat, carbohydrate, and sugar in the diet, and more protein, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, iron, zinc, copper, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, and selenium. Vitamin C and folate, provided mainly by fortified food, and fiber were higher (P < 0.01) on days without TF for Inuit. Only 10-36% of energy was derived from TF; adults > 40 y old consistently consumed more (P < 0.05) TF than those younger. Overall obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) of Arctic adults exceeded all-Canadian rates. Measures to improve nutrient-dense market food (MF) availability and use are called for, as are ways to maintain or increase TF use.

  6. Insights from paleomicrobiology into the indigenous peoples of pre-colonial America - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Millie I; Donoghue, Helen D

    2014-01-01

    This review investigates ancient infectious diseases in the Americas dated to the pre-colonial period and considers what these findings can tell us about the history of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. It gives an overview, but focuses on four microbial pathogens from this period: Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Trypanosoma cruzi and Coccidioides immitis, which cause stomach ulceration and gastric cancer, tuberculosis, Chagas disease and valley fever, respectively. These pathogens were selected as H. pylori can give insight into ancient human migrations into the Americas, M. tuberculosis is associated with population density and urban development, T. cruzi can elucidate human living conditions and C. immitis can indicate agricultural development. A range of methods are used to diagnose infectious disease in ancient human remains, with DNA analysis by polymerase chain reaction one of the most reliable, provided strict precautions are taken against cross contamination. The review concludes with a brief summary of the changes that took place after European exploration and colonisation. PMID:24714964

  7. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits: cheapest nutritional source for the rural people of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Tariqul Islam Shajib, Mohammad; Kawser, Mahbuba; Nuruddin Miah, Mohammad; Begum, Parveen; Bhattacharjee, Lalita; Hossain, A; Fomsgaard, Inge S; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2013-10-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatures, book and United States Department of Agriculture-National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Ascorbic acid was highest in Wood apple and lowest in Roselle. Monkey jack contained the highest amount of carotenoids, zinc and copper. Content of calcium, magnesium and phosphorous were found highest in Antidesma velutinum. Potassium was the highest in Wood apple followed by in Moneky jack. It was noted that most of the minor fruits have much higher amount of ascorbic acid than the national fruit - Jack fruit ripe, the king fruit - Mango ripe of Bangladesh and exotic fruits - Apple and Grapes. The nutrient values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing a willingness to change: treatment-seeking processes for people with alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Annika; Hensing, Gunnel; Spak, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The study explores treatment-seeking processes in men and women with alcohol problems, focusing on promoting and hindering factors. Open interviews were held with five women and seven men within a month of their first voluntary treatment for alcohol problems. The interview protocols were analysed consecutively in accordance with grounded theory methodology. Developing a willingness to change was found to be the basic psychosocial process that lead to treatment-seeking. Categories that constituted sub-processes and supported willingness to change were: (i) actuating inner forces; (ii) dealing with conflicting feelings and thoughts; and (iii) hoping to turn the situation around. These processes were continuously assisted by demanding and caring support from partners, friends or professionals. The processes that precede treatment-seeking were highly complex, and both internal and external factors promoted and hindered treatment entry. The social significance of alcohol and the grief related to thoughts of abstaining were the most striking hindering factors. Such feelings need to be considered when motivating people to seek treatment for alcohol problems.

  9. Manifesting Destiny: Re/Presentations of Indigenous Peoples in K-12 U.S. History Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shear, Sarah B.; Knowles, Ryan T.; Soden, Gregory J.; Castro, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we use a postcolonial framework to investigate how state standards represent Indigenous histories and cultures. The research questions that guided this study include: (a) What is the frequency of Indigenous content (histories, cultures, current issues) covered in state-level U.S. history standards for K-12? (b) What is…

  10. Manifesting Destiny: Re/Presentations of Indigenous Peoples in K-12 U.S. History Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shear, Sarah B.; Knowles, Ryan T.; Soden, Gregory J.; Castro, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we use a postcolonial framework to investigate how state standards represent Indigenous histories and cultures. The research questions that guided this study include: (a) What is the frequency of Indigenous content (histories, cultures, current issues) covered in state-level U.S. history standards for K-12? (b) What is…

  11. Indigenous Knowledge within a Global Knowledge System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durie, Mason

    2005-01-01

    Faced with globalizing forces that promote universal approaches to knowledge and understanding, indigenous peoples have reacted by abandoning the old ways or alternately seeking to re-discover ancient wisdoms as foundations for pathways to the future. Increasingly, however, a third way has been to focus on the interface between indigenous…

  12. Help-Seeking in People with Exceptional Experiences: Results from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. Methods: An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Results: Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Conclusion: Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other

  13. Help-seeking in people with exceptional experiences: results from a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other persons with EE, but preferred seeing a

  14. A Job-Seeking Self-Efficacy Scale for People with Physical Disabilities: Preliminary Development and Psychometric Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Julie; Wright, Chris; Cullen, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    Study sought to develop and conduct preliminary testing of the psychometric properties of a job-seeking self-efficacy (JSS) scale that reflected the experiences of people with physical disabilities. Greater job seeking self-efficacy and perceived ability to manage disability at interview were associated with more positive psychological well-being.…

  15. Declining Use of Wild Resources by Indigenous Peoples of the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clark L; Bozigar, Matthew; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Wild product harvesting by forest-dwelling peoples, including hunting, fishing, forest product collection and timber harvesting, is believed to be a major threat to the biodiversity of tropical forests worldwide. Despite this threat, few studies have attempted to quantify these activities across time or across large spatial scales. We use a unique longitudinal household survey (n = 480) to describe changes in these activities over time in 32 indigenous communities from five ethnicities in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. To provide insight into the drivers of these changes, we also estimate multilevel statistical models of these activities as a function of household and community characteristics. These analyses reveal that participation in hunting, fishing, and forest product collection is high but declining across time and across ethnicities, with no evidence for a parallel decline in resource quality. However, participation in timber harvesting did not significantly decline and there is evidence of a decline in resource quality. Multilevel statistical models additionally reveal that household and community characteristics such as ethnicity, demographic characteristics, wealth, livelihood diversification, access to forest, participation in conservation programs and exposure to external markets are significant predictors of wild product harvesting. These characteristics have changed over time but cannot account for declining participation in resource harvesting. This finding suggests that participation is declining due to changes in the regional-scale social and economic context, including urbanization and the expansion of government infrastructure and services. The lesson for conservationists is that macro-scale social and economic conditions can drive reductions in wild product harvesting even in the absence of successful conservation interventions.

  16. Declining Use of Wild Resources by Indigenous Peoples of the Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clark L.; Bozigar, Matthew; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Wild product harvesting by forest-dwelling peoples, including hunting, fishing, forest product collection and timber harvesting, is believed to be a major threat to the biodiversity of tropical forests worldwide. Despite this threat, few studies have attempted to quantify these activities across time or across large spatial scales. We use a unique longitudinal household survey (n = 480) to describe changes in these activities over time in 32 indigenous communities from five ethnicities in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. To provide insight into the drivers of these changes, we also estimate multilevel statistical models of these activities as a function of household and community characteristics. These analyses reveal that participation in hunting, fishing, and forest product collection is high but declining across time and across ethnicities, with no evidence for a parallel decline in resource quality. However, participation in timber harvesting did not significantly decline and there is evidence of a decline in resource quality. Multilevel statistical models additionally reveal that household and community characteristics such as ethnicity, demographic characteristics, wealth, livelihood diversification, access to forest, participation in conservation programs and exposure to external markets are significant predictors of wild product harvesting. These characteristics have changed over time but cannot account for declining participation in resource harvesting. This finding suggests that participation is declining due to changes in the regional-scale social and economic context, including urbanization and the expansion of government infrastructure and services. The lesson for conservationists is that macro-scale social and economic conditions can drive reductions in wild product harvesting even in the absence of successful conservation interventions. PMID:25620805

  17. Fostering Environmental Justice in Indian Country, Alaska, and for Indigenous Peoples

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Charge to the NEJAC to develop advice and recommendations for EPA about how the Agency can more effectively work with federally-recognized tribes, indigenous stakeholders, and other interested parties living within and outside Indian country

  18. [Comorbidity in people with depression seeking help at primary health care centers in Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pablo; Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Martínez, Vania; Vöhringer, Paul A; Castro, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    International evidence has shown the complex interaction between depression and chronic physical diseases. Depression in scenarios involving multiple comorbidities has not received enough attention in Chile. To characterize the depressed people who consult at Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs), taking into account the presence of chronic physical or psychiatric comorbidity. A secondary analysis of databases used in a clinical trial. Two hundred fifty six adults seeking professional help were recruited in four PHCCs located in the Metropolitan Region. These people had a major depressive episode, identified with a structured psychiatric interview (MINI), and gave their informed consent to participate. Socio-demographic information was collected, depressive symptomatology was measured with the patient health questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), psychiatric morbidity was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and chronic physical diseases were self-reported by the patients. Descriptive analyses of all the variables were conducted. Seventy percent of patients had a history of depression, with a median of two prior depressive episodes. Depressive symptoms were mostly considered as moderate to severe and severe and 31% of the patients had high suicide risk. Seventy eight percent displayed a physical or psychiatric comorbidity. Of these patients, 29% only had a chronic physical comorbidity, while 46% suffered from an additional psychiatric disorder. Depressed individuals who seek help at PHCCs constitute an especially complex population that must be treated taking into account multiple comorbidities.

  19. Non-professional-help-seeking among young people with depression: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents and young adults often suffer from depression, but tend to avoid seeking professional help. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons for non-professional-help-seeking in a sample of young adults resident in Catalonia with depressive symptoms through a qualitative study. In addition, the subjects were invited to offer their recommendations for making mental health care services more accessible. Methods We recruited 105 young persons (17–21 years of age) who had participated in a national survey on adolescents. The sample was divided into thirds, with 37 who had a previous diagnosis of depression, 33 who had self-perceived emotional distress, and 35 controls. The participants were interviewed in depth about their reasons for avoiding professional mental health care services, and the interview results were analyzed using both qualitative and cultural domain techniques and corroborated through comparison with the results of three focus groups. Results Participants’ reasons for avoidance varied both by gender and according to prior experience with health services. Male study participants and female controls mainly understood depressive symptoms as normal and therefore not requiring treatment. Female participants with self-perceived distress were more likely to cite problems of access to treatment and fear of speaking to an unknown person about their problems. Females with a diagnosis expressed lack of trust in the benefits of treatment and fear of the social consequences of help-seeking. In their recommendations for best practices, the study participants suggested educational initiatives, as well as changes in the organization of mental health care services. Conclusions A better understanding of the views of young people and a greater effort to involve them as active participants is important for facilitating help-seeking in this age group, and for adapting mental health care services to adolescent users and their social context. PMID

  20. Interventions to improve cultural competency in health care for Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the USA: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Anton; McCalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Tsey, Komla

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the characteristics and reviews the methodological quality of interventions designed to improve cultural competency in health care for Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the USA. A total of 17 electronic databases and 13 websites for the period of 2002-13. Studies were included if they evaluated an intervention strategy designed to improve cultural competency in health care for Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, the USA or Canada. Information on the characteristics and methodological quality of included studies was extracted using standardized assessment tools. Sixteen published evaluations of interventions to improve cultural competency in health care for Indigenous peoples were identified: 11 for Indigenous peoples of the USA and 5 for Indigenous Australians. The main types of intervention strategies were education and training of the health workforce, culturally specific health programs and recruitment of an Indigenous health workforce. Main positive outcomes reported were improvements in health professionals' confidence, and patients' satisfaction with and access to health care. The methodological quality of evaluations and the reporting of key methodological criteria were variable. Particular problems included weak study designs, low or no reporting of consent rates, confounding and non-validated measurement instruments. There is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations on the effectiveness of interventions for improving cultural competency in health care for Indigenous peoples. Future evaluations should employ more rigorous study designs and extend their measurement of outcomes beyond those relating to health professionals, to those relating to the health of Indigenous peoples. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  1. Increased mortality among Indigenous persons in a multisite cohort of people living with HIV in Canada.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Anita C; Younger, Jaime; Beaver, Kerrigan; Jackson, Randy; Loutfy, Mona; Masching, Renée; Nobis, Tony; Nowgesic, Earl; O'Brien-Teengs, Doe; Whitebird, Wanda; Zoccole, Art; Hull, Mark; Jaworsky, Denise; Benson, Elizabeth; Rachlis, Anita; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N; Cooper, Curtis; Hogg, Robert S; Klein, Marina B; Machouf, Nima; Montaner, Julio S G; Tsoukas, Chris; Raboud, Janet

    2017-06-16

    Compare all-cause mortality between Indigenous participants and participants of other ethnicities living with HIV initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in an interprovincial multi-site cohort. The Canadian Observational Cohort is a collaboration of 8 cohorts of treatment-naïve persons with HIV initiating cART after January 1, 2000. Participants were followed from the cART initiation date until death or last viral load (VL) test date on or before December 31, 2012. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the effect of ethnicity on time until death after adjusting for age, gender, injection drug use, being a man who has sex with men, hepatitis C, province of origin, baseline VL and CD4 count, year of cART initiation and class of antiretroviral medication. The study sample consisted of 7080 participants (497 Indigenous, 2471 Caucasian, 787 African/Caribbean/Black (ACB), 629 other, and 2696 unknown ethnicity). Most Indigenous persons were from British Columbia (BC) (83%), with smaller numbers from Ontario (13%) and Québec (4%). During the study period, 714 (10%) participants died. The five-year survival probability was lower for Indigenous persons (0.77) than for Caucasian (0.94), ACB (0.98), other ethnicities (0.96) and unknown ethnicities (0.85) (p < 0.0001). In an adjusted proportional hazard model for which missing data were imputed, Indigenous persons were more likely to die than Caucasian participants (hazard ratio = 2.69, p < 0.0001). The mortality rate for Indigenous persons was higher than for other ethnicities and is largely reflective of the BC population. Addressing treatment challenges and identifying HIV- and non-HIV-related causes for mortality among Indigenous persons is required to optimize their clinical management.

  2. The Role of Cultural and Spiritual Expressions in Affirming a Sense of Self, Place, and Purpose among Young Urban, Indigenous Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Marian; Rymarz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This article sets out to discuss the impact that urban living has had on the lives of young Indigenous people. It will seek to discover some of the problems that occur when there is a meeting of two cultures, in this case the Indigenous culture of Australian Aboriginal people and the mainstream culture that has been derived largely from west…

  3. Double-burden of malnutrition among the indigenous peoples (Orang Asli) of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, C Y; Zalilah, M S; Chua, E Y; Norhasmah, S; Chin, Y S; Siti Nur'Asyura, A

    2015-07-21

    Double-burden of malnutrition (DBM) is an emerging public health concern among the Orang Asli (indigenous peoples) of Peninsular Malaysia. This study aimed to identify the presence of DBM at the community and household levels in Orang Asli population and its associated demographic and socio-economic factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 Orang Asli villages surrounding the Krau Wildlife Reserve, Peninsular of Malaysia from October 2011 to January 2012. Of 438 households, a total of 981 adults and 304 children who met the study criteria agreed to participate. About 160 households were further selected with pairs of children aged 3-59 months and non-pregnant mothers aged 15-55 years. Demographic and socio-economic data were obtained using interviewer-administered questionnaire while weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Double-burden of malnutrition was defined as overweight/obese mother-underweight child (OWOBM/UWC), overweight/obese mother-stunted child (OWOBM/STC) or overweight/obese mother-underweight or/and stunted child (OWOBM/UWSTC). Binary logistic regression identified the demographic and socio-economic factors associated with double-burden households. About 26 % of overweight and obese adults coexisting with high proportions of underweight (49%) and stunted (64%) children in these Orang Asli villages. There was a higher prevalence of households with OWOBM/UWSTC (20%) and OWOBM/STC (19.4%) than households with OWOBM/UWC (12.5%). Boys (P < 0.05), older age mothers (P < 0.05), mothers with higher education (P < 0.05) and households with income per capita less than USD 29.01 (RM 97.00) (P < 0.01) were associated with higher odds of OWOBM/STC. Jah Hut (P < 0.05) and higher number of children (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with lower odds of OWOBM/UWC. The occurrence of double-burden of malnutrition in Orang Asli population deserves attention. Poverty reduction, access to quality diet and

  4. Study Protocol – Diabetes and related conditions in urban Indigenous people in the Darwin, Australia region: aims, methods and participation in the DRUID Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Joan; O'Dea, Kerin; Dunbar, Terry; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a serious and increasing health problem in Australia and is a designated national health priority. Diabetes and related conditions represent an even greater health burden among Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders), but there are critical gaps in knowledge relating to the incidence and prevalence, aetiology, and prevention of diabetes in this group, including a lack of information on the burden of disease among Indigenous people in urban areas. The DRUID Study (Diabetes and Related conditions in Urban Indigenous people in the Darwin region) was designed to address this knowledge gap. Methods/design The study was conducted in a specified geographic area in and around Darwin, Australia. Eligible participants underwent a health examination, including collection of blood and urine samples, clinical and anthropometric measurements, and administration of questionnaires, with an additional assessment for people with diabetes. The study was designed to incorporate local Indigenous leadership, facilitate community engagement, and provide employment and training opportunities for local Indigenous people. A variety of recruitment methods were used. A total of 1,004 eligible people gave consent and provided at least one measurement. When compared with census data for the Indigenous population living in the study area, there was a marked under-representation of males, but no substantial differences in age, place of residence, Indigenous group, or household income. Early participants were more likely than later participants to have previously diagnosed diabetes. Discussion Despite lower than anticipated recruitment, this is, to our knowledge, the largest study ever conducted on the health of Indigenous Australians living in urban areas, a group which comprises the majority of Australia's Indigenous population but about whose health and wellbeing relatively little is known. The study is well-placed to provide new

  5. Indigenous Community-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen, Ed.

    After a long history as a tool of forced assimilation of indigenous populations, education is now a key arena in which indigenous peoples can reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures and thereby improve the academic success of indigenous students. Community-based education offers a means by which indigenous peoples can regain a measure of…

  6. Indigenous Community-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen, Ed.

    After a long history as a tool of forced assimilation of indigenous populations, education is now a key arena in which indigenous peoples can reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures and thereby improve the academic success of indigenous students. Community-based education offers a means by which indigenous peoples can regain a measure of…

  7. Shame as a barrier to health seeking among indigenous Huichol migrant labourers: an interpretive approach of the "violence continuum" and "authoritative knowledge".

    PubMed

    Gamlin, Jennie B

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses the manner in which social and historical factors impact upon indigenous conceptions of health and health-seeking behaviour, reinforcing their authoritative knowledge about birth and wellbeing. It explores how Mexican indigenous Huichol migrant labourers experience structural, everyday and symbolic violence while away working, and in their home communities. The study was based on semi-structured interviews and observations with 33 Huichol migrant labourers and 12 key informants from the community (traditional healthcare providers), health sector (medical doctors based in the highlands) and tobacco industry (farmers, tobacco union leader and pesticide sellers) during 2010-11. Findings show how the continuum of violence is experienced by these migrants as shame, timidity and humiliation, expressions of symbolic violence that have helped define their tradition of birthing alone and their feeling of entitlement to the conditional welfare payments which sustain their marginalised subsistence lifestyle. This paper proposes that there is a cyclical relationship between structural violence and authoritative knowledge as the former reinforces their adherence to a set of cultural beliefs and practices which are the basis of racial discrimination against them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adult Education and Indigenous People: Addressing Gender in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nitya; Robinson-Pant, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Adult education programmes developed for or by indigenous communities rarely seem to have addressed gender inequalities. Yet, compared to mainstream adult educational interventions promoting instrumental approaches to "functional literacy", such programmes often appear highly politicised, starting from a standpoint of promoting…

  9. The Formation of the World Council of Indigenous Peoples. IWGIA Document 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Douglas E.

    Once European sovereignty had been established, colonial powers regarded the affairs of the colonized area as "internal", meaning that indigenous rights were to be governed solely by the colonial power. It was George Manuel, a British Columbia Indian and President of the National Indian Brotherhood, 1970-76, who conceived the idea of an…

  10. The Formation of the World Council of Indigenous Peoples. IWGIA Document 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Douglas E.

    Once European sovereignty had been established, colonial powers regarded the affairs of the colonized area as "internal", meaning that indigenous rights were to be governed solely by the colonial power. It was George Manuel, a British Columbia Indian and President of the National Indian Brotherhood, 1970-76, who conceived the idea of an…

  11. Within High Schools--Influences on Retention among the Indigenous People of Northeast India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudussery, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative case study of three high schools was conducted to identify and profile school practices employed in educating a traditionally low-achieving subpopulation in northeast India. By the considerably higher than average retention and graduation rates among their students who come from indigenous tribal communities, these schools stand out…

  12. Cultural Safety Circles and Indigenous Peoples' Perspectives: Inclusive Practices for Participation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseron, Johnnie; Greymorning, S. Neyooxet; Miller, Adrian; Wilde, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous experiences, as found within traditional ways and cultural practices, are an acknowledgement of traditional methods for sharing, learning, and collective knowledge development and maintenance. The application of Cultural Safety Circles can help provide a collective space where definitions for cultural and educational exchange can take…

  13. Within High Schools--Influences on Retention among the Indigenous People of Northeast India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudussery, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative case study of three high schools was conducted to identify and profile school practices employed in educating a traditionally low-achieving subpopulation in northeast India. By the considerably higher than average retention and graduation rates among their students who come from indigenous tribal communities, these schools stand out…

  14. Coloniality and Cognitive Justice: Reinterpreting Formal Education for the Indigenous Peoples in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veintie, Truija

    2013-01-01

    This article examines intercultural bilingual education (IBE) as a reterritorialization of a globalized Western model of formal education into the Ecuadorian indigenous context. This reterritorialization is explored through an IBE teacher education institute. First, the article discusses the instructional practices that attempt to break with…

  15. Study protocol: national research partnership to improve primary health care performance and outcomes for Indigenous peoples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Strengthening primary health care is critical to reducing health inequity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The Audit and Best practice for Chronic Disease Extension (ABCDE) project has facilitated the implementation of modern Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) approaches in Indigenous community health care centres across Australia. The project demonstrated improvements in health centre systems, delivery of primary care services and in patient intermediate outcomes. It has also highlighted substantial variation in quality of care. Through a partnership between academic researchers, service providers and policy makers, we are now implementing a study which aims to 1) explore the factors associated with variation in clinical performance; 2) examine specific strategies that have been effective in improving primary care clinical performance; and 3) work with health service staff, management and policy makers to enhance the effective implementation of successful strategies. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in Indigenous community health centres from at least six States/Territories (Northern Territory, Western Australia, New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland and Victoria) over a five year period. A research hub will be established in each region to support collection and reporting of quantitative and qualitative clinical and health centre system performance data, to investigate factors affecting variation in quality of care and to facilitate effective translation of research evidence into policy and practice. The project is supported by a web-based information system, providing automated analysis and reporting of clinical care performance to health centre staff and management. Discussion By linking researchers directly to users of research (service providers, managers and policy makers), the partnership is well placed to generate new knowledge on effective strategies for improving the quality of primary health care and

  16. Information seeking over the course of illness: the experience of people with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Annie T

    2012-12-01

    Although there is literature addressing the fibromyalgia illness experience, there has been limited work concerning how people with fibromyalgia utilize health information. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the information needs and information-seeking patterns of such individuals, and how these might change over time. Data were collected through an online survey of fibromyalgia-related information behaviours (N = 190). The participants were recruited through two methods: an email invitation sent out over a university listserv including faculty, staff and students, and invitational posts on fibromyalgia discussion boards on various health-related websites. Respondents used the internet most frequently, but also placed great value on information from others, including healthcare practitioners, family and friends. Among the online sources, organization websites, health portals and health-related social networking sites were most frequently used. Topics of interest to people with fibromyalgia vary as they move from an initial stage of confusion, to diagnosis and eventually to a stage of equilibrium in which they are satisfied with their management of their condition. Aside from symptoms and treatments, topics often reflect a need to understand the meaning of their condition and coping skills. The areas of information need identified in the present study can be used to tailor patient education materials and information services to address contextual and temporal factors in the illness experiences of those with fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Security and subjective wellbeing: the experiences of unaccompanied young people seeking asylum in the UK.

    PubMed

    Chase, Elaine

    2013-07-01

    This article considers the relevance of the notion of ontological security - a sense of order, stability, routine and predictability to life - to contemporary conceptualisations of wellbeing. Drawing on in-depth interviews with unaccompanied young people seeking asylum in the UK, it demonstrates how a positive sense of self and being able to visualise a place and role in the world into the future were integral to their notion of wellbeing, offering an important counter to the pervasive sense of living in limbo. The article argues that this fundamental need for a projected self is largely neglected in contemporary discussions on wellbeing. To date the idea of security as a determinant of wellbeing has been primarily constructed around the notion of protection from harm and the provision of the requirements for physical, emotional, economic and social wellbeing in the here and now. Findings from this research suggest that those providing services and support to young people who have experienced trauma need to consider how they might best nurture in them a sense of place, belonging and security into the future. Equally, they have implications for how we conceptualise and operationalise wellbeing more generally.

  18. Associations between stigma and help-seeking intentions and beliefs: findings from an Australian national survey of young people.

    PubMed

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2013-12-30

    To reduce stigma and improve help seeking by young people for mental illness, we need a better understanding of the associations between various dimensions of stigma and young people's help-seeking intentions and helpfulness beliefs for various sources of help and for different disorders. This study assessed stigmatizing attitudes and help-seeking intentions and helpfulness beliefs via a national telephone survey of 3021 youths aged 15-25. Five stigma scales were used: social distance, personally held weak-not-sick and dangerousness beliefs, and weak-not-sick and dangerousness beliefs perceived in others. Respondents were presented with a vignette of a young person portraying depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, depression with alcohol abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, or psychosis. Beliefs that mental illness is a sign of personal weakness and preference for social distance were associated with less intention to seek professional help and less endorsement of their helpfulness. In contrast, dangerousness/unpredictability beliefs were associated with more intention to seek professional help and more endorsement of their helpfulness. Findings highlight the importance of examining the associations between different dimensions of stigma with different sources of help, specifically for various mental disorders, to better inform future efforts to reduce stigma and increase help seeking in young people. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recognising indigenous peoples values and knowledge systems in Geoheritage: Case studies from New Zealand and the South Pacific.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procter, Jonathan; Nemeth, Karoly

    2017-04-01

    Geological heritage or geoheritage focuses on the recognition and, to some extent, the protection of rocks, minerals, fossils, landforms, sediments, water and soils, and natural geomorphic processes that have some anthropomorphic value. These values are generally constrained by the geosite (sites of geological significance) having some scientific, educational, research and aesthetic significance. Criteria to determine the significance of a geosite are generally founded on conservation methodologies associated with ecology/biodiversity or the living components of the natural environment. These criteria presently focus on factors such as scale, scope and significance (from a scientific perspective). Very little value is attributed to the cultural connections of a geosite or the way a geosite has contributed to the development of a culture, its spirituality and understanding of the world. In the South Pacific, and in particular New Zealand, geosites and their related management (protection/conservation) mechanisms appear to be somewhat underutilized, possibly due to the fact that those mechanisms appear to the public as being initiatives related to the actions of the scientific community of which they may not consider themselves part. Indigenous communities of the South Pacific and New Zealand very rarely associate with the scientific community and view scientific methods as foreign to their own knowledge systems and worldviews. This generally results in conflict. In the South Pacific, the connection to volcanoes, volcanic landforms and features, and volcanic activity has been an important component to shaping various cultures over time. We present three case studies: (1) from Samoa that explores how important geosites are recorded through local knowledge repositories, (2) from the Auckland Volcanic Field where sites are being classified and protected with little recognition of indigenous peoples' values, and (3) from a UNESCO World Heritage Area that, while well

  20. Evidence for a comprehensive approach to Aboriginal tobacco control to maintain the decline in smoking: an overview of reviews among Indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Catherine; Perlen, Susan; Brennan, Sue; Rychetnik, Lucie; Thomas, David; Maddox, Raglan; Alam, Noore; Banks, Emily; Wilson, Andrew; Eades, Sandra

    2017-07-10

    Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of disease and premature mortality among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. While the daily smoking prevalence among Indigenous Australians has declined significantly from 49% in 2001, it remains about three times higher than that of non-Indigenous Australians (39 and 14%, respectively, for age ≥15 years in 2014-15). This overview of systematic reviews aimed to synthesise evidence about reducing tobacco consumption among Indigenous peoples using a comprehensive framework for Indigenous tobacco control in Australia comprised of the National Tobacco Strategy (NTS) and National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan (NATSIHP) principles and priorities. MEDLINE, EMBASE, systematic review and Indigenous health databases were searched (2000 to Jan 2016) for reviews examining the effects of tobacco control interventions among Indigenous peoples. Two reviewers independently screened reviews, extracted data, and assessed review quality using Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews. Data were synthesised narratively by framework domain. Reporting followed the PRISMA statement. Twenty-one reviews of varying quality were included. There was generally limited Indigenous-specific evidence of effective interventions for reducing smoking; however, many reviewers recommended multifaceted interventions which incorporate Indigenous leadership, partnership and engagement and cultural tailoring. Under the NTS priority areas, reviewers reported evidence for brief smoking cessation interventions and pharmacological support, mass media campaigns (on knowledge and attitudes) and reducing affordability and regulation of tobacco sales. Aspects of intervention implementation related to the NATSIHP domains were less well described and evidence was limited; however, reviewers suggested that cultural tailoring, holistic approaches and building workforce capacity were important strategies to address

  1. Indigenous People and Development in Latin America: A Literature Survey and Recommendations. Latin American Monograph & Document Series 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, J. Montgomery; Frechione, John; DeWalt, Billie R.

    This report presents findings and conclusions gleaned from a review of 42 cases of indigenous development in Latin America. Findings indicate that the lack of a legal framework for indigenous rights presents a basic obstacle to indigenous self-development; the most common aspect of successful indigenous development was involvement of indigenous…

  2. Ethnic density, health care seeking behaviour and expected discrimination from health services among ethnic minority people in England.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Das-Munshi, Jayati

    2013-07-01

    The health of ethnic minority people is reported to be poorer in areas of lower ethnic density. Based on this literature, higher rates of health seeking behaviours would be expected among ethnic minorities resident in neighbourhoods of lower ethnic density. Should health seeking not increase in areas of lower ethnic density, a possible explanation might be that ethnic minority people resident in these neighbourhoods are not accessing services for fear of racial discrimination. The present study examined this hypothesis using two nationally-representative surveys from England. Health seeking behaviour did not vary by ethnic density. Lower ethnic density was associated with increased reports of expected discrimination from services, but also with increased satisfaction with services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Cedar Project WelTel mHealth intervention for HIV prevention in young Indigenous people who use illicit drugs: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jongbloed, Kate; Friedman, Anton J; Pearce, Margo E; Van Der Kop, Mia L; Thomas, Vicky; Demerais, Lou; Pooyak, Sherri; Schechter, Martin T; Lester, Richard T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2016-03-09

    Despite successes in preventing and treating HIV, Indigenous people in Canada continue to face disproportionately high rates of HIV infection. Programs that support healing from lifetime trauma, support connection to culture, and reduce drug-related harms are critical to preventing HIV among young Indigenous people who use drugs. The Cedar Project WelTel mHealth intervention proposed here is a structured mobile-phone initiative to connect young Indigenous people who use drugs with Cedar Case Managers in a community-based setting. The intervention consists of a package of supports, including a mobile phone and cellular plan, weekly two-way text messaging, and support from Cedar Case Managers. The Cedar Project WelTel mHealth study is a multi-site Zelen pre-randomized trial to measure the effect of a two-way supportive text-message intervention to reduce HIV vulnerability among young Indigenous people who use illicit drugs in two Canadian cities. The trial is nested within the Cedar Project, an ongoing cohort study addressing HIV and hepatitis C vulnerability among young Indigenous people who use drugs in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia. The Cedar Project Partnership, an independent body of Indigenous Elders, leaders, and health/social service experts, governs all aspects of the study. Two hundred participants will be followed over a 16-month period, with HIV propensity score at 6 months as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes include HIV propensity at 1 year, HIV risk, resilience, psychological distress, access to drug-related services, and connection to culture measured at 6 months and 1 year. Primary analysis is by intention to treat. Culturally safe interventions that address barriers to HIV prevention while supporting the strength of young Indigenous people who use drugs are urgently needed. Despite presenting a tremendous opportunity to connect young, highly transient Indigenous people who use drugs to prevention services, supportive two-way m

  4. A bibliometric review of drug and alcohol research focused on Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Anton; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States experience a disproportionately high burden of harms from substance misuse. Research is therefore required to improve our understanding of substance use in Indigenous populations and provide evidence on strategies effective for reducing harmful use. A search of 13 electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2014 focusing on substance use and Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States. Relevant abstracts were classified as data or non-data based research. Data-based studies were further classified as measurement, descriptive or intervention and their trends examined by country and drug type. Intervention studies were classified by type and their evaluation designs classified using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) data collection checklist. There was a statistically significant increase from 1993 to 2014 in the percentage of total publications that were data-based (P < 0.001). Overall, data-based publications were mostly descriptive for all countries (84-93%) and drug types (74-95%). There were fewer measurement (0-4%) and intervention (0-14%) publications for all countries and the percentage of these did not change significantly over time. Forty-two percent of intervention studies employed an EPOC evaluation design. Strategies to increase the frequency and quality of measurement and intervention research in the Indigenous drug and alcohol field are required. The dominance of descriptive research in the Indigenous drug and alcohol field is less than optimal for generating evidence to inform Indigenous drug and alcohol policy and programs. [Clifford A, Shakeshaft A. A bibliometric review of drug and alcohol research focused on Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:509-522]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other

  5. Acculturation and self-rated health among Arctic indigenous peoples: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acculturation is for indigenous peoples related to the process of colonisation over centuries as well as the on-going social transition experienced in the Arctic today. Changing living conditions and lifestyle affect health in numerous ways in Arctic indigenous populations. Self-rated health (SRH) is a relevant variable in primary health care and in general public health assessments and monitoring. Exploring the relationship between acculturation and SRH in indigenous populations having experienced great societal and cultural change is thus of great importance. Methods The principal method in the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA) was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, whilst a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. Acculturation was conceptualised as certain traditional subsistence activities being of lesser importance for people’s ethnic identity, and poorer spoken indigenous language ability (SILA). Acculturation was included in six separate gender- and country-specific ordinal logistic regressions to assess qualitative effects on SRH. Results Multivariable analyses showed that acculturation significantly predicted poorer SRH in Greenland. An increased subsistence score gave an OR of 2.32 (P<0.001) for reporting poorer SRH among Greenlandic men, while an increased score for Greenlandic women generated an OR of 1.71 (P=0.01). Poorer SILA generated an OR of 1.59 in men (p=0.03). In Alaska, no evidence of acculturation effects was detected among Iñupiaq men. Among Iñupiaq women, an increased subsistence score represented an increased odds of 73% (p=0.026) for reporting poorer SRH. No significant effects of acculturation on SRH were detected in Norway. Conclusions This study shows that aggregate acculturation is a strong risk factor for poorer SRH among the Kalaallit of Greenland and female Iñupiat of Alaska, but

  6. Characteristics and response to treatment among Indigenous people receiving injectable diacetylmorphine or hydromorphone in a randomised controlled trial for the treatment of long-term opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Palis, Heather; Guh, Daphne; Marchand, Kirsten; Brissette, Suzanne; Lock, Kurt; MacDonald, Scott; Harrison, Scott; Anis, Aslam H; Krausz, Michael; Marsh, David C; Schechter, Martin T

    2017-06-08

    To determine the effectiveness of injectable hydromorphone and dicaetylmorphine for Indigenous participants in the Study to Assess Longer-term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME) clinical trial. The study additionally aims to explore the prevalence and frequency of crack cocaine use among subgroups of participants (by gender and ethnicity). This secondary analysis is particularly relevant given the current need for expanded medication assisted treatments for opioid dependence across North America. Participants self-identifying as First Nations, Métis or Inuit were included in the analysis of Indigenous participants. Six-month treatment outcomes are reported as the difference between diacetylmorphine and hydromorphone treatment arms among Indigenous participants and change from baseline to 6 months in each treatment arm. Differences in outcomes are tested between Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants. Crack cocaine use was explored to determine differences between and within subgroups. Approximately one-third of SALOME participants self-identified as Indigenous. Indigenous participants presented to treatment with more structural vulnerabilities (e.g. lower education, higher rates of foster care and separation from biological parents) compared to non-Indigenous participants. After 6 months, Indigenous participants in both treatment arms had a significant reduction in days of street heroin use, opioid use, crack cocaine use and illegal activity. Treatment retention did not differ by treatment arm. Indigenous people that are not engaged by first-line treatments for opioid dependence are in need of effective alternative treatments. Given the political and logistical barriers facing diacetylmorphine, hydromorphone could serve as a more accessible medication to reach and treat this population. [Oviedo-Joekes E, Palis H, Guh D, Marchand K, Brissette S, Lock K, MacDonald S, Harrison S, Anis AH, Krausz M, March DC, Schechter MT. Characteristics and response to

  7. Service and infrastructure needs to support recovery programmes for Indigenous community mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Jan M; Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Burmeister, Oliver K

    2017-04-01

    Mental health is a major concern in Indigenous communities, as Indigenous people experience poorer health outcomes generally, and poorer social and emotional well-being throughout their lives, compared to non-Indigenous populations. Interviews were conducted with 20 mental health workers from a housing assistance programme for Indigenous clients with mental illness. Service and infrastructure needs identified to support clients were classified under the following overarching theme 'supports along the road to recovery'. Subthemes were: (i) It is OK to seek help; (ii) linking in to the local community; (iii) trusting the workers; and (iv) help with goal setting and having activities that support their achievement. This paper highlights the importance of targeted housing and accommodation support programmes for Indigenous people to prevent homelessness, and the essential services and infrastructure required to support Indigenous clients' mental health needs. These insights may inform service review, workforce development, and further research. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  8. Vecinos y Rehabilitation: Assessing the Needs of Indigenous People with Disabilities in Mexico. Final Report [English Version] = Vecinos y Rehabilitation: Evaluacion de las Necesidades de los Indigenas con Discapacidades en Mexico. Reporte Final [Version en Espanol].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine A.; And Others

    Available in English and Spanish, this document reports on a survey of the circumstances and needs of disabled indigenous people in Oaxaca state, Mexico. Assisted by a Oaxaca disabilities consumer organization and an advisory committee of government officials, health care educators, community service providers, and indigenous people with…

  9. Schooling and Identity: A Qualitative Analysis of Self-Portrait Drawings of Young Indigenous People from Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Guitart, Moises; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar; Perera, Santiago; Bastiani, José

    2017-01-01

    One of the features associated with schooling and formal education is their decontextualized nature, a characteristic that has been related to the advancement of logical abstract thinking. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast self-portraits through the graphical representations and verbal explanations made by young indigenous people from the Altos de Chiapas with different educational levels ranging from primary school to university. Participants were of the same age. The results show the abstract nature (as opposed to the concrete character) of some of the self-portraits made by the group of university students and the prevalence of individual aspects (rather than social contextual factors) especially within this same group. PMID:28119664

  10. Schooling and Identity: A Qualitative Analysis of Self-Portrait Drawings of Young Indigenous People from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Guitart, Moises; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar; Perera, Santiago; Bastiani, José

    2016-01-01

    One of the features associated with schooling and formal education is their decontextualized nature, a characteristic that has been related to the advancement of logical abstract thinking. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast self-portraits through the graphical representations and verbal explanations made by young indigenous people from the Altos de Chiapas with different educational levels ranging from primary school to university. Participants were of the same age. The results show the abstract nature (as opposed to the concrete character) of some of the self-portraits made by the group of university students and the prevalence of individual aspects (rather than social contextual factors) especially within this same group.

  11. Do physical activity interventions in Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand improve activity levels and health outcomes? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sushames, Ashleigh; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Gebel, Klaus

    2016-12-21

    Indigenous Australians and New Zealanders have a significantly shorter life expectancy than non-Indigenous people, mainly due to differences in prevalence of chronic diseases. Physical activity helps in the prevention and management of chronic diseases, however, activity levels are lower in Indigenous than in non-Indigenous people. To synthesise the literature on the effects of physical activity interventions for Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand on activity levels and health outcomes. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, SPORTSDiscus and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed articles and grey literature was searched. Interventions targeted Indigenous people in Australia or New Zealand aged 18+ years and their primary or secondary aim was to increase activity levels. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. Risk of bias was assessed independently by two authors. Data were synthesised narratively. 407 records were screened and 13 studies included. Interventions included individual and group based exercise programs and community lifestyle interventions of four weeks to two years. Six studies assessed physical activity via subjective (n = 4) or objective (n = 2) measures, with significant improvements in one study. Weight and BMI were assessed in all but one study, with significant reductions reported in seven of 12 studies. All five studies that used fitness tests reported improvements, as did four out of eight measuring blood pressure and seven out of nine in clinical markers. There was no clear evidence for an effect of physical activity interventions on activity levels, however, there were positive effects on activity related fitness and health outcomes. The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42015016915 ).

  12. Reclaiming Indigenous Representations and Knowledges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke-Barnes, Judy; Danard, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This article explores contemporary Indigenous artists', activists', and scholars' use of the Internet to reclaim Indigenous knowledge, culture, art, history, and worldview; critique the political realities of dominant discourse; and address the genocidal history and ongoing repression of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Internet examples include…

  13. Reclaiming Indigenous Representations and Knowledges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke-Barnes, Judy; Danard, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This article explores contemporary Indigenous artists', activists', and scholars' use of the Internet to reclaim Indigenous knowledge, culture, art, history, and worldview; critique the political realities of dominant discourse; and address the genocidal history and ongoing repression of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Internet examples include…

  14. Primary health concept revisited: where do people seek health care in a rural area of Vietnam?

    PubMed

    Khe, N D; Toan, N V; Xuan, L T T; Eriksson, B; Höjer, B; Diwan, V K

    2002-07-01

    The government of Vietnam is committed to promote and secure equity in access to health care for all citizens. The current rapid changes towards a market economy may challenge the government's wish for maintaining equity, especially for low income and vulnerable groups. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of access and utilisation of health care of rural people. The study included a random sample of 1075 out of the 11,547 households in the Field Laboratory in Bavi district, northern Vietnam and a structured questionnaire was used. The results indicate that self-treatment is common practice and private providers are an important source of health services not only for those who are better off but also for poor households. The costs for health care are substantial for households, and lower income groups spent a significantly higher proportion of their income on health care than the rich did. The poor are deterred from seeking health care more often than the rich and for financial reason. As regards sources for payments, the poor relied much more on borrowing money to pay for their health care needs, while those who are better off relied mostly on household savings. A burden of high cost for treatment implies high risks for families to fall into a 'medical poverty trap'. Our findings suggest a need for developing risk-sharing schemes (co-payment, pre-payment and insurance), and appropriate allocation of scarce public resources. We suggest that the private health care sector needs both support and regulations to improve the quality and access to health care by the poor.

  15. Developing community mental health services for indigenous people of northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ward, J A

    1991-01-01

    Inadequacies of three common models of mental health service delivery have been presented but each of these can contribute to an adequate system if the approach aims at the totality of mental health care. The key to service delivery and the provision of services in the local community by adequately trained and supervised mental health workers familiar with the culture and language and who are involved with other community workers in an inter-agency process. A major and the most important part of the work occurs in this level. This front line work must have the back-up and support of the system which has three roots. The clinical root is that of a support team of professionals, the local nursing station, hospital and the tertiary institutions. The second root is in training and education by recognized courses and other resources and the third in an adequate administration in which the indigenous population has been put in control.

  16. Healthcare access and health beliefs of the indigenous peoples in remote Amazonian Peru.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Charlotte K; Suarez, Nicolas; Arora, Gitanjli; Graham, Devon

    2014-01-01

    Little is published about the health issues of traditional communities in the remote Peruvian Amazon. This study assessed healthcare access, health perceptions, and beliefs of the indigenous population along the Ampiyacu and Yaguasyacu rivers in north-eastern Peru. One hundred and seventy-nine adult inhabitants of 10 remote settlements attending health clinics were interviewed during a medical services trip in April 2012. Demographics, health status, access to healthcare, health education, sanitation, alcohol use, and smoke exposure were recorded. Our findings indicate that poverty, household overcrowding, and poor sanitation remain commonplace in this group. Furthermore, there are poor levels of health education and on-going barriers to accessing healthcare. Healthcare access and health education remain poor in the remote Peruvian Amazon. This combined with poverty and its sequelae render this population vulnerable to disease.

  17. Healthcare Access and Health Beliefs of the Indigenous Peoples in Remote Amazonian Peru

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, Charlotte K.; Suarez, Nicolas; Arora, Gitanjli; Graham, Devon

    2014-01-01

    Little is published about the health issues of traditional communities in the remote Peruvian Amazon. This study assessed healthcare access, health perceptions, and beliefs of the indigenous population along the Ampiyacu and Yaguasyacu rivers in north-eastern Peru. One hundred and seventy-nine adult inhabitants of 10 remote settlements attending health clinics were interviewed during a medical services trip in April 2012. Demographics, health status, access to healthcare, health education, sanitation, alcohol use, and smoke exposure were recorded. Our findings indicate that poverty, household overcrowding, and poor sanitation remain commonplace in this group. Furthermore, there are poor levels of health education and on-going barriers to accessing healthcare. Healthcare access and health education remain poor in the remote Peruvian Amazon. This combined with poverty and its sequelae render this population vulnerable to disease. PMID:24277789

  18. Cancer disparities in indigenous Polynesian populations: Māori, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific people.

    PubMed

    Dachs, Gabi U; Currie, Margaret J; McKenzie, Fiona; Jeffreys, Mona; Cox, Brian; Foliaki, Sunia; Le Marchand, Loïc; Robinson, Bridget A

    2008-05-01

    Polynesia consists of several islands that are scattered across a vast triangle in the Pacific, and include New Zealand, Hawaii, and the Pacific islands. There are reported differences in the types of cancer and epidemiologies seen among communities in these islands, the reasons for which are diverse and complex. In this Review, we describe patterns of cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in indigenous populations compared with populations of European origin in Polynesia, and highlight the limited available data for Pacific populations. Additionally, we document the current knowledge of the underlying biology of cancers in these populations, and report risk factors that differ between ethnicities, including smoking, viral infections, and obesity. Disparities in measures of health are highlighted, as are evident differences in knowledge of tumour biology and cancer management between majority and minority populations.

  19. Multicultural social policy and community participation in health: new opportunities and challenges for indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2012-01-01

    Community participation in local health has assumed a central role in the reforms of public healthcare, being increasingly associated with the issue of decentralization of the health system. The aim of this paper is to raise questions regarding the structural approaches to multicultural social policy in Chile and to analyze the results of its implementation. The article analyzes the case study of Makewe Hospital, one of the pioneering experiences of intercultural health initiative in Chile. The Makewe Hospital, which involves the indigenous community of the Mapuche, provides interesting insights to understand the dynamics of multicultural social policy and presents an example of a successful initiative that has succeeded in involving local communities in multicultural health policy. This case study discusses the effectiveness of grassroots participation in multicultural healthcare provision and presents the main strengths and challenges for the replicability of this experience in other settings.

  20. Las bases y fundamentos del derecho indigena del pueblo maya de Guatemala (The Foundations and Principles of Indigenous Rights of the Maya People of Guatemala).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Marcela; Chavajay, Miriam

    2000-01-01

    The Guatemalan peace accord recognizes the institutions and local authorities of indigenous peoples, as well as their customs, common lands, and the "customary right" (common law) that structures intracommunity relations. However, it is difficult to define "customary right" and its applications and limits. A systematic study of…

  1. Vecinos y Rehabilitation (Phase II): Assessing the Needs and Resources of Indigenous People with Disabilities in the Mixteca Region of Oaxaca, Mexico. Final Report. [English Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine A.; Gotto, George S., IV

    This report describes the second phase of a project that identified the circumstances and needs of disabled indigenous people in three geographic areas of Oaxaca state, Mexico. Assisted by a Mixteca disabilities consumer organization and an advisory committee of government officials, health care educators, community service providers, and…

  2. Las bases y fundamentos del derecho indigena del pueblo maya de Guatemala (The Foundations and Principles of Indigenous Rights of the Maya People of Guatemala).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Marcela; Chavajay, Miriam

    2000-01-01

    The Guatemalan peace accord recognizes the institutions and local authorities of indigenous peoples, as well as their customs, common lands, and the "customary right" (common law) that structures intracommunity relations. However, it is difficult to define "customary right" and its applications and limits. A systematic study of…

  3. Language Shift of Taiwan's Indigenous Peoples: A Case Study of Kanakanavu and Saaroa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dorinda Tsai-Hsiu; Chang, Ying-Hwa; Li, Paul Jen-Kuei; Lin, Ji-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study covers two issues: (1) the language shift process relating to two highly endangered aboriginal languages of Taiwan and (2) the correlations between some variables and their language shift. Both Kanakanavu and Saaroa peoples underwent two waves of migration: (1) a massive in-migration of another Formosan ethnic group (Bunun people) in…

  4. Language Shift of Taiwan's Indigenous Peoples: A Case Study of Kanakanavu and Saaroa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dorinda Tsai-Hsiu; Chang, Ying-Hwa; Li, Paul Jen-Kuei; Lin, Ji-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study covers two issues: (1) the language shift process relating to two highly endangered aboriginal languages of Taiwan and (2) the correlations between some variables and their language shift. Both Kanakanavu and Saaroa peoples underwent two waves of migration: (1) a massive in-migration of another Formosan ethnic group (Bunun people) in…

  5. Working with racism: a qualitative study of the perspectives of Māori (indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand) registered nurses on a global phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Huria, Tania; Cuddy, Jessica; Lacey, Cameron; Pitama, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    Substantial health disparities exist between Māori--the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand--and non-Māori New Zealanders. This article explores the experience and impact of racism on Māori registered nurses within the New Zealand health system. The narratives of 15 Māori registered nurses were analyzed to identify the effects of racism. This Māori nursing cohort and the data on racism form a secondary analysis drawn from a larger research project investigating the experiences of indigenous health workers in New Zealand and Canada. Jones's levels of racism were utilized as a coding frame for the structural analysis of the transcribed Māori registered nurse interviews. Participants experienced racism on institutional, interpersonal, and internalized levels, leading to marginalization and being overworked yet undervalued. Māori registered nurses identified a lack of acknowledgement of dual nursing competencies: while their clinical skills were validated, their cultural skills-their skills in Hauora Māori--were often not. Experiences of racism were a commonality. Racism--at every level--can be seen as highly influential in the recruitment, training, retention, and practice of Māori registered nurses. The nursing profession in New Zealand and other countries of indigenous peoples needs to acknowledge the presence of racism within training and clinical environments as well as supporting indigenous registered nurses to develop and implement indigenous dual cultural-clinical competencies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Indigenous knowledge of plants in local healthcare management practices by tribal people of Malda district, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Sarker, Dilip De; Kar, Pallab; Gupta, Piyali Sen; Sen, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed at exploring the indigenous knowledge of native tribes on the utilization of wild plant species for local healthcare management in Malda district of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Successive field surveys were carried out from July 2012 to August 2013 in search of traditional healers or practitioners who ceaselessly use their worthy knowledge to treat several ailments for human purposes. The information was collected by means of open-ended conversations, semi-structured questionnaire, group discussion, etc. Information obtained from the informants was also cross verified to check the authenticity. Results: The present study revealed that a total of 53 medicinal plants belonging to the 37 families are frequently used to treat 44 types of ailments with 88 herbal preparations. Of 53 plants, herbs possess the highest growth forms (32%) that were used in making traditional preparation, followed by shrubs (24%), trees (23%), climbers (17%), and parasites (4%). Roots comprised the major plant parts used (25%), followed by leaves (21%), seeds (17%), bark (13%), whole plant (8%) and fruits (6%) to prepare the medicinal formulations. The chief ailments treated in this province were azoospermia, diabetes, menstrual disorder, dysentery, rheumatism, etc. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the documentation of the ethnobotanical knowledge in management of local healthcare is the first step, which will open new door for the researchers in the field of modern drug development. PMID:26401370

  7. Medical pluralism among indigenous peoples in northeast India - implications for health policy.

    PubMed

    Albert, Sandra; Nongrum, Melari; Webb, Emily L; Porter, John D H; Kharkongor, Glenn C

    2015-07-01

    The government of India is promoting and increasing investment in the traditional medicine systems of Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) in the northeast region of India. But there are few empirical data that support this policy decision. This study estimates the awareness and use of the different medical systems in rural Meghalaya, a state in north-east India with a predominantly ethnic tribal population. We conducted a cross-sectional multistage random sample household survey across all districts of Meghalaya. To enable appropriate estimates for the whole of rural Meghalaya, the data were weighted to allow for the probability of selection of households at each stage of the sampling process. Both local tribal medicine and biomedicine were widely accepted and used, but the majority (68.7%, 95% CI: 51.9-81.7) had not heard of AYUSH and even fewer had used it. Tribal medicine was used (79.1%, 95% CI 66.3-88.0), thought to be effective (87.5%, 95% CI: 74.2-94.1) and given in a variety of disorders, including both minor and major diseases. In the 3 months prior to the survey, 46.2% (95% CI: 30.5-62.8) had used tribal medicine. Only 10.5% (95% CI: 6.1-17.6) reported ever using any of the AYUSH systems. Our comparative estimates of the awareness and use of tribal medicine, different systems of AYUSH and of biomedicine among indigenous populations of India question the basis on which AYUSH is promoted in the northeast region of India and in the state of Meghalaya in particular. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Dental caries and treatment needs among indigenous people of the Potiguara Indian reservation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Freitas, Cláudia Helena Soares de Morais; Cabral, Matilde Barbosa de Farias; Machado, Ana Thereza de Azevedo Britto

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the caries prevalence and treatment needs of Brazilian indigenous residents on an Indian reservation. This cross-sectional study comprised 1 461 individuals of ages 18-36 months and 5, 12, 15-19, 35-44, and 65-74 years living in the Potiguara Indian villages of Brazil. Decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and deciduous teeth (dmft) were determined by calibrated examiners using the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization. Treatment needs were assessed with the guidelines of the 2003 Brazilian Oral Health Survey. Means + or - standard deviations (SD) for dmft of 18- to 36-month-old and 5-year-old children were 2.5 + or - 3.7 and 5.8 + or - 4.3, respectively. For the age groups 12, 15-19, 35-44, and 65-74 years, mean + or - SD values of DMFT were 3.6 + or - 3.1, 7.1 + or - 4.9, 16.4 + or - 7.5, and 22.8 + or - 8.6. The mean + or - SD number of deciduous teeth requiring treatment varied from 2.4 + or - 3.5 to 5.0 + or - 4.0 in the 18- to 36-month and 5-year-old age groups, respectively. Among adolescents and adults, it was observed that on average at least three permanent teeth required dental treatment such as fillings, crowns, endodontic treatment, and extractions. High prevalence of caries and many teeth needing treatment were observed in all age groups of the Potiguara Indians.

  9. Understanding help-seeking decisions in people with heart failure: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander M; Savard, Lori A; Spaling, Melisa A; Heath, Stephanie; Duncan, Amanda S; Spiers, Judith A

    2012-12-01

    To understand the process of help-seeking among heart failure patients from the perspectives of patients, caregivers and health professionals. Systematic review using qualitative meta-synthesis. A systematic search (20th May 2011) was conducted to identify studies published in English as full papers ≥1995 reporting primary qualitative data with extractable heart failure-specific data or themes related to help-seeking in patients, caregivers or health professionals. Databases searched were: CINAHL, Medline, PsycInfo, Social Science Citation Index, Embase, Social policy/Practice, SocIndex, Ageline, Health Source Nursing, Scopus; additionally, we consulted with experts and manually searched references. 58 studies (990 patients; 274 female, 527 male, 189 sex not described; 229 caregivers, 79 health professionals) were included. Heart failure help-seeking was embedded in daily experiences of heart failure but ongoing symptoms were confusing, ambiguous and disruptive; little support was available from professionals to interpret the presence and significance of fluctuations in symptoms for help-seeking. Other significant barriers to help-seeking were: avoidance-based coping, fear of hospitals and misplaced reluctance to be burdensome. Help-seeking was facilitated by good involvement and frank communication between patients, caregivers and health professionals and the presence of a sense of elevated personal risk. Health services should harness primary care providers and support patients and caregivers to prioritize development of objective symptom monitoring skills, recognize and personally assimilate the elevated risks of heart failure and help-seeking delays and discourage avoidance-based coping and unwarranted concerns that downplay the significance of heart failure and urgency to address symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding symptom appraisal and help-seeking in people with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katie; Birt, Linda; Hall, Nicola; Banks, Jonathan; Johnson, Margaret; Lancaster, John; Hamilton, William; Rubin, Greg P

    2017-01-01

    Objective Pancreatic cancer has poor survival rates due to non-specific symptoms leading to later diagnosis. Understanding how patients interpret their symptoms could inform approaches to earlier diagnosis. This study sought to explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking among patients referred to secondary care for symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer. Design Qualitative analysis of semistructured in-depth interviews. Data were analysed iteratively and thematically, informed by the Model of Pathways to Treatment. Participants and setting Pancreatic cancer occurs rarely in younger adults, therefore patients aged ≥40 years were recruited from nine hospitals after being referred to hospital with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer; all were participants in a cohort study. Interviews were conducted soon after referral, and where possible, before diagnosis. Results Twenty-six interviews were conducted (cancer n=13 (pancreas n=9, other intra-abdominal n=4), non-cancer conditions n=13; age range 48–84 years; 14 women). Time from first symptoms to first presentation to healthcare ranged from 1 day to 270 days, median 21 days. We identified three main themes. Initial symptom appraisal usually began with intermittent, non-specific symptoms such as tiredness or appetite changes, attributed to diet and lifestyle, existing gastrointestinal conditions or side effects of medication. Responses to initial symptom appraisal included changes in meal type or frequency, or self-medication. Symptom changes such as alterations in appetite and enjoyment of food or weight loss usually prompted further appraisal. Triggers to seek help included a change or worsening of symptoms, particularly pain, which was often a ‘tipping point’. Help-seeking was often encouraged by others. We found no differences in symptom appraisal and help-seeking between people diagnosed with cancer and those with other conditions. Conclusions Greater public and healthcare professional awareness of

  11. Health and indigenous people: intercultural health as a new paradigm toward the reduction of cultural and social marginalization?

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2010-01-01

    The precarious socio-economic and health conditions of indigenous populations legitimize claims of marginalization and attest to the inherent inequality that indigenous groups suffer. In the last few years, advocates have urged the use of traditional indigenous health practices as more culturally fitting for most indigenous populations. An intercultural health program can reduce the conditions of social and cultural marginalization in an indigenous population. However, accepting and integrating indigenous medicine into a westernized health system presents a major challenge to intercultural healthcare in Latin America. The objective of this paper is to analyze the case of Makewe hospital, one of the first and few examples of intercultural health initiatives in Chile. The paper will examine the implementation of this initiative and the main challenges in creating an effective intercultural health program.

  12. Breaking down barriers to eye care for Indigenous people: a new scheme for delivery of eye care in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Napper, Genevieve; Fricke, Tim; Anjou, Mitchell D; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the implementation of and outcomes from a new spectacle subsidy scheme and de-centralised care options for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme (VASSS) commenced in 2010, as an additional subsidy to the long-established Victorian Eyecare Service (VES). The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme aimed to improve access to and uptake of affordable spectacles and eye examinations by Indigenous Victorians. The scheme is overseen by a committee convened by the Victorian Government's Department of Health and Human Services and includes eye-health stakeholders from the Aboriginal community and government, not-for-profit, university and Aboriginal communities. Key features of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme include reduced and certain patient co-payments of $10, expanded spectacle frame range, broadened eligibility and community participation in service design and implementation. We describe the services implemented by the Australian College of Optometry (ACO) in Victoria and their impact on access to eye-care services. In 2014, optometric services were available at 36 service sites across Victoria, including 21 Aboriginal Health Services (AHS) sites. Patient services have increased from 400 services per year in 2009, to 1,800 services provided in 2014. During the first three years of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme program (2010 to 2013), 4,200 pairs of glasses (1,400 pairs per year) were provided. Further funding to 2016/17 will lift the number of glasses to be delivered to 6,600 pairs (1,650 per year). This compares to population projected needs of 2,400 pairs per year. Overcoming the barriers to using eye-care services by Indigenous people can be difficult and resource intensive; however the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme provides an example of positive outcomes achieved through carefully designed and

  13. Load Lugging Locomotion: Lessons from Indigenous People, Rhino Beetles, and Wallabies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    tendons . People are better able to utilize the inverted pendulum mechanism when loads are carried on the head and this method allows small loads to be...the first half of stance, both forms of energy are stored as elastic spring energy primarily in the tendons of the leg extensor muscles. During the...second half of the stance phase of running, the tendons recoil and the elastic energy is converted back into gravitational and kinetic energy. Tendons can

  14. Identifying barriers to help-seeking for non-motor symptoms in people with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Catherine S; Rixon, Lorna; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Moss-Morris, Rona; Samuel, Mike; Brown, Richard G

    2016-12-01

    Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease have a significant impact on quality of life. Despite this, many non-motor symptoms remain unreported by patients and consequently untreated. This study explored barriers to help-seeking using two theoretical frameworks, the Common Sense Model of illness perception and Theoretical Domains Framework. A total of 20 participants completed semi-structured interviews to explore symptom beliefs and help-seeking behaviour. Uncertainty about the relationship of non-motor symptoms to Parkinson's disease and lack of clarity around treatments were common. Embarrassment and communication difficulties were common for potentially sensitive symptoms such as sexual dysfunction. Symptom perceptions and beliefs about help-seeking acted as barriers to reporting non-motor symptoms.

  15. Using Q-methodology to explore people's health seeking behavior and perception of the quality of primary care services.

    PubMed

    Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S; Sondorp, Egbert

    2014-01-06

    Information on health seeking behavior and beneficiaries' perception of the quality of primary care can help policy makers to set strategies to improve health system. With scarcity of research on this particular field in Iraqi Kurdistan region, we sought to explore the patterns of health seeking behavior and perception of the quality of primary care services of a sample of population. This explorative study was carried out in Erbil governorate, Iraq. Data were collected using the novel approach of Q-methodology for eliciting subjective viewpoints and identifying shared patterns among individuals. Forty persons representing different demographic and socioeconomic groups and living in different areas of Erbil governorate sorted 50 statements reflecting different aspects of health-seeking behavior and primary care services into a distribution on a scale of nine from "disagree most" to "agree most". By-person factor analysis through centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation of factors were used to derive latent viewpoints. Four distinct patterns of health seeking behavior and viewpoints toward the primary care services were identified. People in factor 1 are extremely critical of the services at primary health care centers and are regular users of the private health sector. People in factor 2 positively recognize the services at primary health care centers but mainly turn to inappropriate health seeking behavior. People in factor 3 have satisfaction with the services at primary health care centers with minimal use of these services, but mainly turn to the private sector. People in factor 4 are slightly satisfied with the services at primary health care centers but mainly rely on these services. This study highlighted the typical characterizations that were associated with each uncovered factor. Informing on the beneficiaries' concerns about the primary care services can help to improve the system through further exploring the issues raised by the respondents and

  16. Not of African Descent: Dental Modification among Indigenous Caribbean People from Canímar Abajo, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Alarie, Kaitlynn; Rodríguez Suárez, Roberto; Huebner, Erwin; Roksandic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Dental modifications in the Caribbean are considered to be an African practice introduced to the Caribbean archipelago by the influx of enslaved Africans during colonial times. Skeletal remains which exhibited dental modifications are by default considered to be Africans, African descendants, or post-contact indigenous people influenced by an African practice. Individual E-105 from the site of Canímar Abajo (Cuba), with a direct 14C AMS date of 990–800 cal BC, provides the first unequivocal evidence of dental modifications in the Antilles prior to contact with Europeans in AD 1492. Central incisors showing evidence of significant crown reduction (loss of crown volume regardless of its etiology) were examined macroscopically and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine if the observed alterations were due to deliberate modification or other (unintentional) factors considered: postmortem breakage, violent accidental breakage, non-dietary use of teeth, and wear caused by habitual or repeated actions. The pattern of crown reduction is consistent with deliberate dental modification of the type commonly encountered among African and African descendent communities in post-contact Caribbean archaeological assemblages. Six additional individuals show similar pattern of crown reduction of maxillary incisors with no analogous wear in corresponding mandibular dentition. PMID:27071012

  17. Not of African Descent: Dental Modification among Indigenous Caribbean People from Canímar Abajo, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Alarie, Kaitlynn; Rodríguez Suárez, Roberto; Huebner, Erwin; Roksandic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Dental modifications in the Caribbean are considered to be an African practice introduced to the Caribbean archipelago by the influx of enslaved Africans during colonial times. Skeletal remains which exhibited dental modifications are by default considered to be Africans, African descendants, or post-contact indigenous people influenced by an African practice. Individual E-105 from the site of Canímar Abajo (Cuba), with a direct 14C AMS date of 990-800 cal BC, provides the first unequivocal evidence of dental modifications in the Antilles prior to contact with Europeans in AD 1492. Central incisors showing evidence of significant crown reduction (loss of crown volume regardless of its etiology) were examined macroscopically and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine if the observed alterations were due to deliberate modification or other (unintentional) factors considered: postmortem breakage, violent accidental breakage, non-dietary use of teeth, and wear caused by habitual or repeated actions. The pattern of crown reduction is consistent with deliberate dental modification of the type commonly encountered among African and African descendent communities in post-contact Caribbean archaeological assemblages. Six additional individuals show similar pattern of crown reduction of maxillary incisors with no analogous wear in corresponding mandibular dentition.

  18. Are ecologically important tree species the most useful? A case study from indigenous people in the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have argued that indigenous peoples preferably use the most apparent plant species, particularly for medicinal uses. However, the association between the ecological importance of a species and its usefulness remains unclear. In this paper we quantify such association for six use categories (firewood, construction, materials, food, medicines and other uses). We collected data on the uses of 58 tree species, as reported by 93 informants in 22 villages in the Tsimane’ territory (Bolivian Amazon). We calculated the ecological importance of the same species by deriving their importance value index (IVI) in 48 0.1-ha old-growth forest plots. Matching both data sets, we found a positive relation between the IVI of a species and its overall use value (UV) as well as with its UV for construction and materials. We found a negative relation between IVI and UV for species that were reportedly used for medicine and food uses, and no clear pattern for the other categories. We hypothesize that species used for construction or crafting purposes because of their physical properties are more easily substitutable than species used for medicinal or edible purposes because of their chemical properties. PMID:26097243

  19. Are ecologically important tree species the most useful? A case study from indigenous people in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have argued that indigenous peoples preferably use the most apparent plant species, particularly for medicinal uses. However, the association between the ecological importance of a species and its usefulness remains unclear. In this paper we quantify such association for six use categories (firewood, construction, materials, food, medicines and other uses). We collected data on the uses of 58 tree species, as reported by 93 informants in 22 villages in the Tsimane' territory (Bolivian Amazon). We calculated the ecological importance of the same species by deriving their importance value index (IVI) in 48 0.1-ha old-growth forest plots. Matching both data sets, we found a positive relation between the IVI of a species and its overall use value (UV) as well as with its UV for construction and materials. We found a negative relation between IVI and UV for species that were reportedly used for medicine and food uses, and no clear pattern for the other categories. We hypothesize that species used for construction or crafting purposes because of their physical properties are more easily substitutable than species used for medicinal or edible purposes because of their chemical properties.

  20. Help-Seeking for Suicidal Thoughts and Self-Harm in Young People: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelmore, Lisa; Hindley, Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that only a minority of young people experiencing suicidal thoughts or self-harm present to any health services. This is of concern given that young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm often require treatment for mental illness as well as to reduce their risk of completed suicide. We reviewed…

  1. Help-Seeking for Suicidal Thoughts and Self-Harm in Young People: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelmore, Lisa; Hindley, Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that only a minority of young people experiencing suicidal thoughts or self-harm present to any health services. This is of concern given that young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm often require treatment for mental illness as well as to reduce their risk of completed suicide. We reviewed…

  2. Settlers Unsettled: Using Field Schools and Digital Stories to Transform Geographies of Ignorance about Indigenous Peoples in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleden, Heather; Daley, Kiley; Sloan Morgan, Vanessa; Sylvestre, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Geography is a product of colonial processes, and in Canada, the exclusion from educational curricula of Indigenous worldviews and their lived realities has produced "geographies of ignorance". Transformative learning is an approach geographers can use to initiate changes in non-Indigenous student attitudes about Indigenous…

  3. Settlers Unsettled: Using Field Schools and Digital Stories to Transform Geographies of Ignorance about Indigenous Peoples in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleden, Heather; Daley, Kiley; Sloan Morgan, Vanessa; Sylvestre, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Geography is a product of colonial processes, and in Canada, the exclusion from educational curricula of Indigenous worldviews and their lived realities has produced "geographies of ignorance". Transformative learning is an approach geographers can use to initiate changes in non-Indigenous student attitudes about Indigenous…

  4. Culture Matters. Factors Affecting the Outcomes of Participation in Vocational Education and Training by Australian Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John; Ardler, William; Morley-Warner, Terri; Solomon, Nicky; Spindler, Laraine

    The factors affecting the outcomes of indigenous Australians' participation in vocational education and training (VET) were examined in a study in which 7 Aboriginal researchers in 5 Australian states and territories interviewed 70 indigenous Australians enrolled in VET and 48 coordinators and teachers in technical and further education (TAFE)…

  5. Healthcare-seeking behaviour among the tribal people of Bangladesh: Can the current health system really meet their needs?

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed Azizur; Kielmann, Tara; McPake, Barbara; Normand, Charles

    2012-09-01

    Despite the wealth of studies on health and healthcare-seeking behaviour among the Bengali population in Bangladesh, relatively few studies have focused specifically on the tribal groups in the country. This study aimed at exploring the context, reasons, and choices in patterns of healthcare-seeking behaviour of the hill tribal population of Bangladesh to present the obstacles and challenges faced in accessing healthcare provision in the tribal areas. Participatory tools and techniques, including focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews, and participant-observations, were used involving 218 men, women, adolescent boys, and girls belonging to nine different tribal communities in six districts. Data were transcribed and analyzed using the narrative analysis approach. The following four main findings emerged from the study, suggesting that the tribal communities may differ from the predominant Bengali population in their health needs and priorities: (a) Traditional healers are still very popular among the tribal population in Bangladesh; (b) Perceptions of the quality and manner of treatment and communication can override costs when it comes to provider-preference; (c) Gender and age play a role in making decisions in households in relation to health matters and treatment-seeking; and (d) Distinct differences exist among the tribal people concerning their knowledge on health, awareness, and treatment-seeking behaviour. The findings challenge the present service-delivery system that has largely been based on the needs and priorities of the plainland population. The present system needs to be reviewed carefully to include a broader approach that takes the sociocultural factors into account, if meaningful improvements are to be made in the health of the tribal people of Bangladesh.

  6. Microbiological and physicochemical characterisation of caxiri, an alcoholic beverage produced by the indigenous Juruna people of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Claudia Cristina Auler do Amaral; Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga de; Melo, Gilberto Vinícius Pereira de; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2012-05-15

    Caxiri is a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage produced from cassava and sweet potatoes by the indigenous Juruna or Yudjá people in Brazil. Our results showed that caxiri fermentation is invariably associated with the following: (i) an increase in the total microbial population, with yeast being the largest group detected; (ii) a decrease in reducing sugars, malic, tartaric, succinic, oxalic and propionic acid; and (iii) a final product characterised by a high content of ethanol and a high concentration of lactic acid. The microbial community dynamics were investigated by culture-based and culture-independent approaches. Fermentation was assisted by a complex microbial community that changed in structure and composition during the fermentative process. The bacterial population ranged from 3.05 to 5.33 log/mL, and the yeast population varied from 3.27 log CFU/mL to 7.34 log CFU/mL, showing that yeasts dominated the fermentation process after 48 h. A total of 343 colonies of bacteria and 205 colonies of yeasts were isolated and initially grouped by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and by biochemical features. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of representative isolates showed that the bacteria were mainly represented by endospore-forming low-G+C content Gram-positive bacilli (Bacillus spp.; 61.5% of the isolates), with Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus spp. (Bacillus cereus group), and Bacillus subtilis being the main species identified. The species Sphingomonas sp. and Pediococcus acidilactici were also found. The dominant yeast identified was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pichia membranifaciens, Pichia guilliermondii and Cryptococcus luteolus were also found. According to the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, the microbial communities present during fermentation were probably from the raw materials, ambient or present on the utensils used during

  7. Self-harm in young people: Prevalence, associated factors, and help-seeking in school-going adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Louise; Treacy, Margaret P; Sheridan, Ann

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent self-harm is recognized as a serious public health problem; however, there is little reliable comparative data on its prevalence or characteristics, or on the extent of help-seeking for self-harm. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence and associated factors of adolescent self-harm in an urban region in Ireland, and to investigate help-seeking behaviours for self-harm. This was a cross-sectional study of 856 school-going adolescents, employing an anonymous self-report questionnaire. A lifetime history of self-harm was reported by 12.1% of adolescents. Factors independently associated with self-harm included exposure to self-harm of a friend/family member. Professional help-seeking was uncommon prior to (9%) and after (12%) self-harm. Furthermore, only 6.9% of adolescents presented to hospital as a result of their last self-harm act. These findings indicate that self-harm is common in adolescents; however, seeking professional help is not a common phenomenon, and those who present to hospital represent the 'tip of the iceberg' of adolescent self-harm. Identifying the prevalence of self-harm and associated factors, in addition to help-seeking behaviours, in young people is important to determine the preventative programmes to target 'at-risk' groups. Mental health nurses have an important and increasing role to play in such school-based initiatives. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  8. Engaging with complexity to improve the health of indigenous people: a call for the use of systems thinking to tackle health inequity.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alison; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Marchal, Bruno; San Sebastián, Miguel; Flores, Walter

    2017-02-21

    The 400 million indigenous people worldwide represent a wealth of linguistic and cultural diversity, as well as traditional knowledge and sustainable practices that are invaluable resources for human development. However, indigenous people remain on the margins of society in high, middle and low-income countries, and they bear a disproportionate burden of poverty, disease, and mortality compared to the general population. These inequalities have persisted, and in some countries have even worsened, despite the overall improvements in health indicators in relation to the 15-year push to meet the Millennium Development Goals. As we enter the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) era, there is growing consensus that efforts to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and promote sustainable development should be guided by the moral imperative to improve equity. To achieve this, we need to move beyond the reductionist tendency to frame indigenous health as a problem of poor health indicators to be solved through targeted service delivery tactics and move towards holistic, integrated approaches that address the causes of inequalities both inside and outside the health sector. To meet the challenge of engaging with the conditions underlying inequalities and promoting transformational change, equity-oriented research and practice in the field of indigenous health requires: engaging power, context-adapted strategies to improve service delivery, and mobilizing networks of collective action. The application of systems thinking approaches offers a pathway for the evolution of equity-oriented research and practice in collaborative, politically informed and mutually enhancing efforts to understand and transform the systems that generate and reproduce inequities in indigenous health. These approaches hold the potential to strengthen practice through the development of more nuanced, context-sensitive strategies for redressing power imbalances, reshaping the service delivery

  9. Human leukocyte antigens in indigenous (mapuche) people in a regional renal transplantation program in chile.

    PubMed

    Droguett, M A; Oyarzún, M J; Alruiz, P; Jerez, V; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L

    2005-10-01

    An active regional transplantation program established in the southern region of Chile has allowed the incorporation of ethnic minorities particularly Mapuche living in this geographic area in the development of a histocompatibility database. To identify possible differences in the human leukocyte (HLA) antigen distribution in Chilean Mapuche compared with non-Mapuche, we reviewed 442 HLA tissue-typing studies. Seventy-eight of 309 recipients (25%) and 18 of 133 donors (13%) were Mapuche. Among recipients, Mapuche people showed a significantly higher frequency of the HLA antigens, A28, B16, DR4, and DR8, and a lower one for A19, B15, and DR1 (P < .05) compared with non-Mapuche individuals. A particularly higher frequency of the haplotype A28, -B16, -DR4 was also evidenced in Mapuche. Besides, these recipients showed a higher frequency of the allele -DR4 when compared with Mapuche donors. A greater frequency of some histocompatibility antigens in patients with chronic renal disease might be attributed to allelic concentration due to a high index of endogamy, but a possible association with the development of progressive renal disease cannot be ignored, especially when a higher prevalence of DR4 was observed among Mapuche recipients.

  10. Nutritional values and bioactive components of under-utilised vegetables consumed by indigenous people in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahab, Norsuhaila; Ahdan, Rohaina; Ahmad Aufa, Zabidah; Kong, Kin Weng; Johar, Mohd Hafizan; Shariff Mohd, Zalilah; Ismail, Amin

    2015-10-01

    Diverse plants species in the forest remain under-utilised and they are mainly consumed only by local people. However, increasing issues in food security prompted the present study, which explores the nutritional and antioxidant aspects of Malaysian under-utilised vegetables. The studied vegetables were Paku Nyai (Stenochlaena palustris), Cemperai (Champereia manillana), Maman Pasir (Cleome viscose), Dudung (Erechtites valerianifolia) and Semambuk (Ardisia pendula). Overall, these vegetables exhibited a low proximal content but they were high in vitamin C [7.07-1263 mg kg(-1) edible fresh sample (EFS)] and β-carotene content (18.4-43.9 mg kg(-1) kg(-1) EFS). Cemperai had the highest calcium content (565 mg kg(-1) EFS), whereas Semambuk had the highest total phenolic content [28.21 g gallic acid equivalents kg(-1) edible dried sample (EDS)] and antioxidant activity (86.1%) measured using β-carotene bleaching assay. Maman Pasir contained the highest total flavonoid content (39.99 g CE kg(-1) EDS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity (82.2%). The extracts of these vegetables had significantly prevented the oxidation of haemoglobin and low-density lipoprotein, which yielded a reduced production of malondialdehyde. Semambuk and Maman Pasir are potent to be used as new food and functional food sources as they are rich in nutrients and antioxidants. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Doing Climate Science in Indigenous Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to

  12. The Cedar Project: resilience in the face of HIV vulnerability within a cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use drugs in three Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Margo E; Jongbloed, Kate A; Richardson, Chris G; Henderson, Earl W; Pooyak, Sherri D; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Christian, Wunuxtsin M; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2015-10-29

    Indigenous scholars have long argued that it is critical for researchers to identify factors related to cultural connectedness that may protect against HIV and hepatitis C infection and buffer the effects of historical and lifetime trauma among young Indigenous peoples. To our knowledge, no previous epidemiological studies have explored the effect of historical and lifetime traumas, cultural connectedness, and risk factors on resilience among young, urban Indigenous people who use drugs. This study explored risk and protective factors associated with resilience among participants of the Cedar Project, a cohort study involving young Indigenous peoples who use illicit drugs in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. We utilized the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale to measure resilience, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to measure childhood maltreatment, and the Symptom-Checklist 90-Revised to measure psychological distress among study participants. Multivariate linear mixed effects models (LME) estimated the effect of study variables on mean change in resilience scores between 2011-2012. Among 191 participants, 92 % had experienced any form of childhood maltreatment, 48 % had a parent who attended residential school, and 71 % had been in foster care. The overall mean resilience score was 62.04, with no differences between the young men and women (p = 0.871). Adjusted factors associated with higher mean resilience scores included having grown up in a family that often/always lived by traditional culture (B = 7.70, p = 0.004) and had often/always spoken their traditional language at home (B = 10.52, p < 0.001). Currently knowing how to speak a traditional language (B = 13.06, p = 0.001), currently often or always living by traditional culture (B = 6.50, p = 0.025), and having recently sought drug/alcohol treatment (B = 4.84, p = 0.036) were also significantly associated with higher mean resilience scores. Adjusted factors associated with diminished mean resilience

  13. Indigenous Healing Legacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliman, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    On a tour of Cuba, Native scholars from North and South America reconnected with the "extinct" Taino people and shared their knowledge of traditional healing herbs. Western science is just beginning to validate the tremendous knowledge base that indigenous healers have developed--most indigenous medicinal knowledge is useful for finding…

  14. Indigenous Healing Legacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliman, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    On a tour of Cuba, Native scholars from North and South America reconnected with the "extinct" Taino people and shared their knowledge of traditional healing herbs. Western science is just beginning to validate the tremendous knowledge base that indigenous healers have developed--most indigenous medicinal knowledge is useful for finding…

  15. Can Seeking Happiness Make People Happy? Paradoxical Effects of Valuing Happiness

    PubMed Central

    Mauss, Iris B.; Tamir, Maya; Anderson, Craig L.; Savino, Nicole S.

    2011-01-01

    Happiness is a key ingredient of well-being. It is thus reasonable to expect that valuing happiness will have beneficial outcomes. We argue that this may not always be the case. Instead, valuing happiness could be self-defeating because the more people value happiness, the more likely they will feel disappointed. This should apply particularly in positive situations, in which people have every reason to be happy. Two studies support this hypothesis. In Study 1, female participants who valued happiness more (vs. less) reported lower happiness when under conditions of low, but not high, life stress. In Study 2, compared to a control group, female participants who were experimentally induced to value happiness reacted less positively to a happy, but not a sad, emotion induction. This effect was mediated by participants’ disappointment at their own feelings. Paradoxically, therefore, valuing happiness may lead people to be less happy just when happiness is within reach. PMID:21517168

  16. Understanding symptom appraisal and help-seeking in people with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katie; Birt, Linda; Emery, Jon D; Hall, Nicola; Banks, Jonathan; Johnson, Margaret; Lancaster, John; Hamilton, William; Rubin, Greg P; Walter, Fiona M

    2017-09-03

    Pancreatic cancer has poor survival rates due to non-specific symptoms leading to later diagnosis. Understanding how patients interpret their symptoms could inform approaches to earlier diagnosis. This study sought to explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking among patients referred to secondary care for symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer. Qualitative analysis of semistructured in-depth interviews. Data were analysed iteratively and thematically, informed by the Model of Pathways to Treatment. Pancreatic cancer occurs rarely in younger adults, therefore patients aged ≥40 years were recruited from nine hospitals after being referred to hospital with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer; all were participants in a cohort study. Interviews were conducted soon after referral, and where possible, before diagnosis. Twenty-six interviews were conducted (cancer n=13 (pancreas n=9, other intra-abdominal n=4), non-cancer conditions n=13; age range 48-84 years; 14 women). Time from first symptoms to first presentation to healthcare ranged from 1 day to 270 days, median 21 days. We identified three main themes. Initial symptom appraisal usually began with intermittent, non-specific symptoms such as tiredness or appetite changes, attributed to diet and lifestyle, existing gastrointestinal conditions or side effects of medication. Responses to initial symptom appraisal included changes in meal type or frequency, or self-medication. Symptom changes such as alterations in appetite and enjoyment of food or weight loss usually prompted further appraisal. Triggers to seek help included a change or worsening of symptoms, particularly pain, which was often a 'tipping point'. Help-seeking was often encouraged by others. We found no differences in symptom appraisal and help-seeking between people diagnosed with cancer and those with other conditions. Greater public and healthcare professional awareness of the combinations of subtle and intermittent symptoms, and their

  17. Indigenous Partner Violence, Indigenous Sentencing Courts, and Pathways to Desistance.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Elena; Daly, Kathleen

    2016-09-13

    Mainstream sentencing courts do little to change the behavior of partner violence offenders, let alone members of more socially marginal groups. Indigenous offenders face a court system that has little relevance to the complexity of their relations and lived experiences. Assisted by respected Elders and Community Representatives, Australian Indigenous sentencing courts seek to create a more meaningful sentencing process that has a deeper impact on Indigenous offenders' attitudes and, ultimately, their behavior. Drawing from interviews with 30 Indigenous offenders, we explore the ways in which the courts can motivate Indigenous partner violence offenders on pathways to desistence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  19. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  20. Indigenous Continuance: Collaboration and Syncretism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    In this keynote address, the author talks about Indigenous peoples who are presently in a dynamic circumstance of constant change that they are facing courageously with creative collaboration and syncretism. In the address, the author speaks "of" an Indigenous consciousness and he speaks "with" an Indigenous consciousness so that Indigenous…

  1. How people come to recognise a problem and seek medical help for a person showing early signs of dementia: A systematic review and meta-ethnography.

    PubMed

    Perry-Young, Lucy; Owen, Gareth; Kelly, Susan; Owens, Christabel

    2016-01-12

    Evidence suggests that there is usually a long delay between noticing first signs of dementia and seeking medical help. We conducted a systematic review of what people experience and how they make decisions during this time, and used a meta-ethnographic approach to synthesise the findings. Screening and quality assessment resulted in nine studies eligible for inclusion. People with dementia mainly report experiencing memory lapses, while carers focus on more subtle changes in personality. People respond to these changes in one of three ways: 1) they discount them as normal; 2) they reserve judgement as to their cause and significance, or 3) they misattribute them. Pivotal events can finally trigger help seeking. Active reflection and seeking of further evidence may lead to earlier recognition of the possibility of dementia and the need to seek help; it also reduces the risk of a pivotal event. Public education should aim to improve recognition of more subtle signs and to encourage repeated evaluation and reflection.

  2. Help-seeking, stigma and attitudes of people with and without a suicidal past. A comparison between a low and a high suicide rate country.

    PubMed

    Reynders, Alexandre; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    A significant proportion of suicidal persons do not seek help for their psychological problems. Psychological help-seeking is assumed to be a protective factor for suicide. However, different studies showed that negative attitudes and stigma related to help-seeking are major barriers to psychological help-seeking. These attitudes and stigma are not merely individual characteristics but they are also developed by and within society. The aim of this study is twofold. First, we investigate if persons with a suicidal past differ from people without a suicidal past with respect to help-seeking intentions, attitudes toward help-seeking, stigma and attitudes toward suicide. The second aim is to investigate if these attitudinal factors differ between people living in two regions with similar socio-economic characteristics but deviating suicide rates. We defined high (Flemish Community of Belgium) and low (The Netherlands) suicide regions and drew a representative sample of the general Flemish and Dutch population between 18 and 65 years. Data were gathered by means of a postal questionnaire. Descriptive statistics are presented to compare people with and without suicidal past. Multiple logistic regressions were used to compare Flemish and Dutch participants with a suicidal past. Compared to people without a suicidal past, people with a suicidal past are less likely to seek professional and informal help, perceive more stigma, experience more self-stigma (only men) and shame (only women) when seeking help and have more accepting attitudes toward suicide. In comparison to their Dutch counterparts, Flemish people with a suicidal past have less often positive attitudes toward help-seeking, less intentions to seek professional and informal (only women) help and have less often received help for psychological problems (only men). The main limitations are: the relatively low response rate; suicidal ideation was measured by retrospective self-report; and the research sample

  3. Social Cognition Deficits and Psychopathic Traits in Young People Seeking Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Zwieten, Anita; Meyer, Johanna; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.; Hawes, David J.; Glozier, Nicholas; Naismith, Sharon L.; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Lee, Rico S. C.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Antisocial behaviours and psychopathic traits place an individual at risk for criminality, mental illness, substance dependence, and psychosocial dysfunction. Social cognition deficits appear to be associated with psychopathic traits and are believed to contribute to interpersonal dysfunction. Most research investigating the relationship of these traits with social cognition has been conducted either in children or adult forensic settings. We investigated whether psychopathic traits were associated with social cognition in 91 young people presenting for mental healthcare (aged between 15 and 25 years). Participants completed symptom severity measures, neuropsychological tests, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test of social cognition (RMET), and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to assess psychopathic personality traits. Correlation analyses showed poorer social cognition was associated with greater psychopathic traits (r = −.36, p = .01). Interestingly, social cognition performance predicted unique variance in concurrent psychopathic personality traits above gender, IQ sustained attention, and working memory performance. These findings suggest that social cognitive impairments are associated with psychopathic tendencies in young people presenting for community mental healthcare. Research is needed to establish the directionality of this relationship and to determine whether social cognition training is an effective treatment amongst young people with psychopathic tendencies. PMID:23861799

  4. Examining the relationships between resources and online health information seeking among patients with chronic diseases and healthy people.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Sam; Cho, Youngmin

    2015-01-01

    The Internet is increasingly used as an important source of health and medical-related information for people with chronic diseases. It is recognized that online health information seeking (OHIS) is influenced by individuals' multi-dimensional factors, such as demographics, socio-economic factors, perceptions of the Internet, and health conditions. This study applies the conservation of resource theory to examine relationships between various multi-dimensional factors, daily challenges, and OHIS depending on individuals' health conditions. The data used in this study was taken from the U.S. Health Tracking Survey (2012). In this study, Internet users aged 18 and older were classified into patients (N = 518) and healthy people (N = 677) based on their health status related to chronic diseases. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between multi-dimensional factors (resources), self-rated health, and OHIS. Patients' various resources (e.g., age, income, education, having a smartphone, and health tracking) significantly predicted their self-rated health and OHIS; in addition, self-rated health significantly mediated the relationships between focal resources and OHIS. However, the mediating effects of self-rated health were not found in healthy people.

  5. The need for a culturally-tailored gatekeeper training intervention program in preventing suicide among Indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Bushra Farah; Hides, Leanne; Kisely, Steve; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Black, Emma; Gill, Neeraj; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Toombs, Maree

    2016-10-21

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among Indigenous youth worldwide. The aim of this literature review was to determine the cultural appropriateness and identify evidence for the effectiveness of current gatekeeper suicide prevention training programs within the international Indigenous community. Using a systematic strategy, relevant databases and targeted resources were searched using the following terms: 'suicide', 'gatekeeper', 'training', 'suicide prevention training', 'suicide intervention training' and 'Indigenous'. Other internationally relevant descriptors for the keyword "Indigenous" (e.g. "Maori", "First Nations", "Native American", "Inuit", "Metis" and "Aboriginal") were also used. Six articles, comprising five studies, met criteria for inclusion; two Australian, two from USA and one Canadian. While pre and post follow up studies reported positive outcomes, this was not confirmed in the single randomised controlled trial identified. However, the randomised controlled trial may have been underpowered and contained participants who were at higher risk of suicide pre-training. Uncontrolled evidence suggests that gatekeeper training may be a promising suicide intervention in Indigenous communities but needs to be culturally tailored to the target population. Further RCT evidence is required.

  6. Why do people google movement disorders? An infodemiological study of information seeking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Erro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Millions of people worldwide everyday search Google or Wikipedia to look for health-related information. Aim of this study was to evaluate and interpret web search queries for terms related to movement disorders (MD) in English-speaking countries and their changes over time. We analyzed information regarding the volume of online searches in Google and Wikipedia for the most common MD and their treatments. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. The volume of searches for some queries related to MD entered in Google enormously increased over time. Most queries were related to definition, subtypes, symptoms and treatment (mostly to adverse effects, or alternatively, to possible alternative treatments). The highest peaks of MD search queries were temporally related to news about celebrities suffering from MD, to specific mass-media events or to news concerning pharmaceutic companies or scientific discoveries on MD. An increasing number of people use Google and Wikipedia to look for terms related to MD to obtain information on definitions, causes and symptoms, possibly to aid initial self-diagnosis. MD information demand and the actual prevalence of different MDs do not travel together: web search volume may mirrors patients' fears and worries about some particular disorders perceived as more serious than others, or may be driven by release of news about celebrities suffering from MD, "breaking news" or specific mass-media events regarding MD.

  7. The "right story" to the "right person": communication issues in end-of-life care for Indigenous people.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam; Ogilvie, Katherine F; Rayner, Robert D; Holewa, Hamish F; Patton, Mary Anne S

    2005-08-01

    To explore communication issues faced by health care workers and Indigenous patients and their families in a palliative care setting. Effective communication with Aborigines is especially important because Aboriginal beliefs of health and sickness are so different from Western views. Data were collected from 72 qualitative interviews conducted throughout the regional, rural and remote areas of the Northern Territory with Indigenous patients and carers and the health professionals who care for them. Participants highlighted the struggle associated with effective communication when working in a cross-cultural setting at the interface of Indigenous and Western health care. The findings record the wisdom and insight from practitioners who have extensive experience dealing with communication difficulties.

  8. Understanding Health Information Seeking on the Internet Among Sexual Minority People: Cross-Sectional Analysis From the Health Information National Trends Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Background Individuals who face barriers to health care are more likely to access the Internet to seek health information. Pervasive stigma and heterosexism in the health care setting are barriers to health care for sexual minority people (SMP, ie, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people); therefore, SMP may be more likely to use the Internet as a source of health information compared to heterosexual people. Objective Currently, there is a dearth of published empirical evidence concerning health information seeking on the Internet among SMP; the current project addresses this gap. Methods Data from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey Food and Drug Administration Cycle were used to describe and summarize health information seeking among SMP (n=105) and heterosexual people (n=3405). Results Almost all of the SMP in this sample reported having access to the Internet (92.4%, 97/105). SMP were equally as likely as heterosexual people to seek health information on the Internet (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.94, 95% CI 0.56-1.66) and to report incidental exposure to health information online (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 0.66-1.60). SMP were 58% more likely to watch a health-related video on YouTube than heterosexual people (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.00-2.47). Incidental exposure to health information was associated with seeking health information for oneself (aOR 3.87, 95% CI 1.16-14.13) and for someone else (aOR 6.30, 95% CI 2.40-17.82) among SMP. Conclusions SMP access the Internet at high rates and seek out health information online. Their incidental exposure could be associated with seeking information for self or others. This suggests that online interventions could be valuable for delivering or promoting health information for SMP. PMID:28630036

  9. The functional exercise capacity and its correlates in obese treatment-seeking people with binge eating disorder: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Herdt, Amber; Vanderlinden, Johan; Lannoo, Matthias; Adriaens, An; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim was to compare the functional exercise capacity between obese treatment-seeking people with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and non-obese controls. The secondary aim was to identify clinical variables including eating and physical activity behaviour, physical complaints, psychopathology and physical self-perception variables in obese people with BED that could explain the variability in functional exercise capacity. Forty people with BED were compared with 20 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched obese persons without BED and 40 age and gender matched non-obese volunteers. A 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the Baecke physical activity questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Eating Disorder Inventory were administered. Physical complaints before and after the 6MWT were also documented. The distance achieved on the 6MWT was significantly lower in obese participants with BED (512.1 ± 75.8 m versus 682.7 ± 98.4, p < 0.05) compared to non-obese controls. No significant differences were found between obese participants with and without BED. Participants with BED reported significantly (p < 0.05) more musculoskeletal pain and fatigue after the walk test than obese and non-obese controls. A forward stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that sports participation and perceived physical strength explained 41.7% of the variance on the 6MWT in obese participants with BED. Physical activity participation, physical self-perception and perceived physical discomfort during walking should be considered when developing rehabilitation programs for obese people with BED. Rehabilitation programmes in people with binge eating disorder should incorporate a functional exercise capacity assessment. Clinicians involved in the rehabilitation of people with binge eating disorder should consider depression and lower self-esteem as potential barriers. Clinicians should take into account the

  10. Out of the reach of children? Young people's health-seeking practices and agency in Africa's newly-emerging therapeutic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Kate R; Porter, Gina; Owusu, Samuel Asiedu; Tanle, Augustine; Abane, Albert

    2011-09-01

    Despite a dominant view within Western biomedicine that children and medicines should be kept apart, a growing literature suggests that children and adolescents often take active roles in health-seeking. Here, we consider young people's health-seeking practices in Ghana: a country with a rapidly-changing therapeutic landscape, characterised by the recent introduction of a National Health Insurance Scheme, mass advertising of medicines, and increased use of mobile phones. Qualitative and quantitative data are presented from eight field-sites in urban and rural Ghana, including 131 individual interviews, focus groups, plus a questionnaire survey of 1005 8-to-18-year-olds. The data show that many young people in Ghana play a major role in seeking healthcare for themselves and others. Young people's ability to secure effective healthcare is often constrained by their limited access to social, economic and cultural resources and information; however, many interviewees actively generated, developed and consolidated such resources in their quest for healthcare. Health insurance and the growth of telecommunications and advertising present new opportunities and challenges for young people's health-seeking practices. We argue that policy should take young people's medical realities as a starting point for interventions to facilitate safe and effective health-seeking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Online health information seeking: how people with multiple sclerosis find, assess and integrate treatment information to manage their health.

    PubMed

    Synnot, Anneliese J; Hill, Sophie J; Garner, Kerryn A; Summers, Michael P; Filippini, Graziella; Osborne, Richard H; Shapland, Sue D P; Colombo, Cinzia; Mosconi, Paola

    2016-06-01

    The Internet is increasingly prominent as a source of health information for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). But there has been little exploration of the needs, experiences and preferences of people with MS for integrating treatment information into decision making, in the context of searching on the Internet. This was the aim of our study. Sixty participants (51 people with MS; nine family members) took part in a focus group or online forum. They were asked to describe how they find and assess reliable treatment information (particularly online) and how this changes over time. Thematic analysis was underpinned by a coding frame. Participants described that there was both too much information online and too little that applied to them. They spoke of wariness and scepticism but also empowerment. The availability of up-to-date and unbiased treatment information, including practical and lifestyle-related information, was important to many. Many participants were keen to engage in a 'research partnership' with health professionals and developed a range of strategies to enhance the trustworthiness of online information. We use the term 'self-regulation' to capture the variations in information seeking behaviour that participants described over time, as they responded to their changing information needs, their emotional state and growing expertise about MS. People with MS have developed a number of strategies to both find and integrate treatment information from a range of sources. Their reflections informed the development of an evidence-based consumer web site based on summaries of MS Cochrane reviews. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Smoking Cessation in Indigenous Populations of Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States: Elements of Effective Interventions

    PubMed Central

    DiGiacomo, Michelle; Davidson, Patricia M.; Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce; Moore, Louise; Thompson, Sandra C.

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous people throughout the world suffer a higher burden of disease than their non-indigenous counterparts contributing to disproportionate rates of disability. A significant proportion of this disability can be attributed to the adverse effects of smoking. In this paper, we aimed to identify and discuss the key elements of individual-level smoking cessation interventions in indigenous people worldwide. An integrative review of published peer-reviewed literature was conducted. Literature on smoking cessation interventions in indigenous people was identified via search of electronic databases. Documents were selected for review if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal, written in English, published from 1990–2010, and documented an individual-level intervention to assist indigenous people to quit smoking. Studies that met inclusion criteria were limited to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA, despite seeking representation from other indigenous populations. Few interventions tailored for indigenous populations were identified and the level of detail included in evaluation reports was variable. Features associated with successful interventions were integrated, flexible, community-based approaches that addressed known barriers and facilitators to quitting smoking. More tailored and targeted approaches to smoking cessation interventions for indigenous populations are required. The complexity of achieving smoking cessation is underscored as is the need to collaboratively develop interventions that are acceptable and appropriate to local populations. PMID:21556193

  13. Indigenous Australian women's colonial sexual intimacies: positioning indigenous women's agency.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Corrinne Tayce

    2017-07-27

    Colonialist views of Indigenous bodies and sexualities continue to affect Indigenous peoples worldwide. For Indigenous Australians, this burden has resulted in repression and oppression of power, sex and desire. Focusing on the sexual intimacies of Indigenous Australian women, this paper provides an account of the dominant Australian historical discourses, finding that Indigenous women were viewed as exotic, erotic, something to be desired, yet simultaneously something to be feared. Our sexualities were described as savage, promiscuous and primitive and we were often viewed as prostitutes with our voices and views constrained by patriarchal and imperial regimes of power. But within this context, Indigenous women fought back through both individual and collective acts of agency. This paper demonstrates how Indigenous Australian women's agency not as a new phenomenon but rather as a position that disrupts the popular discourses of exploitation and victimhood that have been persistently perpetrated against Indigenous women.

  14. "The Trails to Get There": Experiences of Attaining Higher Education for Igorot Indigenous Peoples in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adonis, Digna; Couch, Jen

    2017-01-01

    The title of this paper alludes to the hours of walking on mountain paths, which one of the authors, growing up in an Igorot Indigenous community in post-colonial Philippines undertook to go to school. This is an apt symbol of the sheer effort it can take to overcome physical, social, cultural and psychological barriers to access, persevere with…

  15. The Stories Are the People and the Land: Three Educators Respond to Environmental Teachings in Indigenous Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korteweg, Lisa; Gonzalez, Ismel; Guillet, Jojo

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how Indigenous Canadian children's literature might challenge adult and child readers to consider different meanings and worldviews of the environment as a land-based value system. As three teacher educators from elementary and university classrooms, we use reader-response theory to explore a collection of rich alternative…

  16. Health-Seeking Behaviors and Self-Care Practices of People with Filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Pokharel, Amrit; Devkota, Pramila; Mishra, Durga; Ghimire, Yadu Chandra; Gelal, Khageshwor; Paudel, Rajan; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices. PMID:25694785

  17. Personal experiences of people with serious mental illness when seeking, obtaining and maintaining competitive employment in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gladman, Beverley; Waghorn, Geoff

    2016-02-15

    High non-participation in the labour force and unemployment remain challenging for adults with serious mental illness. This study examined the personal experiences of people with serious mental illness when seeking, obtaining and maintaining competitive employment. The aim was to increase understanding of personal experiences of employment and how these experiences can be used to inform the assistance provided in support of clients' competitive employment goals. Qualitative data from a two-year period were thematically analysed from one participating site in a multi-site trial of employment services integrated with public funded community mental health treatment and care. Both positive and negative themes arose. Positive themes included: Aspirations for a better life, receiving feedback on good job performance, employment displacing preoccupation with illness, and employment improving self-esteem and reducing financial stress. Negative themes included stigma experiences, stress, and health difficulties. Both positive and negative experiences did not depend on type of employment service assistance nor key client characteristics such as age, sex, and diagnostic category. Despite its many benefits, employment can also increase the risk of negative personal experiences. These findings suggest that employment service providers could do more to assist people who commence employment, to reduce the risk of negative personal experiences and to enhance the benefits of competitive employment.

  18. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  19. SEROPOSITIVITY FOR ASCARIOSIS AND TOXOCARIOSIS AND CYTOKINE EXPRESSION AMONG THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN THE VENEZUELAN DELTA REGION

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Zaida; Brandes, Sietze; Pinelli, Elena; Bochichio, María A.; Palacios, Andrea; Wide, Albina; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Jiménez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at measuring seropositivities for infection by Ascaris suum and Toxocara canis using the excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens from Ascaris suum (AES) and Toxocara canis (TES) within an indigenous population. In addition, quantification of cytokine expressions in peripheral blood cells was determined. A total of 50 Warao indigenous were included; of which 43 were adults and seven children. In adults, 44.1% were seropositive for both parasites; whereas children had only seropositivity to one or the other helminth. For ascariosis, the percentage of AES seropositivity in adults and children was high; 23.3% and 57.1%, respectively. While that for toxocariosis, the percentage of TES seropositivity in adults and children was low; 9.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The percentage of seronegativity was comparable for AES and TES antigens in adults (27.9%) and children (28.6%). When positive sera were analyzed by Western blotting technique using AES antigens; three bands of 97.2, 193.6 and 200.2 kDas were mostly recognized. When the TES antigens were used, nine major bands were mostly identified; 47.4, 52.2, 84.9, 98.2, 119.1, 131.3, 175.6, 184.4 and 193.6 kDas. Stool examinations showed that Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Entamoeba coli were the most commonly observed intestinal parasites. Quantification of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 expressions showed that there was only a significant increased expression of IL-4 in indigenous with TES seropositivity (p < 0.002). Ascaris and Toxocara seropositivity was prevalent among Warao indigenous. PMID:25651326

  20. The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples.

  1. Emerging Ideas for Innovation in Indigenous Education: A Research Synthesis of Indigenous Educative Roles in Mainstream and Flexi Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Marnee

    2017-01-01

    The Indigenous education agenda in Australia remains focused on mainstream schooling contexts. Although overlooked in Indigenous education discourse, flexi schools appear to be engaging with disproportionately high numbers of Indigenous students and staff. The educative roles of Indigenous peoples in broader Indigenous education discourse are…

  2. Emerging Ideas for Innovation in Indigenous Education: A Research Synthesis of Indigenous Educative Roles in Mainstream and Flexi Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Marnee

    2017-01-01

    The Indigenous education agenda in Australia remains focused on mainstream schooling contexts. Although overlooked in Indigenous education discourse, flexi schools appear to be engaging with disproportionately high numbers of Indigenous students and staff. The educative roles of Indigenous peoples in broader Indigenous education discourse are…

  3. Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…

  4. Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…

  5. Indigenous Health and Socioeconomic Status in India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, S. V; Smith, George Davey; Subramanyam, Malavika

    2006-01-01

    Background Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998–1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances. Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13–1.30). They are also more likely to smoke and (especially) drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33–1.95) compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups. Conclusions Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous populations

  6. Rationale and design of the Kanyini guidelines adherence with the polypill (Kanyini-GAP) study: a randomised controlled trial of a polypill-based strategy amongst Indigenous and non Indigenous people at high cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Kanyini Guidelines Adherence with the Polypill (Kanyini-GAP) Study aims to examine whether a polypill-based strategy (using a single capsule containing aspirin, a statin and two blood pressure-lowering agents) amongst Indigenous and non-Indigenous people at high risk of experiencing a cardiovascular event will improve adherence to guideline-indicated therapies, and lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Methods/Design The study is an open, randomised, controlled, multi-centre trial involving 1000 participants at high risk of cardiovascular events recruited from mainstream general practices and Aboriginal Medical Services, followed for an average of 18 months. The participants will be randomised to one of two versions of the polypill, the version chosen by the treating health professional according to clinical features of the patient, or to usual care. The primary study outcomes will be changes, from baseline measures, in serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressure and self-reported current use of aspirin, a statin and at least two blood pressure lowering agents. Secondary study outcomes include cardiovascular events, renal outcomes, self-reported barriers to indicated therapy, prescription of indicated therapy, occurrence of serious adverse events and changes in quality-of-life. The trial will be supplemented by formal economic and process evaluations. Discussion The Kanyini-GAP trial will provide new evidence as to whether or not a polypill-based strategy improves adherence to effective cardiovascular medications amongst individuals in whom these treatments are indicated. Trial Registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN126080005833347. PMID:20687931

  7. Securitizing the Arctic indigenous peoples: A community security perspective with special reference to the Sámi of the European high north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Kamrul

    2016-09-01

    The theory of securitization-the so-called Copenhagen school-centers the concept of security on various identified threats. Security based on the collective identity by which a society preserves its essential characteristics has been defined as community security, or societal security. The underlying principle of the Copenhagen school is that state-based, sovereignty-oriented security is ineffective unless the other components of security threats are addressed. The concept of human security, developed nearly simultaneously to that of securitization, identifies threat components at the sub-state level which are not traditionally understood as security concerns. Both schools of security thought are similar as they offer nontraditional approaches to understanding the concept of security. In this article, I explore securitization theory and the concept of human security to elaborate community perspectives in the understanding of security. In a case study, I investigate the security concerns of the indigenous peoples of the Arctic. The transformation of the Arctic by climate change and its impacts has resulted in new challenges and opportunities, so I explore how indigenous peoples in general and the Sámi in particular understand security which promotes their societal security. Although I show that this group of people deserves recognition and the ability to exercise greater authority, I conclude that diverse concepts of security do not by any means undermine the core traditional concept of security. These aspects of security remain subject to scrutiny by states and exist in a vertical structure. The Sámi, therefore, rely on affirmative actions by states to enjoy greater rights to maintain their community security.

  8. Anthropogenic landscape in southeastern Amazonia: contemporary impacts of low-intensity harvesting and dispersal of Brazil nuts by the Kayapó Indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria Beatriz N; Jerozolimski, Adriano; de Robert, Pascale; Salles, Nilson V; Kayapó, Biribiri; Pimentel, Tania P; Magnusson, William E

    2014-01-01

    Brazil nut, the Bertholletia excelsa seed, is one of the most important non-timber forest products in the Amazon Forest and the livelihoods of thousands of traditional Amazonian families depend on its commercialization. B. excelsa has been frequently cited as an indicator of anthropogenic forests and there is strong evidence that past human management has significantly contributed to its present distribution across the Amazon, suggesting that low levels of harvesting may play a positive role in B. excelsa recruitment. Here, we evaluate the effects of Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó Indigenous people of southeastern Amazonia on seedling recruitment in 20 B. excelsa groves subjected to different harvesting intensities, and investigated if management by harvesters influences patterns of B. excelsa distribution. The number of years of low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó over the past two decades was positively related to B. excelsa seedling density in groves. One of the mechanisms behind the higher seedling density in harvested sites seems to be seed dispersal by harvesters along trails. The Kayapó also intentionally plant B. excelsa seeds and seedlings across their territories. Our results show not only that low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó people does not reduce recruitment of seedlings, but that harvesting and/or associated activities conducted by traditional harvesters may benefit B. excelsa beyond grove borders. Our study supports the hypothesis that B. excelsa dispersal throughout the Amazon was, at least in part, influenced by indigenous groups, and strongly suggests that current human management contributes to the maintenance and formation of B. excelsa groves. We suggest that changes in Brazil nut management practices by traditional people to prevent harvesting impacts may be unnecessary and even counterproductive in many areas, and should be carefully evaluated before implementation.

  9. Anthropogenic Landscape in Southeastern Amazonia: Contemporary Impacts of Low-Intensity Harvesting and Dispersal of Brazil Nuts by the Kayapó Indigenous People

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria Beatriz N.; Jerozolimski, Adriano; de Robert, Pascale; Salles, Nilson V.; Kayapó, Biribiri; Pimentel, Tania P.; Magnusson, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil nut, the Bertholletia excelsa seed, is one of the most important non-timber forest products in the Amazon Forest and the livelihoods of thousands of traditional Amazonian families depend on its commercialization. B. excelsa has been frequently cited as an indicator of anthropogenic forests and there is strong evidence that past human management has significantly contributed to its present distribution across the Amazon, suggesting that low levels of harvesting may play a positive role in B. excelsa recruitment. Here, we evaluate the effects of Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó Indigenous people of southeastern Amazonia on seedling recruitment in 20 B. excelsa groves subjected to different harvesting intensities, and investigated if management by harvesters influences patterns of B. excelsa distribution. The number of years of low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó over the past two decades was positively related to B. excelsa seedling density in groves. One of the mechanisms behind the higher seedling density in harvested sites seems to be seed dispersal by harvesters along trails. The Kayapó also intentionally plant B. excelsa seeds and seedlings across their territories. Our results show not only that low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó people does not reduce recruitment of seedlings, but that harvesting and/or associated activities conducted by traditional harvesters may benefit B. excelsa beyond grove borders. Our study supports the hypothesis that B. excelsa dispersal throughout the Amazon was, at least in part, influenced by indigenous groups, and strongly suggests that current human management contributes to the maintenance and formation of B. excelsa groves. We suggest that changes in Brazil nut management practices by traditional people to prevent harvesting impacts may be unnecessary and even counterproductive in many areas, and should be carefully evaluated before implementation. PMID:25029191

  10. ``Just Another Hoop to Jump Through?'' Using Environmental Laws and Processes to Protect Indigenous Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a “back door” to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes—the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)—to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  11. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  12. Health-seeking behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS and their satisfaction with health services provided at a tertiary care hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhutto, Abdul-Qadir; Nisar, Nighat

    2017-02-21

    Appropriate health-seeking behaviour is important as it allows prompt treatment for a condition and this can reduce complications and improve quality of life. This study aimed to assess the health-seeking behaviour and satisfaction with health care services of people living with HIV/AIDS attending the HIV/AIDS clinic of the Civil Hospital in Karachi. A total of 182 patients were interviewed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Mean age of the participants was 32.31 (SD 7.91) years, 76.9% were male, 81.3% had no education and 75.8% were employed. Only 23.6% showed positive health-seeking behaviour and 57.7% were satisfied with the health care services. In logistic regression analysis, the cost of treatment per visit < US$ 5 and duration of HIV infection < 2 years were significantly associated with health-seeking behaviour. Efforts are needed to improve the health-seeking behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS at the clinic and the health services offered.

  13. Cultural Citizenship in the 21st Century: Adult Learning and Indigenous Peoples. Adult Learning and the Challenges of the 21st Century. A Series of 29 Booklets Documenting Workshops Held at the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education. (Hamburg, Germany, July 14-18, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Education.

    This booklet, which was produced as a follow-up to the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education, examines cultural citizenship in the 21st century: adult learning, and indigenous peoples. The booklet begins with an introduction and overview of the current situation of indigenous peoples throughout the world, including recent changes in…

  14. Experiences of discrimination and the feelings of loneliness in people with psychotic disorders: the mediating effects of self-esteem and support seeking.

    PubMed

    Świtaj, P; Grygiel, P; Anczewska, M; Wciórka, J

    2015-05-01

    People with psychotic disorders frequently become targets of discrimination, which may have devastating effects on their social relations and lead to the feelings of loneliness. This study has explored whether self-esteem and support seeking serve as mediators in the relationship between experiences of discrimination and loneliness. A total of 110 persons with psychotic disorders (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10): F20-F29) were evaluated with self-report measures of discrimination experiences, self-esteem, support seeking and loneliness. The relationships between variables were examined with path modeling. Bootstrap mediation analyses were used for testing the statistical significance of indirect effects. Experiences of discrimination have been demonstrated to increase the level of loneliness both directly and indirectly. The indirect effect of discrimination on loneliness via self-esteem decrement has been proven to be significant. Support has been also found for a mediation model in which discrimination experiences negatively affect self-esteem, an undermined self-esteem diminishes the tendency to seek social support, and reduced support seeking worsens the sense of loneliness. However, discrimination experiences and support seeking have turned out to be unrelated and thus the hypothesized indirect effect of discrimination on loneliness through the weakening of the willingness to seek social support has not been confirmed by the data. The findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms through which experiences of discrimination aggravate perceived social isolation. Self-esteem and the tendency to seek social support have emerged as possible targets for interventions aiming to counteract the negative influence of rejection experiences on social relationships of people with psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does the granting of legal privileges as an indigenous people help to reduce health disparities? Evidence from New Zealand and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit

    2009-11-01

    Both the Maori of New Zealand and the Orang Asli of Malaysia are indigenous peoples who have been subjected to prejudice, discrimination and displacement in its various forms by other ethnic groups in their respective countries. However, owing to changes in the socio-political climate, they have been granted rights (including legal privileges) in more recent times. Data pertaining to the health and socio-economic status of the Maori and the Orang Asli are analysed to see if the granting of legal privileges has made any difference for the two communities. One conclusion is that legal privileges (and the granting of special status) do not appear to work well in terms of reducing health and socio-economic gaps.

  16. Self-labelling and stigma as predictors of attitudes towards help-seeking among people at risk of psychosis: 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ziyan; Müller, Mario; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Dvorsky, Diane; Metzler, Sibylle; Brabban, Alison; Corrigan, Patrick W; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Mental health service use is helpful but rare among young people at risk of psychosis. The label and stigma associated with mental illness may affect attitudes towards help-seeking. We examined 67 individuals at risk of psychosis over the course of 1 year. An increase of self-labelling as "mentally ill" predicted more positive attitudes towards psychiatric medication, while increased perceived stigma and the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor predicted poorer attitudes towards psychotherapy after 1 year. Early intervention could improve non-stigmatizing awareness of at-risk mental state and reduce the public stigma associated with at-risk status to facilitate help-seeking.

  17. Factors that influence young people's mental health help-seeking behaviour: a study based on the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Peter J; Martin, Brett; Weeks, Clinton S; Ong, Luzian

    2014-11-01

    To identify key predictors and moderators of mental health 'help-seeking behavior' in adolescents. Mental illness is highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults; however, individuals in this demographic group are among the least likely to seek help for such illnesses. Very little quantitative research has examined predictors of help-seeking behaviour in this demographic group. A cross-sectional design was used. A group of 180 volunteers between the ages of 17-25 completed a survey designed to measure hypothesized predictors and moderators of help-seeking behaviour. Predictors included a range of health beliefs, personality traits and attitudes. Data were collected in August 2010 and were analysed using two standard and three hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The standard multiple regression analyses revealed that extraversion, perceived benefits of seeking help, perceived barriers to seeking help and social support were direct predictors of help-seeking behaviour. Tests of moderated relationships (using hierarchical multiple regression analyses) indicated that perceived benefits were more important than barriers in predicting help-seeking behaviour. In addition, perceived susceptibility did not predict help-seeking behaviour unless individuals were health conscious to begin with or they believed that they would benefit from help. A range of personality traits, attitudes and health beliefs can predict help-seeking behaviour for mental health problems in adolescents. The variable 'Perceived Benefits' is of particular importance as it is: (1) a strong and robust predictor of help-seeking behaviour; and (2) a factor that can theoretically be modified based on health promotion programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Culture at the centre of community based aged care in a remote Australian Indigenous setting: a case study of the development of Yuendumu Old People's Programme.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kay; Grundy, John J; Nelson, Harry J

    2010-01-01

    Yuendumu is a Warlpiri Aboriginal community 300 km north west of Alice Springs in Central Australia. Since emerging from the welfare period in the early 1970s, a range of services have evolved with the aim of developing a comprehensive community based aged care service. In 2000 Mampu Maninja-kurlangu Jarlu Patu-ku Aboriginal Corporation (Yuendumu Old Peoples Programme; YOPP) commenced operation to manage the developing services. This case study aims to describe, from the analytic standpoint of community control and cultural comfort, the main features of the 'Family Model of Care', which underpins the operations of the service and YOPP management processes. Data were mostly generated from participant observation by the authors in the development and management of YOPP between 1993 and 2009. A literature review of Indigenous history and public health in Central Australia was also undertaken, which was supplemented by a review of Programme documentation, including evaluations, needs assessments and annual reports. The design and operations of YOPP are embodied in a documented 'Family Model of Care' which provides important lessons for the provision of aged care in a cross-cultural context. According to the concepts 'community control' and 'cultural comfort' outlined in this article, mainstream services can function in a complementary and supportive manner with professional services being accountable and responsive to a local management system that is governed by the structures and norms of community tradition. The notions of 'cultural comfort' and 'community control' as operating principles have enabled YOPP to continue under the management of local people, sustain core cultural strengths and values, and meet the needs for increased quality of care for the aged in Yuendumu. This model of care emphasizes and recognizes paradigms of mutual competence between traditional and mainstream human service culture, and offers important lessons for improvement to the quality of

  19. Letter "To the Yakut Intelligentsia" by A. E. Kulakovsky: Setting and Features of the Problem of Survival of Indigenous Peoples of the North in the Early 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivtseva-Maksimova, Praskovia Vasilevna

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is determined by the increasing interest in the new interpretations of social issues of living in the early 20th century, and from this perspective, in the scientific heritage of A. E. Kulakovsky (1877-1926) as an original thinker, who worried about the fate of the indigenous people inhabiting a large territory of the…

  20. Revitalising Marginalised Communities by Increasing Social Capital through Holistic Education and the Lifelong Learning Strategies of Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collister, Rupert

    The Western model of education is based on reductionism and linear thinking motivated by profit for those at the top. Globalization is the zenith of this Western reductionist philosophy. Its proponents talk about technology providing access to new vocational opportunities, yet fewer people control more of the resources and services. People find…

  1. Indigenous knowledges driving technological innovation

    Treesearch

    Lilian Alessa; Carlos Andrade; Phil Cash Cash; Christian P. Giardina; Matt Hamabata; Craig Hammer; Kai Henifin; Lee Joachim; Jay T. Johnson; Kekuhi Kealiikanakaoleohaililani; Deanna Kingston; Andrew Kliskey; Renee Pualani Louis; Amanda Lynch; Daryn McKenny; Chels Marshall; Mere Roberts; Taupouri Tangaro; Jyl Wheaton-Abraham; Everett. Wingert

    2011-01-01

    This policy brief explores the use and expands the conversation on the ability of geospatial technologies to represent Indigenous cultural knowledge. Indigenous peoples' use of geospatial technologies has already proven to be a critical step for protecting tribal self-determination. However, the ontological frameworks and techniques of Western geospatial...

  2. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

  3. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  4. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  5. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

  6. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

  7. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

  8. Indigenous Studies and the Politics of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGloin, Colleen; Carlson, Bronwyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Language use changes over time. In Indigenous contexts, language alters to suit the shifting nature of cultural expression as this might fit with Indigenous peoples' preference or as a consequence of changes to outdated and colonial modes of expression. For students studying in the discipline of Indigenous Studies, learning to use appropriate…

  9. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts…

  10. Indigenous Studies as an International Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Robles, Rodolfo

    This paper proposes the development of Indigenous Studies as an international field, both in the sense of advancing the discipline internationally, wherever there are Indigenous peoples, and in the sense of incorporating international perspectives into curricula. In Canada, Indigenous Studies has been and is still treated as something to be done…

  11. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts…

  12. Walan Girri: developing a culturally mediated case management model for problematic alcohol use among urban Indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Lovett, Ray; Dance, Phyll; Guthrie, Jill; Brown, Roxie; Tongs, Julie

    2014-09-01

    To describe the design and implementation of a culturally mediated case management model at Winnunga Nimmityjah Aboriginal Health Service (Winnunga) for Indigenous clients who consume alcohol at problematic levels. Our research took place from March 2008 to March 2010 in the Australian Capital Territory and built on previous research partnerships between Winnunga and The Australian National University's National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health. We conducted a review of existing models to determine elements for consideration in the community controlled setting, and conducted staff surveys to assess current levels of skill and confidence around alcohol screening, brief intervention and care planning. Using the information from the review and staff surveys, we then undertook staff capacity building to build confidence and skills in conducting alcohol screening, brief intervention and care planning. This process was driven by Winnunga's social health team. To meet Medicare benefits schedule requirements, and frame the study within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Chronic Disease Package framework, we included team care arrangements, care planning and health checks. Elements of case management were suggested by staff and incorporated into the final model. Forty staff in the health service participated in identifying training needs for the development of the case management model and undertook a range of training before the model was implemented. Staff working within the social health team decided that the focus of the case management was to build a stronger future for their clients, hence the name of the case management model 'Walan Girri' (Wiradjuri language for strong future). The model included a package of screening instruments and brief intervention, related polices and discussion of 'mob' and 'country.' Changes in Winnunga management and staff, the composition of the research team and the way Walan Girri evolved led to protracted development

  13. Indigeneity and Homeland: Land, History, Ceremony, and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerma, Michael

    2012-01-01

    What is the relationship between Indigenous peoples and violent reactions to contemporary states? This research explores differing, culturally informed notions of attachment to land or place territory. Mechanistic ties and organic ties to land are linked to a key distinction between Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous peoples. Utilizing the…

  14. Indigeneity and Homeland: Land, History, Ceremony, and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerma, Michael

    2012-01-01

    What is the relationship between Indigenous peoples and violent reactions to contemporary states? This research explores differing, culturally informed notions of attachment to land or place territory. Mechanistic ties and organic ties to land are linked to a key distinction between Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous peoples. Utilizing the…

  15. Virologic and genetic studies relate Amerind origins to the indigenous people of the Mongolia/Manchuria/southeastern Siberia region.

    PubMed Central

    Neel, J V; Biggar, R J; Sukernik, R I

    1994-01-01

    A commonly held theory is that the first wave of migrants into the New World was derivative from the ethnic groups then inhibiting eastern Siberia. However, these ethnic groups lack a mtDNA haplogroup (B) that is well represented in Amerindian tribes. Also, the time depth of the other three mtDNA haplogroups found in Amerindians (A, C, and D) appears to be greater in the Amerindians than in the eastern Siberian ethnic groups. In this communication we demonstrate that the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type II, present in 11 of the 38 Amerindian tribes thus far examined, is not present in any of the 10 ethnic groups of eastern Siberia that we have studied. However, the virus has just been reported in the indigenous population of Mongolia, and mtDNA haplogroup B is also represented in this region. On the basis of these facts, we propose that the ancestors of the first migrants to the New World were not derived from north and central Siberia but from populations to the south, inhabiting the regions of Mongolia, Manchuria, and/or the extreme southeastern tip of Siberia. Images PMID:7938021

  16. Determinants of exposure to mass media family planning messages among indigenous people in Bangladesh: a study on the Garo.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Rakibul; Islam, M Amirul; Banowary, Banya

    2009-03-01

    This paper evaluates exposure to mass media family planning (FP) messages among the Garo, an indigenous community in Bangladesh. A sample of 223 currently married Garo women were selected purposively from two districts where most of the Garo population live. The analysis demonstrated that television was the most significant form of mass media to disseminate FP messages among the recipients - more so than radio and newspapers. About 80.6% of the respondents had heard of FP messages through television, while for the radio and newspapers the percentages were 55.3% and 22.7% respectively. The contraceptive prevalence rate is much higher (79.5%) in the study area than the national level (55.8%). A linear logistic regression model was employed to identify the confluence of different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on mass media FP messages. Regarding exposure to FP messages, four independent variables out of six had significant effects on the exposure to FP messages through any one of the types of media, i.e. radio, television and newspapers. These independent variables were age, level of education, occupation and number of children.

  17. Indigenous Mortality (Revealed): The Invisible Illuminated

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Ian; Arambula Solomon, Teshia G.; Gachupin, Francine C.; Smylie, Janet; Cutler, Tessa Louise; Waldon, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Inaccuracies in the identification of Indigenous status and the collection of and access to vital statistics data impede the strategic implementation of evidence-based public health initiatives to reduce avoidable deaths. The impact of colonization and subsequent government initiatives has been commonly observed among the Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The quality of Indigenous data that informs mortality statistics are similarly connected to these distal processes, which began with colonization. We discuss the methodological and technical challenges in measuring mortality for Indigenous populations within a historical and political context, and identify strategies for the accurate ascertainment and inclusion of Indigenous people in mortality statistics. PMID:25211754

  18. Jordan's principle and Indigenous children with disabilities in Canada: jurisdiction, advocacy, and research.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Indigenous (1) (1)In this article, the terms Indigenous, First Nations, Aboriginal, and Treaty Indian are used interchangeably, and as needed to describe the political reality of the First Peoples of Canada. children with disabilities in Canada and examines their experiences with federal and provincial jurisdictional and funding disputes. It explores Canada's adversarial legal and policy techniques to delay implementation and funding of Jordan's Principle, a Canadian Human Rights Tribunal action seeking to address the delays, and the recommendations of a recent independent Canadian research project. Finally, it suggests ways to advance Jordan's Principle in Canada and elsewhere.

  19. What is known about the health and living conditions of the indigenous people of northern Scandinavia, the Sami?

    PubMed

    Sjölander, Per

    2011-01-01

    The Sami are the indigenous ethnic population of northern Scandinavia. Their health condition is poorly known, although the knowledge has improved over the last decade. The aim was to review the current information on mortality, diseases, and risk factor exposure in the Swedish Sami population. Health-related research on Sami cohorts published in scientific journals and anthologies was used to compare the health condition among the Sami and the majority non-Sami population. When relevant, data from the Sami populations in Swedish were compared with corresponding data from Norwegian and Finnish Sami populations. Life expectancy and mortality patterns of the Sami are similar to those of the majority population. Small differences in incidences of cancer and cardiovascular diseases have been reported. The traditional Sami lifestyle seems to contain elements that reduce the risk to develop cancer and cardiovascular diseases, e.g. physical activity, diet rich in antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids, and a strong cultural identity. Reindeer herding is an important cultural activity among the Sami and is associated with high risks for accidents. Pain in the lower back, neck, shoulders, elbows, and hands are frequent among both men and women in reindeer-herding families. For men, these symptoms are related to high exposure to terrain vehicles, particularly snowmobile, whereas for women psychosocial risk factors seem to more important, e.g. poor social support, high effort, low reward, and high economical responsibilities. Although the health condition of the Sami population appears to be rather similar to that of the general Swedish population, a number of specific health problems have been identified, especially among the reindeer-herding Sami. Most of these problems have their origin in marginalization and poor knowledge of the reindeer husbandry and the Sami culture in the majority population. It is suggested that the most sustainable measure to improve the health

  20. A Combined Ecological and Epidemiologic Investigation of Metals Exposure amongst Indigenous Peoples Near the Marlin Mine in Western Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Abare, Marce; Buchanan, Susan; Cryderman, Diana; Nam, Dong-Ha; Sirkin, Susannah; Schmitt, Stefan; Hu, Howard

    2016-01-01

    In August 2009 a combined epidemiological and ecological pilot study was conducted to investigate allegations of human rights abuses in the form of exposures to toxic metals experienced by mine workers and Indigenous Mam Mayan near the Marlin Mine in Guatemala. In the human study there were no differences in blood and urine metals when comparing five mine workers with eighteen non-mine workers, and there were no discernible relationships between metals exposures and self-reported health measures in any study group. On the other hand, individuals residing closest to the mine had significantly higher levels of certain metals (urinary mercury, copper, arsenic, zinc) when compared to those living further away. Levels of blood aluminum, manganese, and cobalt were elevated in comparison to established normal ranges in many individuals; however, there was no apparent relationship to proximity to the mine or occupation, and thus are of unclear significance. In the ecological study, several metals (aluminum, manganese, cobalt) were found significantly elevated in the river water and sediment sites directly below the mine when compared to sites elsewhere. When the results of the human and ecological results are combined, they suggest that exposures to certain metals may be elevated in sites near the mine but it is not clear if the current magnitude of these elevations poses a significant threat to health. The authors conclude that more robust studies are needed while parallel efforts to minimize the ecological and human impacts of mining proceed. This is critical particularly as the impact of the exposures found could be greatly magnified by expected increases in mining activity over time, synergistic toxicity between metals, and susceptibility for the young and those with pre-existing disease. PMID:20952048

  1. Predictors of treatment seeking intention among people with cough in East Wollega, Ethiopia based on the theory of planned behavior: a community based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Addisu, Yohannes; Birhanu, Zewdie; Tilahun, Dejen; Assefa, Tsion

    2014-04-01

    Early treatment seeking for cough is crucial in the prevention and control of Tuberculosis. This study was intended to assess treatment seeking intention of people with cough of more than two weeks, and to identify its predictors. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 763 individuals with cough of more than two weeks in East Wollega Zone from March 10 to April 16, 2011. Study participants were selected from eighteen villages by cluster sampling method. Data collection instruments were developed according to the standard guideline of the theory of planned behavior. The data were analyzed with SPSS 16.0. Multiple linear regression was used to identify predictors. Mean score of intention was found to be 12.6 (SD=2.8) (range of possible score=3-15). Knowledge (β=0.14, 95%CI: 0.07-0.2), direct attitude (β=0.31, 95%CI: 0.25-0.35), belief-based attitude (β=0.03, 95%CI: 0.02-0.06) and perceived subjective norm (β=0.22, 95%CI: 0.13-0.31) positively predicted treatment seeking intention. However, perceived behavioral control and control belief were not significantly associated with treatment seeking intention (p>0.05). Being smoker (β=-0.97, 95%CI:-1.65 (-0.37)) and higher family income (β=-0.06, 95%CI:-0.07-(-0.01) were significantly associated with lower treatment seeking intention. TPB significantly predicted treatment seeking intention among the study participants. Attitude and silent beliefs held by the respondents play an important role and should be given emphasize in prevention and control of Tuberculosis.

  2. Indigenous Student Participation in Higher Education: Emergent Themes and Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseron, Johnnie; Wilde, Simon; Miller, Adrian; Kelly, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Educational processes directed at Indigenous peoples have long propagated a disparity between the educational successes of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students (May 1999), a contrast which can be acutely observed in Australia. It is not surprising, then, that the educational needs of Indigenous students have been poorly served, with the extant…

  3. The conflicts and dialogues among techno-developmental, ecological, and indigenous paradigms in a globalized modernity: A case study of the U'wa people's resistance against oil development in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehwa

    The literature regarding indigenous eco-politics often provides only a partial explanation about interactions among indigenous peoples, environmental NGOs, and players of resource extraction activities. The dissertation argues that previous studies often fossilize indigenous people in time and space by treating them and their worldviews as static. Against this background, the dissertation draws on paradigm analysis and demonstrates how this approach can help tease out the dynamism and complexity inherent to the interactions between paradigm actors, thus helping us reanalyze indigenous peoples and their paradigms as dynamic and evolving venues for creative possibilities. Extensive literature review and field observation are utilized to examine the case study of interactions among the U'wa, environmental NGOs, Occidental Petroleum, Ecopetrol, and the Colombian government. The case study reveals that oil development activities have heralded sharp conflicts among various paradigm actors. It shows how such conflicts and ensuing dialogues among paradigm actors have led to paradigm changes over time and across scales of organization. We find that the U'wa indigenous paradigm poses a legal, political, and cultural challenge to the techno-developmental paradigm of oil development. We find further that paradigm conflicts are both opportunities and challenges for the U'wa to engage with the modern legal system of Colombia. The case study also reveals that complementarities between paradigms are useful starting points for coalitions between the U'wa and environmental NGOs. The ability to cross scales of socio-political organization enabled by modern communication technologies has helped the U'wa and environmental NGOs to successfully challenge the dominant paradigm and its resource extraction activities. However, it also shows that additional political conditions are necessary for successful coalitions between two actors. The case study demonstrates that the U

  4. "Can You Get Pregnant When U R in the Pool?": Young People's Information Seeking from a Sexual Health Text Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Jackson, Kennon, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Young people have questions about sex and development but may have trouble getting answers to them. Text messaging services can serve as a resource. This study analysed 1351 text messages sent to a sexual health text message service designed for young people in North Carolina to determine the types of questions asked of a confidential, accurate…

  5. "Can You Get Pregnant When U R in the Pool?": Young People's Information Seeking from a Sexual Health Text Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Jackson, Kennon, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Young people have questions about sex and development but may have trouble getting answers to them. Text messaging services can serve as a resource. This study analysed 1351 text messages sent to a sexual health text message service designed for young people in North Carolina to determine the types of questions asked of a confidential, accurate…

  6. Sexual Health Information Seeking Online: A Mixed-Methods Study among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Joshua C.; Bigelow, Louisa; DeHaan, Samantha; Mustanski, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    The current study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the positive and negative aspects of Internet use for sexual health information among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young people. A diverse community sample of 32 LGBT young people (aged 16-24 years) completed qualitative interviews focusing on how, where, and when…

  7. Sexual Health Information Seeking Online: A Mixed-Methods Study among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Joshua C.; Bigelow, Louisa; DeHaan, Samantha; Mustanski, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    The current study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the positive and negative aspects of Internet use for sexual health information among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young people. A diverse community sample of 32 LGBT young people (aged 16-24 years) completed qualitative interviews focusing on how, where, and when…

  8. The Contribution of Geography to Disparities in Preventable Hospitalisations between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    Harrold, Timothy C.; Randall, Deborah A.; Falster, Michael O.; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Main outcome measures Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. Results PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Conclusions Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity. PMID:24859265

  9. The contribution of geography to disparities in preventable hospitalisations between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Timothy C; Randall, Deborah A; Falster, Michael O; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity.

  10. Ethnomycological survey of traditional usage and indigenous knowledge on desert truffles among the native Sahara Desert people of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bradai, Lyès; Neffar, Souad; Amrani, Khaled; Bissati, Samia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-03-13

    Desert truffles are edible hypogeous fungi, highly appreciated by the inhabitants of hot-desert settlements. Native Saharan people use truffles for food, promoting tourism, increasing fertility, and treatment of eye diseases and fatigue. This study consists of a cross-sectional survey focusing on the knowledge, use and ethnomycological practices of desert truffles among the native people of the Algerian Northern Sahara. The study was conducted through direct interviews with 60 truffle-hunters in the regions of Ouargla and Ghardaia. Three species were harvested and consumed by the surveyed subjects: Terfezia claveryi was the most appreciated and most expensive species, followed by Terfezia areanaria moderately preferred, then Tirmania nivea the least appreciated and least expensive. Among the 60 interviewees, 90% rely on the abundance of symbiotic plants (Helianthemum lippii) to harvest truffles, 65% begin harvesting from mid-February to March, after rains of the autumn (38%) and winter (36%), particularly in the Wadi beds (37%) and Daya landscapes (32%). Interviewees harvested truffles mainly for home consumption; however 26.7% sell any harvest surplus, and of those only 15% generate significant revenue from this source, and 73% considered the sale of desert truffles to have low financial value. Desert truffles are used in traditional medicine, especially against eye infections (22%), weakness (19%) and to promote male fertility (19%). In the case of desert truffles for consumption, the surveyed population preferred to prepare the truffles with couscous and meat, or in porridge. Respondents used price as the main criterion for deciding whether to purchase desert truffles. The surveyed trufflers use the knowledge passed from one generation to the next to help ensure a good harvest of truffles during each foray into the desert. Our findings highlight the various uses of truffles in the Sahara Desert, and how these relate to the lifestyle of local people. Copyright

  11. Study Protocol--Improving Access to Kidney Transplants (IMPAKT): a detailed account of a qualitative study investigating barriers to transplant for Australian Indigenous people with end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Jeannie; Cass, Alan; Cunningham, Joan; Preece, Cilla; Anderson, Kate; Snelling, Paul

    2008-02-04

    Indigenous Australians are slightly more than 2% of the total Australian population however, in recent years they have comprised between 6 and 10% of new patients beginning treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Although transplant is considered the optimal form of treatment for many ESKD patients there is a pronounced disparity between the rates at which Indigenous ESKD patients receive transplants compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts. The IMPAKT (Improving Access to Kidney Transplants) Interview study investigated reasons for this disparity through a large scale, in-depth interview study involving patients, nephrologists and key decision-making staff at selected Australian transplant and dialysis sites. The design and conduct of the study reflected the multi-disciplinary membership of the core IMPAKT team. Promoting a participatory ethos, IMPAKT established partnerships with a network of hospital transplant units and hospital dialysis treatment centres that provide treatment to the vast majority of Indigenous patients across Australia. Under their auspices, the IMPAKT team conducted in-depth interviews in 26 treatment/service centres located in metropolitan, regional and remote Australia. Peer interviewing supported the engagement of Indigenous patients (146), and nephrologists (19). In total IMPAKT spoke with Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients (241), key renal nursing and other (non-specialist) staff (95) and a small number of relevant others (28). Data analysis was supported by QSR software. At each site, IMPAKT also documented educational programs and resources, mapped an hypothetical 'patient journey' to transplant through the local system and observed patient care and treatment routines. The national scope, inter-disciplinary approach and use of qualitative methods in an investigation of a significant health inequality affecting Indigenous people is, we believe, an Australian first. An exceptionally large cohort of Indigenous

  12. Study Protocol – Improving Access to Kidney Transplants (IMPAKT): A detailed account of a qualitative study investigating barriers to transplant for Australian Indigenous people with end-stage kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Jeannie; Cass, Alan; Cunningham, Joan; Preece, Cilla; Anderson, Kate; Snelling, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are slightly more than 2% of the total Australian population however, in recent years they have comprised between 6 and 10% of new patients beginning treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Although transplant is considered the optimal form of treatment for many ESKD patients there is a pronounced disparity between the rates at which Indigenous ESKD patients receive transplants compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts. The IMPAKT (Improving Access to Kidney Transplants) Interview study investigated reasons for this disparity through a large scale, in-depth interview study involving patients, nephrologists and key decision-making staff at selected Australian transplant and dialysis sites. Methods The design and conduct of the study reflected the multi-disciplinary membership of the core IMPAKT team. Promoting a participatory ethos, IMPAKT established partnerships with a network of hospital transplant units and hospital dialysis treatment centres that provide treatment to the vast majority of Indigenous patients across Australia. Under their auspices, the IMPAKT team conducted in-depth interviews in 26 treatment/service centres located in metropolitan, regional and remote Australia. Peer interviewing supported the engagement of Indigenous patients (146), and nephrologists (19). In total IMPAKT spoke with Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients (241), key renal nursing and other (non-specialist) staff (95) and a small number of relevant others (28). Data analysis was supported by QSR software. At each site, IMPAKT also documented educational programs and resources, mapped an hypothetical ‘patient journey’ to transplant through the local system and observed patient care and treatment routines. Discussion The national scope, inter-disciplinary approach and use of qualitative methods in an investigation of a significant health inequality affecting Indigenous people is, we believe, an Australian first. An exceptionally

  13. An Indigenous Academic Perspective to Preserving and Promoting Indigenous Knowledge and Traditions: A Fiji Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Wahab

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge is multidimensional encompassing the beliefs, practices, arts, spirituality and other forms of traditional and cultural experiences that belong to Indigenous communities globally. In order to protect, preserve and recognize the knowledge of the Indigenous people of Fiji, known as the iTaukei, the University of Fiji has…

  14. An ethnobotanical study of anti-malarial plants among indigenous people on the upper Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Frausin, Gina; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Lima, Renata Braga Souza; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira; Ming, Lin Chau; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Milliken, William

    2015-11-04

    In this article we present the plants used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon. The region has important biological and cultural diversities including more than twenty indigenous ethnic groups and a strong history in traditional medicine. The aims of this study are to survey information in the Baniwa, Baré, Desana, Piratapuia, Tariana, Tukano, Tuyuca and Yanomami ethnic communities and among caboclos (mixed-ethnicity) on (a) plant species used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms, (b) dosage forms and (c) distribution of these anti-malarial plants in the Amazon. Information was obtained through classical ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological methods from interviews with 146 informants in Santa Isabel municipality on the upper Negro River, Brazil. Fifty-five mainly native neotropical plant species from 34 families were in use. The detailed uses of these plants were documented. The result was 187 records (64.5%) of plants for the specific treatment of malaria, 51 records (17.6%) of plants used in the treatment of liver problems and 29 records (10.0%) of plants used in the control of fevers associated with malaria. Other uses described were blood fortification ('dar sangue'), headache and prophylaxis. Most of the therapeutic preparations were decoctions and infusions based on stem bark, root bark and leaves. These were administered by mouth. In some cases, remedies were prepared with up to three different plant species. Also, plants were used together with other ingredients such as insects, mammals, gunpowder and milk. This is the first study on the anti-malarial plants from this region of the Amazon. Aspidosperma spp. and Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke were the most cited species in the communities surveyed. These species have experimental proof supporting their anti-malarial efficacy. The dosage of the therapeutic preparations depends on the kind of plant, quantity of plant

  15. [The demographic revolution among Brazilian indigenous peoples: the case of the Kayabí in the Xingu Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1970-2007].

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Heloisa

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic dynamics of the Kayabí, a Tupi people in the Xingu Indian Reservation in Central Brazil, from 1970 to 2007. Data were gathered from vital statistics for the Xingu Indian Reservation at the Federal University in São Paulo. Contact with Brazilian national society from 1920 to 1950 in the Upper Teles Pires River Valley led to a population decrease due to clashes and epidemics. In 1952, part of the Kayabí group gradually began migrating to the Xingu, where they still live. In 1970 there were 204 Kayabí in Xingu villages, and by 2007 there were 1,162, representing a 4.8% annual growth rate. For 2000-2007 the crude birth rate was 51 per thousand inhabitants; total fertility rate 7.8 children per women; crude death crude 3.5 per thousand inhabitants; and infant mortality rate 17.5 per thousand live births. The majority of the population is under 15 years of age (55.9%). The results show a population recovery process, similar to that of some other indigenous group in Brazil.

  16. An outbreak of fulminant hepatitis delta in the Waorani, an indigenous people of the Amazon basin of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Manock, S R; Kelley, P M; Hyams, K C; Douce, R; Smalligan, R D; Watts, D M; Sharp, T W; Casey, J L; Gerin, J L; Engle, R; Alava-Alprecht, A; Martínez, C M; Bravo, N B; Guevara, A G; Russell, K L; Mendoza, W; Vimos, C

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of delta hepatitis occurred during 1998 among the Waorani of the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Among 58 people identified with jaundice, 79% lived in four of 22 Waorani communities. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was found in the sera of 54% of the jaundiced persons, and 14% of asymptomatic persons. Ninety-five percent of 105 asymptomatic Waorani had hepatitis B core (HBc) IgG antibody, versus 98% of 51 with jaundice. These data confirm that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic among the Waorani. Sixteen of 23 (70%) HBsAg carriers identified at the onset of the epidemic had serologic markers for hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection. All 16 were jaundiced, where as only two of seven (29%) with negative HDV serology were jaundiced (P = .0006). The delta cases clustered in families, 69% were children and most involved superinfection of people chronically infected with HBV. The data suggest that HDV spread rapidly by a horizontal mode of transmission other than by the sexual route.

  17. Mexico and Guatemala: A Portfolio of Supplementary Lessons on Indigenous People. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Pamela

    At the present time, approximately 50% of the population of Guatemala is classified as indigenous, while in Mexico the figure is estimated to be between 10% and 15%. The figures are deceptive, however, since there is no legal definition of what constitutes an Indian in either country. This unit contains lessons that focus on indigenous groups in…

  18. Indigenous Documents Related to the Quincentenary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Charles R., Comp.

    1993-01-01

    Three documents of the "500 Years of Resistance" movement, which held continental meetings of indigenous peoples in July 1990 and October 1991, reject the celebration of the Columbus Quincentenary and call for true democracy and human rights for the Americas' indigenous peoples and an end to neocolonialism and social inequality. (SV)

  19. Indigenizing Teacher Education: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Raynor, Marg

    2013-01-01

    This action research report focuses on a new elective course entitled "Indigenizing Education: Education for/about Aboriginal Peoples" that was developed and taught by two teacher educators--one Euro-Canadian and the other Metis. The purpose of the course was to increase understanding of Indigenous peoples and of the impact of…

  20. Indigenizing Teacher Education: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Raynor, Marg

    2013-01-01

    This action research report focuses on a new elective course entitled "Indigenizing Education: Education for/about Aboriginal Peoples" that was developed and taught by two teacher educators--one Euro-Canadian and the other Metis. The purpose of the course was to increase understanding of Indigenous peoples and of the impact of…

  1. Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

  2. Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

  3. Hepatitis B immunization for indigenous adults, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, J Kevin; Beard, Frank; Wesselingh, Steve; Cowie, Benjamin; Ward, James; Macartney, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify the disparity in incidence of hepatitis B between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia, and to estimate the potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults. Methods Using national data on persons with newly acquired hepatitis B disease notified between 2005 and 2012, we estimated incident infection rates and rate ratios comparing indigenous and non-indigenous people, with adjustments for underreporting. The potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults was projected using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation model. Findings Of the 54 522 persons with hepatitis B disease notified between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012, 1953  infections were newly acquired. Acute hepatitis B infection notification rates were significantly higher for indigenous than non-indigenous Australians. The rates per 100 000 population for all ages were 3.6 (156/4 368 511) and 1.1 (1797/168 449 302) for indigenous and non-indigenous people respectively. The rate ratio of age-standardized notifications was 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.7–4.3). If 50% of non-immune indigenous adults (20% of all indigenous adults) were vaccinated over a 10-year programme a projected 527–549 new cases of acute hepatitis B would be prevented. Conclusion There continues to be significant health inequity between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in relation to vaccine-preventable hepatitis B disease. An immunization programme targeting indigenous Australian adults could have considerable impact in terms of cases of acute hepatitis B prevented, with a relatively low number needed to vaccinate to prevent each case. PMID:27821885

  4. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    PubMed

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility.

  5. From Montana to Brazil: Sparking an International Indigenous Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarlott, David, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    As president of Little Big Horn College, David Yarlott writes that he had the good fortune to be involved in several events with Indigenous peoples from other countries. He has participated in several World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium (WINHEC) conferences and also a World Indigenous Peoples Conference on Education (WIPCE). The…

  6. From Montana to Brazil: Sparking an International Indigenous Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarlott, David, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    As president of Little Big Horn College, David Yarlott writes that he had the good fortune to be involved in several events with Indigenous peoples from other countries. He has participated in several World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium (WINHEC) conferences and also a World Indigenous Peoples Conference on Education (WIPCE). The…

  7. Moving toward reconciliation in indigenous child welfare.

    PubMed

    Auger, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The Touchstones of Hope reconciliation movement consists of principles (culture and language, self-determination, structural interventions, non discrimination, and holistic approach) that guide a reconciliation process of truth-telling, acknowledging, restoring and relating to reshape indigenous child welfare led by indigenous peoples and supported by their non-indigenous counterparts. This article describes a reconciliation movement in Canada grounded in Touchstones of Hope principles, involving a reconciliation process between indigenous and non-indigenous individuals, which has enabled culturally relevant concepts of child welfare and plans for child safety to emerge.

  8. A qualitative study on primary health care professionals’ perceptions of mental health, suicidal problems and help-seeking among young people in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health problems among young peoples are a growing public health issue around the world. In low- income countries health systems are characterized by lack of facilities, human resources and primary health care is rarely an integrated part of overall health care services. This study aims at exploring how primary health care professionals in Nicaragua perceive young people’s mental health problems, suicidal problems and help–seeking behaviour. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses and doctors working in primary health care services in León, Nicaragua. A qualitative research design was applied. Data was analysed using thematic analysis approach. Results This study revealed that doctors and nurses were reluctant to deal with young people presenting with suicidal problems at the primary health care. This was more likely to stem from feelings of incompetence rather than from negative attitudes. Other barriers in providing appropriate care to young people with mental health problems were identified such as lack of time, lack of privacy, lack of human resources, lack of trained professionals and difficulties in communicating with young people. The primary health care (PHC) professionals suggested different solutions to improve care for young people with suicidal problems. Conclusion PHC doctors and nurses in Nicaragua felt that providing skilled mental health services to young people was a priority for them but they also identified a number of barriers to be able to do so. They discussed ways to improve young people’s willingness to share sensitive issues with them and suggested ways to make PHC more appreciated by young people. PMID:24989871

  9. [Seeking the solution at the heart of the problem: facing the intentionality of people suffering of borderline personality disorder (BPD)].

    PubMed

    Parent, Isabelle; Carrière, Monique

    2004-01-01

    This essay takes its support on the study of concepts of intentionality and life projects and their use in the rehabilitation of people with borderline personality disorder (BPD). It considers that these people are dis-concerted and disconcerting and the pertinence of envisaging new ways of helping them reconstruct a sense of their existence. Inspired by constructivist approaches that recognize the constant interaction of the subject with his environment and the duality of things, this reflection leads to the necessity of exploring the intentionality of people with BPD and develop their reflexive capacity in order to allow the progressive emergence of a life project. This recovery process is part of an approach where hope and mobilization of the person's strengths take an important place.

  10. ‘This isn't what mine looked like’: a qualitative study of symptom appraisal and help seeking in people recently diagnosed with melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Fiona M; Birt, Linda; Cavers, Debbie; Scott, Suzanne; Emery, Jon; Burrows, Nigel; Cavanagh, Gina; MacKie, Rona; Weller, David; Campbell, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions among patients recently diagnosed with melanomas, and to compare experiences of people with ‘thinner’ (<1 mm) and ‘thicker’ (>2 mm) melanomas, as thickness at diagnosis is an important prognostic feature. Methods In-depth interviews with patients within 10 weeks of melanoma diagnosis explored the factors impacting on their pathways to diagnosis. Framework analysis, underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment, was used to explore the data with particular focus on patients’ beliefs and experiences, disease factors, and healthcare professional (HCP) influences. Results 63 patients were interviewed (29–93 years, 31 women, 30 thicker melanomas). All described their skin changes using rich lay vocabulary. Many included unassuming features such as ‘just a little spot’ as well as common features of changes in size, colour and shape. There appeared to be subtly different patterns of symptoms: descriptions of vertical growth, bleeding, oozing and itch were features of thicker melanomas irrespective of pathological type. Appraisal was influenced by explanations such as normal life changes, prior beliefs and whether skin changes matched known melanoma descriptions. Most decisions to seek help were triggered by common factors such as advice from family and friends. 11 patients reported previous reassurance about their skin changes by a HCP, with little guidance on monitoring change or when it would be appropriate to re-consult. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with both thinner and thicker melanomas often did not initially recognise or interpret their skin changes as warning signs or prompts to seek timely medical attention. The findings provide guidance for melanoma awareness campaigns on more appropriate images, helpful descriptive language and the need to stress the often apparently innocuous nature of potentially serious skin changes. The importance of appropriate advice

  11. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses. PMID:27781012

  12. Effectiveness, cost effectiveness, acceptability and implementation barriers/enablers of chronic kidney disease management programs for Indigenous people in Australia, New Zealand and Canada: a systematic review of mixed evidence.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Rachel; Evans, Katharine; Gomersall, Judith; Gorham, Gillian; Peters, Micah D J; Warren, Steven; O'Shea, Rebekah; Cass, Alan; Brown, Alex

    2016-04-06

    Indigenous peoples in Australia, New Zealand and Canada carry a greater burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) than the general populations in each country, and this burden is predicted to increase. Given the human and economic cost of dialysis, understanding how to better manage CKD at earlier stages of disease progression is an important priority for practitioners and policy-makers. A systematic review of mixed evidence was undertaken to examine the evidence relating to the effectivness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of chronic kidney disease management programs designed for Indigenous people, as well as barriers and enablers of implementation of such programs. Published and unpublished studies reporting quantitative and qualitative data on health sector-led management programs and models of care explicitly designed to manage, slow progression or otherwise improve the lives of Indigenous people with CKD published between 2000 and 2014 were considered for inclusion. Data on clinical effectiveness, ability to self-manage, quality of life, acceptability, cost and cost-benefit, barriers and enablers of implementation were of interest. Quantitative data was summarized in narrative and tabular form and qualitative data was synthesized using the Joanna Briggs Institute meta-aggregation approach. Ten studies were included. Six studies provided evidence of clinical effectiveness of CKD programs designed for Indigenous people, two provided evidence of cost and cost-effectiveness of a CKD program, and two provided qualitative evidence of barriers and enablers of implementation of effective and/or acceptable CKD management programs. Common features of effective and acceptable programs were integration within existing services, nurse-led care, intensive follow-up, provision of culturally-appropriate education, governance structures supporting community ownership, robust clinical systems supporting communication and a central role for Indigenous Health Workers. Given

  13. An Ecological Approach to Seeking and Utilising the Views of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities in Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Neil; Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Transition planning using a person-centred approach has, in the main, failed to shape service provision. We offer an alternative based on an ecological understanding of human development linked to public health approaches that prioritise whole system planning. A total of 43 young people with intellectual disabilities, in Bradford, England, who…

  14. Persuasive Design: An Information-Systems Design-Theory Approach to Persuade Employment-Seeking Behavior among People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Buhairan, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    People with disabilities face a number of societal challenges that influence this vulnerable population to be less interested and motivated to pursue working. According to researchers, persuasive technologies are able to motivate intended users to change a targeted behavior. This study included the design, development, and evaluation of an…

  15. Persuasive Design: An Information-Systems Design-Theory Approach to Persuade Employment-Seeking Behavior among People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Buhairan, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    People with disabilities face a number of societal challenges that influence this vulnerable population to be less interested and motivated to pursue working. According to researchers, persuasive technologies are able to motivate intended users to change a targeted behavior. This study included the design, development, and evaluation of an…

  16. Health-Seeking Behaviour towards Poverty-Related Disease (PRDs): A Qualitative Study of People Living in Camps and on Campuses in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Makoge, Valerie; Maat, Harro; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Poverty-Related Diseases (PRDs) emphasize poverty as a 'breeding-ground' for a range of diseases. The study presented here starts from the premise that poverty is a general condition that can limit people's capacity to prevent, mitigate or treat diseases. Using an interpretation of health seeking behaviour (HSB), inspired by the salutogenic approach, we investigated how people deal with PRDs, their ability and strategies put in place to cope. We collected HSB data from two groups of respondents in Cameroon: labourers of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) living in settlements called camps and students of the state universities of Buea and Yaoundé living in settlements we refer to as campuses. By selecting these groups, the study offers a unique view of how different people cope with similar health challenges. We carried out semi-structured interviews with 21 camp dwellers and 21 students in a cross-sectional study. Our findings revealed 1) respondents use multiple resources to cope with PRDs. 2) Respondents' perceptions of diseases and connection with poverty closely ties to general hygienic conditions of their living environment. 3) Utilisation of health facilities is not strongly dependent on financial resources. 4) Volatile health facilities are a major challenge and reason for people to revert to other health resources. The study brings out the need for organisations (governmental and non-governmental) to strengthen people's capacities to cope with health situations through better health and housing policies geared at incorporating practices currently used by the people and supporting pro-hygienic initiatives.

  17. Food variety score is associated with dual burden of malnutrition in Orang Asli (Malaysian indigenous peoples) households: implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Saibul, Nurfaizah; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Ghani, Nawalyah Abdul; Rahman, Hejar Abdul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the presence of dual burden households in Orang Asli (OA, indigenous people) communities and its associated factors. A total of 182 OA households in two districts in Selangor with the required criteria (182 non-pregnant women of child bearing age and 284 children aged 2-9 years old) participated in the study. Height and weight of both women and children were measured. Energy intake and food variety score (FVS) were determined using three 24-hour diet recalls. While 58% were underweight and 64% of the children were stunted, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women were 31% and 20% respectively. The percentage of dual burden households (overweight mother/underweight child) was 25.8% while 14.8% households had normal weight mother/normal weight child. The mean food variety score (FVS) was similar for women (7.0+/-2.1) and children (6.9+/-1.9). Dual burden households were associated with women's employment status (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 2.65-5.66), FVS of children (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.95) and FVS of women (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02- 1.89). The FVS of children (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.89) and women (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.64-2.77) remained significant even when dual burden households were compared to only households with normal weight mother/normal weight child. In these OA communities, food variety may predict a healthier diet in children, but may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adults. Efforts to address households with dual burden malnutrition should consider promotion of healthy diets and lifestyle for all members.

  18. Occupational conditions and well-being of indigenous farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Stephanie; Shadbeh, Nargess; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Goff, Nancy

    2008-11-01

    Increasing numbers of indigenous farmworkers from Mexico and Guatemala have been arriving in the Pacific Northwest (indigenous people are not of Hispanic or Latino descent and migrate from regions with unique cultural and linguistic traditions). Multilingual project outreach workers administered surveys to 150 farmworkers in Oregon to assess health, occupational safety, and general living conditions. This study confirms the increasing presence of indigenous peoples in Oregon and characterizes differences between indigenous and Latino farmworkers' occupational and health needs.

  19. Occupational Conditions and Well-Being of Indigenous Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Shadbeh, Nargess; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Goff, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Increasing numbers of indigenous farmworkers from Mexico and Guatemala have been arriving in the Pacific Northwest (indigenous people are not of Hispanic or Latino descent and migrate from regions with unique cultural and linguistic traditions). Multilingual project outreach workers administered surveys to 150 farmworkers in Oregon to assess health, occupational safety, and general living conditions. This study confirms the increasing presence of indigenous peoples in Oregon and characterizes differences between indigenous and Latino farmworkers' occupational and health needs. PMID:18799774

  20. Ambivalent helpers and unhealthy choices: public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Emma; Paradies, Yin

    2005-03-01

    Public health practitioners in Australian indigenous health work in a complex political environment. Public health training is limited in providing them with conceptual tools needed to unpack the postcolonial nexus of 'fourth-world' health. A workshop was designed by the authors to facilitate critical reflection on how the concepts of race and culture are used in constructions of indigenous ill-health. It was attended by researchers, students, clinicians and bureaucrats working in public health in northern Australia. A thematic analysis of the workshop minutes provided insight into public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health. The major themes that emerged included tension between structure and agency and between sameness and difference, and ambivalence surrounding the 'helper' identity of public health practitioners. We suggest that these narratives can be understood as attempts to maintain the moral integrity of both Indigenous people and practitioners. This task is necessitated by the specter of cultural relativism intrinsic to contemporary liberal discourses of multiculturalism that attempt to reconcile the universal rights of the citizen with the special rights of minority groups. We argue that the concepts of self-determination and neocolonialism mark the spaces where universal and particular discourses overlap and clash. Practitioners who seek to escape neocolonialism must inhabit only the discursive space of public health congruent with self-determination, leaving them in a bind common to many postcolonial situations. They must relieve the ill-health of indigenous people without acting upon them; change them without declaring that change is required.

  1. Seeking safer sexual spaces: queer and trans young people labeled with intellectual disabilities and the paradoxical risks of restriction.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Alex; Flicker, Sarah; Nepveux, Denise; Nixon, Stephanie; Vo, Tess; Wilson, Ciann; Marshall, Zack; Travers, Robb; Proudfoot, Devon

    2012-01-01

    Young lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people labeled with intellectual disabilities have unique sexual health needs that are not being met. Denial by others of their right to pleasure and the exercise of heightened external control over their sexuality are commonplace. Current research indicates that these youth are at heightened risk for compromised sexual health. This study aimed to explore the ways in which social and environmental conditions influence vulnerability to adverse sexual health outcomes for this population. We used a community-based research approach to conduct qualitative interviews and focus groups with 10 young LGBT people (aged 17-26) labeled with intellectual disabilities. Participants reported multiple limitations on their autonomy that resulted in having sex in places where they did not feel comfortable and were unlikely to practice safer sex. Attempts by authority figures to protect youth through limits on their autonomy may be unintentionally leading to negative sexual health outcomes.

  2. Help seeking in older Asian people with dementia in Melbourne: using the Cultural Exchange Model to explore barriers and enablers.

    PubMed

    Haralambous, Betty; Dow, Briony; Tinney, Jean; Lin, Xiaoping; Blackberry, Irene; Rayner, Victoria; Lee, Sook-Meng; Vrantsidis, Freda; Lautenschlager, Nicola; Logiudice, Dina

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing in Australia. Limited research is available on access to Cognitive Dementia and Memory Services (CDAMS) for people with dementia from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) communities. This study aimed to determine the barriers and enablers to accessing CDAMS for people with dementia and their families of Chinese and Vietnamese backgrounds. Consultations with community members, community workers and health professionals were conducted using the "Cultural Exchange Model" framework. For carers, barriers to accessing services included the complexity of the health system, lack of time, travel required to get to services, language barriers, interpreters and lack of knowledge of services. Similarly, community workers and health professionals identified language, interpreters, and community perceptions as key barriers to service access. Strategies to increase knowledge included providing information via radio, printed material and education in community group settings. The "Cultural Exchange Model" enabled engagement with and modification of the approaches to meet the needs of the targeted CALD communities.

  3. ‘I'll be in a safe place’: a qualitative study of the decisions taken by people with advanced cancer to seek emergency department care

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Lesley A; Higginson, Irene J; Daveson, Barbara A; Ellis-Smith, Clare; Koffman, Jonathan; Morgan, Myfanwy; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the decisions of people with advanced cancer and their caregivers to seek emergency department (ED) care, and understand the issues that influence the decision-making process. Design Cross-sectional qualitative study incorporating semistructured patient and caregiver interviews. Methods Between December 2014 and July 2015, semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 people with advanced cancer, all of whom had recently attended the ED of a large university teaching hospital located in south-east London; and six of their caregivers. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a constant comparative approach. Padgett and Brodsky's modified version of the ‘Behavioral Model of Health Services Use’ was used as a framework to guide the study. Results Issues influencing the decision-making process included: (1) disease-related anxiety—those with greater anxiety related to their cancer diagnosis interpreted their symptoms as more severe and/or requiring immediate attention; (2) prior patterns of health-seeking behaviour—at times of crisis participants defaulted to previously used services; (3) feelings of safety and familiarity with the hospital setting—many felt reassured by the presence of healthcare professionals and monitoring of their condition; and, (4) difficulties accessing community healthcare services—especially urgently and/or out-of-hours. Conclusions These data provide healthcare professionals and policymakers with a greater understanding of how systems of care may be developed to help reduce ED visits by people with advanced cancer. In particular, our findings suggest that the number of ED visits could be reduced with greater end-of-life symptom support and education, earlier collaboration between oncology and palliative care, and with increased access to community healthcare services. PMID:27807085

  4. Companion Versus Comparison: Examining Seeking Social Companionship or Social Comparison as Characteristics That Differentiate Happy and Unhappy People.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhyung; Hong, Emily K; Choi, Incheol; Hicks, Joshua A

    2016-03-01

    Which friend do you want to spend time with-a happy friend who performs better than you or an unhappy friend who performs worse than you? The present research demonstrates that in such conflicting situations, when the desires for companionship and comparison are pitted against each other, one's level of happiness plays an important role in one's choice. Using hypothetical scenarios, we found that compared with unhappy people, happy people expected that spending time with a happy, superior friend would be more pleasant than spending time with an unhappy, inferior friend (Studies 1B through 2) and were more willing to socialize with a happy, superior friend than with an unhappy, inferior friend (Studies 1B through 2). Moreover, this pattern was not explained by self-esteem (Study 2) or the similarity-attraction hypothesis (Study 3). The present findings suggest that happy people place more value on companionship than on comparison. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. An ecological approach to seeking and utilising the views of young people with intellectual disabilities in transition planning.

    PubMed

    Small, Neil; Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Transition planning using a person-centred approach has, in the main, failed to shape service provision. We offer an alternative based on an ecological understanding of human development linked to public health approaches that prioritise whole system planning. A total of 43 young people with intellectual disabilities, in Bradford, England, who were approaching transition from school or college were recruited to a qualitative study. Their ethnic breakdown was as follows: 16 white British, 24 Pakistani, 2 Bangladeshi and 1 Black African. Each young person was interviewed twice, at recruitment and a year later, to observe any changes in their social networks during transition. Interviews were undertaken with a semi-structured interview schedule and with the pictorial approach of Talking Mats. Both the networks the young people live within, and their sense of what the future might hold for them, are described and linked to Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development. The importance of the family and school is emphasised, as is the absence of engagement in leisure activities and work. Transition planning needs to start with mapping the systems individuals live within, areas of strength should be supported and parts of the system, which are not fit for purpose for these young people, should be prioritised for interventions.

  6. Indigenous Knowledge as a Tool for Self-Determination and Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Dawn Martin

    This paper explores aspects of Indigenous knowledge on several levels and examines the role of Indigenous knowledge in Indigenous empowerment as the number and influence of Native people in academia increases. Indigenous peoples worldwide have a common set of assumptions that forms a context or paradigm--a collective core of interrelated…

  7. Research on indigenous elders: from positivistic to decolonizing methodologies.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kathryn L; Browne, Colette V; Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Kim, Bum Jung; Mokuau, Noreen

    2014-02-01

    Although indigenous peoples have lower life expectancies than the social majority populations in their countries, increasing numbers of indigenous people are living into old age. Research on indigenous elders is informed by a number of research traditions. Researchers have mined existing data sets to compare characteristics of indigenous populations with non-indigenous groups, and these findings have revealed significant disparities experienced by indigenous elders. Some investigators have attempted to validate standardized research tools for use in indigenous populations. Findings from these studies have furthered our knowledge about indigenous elders and have highlighted the ways in which tools may need to be adapted to better fit indigenous views of the constructs being measured. Qualitative approaches are popular, as they allow indigenous elders to tell their stories and challenge non-indigenous investigators to acknowledge values and worldviews different from their own. Recently, efforts have extended to participatory and decolonizing research methods, which aim to empower indigenous elders as researchers. Research approaches are discussed in light of the negative experiences many indigenous peoples have had with Eurocentric research. Acknowledgment of historical trauma, life-course perspectives, phenomenology, and critical gerontology should frame future research with, rather than on, indigenous elders.

  8. Research on Indigenous Elders: From Positivistic to Decolonizing Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Although indigenous peoples have lower life expectancies than the social majority populations in their countries, increasing numbers of indigenous people are living into old age. Research on indigenous elders is informed by a number of research traditions. Researchers have mined existing data sets to compare characteristics of indigenous populations with non-indigenous groups, and these findings have revealed significant disparities experienced by indigenous elders. Some investigators have attempted to validate standardized research tools for use in indigenous populations. Findings from these studies have furthered our knowledge about indigenous elders and have highlighted the ways in which tools may need to be adapted to better fit indigenous views of the constructs being measured. Qualitative approaches are popular, as they allow indigenous elders to tell their stories and challenge non-indigenous investigators to acknowledge values and worldviews different from their own. Recently, efforts have extended to participatory and decolonizing research methods, which aim to empower indigenous elders as researchers. Research approaches are discussed in light of the negative experiences many indigenous peoples have had with Eurocentric research. Acknowledgment of historical trauma, life-course perspectives, phenomenology, and critical gerontology should frame future research with, rather than on, indigenous elders. PMID:23841952

  9. [From the First Symptoms of Depression to Treatment. When and Where are People Seeking Help? Does Stigma Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Sandra; Mergl, Roland; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2016-09-14

    Objective: Only a few of the people affected by depression receive early treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the time interval between first onset of symptoms and treatment utilization and the role of stigma in this process. Methods: Survey with participants from the 2nd German Patient Convention in Leipzig, Germany for patients, relatives and the general public. Results: About one fourth of the respondents stated that the time interval between first symptoms of depression and treatment utilization was longer than three years. One third said that they received treatment immediately or until up to three months after the first symptoms of depression, and one third after three months up to three years. The majority (64 %) said that they first received a depression diagnosis from a specialist. The most common treatments used were psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and a combination of both. Self-help, physical activity and occupational therapy were named as the most popular non-medical treatments. Conclusion: A possible explanation for delayed treatment utilization could be the perceived public stigma, which was higher in people with depression in comparison to other convention attendees (relatives and general public).

  10. Health-Seeking Behaviour towards Poverty-Related Disease (PRDs): A Qualitative Study of People Living in Camps and on Campuses in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Maat, Harro; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Poverty-Related Diseases (PRDs) emphasize poverty as a ‘breeding-ground’ for a range of diseases. The study presented here starts from the premise that poverty is a general condition that can limit people’s capacity to prevent, mitigate or treat diseases. Using an interpretation of health seeking behaviour (HSB), inspired by the salutogenic approach, we investigated how people deal with PRDs, their ability and strategies put in place to cope. We collected HSB data from two groups of respondents in Cameroon: labourers of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) living in settlements called camps and students of the state universities of Buea and Yaoundé living in settlements we refer to as campuses. By selecting these groups, the study offers a unique view of how different people cope with similar health challenges. We carried out semi-structured interviews with 21 camp dwellers and 21 students in a cross-sectional study. Our findings revealed 1) respondents use multiple resources to cope with PRDs. 2) Respondents’ perceptions of diseases and connection with poverty closely ties to general hygienic conditions of their living environment. 3) Utilisation of health facilities is not strongly dependent on financial resources. 4) Volatile health facilities are a major challenge and reason for people to revert to other health resources. The study brings out the need for organisations (governmental and non-governmental) to strengthen people’s capacities to cope with health situations through better health and housing policies geared at incorporating practices currently used by the people and supporting pro-hygienic initiatives. PMID:28052068

  11. Influence of beliefs about health and illness on self-care and care-seeking in foreign-born people with diabetic foot ulcers: dissimilarities related to origin.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, K; Apelqvist, J

    2016-11-02

    To describe beliefs about health and illness among foreign-born people with diabetic foot ulcers that might affect self-reported self-care and health-care seeking and to study whether there are dissimilarities related to origin. Qualitative descriptive study. Semi-structured interviews with people aged 38-86 years; 13 born in European and 13 in non-European countries (all except one in the Middle East). All resident in Sweden for 7-60 years (median: 18.5 years). Most believed foot ulcers were unavoidable and difficult to detect. Foot problems were mainly believed to be due to internal factors (diabetes), sometimes combined with external factors (inappropriate footwear, hot water, or barefoot walking). Health was described as freedom from illness and health professionals were seen as important sources of information. Perceived health deteriorated after the onset of the foot problems due to immobility and pain. People from the Middle East differed from other respondents as they discussed the importance of adapting to the will of Allah, leading to even poorer quality of life and a more negative view of future health. They also described more foot problems and perceived religion (Islam) with ritual washing of the feet to be important for health. However, they were regularly monitored to a lesser extent than European migrants. Economy affected health, more so in Europeans, due to expenses for medications and shoes. Many described limited activity in self-care, few had sought help for their problems and then solely among professionals, and had limited knowledge about the influence of glycaemic control on diabetes and foot status. Foreign-born people felt unable to prevent the incidence of foot ulcers, experienced problems with detection, and had limited knowledge of self-care. Dissimilarities in beliefs related to origin negatively influenced self-care of the feet, so it is important to assess individual beliefs and plan care and education accordingly.

  12. Soil-transmitted helminth and other intestinal parasitic infections among school children in indigenous people communities in Davao del Norte, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Totañes, Francis Isidore G; de Leon, Winifreda U; Lumampao, Yvonne F; Ciro, Raezelle Nadine T

    2011-09-01

    A significant portion of the population in the Philippines consists of indigenous people (IP) groups, approximately 9% or 8.1 million. Data on the health status of these groups are very limited including the status of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Provision of such data will be of great importance in the formulation of policy on control and prevention of these diseases in this group. This study was conducted in selected villages/barangays in the municipalities of Carmen, Kapalong, San Isidro and Sto. Tomas in the Province of Davao del Norte in Southern Mindanao, Philippines. Parasitologic assessment was performed using Kato-Katz to qualify and quantify STH infections, while nutritional status assessment was based on hemoglobin determination and on nutritional status indicators, i.e., weight-for-age (WFA), height-for-age (HFA), and body mass index (BMI) for age derived from anthropometric measurements. A total of 572 school children participated in the survey, 264 (46.2%) of whom belonged to a specific IP group. Results showed that 34.1% of the school children had at least one STH infection while 5.9% had heavy intensity infections. Cumulative prevalence in IP school children was significantly higher than in non-IP children with rates at 39.0% and 29.9%, respectively (P = 0.021). Overall prevalence of school children with below normal WFA was 29.9%, while prevalence of those with below normal HFA and BMI for age was 42.8% and 14.9%, respectively. Of those examined, 8.3% had below normal hemoglobin levels. There was no significant difference observed between the nutritional status parameters of IP and non-IP school children. The parasitologic parameters reported in this study signify the need to pay more attention to IP children who are at higher risk of morbidity due to helminth infections. Access of IP communities to quality health services, which include mass drug administration (MDA) and health education on a regular basis, must be ensured. Further

  13. 'It's very difficult to get respite out here at the moment': Australian findings on end-of-life care for Indigenous people.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam; Patton, Mary Anne; McGrath, Zoë; Olgivie, Katherine; Rayner, Robert; Holewa, Hamish

    2006-03-01

    Whilst access to respite care has been found to represent an important source of support for terminally ill patients and their families, the availability of these services to Indigenous Australians has to date remained undocumented. This potential need for respite in Indigenous communities was explored as part of a National Health and Medical Research Council (NH&MRC) funded study designed to develop an innovative model for Indigenous palliative care. The data needed for model development were collected through a series of open-ended, qualitative interviews conducted with a cross-section of consumers and health professionals within the Northern Territory, Australia. The findings reflected a serious need for Indigenous respite services, coupled with a severe deficiency in the present availability of these services, especially within rural and regional areas. This lack of local respite services was documented to be negatively impacting upon the ability of carers to fulfil their caring duties and was found placing undue physical, emotional and economic stress upon carers, patients and their families. Furthermore, the lack of access to local respite services documented was found to be forcing rural and regional patients to relocate to metropolitan areas away from the family, community and land to which strong ties are held. The lack of Indigenous respite services was also found to obstruct patients' and carers' wishes for death to occur in the local community, rather than in far away cities. Significant obstacles were found to be hindering the provision of respite care to Indigenous Australians, namely beliefs about families looking after their own, resource restrictions, limited staff availability in local areas, as well as problems associated with hostel use in metropolitan areas. The conclusions drawn from this study suggest the importance of tackling the obstacles preventing local respite services being established in areas close to where patients and carers live.

  14. 'This isn't what mine looked like': a qualitative study of symptom appraisal and help seeking in people recently diagnosed with melanoma.

    PubMed

    Walter, Fiona M; Birt, Linda; Cavers, Debbie; Scott, Suzanne; Emery, Jon; Burrows, Nigel; Cavanagh, Gina; MacKie, Rona; Weller, David; Campbell, Christine

    2014-07-21

    To explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions among patients recently diagnosed with melanomas, and to compare experiences of people with 'thinner' (<1 mm) and 'thicker' (>2 mm) melanomas, as thickness at diagnosis is an important prognostic feature. In-depth interviews with patients within 10 weeks of melanoma diagnosis explored the factors impacting on their pathways to diagnosis. Framework analysis, underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment, was used to explore the data with particular focus on patients' beliefs and experiences, disease factors, and healthcare professional (HCP) influences. 63 patients were interviewed (29-93 years, 31 women, 30 thicker melanomas). All described their skin changes using rich lay vocabulary. Many included unassuming features such as 'just a little spot' as well as common features of changes in size, colour and shape. There appeared to be subtly different patterns of symptoms: descriptions of vertical growth, bleeding, oozing and itch were features of thicker melanomas irrespective of pathological type. Appraisal was influenced by explanations such as normal life changes, prior beliefs and whether skin changes matched known melanoma descriptions. Most decisions to seek help were triggered by common factors such as advice from family and friends. 11 patients reported previous reassurance about their skin changes by a HCP, with little guidance on monitoring change or when it would be appropriate to re-consult. Patients diagnosed with both thinner and thicker melanomas often did not initially recognise or interpret their skin changes as warning signs or prompts to seek timely medical attention. The findings provide guidance for melanoma awareness campaigns on more appropriate images, helpful descriptive language and the need to stress the often apparently innocuous nature of potentially serious skin changes. The importance of appropriate advice, monitoring and safety-netting procedures by HCPs for people

  15. Improving Indigenous patients' access to mainstream health services: the Inala experience.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Noel E; White, Nola E; Spurling, Geoffrey K

    2009-05-18

    In 1994, only 12 Indigenous people attended the mainstream general practice in Inala, south-western Brisbane, Queensland. An Indigenous community focus group and telephone interviews revealed deficits such as: few items (eg, artwork) that Indigenous people could identify with; lack of Indigenous staff; staff perceived as unfriendly; inflexibility regarding time; and intolerance of Indigenous children's behaviour. Access to the Inala Indigenous Health Service by Indigenous people improved when these issues were addressed, and has grown significantly every year from 1995 to 2008. Other important factors in improving access include: energetic Indigenous leadership; enabling bulk billing to increase funding; moving to a stand-alone clinic; and engaging with teaching, research and community programs. A Centre of Excellence in Indigenous Primary Health Care is envisaged as the next innovation required to improve access and quality of service, and to close the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous health outcomes.

  16. Report of MCEETYA Taskforce on Indigenous Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    In April 1999, the (Australian) Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs established a taskforce on making educational equality for Indigenous peoples a national priority; enhancing the performance and monitoring framework for the National Indigenous Education Strategic Initiatives Programme (IESIP); and developing…

  17. An Indigenous View of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Winona

    1998-01-01

    Uses stories of U.S. and Canadian indigenous individuals who defended their lands against uranium mining and hydroelectric development to contrast the thinking of indigenous people (natural law as pre-eminent, spiritual practice, intergenerational residency in the same place) with industrial thinking (man's dominion over nature, linear thinking,…

  18. Mapping and Complicating Conversations about Indigenous Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahenakew, Cash Richard

    2017-01-01

    In this article I offer a series of critical reflections about existing efforts and achievements in Indigenous Education, with particular emphasis on the risks, tensions, and paradoxes that arise where different knowledge systems meet, and when Indigenous peoples ourselves hold contradictory educational desires. I focus on the idea of the land as…

  19. An Indigenous View of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Winona

    1998-01-01

    Uses stories of U.S. and Canadian indigenous individuals who defended their lands against uranium mining and hydroelectric development to contrast the thinking of indigenous people (natural law as pre-eminent, spiritual practice, intergenerational residency in the same place) with industrial thinking (man's dominion over nature, linear thinking,…

  20. The Perception of Threat from Emotions in Predicting Binge Eating Behaviours in People Who Are Obese and Seeking Treatment for Their Weight.

    PubMed

    Fox, J R E; Msetfi, R M; Johnson, R S; Haigh, E

    2016-09-01

    The affect regulation theory suggests that people binge eat to regulate negative emotional states. In this study, we used a basic emotions perspective to consider the role of perceived threat of emotions, emotional suppression and reduced emotional expressiveness in predicting binge eating behaviours in people who are obese. Treatment-seeking participants with obesity (N = 51, body mass index range from 30.8 to 60.2 kg m(-2) ) completed measures of 'perception of threat from emotion' as well as 'emotional expressiveness' and binge eating. The results demonstrated that perceived threat of sadness predicted binge eating (β = .55, p < .05). Additionally, a mediation analysis revealed that reduced emotional expressiveness mediated the relationship between perceived threat of fear and binge eating (β = .25, 95%). These findings are contextualized within a theoretical perspective that suggests that individuals who binge eat are threatened by certain emotional states and they use binge eating to suppress certain, but not all, emotional states. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Considering basic emotions within binge eating should be a part of a psychological assessment and treatment. This should consider how emotions could often be perceived as being threatening and their expression is limited. It is possible that the emotions of fear and sadness appear to be particularly threatening within binge eating/obese populations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Narratives of race and indigeneity in the Genographic Project.

    PubMed

    TallBear, Kim

    2007-01-01

    In its quest to sample 100,000 "indigenous and traditional peoples," the Genographic Project deploys five problematic narratives: (1) that "we are all African"; (2) that "genetic science can end racism"; (3) that "indigenous peoples are vanishing"; (4) that "we are all related"; and (5) that Genographic "collaborates" with indigenous peoples. In so doing, Genographic perpetuates much critiqued, yet longstanding notions of race and colonial scientific practice.

  2. Intercultural Bilingual Educational Policies for Transnational Indigenous Communities: School Experiences of the Wichí-Weenhayek People on the Argentinean-Bolivian Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Zaynab; Román, Diego X.; del Rosal, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing Ruiz's (1984, 1995) language orientation and language policy work, this ethnographic study compared two intercultural bilingual education (IBE) schools located in two Wichí-Weenhayek communities on both sides of the Argentinean-Bolivian border. We examined Wichí-Weenhayek and non-Indigenous teachers' profiles, teacher-student…

  3. Intercultural Bilingual Educational Policies for Transnational Indigenous Communities: School Experiences of the Wichí-Weenhayek People on the Argentinean-Bolivian Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Zaynab; Román, Diego X.; del Rosal, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing Ruiz's (1984, 1995) language orientation and language policy work, this ethnographic study compared two intercultural bilingual education (IBE) schools located in two Wichí-Weenhayek communities on both sides of the Argentinean-Bolivian border. We examined Wichí-Weenhayek and non-Indigenous teachers' profiles, teacher-student…

  4. Career Decision-Making: What Matters to Indigenous Australians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helme, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This article brings together and discusses three research projects that examined the vocational education and career-decision making of Indigenous Australians. These studies focused on the experiences of Indigenous people themselves, in order to provide an Indigenous perspective on vocational and career development. Four main barriers that limit…

  5. Indigenous Digital Storytelling in Video: Witnessing with Alma Desjarlais

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke, Judy M.

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous digital storytelling in video is a way of witnessing the stories of Indigenous communities and Elders, including what has happened and is happening in the lives and work of Indigenous peoples. Witnessing includes acts of remembrance in which we look back to reinterpret and recreate our relationship to the past in order to understand the…

  6. Diagnosing cancer in the bush: a mixed-methods study of symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour in people with cancer from rural Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Emery, Jon D; Walter, Fiona M; Gray, Vicky; Sinclair, Craig; Howting, Denise; Bulsara, Max; Bulsara, Caroline; Webster, Andrew; Auret, Kirsten; Saunders, Christobel; Nowak, Anna; Holman, C D'Arcy

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the treatment received by rural cancer patients and have not examined their diagnostic pathways as reasons for poorer outcomes in rural Australia. To compare and explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour in patients with breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer from rural Western Australia (WA). A mixed-methods study of people recently diagnosed with breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer from rural WA. The time from first symptom to diagnosis (i.e. total diagnostic interval, TDI) was calculated from interviews and medical records. Sixty-six participants were recruited (24 breast, 20 colorectal, 14 prostate and 8 lung cancer patients). There was a highly significant difference in time from symptom onset to seeking help between cancers (P = 0.006). Geometric mean symptom appraisal for colorectal cancer was significantly longer than that for breast and lung cancers [geometric mean differences: 2.58 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.64-4.53), P = 0.01; 3.97 (1.63-6.30), P = 0.001, respectively]. There was a significant overall difference in arithmetic mean TDI (P = 0.046); breast cancer TDI was significantly shorter than colorectal or prostate cancer TDI [mean difference : 266.3 days (95% CI: 45.9-486.8), P = 0.019; 277.0 days, (32.1-521.9), P = 0.027, respectively]. These differences were explained by the nature and personal interpretation of symptoms, perceived as well as real problems of access to health care, optimism, stoicism, machismo, fear, embarrassment and competing demands. Longer symptom appraisal was observed for colorectal cancer. Participants defined core characteristics of rural Australians as optimism, stoicism and machismo. These features, as well as access to health care, contribute to later presentation of cancer.

  7. Honouring indigenous treaty rights for climate justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantyka-Pringle, C. S.; Westman, C. N.; Kythreotis, A. P.; Schindler, D. W.

    2015-09-01

    Expansion of the oil sands industry in Canada has caused land destruction and social friction. Canada could become a leader in climate governance by honouring treaty commitments made with indigenous peoples.

  8. Maynard Participation in Alaska Forum on the Environment Panel Discussion on Increasing Input to the US National Climate Assessment (NCA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Processes from Alaska, with Emphasis on Indigenous Peoples Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Nancy Maynard was invited by the Alaska Forum on the Environment to participate in a Panel Discussion to discuss (1) background about what the US NCA and International IPCC assessments are, (2) the impact the assessments have on policy-making, (3) the process for participation in both assessments, (4) how we can increase participation by Indigenous Peoples such as Native Americans and Alaska Natives, (5) How we can increase historical and current impacts input from Native communities through stories, oral history, "grey" literature, etc. The session will be chaired by Dr. Bull Bennett, a cochair of the US NCA's chapter on "Native and Tribal Lands and Resources" and Dr. Maynard is the other co-chair of that chapter and they will discuss the latest activities under the NCA process relevant to Native Americans and Alaska Natives. Dr. Maynard is also a Lead Author of the "Polar Regions" chapter of the IPCC WG2 (5th Assessment) and she will describes some of the latest approaches by the IPCC to entrain more Indigenous peoples into the IPCC process.

  9. Providing Space for Indigenous Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangihaere, Tracey Mihinoa; Twiname, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Colonial influences have generally failed to respect indigenous knowledge, languages, and cultures. Determination to reclaim First Nations identity is visible in many jurisdictions. First Nations Peoples continue to call on governments to facilitate changes needed to revitalize their economic, social, cultural, and spiritual well-being. This…

  10. Providing Space for Indigenous Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangihaere, Tracey Mihinoa; Twiname, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Colonial influences have generally failed to respect indigenous knowledge, languages, and cultures. Determination to reclaim First Nations identity is visible in many jurisdictions. First Nations Peoples continue to call on governments to facilitate changes needed to revitalize their economic, social, cultural, and spiritual well-being. This…

  11. Protecting indigenous rights. Guatemala.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Guatemala's recent ratification of the International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention regarding indigenous and tribal peoples (1989, No. 169) represents a commitment to guarantee the rights of the country's majority Mayan population. Ratifying governments are obligated to respect the traditional values and land rights of tribal and indigenous peoples and to consult with them on any decisions affecting their economic or social development. Ratification of this Convention was a key element in an eight-part UN-sponsored negotiation aimed at ending the civil war in Guatemala. Efforts are underway to promote dialogue between organized civil society and government. Negotiations in May 1996, conducted with ILO assistance, resulted in a socioeconomic agreement under which Guatemala will increase social investment in education, undertake agrarian reform, and institute tripartite consultation on all major social and economic issues. However, two key issues in the peace negotiations--the role of the army in civil society and constitutional reform--remain unresolved. The final global peace accord is expected to be signed in September 1996. UN organizations are already working to mobilize international support for transforming these agreements into political and social realities for the Guatemalan people.

  12. Mental and substance use disorders from early adolescence to young adulthood among indigenous young people: final diagnostic results from an 8-year panel study.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Les B; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J; Crawford, Devan M; Walls, Melissa L; Gentzler, Kari C; Hoyt, Dan R

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate change in prevalence rates for mental and substance abuse disorders between early adolescence and young adulthood in a cohort of indigenous adolescents who participated in an 8-year panel study. The data are from a lagged, sequential study of 671 indigenous adolescents (Wave 1) from a single culture in the Northern Midwest USA and Canada. At Wave 1 (mean age 11.3 years, Wave 4 (mean age 14.3 years), Wave 6 (mean age 16.2 years), and at Wave 8 (mean age 18.3 years) the tribally enrolled adolescents completed a computer-assisted personal interview that included DISC-R assessment for 11 diagnoses. Our yearly retention rates by diagnostic wave were: Wave 2, 94.7 %; Wave 4, 87.7 %; Wave 6, 88.0 %; Wave 8, 78.5 %. The findings show a dramatic increase in lifetime prevalence rates for substance use disorders. By young adulthood, over half had met criteria of substance abuse or dependence disorder. Also at young adulthood, 58.2 % had met lifetime criteria of a single substance use or mental disorder and 37.2 % for two or more substance use or mental disorders. The results are compared to other indigenous diagnostic studies and to the general population. A mental health crisis exists within the indigenous populations that participated in this study. Innovations within current mental health service systems are needed to address the unmet demand of adolescents and families.

  13. Addressing the Pedagogical Purpose of Indigenous Displays: The Case of the National Museum of the American Indian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofanenko, Brenda; Segall, Avner

    2012-01-01

    In museums with Indigenous objects, the exhibits present a particular representation of the culture and history of Indigenous peoples. More recently, the move toward partnerships with Indigenous communities represents a radical departure from long-held attitudes about the relationship between Indigenous people and museums. This article both…

  14. Addressing the Pedagogical Purpose of Indigenous Displays: The Case of the National Museum of the American Indian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofanenko, Brenda; Segall, Avner

    2012-01-01

    In museums with Indigenous objects, the exhibits present a particular representation of the culture and history of Indigenous peoples. More recently, the move toward partnerships with Indigenous communities represents a radical departure from long-held attitudes about the relationship between Indigenous people and museums. This article both…

  15. Trajectories of Suicidal Ideation in People Seeking Web-Based Help for Suicidality: Secondary Analysis of a Dutch Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Spijker, Bregje; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Nordentoft, Merete; Kerkhof, Ad JFM

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation (SI) is a common mental health problem. Variability in intensity of SI over time has been linked to suicidal behavior, yet little is known about the temporal course of SI. Objective The primary aim was to identify prototypical trajectories of SI in the general population and, secondarily, to examine whether receiving Web-based self-help for SI, psychiatric symptoms, or sociodemographics predicted membership in the identified SI trajectories. Methods We enrolled 236 people, from the general Dutch population seeking Web-based help for SI, in a randomized controlled trial comparing a Web-based self-help for SI group with a control group. We assessed participants at inclusion and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was applied at all assessments and was included in latent growth mixture modeling analysis to empirically identify trajectories. Results We identified 4 SI trajectories. The high stable trajectory represented 51.7% (122/236) of participants and was characterized by constant high level of SI. The high decreasing trajectory (50/236, 21.2%) consisted of people with a high baseline SI score followed by a gradual decrease to a very low score. The third trajectory, high increasing (12/236, 5.1%), also had high initial SI score, followed by an increase to the highest level of SI at 6 weeks. The fourth trajectory, low stable (52/236, 22.0%) had a constant low level of SI. Previous attempted suicide and having received Web-based self-help for SI predicted membership in the high decreasing trajectory. Conclusions Many adults experience high persisting levels of SI, though results encouragingly indicate that receiving Web-based self-help for SI increased membership in a decreasing trajectory of SI. PMID:27363482

  16. Academic Staff Perceptions of Factors Underlying Program Completion by Australian Indigenous Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim; Stewart, Lee

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the number of Indigenous health professionals is one way to help reduce the poor health outcomes of Australia's Indigenous people. However, while Indigenous students are enrolling in Australian tertiary undergraduate nursing courses in increasing numbers, their completion rates remain lower than non-Indigenous students and many…

  17. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  18. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  19. Prevalence of Unmet Health Care needs and description of health care-seeking behavior among displaced people after the 2007 California wildfires.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J Lee; Hsu, Edbert B; Sauer, Lauren M; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Kirsch, Thomas D

    2009-06-01

    The southern California wildfires in autumn 2007 resulted in widespread disruption and one of the largest evacuations in the state's history. This study aims to identify unmet medical needs and health care-seeking patterns as well as prevalence of acute and chronic disease among displaced people following the southern California wildfires. These data can be used to increase the accuracy, and therefore capacity, of the medical response. A team of emergency physicians, nurses, and epidemiologists conducted surveys of heads of households at shelters and local assistance centers in San Diego and Riverside counties for 3 days beginning 10 days postdisaster. All households present in shelters on the day of the survey were interviewed, and at the local assistance centers, a 2-stage sampling method was used that included selecting a sample size proportionate to the number of registered visits to that site compared with all sites followed by a convenience sampling of people who were not actively being aided by local assistance center personnel. The survey covered demographics; needs following the wildfires (shelter, food, water, and health care); acute health symptoms; chronic health conditions; access to health care; and access to prescription medications. Among the 175 households eligible, 161 (92.0%) households participated. Within the 47 households that reported a health care need since evacuation, 13 (27.7%) did not receive care that met their perceived need. Need for prescription medication was reported by 47 (29.2%) households, and 20 (42.6%) of those households did not feel that their need for prescription medication had been met. Mental health needs were reported by 14 (8.7%) households with 7 of these (50.0%) reporting unmet needs. At least 1 family member per household left prescription medication behind during evacuation in 46 households (28.6%), and 1 family member in 48 households (29.8%) saw a health care provider since their evacuation. Most people sought

  20. The Importance of Place in Indigenous Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Dawn; Swayze, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education, Mack and colleagues (Mack et al. "2011") seek to identify the necessary components of science education in Indigenous settings. Using a review of current research in informal science education in Indigenous settings, along with personal interviews with American educators engaged in…

  1. The Importance of Place in Indigenous Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Dawn; Swayze, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education, Mack and colleagues (Mack et al. "2011") seek to identify the necessary components of science education in Indigenous settings. Using a review of current research in informal science education in Indigenous settings, along with personal interviews with American educators engaged in…

  2. Best Practices for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes and Obesity-Related Chronic Disease among Indigenous Peoples in Canada: A Review.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kathleen; Te Hiwi, Braden; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Lavallee, Barry; Barre, Douglas Edward; Harris, Stewart B

    2016-06-01

    To carry out a systematic review of interventions that have aimed at improving screening, treatment, prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and obesity-related chronic disease in Indigenous communities in Canada from 2008 to 2014, with the aim of identifying current best practices. A comprehensive literature review was carried out through an electronic database search using Medline, EMBASE, PubMED and Google scholar. We identified 17 publications, comprising 13 evaluated interventions. Of them, 7 were school-based programs focused on children, 5 focused on adults, and 1 included both adults and children. Most interventions aimed at encouraging behaviour change, especially dietary change, but did little to address the underlying context of systemic marginalization and colonialism experienced in many Indigenous communities. Interventions focused on improving fitness were more effective than those aimed at dietary change. Overall, we found a range of successes among these interventions. Those that met with limited success reported that complex social issues and poverty presented challenges to effective intervention work in these communities. Participatory action research methods and community ownership of the intervention were found to be essential for project success. Diabetes-focused intervention research in Indigenous communities appears to be a low priority for Canadian funders and policymakers. More intervention research is urgently needed in these communities. To be effective, this work must take an approach that is historically deep and sufficiently broad as to enable the ideologic, policy and institutional changes necessary in order to achieve true equity. This will involve addressing colonialism, racism and social exclusion as broader determinants of health. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Limited evidence to assess the impact of primary health care system or service level attributes on health outcomes of Indigenous people with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Odette R; Segal, Leonie

    2015-04-11

    To describe reported studies of the impact on HbA1C levels, diabetes-related hospitalisations, and other primary care health endpoints of initiatives aimed at improving the management of diabetes in Indigenous adult populations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Systematic literature review using data sources of MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINHAL and PsycInfo from January 1985 to March 2012. Inclusion criteria were a clearly described primary care intervention, model of care or service, delivered to Indigenous adults with type 2 diabetes reporting a program impact on at least one quantitative diabetes-related health outcome, and where results were reported separately for Indigenous persons. Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools were used to assess the study quality. PRISMA guidelines were used for reporting. The search strategy retrieved 2714 articles. Of these, 13 studies met the review inclusion criteria. Three levels of primary care initiatives were identified: 1) addition of a single service component to the existing service, 2) system-level improvement processes to enhance the quality of diabetes care, 3) change in primary health funding to support better access to care. Initiatives included in the review were diverse and included comprehensive multi-disciplinary diabetes care, specific workforce development, systematic foot care and intensive individual hypertension management. Twelve studies reported HbA1C, of those one also reported hospitalisations and one reported the incidence of lower limb amputation. The methodological quality of the four comparable cohort and seven observational studies was good, and moderate for the two randomised control trials. The current literature provides an inadequate evidence base for making important policy and practice decisions in relation to primary care initiatives for Indigenous persons with type 2 diabetes. This reflects a very small number of published studies, the general

  4. Indigenous Contributions to Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhardt, R.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the course of the Fourth International Polar Year(s), indigenous peoples have assumed a prominent role as significant partners in the pursuit of a broader and deeper understanding of the multifaceted dimensions of the human role in the Arctic region. Most salient in this partnership has been the substantial underlying differences in perspective, some political, some ideological, but most fundamental and intractable are the differences in world views, between those of the relative newcomers to the area (i.e. the miners, loggers, oil field workers, commercial fishermen, tourists, and even the occasional scientist), and the Native people with roots in the land that go back millennia. But no longer can these differences be cast in simplistic either/or terms, implying some kind of inherent dichotomy between those who live off the land vs. those tied to the cash economy, or traditional vs. modern technologies, or anecdotal vs. scientific evidence. These lines have been blurred with the realities that indigenous cultures are not static, and western structures are no longer dominant. Instead, we now have a much more fluid and dynamic situation in which once competing views of the world are striving toward reconciliation through new structures and frameworks that foster co-existence rather than domination and exploitation.

  5. Four Scholars Speak to Navigating the Complexities of Naming in Indigenous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bronwyn; Berglund, Jeff; Harris, Michelle; Poata-Smith, Evan Te Ahu

    2014-01-01

    Universities in Australia are expanding their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies programs to include Indigenous populations from around the globe. This is also the case for the Indigenous Studies Unit at the University of Wollongong (UOW). Although systems of nomenclature in Indigenous Studies seek to be respectful of difference, the…

  6. Four Scholars Speak to Navigating the Complexities of Naming in Indigenous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bronwyn; Berglund, Jeff; Harris, Michelle; Poata-Smith, Evan Te Ahu

    2014-01-01

    Universities in Australia are expanding their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies programs to include Indigenous populations from around the globe. This is also the case for the Indigenous Studies Unit at the University of Wollongong (UOW). Although systems of nomenclature in Indigenous Studies seek to be respectful of difference, the…

  7. Transforming Education, Transforming Society: The Co-Construction of Critical Peace Education and Indigenous Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to contribute to the link between critical peace education and Indigenous education from an Indigenous international and comparative education perspective. The article first reviews the marginalization of critical peace education and Indigenous education. By bringing forward areas of common interest between peace education and…

  8. (Un)Disturbing Exhibitions: Indigenous Historical Memory at the NMAI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpio, Myla Vicenti

    2006-01-01

    Museums in particular are educational tools used to create and perpetuate specific ideologies and historical memories. They have played a prominent role in defining the visibility of Indigenous peoples and cultures in America historical memory by creating exhibits of Indigenous peoples based on perceptions and views that benefit and justify…

  9. Exploring Multiple Pathways for Indigenous Students. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. Young Indigenous Australians are disproportionately represented among young people who do not successfully negotiate the transition from school to independence and employment. This paper focuses on issues of…

  10. (Un)Disturbing Exhibitions: Indigenous Historical Memory at the NMAI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpio, Myla Vicenti

    2006-01-01

    Museums in particular are educational tools used to create and perpetuate specific ideologies and historical memories. They have played a prominent role in defining the visibility of Indigenous peoples and cultures in America historical memory by creating exhibits of Indigenous peoples based on perceptions and views that benefit and justify…

  11. Indigenous Australians' Access to Higher Education: A Catholic University's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Peter G.; McMullen, Gabrielle L.

    2006-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous peoples represent 2.5% of the national population but this number is increasing at a faster rate than the national average of other demographic groups. The history of the Indigenous peoples is one of dispossession and displacement, and a loss of cultures and languages. Access to and participation in education at all levels,…

  12. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G; Gersing, Kenneth R; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N = 4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1-90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12-17. MRs aged 35-49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ≥ 2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs.

  13. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Gersing, Kenneth R.; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S.; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N=4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1–90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12–17. MRs aged 35–49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ≥2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

  14. Experience of stigma and discrimination and the implications for healthcare seeking behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited setting.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Taddese; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Deribe, Kebede; Escudero, Horacio Ruiseñor

    2013-03-01

    Stigma and discrimination can limit access to care and treatment services. Stigma hides HIV from the public, resulting in reduced pressure for behavioral change. For effective behavior change, empirically grounded and theory-based behavioral change approaches are fundamental as a prevention interventions directed on decreasing stigma and discrimination. The objective of the study was to assess the experience of stigma and discrimination on the psychosocial and health care seeking behavior of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Arba Minch, Ethiopia. This study uses qualitative methods involving focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews conducted in Arba Minch town and nearby Kebeles. Our sample consisted of PLHIV and other key informants who were purposively selected. Data were analyzed manually using thematic content analysis framework. It appears that the magnitude of stigma and discrimination in the area has decreased to a considerably lower level, however, the problem's severity is still being influenced by various factors including: current residence, disclosure status and level of community's awareness about HIV/AIDS. Care and support services provided to PLHIV were well accepted by the respondents and the majority of them were willing to make use of any service available. Health information messages that have been disseminated to the public through mass media since the start of the epidemic in 1984 and AIDS cases in 1986 have played a significant role regarding the current prevailing problem of stigma and discrimination of PLHIV. Stigma and discrimination have come to a level that can be tolerated by most PLHIV that live in this region, especially those who have disclosed their HIV status and were living in urban areas. This calls for a strategy that improves the rates of serostatus disclosure after HIV counseling and testing and strengthens and integrates activities in the task of expanding care and support activities.

  15. [Nutritional profile of the Xukuru-Kariri indigenous people in the state of Minas Gerais in accordance with different anthropometric and body composition indicators].

    PubMed

    Simões, Bárbara dos Santos; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Pena, João Luiz; Freitas, Silvia Nascimento de

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of indigenous Xukuru-Kariri villagers in the state of Minas Gerais between seven and seventy-eight years of age in accordance with the different anthropometric and body composition indicator. The measurements were: weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF%). The sensitivity and specificity of anthropometric indices were calculated with a confidence interval of 95% and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). A total of 58 individuals was evaluated, of which 56.9% (n =33) were male and 43.1% (n =25) were female. Specificity was greater than sensitivity in all indices. It was seen that 29% of individuals were classified as having excess body fat as assessed by BMI and hand-to-hand bioimpedance and 50% of subjects had high body fat in relation to BMI and WC. Studies need to be conducted with different ethnic groups in order to construct indicators for specific nutritional guidance of indigenous health services.

  16. Healthier times?: revisiting Indigenous Australian health history.

    PubMed

    Blyton, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The perception that Indigenous Australians were primitive hunters and gatherers who lived in a nomadic 'Stone Age' culture resonates through most narratives found on Indigenous people in pre-colonial times. This narrative is better placed in the realm of myth; I contest claims that the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians was only forty years in pre-colonial times, by providing suggestive evidence that there is a strong probability that longevity favoured Indigenous Australians in comparison to many poorer sectors of the European population living in slum habitats. As well, I will challenge notions that Indigenous Australians were more violent than supposedly 'civilised' nations. Finally I express the hope that future researchers will revisit archival sources to develop a more nuanced perspective on the past.

  17. On a Dream and a Prayer: The Promise of World Indigenous Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreve, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Today, Indigenous peoples worldwide are coming together to assert greater self-determination in higher education. The movement is built on shared experiences and underscores the importance of Indigenous ways of knowing. This article describes the ventures taken in pursuit of ensuring the future of higher education for Indigenous peoples. On behalf…

  18. Global Marketing of Indigenous Culture: Discovering Native America with Lee Tiger and the Florida Miccosukee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedman, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous scholars such as Seminole/Shawnee historian, Donald Fixico, drew attention to the lack of academic literature about the proactive, planned, and strategic actions of indigenous peoples. Most histories portray indigenous peoples as responding, accommodating, and assimilating to non-Indians and the US government. This article highlights…

  19. Global Marketing of Indigenous Culture: Discovering Native America with Lee Tiger and the Florida Miccosukee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedman, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous scholars such as Seminole/Shawnee historian, Donald Fixico, drew attention to the lack of academic literature about the proactive, planned, and strategic actions of indigenous peoples. Most histories portray indigenous peoples as responding, accommodating, and assimilating to non-Indians and the US government. This article highlights…

  20. On a Dream and a Prayer: The Promise of World Indigenous Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreve, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Today, Indigenous peoples worldwide are coming together to assert greater self-determination in higher education. The movement is built on shared experiences and underscores the importance of Indigenous ways of knowing. This article describes the ventures taken in pursuit of ensuring the future of higher education for Indigenous peoples. On behalf…

  1. Recognising Aspiration: The AIME Program's Effectiveness in Inspiring Indigenous Young People's Participation in Schooling and Opportunities for Further Education and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Valerie; McMahon, Samantha; O'Shea, Sarah; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Priestly, Amy

    2015-01-01

    A strong feature of the widening participation agenda is improving the aspirations of groups that are underrepresented in higher education. This paper seeks to reposition the utility of this as a focal point of educational interventions by showcasing the success of a mentoring program that takes a different approach. The Australian Indigenous…

  2. Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Dandeneau, Stéphane; Marshall, Elizabeth; Phillips, Morgan Kahentonni; Williamson, Karla Jessen

    2011-02-01

    The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice.

  3. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  4. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activity of Raw Plant Extracts as Reported by Knowledgeable Indigenous People of the Amazon Region (Vaupés Medio in Colombia).

    PubMed

    Pabón, Adriana; Ramirez, Otoniel; Ríos, Alexandra; López, Ena; de Las Salas, Briegel; Cardona, Felipe; Blair, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of 122 raw extracts prepared in ethanol and water from 35 medicinal plants reported by the Cubeo indigenous village of the Amazon region (Vaupés Medio in Colombia) was evaluated for efficacy against 3D7 (sensitive to chloroquine) and FCR-3 (resistant to chloroquine) Plasmodium falciparum strains. Five percent of these extracts presented a significant antiplasmodial activity (< 5 µg/mL) and 83 % of them were not cytotoxic. These findings highlight the importance of investigating traditional medicinal plants implemented by these ancestral communities of the Amazon region as well as their potential to become a source of new drugs against malaria. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Appropriate health-seeking behavior and associated factors among people who had cough for at least two weeks in northwest Ethiopia: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Senbeto, Meseret; Tadesse, Sebsibe; Tadesse, Takele; Melesse, Tesfahun

    2013-12-23

    Tuberculosis remains the major debilitating public health problem in Ethiopia. However, studies to understand the patients' perspectives on the illness and their health-seeking behavior have been few in the country. In this study, we seek to investigate the magnitude of appropriate health-seeking behavior and factors associated with tuberculosis among people who had cough for at least two weeks. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to October 2012 in Dabat, northwest Ethiopia. All people aged ≥ 15 years and had cough for at least two weeks were included in the study. Data collected by using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire were entered and cleaned using the Epi Info version 2002 statistical software. The statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 16.0 was also employed for descriptive and logistics regression analysis. Out of the 25,701 people aged ≥ 15 years surveyed, the proportion of people who had cough for at least two weeks was reported to be 843(3.3%). Appropriate health-seeking behavior towards tuberculosis was reported by 674(80.0%) of them. Factors significantly associated with health-seeking behavior for tuberculosis were being female [AOR: 0.56, 95%CI: (0.39-0.79)], high monthly real per capita income [AOR: 1.66, 95%CI: (1.15-2.38)], large family size [AOR: 0.50, 95%CI: (0.35-0.72)], and use of traditional-healing practices [AOR: 13.27, 95%CI: (9.10-25.41)]. This study showed that the magnitude of appropriate health-seeking behavior during the event of chronic cough was high. However, this doesn't mean that there will be no need for further strengthening of the intervention activities as significant proportions of the study communities still demonstrate inappropriate health-seeking behavior. So tuberculosis control programs need to emphasize factors, such as sex, family size, socioeconomic inequalities, and traditional-healing practices in resource-poor settings.

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in indigenous Maya-Yucateco people: a cross-sectional community-based study.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Ballestas, I; Alvarez-Nemegyei, J; Loyola-Sánchez, A; Escudero, M L

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in indigenous Maya-Yucateco communities using Community-Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology. The study population comprised subjects aged ≥18 years from 11 communities in the municipality of Chankom, Yucatan. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed, and a census was used. Subjects positive for musculoskeletal (MSK) pain were examined by trained physicians. A total of 1523 community members were interviewed. The mean age was 45.2 years (standard deviation (SD) 17.9), and 917 (60.2 %) were women. Overall, 592 individuals (38.8 %; 95 % CI 36.3-41.3 %) had experienced MSK pain in the last 7 days. The pain intensity was reported as "strong" to "severe" in 43.4 %. The diagnoses were rheumatic regional pain syndromes in 165 (10.8 %; 95 % CI 9.4-12.5), low back pain in 153 (10.0 %; 95 % CI 8.5-11.6), osteoarthritis in 144 (9.4 %; 95 % CI 8.0-11.0), fibromyalgia in 35 (2.2 %; 95 % CI 1.6-3.1), rheumatoid arthritis in 17 (1.1 %; 95 % CI 0.6-1.7), undifferentiated arthritis in 8 (0.5 %; 95 % CI 0.2-0.8), and gout in 1 (0.06 %; 95 % CI 0.001-0.3). Older age, being female, disability, and physically demanding work were associated with a greater likelihood of having a rheumatic disease. In conclusion, MSK pain and rheumatic diseases were highly prevalent. The high impact of rheumatic diseases on daily activities in this indigenous population suggests the need to organize culturally-sensitive community interventions for the prevention of disabilities caused by MSK disorders and diseases.

  7. Education and Indigenous Knowledge in Africa: Traditional Bonesetting and Orthopaedic Medicine in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezeanya, Chika A.

    The underlying philosophy of education in contemporary Africa has been established to be alien, and detached from the indigenous knowledge of the people. Modern day formal education in sub-Saharan Africa came about, for the most part, as a result of missionary activities and colonial efforts of Europe. The education bequeathed to Africa was, therefore, fundamentally European in paradigm and lacking in authenticity. The end of colonialism across sub-Saharan Africa did not herald any tangible transformation in the curriculum of study. Education in Africa is still dependent on foreign input for sustainability, thereby stifling research, creativity and innovation. Sustainable development is founded on indigenous knowledge. When such grassroots knowledge assumes the foundation of learning, home-grown development is easily fostered in all sectors of a national economy. In the field of medicine, indigenous knowledge of healing has been considered unscientific by western biomedical practitioners. Since the days of the missionaries, many Africans have considered indigenous medicine to be fetish; the Christian converts would not be associated with its practice and patronage. However, traditional bonesetting has been proven to be highly efficacious with little supernatural content, it continues to attract huge patronage from Africans, cutting across social and religious boundaries. This study attempts an exploration of the disconnect between indigenous knowledge, practices and learning, on the one hand, and formal education in Africa, on the other. With a focus on traditional bonesetting, the study seeks to determine why that branch of indigenous medicine attracts huge patronage, but is granted very little recognition by modern orthopaedic medical education.

  8. Bioethics, culture and infanticide in Brazilian indigenous communities: the Zuruahá case.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Saulo Ferreira; Garrafa, Volnei; Cornelli, Gabriele; Tardivo, Carla; Carvalho, Samuel José de

    2010-05-01

    This article analyzes the practice of infanticide in indigenous communities in Brazil. Taking as a reference point a specific case involving two children of the Zuruahá people, it takes a broader look at the issue and discusses how infanticide is understood among other indigenous peoples. A debate focusing specifically on this topic that took place during a public hearing held in the Brazilian National Congress in December 2005 has also been taken into consideration in this discussion. In view of the positions adopted as a result of the hearing, this paper seeks to identify the ethical problems and moral dilemmas relating to the subject, by putting them into context and analyzing them in the light of respect for cultural pluralism. Seeking to contribute to the debate, the authors analyze the possibilities for intervention in the traditional practices of infanticide, while rejecting those positions that are not anchored in an attitude of profound respect for other people's cultures or that do not create conditions for dialogue between individuals or groups with different moralities.

  9. A Community Engaged Dental Curriculum: A Rural Indigenous Outplacement Programme.

    PubMed

    Abuzar, Menaka A; Owen, Julie

    2016-04-26

    Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students' feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale) and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0). They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8). This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions. Significance for public healthAn oral health outreach programme is one of the suggested approaches to effectively address the endemic issues of poor oral health among Indigenous people around the world. An Indigenous dental clinical outplacement in Australia provides an example of beneficial outcomes of such an approach. It provides dental students with an opportunity to experience the health issues related to Australian Indigenous communities and prepare future graduates to work comfortably in the public health care system. Indigenous people also develop trust and feel comfortable in receiving oral health care services

  10. A Community Engaged Dental Curriculum: A Rural Indigenous Outplacement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Abuzar, Menaka A.; Owen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. Design and Methods The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students’ feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale) and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0). They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8). Conclusions This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions. Significance for public health An oral health outreach programme is one of the suggested approaches to effectively address the endemic issues of poor oral health among Indigenous people around the world. An Indigenous dental clinical outplacement in Australia provides an example of beneficial outcomes of such an approach. It provides dental students with an opportunity to experience the health issues related to Australian Indigenous communities and prepare future graduates to work comfortably in the public health care system. Indigenous people also develop trust and feel

  11. Understanding Together: Sensemaking in Collaborative Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sharoda A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years researchers have found that people often collaborate during information seeking activities. Collaborative information seeking (CIS) is composed of multiple different activities like seeking, sharing, understanding, and using information together. However, most studies of CIS have focused on how people find and retrieve information…

  12. Resituating the ethical gaze: government morality and the local worlds of impoverished Indigenous women.

    PubMed

    Tait, Caroline L

    2013-01-01

    Over generations, government policies have impacted upon the lives of Indigenous peoples of Canada in unique and often devastating ways. In this context, Indigenous women who struggle with poverty, mental illness, trauma and substance abuse are among the most vulnerable, as are Indigenous children involved in child welfare systems. By examining the life history of Wanda, a First Nations woman, this article examines the intergenerational role that government policies play in the lives of impoverished Indigenous women and their families. Questions of moral governance and responsibility and the need for ethical policies are raised. The life narrative presented in this article is part of a larger qualitative research programme that has collected over 100 life histories of Indigenous women with addictions and who have involvement with the child welfare system, as children or adults. Wanda's life story exemplifies the impact of government policies that is characteristic of vulnerable Indigenous women and draws attention to the lack of ethical standards in government policymaking in child welfare, public health and mental health/addictions. The path to recovery for Canadian Indigenous women in need of treatment for co-occurring mental disorders and substance addiction is too frequently characterized by an inadequate and ever shifting continuum of care. For those who feel intimidated, suspicious or have simply given up on seeking supports, a profound invisibility or forgetting of their struggle exists in areas of government policy and programming provision. Living outside the scope of mental health and addiction priorities, they become visible to the human service sector only if they become pregnant, their parenting draws the attention of child and family services (CFS), they need emergency health care, or are in trouble with the law. The intergenerational cycle of substance abuse, mental illness and poverty is commonly associated with child welfare involvement

  13. Indigenous Youth Migration and Language Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Leisy T.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies ethnographically detail how Indigenous young people's mobility intersects with sociolinguistic transformation in an interconnected world. Drawing on a decade-long study of youth and language contact, I analyze Yup'ik young people's migration in relation to emerging language ideologies and patterns of language use in "Piniq,"…

  14. Comparison of fracture rates between indigenous and non-indigenous populations: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Quirk, Shae E; Leslie, William D; Toombs, Maree; Holloway, Kara L; Hosking, Sarah M; Pasco, Julie A; Doolan, Brianna J; Page, Richard S; Williams, Lana J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over recent years, there has been concerted effort to ‘close the gap’ in the disproportionately reduced life expectancy and increased morbidity experienced by indigenous compared to non-indigenous persons. Specific to musculoskeletal health, some data suggest that indigenous peoples have a higher risk of sustaining a fracture compared to non-indigenous peoples. This creates an imperative to identify factors that could explain differences in fracture rates. This protocol presents our aim to conduct a systematic review, first, to determine whether differences in fracture rates exist for indigenous versus non-indigenous persons and, second, to identify any risk factors that might explain these differences. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic search of PubMed, OVID, MEDLINE, CINAHL and EMBASE to identify articles that compare all-cause fracture rates at any skeletal site between indigenous and non-indigenous persons of any age. Eligibility of studies will be determined by 2 independent reviewers. Studies will be assessed for methodological quality using a previously published process. We will conduct a meta-analysis and use established statistical methods to identify and control for heterogeneity where appropriate. Should heterogeneity prevents numerical syntheses, we will undertake a best-evidence analysis to determine the level of evidence for differences in fracture between indigenous and non-indigenous persons. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will use published data; thus, ethical permissions are not required. In addition to peer-reviewed publication, findings will be presented at (inter)national conferences, disseminated electronically and in print, and will be made available to key country-specific decision-makers with authority for indigenous health. PMID:27566641

  15. Comparison of fracture rates between indigenous and non-indigenous populations: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Quirk, Shae E; Leslie, William D; Toombs, Maree; Holloway, Kara L; Hosking, Sarah M; Pasco, Julie A; Doolan, Brianna J; Page, Richard S; Williams, Lana J

    2016-08-26

    Over recent years, there has been concerted effort to 'close the gap' in the disproportionately reduced life expectancy and increased morbidity experienced by indigenous compared to non-indigenous persons. Specific to musculoskeletal health, some data suggest that indigenous peoples have a higher risk of sustaining a fracture compared to non-indigenous peoples. This creates an imperative to identify factors that could explain differences in fracture rates. This protocol presents our aim to conduct a systematic review, first, to determine whether differences in fracture rates exist for indigenous versus non-indigenous persons and, second, to identify any risk factors that might explain these differences. We will conduct a systematic search of PubMed, OVID, MEDLINE, CINAHL and EMBASE to identify articles that compare all-cause fracture rates at any skeletal site between indigenous and non-indigenous persons of any age. Eligibility of studies will be determined by 2 independent reviewers. Studies will be assessed for methodological quality using a previously published process. We will conduct a meta-analysis and use established statistical methods to identify and control for heterogeneity where appropriate. Should heterogeneity prevents numerical syntheses, we will undertake a best-evidence analysis to determine the level of evidence for differences in fracture between indigenous and non-indigenous persons. This systematic review will use published data; thus, ethical permissions are not required. In addition to peer-reviewed publication, findings will be presented at (inter)national conferences, disseminated electronically and in print, and will be made available to key country-specific decision-makers with authority for indigenous health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  17. Contrasting Colonist and Indigenous Impacts on Amazonian Forests

    PubMed Central

    LU, FLORA; GRAY, CLARK; BILSBORROW, RICHARD E.; MENA, CARLOS F.; ERLIEN, CHRISTINE M.; BREMNER, JASON; BARBIERI, ALISSON; WALSH, STEPHEN J.

    2012-01-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups. PMID:20337669

  18. Designing an Australian Indigenous Studies Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Nakata's "Cultural Interface", Standpoints and Working beyond Binaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Michelle; Prince, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the recent reworking of Murdoch University's Australian Indigenous Studies major. For the discipline to realise its charter of decolonising knowledges about Indigenous peoples, it is necessary to move Indigenous Studies beyond the standard reversalist and unsustainable tropes that valorise romanticised notions of Indigeneity and…

  19. Designing an Australian Indigenous Studies Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Nakata's "Cultural Interface", Standpoints and Working beyond Binaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Michelle; Prince, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the recent reworking of Murdoch University's Australian Indigenous Studies major. For the discipline to realise its charter of decolonising knowledges about Indigenous peoples, it is necessary to move Indigenous Studies beyond the standard reversalist and unsustainable tropes that valorise romanticised notions of Indigeneity and…

  20. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and