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Sample records for indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay

  1. Evaluation of recombinant outer membrane protein C based indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for the detection of Salmonella antibodies in poultry

    PubMed Central

    Manoj, Jinu; Agarwal, Rajesh K.; Sailo, Blessa; Wani, Mudasir Ahmed; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of recombinant outer membrane proteinC (rOmpC) based enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of salmonellosis in poultry. Materials and Methods: Three antigens were prepared, and the indirect ELISA was standardized using the antigens and the antiserum raised in chicken against Omp and rOmpC. Sera were collected from a total of 255 apparently healthy field chickens and screened for the presence of Salmonella antibodies by this ELISA. Results: The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of Omp revealed major polypeptides at 36, 42 and 52 kDa, and the rOmpC was evident by a single protein band of 43 kDa. The Omp and rOmpC antigen revealed an optimum concentration of 78 and 156 ng, respectively, in the assay, while the whole cell antigen gave an optimum reaction at a concentration of 106 organisms/ml. The test was found to be specific as it did not react with any of the antisera of seven other organisms. The developed ELISA detected Salmonella antibodies from 22 (8.62%) samples with rOmpC antigen, while 24 (9.41%) samples gave a positive reaction with both Omp and whole cell antigens. Conclusion: We suggest rOmpC based indirect ELISA as a suitable screening tool for serological monitoring of poultry flocks. PMID:27047189

  2. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

    1997-11-25

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 19 figs.

  3. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, Matthew R.; Bednarski, Mark D.; Gruber, Patrick R.

    1997-01-01

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups.

  4. Evaluation of a recombinant rhoptry protein 2 enzyme-linked immunoassay for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Pagliari, Sthefany; Pasquali, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi; Nino, Beatriz; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Monica, Thaís Cabral; Tschurtschenthaler, Nely Norder; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an enzyme-linked immunoassay with recombinant rhoptry protein 2 (ELISA-rROP2) for its ability to detectToxoplasma gondii ROP2-specific IgG in samples from pregnant women. The study included 236 samples that were divided into groups according to serological screening profiles for toxoplasmosis: unexposed (n = 65), probable acute infection (n = 48), possible acute infection (n = 58) and exposed to the parasite (n = 65). When an indirect immunofluorescence assay forT. gondii-specific IgG was considered as a reference test, the ELISA-rROP2 had a sensitivity of 61.8%, specificity of 62.8%, predictive positive value of 76.6% and predictive negative value of 45.4% (p = 0.0002). The ELISA-rROP2 reacted with 62.5% of the samples from pregnant women with probable acute infection and 40% of the samples from pregnant women with previous exposure (p = 0.0180). Seropositivity was observed in 50/57 (87.7%) pregnant women with possible infection. The results underscored that T. gondii rROP2 is recognised by specific IgG antibodies in both the acute and chronic phases of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy. However, the sensitivity of the ELISA-rROP2 was higher in the pregnant women with probable and possible acute infections and IgM reactivity. PMID:26517651

  5. Evaluation of a recombinant rhoptry protein 2 enzyme-linked immunoassay for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Pagliari, Sthefany; Pasquali, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi; Nino, Beatriz; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Monica, Thaís Cabral; Tschurtschenthaler, Nely Norder; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an enzyme-linked immunoassay with recombinant rhoptry protein 2 (ELISA-rROP2) for its ability to detect Toxoplasma gondii ROP2-specific IgG in samples from pregnant women. The study included 236 samples that were divided into groups according to serological screening profiles for toxoplasmosis: unexposed (n = 65), probable acute infection (n = 48), possible acute infection (n = 58) and exposed to the parasite (n = 65). When an indirect immunofluorescence assay forT. gondii-specific IgG was considered as a reference test, the ELISA-rROP2 had a sensitivity of 61.8%, specificity of 62.8%, predictive positive value of 76.6% and predictive negative value of 45.4% (p = 0.0002). The ELISA-rROP2 reacted with 62.5% of the samples from pregnant women with probable acute infection and 40% of the samples from pregnant women with previous exposure (p = 0.0180). Seropositivity was observed in 50/57 (87.7%) pregnant women with possible infection. The results underscored that T. gondii rROP2 is recognised by specific IgG antibodies in both the acute and chronic phases of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy. However, the sensitivity of the ELISA-rROP2 was higher in the pregnant women with probable and possible acute infections and IgM reactivity.

  6. Naked-eye detection as a universal approach to lower the limit of detection of enzyme-linked immunoassays.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Erin F; Paterson, Sureyya; de la Rica, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Colorimetric biosensors for the detection of analytes with the naked eye are required in environmental monitoring, point-of-care diagnostics, and analyses in resources constrained settings, where detection instruments may not be available. However, instrument-based detection methods are usually more adequate for detecting small variations in the signal compared to naked-eye detection schemes, and consequently the limit of detection of the latter is usually higher than the former. Here, we demonstrate that the limit of detection of colorimetric enzyme-linked immunoassays can be decreased several orders of magnitude when using naked-eye detection instead of a spectrophotometer for detecting the signal. The key step to lower the limit of detection is adding a small volume of chromogenic substrate during the signal generation step. This generates highly colored solutions that can be easily visualized with the naked eye and recorded with the camera of a mobile phone. The proposed method does not require expensive equipment or complex protocols to enhance the signal, and therefore it is a universal approach to lower the limit of detection of colorimetric enzyme-linked immunoassays.

  7. Serological evaluation of thin-layer immunoassay-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody detection in human trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Priego, A; Crecencio-Rosales, L; de-La-Rosa, J L

    2000-09-01

    A new immunoenzymatic test, named the thin-layer immunoassay-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TIA-ELISA), was evaluated for antibody detection in human trichinellosis using excretion and secretion products prepared from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Serum samples from people with positive muscle biopsies or symptoms compatible with the disease (n = 8 or 26, respectively), all reactive in enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB), as well as 67 serum samples from healthy, EITB-negative people, were tested in an ELISA and TIA-ELISA. TIA-ELISA was performed in polystyrene plastic petri dishes by adding dots of 10 microl each of antigen (7 microg/ml) followed by adding diluted serum and the conjugate. Finally, the substrate mixed with agar was added to develop the reaction. Enzymatic by-products were easily detected by the naked eye as defined dots. Sensitivity and specificity were 76 and 94% for ELISA, and both parameters were 91% for TIA-ELISA. The kappa correlation indices for both tests in relation to EITB were 0.73 and 0.80, respectively. The TIA-ELISA can be carried out with common laboratory equipment in 3 h and uses lower quantities of antigen than EITB and ELISA. Since TIA-ELISA is easy to perform, cheap, sensitive, and specific, the test could be an acceptable alternative to use in clinical laboratories lacking specialized equipment needed for ELISA and EITB and in field studies for antibody detection in human trichinellosis.

  8. Serological evaluation of thin-layer immunoassay-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody detection in human trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Priego, A; Crecencio-Rosales, L; de-La-Rosa, J L

    2000-09-01

    A new immunoenzymatic test, named the thin-layer immunoassay-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TIA-ELISA), was evaluated for antibody detection in human trichinellosis using excretion and secretion products prepared from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Serum samples from people with positive muscle biopsies or symptoms compatible with the disease (n = 8 or 26, respectively), all reactive in enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB), as well as 67 serum samples from healthy, EITB-negative people, were tested in an ELISA and TIA-ELISA. TIA-ELISA was performed in polystyrene plastic petri dishes by adding dots of 10 microl each of antigen (7 microg/ml) followed by adding diluted serum and the conjugate. Finally, the substrate mixed with agar was added to develop the reaction. Enzymatic by-products were easily detected by the naked eye as defined dots. Sensitivity and specificity were 76 and 94% for ELISA, and both parameters were 91% for TIA-ELISA. The kappa correlation indices for both tests in relation to EITB were 0.73 and 0.80, respectively. The TIA-ELISA can be carried out with common laboratory equipment in 3 h and uses lower quantities of antigen than EITB and ELISA. Since TIA-ELISA is easy to perform, cheap, sensitive, and specific, the test could be an acceptable alternative to use in clinical laboratories lacking specialized equipment needed for ELISA and EITB and in field studies for antibody detection in human trichinellosis. PMID:10973459

  9. Comparative evaluation of the WHO and DAKOPATTS enzyme-linked immunoassay kits for rotavirus detection.

    PubMed Central

    Flewett, T. H.; Arias, C. F.; Avendano, L. F.; Ghafoor, A.; Mathan, M. M.; Mendis, L.; Moe, K.; Bishop, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Faeces obtained from 1,163 children (including 66 newborn babies) were analysed in parallel for the presence of rotavirus particles using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The kits had been formulated by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rotavirus (WHO-ELISA kit) and by DAKOPATTS (DAKO-ELISA kit) to be suitable for use in laboratories in developing countries. The kits were evaluated in laboratories in Burma, Chile, India, Mexico, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Comparison of the results obtained with the two kits indicated that the DAKO-ELISA had an overall sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 97% relative to the WHO-ELISA. In individual laboratories the DAKO-ELISA (K349) kit had a sensitivity in the range 90-100%, and a specificity of 85-100%. The kit showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98% in assays on faeces obtained from newborn babies. We conclude that the DAKO-ELISA is as sensitive and specific as the WHO-ELISA for the detection of rotavirus antigen in faeces. PMID:2680139

  10. Rapid determination of phenylethanolamine A in biological samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lateral-flow immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmei; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Limiao; Wang, Qi; Pei, Xingyao; Jiang, Haiyang

    2015-10-01

    Phenylethanolamine A (PA) is a β-adrenergic agonist, which was first used in animal husbandry as a growth promoter in China in 2010. In this study, a monoclonal-antibody (mAb)-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA) for the detection of PA in swine urine and pork were developed. The immunogen was prepared by linking PA hapten with carrier protein via a diazotization method. The IC50 value of the optimized icELISA was 0.44 ng mL(-1). The limits of detection of the icELISA for PA in swine urine and pork were 0.13 ng mL(-1) and 0.39 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of PA from spiked swine urine and pork were in the range 82.0-107.4 % and 81.8-113.3%, respectively, with the coefficients of variation in the range 4.1-16.2% and 1.2-6.3%, respectively. The mAbs had negligible cross reactivity with 10 other β-agonists. In contrast, the LFA had a cut-off level of 5 ng mL(-1) (g) in swine urine and pork, and the results could be achieved within 5 min. Ten blind samples of swine urine were analyzed simultaneously by icELISA, LFA, and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the results of the three methods agreed well. Therefore, the combination of two immunoassays provides an effective and rapid screening method for detection of PA residues in biological samples.

  11. Seroprevalence Study of Human Brucellosis by Conventional Tests and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Agasthya, Annapurna S.; Isloor, Srikrishna; Krishnamsetty, Prabhudas

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart attacks. The focus of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and specific indirect ELISA by using smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella abortus 99 to detect anti-Brucella antibodies at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Serum samples collected from 652 individuals in whom fever was not the major symptom but the complaint was of joint pain, headache, lower backache, and so forth, were screened by Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and standard tube agglutination test (STAT). Subsequent testing of sera by indigenous indirect ELISA detected 20 samples positive (3.6% seroprevalence), and indirect ELISA was found to be more sensitive than RBPT and STAT. The seroprevalence in South Karnataka was 2.14%, and in North Karnataka it was 0.92%. PMID:22566755

  12. Virus enzyme-linked cell immunoassay (VELCIA): detection and titration of rotavirus antigen and demonstration of rotavirus neutralizing and total antibodies.

    PubMed

    Grom, J; Bernard, S

    1985-02-01

    Virus enzyme-linked cell immunoassay (VELCIA) for detection and titration of rotavirus antigen has been developed. Wild-type porcine rotavirus antigen can be detected and titrated directly from the fecal material within 24 h. Porcine OSU strain can be titrated higher than 10(-8). The method has also been introduced for the demonstration of rotavirus neutralizing and total antibodies. In VELCIA the advantages of the cell culture system for virus isolation are combined with enzyme immunodetection and spectrophotometrical reading of the test.

  13. Seroprevalence of contagious ecthyma in goats of Assam: An analysis by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Mousumi; Bora, Durlav Prasad; Barman, Nagendra Nath; Borah, Biswajyoti; Das, Sutopa

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to screen the prevalence of contagious ecthyma (CE) among the goat population of Assam owing to its high prevalence rate. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 231 serum samples were collected from 12 districts of Assam during September 2013 to July 2014. The serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against Orf virus (ORFV) by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Indirect ELISA was standardized using purified Orf reference virus produced in bulk in primary lamb testes cells. Results: Studies on seroprevalence showed 76.62% of goats were seropositive. The total number of animals were divided into different age groups starting from 0-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, and above 8 months and accordingly highest prevalence of antibodies against ORFV was recorded in the age-group above 8 months of age. Significantly, lower rates of infection were observed in goats of age group 2-4 months. This study recorded that seropositivity from naturally infected animals and in contact apparently healthy animals to be 53.67% and 46.32%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that CE is a prevalent infection in goats of Assam, and the healthy population is at increased risk of infection. PMID:27733808

  14. Identification of specific antinuclear antibodies in dogs using a line immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Hanna D; Lattwein, Erik; Renneker, Stefanie; Lilliehöök, Inger; Rönnelid, Johan; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene

    2015-12-15

    Circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are commonly present in the systemic autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and in other systemic rheumatic diseases, in humans as well as in dogs. The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF)-ANA test is the standard method for detecting ANA. Further testing for specific ANA with immunoblot techniques or ELISAs is routinely performed in humans to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Several specific ANA identified in humans have been identified also in suspected canine SLE but, in contrast to humans, investigation of autoantibodies in canine SLE is mainly restricted to the IIF-ANA test. Our aim was to identify both known and novel specific ANA in dogs and to investigate if different IIF-ANA patterns are associated with different specific ANA in dogs. Sera from 240 dogs with suspicion of autoimmune disease (210 IIF-ANA positive (ANA(pos)) and 30 IIF-ANA negative (ANA(neg))) as well as sera from 27 healthy controls were included. The samples were analysed with a line immunoassay, LIA (Euroline ANA Profile 5, Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) and four different ELISAs (Euroimmun). The ANA(pos) dogs were divided in two groups depending on the type of IIF-ANA pattern. Of the 210 ANA(pos) samples 68 were classified as ANA homogenous (ANA(H)) and 141 as ANA speckled (ANA(S)), one sample was not possible to classify. Dogs in the ANA(H) group had, compared to the other groups, most frequently high levels of anti-double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) and anti-nucleosome ANA. Anti-dsDNA antibodies were confirmed in some dogs with the Crithidia luciliae indirect immunofluorescence test (CLIFT). The frequency of ANA(H) dogs with values above those observed in the healthy group was significantly higher compared to ANA(S) dogs for anti-dsDNA, anti-nucleosome, and anti-histone reactivity. Dogs in the ANA(S) group had, compared to the other groups, most frequently high levels of anti-ribonucleoproteins (RNP) and

  15. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum in sheep.

    PubMed

    Woldehiwet, Z; Yavari, C

    2012-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ovine serum samples was evaluated. The assay used purified A. phagocytophilum grown in tick cell cultures as antigen. Serum samples were diluted 1 in 200 and binding was detected with anti-sheep IgG conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. All tests were carried out in the presence of positive and negative control samples. Optical density (OD) values obtained for each test sample at 490 nm were used to calculate percentage positivity (PP) of each sample based on the ratio of the OD of the test sample that of the positive reference sample. Known negative samples (n=69) obtained from uninfected sheep bred and maintained in a tick-free environment and subsequently shown to be susceptible to A. phagocytophilum were used to establish the cut-off point between negative and positive samples and to establish the specificity of the test. Serum samples obtained from 92 animals 14-21 days after infection were used to establish the sensitivity of the test. Using a cut-off point of 20PP (mean+2 standard deviations of the PP of 69 control samples) the test was shown to have a sensitivity of 84.8% and a specificity of 95.7%. Lowering the cut-off point to 15PP increased the sensitivity to 94.6%, but reduced the specificity to 92.8%.

  16. A recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies against porcine deltacoronavirus.

    PubMed

    Su, Mingjun; Li, Chunqiu; Guo, Donghua; Wei, Shan; Wang, Xinyu; Geng, Yufei; Yao, Shuang; Gao, Jing; Wang, Enyu; Zhao, Xiwen; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Jianfa; Wu, Rui; Feng, Li; Sun, Dongbo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has been proven to be associated with enteric disease in piglets. Diagnostic tools for serological surveys of PDCoV remain in the developmental stage when compared with those for other porcine coronaviruses. In our study, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (rPDCoV-N-ELISA) was developed to detect antibodies against PDCoV using a histidine-tagged recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein as an antigen. The rPDCoV-N-ELISA did not cross-react with antisera against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, swine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine group A rotavirus, classical swine fever virus, porcine circovirus-2, porcine pseudorabies virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed 100% sensitivity and 90.4% specificity of the rPDCoV-N-ELISA based on samples of known status (n=62). Analyses of field samples (n=319) using the rPDCoV-N-ELISA indicated that 11.59% of samples were positive for antibodies against PDCoV. These data demonstrated that the rPDCoV-N-ELISA can be used for epidemiological investigations of PDCoV and that PDCoV had a low serum prevalence in pig population in Heilongjiang province, northeast China. PMID:26668175

  17. Hapten synthesis and development of a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for acrylamide in food samples.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Shen, Yu-Dong; Lei, Hong-Tao; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Yang, Jin-Yi; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Wang, Hong; Xu, Zhen-Lin

    2014-07-23

    The high level of acrylamide in widely consumed processed foods poses a potentially significant risk to human health, which has led to an increasing demand for rapid, simple, and selective analytical methods. In the present work, several haptens for acrylamide were designed in an attempt to prepare antibodies with acrylamide affinity, but they failed their purpose. However, a polyclonal antibody was produced against 4-mercaptophenylacetic acid (4-MPA)-derivatized acrylamide, which showed high binding affinity to the derivative. As acrylamide easily reacted with 4-MPA at high derivation yield, a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) for acrylamide via a preanalysis derivatization was developed. The derivatization and ELISA conditions were fully optimized to produce a method for acrylamide assay that exhibited an IC50 of 2.86 μg/kg, limit of detection at 0.036 μg/kg, and linear range of 0.25-24.15 μg/kg. The results of preanalysis recovery tests of acrylamide-spiked food samples and screening of blind food samples by both ciELISA and HPLC-MS/MS indicated the proposed ciELISA's good accuracy and reliability. This method was thus deemed suitable for routine acrylamide screening in food samples at low cost.

  18. Development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for detecting antibodies to chicken astrovirus in chicken sera.

    PubMed

    Skibinska, A; Lee, A; Wylie, M; Smyth, V J; Welsh, M D; Todd, D

    2015-01-01

    The development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serological diagnosis of Group B chicken astrovirus (CAstV) infections is described. The test was based on the use of an affinity-purified capsid antigen, specific to CAstV isolate 11672, produced as a glutathione-S-transferase N-terminal fusion protein by a recombinant baculovirus. Strongly positive ELISA signals were elicited against experimentally produced antisera raised to CAstVs from Group B (subgroups i and ii) but were negative for antisera raised to a Group A CAstV. Using a panel of 240 selected serum samples, 99% agreement was observed when the results obtained by ELISA were compared to those from an indirect immunofluorescence test for CAstV 11672. The ELISA test was applied to 68 serum sets comprising 1864 samples, which were obtained from parent and grandparent flocks originating mainly in the UK. Of the 52 sets containing ELISA-positive samples, 24 sets had >75% samples positive and nine sets had <25% samples positive and were regarded as having high and low seropositivities, respectively. Of the 1864 serum samples tested 1090 (58.5%) were ELISA positive and of these, 234 sera (21.5%) produced strongly positive signals, whereas moderately positive and weakly positive signals were produced by 562 (51.5%) and 294 (27%) sera. When used for flock screening purposes, this ELISA test can be used to (i) investigate the occurrence of first-time CAstV infections of parent flocks during lay and the possible adverse effects caused by vertically transmitted CAstV infections on broiler hatchability and performance and (ii) diagnose Group B CAstV infections within specific pathogen free flocks.

  19. Particle counting assay for anti-toxoplasma IgG antibodies. Comparison with four automated commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Galanti, L M; Dell'Omo, J; Wanet, B; Guarin, J L; Jamart, J; Garrino, M G; Masson, P L; Cambiaso, C L

    1997-09-24

    An assay for anti-toxoplasma IgG antibodies based on agglutination of latex particles was set up and compared with commercial immunoassays. The reaction was measured by instrumental counting of particles remaining unagglutinated. The running time was 45 min. This test (PaC) was compared using 243 serum samples with four automated commercial immunoassays: the Enzymum test Toxo IgG (ES300, Boehringer), the Vidas Toxo IgG (Biomérieux), the IMX Toxo IgG (Abbott), the Magia Toxoplasma gondii IgG (Merck). The mean values (+/- SD) obtained by IMX (25 IU +/- 68) and ES300 (45 IU +/- 142) were significantly lower than the values obtained by Vidas (73 IU +/- 237, p < 10(-4) and p = 0.006, respectively), by Magia (80 IU +/- 300, p < 10(-4) and p = 0.0005) and by PaC (70 IU +/- 260, p < 10(-4) and p = 0.0126). The correlations between PaC and Toxo IgG Boehringer, Biomérieux, Abbott, Merck were r = 0.97, r = 0.98, r = 0.94, r = 0.98, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the enzyme-immunoassays ranged from 0.96 to 0.99. All positive samples by PaC were found to be positive by enzyme-immunoassays except for eight sera which were doubtful positives by the Enzymum test ToxoIgG from Boehringer. No negative sample by PaC was found positive by any of the enzyme-immunoassays. In PaC, when two latex preparations coated with different antigen were compared, the correlation was rather weak (r = 0.93) suggesting that the selection of the antigen can be critical. In conclusion, the four automated commercial immunoassays now available gave similar results. However, the discrepancies observed in this study underlined the importance of clinical and biological follow-up of the patients and the necessity to confirm the result. The introduction of a new technique such as PaC, which is now available for a large variety of assays in Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology, is justified by its intrinsic advantage of homogeneity. Therefore, automation is easy as well as the control of

  20. Vidas UP-enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay based on recombinant phage protein and fluorescence in situ hybridization as alternative methods for detection of Salmonella enterica serovars in meat.

    PubMed

    Zadernowska, Anna; Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Kłębukowska, Lucyna

    2014-09-01

    Several methods for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella spp. in meat have been described. This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of the VIDAS(®) UP (SPT [Salmonella Phage Technology]), an enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay method, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to complement the International Organization for Standardization Method 6579 (ISO) in detecting Salmonella spp. from beef, pork, and poultry meat samples. The meat was inoculated with a mixture of Salmonella spp. on three levels of contamination. It was also checked that the tests did not produce cross-reactions with other Enterobacteriaceae rods. On the basis of the results, the relative specificity, relative accordance, and relative sensitivity of the method were determined. In meat samples, Vidas UP and FISH detection results were in substantial agreement with ISO, with relative specificity, accordance, and sensitivity rates of 90%, 96.3%, and 100%, respectively, for Vidas UP and 100%, 100%, and 99.4%, respectively, for FISH. This is the first report on the evaluation of both Vidas UP and FISH compared to ISO for the rapid detection of Salmonella enterica serovars in meat.

  1. Multicenter Evaluation of a New, Automated Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay for Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sickinger, Eva; Stieler, Myriam; Kaufman, Boris; Kapprell, Hans-Peter; West, Daniel; Sandridge, Arnold; Devare, Sushil; Schochetman, Gerald; Hunt, J. C.; Daghfal, David

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and precision of a three-step, fully automated, qualitative microparticle-based enzyme-linked immunoassay (AxSYM HIV Ag/Ab Combo; Abbott Laboratories), designed to simultaneously detect (i) antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and/or type 2 (HIV-2) and (ii) HIV p24 antigen. A significant reduction in the HIV seroconversion window was achieved by combining detection of HIV antibodies and antigen into a single assay format. For 22 selected, commercial HIV seroconversion panels, the mean time of detection with the combined-format HIV antigen-antibody assay was reduced by 6.15 days compared to that with a similar third-generation single-format HIV antibody assay. The quantitative sensitivity of the combination assay for the p24 antigen (17.5 pg/ml by use of the p24 quantitative panel VIH SFTS96′) was nearly equivalent to that of single-format antigen tests. The combination assay demonstrated sensitive (100%) detection of anti-HIV immunoglobulin in specimens from individuals in CDC stages A, B, and C and from individuals infected with different HIV-1 group M subtypes, group O, or HIV-2. The apparent specificity for hospitalized patients (n = 1,938) was 99.90%. In a random population of 7,900 volunteer blood donors, the specificity (99.87%) was comparable to that of a third-generation single-format HIV antibody assay (99.92%) on the same donor specimens. In addition, the combination assay was robust to potential interfering specimens. The precision of the combination was high, with intra- and interrun variances of ≤9.3% for each precision panel specimen or assay control and ≤5.3% for the negative assay control. PMID:14715727

  2. Development of a fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay for the detection of hepatitis E virus IgG antibodies in pigs and comparison to an enzyme-linked immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Owolodun, Olajide A; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Gerber, Priscilla F; Sanford, Brenton J; Feagins, Alicia R; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2013-11-01

    Swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus and pigs are considered as an important reservoir. Swine HEV infection is widespread and most pig herds are infected. Humans can be infected with swine HEV via consumption of undercooked pork or through direct contact with infected pigs. To minimize the risk of zoonotic transmission, sensitive tools to assess the HEV infection status of pigs and pork products are needed. The objective of this study was to develop a fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of IgG antibodies against swine HEV and compare it to an in-house enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Three sets of samples were utilized: (A) samples from pigs infected experimentally with different strains of HEV (positive controls, n=72), (B) samples from known HEV-negative pigs (negative controls, n=62) and (C) samples from pigs of unknown HEV infection status (n=182). All samples were tested by both ELISA and FMIA. The results on the experimental samples with known HEV exposure indicate that both assays have a specificity of 100% while the sensitivity ranges from 84.6% (ELISA) to 92.3% (FMIA). The overall prevalence of HEV IgG antibodies in field samples from pigs with unknown HEV exposure was 21.9% (40/182) for the ELISA and 21.4% (39/182) for the FMIA. The two assays had an almost perfect overall agreement (Kappa=0.92).

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay for the Detection of IgM Antibodies in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Blacksell, Stuart D.; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Kantipong, Pacharee; Laongnualpanich, Achara; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the diagnostic accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and determined the optimal diagnostic optical density (OD) cutoffs for screening and diagnostic applications based on prospectively collected, characterized samples from undifferentiated febrile illness patients in northern Thailand. Direct comparisons with the serological gold standard, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), revealed strong statistical correlation of ELISA OD values and IFA IgM titers. Determination of the optimal ELISA cutoff for seroepidemiology or screening purposes compared to the corresponding IFA reciprocal titer of 400 as previously described for Thailand was 0.60 OD, which corresponded to a sensitivity (Sn) of 84% and a specificity (Sp) of 98%. The diagnostic performance against the improved and more-stringent scrub typhus infection criteria (STIC), correcting for low false-positive IFA titers, resulted in an Sn of 93% and an Sp of 91% at an ELISA cutoff of 0.5 OD. This diagnostic ELISA cutoff corresponds to IFA reciprocal titers of 1,600 to 3,200, which greatly reduces the false-positive rates associated with low-positive IFA titers. These data are in congruence with the recently improved serodiagnostic positivity criteria using the Bayesian latent class modeling approach. In summary, the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM ELISA is affordable and easy-to-use, with adequate diagnostic accuracy for screening and diagnostic purposes, and should be considered an improved alternative to the gold standard IFA for acute diagnosis. For broader application, regional cutoff validation and antigenic composition for consistent diagnostic accuracy should be considered. PMID:26656118

  4. Quantification of major royal jelly protein 1 in fresh royal jelly by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kikuji; He, Shaoyu; Li, Zhengyue; Murata, Kiyoshi; Hitomi, Nobuyuki; Mozumi, Manaho; Ariga, Risa; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit polyclonal antibody produced by a major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1) specific peptide reacted only with a MRJP1. Indirect ELISA with the antibody revealed a MRJP1 level of 4.12-4.67 g/100 g in different company's royal jelly, which almost agreed with that of a hexametric form of MRJP1 (apisin) measured by high performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that MRJP1 exists mainly as apisin in royal jelly.

  5. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G reactive with a recombinant protein expressed from the gene encoding the 116-kilodalton protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Duffy, M F; Whithear, K G; Noormohammadi, A H; Markham, P F; Catton, M; Leydon, J; Browning, G F

    1999-04-01

    Serology remains the method of choice for laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Currently available serological tests employ complex cellular fractions of M. pneumoniae as antigen. To improve the specificity of M. pneumoniae diagnosis, a recombinant protein was assessed as a serodiagnostic reagent. A panel of recombinant proteins were expressed from a cloned M. pneumoniae gene that encodes a 116-kDa surface protein antigen. The recombinant proteins were assessed for reactivity with patient sera and the most antigenic was further assessed for its serodiagnostic potential by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA based on the recombinant protein was equivalent in sensitivity to the commercial test (Serodia Myco II; Fujirebio Inc.) to which it was compared. Southern and Western blotting data suggested that the recombinant protein derived from the 116-kDa protein of M. pneumoniae could provide a species-specific diagnostic tool, although further assessment is required.

  6. Detection of Ganoderic Acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi by an Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Kohno, Toshitaka; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushroom traditionally used for treating various diseases. Ganoderic acid A is one of the major bioactive Ganoderma triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma species. Herein, we produced a highly specific monoclonal antibody against ganoderic acid A (MAb 12 A) and developed an indirect competitive ELISA for the highly sensitive detection of ganoderic acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi, with a limit of detection of 6.10 ng/mL. Several validation analyses support the accuracy and reliability of the developed indirect competitive ELISA for use in the quality control of Ganoderma based on ganoderic acid A content. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of ganoderic acid A in G. lingzhi revealed that the pileus exhibits the highest ganoderic acid A content compared with the stipe and spore of the fruiting body; the best extraction efficiency was found when 50 % ethanol was used, which suggests the use of a strong liquor to completely harness the potential of Ganoderma triterpenoids in daily life. PMID:27093250

  7. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to a 110,000-molecular-weight hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, J N; Inzana, T J

    1990-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect swine antibody to a 110,000-molecular-weight hemolysin (110K hemolysin) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal or mouse monoclonal immunoglobulin G to the hemolysin of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 strain J45, followed by hemolysin-rich concentrated culture supernatant, was used to bind swine antibody to hemolysin to microdilution plates. Sixty-nine serum samples from swine that were clinically normal, presented with clinical evidence of pleuropneumonia, were experimentally immunized or challenged, or were free of pleuropneumonia were tested, and their ELISA titers were compared with complement fixation (CF) titers. On the basis of serum samples from swine that were clinically normal and negative by CF, an ELISA titer of 1:320 or greater was considered positive. In comparison with CF, the sensitivity of the ELISA was 98.1% and the specificity was 90%. The two samples negative by CF and positive by indirect ELISA were, however, also positive for antibody to serotype 5 capsule by ELISA. Immunization of normal pigs with whole cells or purified hemolysin boosted titers 4- to 128-fold within 4 weeks. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the affinity-purified immunoglobulin G to hemolysin used for capture in the assay recognized only a 110K protein of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 to 7, although the reactivity was quantitatively variable between serotypes. Therefore, the indirect ELISA is capable of identifying animals infected with or exposed to most, if not all, serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. If an indirect ELISA titer of 1:320 or greater is considered positive, the assay can be a valuable diagnostic tool in both clinical and research laboratories. Images PMID:2380363

  8. Simple Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to Detect Antibodies Against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Based on Prokaryotically Expressed Recombinant MBP-NS3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Pezhman; Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Masoud Reza; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Haji Hajikolaei, Mohammad Rahim; Lotfi, Mohsen; Pourmahdi Boroujeni, Mahdi; Daghari, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is an economically important disease of cattle distributed worldwide. Diagnosis of BVD relies on laboratory-based detection of its viral causing agent or virus specific antibodies and the most common laboratory method for this purpose is Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Objectives: The current study was aimed to develop a simple indirect ELISA to detect antibodies against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in the sera of infected cattle. Materials and Methods: A new simple indirect ELISA method was developed to detect BVDV infection by prokaryotically (Escherichia coli, BL21 strain) expressed recombinant whole nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of BVDV (NADL strain). Four hundred bovine serum samples were evaluated by the newly developed NS3-ELISA and virus neutralization test (VNT) as the gold standard method to diagnose BVD. Among these samples, 289 sera had been previously tested by a commercial ELISA kit. Results: Statistical analyses showed a very high correlation between the results of the developed NS3-ELISA and VNT (kappa coefficient = 0.935, P < 0.001), with the relative sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 98.8%, respectively. There was also a high correlation between the results of NS3-ELISA and the commercial ELISA kit (kappa coefficient = 0.802, P < 0.001) with the relative sensitivity and specificity of 90.72% and 91.15%, respectively. Conclusions: The newly developed simple indirect ELISA showed high sensitivity and specificity with respect to VNT. Developing such a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA which is much less expensive than the available commercial ELISA kits can improve the detection of BVDV infections, help to eliminate the disease from herds, and decrease economic losses caused by this disease. PMID:25964844

  9. Development and validation of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring organoarsenic compounds in edible chicken and pork and feed.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dapeng; Feng, Liang; Pan, Yuanhu; Wang, Yulian; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Juan; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-04-15

    For the first time in this study, we used molecular modelling to design a suitable hapten (arsanilic acid, ASA) and produced a broad-specificity monoclonal antibody (mAb). This mAb exhibited the IC50 for ASA was 913.7 μg L(-1) and showed the cross-reactivity to ASA (100%), carbarsone (849.2%), and nitarsone (1159.5%), respectively. Based on this mAb, an optimised indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) protocol was developed to monitor organoarsenic compounds (OAs) in edible chicken and pork and feed, which the detection limit for OAs in a muscle matrix ranged from 74.2 μg kg(-1) to 143.3 μg kg(-1) and in a feed matrix ranged from 7.4 mg kg(-1) to 11.8 mg kg(-1), the recoveries were 61.3-109.6% with a coefficient of variation of less than 10.8%. These data demonstrated that the developed ic-ELISA is a reliable and useful tool for screening OAs in edible chicken and pork and feed.

  10. Development of polyclonal antibody-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Alicyclobacillus strains in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhouli; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong; Cai, Rui; Guo, Caixia; Wang, Xin; Niu, Chen

    2012-11-01

    A sort of specific polyclonal anti-Alicyclobacillus antibody was generated by immunizing New Zealand white rabbits, and a sensitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for Alicyclobacillus detection in apple juice. A set of experimental parameters such as concentration of antigen, dilutions of the antibody and goat anti-rabbit IgG-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, selection of the blocking reagent, incubation time, and temperature was optimized. The cross-reactivity of the antibody was evaluated by ELISA and the result was consistent with Western blot analysis. The detection limit of the ELISA was about 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/mL in apple juice samples. Samples were detected by ELISA and conventional culture method, and the ELISA results gave a good agreement with the results obtained by plating on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris medium agar. ELISA takes a total detection time of 6 to 7 h, which is less than the time of conventional techniques requiring more than 24 to 48 h. These results indicated that the established ELISA was a potential useful analytical method for detection of Alicyclobacillus in apple juice.

  11. Monoclonal antibody production and indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid based on novel haptens.

    PubMed

    Li, Guopeng; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Li, Jiaying; Xing, Yuan; Wang, Tiangang; Zhou, Xilong; Ji, Baoping; Ren, Wanpeng

    2016-10-15

    Two novel immunizing haptens of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) were synthesized and conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin. Female BALB/c mice were immunized with above conjugates, splenocytes were fused with Sp2/0 cells to produce monoclonal antibody. Compared with previous studies, antibodies raised in this work showed higher sensitivity. Meantime, a novel heterologous coating hapten was also prepared. The indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the optimum condition showed an IC50 of 3.1μg/kg (ppb), and the linear range of 0.46-10.5ppb for MQCA. The limit of detect (LOD) of MQCA in swine muscle, swine liver and chicken was 0.32, 0.54, and 0.28ppb, respectively. The LOD of this assay can satisfy the minimum required performance levels (4ppb) for MQCA. These results indicated that the proposed ELISA, with high sensitivity and specificity, as well as good reproducibility and accuracy, is suitable for determination of MQCA residues in food samples.

  12. Development and validation of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring organoarsenic compounds in edible chicken and pork and feed.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dapeng; Feng, Liang; Pan, Yuanhu; Wang, Yulian; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Juan; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-04-15

    For the first time in this study, we used molecular modelling to design a suitable hapten (arsanilic acid, ASA) and produced a broad-specificity monoclonal antibody (mAb). This mAb exhibited the IC50 for ASA was 913.7 μg L(-1) and showed the cross-reactivity to ASA (100%), carbarsone (849.2%), and nitarsone (1159.5%), respectively. Based on this mAb, an optimised indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) protocol was developed to monitor organoarsenic compounds (OAs) in edible chicken and pork and feed, which the detection limit for OAs in a muscle matrix ranged from 74.2 μg kg(-1) to 143.3 μg kg(-1) and in a feed matrix ranged from 7.4 mg kg(-1) to 11.8 mg kg(-1), the recoveries were 61.3-109.6% with a coefficient of variation of less than 10.8%. These data demonstrated that the developed ic-ELISA is a reliable and useful tool for screening OAs in edible chicken and pork and feed. PMID:26617022

  13. Standardisation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Brucella antibodies in milk from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tittarelli, Manuela; Bonfini, Barbara; De Massis, Fabrizio; Giovannini, Armando; Scacchia, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated for the detection of Brucella antibodies in milk from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758). The test accuracy was evaluated on milk samples from the Campania Region in Italy. A total of 100 negative samples were collected from 10 officially brucellosis-free herds in Salerno Province, while 30 positive samples were collected from 3 herds in Caserta Province, where animals gave positive results to the official tests and it was here that Brucella abortus biovar 1 had been isolated. Test sensitivity was 100%, with a confidence interval (CI) of 90.8%-100%, while specificity was 98% (CI 93%-99.4%) on individual milk samples. To simulate bulk milk samples from herds infected at various levels of infection, dilutions from 1:10 to 1:100 of positive milk samples in negative milk were also used. The probability of detecting antibodies in positive milk samples was higher than 50% up to a dilution of 1:50 in negative milk. Considering the average national water buffalo herd size, the probability of identifying infection in a water buffalo herd by bulk milk testing is 50% (CI 33.1%-66.9%) in the worst case scenario of a single infected animal contributing to the bulk milk.

  14. Development and validation of an indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies against Schmallenberg virus in blood samples from ruminants.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, H M J F; Bouwstra, R J; Mars, M H; van der Poel, W H M; Wellenberg, G J; van Maanen, C

    2013-10-01

    To detect Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infections in ruminants and to perform SBV epidemiological studies a cost-effective serological test is required. For these purposes an indirect whole virus Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for detection of SBV specific antibodies in ruminant blood samples was developed. Schmallenberg virus antigen was produced by propagation on Vero cells, partly purified and coated onto ELISA plates. The indirect ELISA procedure included the subsequent incubation of diluted samples, protein-G-HRP conjugate and TMB substrate solution. Net Optical Densities (OD) values were calculated and expressed as a sample to positive percentage (S/P%) by comparison of the average net OD with the OD of the positive control. Validation of this assay was performed using 633 samples from SBV-free sheep, goats and cattle, and 141 samples from SBV suspect ruminants. The diagnostic specificity was 98.8%. Test results of 86 ruminant serum samples using both the SBV-ELISA and an SBV virus neutralization test (VNT), designated as the gold standard serological test for SBV, showed good correlation: at an S/P cut-off of 15% only one VNT positive sample tested negative in the SBV ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity of the ELISA, relative to the VNT, was 98.8% (95% CI: 93.3-100.0%). The ELISA showed a high repeatability (cv=6.5%) and reproducibility (100% agreement). It was concluded that this ELISA is a suitable test method for the detection of SBV antibodies in sera from cows, sheep and, possibly, goats.

  15. Evaluation of lipopolysaccharides and polysaccharides of different epitopic structures in the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of brucellosis in small ruminants and cattle.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Urmeneta, B; Marín, C; Aragón, V; Blasco, J M; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1998-11-01

    Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis have surface lipopolysaccharides and polysaccharides carrying B. melitensis-type (M) and B. abortus-type (A) epitopes as well as common (C) epitopes present in all smooth Brucella biotypes. Crude lipopolysaccharides, hydrolytic O polysaccharides, and native hapten polysaccharides of MC or AC specificity were evaluated in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with polyclonal, monoclonal, or protein G conjugates by using sera from cattle, sheep, and goats infected with AC, MC, or AMC Brucella biotypes. Regardless of the antigen, the levels of antibodies were lower in goats than in sheep and highest in cattle. The diagnostic performance of the assay was not affected by the absence of lipid A-core epitopes, the presence of contaminating outer membrane proteins, the AC or MC epitopic structure of the absorbed antigen, or the conjugate used. Moreover, with sera from cattle vaccinated with B. abortus S19 (AC) or from sheep and goats vaccinated with B. melitensis Rev 1 (MC), AC and MC antigens showed similar levels of reactivity. The results show that antibodies to the C epitopes largely dominate in infection, and this is consistent with the existence of multiple overlapping C epitopes (V. Weynants, D. Gilson, A. Cloeckaert, A. Tibor, P. A. Denoel, F. Godfroid, J. N. Limet, and J.-J. Letesson, Infect. Immun. 65:1939-1943, 1997) rather than with one or two C epitopes. It is concluded that, by adaptation to the corresponding antibody levels, brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats can be diagnosed by immunosorbent assay with a single combination of conjugate and antigen.

  16. Comparison of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blotting, Microagglutination, Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay, and Flow Cytometry for Serological Diagnosis of Tularemia

    PubMed Central

    Porsch-Özcürümez, Mustafa; Kischel, Nele; Priebe, Heidi; Splettstösser, Wolf; Finke, Ernst-Jürgen; Grunow, Roland

    2004-01-01

    The serodiagnostic efficiencies of five different approaches to detecting antibodies (immunoglobulins G, A, and M) developed in clinically proven infections with Francisella tularensis have been assessed. Fifty serum samples from patients suffering from tularemia during an outbreak in Sweden were compared with samples from 50 healthy blood donors (controls) by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), microagglutination (MA), Western blotting (WB), an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA), and flow cytometry (FC). ELISA, WB, and FC were based on the use of preparations of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica (ATCC 29684) as a capture antigen. Whole methanol-fixed bacteria were used for IIFA and MA. Optimized protocols yielded a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% for WB, MA, and FC, 98% for ELISA, and 93% for IIFA. A total of 6,632 serum samples from individuals between the ages of 18 and 79 years, representatively recruited from all regions of Germany, were screened to estimate and confirm the positive predictive value (PVpos) of the ELISA. Serum samples from 15 (0.226%) individuals tested positive for F. tularensis-specific antibodies by ELISA and confirmatory WB. The resulting prevalence-dependent PVpos of 10.2% and specificity of 98.1% were consistent with our findings for tularemia patients and controls. We conclude that the combined usage of a screening ELISA and a confirmatory WB based on LPS as a common antigen, as well as the MA, is a suitable serodiagnostic tool, while the quality of the IIFA is hampered by subjective variations of the results. FC is a promising new approach that might be improved further in terms of multiplex analyses or high-throughput applications. PMID:15539498

  17. The potency determination of human varicella-zoster immunoglobulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, complement-fixation test and indirect fluorescent antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Winsnes, R; Wiger, D

    1986-10-01

    Traditionally, plasma for the production of the human varicella-zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG) has been selected on the basis of the complement-fixing antibody (CFA) titre. Since immune individuals may lack CFA to varicella-zoster virus (VZV), non-CFA may be of importance in protection. In a search for a simple and reliable method for potency determination, 24 VZIG preparations were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the complement-fixation test (CFT), the indirect fluorescent antibody test to acetone-fixed (IF) and viable (FAMA) VZV-infected cells, respectively. The antibody titres obtained by the various methods were compared. Arranged in order of decreasing agreement, the correlation coefficients (r) of the regression equations between the variables were 0.62 for CFT and FAMA, 0.50 for CFT and ELISA and 0.26 for CFT and IF in a log2 plot. There was complete agreement between the titres obtained by the commercially available Enzygnost Varicella/Zoster kits (Behring Institute, Marburg, F.R. Germany) and the ELISA microtitre plates produced at our institute (r = 1). The regression equation lines for ELISA/CFT and FAMA/CFT titres tended to be parallel to each other, while the line for IF/CFT titres had a less steep slope. Similar titration curves were obtained for VZIGs fractionated by two different methods. Furthermore, the titration curves of serum pools from varicella and zoster convalescents, respectively, had a similar shape below delta OD = 0.4. Generally, a steeper slope was observed above delta OD = 0.4. As antibody detectable by ELISA seems to correlate with protection and the method is sensitive, specific, reproduceable, simple to carry out and easily automated, it may be suitable for the potency determination of VZIGs.

  18. Development and validation of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the screening of tylosin and tilmicosin in muscle, liver, milk, honey and eggs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dapeng; Ye, Shengqiang; Wang, Yulian; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-01-11

    Incorrect use of tylosin and tilmicosin could result in allergy and select resistance. To monitor the illegal use of these antibiotics in animals, a monoclonal-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) has been established. Several haptens were synthesized and conjugated to carrier protein. Female Balb/c mice were inoculated with the four different conjugates to produce monoclonal antibodies according to the schemes of immunization. Aftercell fusion and culture several times, nine hybridoma cell lines were isolated. Only one, 3C4 that has isotype IgG2a, was selected for detailed study. The cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibody 3C4 to tylosin and tilmicosin was 100% and 51% respectively. The standard curves based on the tylosin and tilmicosin matrix calibration ranged from 2.5 to 40 μg L(-1), with an IC(50) value of 6.1 μg L(-1) and 12.1 μg L(-1), respectively. The limits of detection of the ic-ELISA ranged from 5.1 μg kg(-1) to 13.8 μg kg(-1) in edible animal tissues. The recoveries were 74.1% to 120.7% with less than 18.6% of the coefficient of variation when tylosin and tilmicosin were spiked in various biological matrices with the concentrations of 25.0-200.0 μg kg(-1). Good correlations between the results of the ic-ELISA and high performance liquid chromatography were observed in the incurred tissues. These results suggest that the ic-ELISA is a sensitive, accurate and low-cost method that would be a useful tool for the screening of the residues of tylosin and tilmicosin in muscle, liver, milk, honey and eggs.

  19. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant toxin for detection of antibodies against Pasteurella multocida toxin.

    PubMed

    Takada-Iwao, Asuka; Uto, Takehiko; Mukai, Tetsuya; Okada, Munenori; Futo, Satoshi; Shibata, Isao

    2007-06-01

    To facilitate the control of progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) of swine caused by toxigenic Pasteurella multocida, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a serum neutralization test (NT) have recently been developed to detect antibodies against the P. multocida dermonecrotic toxin (PmDNT). However, the NT is a cumbersome and time-consuming technique. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed an indirect ELISA, using recombinant PmDNT expressed in Escherichia coli, for the detection of antibodies to PmDNT in serum samples from pigs. The practical usefulness of this ELISA was compared with the NT using serum samples obtained from experimentally infected and naturally infected pigs. In the pigs experimentally inoculated with vaccine including PmDNT toxoid, the ELISA and neutralization antibodies were detected at almost the same time, and a good correlation was demonstrated between both tests (P<0.01, R(2)=0.807). Therefore, the ELISA can be used to evaluate the immune reaction of pigs after vaccination with P. multocida toxoid. In a survey conducted on a field herd with a history of clinical AR, the seropositivity by ELISA in pigs of age 4.5-6 months was increased even though the NT was negative, and the correlation was low between the results obtained with the two tests (P<0.01, R(2)=0.38). Therefore, the results indicated that this ELISA might be a useful alternative to the NT currently used to detect the antibody to PmDNT after vaccination or infection with P. multocida. PMID:17611352

  20. Development of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay applied to the Botrytis cinerea quantification in tissues of postharvest fruits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for the disease known as gray mold, which causes substantial losses of fruits at postharvest. This fungus is present often as latent infection and an apparently healthy fruit can deteriorate suddenly due to the development of this infection. For this reason, rapid and sensitive methods are necessary for its detection and quantification. This article describes the development of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantification of B. cinerea in apple (Red Delicious), table grape (pink Moscatel), and pear (William's) tissues. Results The method was based in the competition for the binding site of monoclonal antibodies between B. cinerea antigens present in fruit tissues and B. cinerea purified antigens immobilized by a crosslinking agent onto the surface of the microtiter plates. The method was validated considering parameters such as selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and sensibility. The calculated detection limit was 0.97 μg mL-1 B. cinerea antigens. The immobilized antigen was perfectly stable for at least 4 months assuring the reproducibility of the assay. The fungus was detected and quantified in any of the fruits tested when the rot was not visible yet. Results were compared with a DNA quantification method and these studies showed good correlation. Conclusions The developed method allowed detects the presence of B. cinerea in asymptomatic fruits and provides the advantages of low cost, easy operation, and short analysis time determination for its possible application in the phytosanitary programs of the fruit industry worldwide. PMID:21970317

  1. Application of an enzyme-linked immunoassay for the measurement of pregnancy zone protein (PZP) in cell culture supernatants and sera.

    PubMed

    Povlsen, J V; Ingerslev, J; Petersen, C M

    1987-05-01

    A simple and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measuring specifically the pregnancy zone protein (PZP) was constructed. The assay range was 2.0-500 micrograms/l. The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV%) was 5.9% at the level of 100 micrograms/l and 3.5% at 10 micrograms/l. The imprecision between runs was 4.5% at 100 micrograms/l and 7.6% at 10 micrograms/l. Recovery of the native PZP standard added to serum-free cell culture medium was 98.1 +/- 3.7% (mean +/- SD), and recovery from serum of women in late pregnancy was 96.0 +/- 9.3%. Recovery from PZP-chymotrypsin (PZP-CT) complexes added to serum-free medium was 141 +/- 4.3%. There was no detectable cross-reactivity between the anti-human PZP antibody and human alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-M). The dose-response of two PZP standards and the PZP serum concentrations of 100 blood donors were determined. Furthermore, the serum level of PZP from 11 patients suffering from IgA myeloma was quantitated and found within the normal range when compared to serum levels of healthy blood donors of the same age and sex. Finally, supernatants from serum-free cultures of different human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBM) subpopulations were assayed. Neither of them were found to exhibit any detectable increase in PZP concentration during culture, but cultures of monocytes were found to produce alpha 2-M.

  2. Production of monoclonal antibodies for detection of Citrus leprosis virus C in enzyme-linked immuno-assays and immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Govindarajulu, A; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2014-09-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) causes damage in citrus production in the South and Central America. Since closely related types of citrus viruses have recently been described monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are needed for accurate and sensitive diagnosis of CiLV-C. In this study, MAbs to the expressed coat protein of CiLV-C were produced for serological detection of CiLV-C in crude extracts of infected tissues in double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA), dot blot immunosorbent assays (DBIA) and immuonocapture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) procedures. Monoclonal antibodies were developed in mice to the purified expressed coat protein of CiLV-C. The published standard protocols of DAS-ELISA, DBIA and IC-RT-PCR were followed for the detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C in the crude extracts of CiLV-C infected tissues. Two monoclonal antibodies, designated G10 and C11, were identified from four potential candidates for the specific and sensitive detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C in the crude citrus extracts of CiLV-C infected tissues in DAS-ELISA, whereas G10 was also selected based on performance for use in the DBIA and IC-RT-PCR diagnostic assays. Sensitivity analysis comparing the three methods for detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C determined that IC-RT-PCR was more sensitive than DAS-ELISA and DBIA. The creation of MAbs to CiLV-C allows for the sensitive and accurate detection of the virus from CiLV-C infected citrus leaf tissues. Successful detection of the virus in three diagnostic assays formats provides flexibility to diagnosticians who can use either ELISA or DBIA for screening large numbers of samples, and IC-RT-PCR for rapid, sensitive confirmation testing.

  3. Development and initial evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo antibodies in bovine sera.

    PubMed Central

    Surujballi, O P; Marenger, R M; Eaglesome, M D; Sugden, E A

    1997-01-01

    Outer sheath antigen from Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno and acetic acid extracted antigens from serovar hardjo types hardjoprajitno and hardjobovis were evaluated in an immunoassay for ability to detect hyperimmune rabbit serum to serovar hardjo. The degree of cross-reactivity with hyperimmune rabbit sera to L. interrogans serovars pomona, copenhageni, grippotyphosa, canicola and sejroe, and Leptospira biflexa serovar patoc was also measured for each antigen. All of the antigens reacted with the antiserum to L. interrogans serovar hardjo. The outer sheath antigen however, also showed wide cross-reactivity with the antisera to all of the serovars of L. interrogans tested and with the antiserum to L. biflexa serovar patoc. The acetic acid extracted antigen from either type hardjoprajitno, or type hardjobovis, showed a high degree of specificity for serovar hardjo antiserum. The hardjobovis acetic acid extracted antigen was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, and was incorporated into an indirect ELISA for detection of anti-serovar hardjo antibodies in bovine serum. This ELISA showed a relative specificity of 100% with 156 bovine sera which were negative at a dilution of 1:100 in the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for L. interrogans serovars hardjo, pomona, sejroe, icterohaemorrhagiae, copenhageni, canicola, and grippotyphosa. The relative sensitivity of this assay with 192 bovine sera which had serovar hardjo MAT titres of > or = 100 was 95.3% (95% confidence limit = 2.99%). The degree of cross-reactivity with 289 bovine sera which had serovar pomona MAT titres of > or = 100 (with no detectable serovar hardjo MAT titres) was approximately 1.0%. This assay was: easily standardized, scored objectively, repeatable, semi-automated and used a non-hazardous antigen that can be routinely prepared in gram amounts. Images Figure 2. PMID:9342449

  4. Comparison of Surface Plasmon Resonance, Resonant Waveguide Grating Biosensing and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in the Evaluation of a Dengue Virus Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dongmei; Fry, Scott R.; Huang, Johnny X.; Ding, Xixia; Qiu, Liwen; Pan, Yuxian; Chen, Yue; Jin, Jing; McElnea, Catriona; Buechler, Joe; Che, Xiaoyan; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Two label-free biosensor platforms, Resonance Waveguide Grating (RWG) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), were used to rank a large panel of anti-dengue virus NS1 antibodies. Dengue non-structural 1 (NS1) protein is an established serological marker for the early detection of dengue infection. A variety of commercial dengue NS1 antigen capture immunoassays are available in both ELISA and lateral flow format. However, there is a significant scope to improve both the sensitivity and the specificity of those tests. The interactions of antibody (Ab)-antigen (Ag) were profiled, with weak interactions (KD= 1–0.1 μM) able to be detected under static equilibrium conditions by RWG, but not observed to under more rigorous flow conditions using SPR. There were significant differences in the absolute affinities determined by the two technologies, and there was a poor correlation between antibodies best ranked by RWG and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) found by ELISA. Hence, whilst high-throughput RWG can be useful as preliminary screening for higher affinity antibodies, care should be exercised in the assignation of quantitative values for affinity between different assay formats. PMID:25586260

  5. Comparison of surface plasmon resonance, resonant waveguide grating biosensing and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the evaluation of a dengue virus immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongmei; Fry, Scott R; Huang, Johnny X; Ding, Xixia; Qiu, Liwen; Pan, Yuxian; Chen, Yue; Jin, Jing; McElnea, Catriona; Buechler, Joe; Che, Xiaoyan; Cooper, Matthew A

    2013-07-31

    Two label-free biosensor platforms, Resonance Waveguide Grating (RWG) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), were used to rank a large panel of anti-dengue virus NS1 antibodies. Dengue non-structural 1 (NS1) protein is an established serological marker for the early detection of dengue infection. A variety of commercial dengue NS1 antigen capture immunoassays are available in both ELISA and lateral flow format. However, there is a significant scope to improve both the sensitivity and the specificity of those tests. The interactions of antibody (Ab)-antigen (Ag) were profiled, with weak interactions (KD = 1-0.1 μM) able to be detected under static equilibrium conditions by RWG, but not observed to under more rigorous flow conditions using SPR. There were significant differences in the absolute affinities determined by the two technologies, and there was a poor correlation between antibodies best ranked by RWG and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) found by ELISA. Hence, whilst high-throughput RWG can be useful as preliminary screening for higher affinity antibodies, care should be exercised in the assignation of quantitative values for affinity between different assay formats.

  6. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody against Rift Valley fever virus in domestic and wild ruminant sera.

    PubMed

    Paweska, J T; Smith, S J; Wright, I M; Williams, R; Cohen, A S; Van Dijk, A A; Grobbelaar, A A; Croft, J E; Swanepoel, R; Gerdes, G H

    2003-03-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) for the detection of specific IgG immunoglobulins against Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) was validated in-house. A total of 3055 sera from sheep (n = 1159), goats (n = 636), cattle (n = 203), African buffalo (n = 928), and other wild ruminants (n = 129), including eland, kudu, and black wildebeest, was used. Sera from domestic ruminants were collected in West (n = 10), South (n = 1654) and East Africa (n = 334), and sera from wild ruminants (n = 1064) were collected in South Africa. In addition, 136 sera from eight experimentally RVFV-infected sheep, taken during a period of 28 days post infection (dpi), were used to study the kinetics of RVFV antibody production. Field sera were tested by the serum neutralization (VN) test and experimental sera by VN and haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. Based on VN test results, negative sera were regarded as reference controls from RVFV-free, and positive sera were regarded as reference controls from RVFV-infected subpopulations of animals. ELISA data were expressed as the percentage positivity (PP) of an internal high positive control. The two-graph receiver operating characteristics approach was used for the selection and optimization of I-ELISA cut-offs including the misclassification costs term and Youden index (J). In addition, cut-off values were determined as the mean plus two-fold standard deviation of the result observed with the RVFV-free subpopulations. Established optimal cut-offs were different for each of the data sets analyzed, and ranged from 1.65 PP (buffalo) to 9.1 PP (goats). At the cut-off giving the highest estimate of combined measure of diagnostic accuracy (highest J value), the I-ELISA test parameters were determined as follows: (1) Diagnostic sensitivity (%): cattle--84.31, buffalo--94.44, sheep--98.91, goats--99.18. (2) Diagnostic specificity (%): cattle--99.34, buffalo--98.28, sheep--99.16, goats--99.23 and other game ruminants--99.26. In

  7. Enhanced immunoassay for porcine circovirus type 2 antibody using enzyme-loaded and quantum dots-embedded shell-core silica nanospheres based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Li, Xuepu; Shao, Kang; Ye, Shiyi; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Chenjun; Han, Heyou

    2015-08-01

    Boosting the detection sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is significant to the early clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Here, we developed a versatile immunosensor using silica nanospheres as carriers for sensitive detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antibody. With HRP enzyme covalently immobilized on the silica nanospheres and CdSe nanocrystals embedded inside, these signal probes were successfully utilized in the sensitive detection of PCV2 antibody by ELISA, fluorometry and square-wave voltammetry (SWV). To further demonstrate the performance of the immunosensor, Human IgG (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. Since more HRP and CdSe QDs were loaded, 5-, 200- and 400-fold enhancements in amplified ELISA, fluorometry and voltammetry responses for HIgG could be achieved compared to conventional ELISA. The respective detection limits of theses methods for HIgG were 3.9, 0.1 and 0.05 ng mL(-1) with a RSD below 5% for amplified ELISA, fluorescence and SWV measurements. Additionally, a 100-fold improvement was obtained in the detection sensitivity for PCV2 antibody immunoassay. The versatile immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility, suggesting its potential applications in clinical diagnostics. PMID:26320802

  8. Comparison of Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorescent Immunoassays to Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B, Yersinia pestis-Specific F1 Antigen, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Darci R.; Rossi, Cynthia A.; Kijek, Todd M.; Henchal, Erik A.; Ludwig, George V.

    2001-01-01

    The dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassays (DELFIA) were developed for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Yersinia pestis-specific F1 antigen, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These assays were compared to previously developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) by determining the sensitivity or limit of detection (LOD), the dynamic range, and the reproducibility of each assay in a number of different sample matrices. The sensitivity and specificity of each assay were then determined by using a small panel of blinded spiked and nonspiked samples. All three DELFIAs demonstrated at least 1 log greater sensitivity than corresponding ELISAs utilizing the same reagents and showed an increase in dynamic range of at least 2 log10 concentrations. This increased LOD resulted in higher sensitivity rates for the DELFIA. The specificity of all of the assays evaluated was 100%, and no sample matrix effects were observed in either format. However, the reproducibility of the DELFIA was poor due to randomly distributed wells exhibiting excessive background signal (hot wells), which occurred throughout the evaluation. As this technology matures, the reproducibility of these assays should improve, as will the ability to identify hot wells. Despite its sensitivity, the logistical burden associated with the DELFIA and the technical expertise required to complete assays and interpret the data limit the application of this technology to reference or large clinical laboratories. PMID:11687442

  9. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Anju; Saxena, Hari Mohan; Malhotra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001). The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005). The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002). However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014) and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014) was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. PMID:27536032

  10. Displacement enzyme linked aptamer assay.

    PubMed

    Baldrich, Eva; Acero, Josep Lluis; Reekmans, Gunter; Laureyn, Wim; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2005-08-01

    Immense effort has been placed on the realization of immunoassays exploiting displacement of a suboptimum target, due to the ease of use and applicability to immunochromatographic strips and immunosensors. Most of the efforts reported to date focus on the use of a suboptimal target that is displaceable by the target toward which the antibody has higher affinity. Limited success has been achieved due to difficulty in obtaining suboptimal targets to which the antibody has enough affinity to bind while at the same time having lower levels of affinity in comparison to the target to facilitate displacement. Aptamers are synthetic oligonucleotides specifically selected to bind a certain target. Thanks to their high affinity and sensitivity, aptamers appear as alternative candidates to antibodies for analytical devices and several enzyme-linked aptamer assays and aptasensors have been reported. Aptamers, in contrast to antibodies, require the formation of a three-dimensional structure for target binding and can thus be anticipated to have a much higher affinity for binding its target rather than a modified form of the target (e.g., enzyme-labeled target). This phenomenon can be exploited for the development of a displacement assay, using enzyme-labeled target as a suboptimal displaceable molecule. Here, we report the first demonstration of the exploitation of an aptamer in an extremely rapid and highly sensitive displacement assay. Surface plasmon resonance studies demonstrated the thrombin-binding aptamer to have a lower affinity for enzyme-labeled thrombin than unmodified thrombin, with respective K(D) of 1.1 x 10(-8) and 2.9 x 10(-9) M. The assay is extremely rapid, requiring only 10 min for completion, and exhibits a detection limit lower than that obtainable with competitive enzyme-linked aptamer assays and comparable to that of hybrid aptamer-antibody assays. Optimal storage conditions for precoated microtiter plates (consisting of coated aptamer and captured

  11. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in screening of hybridomas to very virulent Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Shibayama, T; Naito, M; Kurimura, T; Hirai, K

    1992-01-01

    For identifying virus-specific antigens of Marek's disease virus (MDV), monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against strain Md5 of serotype 1, which is known to be a very virulent MDV (vvMDV), were isolated. Fifty-eight hybridoma clones that secreted MAbs against vvMDV were obtained. Of these MAbs, 36 gave positive reactions in an immunofluorescence (IF) test, and 22 gave positive reactions on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). None of these MAbs gave positive reactions in both the IF test and ELISA. Of the MAbs that gave positive reactions in the IF test, 33 clones reacted with MDV1-specific epitopes, the other three reacting with MDV1-HVT intertypic epitopes. None of the clones reacted with MDV1-MDV2 intertypic epitopes. Three virus-specific polypeptides were identified by radioimmunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or immunoblotting. These polypeptides were recognized by 12 MAbs giving positive reactions by IF, but by none of those giving positive reactions by ELISA. In addition, size heterogeneity of the MDV1-specific phosphorylated polypeptides in the MDV1 strains was shown using the MAbs against Md5.

  12. Diagnosis of Chikungunya Fever in an Indian Population by an Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Protocol Based on an Antigen Detection Assay: a Prospective Cohort Study▿

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajpal Singh; Morey, Shweta H.; Ramteke, Sonali S.; Chandak, Nitin H.; Parida, Manmohan; Deshpande, Poonam S.; Purohit, Hemant J.; Taori, Girdhar M.; Daginawala, Hatim F.

    2010-01-01

    A Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak continues in India. Monitoring of the clinical features of CHIKV infection is an important component of assessing the disease process. Diagnosis is usually made by an immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, these assays have extremely low sensitivities for the detection of infection in the majority of CHIKV patients during the acute stage of infection (during the 1 to 4 days after infection). In our laboratory, a sensitive ELISA protocol for antigen detection has been developed for the detection of CHIKV infection in the acute stage, and in the present study we assessed the usefulness of this ELISA-based system for the detection of CHIKV infection. We performed a prospective, double-blinded study of 205 Indian patients with suspected CHIKV infection in the Nagpur District. All patients underwent a full clinical assessment, and their serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antigens and of IgM and IgG by an ELISA protocol. In patients with CHIKV infection, the sensitivity of antigen detection was 85%, which was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that of IgM (17%) or IgG (45%) detection. The sensitivity of IgM (20%) or IgG (25%) detection was significantly lower than that of the antigen assay (95%) for patients with acute infections (i.e., from day 1 to day 5 after infection). Antigen detection not only gives a positive confirmatory result in the early phase of the disease, but it is also useful in the prodromal and subclinical stage and may be useful for field applications for the rapid detection of CHIKV infection. PMID:20007365

  13. Generation of anti-trenbolone monoclonal antibody and establishment of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of trenbolone in animal tissues, feed and urine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyang; He, Fangyang; Wan, Yuping; Meng, Meng; Xu, Jing; Yi, Jian; Wang, Yabin; Feng, Caiwei; Wang, Shanliang; Xi, Rimo

    2011-01-15

    Trenbolone (TRE) is a steroid used by veterinarians on livestock to increase appetite and body weight. The use of TRE has been restricted because of its harmful side effect for consumers. To effectively control TRE residue in food and food product, a rapid and convenient immunoassay was developed by preparing an anti-TRE monoclonal antibody. The immunogen and coating antigen were prepared by coupling TRE hapten with carrier proteins via 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) method. The optimized method gave an average IC(50) value of 0.323 ng mL(-1) towards TRE and an average detection limit (LOD) of 0.06 ng mL(-1), which is much lower than the maximum residue levels (2.0 ng g(-1)) accepted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The specificity of the antibody was evaluated by measuring cross-reactivity of six structurally related compounds, including 19-nortestosterone (9.7%), testosterone (0.13%), methyltestosterone (<0.01%), methandrostenolone (<0.01%), (+)-dehydroisoandrosterone (<0.001%) and β-estradiol (<0.001%). The recovery rates of the test in detection of TRE-fortified animal tissue, urine and animal feed samples were in the range of 81.3-89.4%, while the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 12.0%. PMID:21147313

  14. Immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

    Immunochemistry is a relatively new science that has developed rapidly in the last few decades. One of the most useful analytical developments associated with this new science is immunoassay. Originally immunoassays were developed in medical settings to facilitate the study of immunology, particularly the antibody-antigen interaction. Immunoassays now are finding widespread applications outside the clinical field because they are appropriate for a wide range of analytes ranging from proteins to small organic molecules. In the food analysis area, immunoassays are widely used for chemical residue analysis, identification of bacteria and viruses, and detection of proteins in food and agricultural products. Protein detection is important for determination of allergens and meat species content, seafood species identification, and detection of genetically modified plant tissues. While immunoassays of all formats are too numerous to cover completely in this chapter, there are several procedures that have become standard for food analysis because of their specificity, sensitivity, and simplicity.

  15. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the specific humoral immune response of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) and domestic geese (Anser anser var. domestica) after vaccination against Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Häuslaigner, Rafaela; Sonnenburg, Jana; Kothlow, Sonja; Kaspers, Bernd; Staubach, Christoph; Grund, Christian

    2009-04-01

    In this study, an indirect Newcastle disease virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for waterfowl was evaluated concerning its efficiency and its suitability to monitor the antibody response in Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) and domestic geese (Anser anser var. domestica) following vaccination with a commercial inactivated NDV vaccine for chickens. Three weeks after vaccination seroconversion was already evident in the ELISA. Comparison of the ELISA results with those of the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test provided a positive linear correlation between both tests (Pearson's product-moment correlation; r=0.652; P<0.001). However, a discrepancy of test results was evident in weeks 7 and 10, with 10 sera of vaccinated birds evaluated negative by HI test but positive by ELISA. Eight of these sera were confirmed to yield avian paramyxovirus specific reactivity by western blot analysis. Relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined to be 100.0% and 91.7% for the ELISA, compared with 91.1% and 97.2% for the HI test. Thus, the established ELISA represents a suitable alternative to the HI test in the monitoring of the immune response of waterfowl after vaccination, particularly for the analysis of high sample numbers. Further on, the results emphasize the immunogenicity of the inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccine in domestic geese and Muscovy ducks.

  16. Preparation of anti-Sudan red monoclonal antibody and development of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Sudan red in chilli jam and chilli oil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyang; Yi, Jian; Meng, Meng; Wan, Yuping; Feng, Caiwei; Wang, Shanliang; Lu, Xiao; Xi, Rimo

    2010-10-01

    Sudan dyes are banned to be used in food additives because of the carcinogenicity of their metabolites. A rapid and sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect the residues of Sudan dyes. Novel immunogen and coating antigen were synthesized via glutaraldehyde linking. The hapten-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was applied as immunogen and the hapten-ovalbumin (OVA) was served as coating antigen. The monoclonal antibody obtained showed high sensitivity to Sudan I with an IC(50) value of 1.7 μg L(-1) in buffer and was suitable to detect the residues of Sudan red in food products. The specificity of the assay was studied by measuring cross-reactivity of the antibody with the structurally related compounds of Sudan II (<1%), Sudan IV (<1%) and para red (120%). Chilli jam and chilli oil samples spiked with Sudan dyes were analyzed by the method. The detection limit (LOD) of the ELISA method applied in chilli jam and chilli oil was 9.0 μg L(-1) and 19.6 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery rates of Sudan-I in chilli oil and chilli jam were in the range of 80%-110% with coefficients of variation <25%. The intra-assay variation and inter-assay variation in buffer were both <9%.

  17. Generation of E. coli-derived virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 and their use in an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhanfeng; Zhan, Yang; Gong, Qian; Yu, Wanting; Deng, Zhibang; Wang, Aibing; Yang, Yi; Wang, Naidong

    2016-06-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes increased mortality and poor growth or weight loss in apparently healthy swine. Therefore, methods to detect PCV2-specific antibodies in swine serum are important for prevention, diagnosis, and control of PCV2-associated diseases (PCVAD). In this study, PCV2 virus-like particles (VLPs) were used to develop a rapid, simple and economical indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect (with high sensitivity) PCV2-specific antibodies in swine serum. The PCV2 capsid protein (Cap) was overexpressed in E. coli after optimizing the cap gene. Subsequently, the soluble Cap was rapidly purified in one step by automated fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The purified PCV2 Cap was shown by transmission electron microscopy and gel filtration chromatography to be capable of self-assembling into VLPs in vitro. Using the purified VLPs as antigens, optimal operating conditions for the VLP ELISA were determined. The concentration of PCV2 VLPs was 1 µg/ml per well, and the dilution factors for swine serum and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled goat anti-pig antibody were 1:150 and 1:4000, respectively. Out of 241 serum samples tested with this assay, 83.4 % were found to be positive. Importantly, the VLP ELISA had a total coincidence rate of 97.4 % (74/76) compared to an Ingezim PCV2 ELISA IgG assay. In summary, this rapid, inexpensive VLP ELISA has the potential to greatly facilitate large-scale investigations of PCV2-associated serotypes. PMID:26973229

  18. Bayesian Validation of the Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay and Its Superiority to the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and the Complement Fixation Test for Detecting Antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in Goat Serum.

    PubMed

    Muleme, Michael; Stenos, John; Vincent, Gemma; Campbell, Angus; Graves, Stephen; Warner, Simone; Devlin, Joanne M; Nguyen, Chelsea; Stevenson, Mark A; Wilks, Colin R; Firestone, Simon M

    2016-06-01

    Although many studies have reported the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to be more sensitive in detection of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii than the complement fixation test (CFT), the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the assay have not been previously established for use in ruminants. This study aimed to validate the IFA by describing the optimization, selection of cutoff titers, repeatability, and reliability as well as the DSe and DSp of the assay. Bayesian latent class analysis was used to estimate diagnostic specifications in comparison with the CFT and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The optimal cutoff dilution for screening for IgG and IgM antibodies in goat serum using the IFA was estimated to be 1:160. The IFA had good repeatability (>96.9% for IgG, >78.0% for IgM), and there was almost perfect agreement (Cohen's kappa > 0.80 for IgG) between the readings reported by two technicians for samples tested for IgG antibodies. The IFA had a higher DSe (94.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.3, 99.6) for the detection of IgG antibodies against C. burnetii than the ELISA (70.1%; 95% CI, 52.7, 91.0) and the CFT (29.8%; 95% CI, 17.0, 44.8). All three tests were highly specific for goat IgG antibodies. The IFA also had a higher DSe (88.8%; 95% CI, 58.2, 99.5) for detection of IgM antibodies than the ELISA (71.7%; 95% CI, 46.3, 92.8). These results underscore the better suitability of the IFA than of the CFT and ELISA for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in goat serum and possibly in serum from other ruminants.

  19. Enhanced expression of the Erns protein of classical swine fever virus in yeast and its application in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuzi; Li, Lin; Austermann-Busch, Sophia; Dong, Mei; Xu, Jingjing; Shao, Lina; Lei, Jianlin; Li, Na; He, Wen-Rui; Zhao, Bibo; Li, Su; Li, Yongfeng; Liu, Lihong; Becher, Paul; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2015-09-15

    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is a devastating disease of swine worldwide. Although a mandatory vaccination with the modified live vaccine C-strain has been implemented in China for decades, CSF remains a serious threat to the swine industry. To facilitate the control and eradication of CSF in China, the E2-based marker vaccine rAdV-SFV-E2, an adenovirus-delivered, alphavirus replicon-vectored vaccine, has been developed. Accordingly, an accompanying discriminatory test that allows differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) is required. Here, the enhanced expression of E(rns) protein of CSFV was achieved in the methyltropic yeast Pichia pastoris by codon-optimization of the E(rns) gene, and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) based on the yeast-expressed E(rns) (yE(rns)) was developed and evaluated. The optimized iELISA was able to detect CSFV-specific antibodies in the serum samples from the CSFV-infected pigs as early as 6 days post-infection, and discriminate the CSFV-infected pigs from those vaccinated with rAdV-SFV-E2. The iELISA was evaluated using a panel of swine sera, and showed comparable sensitivity (94.6%) and specificity (97.1%), and the consistence rates with the virus neutralization test were 96.8% for CSFV-infected swine sera, 83.3% for C-strain-vaccinated swine sera, and 95.0% for field swine sera. In addition, the iELISA showed higher sensitivity (90.4%) compared with PrioCHECK CSFV E(rns) (59.6%). Taken together, the yE(rns)-based iELISA is specific and sensitive, representing a promising DIVA test for E2-based marker vaccines against CSF.

  20. Generation of E. coli-derived virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 and their use in an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhanfeng; Zhan, Yang; Gong, Qian; Yu, Wanting; Deng, Zhibang; Wang, Aibing; Yang, Yi; Wang, Naidong

    2016-06-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes increased mortality and poor growth or weight loss in apparently healthy swine. Therefore, methods to detect PCV2-specific antibodies in swine serum are important for prevention, diagnosis, and control of PCV2-associated diseases (PCVAD). In this study, PCV2 virus-like particles (VLPs) were used to develop a rapid, simple and economical indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect (with high sensitivity) PCV2-specific antibodies in swine serum. The PCV2 capsid protein (Cap) was overexpressed in E. coli after optimizing the cap gene. Subsequently, the soluble Cap was rapidly purified in one step by automated fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The purified PCV2 Cap was shown by transmission electron microscopy and gel filtration chromatography to be capable of self-assembling into VLPs in vitro. Using the purified VLPs as antigens, optimal operating conditions for the VLP ELISA were determined. The concentration of PCV2 VLPs was 1 µg/ml per well, and the dilution factors for swine serum and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled goat anti-pig antibody were 1:150 and 1:4000, respectively. Out of 241 serum samples tested with this assay, 83.4 % were found to be positive. Importantly, the VLP ELISA had a total coincidence rate of 97.4 % (74/76) compared to an Ingezim PCV2 ELISA IgG assay. In summary, this rapid, inexpensive VLP ELISA has the potential to greatly facilitate large-scale investigations of PCV2-associated serotypes.

  1. Detection and estimation of avian infectious bronchitis virus antigen by a novel indirect liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken and rabbit affinity purified immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Lougovskaia, Natalia N; Lougovskoi, Andrei A; Bochkov, Yuri A; Batchenko, Galina V; Mudrak, Natalia S; Drygin, Vladimir V; Borisov, Alexander V; Borisov, Vladimir V; Gusev, Anatoly A

    2002-12-01

    An indirect liquid-phase blocking (LPB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using chicken and rabbit affinity purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) has been developed to detect and estimate avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) antigen concentration directly in infected allantoic fluid. The method is based on the principle of binding of specific IgG to the test IBV antigen and the assay of unbound IgG on an antigen-coated ELISA plate. The immunoglobulins are chicken N-terminal S2 peplomeric protein-specific IgG isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography on synthetic peptide coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B or rabbit polyclonal IgG purified from the serum using Protein A Sepharose 4B. The assay detected all tested IBV strains and field isolates propagated in chicken embryos. Signal to noise ratios were calculated from LPB ELISA absorbance units and a diagnostic threshold was established from the signal to noise ratio frequency distribution of samples positive or negative for IBV by virus titration or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relative sensitivity of the test ranged between 10(5) and 10(6) median egg infectious doses (EID(50)) for chicken IgG and between 10(3) and 10(4) EID(50) for rabbit IgG, depending on the test strain. The assay is simple and takes less than 3 h to perform. It does not require expensive reagents and can be readily adapted to monitor the IBV antigen concentration in allantoic fluids during propagation of vaccine strains or in samples of freeze-dried, live-attenuated IBV vaccines.

  2. Improvement of a serodiagnostic strategy for foot-and-mouth disease virus surveillance in cattle under systematic vaccination: a combined system of an indirect ELISA-3ABC with an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, I E; Malirat, V; Neitzert, E; Beck, E; Panizzutti, N; Sánchez, C; Falczuk, A

    2000-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) recombinant non-capsideal viral antigens 3A, 3B, 2C, 3D and 3ABC were assessed individually in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) for their ability to screen for persistent infection-specific antibodies in cattle, regardless of vaccination condition. Results of sequential serum samples from non-vaccinated animals with experimentally induced persistent infection, and their correlation with virus isolation, indicated that the polypeptides 3A, 3B and 3ABC showed the most adequate characteristics for further field studies. Reliable performance of the I-ELISA with the selected antigen 3ABC was indicated by the distinct patterns observed for the frequency distribution values of naive and true positive samples. For regularly vaccinated livestock, a clear negative profile was proved in samples from regions without recent history of FMD. In contrast, at 90 and 900 days post-outbreak, coexistence of a positive and a negative population was established. These findings indicated that, irrespective of vaccination, the test allowed a classification of the herd-disease status. A high degree of agreement was observed between I-ELISA-3ABC and EITB results for clearly reactive and non-reactive sera. For samples with reactivity values close to that of the cut-off, the EITB profiles upheld the definition of the infection condition. On this basis, screening by I-ELISA-3ABC, together with confirmation of suspect or positive samples by EITB is proposed as an adequate and accurate approach for large-scale epidemiological surveillance.

  3. Bayesian Validation of the Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay and Its Superiority to the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and the Complement Fixation Test for Detecting Antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in Goat Serum.

    PubMed

    Muleme, Michael; Stenos, John; Vincent, Gemma; Campbell, Angus; Graves, Stephen; Warner, Simone; Devlin, Joanne M; Nguyen, Chelsea; Stevenson, Mark A; Wilks, Colin R; Firestone, Simon M

    2016-06-01

    Although many studies have reported the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to be more sensitive in detection of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii than the complement fixation test (CFT), the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the assay have not been previously established for use in ruminants. This study aimed to validate the IFA by describing the optimization, selection of cutoff titers, repeatability, and reliability as well as the DSe and DSp of the assay. Bayesian latent class analysis was used to estimate diagnostic specifications in comparison with the CFT and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The optimal cutoff dilution for screening for IgG and IgM antibodies in goat serum using the IFA was estimated to be 1:160. The IFA had good repeatability (>96.9% for IgG, >78.0% for IgM), and there was almost perfect agreement (Cohen's kappa > 0.80 for IgG) between the readings reported by two technicians for samples tested for IgG antibodies. The IFA had a higher DSe (94.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.3, 99.6) for the detection of IgG antibodies against C. burnetii than the ELISA (70.1%; 95% CI, 52.7, 91.0) and the CFT (29.8%; 95% CI, 17.0, 44.8). All three tests were highly specific for goat IgG antibodies. The IFA also had a higher DSe (88.8%; 95% CI, 58.2, 99.5) for detection of IgM antibodies than the ELISA (71.7%; 95% CI, 46.3, 92.8). These results underscore the better suitability of the IFA than of the CFT and ELISA for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in goat serum and possibly in serum from other ruminants. PMID:27122484

  4. Development of an indirect competitive immunoassay for walnut protein component in food.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Li, Gang; Wu, Yajun; Yuan, Fei; Chen, Ying

    2014-03-15

    Among food allergens, walnut is a frequent cause of adverse food reactions in allergic patients. In this study, the walnut allergen protein 2S albumin precursor (Jug r 1) cDNA was synthesised and cloned into the pGEX-6P-1 expression vector. The recombinant plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21(DE3) pLys for expression of protein Jug r 1. Polyclonal antibodies were prepared against the expressed purified Jug r 1 protein. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantification of walnut soluble proteins in processed foods was developed using the prepared polyclonal antibodies. The developed ELISA had a high specificity, walnut protein standard solution at 2.2 ng/mL [inhibition concentration (IC80) of the competitive test] was clearly identified by the ELISA. The mean recoveries ranged from 86% to 112%. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the 4 model foods was 6.4-8.7%.

  5. [Development and application of indirect competitive enzyme immunoassay for detection of neomycin in milk].

    PubMed

    Burkin, M A; Gal'vidis, I A

    2011-01-01

    As a result of immunization of rabbits with neomycin B (N M) conjugated to periodate-oxidized transferrin, polyclonal antibodies were generated and used to develop an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of NM. Several heterologous conjugates, namely, glutaraldehyde (GA)-polymerized NM, gelatin-ribostamycin (sp), and gelatin-NM (ga) were used as coating antigens in different ELISA variants for quantification of NM in milk. These variants were characterized by different dynamic ranges and detection limits of 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 ng/ml, respectively. Maximum residue level (MRL) of this antibiotic in milk accepted in the EU can be detected without any special pretreatment at a 100-fold sample dilution in the least sensitive assay variant. The mean recovery rate from NM-spiked milk containing 1.5-10% fat was 111.7% and ranged from 84 to 125.2%. We found that 57 of 106 tested milk samples contained NM at concentrations higher than 100 ng/ml. In ten percent of cases (11/1 06), the residual level of this antibiotic was greater than 500 ng/ml. In one case, the M RL was exceeded (1690 ng/ml). The assay developed in this study is specific shows no cross-reactivity with other veterinary aminoglycosides, has a good sensitivity reserve, and can serve as an effective tool to monitor the NM content in milk stuff.

  6. Detection of ovine antibody to Brucella ovis by indirect enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K; Smith, P; Yu, W L; Rojas, X; Perez, B; Conde, S; Samartino, L; Robles, C

    2007-01-01

    Because some batch-to-batch variation in the preparation of rough lipopolysaccharide (RLPS) from Brucella ovis has been experienced, several protocols were tested to establish the most reliable method for detection of antibody in indirect enzyme immunoassay. An early version of the assay gave a performance index (PI=sum of optimum percent sensitivity and percent specificity, determined by receiver operator characteristic analysis) of 198.6. This assay used RLPS from B. ovis as the antigen and a monoclonal antibody specific for bovine IgG(1) heavy chain-enzyme conjugate for detection. This was not repeatable using other batches of antigen. Newer versions of the assay generally had decreased sensitivity values, giving PIs of 193. Use of a recombinant protein A/G-enzyme conjugate did not improve the PI (PI=190), giving reduced specificity and higher sensitivity. The final version used B. abortus RB51 RLPS as the antigen and protein A/G-enzyme conjugate for detection, giving a PI of 197. Because of the batch uniformity of the B. abortus RB51 RLPS and the versatility of the protein A/G-enzyme conjugate, the latter version appears to be the most useful for diagnostic serology.

  7. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of polybrominated diphenyl ether BDE-121.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hongyan; Zhou, Liping; Shi, Lei; Li, Weili; Yuan, Lijuan; Li, Daqing; Cai, Qingyun

    2014-02-15

    Our interests are in the development of immunoassay-based fast scanning methods for persistent organic pollutants. To develop the immunoassay method of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), a model compound of PBDE, 2,3',4,5',6-pentabromodiphenylether (BDE-121), has been chosen to develop its antibody and the competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is developed. The hapten of BDE-121 containing reactive carboxylic acid was synthesized and conjugated to carrier proteins (bovine serum albumin [BSA] and ovalbumin [OVA]). Anti-BDE-121 polyclonal antibody was then developed in rabbits as a result of immunization with the BDE-121-BSA conjugate. The optimal amount of coating antigen BDE-121-OVA conjugate and the dilution of antiserum needed in the ELISA were determined with the checkerboard method, and the effects of the properties of PBST (phosphate-buffered saline and Tween 20) buffer (pH and salt concentration) and chemical solvent (types and concentrations) on the ELISA were investigated to achieve a rapid robust assay with high sensitivity. Under the optimized conditions, the developed indirect ELISA shows a linear detection range from 1.74 to 84.1 ng/ml, with an IC₅₀ value of 8.07 ng/ml and a detection limit of 0.644 ng/ml. In total, 11 kinds of compounds were tested for calculating the cross-reactivity, which was less than 8% for nearly all of them. Real samples were analyzed by the proposed immunoassay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

  8. Redox-Mediated Indirect Fluorescence Immunoassay for the Detection of Disease Biomarkers Using Dopamine-Functionalized Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Ma, Wei; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-05-17

    Here, we report a redox-mediated indirect fluorescence immunoassay (RMFIA) for the detection of the disease biomarker α-fetoprotein (AFP) using dopamine (DA)-functionalized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). In this immunoassay, tyrosinase was conjugated with the detection antibody and acted as a bridge connecting the fluorescence signals of the QDs with the concentration of the disease biomarkers. The tyrosinase label used for RMFIA catalyzed the enzymatic oxidation of DAs on the surface of functionalized QDs and caused fluorescence quenching in the presence of the analyte. Using this technique, we obtained a limit of detection as low as 10 pM for AFP. This assay's potential for clinical analysis was demonstrated by detecting the real sera of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study makes the first use of RMFIA for the rapid detection of AFP, opening up a new pathway for the detection of disease biomarkers.

  9. Development of a simple indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of immunoglobulin M antibody in serum from patients following an outbreak of chikungunya virus infection in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Thein, S; La Linn, M; Aaskov, J; Aung, M M; Aye, M; Zaw, A; Myint, A

    1992-01-01

    During 1984, 1548 children were admitted to the Yangon [Rangoon] Children's Hospital in Myanmar [Burma] with haemorrhagic fever. No evidence of recent dengue infection was found in 577 of the 803 children from whom paired sera were obtained, raising the possibility of reappearance of Chikungunya virus infection in Myanmar. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of anti-Chikungunya virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody was prepared and standardized using only reagents which are commercially available or which could be prepared without the use of sophisticated equipment. While there was 90% agreement between haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and the IgM ELISA in the diagnosis of acute Chikungunya virus infections, 12 additional patients with stationary anti-Chikungunya virus HI antibody titres could be identified as having acute Chikungunya infections using the ELISA. Furthermore, the ELISA could identify twice as many patients (31/103) at the time of admission to hospital as the HI test (15/103). There was no false positive IgM reaction with the ELISA which could be attributed to the presence of rheumatoid factor. Using the test, 103 of a sample of 163 children who presented to the Yangon Children's Hospital with fever/haemorrhagic fever were diagnosed as Chikungunya patients, 4 had possible dual Chikungunya and dengue infections, 16 had dengue, 30 had neither Chikungunya nor dengue infections, and a definitive diagnosis could not be made for 10 patients. Routine use of the ELISA would alert authorities to future outbreaks of Chikungunya virus infection and avoid admission to hospital of patients with a non-life-threatening viral disease.

  10. Simple standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T M; Halbert, S P; Chiu, C T; Zarco, R

    1981-01-01

    A simple solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure for the detection of human antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica was developed which showed a high degree of correlation with the agar gel diffusion, counterelectrophoresis, and indirect hemagglutination methods, as well as with clinical data. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is rapid (1 h 15 min, total incubation time), and the reported values are referenced to a positive control so that they correlate with levels of antibody sufficient to be detected by the gel diffusion methods. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is highly reproducible, specific, and sensitive; it can be used qualitatively or quantitatively. PMID:6262370

  11. The use of sucrose-acetone-extracted Rift Valley fever virus antigen derived from cell culture in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and haemagglutination-inhibition test.

    PubMed

    Paweska, J T; Barnard, B J; Williams, R

    1995-12-01

    A sucrose-acetone-extracted, Madin-Darby-bovine-kidney (MDBK)-derived Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antigen was tested both in an indirect ELISA and a haemagglutination-inhibition test for its ability to detect serum antibodies to RVFV. Optimal conditions for antigen concentration, serum and conjugate dilutions for the ELISA were established by checkerboard titration. The specificity and sensitivity of ELISA were determined by the use of paired pre- and post-vaccination sheep-serum samples. Compared with the virus neutralization test, the overall ELISA specificity and sensitivity were 97.4 and 97.3%, respectively. There was a 100% correlation between the results obtained in haemagglutination-inhibition tests with a RVFV sucrose-acetone-extracted antigen derived from hamster liver, and from MDBK cells. A total of 10 582 field-serum samples (84 cattle, 3,659 sheep, 6,839 goats) collected in 1994-1995 from animals of unknown vaccination status in different regions of South Africa were tested with ELISA for antibodies against RVFV. There were no seropositive cattle, 0.16% seropositive sheep and 0.12% seropositive goats. This study demonstrates the potential diagnostic application of cell-culture-derived, sucrose-acetone-extracted RVFV antigen in an indirect ELISA and HI test.

  12. Indirect competitive immunoassay for the detection of fungicide Thiabendazole in whole orange samples by Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    PubMed

    Estevez, M-Carmen; Belenguer, Jose; Gomez-Montes, Silvia; Miralles, Javier; Escuela, Alfonso M; Montoya, Angel; Lechuga, Laura M

    2012-12-01

    A highly sensitive and specific SPR-based competitive immunoassay for the detection of Thiabendazole (TBZ) has been developed. An indirect format where a TBZ-protein conjugate is immobilized onto gold surfaces has been selected. Under the optimal conditions, a LOD of 0.67 nM (0.13 μg L(-1)) and an IC(50) of 3.2 nM (0.64 μg L(-1)) have been achieved which are comparable to the values obtained by conventional ELISA. Analysis of real samples has been attempted by first evaluating the influence of complex matrix samples coming from whole oranges and secondly measuring samples containing TBZ previously evaluated by chromatographic methods. A methanolic extraction procedure followed by a simple dilution in assay buffer has proven to be sufficient to measure orange samples using the developed immunoassay with an excellent recovery percentage. The sensitivity and the feasibility of measuring whole orange samples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the SPR biosensor, which can be useful for the determination of TBZ in food at concentrations below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) established by the European legislation.

  13. Characterization of Antibodies and Development of an Indirect Competitive Immunoassay for Detection of Deamidated Gluten.

    PubMed

    Tranquet, Olivier; Lupi, Roberta; Echasserieau-Laporte, Valerie; Pietri, Manon; Larré, Colette; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-06-10

    Diversification of gluten applications in the food and cosmetics industries was achieved through the production of water-soluble gluten that can be obtained by deamidation. Current analytical methods dedicated to gluten detection failed to detect deamidated gluten. After immunizing mice with the peptide LQPEEPFPE conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, five mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced and sequences of bound epitopes were determined as XPXEPFPE, where X is Q or E. The mAbs exhibited high specificity for deamidated gliadins and low molecular weight glutenin subunits. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on INRA-DG1 mAb was developed with an IC50% of 85 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 25 ng/mL. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation (CV) were <10% except for the interassay CV of the low-level control (40 ng/mL), which was 20%. This assay was capable of detecting three of the four deamidated gluten samples spiked in rice flour at 20 mg/kg.

  14. Biotin-streptavidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Tetrabromobisphenol A in electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Bu, Dan; Zhuang, Huisheng; Zhou, Xinchu; Yang, Guangxin

    2014-03-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a widely used brominated flame retardant. A sensitive and selective indirect competitive biotin-streptavidin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BA-ELISA) was developed for detecting TBBPA. The optimal hapten of TBBPA was 2-(2,6-dibromo-4-(2-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenly)propan-2-yl)) acetic acid. Several physiochemical factors that influence assay performance, such as optimal coupling concentration of immunogen and antibody, organic solvent, ionic strength, and pH, were studied and optimized. The limit of detection (IC10) was 0.027 ng/mL and the median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.58 ng/mL. The BA-ELISA was highly selective, with low cross-reactivity with TBBPA analogs. Finally, the assay was used to detect TBBPA in electronic waste samples. The results are consistent with those using liquid chromatography, which proves that the proposed immunoassay is accurate and receptive. This BA-ELISA method is suitable for the rapid and sensitive screening of TBBPA in environmental monitoring. PMID:24468340

  15. Development of indirect competitive fluorescence immunoassay for 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether using DNA/dye conjugate as antibody multiple labels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An indirect competitive fluorescence immunoassay using DNA/dye conjugate as antibody multiple labels was developed on 96-well plates for the identification and quantification of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in aqueous samples. A hapten, 2,4,2'-tribromodiphenyl ether-4’-aldehyde was sy...

  16. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  17. Fluoroimmunoassay for detection of rubella-specific immunoglobulin M: comparison with indirect enzyme immunoassay and mu-chain capture.

    PubMed Central

    Echevarria, J M; de Ory, F; Najera, R

    1985-01-01

    The performance of a commercially-available method of fluoroimmunoassay (Rubella M FIAX, International Diagnostic Technology, Santa Clara, Calif.), designed for the detection of rubella-specific immunoglobulin M, was tested with 137 selected sera, including 52 from cases of primary rubella, 29 from healthy pregnant women, 21 containing rheumatoid factor, and 35 from cases of infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus. The results were compared with those obtained by commercial indirect enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and EIA anti-mu chain capture tests. The fluoroimmunoassay technique showed a satisfactory level of sensitivity, but low values had to be interpreted with caution as false-positive results were detected with sera with rheumatoid factor and from IM cases, even after preliminary treatment of sera with the anti-human immunoglobulin G antisera provided in the kit. On the other hand, no false-positive results in the analysis of IM sera were seen in the EIA anti-mu chain capture method. Because of its sensitivity and specificity, we recommend the use of the latter technique for the diagnosis of primary rubella. PMID:2995439

  18. Evaluation of antinuclear antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence and line immunoassay methods': four years' data from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sener, Asli Gamze; Afsar, Ilhan; Demirci, Mustafa

    2014-12-01

    The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), directed against intracellular antigens, is a hallmark of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay is among the most commonly used routine methods for ANA detection as the screening test. The objective of the study was to evaluate ANA patterns in a 4-year period retrospectively. All 19 996 serum samples that were sent to the Laboratory of Medical Microbiology of the tertiary Hospital by any hospital department between 1 January 2009 and 1 January 2013 with a request to test for ANA, anti-ENA or both were included in the study. Of these samples, 4375 (21.9%) were ANA-IIF-positive and 15621 (78.1%) were ANA-IIF-negative. The presented ANA-positive samples consisted of 2392 (54.67%) homogenous, 818 (18.70%) speckled, 396 (9.05%) centromere, 242 (5.53%) nucleolar, 213 (4.87%) nuclear dots, 178 (4.07%) cytoplasmic (except for actin and golgi), 24 (0.55%) actin, 9 (0.21%) golgi, 53 (1.21%) nuclear membrane and 50 (1.14%) mixed pattern. Totally 7800 samples were examined by LIA. Of these samples, 3440 were positive and 4307 were negative with IIF and LIA. In addition, 22 samples were detected as IIF-positive but LIA-negative, whereas the rest 31 samples were IIF-negative but LIA-positive. ANA patterns in 22 IIF-positive samples were homogenous (9), speckled (5), golgi (4), cytoplasmic (3) and nucleolar (1). SSA/Ro-52, SSB/La and Scl-70 positivity were detected in 31 IIF-negative/LIA-positive samples by LIA. The present study comes forward with its overall scope, which covers 4-year data obtained in tertiary hospital located in the western part of Turkey.

  19. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of marine caliciviruses.

    PubMed

    Ferris, N P; Oxtoby, J M

    1994-11-01

    An indirect, sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antigens of vesicular exanthema, San Miguel sea lion viruses and other marine caliciviruses is described. The assay which uses rabbit and guinea-pig antisera to purified antigens of each calicivirus serotype has high sensitivity and is almost totally type-specific. PMID:7886934

  20. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of dicyclanil in animal tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dicyclanil is a pyrimidine-derived insect growth regulator used in veterinary medicine for the prevention of myiasis or fly-strike. It is toxic to animals and humans. In this paper, for the first time, a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the determination of ...

  1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Clostridium difficile toxin A.

    PubMed Central

    Lyerly, D M; Sullivan, N M; Wilkins, T D

    1983-01-01

    Antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxin A were purified by affinity chromatography from antiserum prepared against crude C. difficile toxin preparations. The affinity-purified antibody preparation was free of detectable amounts of antibodies to other C. difficile antigens, as demonstrated by crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and specifically neutralized the cytotoxicity of toxin A. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was subsequently developed using the antibody preparation for the specific detection of toxin A. The ELISA, which could detect 1 ng (5 ng/ml) of toxin A, was used to quantitate the toxin in the culture supernatant fluids of strains of C. difficile. The ELISA values for toxin A closely correlated with the toxin A and B cytotoxic titers of the supernatant fluids. In addition, toxin A was detected by ELISA in human fecal specimens from persons with antibiotic-associated colitis, demonstrating that this toxin is produced during C. difficile colitis. Images PMID:6338036

  2. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of respiratory syncytial virus infection: development and description.

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, R M; McIntosh, K

    1982-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigens was developed, using commercially available antisera. Horse anti-RSV and calf antiserum to bovine RSV were used as capture and detector antibodies, respectively. The assay could detect as few as 50 PFU of unpurified RSV per ml in infected cell culture supernatant fluids and as little as 10 ng of affinity-purified RSV antigen per ml. No cross-reactions were observed with heterologous virus types. Freeze-thaw treatment had no effect on RSV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers, but viral transport medium inhibited RSV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers from 10- to 100-fold. The assay can be easily performed in 24 h and is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of RSV antigens. PMID:6749894

  3. Development of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Kapur-Ghai, J; Kaur, M; Goel, P

    2014-09-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are obligate, sedentary plant endoparasites that are extremely polyphagous in nature and cause severe economic losses in agriculture. Hence, it is essential to control the parasite at an early stage. For any control strategy to be effective, an early and accurate diagnosis is of paramount importance. Immunoassays have the inherent advantages of sensitivity and specificity; have the potential to identify and quantify these plant-parasitic nematodes. Hence, in the present studies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for the detection of M.incognita antigens. First an indirect ELISA was developed for detection and titration of anti-M.incognita antibodies. Results indicated as high as 320 K titre of the antisera. Finally competitive inhibition ELISA was developed employing these anti-M.incognita antibodies for detection of M.incognita antigens. Sensitivity of ELISA was 10 fg. Competitive inhibition ELISA developed in the present studies has the potential of being used as an easy, rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of M.incognita infection.

  4. Kinetic analyses and performance of a colloidal magnetic nanoparticle based immunoassay dedicated to allergy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Descroix, Stéphanie; Poncet, Pascal; Georgelin, Thomas; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Petr, Jan; Varenne, Anne; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to use magnetic nanoparticles as immunosupports for allergy diagnosis. Most immunoassays used for immunosupports and clinical diagnosis are based on a heterogeneous solid-phase system and suffer from mass-transfer limitation. The nanoparticles' colloidal behavior and magnetic properties bring the advantages of homogeneous immunoassay, i.e., species diffusion, and of heterogeneous immunoassay, i.e., easy separation of the immunocomplex and free forms, as well as analyte preconcentration. We thus developed a colloidal, non-competitive, indirect immunoassay using magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNP) as immunosupports. The feasibility of such an immunoassay was first demonstrated with a model antibody and described by comparing the immunocapture kinetics using macro (standard microtiter plate), micro (microparticles) and nanosupports (MCSNP). The influence of the nanosupport properties (surface chemistry, antigen density) and of the medium (ionic strength, counter ion nature) on the immunocapture efficiency and specificity was then investigated. The performances of this original MCSNP-based immunoassay were compared with a gold standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a microtiter plate. The capture rate of target IgG was accelerated 200-fold and a tenfold lower limit of detection was achieved. Finally, the MCSNP-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the detection of specific IgE from milk-allergic patient's sera with a lower LOD and a good agreement (CV < 6%) with the microtiter plate, confirming the great potential of this analytical platform in the field of immunodiagnosis.

  5. Clickable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Canalle, Luiz A; Vong, TuHa; Adams, P Hans H M; van Delft, Floris L; Raats, Jos M H; Chirivi, Renato G S; van Hest, Jan C M

    2011-10-10

    Click chemistry is explored as a potential cost-effective and selective immobilization method for the production of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Coatings were formulated containing either a terminal alkyne or a bicyclo[6.1.0]non-4-yne (BCN) chemical handle, and a diagnostic peptide was subsequently immobilized onto these coatings by the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) or copper-free strain-promoted azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (SPAAC), respectively. The terminal alkyne-containing coating showed high background levels in subsequent ELISA's due to the copper catalyst used in the immobilization step. The BCN-containing coating, however, was successfully employed and presents a cost-effective alternative to existing (strept)avidin-biotin immobilization methods. This technology was illustrated with an ELISA used for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but could be easily applied to a wide range of diagnostic tests. PMID:21866934

  6. Application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine paraquat residues in milk, beef, and potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Van Emon, J.; Seiber, J.; Hammock, B.

    1987-09-01

    The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has included paraquat on its list of compounds to be considered for monitoring in foods. However, present methods do not easily accommodate the processing of large numbers of samples, thus limiting routine monitoring of the compound. The conventional method, based on spectrophotometry of reduced paraquat solutions, requires time-consuming sample preparation. Although the advantages of immunoassays for pesticide residue analysis have been pointed out, the reported immunoassays for paraquat have only been applied to cases of clinical poisoning or human exposure assessment. In this study, spiked milk, potato, and beef were analyzed directly, without prior cleanup, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  7. Development of an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay for Detecting Tartrazine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuokun; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Guo, Shidong; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an ultrasensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of tartrazine. Two carboxylated analogues of tartrazine with different spacer lengths, and one derivative from commercial tartrazine after a little chemical modification, were synthesized as haptens in order to produce antibodies specific to tartrazine. The effect of sulfonic acid groups on the hapten structure of tartrazine was also studied carefully for the first time. A most specific monoclonal antibody against tartrazine was created and exhibited an IC50 value of 0.105 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.014 ng/mL, with no cross-reactivity to other structurally-related pigments. The established immunoassay was applied to the determination of tartrazine in fortified samples of orange juice and in real positive samples of carbonated beverages. PMID:23799494

  8. A highly sensitive differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for determination of 17β-estradiol (E2) using CdSe quantum dots based on indirect competitive immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Chaisuwan, Nuanapa; Xu, He; Wu, Genying; Liu, Jianshe

    2013-08-15

    In this study a new and fast procedure was developed to determine trace 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations using CdSe quantum dots (QDs) conjugation with bovine serum albumin (BSA)-E2. To increase the high efficiency of the method, the immunoassay design was restricted to an indirect competitive format. The E2 antigen and bioconjugate were incubated in a microtiter plate with an anti-E2 antibody and competition for antibody binding sites was established. The in situ bismuth-coated carbon electrodes were used for detecting the cadmium ions (Cd(2+)) released during the acid dissolution step. After optimization, the well-defined sharp anodic stripping voltammograms curves of the E2 concentration ranging from 50 to 1000 pg/mL was recorded, and the lowest detection limit was 50 pg/mL with 6% reproducibility and 7% repeatability. Finally, the assay was applied to tap water and wastewater samples. The detection limits were 52.56 ± 0.125 pg/mL for tap water and 51.42 ± 0.453 pg/mL for wastewater. These results show that the assay exhibited sensitive analytical performance in E2 detection with high sensitivity and accuracy with satisfactory results. PMID:23542084

  9. Chemiluminescence competitive indirect enzyme immunoassay for 20 fluoroquinolone residues in fish and shrimp based on a single-chain variable fragment.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Chen, Min; Jiang, Haiyang; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui; Wang, Xia; Wu, Xiaoping; Wen, Kai

    2013-09-01

    A chemiluminescent competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, based on a mutant single-chain variable fragment (scFv), was developed to detect a broad range of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in fish and shrimp matrices. In this study, the best scFvC4A9H1_mut2 was adopted, which showed 10-fold improved affinity to sarafloxacin (SAR), difloxacin (DIF), and trovafloxacin (TRO), while the affinity to other FQs was fully inherited from wild-type scFvC4A9H1. In the optimized generic test, scFvC4A9H1_mut2 in combination with norfloxacin-ovalbumin conjugate and horseradish peroxidase-labeled anti-c-myc 9E10 antibody showed 50 % binding inhibition (IC50) at 0.12 μg kg(-1) for norfloxacin in buffer. Screening for the class of FQ antibiotics is accomplished using a simple, rapid extraction carried out with ethanol/acetic acid (99:1, v/v). This common extraction was able to detect 20 FQ residues such as s ciprofloxacin (CIP), danofloxacin, DIF, enoxacin, enrofloxacin (ENR), fleroxacin, amifloxacin, flumequine, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin hydrochloride, marbofloxacin, norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin, orbifloxacin, pazufloxacin, pefloxacin-d5 (PEF), prulifloxacin, SAR, sparfloxacin, and TRO in fish and shrimp. The limit of detection (LOD) for NOR was 0.2 μg kg(-1) and the LODs for CIP and ENR were all <0.2 μg kg(-1). Values of LODs inferred from the cross-reactivity data will range from approximately 0.23 μg kg(-1) for PEF to 2.1 μg kg(-1) for TRO. Field fish and shrimp samples were analyzed and compared to the results obtained from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method. All five instances (from 0.25 to 15.6 μg kg(-1)) in which FQs were present at concentrations near or above the assay LOD were identified as positive by the newly developed assay, demonstrating the usefulness of this assay as a screening tool.

  10. Improvement of a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening estrogen receptor binding activity.

    PubMed

    Koda, Tomoko; Soya, Yoshihiro; Negishi, Harumi; Shiraishi, Fujio; Morita, Masatoshi

    2002-12-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with estrogen receptor (alpha) and a fluorescence depolarization method with Full-Range Beacon were examined as estrogen receptor binding assays to prescreen endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, because it is difficult to measure the receptor binding ability of sparingly water-soluble chemicals using these methods, the competitive enzyme immunoassay was further modified for improved sensitivity by changing the operational parameters, such as receptor concentration, ligand concentration, and the reaction temperature. The method was applied to 10 test chemicals, including alkylphenols and bisphenol A (BPA). The diethylstilbestrol (DES) relative binding affinity (RBA) of ELISA kit was set equal to 1 (RBA = IC50/IC50 of DES). The RBAs of BPA, 4-nonylphenol (p-NP), and 4-t-octylphenol (p-t-OP) are 5386, 8619. and 8121 before using the improved competitive enzyme immunoassay and 883, 699, and 2832 using improved it respectively. Mixtures of BPA, p-NP, and p-t-OP gave results that the estrogen binding affinities of these chemicals are additive or slightly more than additive.

  11. Simultaneous screening analysis of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid residues in edible animal tissues by a competitive indirect immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassays contribute greatly to veterinary drug residue analysis and food safety, but there are no reported immunoassays on simultaneously detecting MQCA and QCA, the marker residues for carbadox and olaquindox. It is extremely difficult to produce broad-specificity antibodies that bind both res...

  12. Novel fluorescent probe for highly sensitive bioassay using sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-capillary isoelectric focusing (ELISA-cIEF).

    PubMed

    Henares, Terence G; Uenoyama, Yuta; Nogawa, Yuto; Ikegami, Ken; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji; Funano, Shun-ichi; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Endo, Tatsuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a novel rhodamine diphosphate molecule that allows highly sensitive detection of proteins by employing sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and capillary isoelectric focusing (ELISA-cIEF). Seven-fold improvement in the immunoassay sensitivity and a 1-2 order of magnitude lower detection limit has been demonstrated by taking advantage of the combination of the enzyme-based signal amplification of ELISA and the concentration of enzyme reaction products by cIEF.

  13. Development of an electrochemical immunoassay for detection of gatifloxacin in swine urine.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jian; Meng, Meng; Liu, Zhong-qiu; Zhi, Jin-fang; Zhang, Yuan-yang; Xu, Jing; Wang, Ya-bin; Liu, Jin-ting; Xi, Ri-mo

    2012-02-01

    To detect gatifloxacin (GAT) residue in swine urine, an electrochemical immunoassay was established. An indirect competitive immunoassay was developed, in which the coating antigen is immobilized in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate and GAT residue from the sample competes with the limited binding sites in added anti-GAT antibody. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated to goat anti-rabbit IgG was used as the enzymatic label. A carbon fiber working electrode was constructed and current signals were detected by using hydrogen peroxide as a substrate and hydroquinone as an electrochemical mediator. The electrochemical immunoassay was evaluated by analysis of GAT in buffer or swine urine and an average value of half inhibition concentration (IC(50)) of 8.9 ng/ml was obtained. Excellent specificity of the antibody was achieved with little cross-reaction with lomefloxacin (3.0%), ciprofloxacin (3.0%), and ofloxacin (1.9%) among commonly used (fluoro)quinolones. In conclusion, the immunoassay system developed in this research can be used as a rapid, powerful and on-site analytical tool to detect GAT residue in foods and food products.

  14. Microwave-mediated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Pradip; Bora, Utpal; Sharma, Gainda L; Kannoujia, Dileep Kumar

    2012-02-15

    Here we demonstrate a novel microwave-mediated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA) method that has dramatically reduced the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) timing to less than 5 min with a result comparable to that obtained by 18-h conventional ELISA. Efficacy of the MELISA procedure is demonstrated by detecting human immunoglobulin G (IgG), rabbit IgG, human immunoglobulin E (IgE), human interleuken 1β (IL-1β), Entamoeba histolytica antibody, and Aspergillus fumigatus antibody. MELISA could be an excellent substitute for time-consuming conventional ELISA for rapid diagnosis of diseases in cases of medical urgency, outbreak of infectious diseases, and screening of samples in blood banks or emigration counters. PMID:22033289

  15. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leucine and methionine enkephalins

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, G.; Jones, C.A.; Hughes, J.

    1983-04-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for enkephalins was developed by coupling the peptides to a carrier molecule (bovine serum albumin) in order to allow the antibody-antigen reaction to take place in the solid phase. The assay was shown to be highly reproducible. Its sensitivity was 14 nmol/liter for leucine enkephalin and 27 nmol/liter for methionine enkephalin, which is similar to that obtained when the same antibodies were used in radioimmunoassay.

  16. Diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease by electrochemical enzyme-linked immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Longinotti, Gloria; Ybarra, Gabriel; Lloret, Paulina; Moina, Carlos; Ciochinni, Andres; Serantes, Diego Rey; Malatto, Laura; Roberti, Mariano; Tropea, Salvador; Fraigi, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    The development of an inmunosensor for the point-of-care detection of the foot-and-mouth cattle disease is presented. The detector is based on an ELISA method with electrochemical detection. A non-structural protein, 3ABC, is used to selectively detect antibodies is used to selectively detect anti-3ABC antibodies produced after infection. The biological test is performed onto a screen printed electrodes. A dedicated small, portable potentiostat is employed for the control of the sensors, as well as data acquisition, processing, and storage. PMID:21095891

  17. Aptamers as a replacement for antibodies in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Toh, Saw Yi; Citartan, Marimuthu; Gopinath, Subash C B; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2015-02-15

    The application of antibodies in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the basis of this diagnostic technique which is designed to detect a potpourri of complex target molecules such as cell surface antigens, allergens, and food contaminants. However, development of the systematic evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) method, which can generate a nucleic acid-based probe (aptamer) that possess numerous advantages compared to antibodies, offers the possibility of using aptamers as an alternative molecular recognition element in ELISA. Compared to antibodies, aptamers are smaller in size, can be easily modified, are cheaper to produce, and can be generated against a wide array of target molecules. The application of aptamers in ELISA gives rise to an ELISA-derived assay called enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay (ELASA). As with the ELISA method, ELASA can be used in several different configurations, including direct, indirect, and sandwich assays. This review provides an overview of the strategies involved in aptamer-based ELASA.

  18. Double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for cellobiohydrolase I

    SciTech Connect

    Riske, F.J.; Eveleigh, D.E.; MacMillan, J.D. )

    1990-11-01

    A double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for quantifying cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) in crude preparations of the cellulase complex from Trichoderma reesei. The other enzymes (endoglucanase and {beta}-glucosidase) in this complex and other ingredients in culture broth did not interfere with this assay. The antibody configuration that resulted in the highest specificity for the assay of CBH I employed a monoclonal antibody to coat wells in polystyrene plates and peroxidase-labeled polyclonal antibody to detect cellobiohydrolase bound to the immobilized monoclonal antibody. Previously, procedures have not been available for the direct assay of CBH I activity in the presence of the other enzymes in the complex, and current indirect procedures are cumbersome and inaccurate. The direct procedure described here is highly specific for CBH I and useful for quantifying this enzyme in the range of 0.1 to 0.8 {mu}g/ml.

  19. Substitution of carbonate buffer by water for IgG immobilization in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Basu, Anupam; Kariya, Kiran P

    2003-01-01

    The first step of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), namely, adsorption of antigen or antibody to the plastic microtiter well plate, was studied as a function of insolubility of IgG in water. Immobilization efficiency was assessed in terms of number of wells coated per milliliter of primary antiserum. We have compared different coating/immobilization protocols, i.e., direct and indirect immobilization of primary antibody to the plastic microtiter well plate using carbonate buffer and phosphate buffer with glutaraldehyde. We have observed efficient coating when the immobilization of primary antibody through an immunobridge technique was performed, where water was used as a coating medium. It gave a higher number of wells coated per milliliter of anti-serum (primary or secondary) than other compared coating protocols and it allowed the use of serum (non-immune) and anti-serum (primary and secondary antibody) dilutions, avoiding the need for gamma-globulin purification from normal and immunized serum. PMID:12778971

  20. Heterologous enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of testosterone in serum.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K; Prasad, Pramod K V; Kariya, Kiran P; Kumar, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    In steroid enzyme immunoassay (EIA), homologous and heterologous combinations of enzyme conjugate with immunogen influences labeled steroid recognition by antibodies that affect sensitivity of the assay. To develop testosterone enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), antibodies were generated against testosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-bovine serum albumin (T-3-CMO-BSA), testosterone-11-hemisuccinate-bovine serum albumin (T-11-HS-BSA), testosterone-17-hemisuccinate-bovine serum albumin (T-17-HS-BSA), testosterone-17-glucuronide-bovine serum albumin (T-17-G-BSA), and testosterone-19-carboxymethylether-bovine serum albumin (T-19-CME-BSA). Testosterone horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme conjugate were prepared using carboxyl derivatives of 11-keto-testosterone (11-keto-T) and 1-dehydrotestosterone (1-Dehydro-T). Ten combinations of heterologous assays were evaluated. The data of the present study revealed that the use of the T-11-HS-BSA antibody in antigen plus site heterologous assay that employed 11-keto-testosterone-3-CMO-HRP as the label showed binding and displacement, and led to the development of sensitive and specific assay.

  1. Droplet-Free Digital Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on a Tyramide Signal Amplification System.

    PubMed

    Akama, Kenji; Shirai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Seigo

    2016-07-19

    Digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a single molecule counting technology and is one of the most sensitive immunoassay methods. The key aspect of this technology is to concentrate enzyme reaction products from a single target molecule in femtoliter droplets. This study presents a novel Digital ELISA that does not require droplets; instead, enzyme reaction products are concentrated using a tyramide signal amplification system. In our method, tyramide substrate reacts with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled with an immunocomplex on beads, and the substrate is converted into short-lived radical intermediates. By adjusting the bead concentration in the HRP-tyramide reaction and conducting the reaction using freely moving beads, tyramide radicals are deposited only on beads labeled with HRP and there is no diffusion to other beads. Consequently, the fluorescence signal is localized on a portion of the beads, making it possible to count the number of labeled beads digitally. The performance of our method was demonstrated by detecting hepatitis B surface antigen with a limit of detection of 0.09 mIU/mL (139 aM) and a dynamic range of over 4 orders of magnitude. The obtained limit of detection represents a >20-fold higher sensitivity than conventional ELISA. Our method has potential applications in simple in vitro diagnostic systems for detecting ultralow concentrations of protein biomarkers.

  2. Single-dilution enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of antigen-specific salmonid antibody

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alcorn, S.W.; Pascho, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed on the basis of testing a single dilution of serum to quantify the level of antibody to the p57 protein of Renibaclerium salmoninarum in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The levels of antibody were interpolated from a standard curve constructed by relating the optical densities (OD) produced by several dilutions of a high-titer rainbow trout (O. mykiss) antiserum to the p57 protein. The ELISA OD values produced by as many as 36 test sera on each microplate were compared with the standard curve to calculate the antigen-specific antibody activity. Repeated measurements of 36 samples on 3 microplates on each of 6 assay dates indicated that the mean intraassay coefficient of variation (CV) was 6.68% (range, 0-23%) and the mean interassay CV was 8.29% (range, 4-16%). The antibody levels determined for the serum sample from 24 sockeye salmon vaccinated with a recombinant p57 protein generally were correlated with the levels determined by endpoint titration (r2 = 0.936) and with results from another ELISA that was based on extrapolation of antibody levels from a standard curve (r2 = 0.956). The single-dilution antibody ELISA described here increases the number of samples that can be tested on each microplate compared with immunoassays based on analysis of several dilutions of each test serum. It includes controls for interassay standardization and can be used to test fish weighing <3 g.

  3. Identification of Ancient Silk Using an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and Immuno-fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Xie, Jun; Zheng, Hailing; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Bing; Hu, Zhiwen

    2015-01-01

    The identification of ancient silk is of great importance in both archaeology and academia. In the present work, a specific antibody having the characteristics of low cost, easy operation and extensive applicability was developed directly through immunizing rabbits with complete antigen (silk fibroin, SF). Then, antibody-based immunoassays, i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immuno-fluorescence microscopy (IFM), were established and conducted in tandem to identify the corresponding protein in ancient silks. The anti-SF antibody exhibits high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of modern and ancient silks. The detection limit of the ELISA method is about 0.1 ng/mL, and no cross-reactions with other possible interference antigens have been noted. IFM makes it possible to localize target proteins in archaeological samples, and also ensure the reliability of the ELISA results. Based on these advantages, immunological techniques have the potential to become powerful analytical tools at archaeological sites and conservation science laboratories.

  4. Smartphone instrument for portable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

    PubMed Central

    Long, Kenneth D.; Yu, Hojeong; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the utilization of a smartphone camera as a spectrometer that is capable of measuring Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) at biologically-relevant concentrations with the aid of a custom cradle that aligns a diffraction grating and a collimating lens between a light source and the imaging sensor. Two example biomarkers are assayed using conventional ELISA protocols: IL-6, a protein used diagnostically for several types of cancer, and Ara h 1, one of the principle peanut allergens. In addition to the demonstration of limits of detection at medically-relevant concentrations, a screening of various cookies was completed to measure levels of peanut cross-contamination in local bakeries. The results demonstrate the utility of the instrument for quantitatively performing broad classes of homogeneous colorimetric assays, in which the endpoint readout is the color change of a liquid sample. PMID:25426311

  5. Smartphone instrument for portable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Long, Kenneth D; Yu, Hojeong; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the utilization of a smartphone camera as a spectrometer that is capable of measuring Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) at biologically-relevant concentrations with the aid of a custom cradle that aligns a diffraction grating and a collimating lens between a light source and the imaging sensor. Two example biomarkers are assayed using conventional ELISA protocols: IL-6, a protein used diagnostically for several types of cancer, and Ara h 1, one of the principle peanut allergens. In addition to the demonstration of limits of detection at medically-relevant concentrations, a screening of various cookies was completed to measure levels of peanut cross-contamination in local bakeries. The results demonstrate the utility of the instrument for quantitatively performing broad classes of homogeneous colorimetric assays, in which the endpoint readout is the color change of a liquid sample. PMID:25426311

  6. Immunoassays for the measurement of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and -3, and ICTP as indirect biomarkers of recombinant human growth hormone misuse in sport. Values in selected population of athletes.

    PubMed

    Abellan, Rosario; Ventura, Rosa; Palmi, Ilaria; di Carlo, Simonetta; Bacosi, Antonella; Bellver, Montse; Olive, Ramon; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Pacifici, Roberta; Segura, Jordi; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Pichini, Simona

    2008-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) -2 and -3 and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) have been proposed, among others, as indirect biomarkers of the recombinant human growth hormone misuse in sport. An extended intra- and inter-laboratory validation of commercially available immunoassays for biomarkers detection was performed. ELISA assays for total IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 (IGF-II/ELISA1: DSLabs, IGFBP-2/ELISA2: Biosource, and IGFBP-3/ELISA3: BioSource) and an EIA assay for ICTP (ICTP/EIA: Orion Diagnostica) were evaluated. The inter- and intra-laboratory precision values were acceptable for all evaluated assays (maximum imprecision of 30% and 66% were found only for the lowest quality control samples of IGF-II and IGFBP-3). Correct accuracy was obtained for all inter-laboratory immunoassays and for IGFBP-2 intra-laboratory immunoassay. The range of concentrations found in serum samples under investigation was always covered by the calibration curves of the studied immunoassays. However, 11% and 15% of the samples felt below the estimated LOQ for IGF-II and ICTP, respectively, in the zone where lower precision was obtained. Although the majority of evaluated assays showed an overall reliability not always suitable for antidoping control analysis, relatively high concordances between laboratory results were obtained for all assays. Evaluated immunoassays were used to measure serum concentrations of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and -3 and ICTP in elite athletes of various sport disciplines at different moments of the training season; in recreational athletes at baseline conditions and finally in sedentary individuals. Serum IGF-II was statistically higher both in recreational and elite athletes compared to sedentary individuals. Elite athletes showed lower IGFBP-2 and higher IGFBP-3 concentration with respect to recreational athletes and sedentary people. Among elite athletes, serum IGFBP-3 (synchronized

  7. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for efficient detection of antibody to bluetongue virus in pronghorn (Antilocapra americana).

    PubMed

    Drolet, B S; Mills, K W; Belden, E L; Mecham, J O

    1990-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using cell-associated viral antigen, was developed for detection of antibody to bluetongue virus (BTV) in field-collected pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) sera. To test the applicability of the ELISA to seroepizootiologic studies, pronghorn serum samples from three Wyoming counties (USA) were tested. Bluetongue virus ELISA results were compared to those of the bluetongue immunodiffusion assay. Discrepant serum samples were retested for reaction to either BTV or epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. The pronghorn BTV ELISA gave rapid, quantitative, objective results and should facilitate testing large numbers of sera for BT diagnostic and seroepizootiologic studies. PMID:2154627

  8. Manganese oxide nanowire-mediated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Qi, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Wu, Jiajia; Wang, Yi

    2012-03-15

    Nanomaterial-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with sufficient sensing specificity is a useful analytical tool for the detection of toxicologically important substances in complicated biological systems. Increasing worldwide demand for nanomaterials and increasing concern on their safe development and use, require a simple, stable, and sensitive detection assay for pathogen evaluation and environmental monitoring. However, this goal is not yet achieved. A design for a hybrid MnO(2) nanowire-ELISA using the sandwich assay format, which provides quantitative binding information for both a specific antibody and the pathogen, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and detects pathogen concentration, is presented. 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine was used as the substrate and was allowed to react with the MnO(2) nanowires without H(2)O(2) in the reaction system. The kinetic parameters were measured with the system acting as a catalytic biosensor. The effectiveness of the MnO(2) nanowire-based biosensor was demonstrated by its sensitive detection of the pathogen.

  9. Aβ measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stephen D; Mazzella, Matthew J; Nixon, Ralph A; Mathews, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    The neuritic plaque in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients consists of an amyloid composed primarily of Aβ, an approximately 4-kDa peptide derived from the amyloid precursor protein. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that Aβ plays a key role in the pathogenesis of the disease, and potential treatments that target Aβ production and/or Aβ accumulation in the brain as β-amyloid are being aggressively pursued. Methods to quantitate the Aβ peptide are, therefore, invaluable to most studies aimed at a better understanding of the molecular etiology of the disease and in assessing potential therapeutics. Although other techniques have been used to measure Aβ in the brains of AD patients and β-amyloid-depositing transgenic mice, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most commonly used, reliable, and sensitive methods for quantitating the Aβ peptide. Here we describe methods for the recovery of both soluble and deposited Aβ from brain tissue and the subsequent quantitation of the peptide by sandwich ELISA.

  10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for acute adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Roggendorf, M; Wigand, R; Deinhardt, F; Frösner, G G

    1982-02-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described for demonstrating antibodies to the hexone antigen of adenoviruses. The antigen-coated, flat-bottomed microtiter plates are incubated sequentially with dilutions of patients' sera (2 h at 37 degrees C) and peroxidase-coupled anti-human IgG (2 h at 37 degrees C). After a final washing, orthophenylenediamine is added to the plates, and the absorbance (A) measured 30 min later. The ELISA was found to be a hundred-fold more sensitive than complement fixation. An evaluation methods for determining antibody concentration is described which correlates the absorbance of sera diluted 10(-3) to the absorbance of a reference serum containing an arbitrary value (100) of antibody. This methods avoids titration of sera and day-to-day assay variations by different background reactions. A significant increase in antibody concentration of acute-phase serum over that of convalescent phase serum is observed. The ability to test sera in a single dilution and the automatic reading of results and their evaluation by computer make this assay suitable for diagnostic laboratories.

  11. Luminescent enzyme-linked receptor assay for estrogenic compounds.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Martin

    2004-02-01

    The analytics of endocrine-disrupting compounds has become a major issue during recent years. Several test systems have been developed for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Yeast reporter gene assays and MCF-7 cell-based proliferation assays (E-screen) are particularly popular. A correlation of an enzyme-linked receptor assay (ELRA) with a yeast reporter gene assay is shown. In addition, the development of an ultra-sensitive luminescent ELRA with a detection limit of 20 ng/L for 17 beta-estradiol in the sample is reported. Data for real sample analysis are shown in this paper. ELRA characteristics are compared with cell-based assays, and the issue of detection limits is addressed. In this context, the detection limits of the cell-based assays have been claimed to be below the ELRA detection limits. However, it is clarified that the given detection limits for the yeast estrogen screen and the E-screen are usually based on concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol in the well, not in the sample, whereas ELRA detection limits are concentrations in the sample.

  12. Enzyme-linked protein A: an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reagent for detection of human immunoglobulin G and virus-specific antibody.

    PubMed

    Madore, H P; Baumgarten, A

    1979-10-01

    A general-purpose reagent capable of reacting with immunoglobulin G in a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was prepared by using protein A coupled with horseradish peroxidase. The reagent detected low levels (0.003 to 1.0 microgram/ml) of human immunoglobulin G and was also applied in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for titration of antibody to human cytomegalovirus. The antibody titers to human cytomegalovirus determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by complement fixation were compared. The correlation coefficient between the two techniques was 0.85, but the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 10 times more sensitive than complement fixation in terms of antibody titers detected.

  13. A toxin-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of aflatoxins based on a VHH surrogate standard.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wen

    2016-09-01

    A toxin-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for aflatoxins was developed using an anti-idiotype nanobody VHH 2-5 as surrogate standard. Anti-idiotype nanobody VHH 2-5 was generated by immunizing an alpaca with anti-aflatoxin monoclonal antibody 1C11. This assay was used to detect aflatoxins in agro-products after a simple extraction with 75 % methanol/H2O. Aflatoxin concentration was calculated by a two-step approach: the concentration of VHH 2-5 was first obtained by a four-parameter logistic regression from the detected absorbance value at 450 nm, and then converted to aflatoxin concentration by a linear equation. The assay exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.015 ng mL(-1), which is better than or comparable with conventional immunoassays. The performance of our VHH surrogate-based ELISA was further validated with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for total aflatoxins determination in 20 naturally contaminated peanut samples, displaying a good correlation (R (2) = 0.988). In conclusion, the proposed assay represents a first example applying an anti-idiotype VHH antibody as a standard surrogate in ELISA. With the advantages of high stability and ease of production, the VHH antibody-based standard surrogate can be extended in the future to immunoassays for other highly toxic compounds. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Electrical signaling of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-June; Ahn, Junhyoung; Kim, Min-Gon; Shin, Yong-Beom; Jeun, Minhong; Cho, Won-Ju; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2015-02-15

    Optical laboratory-based immunoassays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) give a high sensitivity and specificity of various fatal diseases. However, these assays are no longer efficient in on-spot diagnostics of wide-spreading and contagious infections. At this point in time, portable and handhold devices play a pivotal role in infectious diseases with quick diagnostics at or near the site of the disease propagation. In this paper, we demonstrated a novel electrical immunoassay of ELISA that was not based on optical signaling but on electrical signaling. This was done by combining an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) with ELISA. By harnessing the catalytic reaction of alkaline phosphatase that precipitated silver particles, we effectively overcame the chronic Debye screening length issue of the ISFET. Ultimately, small signal ranging from 1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL was immensely amplified with the ALP label, regardless of buffer conditions. The sensor platform herein surpassed a sensing capability of conventional ELISA that is considered to have a LOD on the order of ~1 ng/mL. The results were compared with those of horseradish peroxidase label, which is generally used for optical analyses in ELISA. Our newly developed ISFET-based portable sensor holds a large potential for point-of-care tools in a variety of diseases, without being limited by the need for expensive equipment such as spectrophotometers.

  15. A toxin-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of aflatoxins based on a VHH surrogate standard.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wen

    2016-09-01

    A toxin-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for aflatoxins was developed using an anti-idiotype nanobody VHH 2-5 as surrogate standard. Anti-idiotype nanobody VHH 2-5 was generated by immunizing an alpaca with anti-aflatoxin monoclonal antibody 1C11. This assay was used to detect aflatoxins in agro-products after a simple extraction with 75 % methanol/H2O. Aflatoxin concentration was calculated by a two-step approach: the concentration of VHH 2-5 was first obtained by a four-parameter logistic regression from the detected absorbance value at 450 nm, and then converted to aflatoxin concentration by a linear equation. The assay exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.015 ng mL(-1), which is better than or comparable with conventional immunoassays. The performance of our VHH surrogate-based ELISA was further validated with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for total aflatoxins determination in 20 naturally contaminated peanut samples, displaying a good correlation (R (2) = 0.988). In conclusion, the proposed assay represents a first example applying an anti-idiotype VHH antibody as a standard surrogate in ELISA. With the advantages of high stability and ease of production, the VHH antibody-based standard surrogate can be extended in the future to immunoassays for other highly toxic compounds. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27002610

  16. Borrelia burgdorferi enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for discrimination of OspA vaccination from spirochete infection.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y Q; Mathiesen, D; Kolbert, C P; Anderson, J; Schoen, R T; Fikrig, E; Persing, D H

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant Lyme disease vaccines based on purified preparations of outer surface protein A (OspA) have been shown to be effective in preventing transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi in experimental animal models and are now being tested in humans. Since the most widely used screening tests for Lyme disease are based on a whole-cell sonicate of B. burgdorferi, serologic false positivity in vaccinated persons could result from reactivity to OspA within the antigen preparation. In order to avoid serologic false positivity in vaccinated subjects, we developed an immunoassay based on a low-passage-number, naturally occurring variant of B. burgdorferi which lacks the plasmid encoding OspA and OspB. The use of an antigen preparation derived from this organism provided sensitive and specific detection of B. burgdorferi seropositivity in experimental animals and in human Lyme disease cases. The OspA-B-negative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also appeared to be capable of discriminating the vaccinated state from vaccine failure and natural infection in experimental animals. Sera from human subjects participating in a vaccine trial gave false-positive results with an ELISA based on an OspA-containing strain, but no such reactivity was observed when the OspA-negative ELISA was used. We conclude that low-passage-number OspA-B-negative isolates in immunoassays may become useful for the immunologic discrimination of the vaccinated state, natural infection, and vaccine failure. PMID:8968914

  17. Food allergen detection with biosensor immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Yman, Ingrid Malmheden; Eriksson, Anders; Johansson, M Annette; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    An optical biosensor was used to develop both direct and sandwich immunoassays for the detection of proteins from milk, egg, hazelnut, peanut, shellfish, and sesame in food samples. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies raised against the proteins were immobilized on the biosensor chip. Food samples were injected and the proteins that bound to the antibodies on the surface were detected by a shift in the resonance angle. By adding a second antibody in a sandwich assay, matrix effects could be overcome and the sensitivity and selectivity enhanced. Detection of allergen levels down to 1-12.5 microg/g in food samples was demonstrated for the various assays. Good agreement of results was also obtained from parallel analysis with alternative immunoassays, including rocket immunoelectrophoresis, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoblotting. The present study demonstrates that the sensitivity of the described biosensor technique is comparable to the most sensitive enzymed-linked immunosorbent assays.

  18. Analysis of hexazinone in soil by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

    SciTech Connect

    Bushway, R.J.; Perkins, L.B.; Reed, A.W.

    1996-10-01

    A tube enzyme immunoassay (ELA) procedure was developed for the determination of the triazine herbicide hexazinone in soil. The antibody was polyclonal and was prepared by employing metabolite A (3-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-6-dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione of hexazinone conjugated to bovine serum albumin as the immunogen. Hexazinone was extracted from soil by shaking with methanol-water 80/20 for 10 min and allowed to set overnight before reshaking for 5 min. Aliquots for EIA analysis were diluted in such a way as to always contain 8% methanol. Reproducibility results for both standards and samples were good. A correlation coefficient of 0.9562 was obtained for 76 soil samples run by EIA vs. HPLC. Of the eight known metabolites of hexazinone, 7 were tested for cross-reactivity and 5 were shown to be cross-reactive.

  19. Simultaneous determination of 13 fluoroquinolone and 22 sulfonamide residues in milk by a dual-colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenxiao; Wang, Zhanhui; Beier, Ross C; Jiang, Haiyang; Wu, Yongning; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-02-19

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) usually focus on the detection of a single analyte or a single group of analytes, e.g., fluoroquinolones or sulfonamides. However, it is often necessary to simultaneously monitor two classes of antimicrobial residues in different food matrixes. In this paper, we describe a dual-colorimetric ELISA for the simultaneous detection of 13 fluoroquinolone and 22 sulfonamide residues. The limit of detection for fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides was 2.4 and 5.8 ng/mL, respectively. The developed immunoassay is suitable for high-throughput screening of these low-molecular weight contaminants. This is the first report where two different enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase) were used in one immunoassay and together in a single well for simultaneous detection of multiple low-molecular weight chemical residues.

  20. A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay amplified by biotin-streptavidin system for detecting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Bu, Dan; Zhuang, Hui S; Yang, Guang X

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive biotin-streptavidin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BA-ELISA) method was developed for detecting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen. Compared with traditional ELISA method, the sensitivity of proposed immunoassay was enhanced by the biotin-streptavidin system. Under the optimal condition, the median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.25 ng mL(-1), with minor cross-reactivity to a number of structural analogs. This developed assay was successfully applied to detect the ketoprofen residues in different fish samples, and good recoveries (72.6-105.5%) were obtained. The results indicated that this immunoassay method could specifically detect trace ketoprofen residues and could be widely used for routine monitoring of food samples.

  1. Statistical approaches to developing a multiplex immunoassay for determining human exposure to environmental pathogens.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Swinburne A J; Simmons, Kaneatra J; Eason, Tarsha N; Griffin, Shannon M; Curioso, Clarissa L; Wymer, Larry J; Fout, G Shay; Grimm, Ann C; Oshima, Kevin H; Dufour, Al

    2015-10-01

    There are numerous pathogens that can be transmitted through water. Identifying and understanding the routes and magnitude of exposure or infection to these microbial contaminants are critical to assessing and mitigating risk. Conventional approaches of studying immunological responses to exposure or infection such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) and other monoplex antibody-based immunoassays can be very costly, laborious, and consume large quantities of patient sample. A major limitation of these approaches is that they can only be used to measure one analyte at a time. Multiplex immunoassays provide the ability to study multiple pathogens simultaneously in microliter volumes of samples. However, there are several challenges that must be addressed when developing these multiplex immunoassays such as selection of specific antigens and antibodies, cross-reactivity, calibration, protein-reagent interferences, and the need for rigorous optimization of protein concentrations. In this study, a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was used to optimize reagent concentrations for coupling selected antigens to Luminex™ xMAP microspheres for use in an indirect capture, multiplex immunoassay to detect human exposure or infection from pathogens that are potentially transmitted through water. Results from Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium singleplexes were used to determine the mean concentrations that would be applied to the multiplex assay. Cut-offs to differentiate between exposed and non-exposed individuals were determined using finite mixed modeling (FMM). The statistical approaches developed facilitated the detection of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori, C. jejuni, Toxoplasma gondii, hepatitis A virus, rotavirus and noroviruses (VA387 and Norwalk strains) in fifty-four diagnostically characterized plasma samples. Of the characterized samples, the detection rate was 87.5% for H

  2. Direct immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for evaluating chlorinated hydrocarbon degrading bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; Franck, M.M.; Brey, J.; Fliermans, C.B.; Scott, D.; Lanclos, K.

    1997-06-01

    Immunological procedures were developed to enumerate chlorinated hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Polyclonal antibodies (Pabs) were produced by immunizing New Zealand white rabbits against 18 contaminant-degrading bacteria. These included methanotrophic and chlorobenzene (CB) degrading species. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to test for specificity and sensitivity of the Pabs. Direct fluorescent antibodies (DFAs) were developed with these Pabs against select methanotrophic bacteria isolated from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and cultures from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Analysis of cross reactivity testing data showed some of the Pabs to be group specific while others were species specific. The threshold of sensitivity for the ELISA is 105 bacteria cells/ml. The DFA can detect as few as one bacterium per ml after concentration. Results from the DFA and ELISA techniques for enumeration of methanotrophic bacteria in groundwater were higher but not significantly different (P < 0.05) compared to indirect microbiological techniques such as MPN. These methods provide useful information on in situ community structure and function for bioremediation applications within 1--4 hours of sampling.

  3. Determination of marbofloxacin residues in beef and pork with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wei; Xia, Xunfeng; Wei, Keyi; Li, Ji; Li, Qing X; Xu, Ting

    2009-07-01

    Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone veterinary antibiotic. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of marbofloxacin using polyclonal antibody. The half-maximum inhibition concentrations (IC(50)) and limit of detection (LOD, calculated as IC(20)) of the ELISA for marbofloxacin in phosphate buffer were 4.6 and 0.6 ng/mL, respectively. The assay showed little cross-reactivity with marbofloxacin structural analogues, except for ofloxacin (148%). Matrixes from the extracts of beef and pork muscle have shown a significant influence on the ELISA. Standard curves of ELISA for marbofloxacin in the extracts of the appropriate marbofloxacin-free control muscles were used in the analysis of marbofloxacin in the animal muscles without any cleanup. The average recoveries of intra- and interassay for marbofloxacin from fortified muscle samples, at five concentrations of 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 ng/g, were 87-93 and 84-95%, respectively. The LOD of this assay for marbofloxacin in real muscle extracts was 0.8 ng/mL. A survey of 55 animal muscle samples purchased from local markets by the ELISA was conducted, and marbofloxacin was detected in one of them at a concentration of 22 ng/g. This positive sample was validated by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to be 28 ng/g of marbofloxacin.

  4. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of pretilachlor in water and soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Jiang; Yu, Peng-Min; Fang, Song; Fan, Jia-Qin; Wang, Ming-Hua

    2011-09-01

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) has been developed for detection of pretilachlor in water and soil. An immunogen was prepared from haptens of pretilachlor conjugated to bovine serum albumin(BSA). The specific polyclonal antibodies were obtained by immunizing New Zealand white rabbits. The influence of parameters including concentrations of methanol, ionic strength and pH values were optimized to improve the sensitivity of the assay. The optimized ELISA was shown to have a high sensitivity and specificity for pretilachlor. Under optimal conditions, the ELISA has demonstrated an 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of 0.0359 mg/L with a limit of detection (LOD, IC(10)) of 6.9 ng/L. The cross-reactivities to some analogs of pretilachlor (acetochlor, butachlor, metazachlor and metalaxyl) were below 1.5%. The average recoveries of pretilachlor from distilled water, tap water, paddy water and soil were in the range of 77.0-115.2% between 0.005 and 5.0mg/L. The results of ELISA for spiked samples were confirmed by GC-ECD with a high correlation coefficient of 0.9950(n=11). Thus, the ELISA proven to be a sensitive, specific, inexpensive and quantitative tool for detection of pretilachlor from four kinds of spiked samples.

  5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to human herpesvirus 6.

    PubMed Central

    Chokephaibulkit, K; Brunell, P A; Vimal, V; Long, C; Schnabel, K; Hall, C B

    1997-01-01

    The results obtained with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) immunoglobulin G using a single 1:100 dilution of serum correlated well with those found by an indirect fluorescence microscopic assay (IFA) (r = 0.71). Concordant results were found in all 7 paired serum samples obtained from patients with acute primary infections and in 37 of 41 (90.24%) single serum samples. Fourteen serum samples (25%) which yielded nonspecific results by IFA were evaluable by ELISA. In a serologic survey using the ELISA, a disproportionate number of 12-month-old infants had low difference-of-optical-density values, suggesting that maternal antibody might persist beyond a year of age. This finding and the rises in antibody to HHV-6 found in patients with primary cytomegalovirus infections might lead to overestimation of HHV-6 infection rates in young children in seroprevalence studies. Other herpesvirus infections produced lesser effects on anti-HHV-6. PMID:9384290

  6. Sensitive, fast, and specific immunoassays for methyltestosterone detection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Na; Song, Shanshan; Peng, Juan; Liu, Liqiang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-04-29

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and an immunochromatographic strip assay using a highly specific monoclonal antibody, were developed to detect methyltestosterone (MT) residues in animal feed. The optimized icELISA had a half-inhibition concentration value of 0.26 ng/mL and a limit of detection value of 0.045 ng/mL. There was no cross-reactivity with eight analogues, revealing high specificity for MT. Based on icELISA results, the recovery rate of MT in animal feed was 82.4%-100.6%. The results were in accordance with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The developed immunochromatographic strip assay, as the first report for MT detection, had a visual cut-off value of 1 ng/mL in PBS, 2.5 ng/g in fish feed, and 2.5 ng/g in pig feed. Therefore, these immunoassays are useful and fast tools for MT residue detection in animal feed.

  7. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for luteoloside detection in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Nan, Tiegui; Zhan, Zhilai; Kang, Liping; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Baomin; Huang, Luqi

    2016-09-01

    Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ), the flower bud of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine with various pharmacological activities. Luteoloside is a major active compound and a quality control marker of FLJ. Luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (LG), an analog of luteoloside, was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) to create the immunogen and coating antigen, respectively. A sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated as mAb3A4, was generated with LG-BSA. To screen the authenticity and quality of FLJ, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was established. The concentration of luteoloside producing 50 % inhibition and the working range of the icELISA were 42.3 and 9.1-258.1 μg L(-1), respectively. The icELISA showed cross-reactivity values of 2414, 402, 230, and <1 % for LG, baicalin, scutellarin, and other analogs of luteoloside, respectively. The average recovery of luteoloside in the FLJ samples as determined by icELISA ranged from 83.0 to 112.5 %. The luteoloside content was determined for different Lonicera herbal samples with icELISA, and the results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Thus, this icELISA is suitable for the quality assurance of FLJ samples. Graphical abstract Specific monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for luteoloside.

  8. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for luteoloside detection in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Nan, Tiegui; Zhan, Zhilai; Kang, Liping; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Baomin; Huang, Luqi

    2016-09-01

    Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ), the flower bud of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine with various pharmacological activities. Luteoloside is a major active compound and a quality control marker of FLJ. Luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (LG), an analog of luteoloside, was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) to create the immunogen and coating antigen, respectively. A sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated as mAb3A4, was generated with LG-BSA. To screen the authenticity and quality of FLJ, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was established. The concentration of luteoloside producing 50 % inhibition and the working range of the icELISA were 42.3 and 9.1-258.1 μg L(-1), respectively. The icELISA showed cross-reactivity values of 2414, 402, 230, and <1 % for LG, baicalin, scutellarin, and other analogs of luteoloside, respectively. The average recovery of luteoloside in the FLJ samples as determined by icELISA ranged from 83.0 to 112.5 %. The luteoloside content was determined for different Lonicera herbal samples with icELISA, and the results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Thus, this icELISA is suitable for the quality assurance of FLJ samples. Graphical abstract Specific monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for luteoloside. PMID:26892641

  9. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent and alternative assays for detection of HIV antibodies using panels of Brazilian sera.

    PubMed

    Ivo-Dos-Santos, J; Mello, D L; Couto-Fernandez, J C; Passos, R M; Dias-Carneiro, L A; Castilho, E A; Galvão-Castro, B

    1990-01-01

    Sera from 472 Brazilian subjects, confirmed to be either positive or negative for HIV antibodies and comprising the total clinical spectrum of HIV infection, were utilized in the evaluation of six commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), as well as of four alternative assays, namely indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), passive hemagglutination (PHA), dot blot and Karpas AIDS cell test. The sensitivities ranged from 100% (Abbott and Roche ELISA) to 84.2% (PHA) and the specificities ranged from 99.3% (IIF) to 80.2% (PHA). The sensitivity and specificity of the PHA and the sensitivity of the Karpas cell test were significantly lower than those of the other tests. Although the IFF and dot blot had good sensitivities and specificities, the six ELISA were more attractive than those tests when other parameters such as ease of reading and duration of assay were considered.

  10. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measurement of antibodies against equine herpesvirus 2 in equine sera.

    PubMed

    Fu, Z F; Denby, L; Lien, D H; Robinson, A J

    1987-11-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of antibodies against equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) in equine sera. The optimal conditions of antigen concentration, and serum and conjugate dilutions were established by chequerboard titrations. When the standard ELISA test was used for titration of test sera, it was found to give titres approximately 1500 times higher than those obtained in the virus neutralization (VN) test, and a correlation coefficient of 0.815 was obtained between these two tests on 42 equine sera. All the positive serum samples by the VN were also positive by the ELISA, and one negative serum in the former test was found to be positive in the latter. Under field conditions, the test also detected increases in antibody titres against EHV-2 in 13 out of 14 foals soon after these animals excreted the virus.

  11. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent and alternative assays for detection of HIV antibodies using panels of Brazilian sera.

    PubMed

    Ivo-Dos-Santos, J; Mello, D L; Couto-Fernandez, J C; Passos, R M; Dias-Carneiro, L A; Castilho, E A; Galvão-Castro, B

    1990-01-01

    Sera from 472 Brazilian subjects, confirmed to be either positive or negative for HIV antibodies and comprising the total clinical spectrum of HIV infection, were utilized in the evaluation of six commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), as well as of four alternative assays, namely indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), passive hemagglutination (PHA), dot blot and Karpas AIDS cell test. The sensitivities ranged from 100% (Abbott and Roche ELISA) to 84.2% (PHA) and the specificities ranged from 99.3% (IIF) to 80.2% (PHA). The sensitivity and specificity of the PHA and the sensitivity of the Karpas cell test were significantly lower than those of the other tests. Although the IFF and dot blot had good sensitivities and specificities, the six ELISA were more attractive than those tests when other parameters such as ease of reading and duration of assay were considered. PMID:2095632

  12. Development of Rapid Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Suttisunhakul, Vichaya; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Brett, Paul J.; Khusmith, Srisin; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Burtnick, Mary N.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is an environmental bacillus found in northeast Thailand. The mortality rate of melioidosis is ∼40%. An indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) is used as a reference serodiagnostic test; however, it has low specificity in areas where the background seropositivity of healthy people is high. To improve assay specificity and reduce the time for diagnosis, four rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed using two purified polysaccharide antigens (O-polysaccharide [OPS] and 6-deoxyheptan capsular polysaccharide [CPS]) and two crude antigens (whole-cell [WC] antigen and culture filtrate [CF] antigen) of B. pseudomallei. The ELISAs were evaluated using serum samples from 141 culture-confirmed melioidosis patients from Thailand along with 188 healthy donors from Thailand and 90 healthy donors from the United States as controls. The areas under receiver operator characteristic curves (AUROCC) using Thai controls were high for the OPS-ELISA (0.91), CF-ELISA (0.91), and WC-ELISA (0.90), while those of CPS-ELISA (0.84) and IHA (0.72) were lower. AUROCC values using U.S. controls were comparable to those of the Thai controls for all ELISAs except IHA (0.93). Using a cutoff optical density (OD) of 0.87, the OPS-ELISA had a sensitivity of 71.6% and a specificity of 95.7% for Thai controls; for U.S. controls, specificity was 96.7%. An additional 120 serum samples from tuberculosis, scrub typhus, or leptospirosis patients were evaluated in all ELISAs and resulted in comparable or higher specificities than using Thai healthy donors. Our findings suggest that antigen-specific ELISAs, particularly the OPS-ELISA, may be useful for serodiagnosis of melioidosis in areas where it is endemic and nonendemic. PMID:26912754

  13. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of chronic Q fever.

    PubMed

    Péter, O; Dupuis, G; Bee, D; Lüthy, R; Nicolet, J; Burgdorfer, W

    1988-10-01

    From 1982 through 1987 we diagnosed 13 chronic Q fever cases. Clinically these patients presented a culture-negative endocarditis, and all but two had high complement-fixing antibody titers to Coxiella burnetii phase I (reciprocal titer above 200). With the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to phases I and II of C. burnetii averaged 158,000 and 69,900, respectively, whereas they reached 300 and 3,200 in acute Q fever cases. Similarly, IgA to both phases of C. burnetii and IgM to phase I were consistently higher during chronic than acute Q fever. The serological follow-up of one patient with chronic Q fever over a 4-year period showed a good correlation between the titers of IgG and IgM antibody titers detected by ELISA and indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFA) to both phases of C. burnetii. Few discrepancies appeared with IgA. Shortly after initiation of antibiotic treatment, a slow and steady decrease of the antibody titers to C. burnetii phases I and II was observed. The complement fixation, IFA, and ELISA tests showed the same type of antibody response. The ELISA proved to be an excellent diagnostic test for chronic Q fever. It distinguished negative from positive reactions clearly, and results were highly reproducible. The reading is objective, and the test is simple to perform and more sensitive than the IFA and complement fixation tests. The ELISA is recommended for serologic evaluation of patients with chronic Q fever.

  14. Recombinase polymerase and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a DNA amplification-detection strategy for food analysis.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Felipe, S; Tortajada-Genaro, L A; Puchades, R; Maquieira, A

    2014-02-01

    Polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) is a well-established technique that provides a suitable rapid, sensitive, and selective method for a broad range of applications. However, the need for precise rapid temperature cycling of PCR is an important drawback that can be overcome by employing isothermal amplification reactions such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA-ELISA combination is proposed for amplification at a low, constant temperature (40°C) in a short time (40 min), for the hybridisation of labelled products to specific 5'-biotinylated probes/streptavidin in coated microtiter plates at room temperature, and for detection by colorimetric immunoassay. RPA-ELISA was applied to screen common safety threats in foodstuffs, such as allergens (hazelnut, peanut, soybean, tomato, and maize), genetically modified organisms (P35S and TNOS), pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp. and Cronobacter sp.), and fungi (Fusarium sp.). Satisfactory sensitivity and reproducibility results were achieved for all the targets. The RPA-ELISA technique does away with thermocycling and provides a suitable sensitive, specific, and cost-effective method for routine applications, and proves particularly useful for resource-limited settings. PMID:24456598

  15. Staphylococcal enterotoxin and its rapid identification in foods by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based methodology.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Reginald W

    2005-06-01

    The problem of Staphylococcus aureus and other species as contaminants in the food supply remains significant on a global level. Time and temperature abuse of a food product contaminated with enterotoxigenic staphylococci can result in formation of enterotoxin, which can produce foodborne illness when the product is ingested. Between 100 and 200 ng of enterotoxin can cause symptoms consistent with staphylococcal intoxication. Although humans are the primary reservoirs of contamination, animals, air, dust, and food contact surfaces can serve as vehicles in the transfer of this pathogen to the food supply. Foods may become contaminated during production or processing and in homes or food establishments, where the organism can proliferate to high concentrations and subsequently produce enterotoxin. The staphylococcal enterotoxins are highly heat stable and can remain biologically active after exposure to retort temperatures. Prior to the development of serological methods for the identification of enterotoxin, monkeys (gastric intubation) and later kittens (intravenous injection) were used in assays for toxin detection. When enterotoxins were identified as mature proteins that were antigenic, serological assays were developed for use in the laboratory analysis of foods suspected of containing preformed enterotoxin. More recently developed methods are tracer-labeled immunoassays. Of these methods, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are highly specific, highly sensitive, and rapid for the detection of enterotoxin in foods.

  16. Recombinase polymerase and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a DNA amplification-detection strategy for food analysis.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Felipe, S; Tortajada-Genaro, L A; Puchades, R; Maquieira, A

    2014-02-01

    Polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) is a well-established technique that provides a suitable rapid, sensitive, and selective method for a broad range of applications. However, the need for precise rapid temperature cycling of PCR is an important drawback that can be overcome by employing isothermal amplification reactions such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA-ELISA combination is proposed for amplification at a low, constant temperature (40°C) in a short time (40 min), for the hybridisation of labelled products to specific 5'-biotinylated probes/streptavidin in coated microtiter plates at room temperature, and for detection by colorimetric immunoassay. RPA-ELISA was applied to screen common safety threats in foodstuffs, such as allergens (hazelnut, peanut, soybean, tomato, and maize), genetically modified organisms (P35S and TNOS), pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp. and Cronobacter sp.), and fungi (Fusarium sp.). Satisfactory sensitivity and reproducibility results were achieved for all the targets. The RPA-ELISA technique does away with thermocycling and provides a suitable sensitive, specific, and cost-effective method for routine applications, and proves particularly useful for resource-limited settings.

  17. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2: development and field studies.

    PubMed Central

    Biosca, E G; Marco-Noales, E; Amaro, C; Alcaide, E

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is a primary eel pathogen which constitutes a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based homogeneous O serogroup within the species. In the present work, we have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the specificity of LPS for the detection of this pathogen. The ELISA specificity was confirmed after testing 36 biotype 2 strains from laboratory cultures and environmental samples, 31 clinical and environmental biotype 1 isolates, and several strains of Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Yersinia species, including the fish pathogens V. anguillarum, V. furnissii, A. hydrophila, and Y. ruckerii. The detection limits for biotype 2 cells were around 10(4) to 10(5) cells/well, and the immunoassay was also able to detect cells in the nonculturable state. Artificially infected eels and environmental samples were analyzed, and the immunodetection was confirmed by cultural methods (isolation on selective and nonselective media before and after broth enrichment). With this methodology, V. vulnificus biotype 2 was successfully detected in infected eels and asymptomatic carriers, which suggests that eels can act as a reservoir for this pathogen. PMID:9023934

  18. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen detection across whole cattle hides using two antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Vander Ley, Brian L; Ridpath, Julia F; Sweiger, Shaun H

    2012-05-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a costly disease of cattle that can be controlled by vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected cattle. Development and proficiency testing of assays to identify persistently infected cattle requires substantial quantities of known positive- and negative-sample material. The objective of this study was to determine what sections of bovine skin contained Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen. Two commercially available antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunoassays were used to test subsamples representing the entire skin of 3 persistently infected calves. Both assays detected Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen in the samples indicated for use by assay protocol. However, one assay identified all subsamples as positive, while the second assay identified 64.4% of subsamples as positive. These results show that use of samples other than those specified by the assay protocol must be validated for each individual assay. In this study, alternative sample sites and use of the entire hide for proficiency testing would be acceptable for only one of the assays tested.

  19. A rapid method to improve protein detection by indirect ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) is a rapid, high-throughput, quantitative immunoassay for the selective detection of target antigens. The general principle behind an ELISA is antibody mediated capture and detection of an antigen with a measureable substrate. Numerous incarnations of th...

  20. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  1. 5-Sulfosalicylic acid dihydrate-based pretreatment for the modification of enzyme-linked immunoassay of fluoroquinolones in fishery products.

    PubMed

    Cui, Mengqi; Lin, Hong; Wang, Xiudan; Cao, Limin; Sui, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    A simple, rapid sample extraction method for the determination of FQs was developed. Fishery samples were extracted with 2% of 5-sulfosalicylic acid dihydrate and the extracts were analyzed directly without any further purification or clean-up procedures. The FQs were determined with standards of 2% of 5-sulfosalicylic acid dihydrate in the concentration range of 0.1-25.6 μg L(-1), and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1 μg L(-1). The matrix interference originated from fishery samples was eliminated by 2% of 5-sulfosalicylic acid dihydrate and did not interact with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled IgG in western blotting. No significant matrix interference was observed as samples extracted with 2% of 5-sulfosalicylic acid dihydrate. Recoveries of FQs in fishery muscle were between 72.37-94.35% in the concentrations range of 10-50 μg kg(-1).This extraction procedure was much rapider and simpler to conventional ELISA extraction procedure and could be used as a time-saving and cost-effective method for FQs monitoring in fishery samples.

  2. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in pork and beef using the VIDAS® LMO2 automated enzyme linked immunoassay method.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Cornelia; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Sperner, Brigitte; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2011-07-01

    Listeria (L.) monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen, is known to be a possible contaminant of foods during production and processing. Samples (n=985) of raw meat and by-products obtained from beef and pork were first screened by the VIDAS system for the presence of Listeria spp., followed by testing for the presence of L. monocytogenes. Positive L. monocytogenes results were confirmed by plating on selective agars: 14% of the samples were positive for Listeria and 4% tested positive for L. monocytogenes, of which 3% were confirmed on selective agars. In by-products (17%) the contamination with listeriae was higher than in meat cuts (10%). Only samples strongly positive for Listeria spp. by VIDAS were positive for L. monocytogenes. Overall, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef and pork samples was rather low in comparison to most previous studies. The VIDAS system was shown to be a suitable method for screening out Listeria-negative samples; the main advantage being a markedly reduced assay time.

  3. Optimization of a fluorescence sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Nyquist-Battie, Cynthia; Frank, Laura E; Lund, Deanna; Lim, Daniel V

    2004-12-01

    Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, especially when coupled with biosensor technology, is a simple methodology that can rapidly screen juices for Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination. However, sampling directly from apple juice and ciders has been postulated to reduce immunoassay sensitivity. In fluorescence sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using commercially available polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, sampling pasteurized apple juice spiked with E. coli O157:H7 compared to spiked phosphate-buffered saline shifted the range of detection. The spiked apple juice range of detection was 10(4) to 10(6) CFU/ml, whereas that for spiked phosphate-buffered saline was 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/ml, representing a hundredfold difference in sensitivity. Apple juice also increased background fluorescence intensity (P < 0.001) while reducing the net fluorescence intensity per CFU (P < 0.001). The addition of the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone to apple juice significantly improved assay performance by increasing sensitivity and net fluorescence intensity per CFU and by reducing background fluorescence. Adjusting pH of apple juice from 3.9 to 7.4 improved assay performance but not to the degree seen with phosphate-buffered saline or polyvinylpyrrolidone-treated apple juice samples. The apple juice polyphenol, epicatechin, reduced net fluorescence intensity in a concentration-dependent manner, a change that was reversed by polyvinylpyrrolidone. Taken all together, these results suggest that polyvinylpyrrolidone can improve detection of O157:H7 in juices by reducing the effect of polyphenols on fluorescence sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performance. PMID:15633682

  4. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine the numbers of chemolithotrophic bacteria at acid-mine-drainage sites. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R.C.; Revis, N.W.; Holdsworth, G.

    1990-09-01

    Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is a prominent member of a group of chemo-lithotrophic bacteria that bear principal responsibility for the formation of acid mine drainage. A prototype enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for enumerating and qualifying T. ferrooxidans was assembled and characterized. The immunoassay protocol consisted of sequential incubations of the sample with (i) the primary antibody, (ii) the enzyme-labeled secondary antibody, and (iii) a chromogenic substrate specific for the enzyme lable. The necessary reagents comprised primary polyclonal rabbit antibodies directed against T. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270, alkaline phosphatase-copled goat anti-rabbit polyclonal antibodies, and phenolphrhalein monophosphate. The ELISA developed herein correctly identified whether iron-oxidizing bacteria were present in each of 4 samples supplied and analyzed by an independent laboratory. Sufficient preliminary data was obtained to warrant further research and development activities.

  5. Serological identification of oral Bacteroides spp. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, J L; Frey, D E; Taubman, M A; Smith, D J; Socransky, S S; Tanner, A C

    1984-01-01

    A rapid method for identifying black-pigmented oral Bacteroides spp. is described. Species-specific rabbit antisera to Bacteroides gingivalis, B. intermedius, and B. melaninogenicus were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to identify clinical isolates of black-pigmented Bacteroides spp. from humans. The results showed excellent agreement with biochemical identification of B. gingivalis and B. intermedius. Only 36% of the B. melaninogenicus isolates were identified with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, suggesting that this group of black-pigmented Bacteroides spp. is made up of more than one serotype. The serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay should enable rapid identification of black-pigmented Bacteroides spp. isolated from sites of oral diseases and may also be used to identify the presence of these organisms in complex bacterial mixtures from oral sites. PMID:6736225

  6. Rough lipopolysaccharide of Brucella abortus RB51 as a common antigen for serological detection of B. ovis, B. canis, and B. abortus RB51 exposure using indirect enzyme immunoassay and fluorescence polarization assay.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K; Smith, P; Conde, S; Draghi de Benitez, G; Gall, D; Halbert, G; Kenny, K; Massengill, C; Muenks, Q; Rojas, X; Perez, B; Samartino, L; Silva, P; Tollersrud, T; Jolley, M

    2004-01-01

    Rough lipopolysaccharide (RLPS) antigens were prepared from cultures of Brucella abortus RB51, B. ovis, and B. canis. The preparations were standardized by weight and tested with sera from cattle immunized with B. abortus RB51, sheep infected with B. ovis, and dogs infected with B. canis. Populations of unexposed animals of each species were also tested. The tests used were the indirect enzyme immunoassay (IELISA) using RLPS and the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using RLPS core fractions, labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. The IELISA using B. abortus RB51 RLPS antigen resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 94.8% and 97.3%, respectively, when testing bovine sera, 98.5% and 97.8% when testing ovine sera, and 95.8% and 100% when testing dog sera. The IELISA using B. ovis RLPS antigen gave sensitivity and specificity values of 80.5% and 91.7%, respectively with bovine sera, 98.9% and 93.8% with sheep sera, and 70.8% and 79.8% with dog sera. The IELISA using B. canis RLPS antigen resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 97.0% and 97.4%, respectively, with bovine sera, 96.2% and 96.3% with sheep sera, and 95.8% and 98.8% with dog sera. Labeling RLPS core from B. ovis and B. canis with fluorescein was not successful. B. abortus RB51 core labeled with fluorescein resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 93.5% and 99.8%, respectively, with bovine sera and 78.1% and 99.0% with sheep sera. It was not possible to test the dog sera in the FPA.

  7. Detection of Antibodies to U.S. Isolates of Avian Pneumovirus by a Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Baldev R.; Munir, Shirin; Patnayak, Devi P.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Kapur, Vivek

    2001-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of subgroup C (United States-specific) avian pneumovirus (APV/US) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and antibodies to the recombinant N protein were shown to specifically recognize the ≈47-kDa N protein of APV/US by Western immunoblot analysis. The recombinant APV/US N protein was used in a sandwich-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the resulting assay was found to be more sensitive and specific than the routine indirect ELISA for the detection of APV/US antibodies in turkey sera. PMID:11474024

  8. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems for serology and antigen detection in parvovirus, coronavirus and rotavirus infections in dogs in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rimmelzwaan, G F; Groen, J; Egberink, H; Borst, G H; UytdeHaag, F G; Osterhaus, A D

    1991-01-01

    Complex trapping blocking (CTB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCV) and rotavirus in sera of dogs were established. Double antibody sandwich ELISAs for the detection of CPV-, CCV- and rotavirus antigens in fecal samples were also developed. Both the serological and antigen-detection ELISAs were used to screen samples from dogs in The Netherlands, with or without a history of acute diarrhea. It was shown that the results of the respective serological ELISAs correlated well and that CPV was the major cause of virus-induced acute diarrhea in dogs in The Netherlands. PMID:1850889

  9. Element-tagged immunoassay with ICP-MS detection: evaluation and comparison to conventional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Razumienko, Eva; Ornatsky, Olga; Kinach, Robert; Milyavsky, Michael; Lechman, Eric; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A.; Tanner, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of using element-tagged antibodies for protein detection and quantification in microplate format using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), and compared the results to conventional immunoassays, such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. The technique was further employed to detect low levels and measure DNA-binding activity of transcription factor p53 in leukemia cell lysates through its interaction with immobilized oligonucleotides and recognition by element-tagged antibodies. The advantages of ICP-MS detection for routine performance of immunoassays include increased sensitivity, wide dynamic range, minimal interference from complex matrices, and high throughput. Our approach advances the ICP-MS technology and demonstrates its applicability to proteomic studies through the use of antibodies directly labeled with polymer tags bearing multiple atoms of lanthanides. Development of this novel methodology will enable fast and quantitative identification of multiple analytes in a single well. PMID:18456275

  10. Clinical immunoassay instrument markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The present status and future prospects of the market for clinical immunoassay instruments is discussed. The market shares for the five basic instrument types - nephelometric immunoassay, fluorescence immmunoassay, enzyme immunoassay, luminescence immunoassay, and radioimmunoassay are presented. It is noted that radioimmunoassay hold a major, but decreasing, share of the market.

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection and bioactivity of Cry1Ab protein fragments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has emerged as the preferred detection method for Cry proteins in environmental matrices. Concerns exist that ELISAs are capable of detecting fragments of Cry proteins, which may lead to an over-estimation of the concentration of these proteins in the enviro...

  12. Quantification of Dehalospirillum multivorans in Mixed-Culture Biofilms with an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Bauer-Kreisel, P.; Eisenbeis, M.; Scholz-Muramatsu, H.

    1996-01-01

    A fast, highly selective and sensitive method to quantify specific biomasses in mixed-culture biofilms is described. It consists of detachment of a biofilm from its support material, resolution of the detached biofilm flocs in order to separate the enclosed cells and antigens, and quantification of specific biomass by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PMID:16535389

  13. A Direct, Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as a Quantitative Technique for Small Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jennifer L.; Rippe, Karen Duda; Imarhia, Kelly; Swift, Aileen; Scholten, Melanie; Islam, Naina

    2012-01-01

    ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used technique with applications in disease diagnosis, detection of contaminated foods, and screening for drugs of abuse or environmental contaminants. However, published protocols with a focus on quantitative detection of small molecules designed for teaching laboratories are limited. A…

  14. Detection of influenza virus neuraminidase-specific antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Khan, M W; Gallagher, M; Bucher, D; Cerini, C P; Kilbourne, E D

    1982-07-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the titration of antibodies in human sera to influenza virus neuraminidase, employing partially purified N1 neuraminidase. Specificity of the test was demonstrated, and the test was more sensitive than either the conventional neuraminidase inhibition or plaque size reduction tests in detecting anti-neuraminidase antibody.

  15. Development of an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay to Detect Chicken Parvovirus Specific Antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the development and application of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to detect parvovirus-specific antibodies in chicken sera. We used an approach previously described for other parvoviruses to clone and express viral structural proteins in insect cells from recombinant baculovirus...

  16. Comparison of five commercial anti-tetanus toxoid immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Perry, A L; Hayes, A J; Cox, H A; Alcock, F; Parker, A R

    2009-12-01

    Five commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the measurement of anti-tetanus toxoid immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were evaluated for performance. The data suggest that there are manufacturer-dependent differences in sensitivity and accuracy for the determination of tetanus toxoid IgG antibodies that could result in different diagnostic interpretations.

  17. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    Heme oxygenase (HO) occurs in biological tissues as two major isoforms HO-1 and HO-2. HO-1 is inducible by many treatments, particularly oxidative stress-related conditions such as depletion of gl...

  18. Biological Monitoring of 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid in Urine by an Enzyme -Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was employed for determination of the pyrethroid biomarker, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) in human urine samples. The optimized coating antigen concentration was 0.5 ng/mL with a dilution of 1:4000 for the 3-PBA antibody and 1:6...

  19. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to screen for inhibitors of the oncogenic anaplastic lymphoma kinase.

    PubMed

    Gunby, Rosalind Helen; Tartari, Carmen Julia; Porchia, Francesca; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Scapozza, Leonardo; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2005-07-01

    The discovery of novel anti-cancer drugs targeting anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), an oncogenic tyrosine kinase, raises the need for in vitro assays suitable for screening compounds for ALK inhibition. To this aim we have developed and optimized an ALK-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that employs a novel ALK peptide substrate and purified ALK kinase domain. PMID:15996942

  20. A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid detection of anilofos residues in agricultural products and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Gao, Ai H; Liu, Bing; Sheng, Wei; Tan, Chao; Yuan, Meng; Wang, Shuo

    2013-01-01

    A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dc-ELISA) was developed to measure anilofos levels in agricultural and environmental samples. The ELISA was developed using rabbit polyclonal antibodies against a hapten-protein conjugate of anilofos-bovine serum albumin. The limit of detection was 0.1 μg L(-1), and there was no cross-reactivity with other related pesticides or structurally similar compounds. The matrix effects of rice (aromatic rice, white rice, brown rice), corn, barley, wheat and soil were measured and removed by extraction and dilution with phosphate buffered saline with 0.05% Tween-20. For water samples (tap water and river water), the matrix effects were also removed by dilution with phosphate buffered saline with Tween-20. The detection limits for anilofos in authentic samples (aromatic rice, white rice, brown rice, corn, barley, wheat, soil, tap water and river water) were 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, and 2 μg kg(-1), and 0.5 and 1 μg L(-1), respectively . The anilofos recovery ranged from 81.0-116.0% with a coefficient of variation of 1.7-9.0%. The method was validated using GC, and the results showed good correlation with the dc-ELISA data (r(2) = 0.9795). Forty-two cereal samples were randomly collected from different supermarkets and analyzed using the developed dc-ELISA. No anilofos was found in these products. The developed immunoassay is suitable for rapid quantitation of anilofos residues. PMID:23030434

  1. Development of a flatfish-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Fsh using a recombinant chimeric gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Chauvigné, François; Verdura, Sara; Mazón, María José; Boj, Mónica; Zanuy, Silvia; Gómez, Ana; Cerdà, Joan

    2015-09-15

    In flatfishes with asynchronous and semicystic spermatogenesis, such as the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), the specific roles of the pituitary gonadotropins during germ cell development, particularly of the follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh), are still largely unknown in part due to the lack of homologous immunoassays for this hormone. In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Senegalese sole Fsh was developed by generating a rabbit antiserum against a recombinant chimeric single-chain Fsh molecule (rFsh-C) produced by the yeast Pichia pastoris. The rFsh-C N- and C-termini were formed by the mature sole Fsh β subunit (Fshβ) and the chicken glycoprotein hormone common α subunit (CGA), respectively. Depletion of the antiserum to remove anti-CGA antibodies further enriched the sole Fshβ-specific antibodies, which were used to develop the ELISA using the rFsh-C for the standard curve. The sensitivity of the assay was 10 and 50 pg/ml for Fsh measurement in plasma and pituitary, respectively, and the cross-reactivity with a homologous recombinant single-chain luteinizing hormone was 1%. The standard curve for rFsh-C paralleled those of serially diluted plasma and pituitary extracts of other flatfishes, such as the Atlantic halibut, common sole and turbot. In Senegalese sole males, the highest plasma Fsh levels were found during early spermatogenesis but declined during enhanced spermiation, as found in teleosts with cystic spermatogenesis. In pubertal males, however, the circulating Fsh levels were as high as in adult spermiating fish, but interestingly the Fsh receptor in the developing testis containing only spermatogonia was expressed in Leydig cells but not in the primordial Sertoli cells. These results indicate that a recombinant chimeric Fsh can be used to generate specific antibodies against the Fshβ subunit and to develop a highly sensitive ELISA for Fsh measurements in diverse flatfishes.

  2. New enzyme-linked chemiluminescent immunosorbent digoxin assay is free from interference of Chinese medicine DanShen.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Kang, Edward; Olsen, Margaret; Actor, Jeffrey K; Datta, Pradip

    2006-12-01

    DanShen is a traditional Chinese medicine indicated for cardiovascular diseases. The potential interference of DanShen with serum digoxin measurement was investigated using a new enzyme-linked chemiluminescent immunosorbent (ECLIA) digoxin assay. Aliquots of drug-free serum were supplemented with ethyl acetate extract of DanShen (4 different brands studied), and apparent digoxin concentrations were measured by the ECLIA as well as fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and a turbidimetric assay for comparison. Mice were also fed 4 DanShen preparations and apparent digoxin concentrations were subsequently measured. In another experiment, serum pools containing digoxin were further supplemented with DanShen extracts and digoxin concentrations were measured again by all 3 assays. No apparent digoxin concentration was observed when aliquots of drug-free serum pools were supplemented with DanShen and digoxin concentrations were measured by the ECLIA or the turbidimetric assay. In contrast, significant apparent digoxin concentrations were observed using FPIA, and the highest apparent digoxin concentration was observed with brand 4 of DanShen extract. Similarly, when mice were fed with this herb, significant apparent digoxin concentrations were also observed using FPIA, but neither ECLIA nor turbidimetric assay showed any apparent digoxin concentration. When aliquots of digoxin pool were further supplemented with various DanShen extract, the apparent digoxin concentrations were significantly increased when FPIA was used. In contrast, digoxin concentrations in the presence of DanShen extract compared well with the digoxin concentration of the original pool when ECLIA or turbidimetric assay was used. We conclude that DanShen does not interfere with serum digoxin measurement using a more recently released ECLIA digoxin assay. PMID:17164693

  3. A new enzyme-linked chemiluminescent immunosorbent digoxin assay is virtually free from interference of spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Kang, Edward; Datta, Pradip

    2006-01-01

    Spironolactone and potassium canrenoate (aldosterone antagonist diuretics) are sometimes used in conjunction with digoxin for patient management. Spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone interfere with serum digoxin measurement using various immunoassays. Recently a new enzyme-linked chemiluminescent immunosorbent digoxin assay (ECLIA-Digoxin) became commercially available for application on the ADVIA IMS 800i modular system (Bayer HealthCare, Tarrytown, NY). We investigated the potential interference of spironolactone and related compounds in this assay by comparing the results with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), which is known to have significant cross-reactivity with these compounds as well as a turbidimetric assay for digoxin with no known cross-reactivity with spironolactone and related compounds. Aliquots of drug free serum were supplemented with therapeutic and above therapeutic concentrations of spironolactone, canrenone, and potassium canrenoate, and apparent digoxin concentrations were measured. No apparent digoxin concentration was observed using the ECLIA-Digoxin or turbidimetric assay. When serum pools prepared from patients receiving digoxin were further supplemented with these compounds, we observed no significant change in digoxin concentrations in the presence of these compounds with the ECLIA-Digoxin. We conclude that this assay is virtually free from interferences from spironolactone, potassium canrenoate and their common metabolite canrenone. PMID:16960898

  4. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  5. Diagnosis of intestinal acariasis with avidin-biotin system enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong-Bo; Huang, Yong; Li, Chao-Pin; Cui, Yu-Bao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the value of avidin-biotin system enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ABC-ELISA) in diagnosis of intestinal acariasis. METHODS: Mite-specific IgG levels in serum of 48 patients with intestinal acariasis were measured with ABC-ELISA. The sensitivity of this method was compared with that of staphylococcal protein A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SPA-ELISA). RESULTS: The positive rate of mite-specific IgG detected with ABC-ELISA and SPA-ELISA was 89.58% (43/48) and 56.25% (27/48), respectively. The positive rate with ABC-ELISA was statistically higher than that with SPA-ELISA (χ2 = 13.50, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: ABC-ELISA is an effective method for the diagnosis of intestinal acariasis. PMID:15112362

  6. Adaptation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to the avian system.

    PubMed

    Slaght, S S; Yang, T J; van der Heide, L

    1979-11-01

    A microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect chicken anti-rovirus antibodies. Studies of the parameters which affect the outcome of the assay with avian serum revealed two aspects for a successful assay. First, enzyme-antibody conjugates prepared by the periodate oxidation technique were found to have retained far more immunological activity than conjugates produced by a glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Second, the results indicated an unusually high affinity of chicken immunoglobulin for the microplate plastic which was mostly eliminated by a pretreatment technique with fixed fetal calf serum. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared favorably with the latex passive agglutination test, yielding a titration endpoint of 1:511,000, or approximately 1,300 times more sensitive than the latex passive agglutination assay. The assay proved not only to be sensitive to less than 1 ng of specific antibody, but also to have low to moderate variance and high reliability.

  7. Enzyme-linked fluorescence assay: Ultrasensitive solid-phase assay for detection of human rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Yolken, R H; Stopa, P J

    1979-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has proven to be a useful assay system for the direct detection of infectious agents. However, when the usual color-producing substrates are employed, relatively large amounts of substrate must be hydrolyzed by the bound enzyme before detection can be achieved. We attempted to improve the sensitivity of ELISA by utilizing a substrate that yields a fluorescent product on enzyme action. The enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) based on this principle was approximately 100 times more sensitive than the corresponding ELISA or radioimmunoassay for the detection of human rotavirus in a standard stool suspension. In addition, the ELFA for human rotavirus was capable of detecting antigen in six specimens that were negative by ELISA. Five of these specimens were obtained late in the course of confirmed rotavirus infections. ELFA provides a simple, reliable, ultrasensitive method for the rapid detection of viral antigen. PMID:226564

  8. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of cerebral cysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, I N; Heiner, D C; Miller, B L; Goldberg, M A; Kagan, I G

    1984-01-01

    Central nervous system cysticercosis is common in countries where Taenia solium occurs in pigs and the level of hygiene and sanitation is low. The clinical presentation may include epileptic seizures, focal neurological deficits, hydrocephalus, or aseptic meningitis. The disease is frequently seen in California residents of Hispanic origin. It sometimes occurs in whites from homes that employ Hispanic cooks. Diagnosis is often difficult. Computerized tomography scan and brain biopsy are the most reliable diagnostic procedures, but each has its limitations. We have found that a radioimmunoassay improves our diagnostic capability, and more recently we have adapted this to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that is equally sensitive and specific and, in addition, obviates the need for radioactive materials. Details of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure and its application to the diagnosis of central nervous system cysticercosis form the basis of this report. PMID:6386880

  9. Immunoassay of red dyes based on the monoclonal antibody of β-naphthol.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yong H; Zhang, Hui C; Xu, Rui T; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jian P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a multi-analyte immunoassay for the determination of eight red dyes in food samples. Two dye intermediates (2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid and 1-amino-2-naphthol) were used as the haptens to produce the monoclonal antibodies. The obtained monoclonal antibodies recognized Sudan 1-4, Para red, Sudan red G, Sudan red B and Acid orange II simultaneously. After evaluation of different antibody/coating antigen combinations, a heterologous indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed to determine the eight red dyes in food samples (chili oil, chili powder, tomato sauce, hotpot seasoning). The crossreactivities to the eight analytes were in the range of 61%-79% (with β-naphthol as 100%), and the limits of detection were in the range of 1.3-1.9 ng/mL. The recoveries of the eight analytes from the fortified blank samples were in the range of 84.2%-115% with coefficients of variation lower than 18.3%. Therefore, this method could be used as a rapid and simple tool to detect the residues of the eight red dyes in foods. PMID:26079338

  10. Development of an Immunoassay for the Detection of the Phenylpyrazole Insecticide Fipronil.

    PubMed

    Vasylieva, Natalia; Ahn, Ki Chang; Barnych, Bogdan; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-08-18

    Phenylpyrazole insecticides such as fipronil have been used as replacements for organophosphates. The wide application of fipronil raises concern about environmental contamination and risk for fish, birds, and other nontargeted beings as well as human health. A sensitive, competitive indirect heterologous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. Antibodies with different specificities to fipronil and its metabolites were produced. Two ELISAs having IC50 values of 0.58 ± 0.06 and 2.6 ± 0.4 ng/mL were developed. Design of different haptens and coating antigens resulted in two assays with distinct cross-reactivity patterns for structurally related compounds: 96, 38, and 101% versus 39, 1.4, and 25% for fipronil-sulfide, fipronil-detrifluoromethylsulfonyl, and fipronil-desulfinyl, respectively. Performance of the immunoassays was demonstrated by a recovery study from spiked water and human serum and urine matrices, giving recovery values in the range of 85-111% for different concentrations. The assays demonstrated good correlation in fipronil recovery with conventional LC-MS/MS analysis. The generic assay 2265 has the sensitivity to measure fipronil and its analogs in serum at levels relevant for exposure monitoring. The assays were used to analyze human urine samples obtained from exposure studies and serum samples from rats treated with a fipronil-containing diet. PMID:26196357

  11. An Immunoassay to Evaluate Human/Environmental Exposure to the Antimicrobial Triclocarban

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Kasagami, Takeo; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Schebb, Nils Helge; Ogunyoku, Temitope; Gee, Shirley J.; Young, Thomas M.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive, competitive indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of the antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) was developed. The haptens were synthesized by derivatizing the para position of a phenyl moiety of TCC. The rabbit antisera were screened and the combination of antiserum #1648 and a heterologous competitive hapten containing a piperidine was further characterized. The IC50 and the detection range for TCC in buffer were 0.70 and 0.13–3.60 ng/mL, respectively. The assay was selective for TCC, providing only low cross-reactivity to TCC-related compounds and its major metabolites except for the closely related antimicrobial 3-trifluoromethyl-4,4′-dichlorocarbanilide. A liquid-liquid extraction for sample preparation of human body fluids resulted in an assay that measured low part per billion levels of TCC in small volumes of the samples. The limits of quantification of TCC were 5 ng/mL in blood/serum, and 10 ng/mL in urine, respectively. TCC in human urine was largely the N- or N′-glucuronide. TCC concentrations of biosolids measured by the ELISA were similar to those determined by LC-MS/MS. This immunoassay can be used as a rapid, inexpensive and convenient tool to aid researchers monitoring human/environmental exposure to TCC to better understand the health effects. PMID:22077920

  12. Development of an Immunoassay for the Detection of the Phenylpyrazole Insecticide Fipronil

    PubMed Central

    Vasylieva, Natalia; Ahn, Ki Chang; Barnych, Bogdan; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Phenylpyrazole insecticides such as fipronil have been used as replacements for organophosphates. The wide application of fipronil raises concern about environmental contamination and risk for fish, birds, other non-targeted beings and human health. A sensitive, competitive indirect heterologous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. Antibodies with different specificities to fipronil and its metabolites were produced. Two ELISAs having IC50 values of 0.58 ± 0.06 and 2.6 ± 0.4 ng/mL were developed. Design of different haptens and coating antigens resulted in two assays with distinct cross-reactivity patterns for structurally related compounds: 96%, 38% and 101% vs 39%, 1.4% and 25% for fipronil-sulfide, fipronil-detrifluoromethylsulfonyl and fipronil-desulfinyl, respectively. Performance of the immunoassays was demonstrated by a recovery study from spiked water, human serum and urine matrices, giving recovery values in the range of 85–111% for different concentrations. The assays demonstrated good correlation in fipronil recovery with conventional LC-MS/MS analysis. The generic assay 2265 has the sensitivity to measure fipronil and its analogs in serum at levels relevant for exposure monitoring. The assays were used to analyze human urine samples obtained from exposure studies and serum samples from rats treated with fipronil-containing diet. PMID:26196357

  13. Development of an Immunoassay for the Detection of the Phenylpyrazole Insecticide Fipronil.

    PubMed

    Vasylieva, Natalia; Ahn, Ki Chang; Barnych, Bogdan; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-08-18

    Phenylpyrazole insecticides such as fipronil have been used as replacements for organophosphates. The wide application of fipronil raises concern about environmental contamination and risk for fish, birds, and other nontargeted beings as well as human health. A sensitive, competitive indirect heterologous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. Antibodies with different specificities to fipronil and its metabolites were produced. Two ELISAs having IC50 values of 0.58 ± 0.06 and 2.6 ± 0.4 ng/mL were developed. Design of different haptens and coating antigens resulted in two assays with distinct cross-reactivity patterns for structurally related compounds: 96, 38, and 101% versus 39, 1.4, and 25% for fipronil-sulfide, fipronil-detrifluoromethylsulfonyl, and fipronil-desulfinyl, respectively. Performance of the immunoassays was demonstrated by a recovery study from spiked water and human serum and urine matrices, giving recovery values in the range of 85-111% for different concentrations. The assays demonstrated good correlation in fipronil recovery with conventional LC-MS/MS analysis. The generic assay 2265 has the sensitivity to measure fipronil and its analogs in serum at levels relevant for exposure monitoring. The assays were used to analyze human urine samples obtained from exposure studies and serum samples from rats treated with a fipronil-containing diet.

  14. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of rabies antibodies in human sera.

    PubMed

    Kavaklova, L; Eskenazy, M; Gancheva, T; Vacheva, V

    1984-09-01

    A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was elaborated for detection of rabies antibodies in human sera. The procedure consisted of coating polyvinylchloride plates with rabbit antirabies serum followed by attachment of partially purified fixed virus and human rabies antibodies. The rabies-specific antibodies in human antisera were quantified by means of antihuman peroxidase conjugate. Titration of antisera from human volunteers immunized with the "Fermi" vaccine revealed excellent correlation of the virus neutralization test and ELISA.

  15. Detection of Cronobacter Genus in Powdered Infant Formula by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Anti-Cronobacter Antibody.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinjie; Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Gibaek; Park, Sunhyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2016-01-01

    Cronobacter species (Cronobacter spp.) are hazardous foodborne pathogens associated with baby food, powdered infant formula (PIF). To develop a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous detection of seven Cronobacter spp. in PIF, an indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (INC-ELISA) was developed based on a novel immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-Cronobacter IgG. The developed INC-ELISA was able to detect seven Cronobacter spp. at concentrations ranging from (5.6 ± 0.30) × 10(3) to (2.1 ± 0.01) × 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU)/mL in pure culture. Further, INC-ELISA employing anti-Cronobacter IgG was applicable for analysis of PIF samples contaminated with less than <10 cells of Cronobacter spp. per 25 g of PIF in 36 h. The developed antibody showed slight cross-reactivity with Franconibacter pulveris (LMG 24057) at high concentration (10(8) CFU/mL). The INC-ELISA method displayed excellent specificity without compromising cross-reactivity with other foodborne pathogens. The INC-ELISA assay method developed in this study using a novel anti-Cronobacter IgG facilitated highly sensitive, efficient, and rapid detection of Cronobacter spp. in baby food. PMID:27493642

  16. Detection of Cronobacter Genus in Powdered Infant Formula by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Anti-Cronobacter Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xinjie; Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Gibaek; Park, Sunhyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2016-01-01

    Cronobacter species (Cronobacter spp.) are hazardous foodborne pathogens associated with baby food, powdered infant formula (PIF). To develop a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous detection of seven Cronobacter spp. in PIF, an indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (INC-ELISA) was developed based on a novel immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-Cronobacter IgG. The developed INC-ELISA was able to detect seven Cronobacter spp. at concentrations ranging from (5.6 ± 0.30) × 103 to (2.1 ± 0.01) × 105 colony forming unit (CFU)/mL in pure culture. Further, INC-ELISA employing anti-Cronobacter IgG was applicable for analysis of PIF samples contaminated with less than <10 cells of Cronobacter spp. per 25 g of PIF in 36 h. The developed antibody showed slight cross-reactivity with Franconibacter pulveris (LMG 24057) at high concentration (108 CFU/mL). The INC-ELISA method displayed excellent specificity without compromising cross-reactivity with other foodborne pathogens. The INC-ELISA assay method developed in this study using a novel anti-Cronobacter IgG facilitated highly sensitive, efficient, and rapid detection of Cronobacter spp. in baby food. PMID:27493642

  17. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitation of antibodies to Junin virus in human sera.

    PubMed

    García Franco, S; Ambrosio, A M; Feuillade, M R; Maiztegui, J I

    1988-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated for the quantitation of anti-Junin virus (JV) antibodies, in 83 selected cases of Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF). Serum samples were studied in two groups to facilitate comparative analysis; the first group was ELISA with indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test, in the second ELISA with plaque reduction neutralization test (PRINT). From the results obtained by using ELISA and IF on the same serum samples, a clear tendency of ELISA to demonstrate seroconversion for JV earlier and at higher frequency than IF test was noted. Simultaneous titration of specific antibodies by ELISA and PRNT tests rendered significantly correlated titers (r = 0.81), both methods being equivalently specific (100%). The demonstration of specific antibodies by ELISA in two cases that were undetected by the PRNT test resulted in a higher sensitivity index for ELISA than for PRNT (100% vs 97%). It is concluded that ELISA could efficiently replace IF and PRNT tests for the diagnosis of AHF.

  18. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Theileria parva antibodies in cattle using a recombinant polymorphic immunodominant molecule.

    PubMed

    Katende, J; Morzaria, S; Toye, P; Skilton, R; Nene, V; Nkonge, C; Musoke, A

    1998-05-01

    Field and experimental bovine infection sera were used in immunoblots of sporozoite and schizont lysates of Theileria parva to identify candidate diagnostic antigens. Four parasite antigens of Mr 67,000 (p67), 85,000 (the polymorphic immunodominant molecule, PIM), 104,000 (p104), and 150,000 (p150) were selected for a more detailed analysis. The p67 and p104 antigens were present only in the sporozoite lysates, whereas PIM and p150 were found in both sporozoite and schizont lysates. The four antigens were expressed as recombinant fusion proteins and were compared with each other in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in the whole-schizont-based indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in terms of their ability to detect antibodies in sera of experimentally infected cattle. The PIM-based ELISA provided a higher degree of sensitivity and specificity than did the ELISA using the other three recombinant antigens or the IFAT. Further evaluation of the PIM-ELISA using experimental sera derived from cattle infected with different hemoparasites and field sera from endemic and nonendemic T. parva areas showed that the assay had a sensitivity of > 99% and a specificity of between 94% and 98%. PMID:9610640

  19. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to Junin virus in rodents.

    PubMed

    Morales, María A; Calderón, Gladys E; Riera, Laura M; Ambrosio, Ana M; Enría, Delia A; Sabattini, Marta S

    2002-05-01

    Junin virus is the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, a serious rodent-borne disease. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Junin virus IgG antibodies in rodents was evaluated using sera from 27 Calomys musculinus and five Calomys laucha, inoculated experimentally with a live attenuated strain of this arenavirus. The test performance was compared against an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The ELISA had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and a reproducibility of 87.9% for samples with titers above the selected cut-off value. IFA had lower sensitivity (53%) with the same specificity. The ELISA results were similar, whether carried out on whole blood or serum samples, thus eliminating the need for serum separation. A high correlation (K=0.86) between ELISA and IFA results was obtained from 1011 wild sigmodontine and murine rodents collected within and outside of the Argentine hemorrhagic fever endemic area. These results indicate that Junin virus IgG ELISA is the most suitable assay for detection of Junin virus antibodies in rodent samples.

  20. Detection of Francisella tularensis-specific antibodies in patients with tularemia by a novel competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Fujita, Osamu; Uda, Akihiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Yamada, Akio; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    A novel competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed and evaluated for detection of antibodies against Francisella tularensis in humans. The assay is based on the ability of serum antibodies to inhibit the binding of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide antigens. The assay was evaluated using serum samples of tularemia patients, inactivated F. tularensis-immunized rabbits, and F. tularensis-infected mice. Antibodies against F. tularensis were successfully detected in serum samples of tularemia patients as well as the immunized and infected animals. The cELISA method was compared to indirect ELISA (iELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination test (MA) using serum samples of 19 tularemia patients and 50 healthy individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of cELISA were 93.9 and 96.1%, respectively, in comparison to the iELISA. MA was less sensitive than cELISA with a sensitivity and specificity of only 81.8 and 98.0%, respectively. A high degree of correlation (R(2) = 0.8226) was observed between cELISA and iELISA results. The novel cELISA developed in this study appears to be highly sensitive and specific for serodiagnosis of human tularemia. The potential of the MAb-based cELISA to be used in both human and animal samples emphasizes its usefulness for serological survey of tularemia among multiple animal species. PMID:23114700

  1. Detection of Francisella tularensis-Specific Antibodies in Patients with Tularemia by a Novel Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Fujita, Osamu; Uda, Akihiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Yamada, Akio

    2013-01-01

    A novel competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed and evaluated for detection of antibodies against Francisella tularensis in humans. The assay is based on the ability of serum antibodies to inhibit the binding of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide antigens. The assay was evaluated using serum samples of tularemia patients, inactivated F. tularensis-immunized rabbits, and F. tularensis-infected mice. Antibodies against F. tularensis were successfully detected in serum samples of tularemia patients as well as the immunized and infected animals. The cELISA method was compared to indirect ELISA (iELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination test (MA) using serum samples of 19 tularemia patients and 50 healthy individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of cELISA were 93.9 and 96.1%, respectively, in comparison to the iELISA. MA was less sensitive than cELISA with a sensitivity and specificity of only 81.8 and 98.0%, respectively. A high degree of correlation (R2 = 0.8226) was observed between cELISA and iELISA results. The novel cELISA developed in this study appears to be highly sensitive and specific for serodiagnosis of human tularemia. The potential of the MAb-based cELISA to be used in both human and animal samples emphasizes its usefulness for serological survey of tularemia among multiple animal species. PMID:23114700

  2. Enhanced binding of capsular polysaccharides of Cryptococcus neoformans to polystyrene microtitration plates for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Cherniak, R; Cheeseman, M M; Reyes, G H; Reiss, E; Todaro, F

    1988-01-01

    A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure antibodies against capsular polysaccharide was developed, based on the enhanced binding of polysaccharide to polystyrene microtitration plates. The wells of the microtitration plate were primed with an adipic acid dihydrazide derivative of bovine serum albumin (AH-BSA) (100 micrograms/mL, 0.01 M NaPO4-0.14 M NaCl, pH 7.2 (PBS]. Capsular polysaccharide, the glucuronoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A, was oxidized with NaIO4 for 5 min; the reaction was then quenched with ethylene glycol. The partially oxidized polysaccharide was dialyzed vs. PBS, and its concentration was adjusted to 50 micrograms/mL with PBS. This solution (100 microL/well) was covalently bound to the AH-BSA primed microtitration plates through formation of a Schiff base between the hydrazide group on the AH-BSA and the aldehyde groups on the polysaccharide. Antimouse IgG-alkaline phosphatase conjugate was used in an indirect ELISA to measure captured murine monoclonal antibodies directed against glucuronoxylomannan. Mean absorbances, after 15 min, were 0.13 in negative control wells, and greater than 0.7 in test wells. No intermediate steps were required to block nonspecific binding of antibody. PMID:3064947

  3. Development of a Recombinant Protein-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wawegama, Nadeeka K.; Kanci, Anna; Marenda, Marc S.; Markham, Philip F.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis causes a range of diseases in cattle, including mastitis, arthritis, and pneumonia. However, accurate serological diagnosis of infection remains problematic. The studies described here aimed to identify an antigen that might be used to develop a more specific and sensitive diagnostic assay. A 226-kDa immunogenic protein was consistently detected in Western blots by antibodies in sera from calves experimentally infected with M. bovis. This protein was shown to be a membrane protein with lipase activity and was named mycoplasma immunogenic lipase A (MilA). Different regions of MilA were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and recombinant products from the amino-terminal end shown to have strong immunoreactivity with M. bovis-specific bovine sera. The most immunoreactive fusion protein, GST-MilA-ab, was used to develop indirect IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The IgM ELISA detected M. bovis-specific IgM antibody 2 weeks after infection with 97.1% sensitivity and had a specificity of 63.3%, while the IgG ELISA detected M. bovis-specific IgG 3 weeks after infection with 92.86% sensitivity and had a specificity of 98.7%, demonstrating that the IgG ELISA has potential for use as a sensitive and specific assay for detecting infection in cattle. PMID:24334686

  4. Detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in domesticated ruminants by recombinant truncated SAG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harkirat; Tewari, Anup Kumar; Mishra, Ashok Kumar; Maharana, Biswaranjan; Sudan, Vikrant; Raina, Opinder Krishan; Rao, Jammi Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    An antibody detection recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for Toxoplasma gondii was laboratory standardized using recombinant truncated surface antigen 2 (SAG2) protein of T. gondii. A 483-bp sequence coding for truncated tachyzoite stage-specific SAG2 protein was amplified and ligated in pPROExHT-b expression vector to transform Escherichia coli DH5α cells. A high-level expression of the histidine-tagged fusion protein was obtained after 8 h of incubation. The recombinant protein was affinity purified using Ni-NTA agarose column and characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Subsequently, the diagnostic potential of the recombinant protein was assessed with 168 field sera samples from sheep, goats and cattle. Among the small ruminants, 50% (n = 60) sheep sera samples and 41.26% (n = 63) goat samples were detected positive for T. gondii-specific antibodies. As far as seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle is concerned, 64.44% (n = 45) of sera samples assayed were found to be positive. When compared to indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), the sensitivity of the recombinant truncated SAG2 antigen-based ELISA (rec-SAG2-ELISA) ranged from 81.25 to 87.10% while the specificity was 85.71 to 91.43% with substantial agreement between the tests.

  5. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Sudan dyes in chilli powder, ketchup and egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Anfossi, Laura; Baggiani, Claudio; Giovannoli, Cristina; Giraudi, Gianfranco

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at developing sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the banned Sudan dyes using polyclonal antibodies. Three different formats were developed and characterized in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and rapidity. A competitive indirect ELISA was developed, which showed an IC(50) of 3.8 microg l(-1). Two competitive direct ELISAs were also developed, in which the antibody was added before or simultaneously with the other reagents; the first showed an IC(50) of 8.3 microg l(-1) and the latter showed an IC(50) of 4.9 microg l(-1). Nevertheless, considering dilution of extracts which is needed to offset matrix interference, the limits of detection of the three formats were substantially the same (10 microg kg(-1)). The antibodies in all three test formats were able to recognize Sudan I and partially Sudan II, III and IV; no cross-reactivity was observed with the five edible dyes. Twenty food samples, including chilli powder, paprika, ketchup, and egg, were extracted by a simple sample preparation and very limited dilution. Extracts were analyzed by the developed competitive direct ELISA with the simultaneous addition of reagents. A good correlation was observed (y = 1.19 x-10.0, r(2) = 0.991, n = 20) when the data was compared with that obtained through a conventional HPLC method. PMID:19680953

  6. Synthesis of novel haptens and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of histamine in foods.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Xu, Zhen-Lin; Yang, Jin-Yi; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Li, Yong-Jun; Beier, Ross C; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Lei, Hong-Tao; Wang, Hong; Shen, Yu-Dong

    2014-12-24

    Novel haptens were designed and synthesized to prepare antibodies against free histamine, but none resulted in producing suitable antibodies for developing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, an antiserum was obtained having high specificity and affinity to p-nitrobenzoylated histamine (NPHA), which can be easily formed from reaction between histamine and p-nitrobenzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (PNBA-OSu) under mild conditions. Based on rabbit polyclonal antibodies, a competitive indirect ELISA (ciELISA) for histamine determination in foods was developed. After ciELISA and derivatization optimization, the assay showed good sensitivity, with limits of detection of 1.8 mg/kg, 93.6 μg/L, and 93.6 μg/kg in fish, red wine, and yoghurt, respectively, with negligible cross-reactivity with related biogenic amines and amino acids. Average recovery of histamine in fortified food samples ranged from 80.9% to 110.1% with coefficients of variation below 16.3%. Good correlation between the ciELISA and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was obtained for spiked food samples.

  7. Detection of Francisella tularensis-specific antibodies in patients with tularemia by a novel competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Fujita, Osamu; Uda, Akihiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Yamada, Akio; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    A novel competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed and evaluated for detection of antibodies against Francisella tularensis in humans. The assay is based on the ability of serum antibodies to inhibit the binding of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide antigens. The assay was evaluated using serum samples of tularemia patients, inactivated F. tularensis-immunized rabbits, and F. tularensis-infected mice. Antibodies against F. tularensis were successfully detected in serum samples of tularemia patients as well as the immunized and infected animals. The cELISA method was compared to indirect ELISA (iELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination test (MA) using serum samples of 19 tularemia patients and 50 healthy individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of cELISA were 93.9 and 96.1%, respectively, in comparison to the iELISA. MA was less sensitive than cELISA with a sensitivity and specificity of only 81.8 and 98.0%, respectively. A high degree of correlation (R(2) = 0.8226) was observed between cELISA and iELISA results. The novel cELISA developed in this study appears to be highly sensitive and specific for serodiagnosis of human tularemia. The potential of the MAb-based cELISA to be used in both human and animal samples emphasizes its usefulness for serological survey of tularemia among multiple animal species.

  8. Glypican-3 level assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is inferior to alpha-fetoprotein level for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yejoo; Jang, Eun Sun; Choi, Yun Suk; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Glypican-3 (GPC3) protein is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue. It has been suggested as a diagnostic biomarker, but its inconsistent performance means that it requires further assessment. We therefore investigated the diagnostic value of the plasma GPC3 level compared to the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level as a diagnostic biomarker of HCC. Methods We enrolled 157 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed HCC and 156 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) as the control group. GPC3 plasma levels were measured using two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs, named as Assay 1 and 2), and AFP levels were measured using an enzyme-linked chemiluminescent immunoassay. The diagnostic accuracy was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. Results Plasma GPC3 levels in HCC patients were very low (0–3.09 ng/mL) in Assay 1, while only 3 of the 157 patients (1.9%) showed detectable GPC3 levels in Assay 2. The median GPC3 level was not significantly elevated in the HCC group (0.80 ng/mL) compared with the LC group (0.60 ng/mL). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for GPC3 was 0.559 in Assay 1. In contrast, the median AFP level was significantly higher in HCC (27.72 ng/mL) than in LC (4.74 ng/mL), with an AUC of 0.729. Conclusion The plasma level of GPC3 is a poor diagnostic marker for HCC, being far inferior to AFP. The development of a consistent detection system for the blood level of GPC3 is warranted. PMID:27729630

  9. Immunoassay as an analytical tool in agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Grothaus, G David; Bandla, Murali; Currier, Thomas; Giroux, Randal; Jenkins, G Ronald; Lipp, Markus; Shan, Guomin; Stave, James W; Pantella, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    Immunoassays for biotechnology engineered proteins are used by AgBiotech companies at numerous points in product development and by feed and food suppliers for compliance and contractual purposes. Although AgBiotech companies use the technology during product development and seed production, other stakeholders from the food and feed supply chains, such as commodity, food, and feed companies, as well as third-party diagnostic testing companies, also rely on immunoassays for a number of purposes. The primary use of immunoassays is to verify the presence or absence of genetically modified (GM) material in a product or to quantify the amount of GM material present in a product. This article describes the fundamental elements of GM analysis using immunoassays and especially its application to the testing of grains. The 2 most commonly used formats are lateral flow devices (LFD) and plate-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The main applications of both formats are discussed in general, and the benefits and drawbacks are discussed in detail. The document highlights the many areas to which attention must be paid in order to produce reliable test results. These include sample preparation, method validation, choice of appropriate reference materials, and biological and instrumental sources of error. The article also discusses issues related to the analysis of different matrixes and the effects they may have on the accuracy of the immunoassays. PMID:16915826

  10. Application of multiplex immunoassay technology to investigations of ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Valerie Sloane; Wu, Jian; Zhu, Si-Wei; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2016-01-01

    Eye-derived fluids, including tears, aqueous humour and vitreous humour often contain molecular signatures of ocular disease states. These signatures can be composed of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases and soluble receptors. However, the small quantities (<10 µl) of these fluids severely limit the detection of these proteins by traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or Western blot. To maximise the amount of information generated from the analysis of these specimens, many researchers have employed multiplex immunoassay technologies for profiling the expression or modification of multiple proteins from minute sample volumes. PMID:27577534

  11. Rapid competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a monoclonal antibody reacting with a 15-kilodalton tegumental antigen of Schistosoma mansoni for serodiagnosis of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, A J; Piuvezam, M R; de Moura, H; Maddison, S; Peralta, J M

    1993-01-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) for antibody detection was developed by using a monoclonal antibody which reacts with a 15-kDa tegumental antigen of the adult worm of Schistosoma mansoni. This monoclonal antibody was not able to react with antigens of Schistosoma japonicum or Schistosoma haematobium in enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) and indirect immunofluorescence tests. The assay was performed in a period of 1 h using an adult worm crude extract antigen. To evaluate the CELISA, a total of 73 serum samples was analyzed: 35 were from S. mansoni-infected patients, 23 were from individuals with parasitic infections other than schistosomiasis, and 14 were from healthy individuals. All serum samples from healthy individuals and from patients infected with other parasites were negative, as were two (6%) samples from patients infected with S. mansoni. EITB analysis showed that 32 of 33 CELISA-positive samples were positive in the EITB but with different patterns of reactivity. A 15-kDa protein reacted with 60% of serum samples, and a 60-kDa protein showed the highest level of reactivity (85%). The two samples from patients infected with S. mansoni that were negative in the CELISA reacted with 70-, 60-, 50-, 47-, and 38-kDa proteins. One sample, positive in CELISA, did not react with proteins of the antigenic extract. Images PMID:8408548

  12. Characterization of pseudorabies virus antibody responses in young swine after infection and vaccination by using an immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    McCaw, M B; Molitor, T W; Joo, H S

    1992-01-01

    An immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MACELISA) was developed for the detection of pseudorabies virus (PRV)-specific IgM antibody in swine sera because false-positive reactions frequently occurred when sera from older swine were tested with an indirect IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Monoclonal mouse anti-swine IgM was used as the capturing antibody, and rabbit anti-PRV hyperimmune gamma globulin was used as the indicating antibody. Sera from non-PRV-infected, experimentally infected, vaccinated and challenged, passively immune and challenged, and naturally infected swine were evaluated. The PRV MACELISA had a specificity of 95% and was as sensitive and reproducible as previously reported in direct assays. An antibody response was still detectable with the MACELISA 21 days after inoculation. The PRV MACELISA did not detect a consistent antibody response in sera from swine vaccinated with either killed-PRV or modified live-virus vaccines but did detect an antibody response in sera from passively immune pigs after challenge with virulent PRV. These results indicated that the PRV MACELISA may be useful for the rapid serodiagnosis of recent PRV infection in swine. PMID:1311334

  13. Predicting detection limits of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and bioanalytical techniques in general.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiyun; Garcia-D'Angeli, Alexa; Brennan, Joseph P; Huo, Qun

    2014-01-21

    The detection limit is one of the most important performance parameters for bioanalytical techniques. Here we present a generic method to estimate the detection limit of biomolecular assays based on a step-by-step analysis of the assay procedure. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used here as an example; however, much of the information presented in this article may be applied to other types of biomolecular assays and analytical techniques. A clear understanding of what affects the detection limit can help researchers to evaluate different bio-analytical techniques properly, and to design better strategies to optimize and achieve the best analytical performance.

  14. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of canine coronavirus and its antibody in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tuchiya, K; Horimoto, T; Azetaka, M; Takahashi, E; Konishi, S

    1991-01-01

    Two methods of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed for the diagnosis of canine coronavirus (CCV) infection in dogs. One ELISA, in which CCV-infected CRFK cell lysate is used as antigen, is for the detection and titration of antibody against CCV, and the other ELISA uses the double antibody sandwich method for the detection of CCV antigen. The first ELISA procedure demonstrated antibody responses in dogs inoculated with CCV, as did the virus neutralization test; the second ELISA detected specific CCV antigen in feces and organ homogenates of inoculated dogs.

  15. Detection of serum antibody to Japanese encephalitis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y

    1989-02-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Japanese encephalitis (JE) antibody is described, after 269 human sera were tested by both hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and ELISA. In ELISA screening, the antigen concentration and the dilution of horseradish peroxidase conjugated goat anti-human Ig were determined by chequerboard titration as 10 micrograms/ml and 1:1000. The color produced by enzyme-substrate reaction was measured on a spectrophotometer. The results showed a good agreement with those obtained from a routine HI test.

  16. Solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed Central

    Locarnini, S A; Garland, S M; Lehmann, N I; Pringle, R C; Gust, I D

    1978-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of hepatitis A virus in human fecal specimens. Investigations with 88 fecal specimens from 77 patients with suspected viral hepatitis and 8 of their household contacts showed that ELISA was as specific and sensitive as radioimmunoassay and almost as sensitive as immune electron microscopy. The ELISA is quick and simple to perform, does not require sophisticated technical equipment, and can be read with the naked eye, making it suitable for field work and rapid diagnosis. PMID:212452

  17. Cross-Reactivity of Fusarium spp. in the Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Esposto, Maria Carmela; Prigitano, Anna; Grancini, Anna; Ossi, Cristina; Cavanna, Caterina; Cascio, Giuliana Lo

    2012-01-01

    Nine of 11 hematological patients with disseminated/deep-seated Fusarium infection tested at least twice for Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) had repeated positive results in the absence of Aspergillus isolation in culture. The centrifuged supernatants of 12 Fusarium isolates were tested by a GM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA). All the isolates produced positive reactions when tested undiluted. These results show cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. with Aspergillus GM that may constitute a drawback with respect to the specificity of the Platelia EIA. PMID:22205818

  18. A case of sulfasalazine-induced hypersensitivity syndrome confirmed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay.

    PubMed

    Phatharacharukul, Parkpoom; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong

    2013-11-01

    A 24-year-old male with a history of spondyloarthropathy presented with high fever, cervical lymphadenopathy and generalized maculopapular rash. He was treated with prednisolone for chronic uveitis before being switched to sulfasalazine 3 weeks prior to admission. Laboratory findings revealed marked leukocytosis with frequent atypical lymphocytes. Sulfasalazine was discontinued and the etiology of mononucleosis syndrome explored. During admission, he developed acalculous cholecystitis and hypotension. All symptoms quickly improved following administration of systemic corticosteroids. The investigation for infectious mononucleosis yielded negative results and a diagnosis of sulfasalazine-induced hypersensitivity syndrome was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunospot assays. PMID:24179690

  19. Enzyme-Linked Immunofiltration Assay To Estimate Attachment of Thiobacilli to Pyrite

    PubMed Central

    Dziurla, Marie-Antoinette; Achouak, Wafa; Lam, Bach-Tuyet; Heulin, Thierry; Berthelin, Jacques

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunofiltration assay (ELIFA) has been developed in order to estimate directly and specifically Thiobacillus ferrooxidans attachment on sulfide minerals. This method derives from the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay but is performed on filtration membranes which allow the retention of mineral particles for a subsequent immunoenzymatic reaction in microtiter plates. The polyclonal antiserum used in this study was raised against T. ferrooxidans DSM 583 and recognized cell surface antigens present on bacteria belonging to the genus Thiobacillus. This antiserum and the ELIFA allowed the direct quantification of attached bacteria with high sensitivity (104 bacteria were detected per well of the microtiter plate). The mean value of bacterial attachment has been estimated to be about 105 bacteria mg−1 of pyrite at a particle size of 56 to 65 μm. The geometric coverage ratio of pyrite by T. ferrooxidans ranged from 0.25 to 2.25%. This suggests an attachment of T. ferrooxidans on the pyrite surface to well-defined limited sites with specific electrochemical or surface properties. ELIFA was shown to be compatible with the measurement of variable levels of adhesion. Therefore, this method may be used to establish adhesion isotherms of T. ferrooxidans on various sulfide minerals exhibiting different physicochemical properties in order to understand the mechanisms of bacterial interaction with mineral surfaces. PMID:9687454

  20. Comparison of a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with complement fixation and neutralisation tests for serology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    PubMed

    Westenbrink, F; Brinkhof, J M; Straver, P J; Quak, J; De Leeuw, P W

    1985-05-01

    An indirect double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection and titration of serum antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). The ELISA was compared with a complement fixation (CF) test and a test for virus neutralising antibody in serum (virus neutralisation [VN] test). Testing sera collected in dairy herds revealed the closest correlation between the results of the ELISA and the CF test with respect to BRSV antibody titres. The VN test detected BRSV antibodies in a higher percentage of acute phase sera compared to the other two tests in field samples and in early bleedings of experimentally infected calves. However, the VN test was less effective in making a diagnosis of BRSV infections on the basis of a significant titre increase in paired sera. For this purpose the ELISA was found to be the most sensitive test.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to surface antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their use in a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay for detection of mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Glatman-Freedman, A; Martin, J M; Riska, P F; Bloom, B R; Casadevall, A

    1996-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated from splenocytes of a BALB/c mouse immunized with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All three MAbs bound to surface epitopes of M. tuberculosis as shown by whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. One immunoglobulin M (IgM) MAb bound to lipoarabinomannan, the second IgM MAb bound to mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex, and the third MAb, an IgG3, bound to a surface epitope of an uncertain nature. The MAbs demonstrated different cross-reactivity patterns with other mycobacteria. Two of the MAbs were used to develop a modified ELISA spot assay for the detection of mycobacteria. PMID:8897185

  2. COMPARISON OF IMMUNOASSAY AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY METHODS FOR MEASURING 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by a commercial RaPID immunoassay testing kit. ...

  3. Validation and Field Evaluation of a Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Babesia bovis Infections in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Mariana; Echaide, Ignacio; de Echaide, Susana Torioni; Wilkowsky, Silvina; Zabal, Osvaldo; Mosqueda, Juan J.; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2012-01-01

    Infections by Babesia bovis limit cattle production and cause important economic losses in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. Monitoring of calf sera can be used to detect unprotected cattle herds and to decide on strategic control measures, as well as for epidemiological studies. Merozoite surface antigen 2c (MSA-2c) is an immunodominant surface protein expressed in B. bovis merozoites and sporozoites and contains B-cell epitopes that are conserved among geographic isolates. A monoclonal antibody against recombinant MSA-2c (rMSA-2c) was previously shown to inhibit the binding of anti-B. bovis antibodies to a parasite B-cell epitope in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) format. In the work at hand, the parameters of this cELISA were reevaluated and adjusted when necessary, and a cutoff value was determined by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of a total of 357 bovine sera of known reactivity, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). The established rMSA-2c cELISA demonstrated a specificity of 98% and a sensitivity of 96.2%. An additional set of 303 field bovine sera from regions where ticks are endemic and tick-free regions of Argentina was tested by both rMSA-2c cELISA and IFAT, and the results were shown to be in very good agreement (kappa index, 0.8325). The performance shown by rMSA-2c cELISA in the detection of B. bovis-specific antibodies and its suitability for standardization and large-scale production, as well as the possibility of its application in most veterinary diagnostic laboratories, make the assay a powerful tool for the surveillance of herd immunity as a strategic measure for the control of bovine babesiosis. PMID:22492742

  4. Optimization and standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol for serodiagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5.

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Y L; Wright, P F; Larivière, S

    1992-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol has been optimized with special emphasis given to assay standardization and quality control. Technical aspects such as choice of a microplate, antigen immobilization, buffer composition, optimal screening dilution of sera, and kinetics of the enzymatic reaction were studied and evaluated in order to design a standard protocol offering maximal analytical sensitivity and specificity, as well as to obtain minimal within- and between-plate variability. Among the 27 plates tested, the Nunc 475-094 and 269-620 immunoplates were found to be the best in terms of high positive-to-negative ratio and low variability. No significant differences in antigen immobilization were found by using buffers of various compositions or pHs; however, the presence of magnesium ions (Mg2+; 0.02 M) resulted in a twofold increase in nonspecific background. An optimal screening dilution of sera was established at 1:200. A 1-h incubation period for test serum was found to be optimal. Maximum enzymatic activity for peroxidase was obtained by adjusting both substrate (H2O2) and hydrogen donor [2,2' -azinobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline sulfonic acid)] concentrations to 4 and 1 mM, respectively. To control between-plate variability, a timing protocol was adopted. Within-plate variability was also controlled by using a sample placement configuration pattern. Sliding scales were determined by repeated testing of a cross section of samples to set acceptance limits for both within- and between-plate variability. These limits were used in a quality control program to monitor assay performance. The results obtained suggest that this standardized protocol might be useful in the serodiagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. PMID:1734068

  5. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method Specific for the Detection of G-Group Aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peiwu; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Zhaowei; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    To detect and monitor G-group aflatoxins in agricultural products, we generated class-specific monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognized aflatoxins G1 and G2. Of the final three positive and stable hybridomas obtained, clone 2G6 produced a monoclonal antibody that had equal sensitivity to aflatoxins G1 and G2, and did not cross-react with aflatoxins B1, B2, or M1. Its IC50 values for aflatoxins G1 and G2 were 17.18 ng·mL−1 and 19.75 ng·mL−1, respectively. Using this new monoclonal antibody, we developed a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA); the method had a limit of detection of 0.06 ng·mL−1. To validate this CI-ELISA, we spiked uncontaminated peanut samples with various amounts of aflatoxins G1 and G2 and compared recovery rates with those determined by a standard HPLC method. The recovery rates of the CI-ELISA ranging from 94% to 103% were comparable to those of the HPLC (92% to 102%). We also used both methods to determine the amounts of G-group aflatoxins in five peanut samples contaminated by aflatoxin B1-positive, and their relative standard deviations ranged from 8.4% to 17.7% (under 20%), which demonstrates a good correlation between the two methods. We further used this CI-ELISA to assess the ability of 126 fungal strains isolated from peanuts or field soils to produce G-group aflatoxins. Among these, seven stains producing different amounts of G-group aflatoxins were identified. Our results showed that the monoclonal antibody 2 G6-based CI-ELISA was suitable for the detection of G-group aflatoxins present in peanuts and also those produced by fungi. PMID:26729164

  6. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method Specific for the Detection of G-Group Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiwu; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Zhaowei; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Zhang, Qi

    2015-12-28

    To detect and monitor G-group aflatoxins in agricultural products, we generated class-specific monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognized aflatoxins G₁ and G₂. Of the final three positive and stable hybridomas obtained, clone 2G6 produced a monoclonal antibody that had equal sensitivity to aflatoxins G₁ and G₂, and did not cross-react with aflatoxins B₁, B₂, or M₁. Its IC50 values for aflatoxins G₁ and G₂ were 17.18 ng·mL(-1) and 19.75 ng·mL(-1), respectively. Using this new monoclonal antibody, we developed a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA); the method had a limit of detection of 0.06 ng·mL(-1). To validate this CI-ELISA, we spiked uncontaminated peanut samples with various amounts of aflatoxins G₁ and G₂ and compared recovery rates with those determined by a standard HPLC method. The recovery rates of the CI-ELISA ranging from 94% to 103% were comparable to those of the HPLC (92% to 102%). We also used both methods to determine the amounts of G-group aflatoxins in five peanut samples contaminated by aflatoxin B₁-positive, and their relative standard deviations ranged from 8.4% to 17.7% (under 20%), which demonstrates a good correlation between the two methods. We further used this CI-ELISA to assess the ability of 126 fungal strains isolated from peanuts or field soils to produce G-group aflatoxins. Among these, seven stains producing different amounts of G-group aflatoxins were identified. Our results showed that the monoclonal antibody 2 G6-based CI-ELISA was suitable for the detection of G-group aflatoxins present in peanuts and also those produced by fungi.

  7. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) of size-selected crotalid venom antigens by Wyeth's polyvalent antivenom.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, R C; Randall, H; Resk, J; Carlson, R W

    1988-01-01

    The binding of Antivenom (Crotalidae) Polyvalent to fractions from crude venoms of eight crotalid and one viperid snake, obtained by high performance size-exclusion chromatography, was determined with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most of the large (greater than 30,000 mol. wt) molecular mass crotalid venom fractions were associated with high (greater than 0.7 absorbance units) ELISA values. Similarly, the medium (13,000-30,000 mol. wt) and small (less than 14,000 mol. wt) molecular mass crotalid venom fractions were coincident with moderate (0.3-0.7 absorbance units) and low (less than 0.3 absorbance units) ELISA levels. Some variability in this pattern was seen with individual venom fractions. A distinctly different pattern of ELISA values were observed with two rattlesnake venoms: the South American (Crotalus durissus terrificus) and Mojave desert (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) rattlesnakes. The elution profile from these venoms showed a progression of low to moderate ELISA values within the large molecular mass fractions. This pattern was followed by a decline to low ELISA values throughout the remainder of the elution profile. When saw scaled viper (Echis carinatus leucogaster) venom fractions were tested, only background ELISA values were detected with antivenom. Similarly, background ELISA values were associated with the small molecular mass fractions of all venoms tested. In addition, the elution position for the basic peptides of southern Pacific (Crotalus viridis helleri) and timber (Crotalus h. horridus) rattlesnake venoms showed minimal ELISA values. These data support the view that except for the venom of C. durissus terrificus and C. s. scutulatus, most antivenom antibodies bind large (greater than 30,000 mol. wt) venom fractions. Thus, antivenom contains minimal levels of antibodies to the basic peptides in these venoms. PMID:3347932

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Avian Metapneumovirus Type C-Specific Antibodies in Multiple Domestic Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Elizabeth A.; Lauer, Dale C.; Swayne, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The first cases of infection caused by avian metapneumoviruses (aMPVs) were described in turkeys with respiratory disease in South Africa during 1978. The causative agent was isolated and identified as a pneumovirus in 1986. aMPVs have been detected in domestic nonpoultry species in Europe, but tests for the detection of these viruses are not available in the United States. To begin to understand the potential role of domestic ducks and geese and wild waterfowl in the epidemiology of aMPV, we have developed and evaluated a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) for the detection of aMPV type C (aMPV-C)-specific antibodies. This assay method overcomes the species-specific platform of indirect ELISAs to allow detection of aMPV-C-specific antibodies from potentially any avian species. The bELISA was initially tested with experimental turkey serum samples, and the results were found to correlate with those of virus neutralization assays and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). One thousand serum samples from turkey flocks in Minnesota were evaluated by our bELISA, and the level of agreement of the results of the bELISA and those of the iELISA was 94.9%. In addition, we were able to show that the bELISA could detect aMPV-C-specific antibodies from experimentally infected ducks, indicating its usefulness for the screening of serum samples from multiple avian species. This is the first diagnostic assay for the detection of aMPV-C-specific antibodies from multiple avian species in the United States. PMID:12904358

  9. Loop region-specific oligonucleotide probes for loop-mediated isothermal amplification-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay truly minimize the instrument needed for detection process.

    PubMed

    Ravan, Hadi; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2013-08-15

    Enteric fever represents a significant public health burden in less-developed countries. Therefore, there is a great need for developing an improved diagnostic tool adapted to the demands of poor-resource clinical laboratories in those countries. The current study has developed a reliable loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diagnosis of enteric fever with a minimal equipment dependency. The LAMP-ELISA assay involves direct incorporation of a labeled nucleotide into amplicons during the amplification of the SPA3440 gene, their hybridization to the unique tagged oligonucleotide probes during the LAMP reaction, and finally detection of labeled LAMP amplicons by immunoassay technology. Because the designed oligonucleotide probes target the single-stranded DNA segment within the LAMP amplicons, the probe hybridization stage is performed simultaneously with the amplification process. This novel probe design strategy allows both the amplification and hybridization stages to be performed simultaneously and isothermally in a water bath. Among the bacteria tested, positive results were observed only with enteric fever causative bacteria. The LAMP-ELISA assay was successfully applied to artificially contaminated blood samples with a detection limit of 10 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, which was 100 times more sensitive than polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and turbidity assessment-based conventional LAMP methods. The new assay is considered to be an effective method for diagnosis of enteric fever.

  10. Application of immunoaffinity column as cleanup tool for an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay of phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase detection in genetically modified maize and rape.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun; Zhao, Heng; Luo, Yunbo

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a new immunoassay method to detect genetically modified (GM) maize and rape containing phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT). PAT encoded by Bialaphos resistance gene (bar) was highly expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified to homogeneity by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. A simple and efficient extraction and purification procedure of PAT from GM maize and rape was developed by means of the immunoaffinity column (IAC) as a cleanup tool. Purified polyclonal antibodies against PAT was produced and coupled covalently to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Both the binding conditions and elution protocols were optimized. The IAC was successfully employed to isolate and purify the PAT from the various tissues of GM maize (Bt11 and Bt176) and rapes (MS1/RF1 and MS8/RF3). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures were established further on to measure the PAT protein. GM maize cannot be differentiated from non-GM maize by ELISA. But IAC-ELISA allowed 0.5% GMOs to be detected in MS1/RF1 and MS8/RF3 and 10% GMOs to be detected in Bt11 and Bt176, which makes this method an acceptable method to access PAT protein in GM rapes and maize.

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of use of the synthetic cannabinoid agonists UR-144 and XLR-11 in human urine.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Amanda L A; Ofsa, Bill; Keil, Alyssa Marie; Simon, John R; McMullin, Matthew; Logan, Barry K

    2014-09-01

    Ongoing changes in the synthetic cannabinoid drug market create the need for relevant targeted immunoassays for rapid screening of biological samples. We describe the validation and performance characteristics of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay designed to detect use of one of the most prevalent synthetic cannabinoids in urine, UR-144, by targeting its pentanoic acid metabolite. Fluorinated UR-144 (XLR-11) has been demonstrated to metabolize to this common product. The assay has significant cross-reactivity with UR-144-5-OH, UR-144-4-OH and XLR-11-4-OH metabolites, but <10% cross-reactivity with the parent compounds, and no measurable cross-reactivity with other synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites at concentrations of <1,000 ng/mL. The assay's cutoff is 5 ng/mL relative to the pentanoic acid metabolite of UR-144, which is used as the calibrator. The method was validated with 90 positive and negative control urine samples for UR-144, XLR-11 and its metabolites tested versus liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were determined to be 100% for the assay at the specified cutoff. PMID:24908262

  12. Determination of alachlor and its sulfonic acid metabolite in water by solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.; Pomes, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were combined for the trace analysis of the herbicide alachlor and its major soil metabolite, ethanesulfonic acid (ESA). The anti-alachlor antibody cross-reacted with ESA, which produced false-positive detections of alachlor in water samples by immunoassay screens. Alachlor and ESA were isolated from water by SPE on a C18 resin and eluted sequentially with ethyl acetate and methanol. Alachlor is soluble in ethyl acetate while the anionic ESA is not. Thus ESA remained adsorbed on the C18 resin and was eluted later with methanol. The combination of SPE with ELISA effectivety separated and quantified both alachlor and ESA using the same antibody for two ELISA methods. The general method may have applicability for the separation of other herbicides and their ionic metabolites. The SPE-ELISA method has a, detection limit of 0.01 ??g/L for alachlor and 0.05 ??g/L for ESA, with a precision of ?? 10%. Analyses of surface and ground water samples were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. Results showed widespread occurrence of ESA in surface and ground water of the midwestern United States, with concentrations ranging from 10 ??g/L.

  13. Evaluation and Validation of the Detection of soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 1 by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hasibeder, Astrid; Stein, Pamela; Brandwijk, Ricardo; Schild, Hansjörg; Radsak, Markus P.

    2015-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 plays an important role in innate immune responses and is upregulated under infectious as well as non-infectious conditions. In addition, a soluble TREM-1 variant (sTREM-1) is detectable in sera or bronchoalveolar-lavage fluids from patients. Currently, various studies are difficult to compare, since the methods of detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) vary among different research groups. In this study, we compared three different s-TREM-1 specific ELISAs and identified individual assay characteristics finding notable differences in sTREM-1 concentrations in part depending on the employed buffers. Investigating potential confounding factors for sTREM-1 detection, serum heat-inactivation (HI) showed improved recovery compared to non-HI (NHI) serum, reproducible by addition of complement and re-heat-inactivation. Hence we identified complement as a heat-sensitive confounder in some sTREM-1 ELISAs. We conclude that it is difficult to directly compare data of several studies, in particular if different ELISAs are engaged. Immunoassays for research use only are in general hampered by lack of standardization. Further standardization is needed until sTREM-1 ELISA is capable for better reproducibility of studies and clinical application. PMID:26480887

  14. Analysis of the Fungicide Boscalid in Horticultural Crops Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and an Immunosensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yuki; Yamasaki, Tomomi; Harada, Ayako; Ohtake, Toshiya; Adachi, Kayo; Iwasa, Seiji; Narita, Hiroshi; Miyake, Shiro

    2015-09-16

    A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dc-ELISA) and an immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR-sensor) were developed for fungicide boscalid determination in horticultural crops. To produce antiboscalid monoclonal antibodies (MoAb BSC7 and MoAb BSC72) for these assays, a hapten of boscalid was synthesized and conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin for Balb/c mouse immunization. The working range of the dc-ELISA was 0.8-16 ng/mL with MoAb BSC7 and 2.5-120 ng/mL with MoAb BSC72, and that of the SPR-sensor was 17-80 ng/mL with MoAb BSC7. The dc-ELISA and SPR-sensor were compared for their sensitivity in determining boscalid residues at the maximum residue limit of 1-40 mg/kg for horticultural crops in Japan. Recovery of the spiked boscalid was 85-109% by the SPR-sensor and 100-124% by the dc-ELISA. On real tomato samples, the results obtained by both of these immunoassays correlated well with the results obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:26340386

  15. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of West Nile virus infection based on a recombinant envelope protein produced in Trichoplusia ni larvae.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Escribano, José M; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Escribano-Romero, Estela

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a Flavivirus distributed most widely, is presenting lately variable epidemiological and ecological patterns, including an increasing virulence that has already caused over 1000 human deaths in USA. Currently, diagnosis of WNV is achieved mainly by enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) based on the use of inactivated whole WNV (iWNV) as antigen, although results have to be confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs). Expression of WNV envelope recombinant E (rE) protein and its usefulness as ELISA antigen are described. Production of rE was achieved upon infection of Trichoplusia ni insect larvae with a recombinant baculovirus. Once optimized, the rE-based ELISA was validated with a battery of mouse and equine sera characterized previously. Concordance with the iWNV-based ELISA used routinely was good (95%), as it was with the reference PRNT (90%), with specificity of 94.4% and sensitivity of 88.1%. Production of rE protein in insect larvae allows for an easy, low cost and quite large-scale yield of partially purified antigen which is suitable for serological diagnosis of WNV, without the need for manipulation of large quantities of infective virus.

  16. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for thiacloprid in soil and agro-products with phage-displayed peptide.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Hua, Xiude; Liu, Xiaofeng; Shi, Haiyan; Gee, Shirley J; Wang, Minghua; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-07-15

    A monoclonal antibody (3A5) that can recognize thiacloprid was produced, and a linear 8-residue peptide phage library was constructed. Six phage-displayed peptides were isolated from the linear 8-residue peptide phage library and a cyclic 8-residue peptide phage library. A phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect thiacloprid using a phage-displayed peptide. Under the optimal conditions, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) and the limit of detection (IC10) of the developed phage ELISA were 8.3 and 0.7 μg/L, respectively. Compared with the conventional ELISA, the sensitivity was improved more than 3-fold. The cross-reactivity (CR) was less than 0.08% for the tested structural analogues and was regarded as negligible. The recoveries of thiacloprid ranged from 80.3% to 116.3% in environmental and agricultural samples, which conformed to the requirements for residue detection. The amount of thiacloprid detected by phage ELISA in the samples was significantly correlated with that detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The current study indicates that isolating phage-displayed peptides from phage display libraries is an alternative method for the development of a sensitive immunoassay and that the developed assay is a potentially useful tool for detecting thiacloprid in environmental and agricultural samples. PMID:25908560

  17. ELEGANT ENVIRONMENTAL IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunochemical methods are based on selective antibodies directed to a particular target analyte. The specific binding between antibody and analyte can be used for detection and quantitation. Methods such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can provide a sensitiv...

  18. [Fluorescence polarization immunoassay and microparticle enzyme immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Suguri, M; Hirose, N; Myoga, A; Doss, R; Tatsumi, N

    1996-11-01

    We describe a new clinical laboratory instrument, the Abbott AxSYM, which provides random- and continuous-access testing for immunoassays, 20 onboard reagents, primary tube sampling, and a throughput of 80 to 120 tests per hour. The AxSYM incorporates three separate analytical technologies for processing immunoassays: microparticle enzyme immunoassay, fluorescence polarization immunoassay, and a novel technology known as ion-capture immunoassay. The system incorporates both common and technology-specific subsystems controlled by a real-time software scheduling processor. Tests can be processed in one- or two-step sandwich or competitive formats, with variable pipetting steps, incubation periods, optical read formats, and wash sequences. Menu capabilities include test for hepatitis, retrovirus, tumor markers, fertility markers, thyroid functions, and therapeutic drugs. The time to first result is 15 approximately 25 min for most routine assay and < or = 15 min for stat assays (i.e., creatine kinase MB isoenzyme, human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit, and therapeutic drugs). AxSYM assay performance for 23 assays was comparable with that of the Abbott IMx and TDx analyzers; specimen correlation data had correlation from 0.99 to 1.10. Within-run imprecision (CV) was 1.5% to 11.4%, with most assays (19 of 23) demonstrating CVs < or = 8.0%.

  19. Production of monoclonal antibodies with broad specificity and development of an immunoassay for microcystins and nodularin in water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huijuan; Dai, Rui; Zhang, Huiyan; Li, Chenglong; Zhang, Xiya; Shen, Jianzhong; Wen, Kai; Wang, Zhanhui

    2016-09-01

    Microcystins (MCs) and nodularin (NOD) are cyanobacterial hepatotoxins that can greatly harm human health. Multi-analyte immunoassays provide efficient and cheap methods of screening these toxins. To develop a multi-analyte immunoassay, an antibody with both broad specificity and high affinity for structurally similar algal toxins is urgently needed. In this study, microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) and NOD were conjugated to carrier proteins using a one-step active ester (AE) method and multistep thiol-ene click chemistry and glutaraldehyde method, respectively. The immunogens obtained from these two conjugation methods were evaluated for their effectiveness in producing antibodies. The results demonstrated that the antisera derived from AE immunogens showed better performance in terms of affinity and titer. Using this simple AE method, we prepared a new immunogen for NOD and successfully produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 2G5, which could recognize not only NOD but also all eight of the tested MCs (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-WR, MC-LA, MC-LF, MC-LY, and MC-LW) with high sensitivity and improved uniform affinities (0.23 ≤ IC50 ≤ 0.68 ng mL(-1)) compared with previously described mAbs. Under optimal conditions, one indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed based on mAb2G5 for the detection of MC-LR and NOD, with limits of detection of 0.16 and 0.10 μg L(-1), respectively, and a recovery of 62-86 % with a coefficient of variation below 12.6 % in water samples.

  20. Production of monoclonal antibodies with broad specificity and development of an immunoassay for microcystins and nodularin in water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huijuan; Dai, Rui; Zhang, Huiyan; Li, Chenglong; Zhang, Xiya; Shen, Jianzhong; Wen, Kai; Wang, Zhanhui

    2016-09-01

    Microcystins (MCs) and nodularin (NOD) are cyanobacterial hepatotoxins that can greatly harm human health. Multi-analyte immunoassays provide efficient and cheap methods of screening these toxins. To develop a multi-analyte immunoassay, an antibody with both broad specificity and high affinity for structurally similar algal toxins is urgently needed. In this study, microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) and NOD were conjugated to carrier proteins using a one-step active ester (AE) method and multistep thiol-ene click chemistry and glutaraldehyde method, respectively. The immunogens obtained from these two conjugation methods were evaluated for their effectiveness in producing antibodies. The results demonstrated that the antisera derived from AE immunogens showed better performance in terms of affinity and titer. Using this simple AE method, we prepared a new immunogen for NOD and successfully produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 2G5, which could recognize not only NOD but also all eight of the tested MCs (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-WR, MC-LA, MC-LF, MC-LY, and MC-LW) with high sensitivity and improved uniform affinities (0.23 ≤ IC50 ≤ 0.68 ng mL(-1)) compared with previously described mAbs. Under optimal conditions, one indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed based on mAb2G5 for the detection of MC-LR and NOD, with limits of detection of 0.16 and 0.10 μg L(-1), respectively, and a recovery of 62-86 % with a coefficient of variation below 12.6 % in water samples. PMID:27311953

  1. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of excretory secretory antigens in humans with fascioliasis.

    PubMed Central

    Espino, A M; Finlay, C M

    1994-01-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been developed for the detection of Fasciola hepatica excretory secretory (ES) antigens in stool specimens of infected humans. The assay uses antibodies against F. hepatica ES antigens. A monoclonal antibody (ES78, mouse immunoglobulin G2a) was used to capture ES antigens, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody, peroxidase conjugate, was used to identify ES antigens. Thirteen of 14 patients with parasitological evidence of fascioliasis had a detectable concentration of ES antigens (more than 15 ng/ml). None of the stool specimens from controls and from patients with parasites other than F. hepatica showed a positive reaction, suggesting the absence of cross-reactions in this assay. When the 14 patients were retested 2 months after treatment, all of the specimens from the 11 parasitologically cured patients were negative by the antigen detection assay while the specimens from the 3 patients with persisting F. hepatica eggs in their stools remained positive. PMID:8126178

  2. A murine monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for almond (Prunus dulcis L.) detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Mengna; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Liu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2013-11-13

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-almond soluble protein rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and murine monoclonal antibody 4C10 as the detection antibodies was developed. The assay is specific and sensitive (3-200 ng almond protein/mL) for almond detection. The standardized assay is accurate (<15% CV) and reproducible (intra- and inter assay variability <15% CV). The assay did not register any cross-reactivity with the tested food matrices, suggesting the assay to be almond amandin specific. The assay could detect the presence of declared almond in the tested matched commercial samples. Further, the assay reliably detected the presence of almonds in the laboratory prepared food samples spiked with almond flour. PMID:24099349

  3. Timed ELISA: an alternative approach to quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Muller, R

    1997-10-01

    As the uses for ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) increase, so does the need for a quantitative procedure that does not require a spectrophotometer or other expensive equipment. 'Timed ELISA' employs an 'iodine clock' as the final step such that quantitative measurements may be made using a stopwatch. Catalase, coupled to the primary antibody, reduces the concentration of H2O2 available to generate iodine in the clock reaction. Iodine stains the starch component blue, but catalase prolongs the time taken for the change in colour to be observed. After the time delay occurs the transition to full colour development is extremely rapid (< 1 s) at all analyte concentrations, allowing clear definition of the end point. The performance of Timed ELISA is similar to that obtained using a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated system employing the customary spectrophotometric determination. PMID:9357102

  4. Microsticks as solid-phase carriers for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed Central

    Shekarchi, I C; Sever, J L; Ward, L A; Madden, D L

    1982-01-01

    Microsticks are machine-tooled or molded pegs of plastic or stainless steel which were developed as solid-phase carriers for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). They consist of a stem, which can be coated with plastic to be used as the reactive surface, and a shaft designed for easy handling and labeling and for positioning the sticks in microtiter wells and transfer plates. Microsticks permit a wide selection of coating materials and afford the user greater control over quality and standardization of the solid-phase surface. Polycarbonate and nitrocellulose coatings were tested in ELISAs for antibodies to measles virus, toxoplasma, and human gamma globulin. The Microsticks were found to give reproducible, sensitive, and specific ELISA results and minimized problems due to lot-to-lot and batch-to-batch variations found with other plastic carriers. PMID:6761355

  5. Efficacy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, A J; Paton, J C

    1987-01-01

    We examined the diagnostic efficacy of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for class-specific antibodies to Bordetella pertussis in acute-phase sera collected from 1,240 patients with suspected pertussis. A total of 833 serum specimens (67%) yielded positive results. The proportion of positive results increased to 77% if a second (convalescent-phase) serum was also tested. By comparison, a bacterial agglutination test for B. pertussis antibodies was positive in only 21% of acute-phase specimens and 50% of paired specimens. The high proportion of acute-phase sera which were ELISA positive indicates that a measurable serologic response has usually occurred by the time the diagnosis is suspected. Thus, the ELISA is potentially the most rapid means of laboratory confirmation of B. pertussis infection. PMID:2891724

  6. Blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, R; Plambeck, T; Foged, N T

    1991-01-01

    A blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), based upon a polyclonal rabbit antiserum specific to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, was developed for the detection of antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in pigs. By testing sera from pigs experimentally infected with the 11 recognized serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, the assay was proven to be specific for A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. With field sera from herds infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, the assay was found to be more sensitive than the complement fixation test. Positive results were not observed with field sera from herds known to be free from Actinobacillus infection or with sera from two herds infected with either A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 6 or 8. The high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the blocking ELISA will make it useful in field diagnostic work. PMID:1890179

  7. Determination of PCBs in fish using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasrado, J.A.; Santerre, C.R.; Zajicek, J.L.; Stahl, J.R.; Tillitt, D.E.; Deardorff, D.

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fish tissue using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Standard curves for Aroclor 1248, 1254, and 1260 in catfish tissue were developed with ranges from 0.05 to 0.5 ppm and 0.5 to 5.0 ppm. Wild fish were initially analyzed using gas chromatography/electron-capture detection (GC/ECD) and those having residues within the standard curve ranges were analyzed with ELISA. Results obtained using ELISA and GC/ECD were not significantly different (p < 0.05) from 0.05 to 0.5 ppm. From 0.5 to 5.0 ppm, the standard curve for Aroclor 1254 was the best predictor of total PCB in wild fish samples.

  8. Magnetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA) for determination of specific IgG in paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Z P; Guesdon, J L; Drouhet, E; Improvisi, L

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA) for quantification of IgG antibodies to somatic and metabolic antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was developed. Activation of magnetic polyacrylamide agarose beads with concanavalin A was superior to glutaraldehyde activation, and test sensitivity was higher for somatic than for metabolic antigens. Comparative MELISA, counterimmunoelectrophoresis and erythroimmunoassay tests with sera from 33 proven cases of paracoccidioidomycosis, 14 cases of histoplasmosis and 20 normal human sera showed the MELISA could distinguish antibody levels in paracoccidioidomycosis from those in normal sera; however two sera from histoplasmosis cases cross-reacted in the MELISA. MELISA is a rapid test (5-6 h) and the results suggest it has considerable potential value for assay of anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies. PMID:6438813

  9. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoproteins.

    PubMed

    Granström, M; Wretlind, B; Markman, B; Pavlovskis, O R; Vasil, M L

    1985-04-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed with four purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular proteins (exotoxin A, elastase, alkaline protease, and phospholipase C) to determine antibody levels in sera from healthy subjects and the serological response in patients colonized or infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Five of 39 burn patients with wounds colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa had elevated antibody titers to alkaline protease. Response to the other antigens was found in only a few patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections (septicemia, osteitis, pneumonia etc.) resulted in increased antibody levels to exotoxin A or phospholipase C in 15 of 22 patients. These findings suggest that repeated determinations of antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and phospholipase C might be used to monitor therapy in certain patients with osteitis and other deep Pseudomonas infections.

  10. Reliable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of coconut milk proteins in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Surojanametakul, Vipa; Doi, Hirotoshi; Shibata, Haruki; Mizumura, Tasuku; Takahashi, Toshio; Varanyanond, Warunee; Wannapinpong, Sirinrat; Shoji, Masahiro; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2011-03-23

    This study was designed to develop a novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantification of coconut milk proteins in processed foods. The developed sandwich ELISA was able to detect coconut milk proteins from various coconut milk products and did not show any cross-reactivity with 41 of 42 kinds of popularly used food ingredients, thus reflecting great specificity for coconut milk proteins. In addition, the established ELISA is highly sensitive and allowed the detection of 0.31 μg/g of coconut milk protein in complex food matrices. This proposed assay could serve as a useful tool for the detection of the presence of hidden coconut milk proteins in processed foods. PMID:21329352

  11. Combined cell culture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of poliovirus neutralization- relevant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wahby, A F

    2000-11-01

    A combined cell culture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CCC-ELISA) was developed for measuring the neutralizing antipoliovirus antibodies in human sera. The binding of different concentrations of each of the three poliovirus types to BGM cells in the presence and absence of a constant dilution from each test and reference serum was measured in the CCC-ELISA. The titers of the viruses neutralized by each serum were measured with the titration curves and used for interpretation of neutralizing titers to the three poliovirus types. Analysis of human sera revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of the CCC-ELISA and the microneutralization assay were comparable. The CCC-ELISA is nonsubjective, rapid, and highly reproducible. Furthermore, the CCC-ELISA could potentially be used as a seroepidemiologic tool for assessment of the humoral response to the cell culture infectious viruses.

  12. Detection of immunoglobulin M in cerebrospinal fluid from syphilis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J B; Farshy, C E; Hunter, E F; Hambie, E A; Wobig, G H; Larsen, S A

    1986-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were evaluated in an immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA) for syphilis with sonic extracts of Treponema pallidum coated on polystyrene plates. The ELISA procedure was reproducible, and T. pallidum antigens were stable., A total of 15 CSF samples from patients with neurosyphilis, 18 CSF samples from patients with syphilis, 12 CSF samples from patients treated for syphilis, and 494 CSF samples from patients with neurologic or other systemic diseases were tested. The IgM ELISA gave reactive results in all of six symptomatic and congenital neurosyphilitic patients and none of nine asymptomatic neurosyphilitic patients. Of 524 CSF samples from nonneurosyphilitic individuals, 513 were nonreactive, resulting in 98% test specificity. The IgM ELISA in CSF should prove to be useful for confirmation of symptomatic neurosyphilis. PMID:3533984

  13. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-format microneutralization test for dengue viruses.

    PubMed

    Vorndam, Vance; Beltran, Manuela

    2002-02-01

    A microneutralization test that measures anti-dengue antibodies was developed. Serum dilutions, neutralization reactions, and virus growth were performed in 96-well plates. After incubation, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that used mouse anti-dengue antibodies and an enzyme-conjugated anti-mouse antibody was used to measure cell-associated viral antigens. The resulting optical density readings were processed and graphed automatically by a spreadsheet program. This procedure provided results that are essentially the same as those from the plaque-reduction neutralization test for serum samples from primary dengue virus infections, but results correlated poorly with results from samples from people with secondary infections. The test offers the advantages of ease of performance, ease in the calculation of results, lower cost, and increased speed.

  14. A murine monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for almond (Prunus dulcis L.) detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Mengna; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Liu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2013-11-13

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-almond soluble protein rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and murine monoclonal antibody 4C10 as the detection antibodies was developed. The assay is specific and sensitive (3-200 ng almond protein/mL) for almond detection. The standardized assay is accurate (<15% CV) and reproducible (intra- and inter assay variability <15% CV). The assay did not register any cross-reactivity with the tested food matrices, suggesting the assay to be almond amandin specific. The assay could detect the presence of declared almond in the tested matched commercial samples. Further, the assay reliably detected the presence of almonds in the laboratory prepared food samples spiked with almond flour.

  15. A First Application of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening Cyclodiene Insecticides in Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dombrowski, T.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Mohrman, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate kit for screening of cyclodiene insecticides (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, and heptachlor) was evaluated for sensitivity, cross reactivity, and overall performance using groundwater samples from a contaminated site. Ground-water contaminants included several pesticide compounds and their manufacturing byproducts, as well as many other organic and inorganic compounds. Cross-reactivity studies were carried out for the cyclodiene compounds, and results were compared to those listed by the manufacturer. Data obtained were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the ELISA kit to the cyclodiene compounds in ground water samples with a contaminated matrix. The method quantitation limit for the ELISA kit was 15 ??g/L (as chlordane). Of the 56 ground-water samples analyzed using the ELISA plate kits, more than 85% showed cyclodiene insecticide contamination. The ELISA kit showed excellent potential as a screening tool for sites with suspected groundwater contamination by insecticides.

  16. Magnetic Beads-based Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) has been developed to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PAH-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PAH (HRP-PAH). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreaction among PAH-antibody-coated MBs, PAH analyte, and HRP-PAH. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing 3, 3´, 5, 5´- tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for electrochemical detection. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate were investigated, and the reduction peak current of TMB was used to quantify the concentration of PAH. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PAH conjugates, the enzyme catalytic reaction time, and the pH of the supporting electrolyte that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 50 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical magnetic immunoassay was successfully evaluated with tap water spiked with PAHs, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental applications.

  17. Immunoassays in Biotechnology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassays have broad applications for a wide variety of important biological compounds and environmental contaminants. Immunoassays can detect the presence of an antigen in the human body, a pollutant in the environment, or a critical antibody in a patient’s serum to develop a...

  18. Immunoassay based water quality analysis: A new tool for drinking water supply management

    SciTech Connect

    Kostyshyn, C.R.; Brown, W.; Hervey, E.; Hull, C.

    1996-11-01

    The recent availability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for the analysis of organic environmental contaminants provides drinking water utility managers and operators with a new tool for managing treatment operations and monitoring source watersheds. Immunoassay technology permits rapid, inexpensive and accurate in-plant testing of many SDWA regulated organic contaminants at concentrations well below established MCL`s. Analytical testing which would not be practicable due to the high cost or long turnaround time limitations of conventional testing methods is now being performed using immunoassay based analysis. Water quality data generated using immunoassay based methods are being utilized by drinking water utilities as an integral part of source watershed management programs, process operations optimization efforts, pro-active raw and finished water testing programs, and flood and incident response management.

  19. Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of serum immunoglobulin G response to human herpesvirus 6.

    PubMed Central

    Sloots, T P; Kapeleris, J P; Mackay, I M; Batham, M; Devine, P L

    1996-01-01

    A rapid (60-min) commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was evaluated. The specificity of the ELISA for HHV-6 was confirmed by absorption studies, with the reactivities of HHV-6-positive sera being unaffected by other herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and varicella-zoster virus) or the HSB2 cell line used to culture HHV-6. HHV-6 IgG antibody levels in a panel of 502 serum samples were determined by ELISA and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Results obtained by the two methods were in close agreement, suggesting that the ELISA provides a suitable test method for the determination of HHV-6 IgG antibodies in a routine clinical laboratory. Both tests were positive in 398 cases (79%), and both were negative in 71 cases (14%), with a different result obtained by IFA and ELISA in only 33 cases (7%). Furthermore, absorption of sera with HHV-6 prior to assay revealed that the majority of these results were false positive (n = 8) or false negative (n = 23) in the IFA (true positives or negatives in the ELISA). Subsequently, the ELISA showed a sensitivity of 99.76% and a specificity of 98.75%. HHV-6-specific IgG levels were also determined in paired serum samples collected from 49 donors--14 with exanthem subitum (ES), 15 with ES which was complicated with central nervous system involvement, and 20 undergoing bone marrow transplantation--in whom HHV-6 infection had been demonstrated by virus isolation and/or PCR. All patients with ES or central nervous system complications showed an increase in HHV-6-specific IgG, indicating that this ELISA may be a useful aid in the diagnosis of these conditions. Furthermore, 14 of 20 patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation showed an increase in HHV-6-specific IgG levels, possibly reflecting a reactivation of HHV-6 in these patients. PMID:8904436

  20. Comparison of Two Commercial Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays.

    PubMed

    Weissbach, Fabian H; Hirsch, Hans H

    2015-07-01

    Despite the availability of protective vaccines, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infections have been increasingly reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in the past 2 decades. Since the diagnosis of TBEV exposure relies on serological testing, we compared two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), i.e., Immunozym FSME IgG assay (ELISA-1) and Euroimmun FSME Vienna IgG assay (ELISA-2). Both assays use whole TBEV antigens, but they differ in viral strains (Neudoerfl for ELISA-1 and K23 for ELISA-2) and cutoff values. In testing of samples from 398 healthy blood donors, ELISA-1 showed higher reactivity levels than ELISA-2 (P < 0.001), suggesting different assay properties. This finding was supported by Bland-Altman analysis of the optical density at 450 nm (OD450) (mean bias, +0.32 [95% limits of agreement, -0.31 to +0.95]) and persisted after transformation into Vienna units. Concordant results were observed for 276 sera (69%) (44 positive and 232 negative results). Discordant results were observed for 122 sera (31%); 15 were fully discordant, all being ELISA-1 positive and ELISA-2 negative, and 107 were partially discordant (101 being ELISA-1 indeterminate and ELISA-2 negative and 6 having positive or indeterminate reactivity in both ELISAs). Neutralization testing at a 1:10 dilution yielded positive results for 33 of 44 concordant positive sera, 1 of 15 fully discordant sera, and 1 of 33 partially discordant sera. Indirect immunofluorescence testing revealed high antibody titers of ≥100 for yellow fever virus in 18 cases and for dengue virus in one case, suggesting that cross-reactivity contributed to the ELISA-1 results. We conclude that (i) cross-reactivity among flaviviruses remains a limitation of TBEV serological testing, (ii) ELISA-2 revealed reasonable sensitivity and specificity for anti-TBEV IgG population screening of human sera, and (iii) neutralization testing is most specific and should be reserved

  1. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the monitoring and surveillance of antibodies to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus based on a recombinant membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing-Hui; Zuo, Yu-Zhu; Shen, Xiao-Qiang; Gu, Wen-Yuan; Di, Jing-Mei

    2015-12-01

    The recent dramatic increase in reported cases of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in pig farms is a potential threat to the global swine industry. Therefore, the accurate diagnosis, serological monitoring, and surveillance of specific antibodies in pigs resulting from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection or vaccination would be essential in helping to control the spread of PED. We developed and validated an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the recombinant membrane (M) protein of PEDV. To detect PEDV antibodies in eight herds, 382 serum samples were collected from sows that had been immunized with a PED vaccine, and screened using the developed ELISA in parallel with a serum neutralization (SN) assay. Of the tested samples, 276 were positive for the presence of PEDV antibodies according to both assays, while 98 were negative. An excellent agreement between the ELISA and the SN assay was observed (kappa=0.947; 95% confidence interval=0.910-0.984; McNemar's test, P=0.727). No cross-reaction was detected for the developed ELISA with other coronaviruses or other common pig pathogens. The developed ELISA could be used for serological evaluation and indirect diagnosis of PED infection.

  2. Estimation of transfused red cell survival using an enzyme-linked antiglobulin test

    SciTech Connect

    Kickler, T.S.; Smith, B.; Bell, W.; Drew, H.; Baldwin, M.; Ness, P.M.

    1985-09-01

    An enzyme-linked antiglobulin test (ELAT) method was developed to estimate survival of transfused red cells. This procedure is based on a principle analogous to that of the Ashby technique were antigenically distinct red cells are transfused and their survival studied. The authors compared the ELAT survival to the V Chromium method (V Cr) in four patients. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias showed T 1/2 by ELAT of 17.5, 18, and 17 days versus 18.5, 20, and 19 days by the V Cr method. A fourth patient with traumatic cardiac hemolysis had two studies performed. In this case, the ELAT showed a T 1/2 of 10 and 8.1 days while V Cr T 1/2 values were 11 and 10.5 days. The ELAT method for measuring red cell survival yielded data which agreed closely with the results of the V Cr method. Although V Cr is the accepted method for red cell survival, the ELAT method can be used to estimate transfused red cell survival.

  3. One step enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for direct estimation of serum testosterone.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Basu, Anupam; Kariya, Kiran P

    2003-01-01

    One step competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for direct estimation of testosterone in human serum is described. Testosterone-3-O-carboxymethyl-oxime-bovine serum albumin (testosterone-3-O-CMO-BSA), was used as immunogen and testosterone-3-O-carboxymethyl-oxime-adipic-acid dihydrazide-horseradish peroxidase (testosterone-3-O-CMO-ADH-HRP) was used as tracer. To the testosterone antibody coated microtiter wells, standard or serum samples (100 microL), along with testosterone-3-O-CMO-ADH-HRP conjugate (100 microL) were incubated for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Bound enzyme activity was measured by using tetra methyl benzidine/hydrogen peroxide (TMB/H2O2) as a substrate. In this new strategy, charcoal stripped pooled human serum spiked with non-cross reactive C18, C19, C21, and C27 steroids, used for preparing the standards and blocking the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)/and other steroid binding globulins (SBG). The sensitivity of the assay was 0.015 ng/mL. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were ranged from 7.8 to 11.8 and 4.8 to 10.4, respectively. The serum testosterone values, obtained by this method, were correlated well with those obtained by radioimmunoassay r = .98 (n = 100). PMID:12778972

  4. Serodiagnosis of human and animal pythiosis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, L; Kaufman, L; Mandy, W; Glass, R

    1997-01-01

    Conventional serodiagnosis of Pythium insidiosum infections involves the use of the immunodiffusion (ID) test. This test specifically diagnoses human and animal pythiosis. The test, however, has limited sensitivity and does not detect some culturally proven cases of the disease. Because of the increased recognition of pythiosis among humans and animals, we developed and evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a soluble antigen from broken hyphae of P. insidiosum. Studies were carried out with sera from five humans and eight animals with culturally and/or histologically proven pythiosis. Some of these sera were negative in the ID test for pythiosis. Heterologous case sera from thirteen humans and two horses, plus 5 sera from healthy humans and 17 from healthy animals, were tested. Of the pythiosis case sera tested, the ID test detected only 8 of 13 (61.5%), whereas the ELISA detected all of them (100%). The ID and ELISA tests were entirely specific and gave negative results or low titers respectively, with sera from humans and animals with heterologous fungal infections or with no apparent illness. No correlation was found between the height of the ELISA titers and negative or positive sera in the ID test. Our results indicate that the ELISA is a reliable serodiagnostic test for pythiosis. It is as specific as the ID test but more sensitive. PMID:9384295

  5. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Souza, Placid E D

    2015-12-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes. The excretory-secretory (E-S Ag) antigen of F. gigantica adult flukes obtained after invitro incubation was used as an antigen. The test was conducted with 276 sera collected from cattle and buffaloes which included 22 sera each from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes (known positive serum) and with similar number of samples with healthy cattle and buffaloes (known negative serum). The positive results were observed in 18 and 19 of the sera from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes with sensitivity of 81.8 and 86.3 % respectively. Out of 188 serum samples which were found negative on faecal examination 32 (34 %) sera of cattle and 40 (42.5 %) sera of buffaloes were found positive by ELISA respectively. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 91.6 and 95.6 % in cattle and buffaloes respectively.

  6. Sandwich-dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Yanlong; Wang, Huiguo; Jin, Jinhua; Li, Wenzhe

    2013-10-01

    A sandwich-dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot ELISA) was developed for the detection of canine distemper virus (CDV). In 56 dogs suspected to have CD the rates of detection of CDV antigen in samples of blood lymphocytes and palpebral conjunctiva by dot ELISA and ELISA were, respectively, 91% (49/54) and 81% (44/54) for the lymphocyte samples and 88% (28/32) and 75% (24/32) for the conjunctival samples. The CDV detection limits were 10 ng/50 μL for dot ELISA and 40 ng/50 μL for ELISA. The reliability of dot ELISA relative to electron microscopy was 96% with 22 samples: all 21 samples in which CDV particles were observed by electron microscopy yielded positive results with dot ELISA; the single sample in which particles were not observed yielded false-positive results with dot ELISA. The results indicate that the dot ELISA developed can serve as a reliable rapid diagnostic test in suspected cases of CD and also be useful for epidemiologic surveillance of the disease.

  7. Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Sesame Seed in Foods.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Söylemez, Gülsen; Niemann, Lynn; Gaskin, Ferdelie E; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Small amounts of sesame can trigger allergic reactions in sesame-allergic patients. Because sesame is a widely used food ingredient, analytical methods are needed to support quality control and food safety programs in the food industry. In this study, polyclonal antibodies against sesame seed proteins were raised, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection and quantification of sesame seed residue in food. A comparison was made between this ELISA and other assays, particularly focusing on recovery of sesame seed residue from different food matrices. The developed ELISA is sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm and shows essentially no cross-reactivity with other foods or food ingredients (92 tested). The ELISA has a good recovery for analyzing sesame-based tahini in peanut butter, outperforming one other test. In a baked bread matrix, the ELISA has a low recovery, while two other assays perform better. We conclude that a sensitive and specific ELISA can be constructed based on polyclonal antibodies, which is suitable for detection of small amounts of sesame seed relevant for highly allergic patients. Furthermore, we conclude that different food products may require different assays to ensure adequate quantification of sesame.

  8. Detection of tetracosactide in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Martin, Laurent; Chaabo, Ayman; Lasne, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    As a synthetic analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), tetracosactide is prohibited in sport by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method is proposed for detection of this drug in plasma. Since its structure corresponds to the 24 N-terminal of the 39 amino acids of the natural endogenous peptide ACTH, tetracosactide can be detected with a commercial ELISA kit for ACTH that uses antibodies, the epitopes of which are located in the 1-24 part of ACTH. However, an essential condition for detection specificity is the preliminary total clearance of endogenous ACTH in the plasma samples. This is achieved by a preparative step based on cation-exchange chromatography before ELISA. The method is specific and sensitive (LOD: 30 pg/mL) and may be used as a screening analysis in anti-doping control. The pre-analytical conditions are shown to be of the upmost importance and recommendations for blood collection (EDTA tubes), sample transport (4 °C) and plasma sample storage (-20 °C) are presented.

  9. Magnetic nanoparticle based purification and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibody against enrofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Gun; Kim, Myeong-Ae; Park, Young-Il; Jung, Tae-Sung; Son, Seong-Wan; So, ByungJae

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal anti-enrofloxacin antibody was prepared for a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and purification system using monoclonal antibody (mAb) coupled magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The IC50 values of the developed mAb for enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, sarafloxacin, pefloxacin, and norfloxacin were 5.0, 8.3, 9.7, 21.7, 36.0, and 63.7 ng/mL, respectively. The lowest detectable level of ENR was 0.7 ng/mL in the prepared ELISA system. To validate the developed ELISA in the food matrix, known amounts of ENR were spiked in meat and egg samples at 10, 20 and 30 ng/mL. Recoveries for ENR ranged from 72.9 to 113.16% with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.42 to 10.11%. The applicability of the mAb-MNP system was verified by testing the recoveries for ENR residue in three different matrices. Recoveries for ENR ranged from 75.16 to 86.36%, while the CV ranged from 5.08 to 11.53%. Overall, ENR-specific monoclonal antibody was prepared and developed for use in competitive to ELISAs for the detection of ENR in animal meat samples. Furthermore, we suggest that a purification system for ENR using mAb-coupled MNPs could be useful for determination of ENR residue in food. PMID:26040610

  10. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the organophosphorus insecticide bromophos-ethyl.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Ok; Kim, Yoo Jung; Lee, Yong Tae; Hammock, Bruce D; Lee, Hye-Sung

    2002-11-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantitative detection of the organophosphorus insecticide bromophos-ethyl. Four bromophos-ethyl derivatives (haptens) were synthesized and were coupled to carrier proteins through the pesticide thiophosphate group to use as an immunogen or as a coating antigen. Rabbits were immunized with either one of two haptens coupled to bovine serum albumin for production of polyclonal antibodies, and the sera were screened against one of the haptens coupled to ovalbumin. Using the serum with highest titer, an antigen-coated ELISA was developed, which showed an IC(50) of 3.9 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/mL (20% inhibition). An antibody-coated ELISA using an enzyme tracer was also developed, which showed an IC(50) of 6.5 ng/mL with a detection limit of 1.0 ng/mL (20% inhibition). The antibodies showed negligible cross-reactivity with other organophosphorus pesticides except with the insecticides bromophos-methyl and chlorpyrifos in the antibody-coated assay only. Recoveries of bromophos-ethyl from fortified crop and water samples ranged from 82 to 128% and from 95 to 127%, respectively. PMID:12405760

  11. Measuring Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibition Antibody Titers by Enzyme-linked Lectin Assay.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jin; Couzens, Laura; Eichelberger, Maryna C

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies to neuraminidase (NA), the second most abundant surface protein on influenza virus, contribute toward protection against influenza. Traditional methods to measure NA inhibiting (NI) antibody titers are not practical for routine serology. This protocol describes the enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA), a practical alternative method to measure NI titers that is performed in 96 well plates coated with a large glycoprotein substrate, fetuin. NA cleaves terminal sialic acids from fetuin, exposing the penultimate sugar, galactose. Peanut agglutinin (PNA) is a lectin with specificity for galactose and therefore the extent of desialylation can be quantified using a PNA-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, followed by addition of a chromogenic peroxidase substrate. The optical density that is measured is proportional to NA activity. To measure NI antibody titers, serial dilutions of sera are incubated at 37 °C O/N on fetuin-coated plates with a fixed amount of NA. The reciprocal of the highest serum dilution that results in ≥50% inhibition of NA activity is designated as the NI antibody titer. The ELLA provides a practical format for routine evaluation of human antibody responses following influenza infection or vaccination. PMID:27684188

  12. Standardization of Immunoglobulin M Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Routine Diagnosis of Arboviral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Denise A.; Muth, David A.; Brown, Teresa; Johnson, Alison J.; Karabatsos, Nick; Roehrig, John T.

    2000-01-01

    Immunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) is a rapid and versatile diagnostic method that readily permits the combination of multiple assays. Test consolidation is especially important for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) which belong to at least three virus families: the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae. Using prototype viruses from each of these families and a panel of well-characterized human sera, we have evaluated and standardized a combined MAC-ELISA capable of identifying virus infections caused by members of each virus family. Furthermore, by grouping antigens geographically and utilizing known serological cross-reactivities, we have reduced the number of antigens necessary for testing, while maintaining adequate detection sensitivity. We have determined that a 1:400 serum dilution is most appropriate for screening antiviral antibody, using a positive-to-negative ratio of ≥2.0 as a positive cutoff value. With a blind-coded human serum panel, this combined MAC-ELISA was shown to have test sensitivity and specificity that correlated well with those of other serological techniques. PMID:10790107

  13. Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Sesame Seed in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Koppelman, Stef J.; Söylemez, Gülsen; Niemann, Lynn; Gaskin, Ferdelie E.; Baumert, Joseph L.; Taylor, Steve L.

    2015-01-01

    Small amounts of sesame can trigger allergic reactions in sesame-allergic patients. Because sesame is a widely used food ingredient, analytical methods are needed to support quality control and food safety programs in the food industry. In this study, polyclonal antibodies against sesame seed proteins were raised, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection and quantification of sesame seed residue in food. A comparison was made between this ELISA and other assays, particularly focusing on recovery of sesame seed residue from different food matrices. The developed ELISA is sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm and shows essentially no cross-reactivity with other foods or food ingredients (92 tested). The ELISA has a good recovery for analyzing sesame-based tahini in peanut butter, outperforming one other test. In a baked bread matrix, the ELISA has a low recovery, while two other assays perform better. We conclude that a sensitive and specific ELISA can be constructed based on polyclonal antibodies, which is suitable for detection of small amounts of sesame seed relevant for highly allergic patients. Furthermore, we conclude that different food products may require different assays to ensure adequate quantification of sesame. PMID:26783532

  14. Mixed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA) for HLA class I antigen: a plasma membrane marker.

    PubMed

    Bjerrum, O W; Borregaard, N

    1990-03-01

    This study introduces a simple, reproducible assay for HLA class I antigen using antibodies against beta 2-microglobulin and the heavy chain on HLA. The sandwich technique was named mixed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA), and was designed for identification of plasma membranes in neutrophil subcellular fractions. The subcellular localization of HLA was identical to that of other plasma membrane markers, [3H]concanavalin A and detergent-independent alkaline phosphatase, and was unchanged by stimulation of cells by weak and strong secretagogues. In addition to the presence as part of the HLA complex in the plasma membrane uncomplexed beta 2-microglobulin is present in the specific granules of neutrophils. However, the release of beta 2-microglobulin from intact neutrophils stimulated with formyl-methionylleucylphenylalanine was much higher than could be explained by exocytosis of specific granules. Subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that beta 2-microglobulin is localized in fractions characterized by latent alkaline phosphatase and released from this novel secretory compartment in response to stimulation with formyl-methionylleucylphenylalanine. PMID:2181625

  15. Droplet Digital Enzyme-Linked Oligonucleotide Hybridization Assay for Absolute RNA Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Weihua; Chen, Liben; Rane, Tushar D.; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2015-01-01

    We present a continuous-flow droplet-based digital Enzyme-Linked Oligonucleotide Hybridization Assay (droplet digital ELOHA) for sensitive detection and absolute quantification of RNA molecules. Droplet digital ELOHA incorporates direct hybridization and single enzyme reaction via the formation of single probe-RNA-probe (enzyme) complex on magnetic beads. It enables RNA detection without reverse transcription and PCR amplification processes. The magnetic beads are subsequently encapsulated into a large number of picoliter-sized droplets with enzyme substrates in a continuous-flow device. This device is capable of generating droplets at high-throughput. It also integrates in-line enzymatic incubation and detection of fluorescent products. Our droplet digital ELOHA is able to accurately quantify (differentiate 40% difference) as few as ~600 RNA molecules in a 1 mL sample (equivalent to 1 aM or lower) without molecular replication. The absolute quantification ability of droplet digital ELOHA is demonstrated with the analysis of clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae 16S rRNA to show its potential value in real complex samples. PMID:26333806

  16. Biotin-Streptavidin Competition Mediates Sensitive Detection of Biomolecules in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is the gold standard assay for detecting and identifying biomolecules using antibodies as the probe. Improving ELISA is crucial for detecting disease-causing agents and facilitating diagnosis at the early stages of disease. Biotinylated antibody and streptavidin-conjugated horse radish peroxide (streptavidin-HRP) often are used with ELISA to enhance the detection of various kinds of targets. In the present study, we used a competition-based strategy in which we pre-mixed free biotin with streptavidin-HRP to generate high-performance system, as free biotin occupies some of the biotin binding sites on streptavidin, thereby providing more chances for streptavidin-HRP to bind with biotinylated antibody. ESAT-6, which is a protein secreted early during tuberculosis infection, was used as the model target. We found that 8 fM of free biotin mixed with streptavidin-HRP anchored the higher detection level of ESAT-6 by four-fold compared with detection without free biotin (only streptavidin-HRP), and the limit of detection of the new method was 250 pM. These results suggest that biotin-streptavidin competition can be used to improve the diagnosis of analytes in other types of sensors. PMID:26954237

  17. Development of a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of imatinib.

    PubMed

    Saita, Tetsuya; Shin, Masashi; Fujito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Imatinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor used for first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Therapeutic drug monitoring targeting trough plasma levels of about 1000 ng/mL may help to optimize imantinib's therapeutic effect. This paper reports a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for a pharmacokinetic evaluation of imatinib. Anti-imatinib antibody was obtained by immunizing rabbits with an antigen conjugated with bovine serum albumin and succinimidyl 4-{(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl}-benzoate. Enzyme labeling of imatinib with horseradish peroxidase was similarly performed using succinimidyl 4-{(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl}-benzoate. A simple ELISA for imatinib was developed using the principle of direct competition between imatinib and the enzyme marker for anti-imatinib antibody which had been adsorbed by the plastic surface of a microtiter plate. Serum imatinib concentrations lower than 40 pg/mL were reproducibly measurable using the ELISA. This ELISA was specific to imatinib and showed very slight cross-reactivity (1.2%) with a major metabolite, N-desmethyl imatinib. Using this assay, drug levels were easily measured in the blood of mice after their oral administration of imatinib at a single dose of 50 mg/kg. The specificity and sensitivity of the ELISA for imatinib should provide a valuable new tool for use in therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of imatinib.

  18. Quantification of human tissue transglutaminase by a luminescence sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Johannes; Lachmann, Ingolf; Wagner, Uta; Osman, Awad A; Mothes, Thomas

    2011-12-15

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a calcium-dependent enzyme that catalyzes crosslinking of peptidic glutamine residues with primary amines via isopeptide bonds and hydrolysis of ATP or GTP. The enzyme exerts a variety of functions at the cellular and tissue levels that may be disturbed in disease. Its role in pathoprocesses is poorly understood. For investigation of the involvement of tTG in disease, sensitive and specific assays should be available. We have developed the first sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against human tTG. tTG is captured by mab 3C10 and detected by biotinylated mab 10F3. After incubation with peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin, bound tTG is visualized by peroxidase reaction applying a luminescence substrate. The detection limit was 40 pg/ml. The assay was highly reproducible. Recovery of spiked tTG in crude samples was greater than 92%. The enzyme could be detected in cellular lysates and tissue homogenates of humans. The effect of typical effectors (retinoic acid and interferon-γ) on tTG expression could be demonstrated. A low signal was also obtained in mice samples, suggesting cross-reactivity of the mabs with murine tTG. The new sandwich ELISA may be successfully applied for investigation of physiological functions of tTG and of disorders associated with inadequate tTG expression.

  19. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for estimation of urinary albumin.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Kariya, Kiran P; Prasad, Pramod K V; Chaube, Shail K; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Yearly estimation of urinary albumin is a prerequisite for predicting renal status in Diabetes Type II patients with negative dipstick results for overt proteinuria. A simple, sensitive, and cost-effective enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for urinary albumin has been developed using human serum albumin antiserum (HSA-antiserum), HSA-biotin, and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (SA-HRP) conjugates. To the antibody-coated wells, 100 μL of HSA standards followed by 1:100 diluted urine samples in duplicate were added and then 50 μL of HSA-biotin conjugates was added in all the wells. 100 μL of SA-HRP was added after washing. Bound enzyme activity was measured by adding 100 μL TMB/H2O2. The analytical sensitivity and ED50 of the developed method was found to be 0.01 μg/mL and 0.35 μg/mL, respectively. The percent recovery of the HSA from exogenously spiked urine pools were in the range of 98.13-100.29%. The intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation (CVs) ranged from 3.38-10.32 % and 4.22-11.01%, respectively. The antibody showed 4.4% and 3.2% cross reactivity with monkey and horse serum albumin, respectively. There was no cross reaction with human β2-microglobulin, γ-globulin, and haemoglobulin.

  20. [Development of direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of domoic acid].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Cheng, Jin-Ping; Gao, Li-Li; Dong, Yu; Xi, Lei

    2012-02-01

    To develop a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid detection of domoic acid concentrations, HRP (horse radish peroxidase) was successfully linked to DA using EDC. The concentration of DA was quantitatively analyzed on the basic of the specific immune responses between the DA- HRP and the monoclonal antibodies made in advance. Calibration curve were established after the optimization of reaction conditions such as the type of blocking solution, the blocking time and the incubation temperature. The results show that, the best reaction condition of the direct competitive ELISA is 1% gelatin, blocking 1 h at 37 degrees C, incubating 1 h at 37 degrees C after the monoclonal antibodies added. The detect limit is 3.58 ng x mL(-1), the coefficient of variation between the holes is below 15%, and the recovery is 80% - 120%. The whole analysis process could be completed within 1.5 h. It meets the requirements of rapid and batch detection of domoic acid. The method will have broad development prospects.

  1. [Development of a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for vindesine].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yukitaka; Saita, Tetsuya; Fujito, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for pharmacokinetic studies of vindesine (VDS). Anti-VDS antibody was obtained by immunizing rabbits with VDS conjugated with bovine serum albumin using N-[β-(4-diazophenyl) ethyl] maleimide as a heterobifunctional coupling agent. An enzyme marker was similarly prepared by coupling VDS with horseradish peroxidase using N-(4-diazophenyl) maleimide. The detection limit of VDS by ELISA was approximately 24 pg/mL with 50-mL samples. This assay was specific for VDS and showed very slight cross-reactivity with other vinca alkaloids, vincristine (0.18%) and vinblastine (0.11%). The values for the VDS concentrations detected using this assay were comparable with those detected using HPLC. There was a good correlation between the values determined by the two methods. Moreover, ELISA was about 50-fold more sensitive in detecting VDS at lower concentrations. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA should provide a useful tool for pharmacokinetic studies of VDS.

  2. Comparison of Mycoplasma arthritidis strains by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and DNA restriction analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, L R; Voelker, L L; Ehle, L J; Hirsch, S; Dutenhofer, C; Olson, K; Beck, B

    1995-01-01

    Twenty Mycoplasma arthritidis strains or isolates were compared by a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by an antiserum adsorption technique, Western immunoblotting, and restriction analysis of chromosomal DNA. Antigenic markers that defined strains related to strains 158p10p9, PG6, and H606 were identified. In addition, restriction analysis allowed all 20 strains to be divided into six groups. Results of restriction analysis corresponded generally with antigenic similarities, although the former did not allow grouping with as fine a precision as the latter. However, intrastrain antigenic variability, which is common among many Mycoplasma species, including M. arthritidis, introduced a complicating factor into our attempts at antigenic analysis. While serologic and antigenic analyses remain useful, we recommend that they be used with caution and in combination with other techniques for identifying and characterizing new isolates and newly acquired strains. Combinations of these techniques have proven to be useful in our laboratory for quality control and for uncovering interesting relationships among strains subjected to animal passage and their less virulent antecedents and among strains originally classified as the same but obtained from different sources and maintained, sometimes for decades, in different laboratories. PMID:7494014

  3. Detection of cytomegalovirus in urine samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    McKeating, J A; Stagno, S; Stirk, P R; Griffiths, P D

    1985-08-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in urine using monoclonal antibodies directed against CMV as a capture for viral antigen. The assay was capable of detecting virus at 10(2.3)TCID50/ml as determined by titration of stock virus, strain Ad169. The assay was found to have a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 100% when 73 coded stored urine specimens were examined. Assuming that the poor sensitivity was due to loss of antigen following storage, we proceeded to analyse fresh urine specimens. Surprisingly, the assay gave negative results with 46 fresh urines known to contain CMV; however, following storage at +4 degrees C for two weeks, 35 (76%) of these samples gave ELISA results in the positive range. This detection of CMV, after storage at +4 degrees C, could be due to degradation of virus particles leading to release of soluble glycoproteins into the medium or to the presence of an inhibitory substance in fresh urine that is destroyed during storage.

  4. Development of a novel baculovirus titration method using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cheng, Tong; Ma, Ke; Xia, Dezhen; Wang, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Du, Hailian; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-03-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is one of the most powerful methods for production of recombinant proteins for research or commercial purposes. Titration of viable virus in insect cell culture is often required when BEVS is used for basic research or bioprocessing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay using monoclonal antibodies against the major capsid protein VP39 of both Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) was developed for baculovirus quantitation at 48h post-infection. The titer was determined by visualizing infected insect cells as blue spots and automated spot counting was achieved with ELISPOT hardware and software. Log-scale comparison of the results between the ELISPOT assay and a conventional end point dilution assay using a fluorescent marker showed a good correlation for both AcMNPV (R(2)=0.9980, p<0.05) and BmNPV (R(2)=0.9834, p<0.05). In conclusion, a novel, rapid and semi-automated procedure for titrating baculovirus was developed based on the specific immunostaining of infected cells followed by automated spot counting.

  5. Standardization of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for avian influenza virus antibodies in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Abraham, A; Sivanandan, V; Halvorson, D A; Newman, J A

    1986-03-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio was useful in determining the optimal dilution of rabbit anti-turkey conjugate. Optimum dilution for rabbit anti-turkey conjugate to be used in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was 1:1,000. The avian influenza virus antigen concentration was 128 hemagglutinating units (0.3 microgram of protein) per well, as determined by checkerboard titration. Bovine serum albumin fraction V increased nonspecific binding of conjugate and was not used to coat the plates in subsequent tests. Using ELISA, nonspecific binding to avian influenza virus-coated plates were not found with antibodies to Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli. Chromogens o-phenenediamine, and 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethyl-benz-thiazoline sulfonic acid) were almost equal in sensitivity for detecting released oxygen from the H2O2. The substrate plate was more sensitive than was the polystyrene plate. Dual wavelength was reliable in reading ELISA results.

  6. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of IgG antibodies to human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Sarov, I; Andersen, P; Andersen, H K

    1980-02-01

    A solid-phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of IgG antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV) is described. The assay used purified CMV and extracts of CMV infected cells as antigen. Antigens were desiccated onto the bottom surface of polystyrene microcuvettes. The antibodies bound to the antigens were assayed by anti-IgG-alkaline phosphate conjugate followed by addition of the enzyme substrate. Titration curves have been obtained from the sera of 35 blood donors and of 23 patients. Comparison of results obtained by ELISA with those obtained by complement fixation (CF) shows that there is agreement between the tests. Both purified CMV and extracts of CMV infected cells were found to be suitable antigens. Purified CMV was of value particularly in those sera which show high reactivity against control antigen. The ELISA technique described is approximately 412 to 548 times more sensitive than the CF test when purified CMV or extracts of CMV infected cells, respectively, are used as antigens. No significant heterotypic rise to CMV was observed by ELISA in three sets of sera with seroconversion to herpes simplex virus. The ELISA technique gives objective results, is easily performed, and may be adaptable as a routine test both for serological diagnosis of CMV infection and for screening of the general population.

  7. Quantifying specific antibody concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using slope correction.

    PubMed

    Barrette, Roger W; Urbonas, Jessica; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2006-07-01

    Assessing the magnitude of an antibody response is important to many research and clinical endeavors; however, there are considerable differences in the experimental approaches used to achieve this end. Although the time-honored approach of end point titration has merit, the titer can often be misleading due to differences in how it is calculated or when samples contain high concentrations of low-avidity antibodies. One frequently employed alternative is to adapt commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, designed to measure total antibody concentrations, to estimate antigen-specific antibody concentrations. This is accomplished by coating the specific antigen of interest in place of the capture antibody provided with the kit and then using the kit's standard curve to quantify the specific antibody concentration. This approach introduces considerable imprecision, due primarily to its reliance on a single sample dilution. This "single-point" approach fails to address differences in the slope of the sample titration curve compared to that of the standard curve. Here, we describe a general approach for estimating the effective concentration of specific antibodies, using antisera against foot-and-mouth disease virus VP1 peptide. This was accomplished by initially calculating the slope of the sample titration curve and then mathematically correcting the slope to that of a corresponding standard curve. A significantly higher degree of precision was attained using this approach rather than the single-point method.

  8. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in urine of Peromyscus leucopus by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Stafford, K C

    1994-03-01

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, in urine from white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Of the 87 urine specimens tested from 87 mice collected in widely separated tick-infested sites in Connecticut, 57 (65.5%) contained detectable concentrations of spirochetal antigens. Forty-seven (62.7%) of 75 serum samples analyzed contained antibodies to B. burgdorferi. In culture work with tissues from bladders, kidneys, spleens, or ears, 50 of 87 mice (57.5%) were infected with B. burgdorferi. Thirty-eight (76%) of 50 infected mice had antigens of this spirochete in urine, while 36 (72%) individuals had infected bladders. Of those with infected bladders, 24 (66.7%) mice excreted subunits or whole cells of B. burgdorferi into urine. Successful culturing of B. burgdorferi from mouse tissues, the presence of serum antibodies to this bacterium, and detection of antigens to this spirochete in urine provide further evidence that multiple assays can be performed to verify the presence of B. burgdorferi in P. leucopus.

  9. Click chemistry armed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure palmitoylation by hedgehog acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Masumoto, Naoko; Bodakh, George; Konitsiotis, Antonio D; Thinon, Emmanuelle; Rodgers, Ursula R; Owens, Raymond J; Magee, Anthony I; Tate, Edward W

    2015-12-01

    Hedgehog signaling is critical for correct embryogenesis and tissue development. However, on maturation, signaling is also found to be aberrantly activated in many cancers. Palmitoylation of the secreted signaling protein sonic hedgehog (Shh) by the enzyme hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) is required for functional signaling. To quantify this important posttranslational modification, many in vitro Shh palmitoylation assays employ radiolabeled fatty acids, which have limitations in terms of cost and safety. Here we present a click chemistry armed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (click-ELISA) for assessment of Hhat activity through acylation of biotinylated Shh peptide with an alkyne-tagged palmitoyl-CoA (coenzyme A) analogue. Click chemistry functionalization of the alkyne tag with azido-FLAG peptide allows analysis through an ELISA protocol and colorimetric readout. This assay format identified the detergent n-dodecyl β-d-maltopyranoside as an improved solubilizing agent for Hhat activity. Quantification of the potency of RU-SKI small molecule Hhat inhibitors by click-ELISA indicated IC50 values in the low- or sub-micromolar range. A stopped assay format was also employed that allows measurement of Hhat kinetic parameters where saturating substrate concentrations exceed the binding capacity of the streptavidin-coated plate. Therefore, click-ELISA represents a nonradioactive method for assessing protein palmitoylation in vitro that is readily expandable to other classes of protein lipidation.

  10. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Vertical Micro Reactor Stack for the Detection of Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Katsuhiro; Morimoto, Syohei; Asano, Toshifumi; Ukita, Yoshiaki; Kato, Dai-Ichiro; Takeo, Masahiro; Utsumi, Yuichi; Negoro, Seiji

    Microreactors and micro total analysis system (μTAS) are recognized as powerful tools for genomics, proteomics, clinical diagnostics, and environmental testing. In this paper, we describe enzyme linked immunosorvent assay (ELISA) using a new microreactor with a vertical fluid flow operation. This microreactor is composed of two reaction vessels stacked on the vertical lines through PMMA fluid filters (φ3mm). The fluid filters constructed by deep X-ray lithography possess 2,100 pores (φ 40 μm), and have valve functions, which maintain liquid layer in each reaction vessel. In addition, the liquid can be selectively transferred by air pressure from upper vessel to lower, and vice versa. As a model of ELISA using the microreactor, we planed to detect mouse immunoglobulin (IgG). We bound the goat anti-IgG antibody to the surface of the PMMA filters, and assayed the IgG by ELISA using anti-IgG antibody/ peroxidase conjugate. We found that the mouse IgG (100 ng/ml) was quantitatively detected within 45 min of analytical period, which was ca. 1/3 of the period required for the conventional method using micro titer plate.

  11. Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Sesame Seed in Foods.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Söylemez, Gülsen; Niemann, Lynn; Gaskin, Ferdelie E; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Small amounts of sesame can trigger allergic reactions in sesame-allergic patients. Because sesame is a widely used food ingredient, analytical methods are needed to support quality control and food safety programs in the food industry. In this study, polyclonal antibodies against sesame seed proteins were raised, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection and quantification of sesame seed residue in food. A comparison was made between this ELISA and other assays, particularly focusing on recovery of sesame seed residue from different food matrices. The developed ELISA is sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm and shows essentially no cross-reactivity with other foods or food ingredients (92 tested). The ELISA has a good recovery for analyzing sesame-based tahini in peanut butter, outperforming one other test. In a baked bread matrix, the ELISA has a low recovery, while two other assays perform better. We conclude that a sensitive and specific ELISA can be constructed based on polyclonal antibodies, which is suitable for detection of small amounts of sesame seed relevant for highly allergic patients. Furthermore, we conclude that different food products may require different assays to ensure adequate quantification of sesame. PMID:26783532

  12. Characterization by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of monoclonal antibodies to Pisum and Avena phytochrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cordonnier, M.M.; Greppin, H.; Pratt, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Nine monoclonal antibodies to pea (Pisum sativum L.) and 16 to oat (Avena sativa L.) phytochrome are characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against phytochrome from six different sources: pea, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), oat, rye (Secale cereale L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). All antibodies were raised against phytochrome with a monomer size near 120,000 daltons. Nevertheless, none of them discriminated qualitatively between 118/114-kilodalton oat phytochrome and a photoreversible, 60-kilodalton proteolytic degradation product derived from it. In addition, none of the 23 antibodies tested discriminated substantially between phytochrome - red-absorbing form and phytochrome - far red-absorbing form. Two antibodies to pea and six to oat phytochrome also bound strongly to phytochrome from the other species, even though these two plants are evolutionarily widely divergent. Of these eight antibodies, two bound significantly to all of the six phytochrome preparations tested, indicating that these two may recognize highly conserved regions of the chromoprotein. Since the molecular function of phytochrome is unknown, these two antibodies may serve as unique probes for regions of this pigment that are important to its mode of action. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  13. Droplet Digital Enzyme-Linked Oligonucleotide Hybridization Assay for Absolute RNA Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Weihua; Chen, Liben; Rane, Tushar D.; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2015-09-01

    We present a continuous-flow droplet-based digital Enzyme-Linked Oligonucleotide Hybridization Assay (droplet digital ELOHA) for sensitive detection and absolute quantification of RNA molecules. Droplet digital ELOHA incorporates direct hybridization and single enzyme reaction via the formation of single probe-RNA-probe (enzyme) complex on magnetic beads. It enables RNA detection without reverse transcription and PCR amplification processes. The magnetic beads are subsequently encapsulated into a large number of picoliter-sized droplets with enzyme substrates in a continuous-flow device. This device is capable of generating droplets at high-throughput. It also integrates in-line enzymatic incubation and detection of fluorescent products. Our droplet digital ELOHA is able to accurately quantify (differentiate 40% difference) as few as ~600 RNA molecules in a 1 mL sample (equivalent to 1 aM or lower) without molecular replication. The absolute quantification ability of droplet digital ELOHA is demonstrated with the analysis of clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae 16S rRNA to show its potential value in real complex samples.

  14. Creating highly amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay signals from genetically engineered bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Brasino, Michael; Lee, Ju Hun; Cha, Jennifer N

    2015-02-01

    For early detection of many diseases, it is critical to be able to diagnose small amounts of biomarkers in blood or serum. One of the most widely used sensing assays is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which typically uses detection monoclonal antibodies conjugated to enzymes to produce colorimetric signals. To increase the overall sensitivities of these sensors, we demonstrate the use of a dually modified version of filamentous bacteriophage Fd that produces significantly higher colorimetric signals in ELISAs than what can be achieved using antibodies alone. Because only a few proteins at the tip of the micron-long bacteriophage are involved in antigen binding, the approximately 4000 other coat proteins can be augmented-by either chemical functionalization or genetic engineering-with hundreds to thousands of functional groups. In this article, we demonstrate the use of bacteriophage that bear a large genomic fusion that allows them to bind specific antibodies on coat protein 3 (p3) and multiple biotin groups on coat protein 8 (p8) to bind to avidin-conjugated enzymes. In direct ELISAs, the anti-rTNFα (recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha)-conjugated bacteriophage show approximately 3- to 4-fold gains in signal over that of anti-rTNFα, demonstrating their use as a platform for highly sensitive protein detection.

  15. A modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of avian pneumovirus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chiang, S; Dar, A M; Goyal, S M; Sheikh, M A; Pedersen, J C; Panigrahy, B; Senne, D; Halvorson, D A; Nagaraja, K V; Kapur, V

    2000-07-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) infection of turkeys in Minnesota was first confirmed in March 1997. Serum samples (n = 5,194) from 539 submissions to Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory were tested by a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of these, 2,528 (48.7%) samples from 269 submissions were positive and 2,666 (51.3%) samples from 270 submissions were negative for APV antibodies. Most positive samples were from Kandiyohi, Stearns, Morrison, and Meeker counties in Minnesota. In addition, 10 samples from South Dakota were positive. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test with anti-chicken and anti-turkey conjugates were compared by testing field and experimental sera. The ELISA test with anti-turkey conjugate was more sensitive than that with anti-chicken conjugate. The ELISA tests with antigens prepared with APV strains isolated from Colorado and Minnesota were also compared. No difference was detectable. Currently, the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory uses an antigen prepared from the Colorado isolate of APV and a goat anti-turkey conjugate in the ELISA test.

  16. The challenge of measuring elusive immune markers by enzyme-linked immuno-spot (ELISPOT) technique.

    PubMed

    Faresjö, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immuno-spot (ELISPOT) technique is a sensitive method used for measurement of elusive immune markers in limited-volume samples. By virtue of the exquisite sensitivity of the ELISPOT assay, frequency analysis of rare cell populations (e.g., antigen-specific responses), which was not possible before, is now relatively easy. However, development of a method sensitive enough to pinpoint elusive immune markers at the single-cell level is a challenge since there are a number of demands that have to be fulfilled and traps to avoid, achieving a valuable outcome.To optimize the environment for in vitro culture and analysis of immune spots by ELISPOT, a number of criteria have to be fulfilled: processing of sample and perhaps also cryopreservation of cells before analysis and, for the ELISPOT assay, optimal cell culture, positive and negative controls, antigen concentration, and, finally, development and readout of spots.If these criteria are fulfilled for your ELISPOT assay, you will likely have the opportunity to pinpoint elusive immune markers at the single-cell level. This chapter describes the ELISPOT assay for detection of cytokines (e.g., IFN-γ and IL-4), with focus on the main criteria that affect the assay. However, this method could be easily adapted to measure other immune markers in small volumes of biological samples.

  17. Biotin-Streptavidin Competition Mediates Sensitive Detection of Biomolecules in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Gopinath, Subash C B; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is the gold standard assay for detecting and identifying biomolecules using antibodies as the probe. Improving ELISA is crucial for detecting disease-causing agents and facilitating diagnosis at the early stages of disease. Biotinylated antibody and streptavidin-conjugated horse radish peroxide (streptavidin-HRP) often are used with ELISA to enhance the detection of various kinds of targets. In the present study, we used a competition-based strategy in which we pre-mixed free biotin with streptavidin-HRP to generate high-performance system, as free biotin occupies some of the biotin binding sites on streptavidin, thereby providing more chances for streptavidin-HRP to bind with biotinylated antibody. ESAT-6, which is a protein secreted early during tuberculosis infection, was used as the model target. We found that 8 fM of free biotin mixed with streptavidin-HRP anchored the higher detection level of ESAT-6 by four-fold compared with detection without free biotin (only streptavidin-HRP), and the limit of detection of the new method was 250 pM. These results suggest that biotin-streptavidin competition can be used to improve the diagnosis of analytes in other types of sensors. PMID:26954237

  18. [Development of direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of domoic acid].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Cheng, Jin-Ping; Gao, Li-Li; Dong, Yu; Xi, Lei

    2012-02-01

    To develop a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid detection of domoic acid concentrations, HRP (horse radish peroxidase) was successfully linked to DA using EDC. The concentration of DA was quantitatively analyzed on the basic of the specific immune responses between the DA- HRP and the monoclonal antibodies made in advance. Calibration curve were established after the optimization of reaction conditions such as the type of blocking solution, the blocking time and the incubation temperature. The results show that, the best reaction condition of the direct competitive ELISA is 1% gelatin, blocking 1 h at 37 degrees C, incubating 1 h at 37 degrees C after the monoclonal antibodies added. The detect limit is 3.58 ng x mL(-1), the coefficient of variation between the holes is below 15%, and the recovery is 80% - 120%. The whole analysis process could be completed within 1.5 h. It meets the requirements of rapid and batch detection of domoic acid. The method will have broad development prospects. PMID:22509610

  19. Development of an enzyme-linked immunospot assay for determination of rotavirus infectivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingdong; Lin, Haijun; Yu, Linqi; Xue, Miaoge; Ge, Shengxiang; Zhao, Qinjian; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-12-01

    Conventional rotavirus infectivity assays are time consuming, labor intensive, and with low sample throughput. To overcome these problems, a 96-well microplate enzyme-linked immunospot assay (Elispot) was developed for the measurement of rotavirus infectious titers. The infected MA104 cells were stained with a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-VP6 monoclonal antibody followed by detection with an ELISPOT analyzer. A linear relationship was found between spot number and input of rotavirus dose in SA11 and 10 rotavirus isolates of different genotypes. The propagation of rotavirus SA11 in MA104 cells was monitored, and the neutralizing activity of serum samples and monoclonal antibodies was determined. The 50% neutralizing titer (NT50) of serum and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of monoclonal antibodies were correlated well with the results determined by ELISA-based neutralization assay. In conclusion, a rapid and semi-automated procedure to determine rotavirus infectivity was developed, which will be useful to study the infectivity and the neutralizing epitopes of rotavirus.

  20. Reverse Transcription-PCR-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Alphavirus Infections▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Eryu; Paessler, Slobodan; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Carrara, Anne-Sophie; Ni, Haolin; Greene, Ivorlyne P.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the lack of a rapid, simple, and inexpensive assay for detecting alphavirus infections, we combined a reverse transcription-PCR with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA) to identify human pathogenic alphaviruses that are endemic in the New World. By combining the sensitivity of PCR, the detection simplicity of ELISA, and the specificities of DNA probes, this method rapidly detected and differentiated closely related species and subtypes of several medically important alphaviruses. After an amplification using RT-PCR with primers targeting conserved sequences in the nonstructural protein 1 gene, sequence-specific, biotin-labeled probes targeted against Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalitis or Mayaro virus genes were used for the detection of amplicons using ELISA. The assay is simple, fast, and easy to perform in an ordinary diagnostic laboratory or clinical setting. Nucleic acid derived from cell cultures infected with several alphaviruses, clinical specimens, and mosquito pools as well as frozen and paraffin-embedded animal tissues were detected and identified within 6 to 7 h in a sensitive and specific manner. PMID:16957044

  1. Quantification of Sorafenib in Human Serum by Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Saita, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yuta; Noda, Satoshi; Shioya, Makoto; Hira, Daiki; Andoh, Akira; Morita, Shin-Ya; Terada, Tomohiro; Shin, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib has been used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Here we have demonstrated the production of the first specific antibody against sorafenib. Anti-sorafenib serum was obtained by immunizing mice with an antigen conjugated with bovine serum albumin and carboxylic modified 4-(4-aminophenoxy)-N-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxamide (AMPC) using the N-succinimidyl ester method. Enzyme labeling of sorafenib with horseradish peroxidase was similarly performed using carboxylic modified AMPC. A simple competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for sorafenib was developed using the principle of direct competition between sorafenib and the enzyme marker for anti-sorafenib antibody, which had been adsorbed by the plastic surface of a microtiter plate. Serum sorafenib concentrations lower than 0.04 µg/mL were reproducibly measurable using the ELISA. This ELISA was specific to sorafenib and showed very slight cross-reactivity (2.5%) with a major metabolite, sorafenib N-oxide. The values of serum sorafenib levels from 32 patients measured by this ELISA were comparable with those measured by HPLC, and there was a strong correlation between the values determined by the two methods (Y=1.016X-0.137, r=0.979). The specificity and sensitivity of the ELISA for sorafenib should provide a valuable new tool for use in therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of sorafenib. PMID:26521829

  2. Red cell antibodies and low ionic strength: a study with enzyme-linked antiglobulin test.

    PubMed

    Leikola, J; Perkins, H A

    1980-01-01

    Alloantibody uptake on red blood cells was quantified with an accurate and reproducible enzyme-linked antiglobulin test. The uptake of anti-D, anti-Fy2 and anti-JK3 was markedly accelerated by low ionic strength salt solution (LISS) with a final ionic strength of 0.05 M. Near maximum uptake occurred within ten minutes at room temperature which corresponded to 60 minutes in saline at 37 C. Papain treatment of red blood cells increased the amount of anti-D bound, and there was no difference whether or not the papain-treated cells were suspended in LISS. In contrast, the uptake of IgG anti-A and anti-Leb was not accelerated by LISS, nor did LISS increase the rate of binding of antiblogulin to IgG antibody-coated red blood cells. We suggest this may be explained by the fact that the ABH and Lewis antigens (as well as bound IgG antibodies) extend beyond the "ionic cloud" surrounding the red blood cell. Antibody binding in the presence of albumin was approximately the same as in saline; but if the albumin was first dialyzed against LISS, the reaction was markedly accelerated and the final antibody uptake somewhat higher than in LISS alone.

  3. Dual-mode lensless imaging device for digital enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Kim, Soo Heyon; Miyazawa, Kazuya; Takehara, Hironari; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Digital enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is an ultra-sensitive technology for detecting biomarkers and viruses etc. As a conventional ELISA technique, a target molecule is bonded to an antibody with an enzyme by antigen-antibody reaction. In this technology, a femto-liter droplet chamber array is used as reaction chambers. Due to its small volume, the concentration of fluorescent product by single enzyme can be sufficient for detection by a fluorescent microscopy. In this work, we demonstrate a miniaturized lensless imaging device for digital ELISA by using a custom image sensor. The pixel array of the sensor is coated with a 20 μm-thick yellow filter to eliminate excitation light at 470 nm and covered by a fiber optic plate (FOP) to protect the sensor without resolution degradation. The droplet chamber array formed on a 50μm-thick glass plate is directly placed on the FOP. In the digital ELISA, microbeads coated with antibody are loaded into the droplet chamber array, and the ratio of the fluorescent to the non-fluorescent chambers with the microbeads are observed. In the fluorescence imaging, the spatial resolution is degraded by the spreading through the glass plate because the fluorescence is irradiated omnidirectionally. This degradation is compensated by image processing and the resolution of ~35 μm was achieved. In the bright field imaging, the projected images of the beads with collimated illumination are observed. By varying the incident angle and image composition, microbeads were successfully imaged.

  4. Development of a coxsackievirus A16 neutralization test based on the enzyme-linked immunospot assay.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wangheng; Yang, Lisheng; He, Delei; Zheng, Jun; Xu, Longfa; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yajing; Zhao, Huan; Ye, Xiangzhong; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2015-04-01

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the major pathogens responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The assessment of the humoral immunity response is indispensable in the development of vaccines against enteroviruses. The neutralization test based on the inhibition of cytopathic effects (Nt-CPE) is a common method for measuring neutralizing antibodies against CA16. However, an efficient neutralization test needs to be developed for seroepidemiological surveys and clinical trials of CA16 vaccines because Nt-CPE is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, a high-throughput neutralization test for CA16 based on the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (Nt-ELISPOT) was developed. The monoclonal antibody 7D10, which reacted with the viral protein VP1, was used to detect the cells infected with CA16. The neutralizing titers of sera were proven to be unchanged over an infectious dose range from 10 to 10,000TCID50 per well. The Nt-ELISPOT results correlated well with the Nt-CPE results (R(2) = 0.9250), and the detection period was shortened from five days to approximately 30h. Overall, the Nt-ELISPOT is a reliable and efficient method for measuring neutralizing antibodies against CA16.

  5. Quantification of Sorafenib in Human Serum by Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Saita, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yuta; Noda, Satoshi; Shioya, Makoto; Hira, Daiki; Andoh, Akira; Morita, Shin-Ya; Terada, Tomohiro; Shin, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib has been used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Here we have demonstrated the production of the first specific antibody against sorafenib. Anti-sorafenib serum was obtained by immunizing mice with an antigen conjugated with bovine serum albumin and carboxylic modified 4-(4-aminophenoxy)-N-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxamide (AMPC) using the N-succinimidyl ester method. Enzyme labeling of sorafenib with horseradish peroxidase was similarly performed using carboxylic modified AMPC. A simple competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for sorafenib was developed using the principle of direct competition between sorafenib and the enzyme marker for anti-sorafenib antibody, which had been adsorbed by the plastic surface of a microtiter plate. Serum sorafenib concentrations lower than 0.04 µg/mL were reproducibly measurable using the ELISA. This ELISA was specific to sorafenib and showed very slight cross-reactivity (2.5%) with a major metabolite, sorafenib N-oxide. The values of serum sorafenib levels from 32 patients measured by this ELISA were comparable with those measured by HPLC, and there was a strong correlation between the values determined by the two methods (Y=1.016X-0.137, r=0.979). The specificity and sensitivity of the ELISA for sorafenib should provide a valuable new tool for use in therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of sorafenib.

  6. Performance of a Pneumolysin Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Infections▿

    PubMed Central

    del Mar García-Suárez, María; Cima-Cabal, María Dolores; Villaverde, Roberto; Espinosa, Emma; Falguera, Miquel; de Los Toyos, Juan R.; Vázquez, Fernando; Méndez, Francisco J.

    2007-01-01

    A pneumolysin-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PLY-ELISA) for the detection of pneumolysin in urine was developed and evaluated in comparison with the commercially available Binax Now Streptococcus pneumoniae test (Binax, Portland, ME) for the diagnosis of pneumococcal infections. Assay sensitivity was evaluated using urine from 108 patients with culture-confirmed pneumococcal infections. In adults, the sensitivity and specificity of the PLY-ELISA were 56.6% and 92.2%, respectively. In children with nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage, PLY-ELISA and Binax Now S. pneumoniae test sensitivities were 62.5% and 87.5%, respectively, while specificities were 94.4% and 27.8%, respectively. In children with nonnasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage, PLY-ELISA and Binax Now S. pneumoniae test sensitivities were 68.7% and 93.7%, respectively, and test specificities were 94.1% and 41.2%, respectively. The persistence of pneumolysin in urine of pneumococcal pneumonia patients decreased significantly after 4 to 6 days of treatment. Our data suggest that combining the high specificity of the PLY-ELISA with the high sensitivity of the Binax Now S. pneumoniae test would enable pneumococcal infections to be accurately diagnosed in children. PMID:17728474

  7. An in-house enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay for human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Nazaimoon, W; Ng, M L; Bak, K

    1993-06-01

    A simple, non-isotopic in-house enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) for human growth hormone (GH) was developed. The assay involved using in-house polyclonal anti-GH adsorbed onto 96-well microtitre plates, commercially prepared mouse monoclonal anti-GH, and goat anti-mouse IgG horseradish peroxidase detection system. Results of recovery and parallelism studies ranged from 95%-106% and 98%-101% respectively, of the expected values. The detection limit of the assay was 0.008 mIU/well or the equivalent to 0.4 mIU/L of undiluted serum. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variations were 4.8%-7.9% and 6.5%-8.7% respectively. Serum GH levels measured in this assay correlated well with those measured in established in-house radioimmunoassays (r = 0.985, p < 0.001) and immunoradiometric assay from NETRIA (r = 0.984, p < 0.001). PMID:8277795

  8. Synthetic peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Fargeas, C; Hommel, M; Maingon, R; Dourado, C; Monsigny, M; Mayer, R

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic peptides, derived from the amino acid sequence of a Leishmania donovani clone, were used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibodies against L. donovani. For this purpose, five peptides were conjugated to a protein carrier, human serum albumin (HSA), by using a heterobifunctional reagent, epsilon-maleimidocaproic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester, to obtain a well-defined product. The sensitivity and the specificity of the peptide-specific ELISA were determined with a panel of 106 serum samples from individuals living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic; sera from post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis-infected patients and from individuals suffering from other infectious diseases were also included. ELISAs were performed with either a single peptide-HSA conjugate or a mixture of two peptide-HSA conjugates. Ninety-seven percent of the serum samples from patients with visceral leishmaniasis had detectable antibodies to one or more of the single synthetic peptides. ELISA with a single peptide-HSA conjugate proved to be less sensitive (less than 71%) but more specific (up to 93%) than ELISA with crude promastigote antigens (80% sensitivity and 79% specificity); when a combination of two different peptide-HSA conjugates was used, the test increased both in sensitivity and in specificity. Chemically defined peptide-protein conjugates improve the reproducibility and reliability of ELISA for the serodiagnosis of L. donovani infection. PMID:8788994

  9. Click chemistry armed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure palmitoylation by hedgehog acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Masumoto, Naoko; Bodakh, George; Konitsiotis, Antonio D.; Thinon, Emmanuelle; Rodgers, Ursula R.; Owens, Raymond J.; Magee, Anthony I.; Tate, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling is critical for correct embryogenesis and tissue development. However, on maturation, signaling is also found to be aberrantly activated in many cancers. Palmitoylation of the secreted signaling protein sonic hedgehog (Shh) by the enzyme hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) is required for functional signaling. To quantify this important posttranslational modification, many in vitro Shh palmitoylation assays employ radiolabeled fatty acids, which have limitations in terms of cost and safety. Here we present a click chemistry armed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (click–ELISA) for assessment of Hhat activity through acylation of biotinylated Shh peptide with an alkyne-tagged palmitoyl-CoA (coenzyme A) analogue. Click chemistry functionalization of the alkyne tag with azido-FLAG peptide allows analysis through an ELISA protocol and colorimetric readout. This assay format identified the detergent n-dodecyl β-d-maltopyranoside as an improved solubilizing agent for Hhat activity. Quantification of the potency of RU-SKI small molecule Hhat inhibitors by click–ELISA indicated IC50 values in the low- or sub-micromolar range. A stopped assay format was also employed that allows measurement of Hhat kinetic parameters where saturating substrate concentrations exceed the binding capacity of the streptavidin-coated plate. Therefore, click–ELISA represents a nonradioactive method for assessing protein palmitoylation in vitro that is readily expandable to other classes of protein lipidation. PMID:26334609

  10. Evaluation of new transport medium for detection of herpes simplex virus by culture and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Ogburn, J R; Hoffpauir, J T; Cole, E; Hood, K; Michael, D; Nguyen, T; Raden, S; Raju, B; Reisinger, V; Oefinger, P E

    1994-12-01

    The transport medium Multi-Microbe Media (M4) was evaluated prospectively by culture and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of herpes simplex virus from 473 specimens. In addition, 377 specimens in Bartels Viral Transport Medium were evaluated. By using culture as a "gold standard," the ELISA sensitivity was approximately 85%, while the specificities exceeded 96% for both media.

  11. Detection of antirotavirus immunoglobulins A, G, and M in swine colostrum, milk, and feces by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Corthier, G; Franz, J

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to allow direct detection of class-specific antirotavirus antibodies. In colostrum and in milk, antirotavirus antibodies were found in the three immunoglobulin classes. Antirotavirus immunoglobulins G and M were predominant in colostrum, whereas antirotavirus immunoglobulin A was predominant in milk and feces. PMID:6260678

  12. Immunological Tools: Engaging Students in the Use and Analysis of Flow Cytometry and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Laura E.; Carson, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are commonly used techniques associated with clinical and research applications within the immunology and medical fields. The use of these techniques is becoming increasingly valuable in many life science and engineering disciplines as well. Herein, we report the development and…

  13. EVALUATION OF AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR BIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF 3-PHENOXYBENZOIC ACID IN URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract describes the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for monitoring 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D exposures). The ELISA is compared with a gas chromatograhy/mass spectrometry procedure. ELISA method development steps and comparative ...

  14. QUANTITATIVE ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR DETERMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitative determination of Aroclors 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260 in soil and sediments was developed and its performance compared with that of gas chromatography (GC). The detection limits for Aroclors 1242 and 1248 in soil ar...

  15. A sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chlorpyrifos residue determination in Chinese agricultural smaples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A monoclonal antibody-based competitive antibody-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and optimized for determining chlorpyrifos residue in agricultural products. The IC50 and IC10 of this ELISA were 3.3 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL respectively. The average recoveries recovery rate...

  16. Updates in immunoassays: parasitology.

    PubMed

    Josko, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Although most clinical laboratories use microscopy and routine O&P procedures when identifying parasitic infections, there are several parasites that are better detected through serological means. Toxoplasma, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium were discussed along with immunoassays used for their detection. Immunoassays provide quick results and are less labor intensive than specimen concentration and slide preparation for microscopic examination. These assays are easy to use and provide sensitive and specific results. Some clinical laboratories no longer perform O&Ps in house and refer specimens to reference laboratories for evaluation. By using immunoassays, some of the more common parasites can be identified in a timely manner reducing turn-around times. Some controversy exists over the use of IIF and EIA tests used for ANA testing along with measuring CRPs and PCT as predictors of bacterial sepsis and septic shock. Regardless of the methodology discussed in this series of articles, there are pros and cons to the various immunoassays available. Determining the most appropriate assay based on patient population and volume is governed by the institution and its patients' needs. In conclusion, immunoassays, whether manual or automated, are easy to use, cost effective and allow the medical laboratory professional to provide quick and accurate results to the clinician so the most appropriate treatment can be administered to the patient. The ultimate goal of healthcare professionals is to provide the highest quality of medical care in a timely manner. The use of immunoassays in the clinical laboratory allows the healthcare team to successfully achieve this goal.

  17. Assessment of Dioxin-Like Soil Contamination in Mexico by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Nichkova, M.; Yáñez, L.; Costilla-Salazar, R.; Torres-Dosal, A.; Gee, S. J.; Hammock, B. D.; Juárez-Santacruz, L.; Díaz-Barriga, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we describe the results of a preliminary soil assessment program for the detection of dioxins at different sites in Mexico performed by immunoassay. We studied five different sectors considered relevant sources of dioxins: Anaversa and Tekchem industrial areas where organochlorine pesticides were manufactured and released by accidental explosions, secondary smelters, brick kilns, and rural dwellings. In the context of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) guidelines, only the brick kilns sites can be considered as low-risk areas. The dioxin concentrations detected in the vicinity of the Anaversa and Tekchem chemical plants and secondary smelters exceed the screening level of 0.05 ppb set by the ATSDR, and therefore further site-specific studies are needed. The dioxin levels found in all soot samples from indigenous dwellings where wood is used for indoor cooking were above the evaluation level. Considering that the studied areas are representative examples of dioxin sources in less developed countries, our work demonstrates the useful application of dioxin immunoassays as a tool for dioxin screening for environmental assessment programs in developing countries. PMID:20091164

  18. Studies to assess the biological relevance of anti-Tamm-Horsfall protein antibodies detected by direct-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Hunt, J S; Groufsky, A; Lynn, K L

    1987-11-01

    1. A role has been suggested for anti-Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) antibodies in renal disease based on the results of immunoassays of pathological sera. The putative autoantibodies have not been isolated from such sera nor have definitive inhibition studies of their binding been carried out. We have carried out such studies using rabbit anti-THP antibodies as control reagents. 2. Urinary THP prepared by salt precipitation was used to prepare four immunoabsorbent columns by covalent coupling to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. After washing with a variety of dissociating agents to remove any non-covalently bound subunit THP, each column was incubated with normal and immune rabbit serum. Fractions washed and eluted from columns were tested for anti-THP antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and THP antigen by radioimmunoassay, and showed NH4SCN (3 mol/l) and guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) (6 mol/l) equivalent and sodium dodecyl sulphate (20 g/l) to be inferior in their capacity to produce immunoabsorbent THP capable of isolating specific antibodies from immune rabbit serum. 3. The column treated with GuHCl (6 mol/l) was used further in attempts to isolate putative anti-THP antibodies from five patients, who had a history of urinary tract infections and whose sera showed strong binding by ELISA. 4. Results from direct and inhibition ELISA experiments on fractions collected after washing and elution with all sera suggested that the putative human anti-THP antibodies were of very low affinity and/or directed against non-subunit THP. 5. The pathological relevance of human anti-THP antibodies measured by ELISA remains to be established.

  19. Facile preparation of glycoprotein-imprinted 96-well microplates for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by boronate affinity-based oriented surface imprinting.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaodong; Liu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), as inexpensive and stable substitutes of antibodies, have shown great promise in immunoassays. Glycoproteins are of significant diagnostic value. To facilitate the application of MIPs in clinical diagnostics, a general and facile imprinting method toward glycoproteins oriented for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the form of a 96-well microplate is essential but has not been fully explored yet. In this study, a new method called boronate affinity-based oriented surface imprinting was proposed for facile preparation of glycoprotein-imprinted microplates. A template glycoprotein was first immobilized by a boronic acid-modified microplate through boronate affinity binding, and then, a thin layer of polyaniline was formed to cover the microplate surface via in-water self-copolymerization. After the template was removed by an acidic solution, 3D cavities that can rebind the template were fabricated on the microplate surface. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a model target, the effects of imprinting conditions as well as the properties and performance of the prepared MIPs were investigated. α-Fetoprotein (AFP)-imprinted microplate was then prepared, and thereby, a MIP-based ELISA method was established. The prepared MIPs exhibited several highly favorable features, including excellent specificity, widely applicable binding pH, superb tolerance for interference, high binding strength, fast equilibrium kinetics, and reusability. The MIP-based ELISA method was finally applied to the analysis of AFP in human serum. The result was in good agreement with that by radioimmunoassay, showing a promising prospect of the proposed method in clinical diagnostics.

  20. Specific probe selection from landscape phage display library and its application in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of free prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Lang, Qiaolin; Wang, Fei; Yin, Long; Liu, Mingjun; Petrenko, Valery A; Liu, Aihua

    2014-03-01

    Probes against targets can be selected from the landscape phage library f8/8, displaying random octapeptides on the pVIII coat protein of the phage fd-tet and demonstrating many excellent features including multivalency, stability, and high structural homogeneity. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is usually determined by immunoassay, by which antibodies are frequently used as the specific probes. Herein we found that more advanced probes against free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) can be screened from the landscape phage library. Four phage monoclones were selected and identified by the specificity array. One phage clone displaying the fusion peptide ERNSVSPS showed good specificity and affinity to f-PSA and was used as a PSA capture probe in a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) array. An anti-human PSA monoclonal antibody (anti-PSA mAb) was used to recognize the captured antigen, followed by horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antibody (HRP-IgG) and o-phenylenediamine, which were successively added to develop plate color. The ELISA conditions such as effect of blocking agent, coating buffer pH, phage concentration, antigen incubation time, and anti-PSA mAb dilution for phage ELISA were optimized. On the basis of the optimal phage ELISA conditions, the absorbance taken at 492 nm on a microplate reader was linear with f-PSA concentration within 0.825-165 ng/mL with a low limit of detection of 0.16 ng/mL. Thus, the landscape phage is an attractive biomolecular probe in bioanalysis.

  1. Specific Noncompetitive Immunoassay for HT-2 Mycotoxin Detection.

    PubMed

    Arola, Henri O; Tullila, Antti; Kiljunen, Harri; Campbell, Katrina; Siitari, Harri; Nevanen, Tarja K

    2016-02-16

    Here we demonstrate a novel homogeneous one-step immunoassay, utilizing a pair of recombinant antibody antigen-binding fragments (Fab), that is specific for HT-2 toxin and has a positive readout. Advantages over the conventional competitive immunoassay formats such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the specificity, speed, and simplicity of the assay. Recombinant antibody HT2-10 Fab recognizing both HT-2 and T-2 toxins was developed from a phage display antibody library containing 6 × 10(7) different antibody clones. Specificity of the immunoassay was introduced by an anti-immune complex (IC) antibody binding the primary antibody-HT-2 toxin complex. When the noncompetitive immune complex assay was compared to the traditional competitive assay, an over 10-fold improvement in sensitivity was observed. Although the HT2-10 antibody has 100% cross-reactivity for HT-2 and T-2 toxins, the immune complex assay is highly specific for HT-2 alone. The assay performance with real samples was evaluated using naturally contaminated wheat reference material. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of the time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay was 9.6 ng/mL, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.38 ng/mL (19 μg/kg). The labeled antibodies can be predried to the assay vials, e.g., microtiter plate wells, and readout is ready in 10 min after the sample application.

  2. Accuracy of the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Caishuang; Wu, Yanqiu; Wan, Chun; Shen, Konglong; Hu, Yuzhu; Yang, Ting; Shen, Yongchun; Wen, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Assessing of local immune response may improve the accuracy of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis. Many studies have investigated diagnosing PTB based on enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, but the results have been inconclusive. We meta-analyzed the available evidences on overall diagnostic performance of ELISPOT assay of BAL fluid for diagnosing PTB. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, Wangfang, Weipu, and CNKI. Data were pooled on sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Overall test performance was summarized using summary receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). Deeks test was used to test for potential publication bias. Seven publications with 814 subjects met our inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The following pooled estimates for diagnostic parameters were obtained: sensitivity, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85–0.94); specificity, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.77–0.84); PLR, 5.08 (95% CI: 2.70–9.57); NLR, 0.13 (95% CI: 0.06–0.28); DOR, 49.12 (95% CI: 12.97–186.00); and AUC, 0.96. No publication bias was identified. The available evidence suggests that ELISPOT assay of BAL fluid is a useful rapid diagnostic test for PTB. The results of this assay should be interpreted in parallel with clinical findings and the results of conventional tests. PMID:27015211

  3. Development of 316v antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of paratuberculosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gurung, R B; Begg, D J; Purdie, A C; Eamens, G J; Whittington, R J

    2015-12-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and optimised using a Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) antigen prepared from a C strain (316v) passed through a French press. The optimised assay was evaluated with a panel of sera from MAP infected (n = 66) and uninfected (n = 1,092) sheep. Animals in the MAP infected category were positive on either tissue culture or histopathology but were of unknown serum antibody status. The diagnostic performance and cost of the assay were compared with those of a commercial ELISA (IDEXX). At 99.8% diagnostic specificity the assay showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 23% (95% CI: 15.1-35.8) compared with 36.4% (95% CI: 25.8-48.4) for the commercial ELISA (McNemar's test: chi-square 5.82, p < 0.05). The sensitivities were 5.9% (95% CI: 1-26.9), 27.9% (95% CI: 14.7-45.7) and 35% (95% CI: 18.1-56.7), for low grade, paucibacillary and multibacillary lesion grades, respectively. The cost of the commercial assay kit was 2.7 to 5.2 times greater than that of the 316v ELISA for an equivalent number of tests, the multiple depending on the number of plates processed per run. For flock-level surveillance, to account for the lower sensitivity of the 316v ELISA compared with the commercial ELISA, sample sizes would be increased but the test cost would still be lower. The 316v assay will be useful for diagnosis of Johne's disease in sheep flocks, particularly in developing countries where labour costs are low relative to the cost of consumables.

  4. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of ringworm infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bagut, Elena Tatiana; Cambier, Ludivine; Heinen, Marie-Pierre; Cozma, Vasile; Monod, Michel; Mignon, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serological diagnosis of ringworm infection in cattle. We used available recombinant forms of Trichophyton rubrum dipeptidyl peptidase V (TruDppV) and T. rubrum leucin aminopeptidase 2 (TruLap2), which are 98% identical to Trichophyton verrucosum orthologues. Field serum samples from 135 cattle with ringworm infection, as confirmed by direct microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and PCR, and from 55 cattle without any apparent skin lesions or history of ringworm infection that served as negative controls were used. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values were determined to evaluate the diagnostic value of our ELISA. Overall, the ELISAs based on recombinant TruDppV and TruLap2 discriminated well between infected animals and healthy controls. Highly significant differences (P < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test) were noted between optical density values obtained when sera from infected versus control cattle were tested. The ELISA developed for the detection of specific antibodies against DppV gave 89.6% sensitivity, 92.7% specificity, a 96.8% positive predictive value, and a 78.4% negative predictive value. The recombinant TruLap2-based ELISA displayed 88.1% sensitivity, 90.9% specificity, a 95.9% positive predictive value, and a 75.7% negative predictive value. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ELISA based on recombinant antigens for assessing immune responses to ringworm infection in cattle; it is particularly suitable for epidemiological studies and also for the evaluation of vaccines and/or vaccination procedures.

  5. Real-time monitoring of extracellular adenosine using enzyme-linked microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Hinzman, Jason M; Gibson, Justin L; Tackla, Ryan D; Costello, Mark S; Burmeister, Jason J; Quintero, Jorge E; Gerhardt, Greg A; Hartings, Jed A

    2015-12-15

    Throughout the central nervous system extracellular adenosine serves important neuroprotective and neuromodulatory functions. However, current understanding of the in vivo regulation and effects of adenosine is limited by the spatial and temporal resolution of available measurement techniques. Here, we describe an enzyme-linked microelectrode array (MEA) with high spatial (7500 µm(2)) and temporal (4 Hz) resolution that can selectively measure extracellular adenosine through the use of self-referenced coating scheme that accounts for interfering substances and the enzymatic breakdown products of adenosine. In vitro, the MEAs selectively measured adenosine in a linear fashion (r(2)=0.98±0.01, concentration range=0-15 µM, limit of detection =0.96±0.5 µM). In vivo the limit of detection was 0.04±0.02 µM, which permitted real-time monitoring of the basal extracellular concentration in rat cerebral cortex (4.3±1.5 µM). Local cortical injection of adenosine through a micropipette produced dose-dependent transient increases in the measured extracellular concentration (200 nL: 6.8±1.8 µM; 400 nL: 19.4±5.3 µM) [P<0.001]. Lastly, local injection of dipyridamole, which inhibits transport of adenosine through equilibrative nucleoside transporter, raised the measured extracellular concentration of adenosine by 120% (5.6→12.3 µM) [P<0.001]. These studies demonstrate that MEAs can selectively measure adenosine on temporal and spatial scales relevant to adenosine signaling and regulation in normal and pathologic states. PMID:26183072

  6. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the anthropogenic marker isolithocholic acid in water.

    PubMed

    Baldofski, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Holger; Lehmann, Andreas; Breitfeld, Stefan; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2016-11-01

    Bile acids are promising chemical markers to assess the pollution of water samples with fecal material. This study describes the optimization and validation of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the bile acid isolithocholic acid (ILA). The quantification range of the optimized assay was between 0.09 and 15 μg/L. The assay was applied to environmental water samples. Most studies until now were focused on bile acid fractions in the particulate phase of water samples. In order to avoid tedious sample preparation, we undertook to evaluate the dynamics and significance of ILA levels in the aqueous phase. Very low concentrations in tap and surface water samples made a pre-concentration step necessary for this matrix as well as for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. Mean recoveries for spiked water samples were between 97% and 109% for tap water and WWTP influent samples and between 102% and 136% for WWTP effluent samples. 90th percentiles of intra-plate and inter-plate coefficients of variation were below 10% for influents and below 20% for effluents and surface water. ILA concentrations were quantified in the range of 33-72 μg/L in influent, 21-49 ng/L in effluent and 18-48 ng/L in surface water samples. During wastewater treatment the ILA levels were reduced by more than 99%. ILA concentrations of influents determined by ELISA and LC-MS/MS were in good agreement. However, findings in LC-ELISA experiments suggest that the true ILA levels in concentrated samples are lower due to interfering effects of matrix compounds and/or cross-reactants. Yet, the ELISA will be a valuable tool for the performance check and comparison of WWTPs and the localization of fecal matter input into surface waters. PMID:27544648

  7. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Wesongah, J O; Murilla, G A; Guantai, A N; Elliot, C; Fodey, T; Cannavan, A

    2007-02-01

    Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic shown to have specific activity against a wide variety of organisms that are causative agents of several disease conditions in domestic animals. Chloramphenicol has been banned for use in food-producing animals for its serious adverse toxic effects in humans. Due to the harmful effects of chloramphenicol residues livestock products should be free of any traces of these residues. Several analytical methods are available for chloramphenicol analysis but sensitive methods are required in order to ensure that no traces of chloramphenicol residues are present in edible animal products. In order to prevent the illegal use of chloramphenicol, regulatory control of its residues in food of animal origin is essential. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chloramphenicol has been locally developed and optimized for the detection of chloramphenicol in sheep serum. In the assay, chloramphenicol in the test samples and that in chloramphenicol-horseradish peroxidase conjugate compete for antibodies raised against the drug in camels and immobilized on a microtitre plate. Tetramethylbenzidine-hydrogen peroxide (TMB/H2O2) is used as chromogen-substrate system. The assay has a detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL of serum with a high specificity for chloramphenicol. Cross-reactivity with florfenicol, thiamphenicol, penicillin, tetracyclines and sulfamethazine was not observed. The assay was able to detect chloramphenicol concentrations in normal sheep serum for at least 1 week after intramuscular injection with the drug at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The assay can be used as a screening tool for chloramphenicol use in animals. PMID:17217404

  8. Validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of rosuvastatin in plasma at picogram level.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Ibrahim A; Al-Obaid, Abdul-Rahman M; Al-Malaq, Hamoud A

    2013-05-01

    In this study, a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed and validated for the determination of rosuvastatin (ROS) in plasma samples at picogram level. The assay employed a polyclonal antibody that specifically recognizes ROS with high affinity, and ROS conjugate of bovine serum albumin (ROS-BSA) immobilized onto microplate wells as a solid phase. The assay involved a competitive binding reaction between ROS, in plasma sample, and the immobilized ROS-BSA for the binding sites on a limited amount of the anti-ROS antibody. The bound anti-ROS antibody was quantified with horseradish peroxidase-labelled second anti-rabbit IgG antibody (HRP-IgG) and 3,3`,5,5`-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate for the peroxidase enzyme. The concentration of ROS in the sample was quantified by its ability to inhibit the binding of the anti-ROS antibody to the immobilized ROS-BSA and subsequently the colour intensity in the assay wells. The assay limit of detection was 25 pg ml(-1) and the effective working range at relative standard deviations (RSD) of ≤ 5% was 40-2000 pg ml(-1). Analytical recovery of ROS from spiked plasma was 96.2 - 104.8 ± 2.12 - 5.42%. The precision of the assay was satisfactory; RSD was 2.47 - 4.46 and 3.24 - 5.27% for the intra- and inter-assay precision, respectively. The analytical procedure is convenient, and one can analyze ~ 200 samples per working day, facilitating the processing of large-number batch of samples. The proposed ELISA has a great value in routine analysis of ROS for its pharmacokinetic studies.

  9. Penicillinase-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Sudarshana, M R; Reddy, D V

    1989-10-01

    A penicillinase (PNC)-based, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized to detect maize mosaic virus (MMV) in sorghum leaf extracts, peanut mottle virus (PMV) in pea leaf extracts, and tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in peanut leaf extracts. Rabbit Fc-specific antibodies were conjugated with PNC by a single step glutaraldehyde bridge. Among several indicators tested, bromothymol blue (BTB) was found suitable for measuring PNC activity under simulated conditions. Two reagents, starch-iodine complex (SIC) and a mixed pH indicator, containing bromocresol purple and BTB (2:1) used earlier for the PNC-based ELISA, were compared with BTB for utilization in the PNC-based ELISA. SIC gave a slightly higher virus titre than BTB or the mixed pH indicator, but it often gave nonspecific reactions. Sodium or potassium salts of penicillin-G at 0.5-1.0 mg/ml and BTB at 0.2 mg/ml were found to be suitable as substrate-indicator mixture for PNC-based ELISA. The sensitivity of the PNC system was comparable to those of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) systems in detecting MMV, PMV, and TSWV. The PNC conjugate could be used at a greater dilution than those of the ALP and HRP conjugates and the BTB substrate mixture was stable for at least 3 weeks at 4 degrees C. Penicillin is readily available in developing countries, and at a substantially lower cost than p-nitrophenyl phosphate, the commonly used substrate for ALP in the plate ELISA. Thus the PNC-based ELISA provides a less expensive means for assaying plant viruses by ELISA.

  10. Evaluation of an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, R D; Jaeger, K L; Wuhib, T; Lima, A A; Guerrant, R L; Sears, C L

    1993-01-01

    The diagnosis of the small (4- to 6-microns) Cryptosporidium oocysts is labor intensive and relies on stool concentration, with subsequent staining and microscopy. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (LMD Laboratories, Carlsbad, Calif.) in detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in human stools. A total of 591 specimens (76 diarrheal, 515 control) obtained from 213 inhabitants of an urban slum in northeastern Brazil were examined by both ELISA and conventional microscopic examination (CME) of formalin-ethyl acetate-concentrated stool samples stained with modified acid-fast and auramine stains. Forty-eight diarrheal stools (63.2%) were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts by CME, with 40 of these positive by ELISA. Thirty-five control stools (6.8%) had Cryptosporidium oocysts detected by CME, with 15 of these also positive by ELISA. All of the 480 nondiarrheal stools and all but one of the diarrheal stools negative by CME were negative by ELISA. The test had an overall sensitivity of 66.3% and a specificity of 99.8% (positive predictive value, 98.2%; negative predictive value, 94.8%). In the evaluation of human diarrheal stool samples, the test sensitivity increased to 83.3%, with a specificity of 96.4%, and, in analysis of samples from individual patients with diarrhea, the sensitivity was 87.9%, with a specificity of 100%. These results indicate that this stool ELISA is sensitive and specific for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in human diarrheal stool specimens but has limited use in epidemiologic studies for the diagnosis of asymptomatic Cryptosporidium infection. PMID:8370732

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B antibody in serum.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Daniel J; Zhang, Changpin; Stefanescu, Carla; Pass, Robert F

    2010-05-01

    Measurement of antibody to cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B (gB) is valuable in the assessment of the antibody response to infection and to gB-containing vaccines. For this purpose, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a recombinant CMV gB molecule as the antigen was evaluated. Sera from 168 anti-CMV IgG-positive and 100 seronegative subjects were used to evaluate the anti-gB antibody assay. A cutoff optical density (OD) that would distinguish gB antibody-positive from -negative sera was established. Titers of antibody to gB determined by endpoint dilution were compared with those calculated using regression analysis. The run-to-run and interoperator reproducibilities of results were measured. The mean OD + 5 standard deviations from 50 anti-CMV IgG antibody-negative sera (0.2472) was used as the cutoff between anti-gB antibody-positive and -negative results. All sera from 100 anti-CMV IgG-seronegative subjects were negative for antibody to gB. All but 1 of 168 sera from seropositive subjects were positive for antibody to gB. Observed antibody levels based on titration to the endpoint were very similar to results calculated using linear regression. The run-to-run consistency of endpoints was excellent, with 38 runs from one operator and 48 runs from another all giving results within 1 dilution of the mean value for each of three anti-CMV IgG antibody-positive serum pools. The geometric mean titer of antibody to gB for 99 sera from seropositive blood donors was 1/10,937. This ELISA gives accurate and reproducible results for the relative quantity of anti-CMV gB IgG in serum over a wide range of antibody levels.

  12. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to avian encephalomyelitis virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J K; Davis, R B; Ragland, W L

    1984-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibody to avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) has been developed for determining whether existing AEV control programs adequately protect breeder hens. A partially purified AEV antigen was bound to microcuvettes for reaction with specific primary antibody. A second antibody, rabbit anti-chicken immunoglobulin G (IgG) conjugated with horseradish peroxidase, was employed to react with bound primary IgG. The relative amount of bound primary IgG was detected using ortho-phenylenediamine as a substrate for enzymatic production of a chromogen by horseradish peroxidase. Intensity of absorbance of the chromogen at 490 nm was related to the bound primary antibody by the titration method. Negative antisera were surveyed to establish an appropriate positive/negative cutoff level at twice the mean absorbance of negative sera at a 1:100 dilution. The test reagents for the ELISA were optimized by reagent titrations utilizing known positive and negative antisera for discrimination. The optimized ELISA had a coefficient of variation of from 1.2 to 3.3 for within-assay titer and of 2.4 for between-assay mean titer. Even though the ELISA detected only specific IgG, it was as accurate as the virus-neutralization test for evaluating the immune status of hens to AEV. Moreover, the ELISA was more economical in the use of reagents, time, and personnel and was free from dependence on susceptible embryos. Since ELISAs can be standardized and measured with manual or automated instruments, the derived ELISA can be easily and economically used to evaluate the immune status of breeder hens in commercial poultry operations.

  13. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of almonds in foods.

    PubMed

    Hlywka, J J; Hefle, S L; Taylor, S L

    2000-02-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect almonds as potential allergenic contaminants in food. Polyclonal antibodies directed against roasted almonds were partially purified from immunized sheep and rabbits and used as capture and secondary antibodies, respectively, in a sandwich-type, 96-well plate format. Food samples and almond-spiked samples were extracted 1:10 in phosphate-buffered saline at 60 degrees C for 2 h, centrifuged, and applied to wells coated with sheep anti-almond antibody. After incubation, washing, and the addition of rabbit anti-almond antibody, the amount of almond present was detected with the subsequent addition of goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate. Plate absorbances were read at 410 nm, and standard curves were developed in all matrices to quantify unknowns. Antibodies developed were specific for almond; however, some cross-reactivity was observed with extracts of some tree nuts and sesame seeds. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western immunoblotting indicated that sheep anti-almond antibody recognized proteins extracted from black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pistachios, and sesame seeds in addition to those from almond. The assay was optimized to detect less than 1 ppm of almond and was used successfully to determine almond residues in cereal and chocolate without cross-reacting interferences. A retail survey of 20 brands of cereal demonstrated that the assay produced statistically consistent results. This assay provides a useful quality control tool for the food industry for the protection of consumers allergic to almonds.

  14. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of cashew nut in foods.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Ferdelie E; Taylor, Steve L

    2011-01-01

    The presence of undeclared cashew can pose a health risk to cashew-allergic consumers. The food industry has the responsibility to declare the presence of cashews on packaged foods even when trace residues are or might be present. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of cashew residues. Raw and roasted cashews were defatted and used separately to immunize sheep, goats, and rabbits. The cashew ELISA was developed using sheep and rabbit polyclonal anti-roasted cashew sera as capture and detector reagents, respectively, with visualization through an alkaline phosphatase-mediated substrate reaction. The cashew ELISA was shown to have a limit of quantification of 1 ppm (1 μg cashew/g). The ELISA was highly specific except that substantial cross-reactivity was noted with pistachio and a lesser degree of cross-reactivity was noted with hazelnut. The performance of the ELISA was assessed by manufacturing cookies, ice cream, and milk chocolate with added known amounts (0 to 1000 ppm) of cashew. The mean percent recoveries for ice cream, cookies, and milk chocolate were 118%± 2.9%, 84.3%± 4.0%, and 104%± 3.0%, respectively. In a limited retail survey, 4/5 retail samples with cashew declared on ingredient labels tested positive for cashew compared to 5/36 samples of foods with precautionary labels indicating the possible presence of one or more tree nuts and 0/18 samples without cashew declared on the label in any manner. The cashew ELISA can be used to detect undeclared cashew residue in foods and as a potential tool for the food industry to assess the effectiveness of allergen control strategies and to guarantee compliance with food labeling regulatory requirements.

  15. Rapid quantification of adenosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, M S; Jap, T S; Chiang, H

    1993-01-01

    A reliable and rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cyclic AMP determination is described. Succinyl cyclic AMP, coupled to human albumin, was injected into rabbit to elicit antibodies to cyclic nucleotide hapten. Succinyl cyclic nucleotide to human albumin as immunogen or the cyclic AMP to porcine thyroglobulin as coating antigen was conjugated by a carbodiimide coupling procedure. The latter conjugate, captured to microplate with coating buffer and blocked with 0.8% gelatin for 30 minutes, was bound to antibody in inverse proportion to free cyclic AMP in a sample or standard. Bound antibody was then quantified with horseradish peroxidase-labelled goat antirabbit immunoglobulin and ABTS (2, 2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic Acid). Our results showed that concentration of both standard and sample cyclic AMP could be measured as low as 2.5 fmol/well (0.05 pmol/ml). The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation for samples were 6.0-8.0% and 8.9-9.5%, respectively. In addition, there was no cross-reaction of the antisera with ADP, ATP, 5'-AMP or cyclic GMP. Short period of incubation at room temperature seems as good as long period of incubation at 4 degrees C. The biological study demonstrated a consistency between increase in platelet-cyclic AMP generation after prostaglandin E1 stimulation and its biological effects. Our approach to ELISA is validated by showing agreement in levels, obtained in parallel by ELISA and RIA, of cyclic AMP content in extracts of prostaglandin E1-stimulated platelet cells.

  16. Validity of the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB) for naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Silvia; García, Hector H; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-17

    The Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB) has been used widely as a screening test for Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine. However, the relation between seropositivity and infection in pig populations from endemic areas has not been well defined. The aim of this study is to relate EITB seropositivity with infection and infection burden, analyse the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity with various cut-off points for the EITB assay, and finally describe the serology changes in a cohort of rural pigs raised under natural conditions. A group of 107 pigs that were used as controls during a vaccination field trial in Peru was our study population. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis determined by necropsy examination was 16.82% (18/107) in these animals. Using EITB reactivity to ≥ 1 band as a cut-off point for the assay, the sensitivity was 88.89% (65.29-98.62, 95% CI) and the specificity was 48.31% (37.59-59.16, 95% CI). Comparing other cut-off points, involving up to as many as 7 reactive bands, a reactivity of ≥ 3 bands provided the best trade-offs in sensitivity and specificity. Using this cut-off point for the assay, the sensitivity was 77.77% (52.36-93.59, 95% CI) and the specificity was 76.40% (66.22-84.76, 95% CI). A significant association was found between cyst counts over 100 cysts and reactivity to ≥ 3 bands in the EITB assay (Fisher's exact test, p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that the use of the EITB assay to study porcine cysticercosis may require setting different cut-offs under field and experimental conditions, and depending upon the objective of the screening process.

  17. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the anthropogenic marker isolithocholic acid in water.

    PubMed

    Baldofski, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Holger; Lehmann, Andreas; Breitfeld, Stefan; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2016-11-01

    Bile acids are promising chemical markers to assess the pollution of water samples with fecal material. This study describes the optimization and validation of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the bile acid isolithocholic acid (ILA). The quantification range of the optimized assay was between 0.09 and 15 μg/L. The assay was applied to environmental water samples. Most studies until now were focused on bile acid fractions in the particulate phase of water samples. In order to avoid tedious sample preparation, we undertook to evaluate the dynamics and significance of ILA levels in the aqueous phase. Very low concentrations in tap and surface water samples made a pre-concentration step necessary for this matrix as well as for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. Mean recoveries for spiked water samples were between 97% and 109% for tap water and WWTP influent samples and between 102% and 136% for WWTP effluent samples. 90th percentiles of intra-plate and inter-plate coefficients of variation were below 10% for influents and below 20% for effluents and surface water. ILA concentrations were quantified in the range of 33-72 μg/L in influent, 21-49 ng/L in effluent and 18-48 ng/L in surface water samples. During wastewater treatment the ILA levels were reduced by more than 99%. ILA concentrations of influents determined by ELISA and LC-MS/MS were in good agreement. However, findings in LC-ELISA experiments suggest that the true ILA levels in concentrated samples are lower due to interfering effects of matrix compounds and/or cross-reactants. Yet, the ELISA will be a valuable tool for the performance check and comparison of WWTPs and the localization of fecal matter input into surface waters.

  18. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of the human haptoglobin phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Nina S.; Vardi, Moshe; Blum, Shany; Miller-Lotan, Rachel; Afinbinder, Yefim; Cleary, Patricia A.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Bharaj, Bhupinder; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Rewers, Marian J.; Lache, Orit; Levy, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Haptoglobin (Hp) is an abundant serum protein which binds extracorpuscular hemoglobin (Hb). Two alleles exist in humans for the Hp gene, denoted 1 and 2. Diabetic individuals with the Hp 2-2 genotype are at increased risk of developing vascular complications including heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease. Recent evidence shows that treatment with vitamin E can reduce the risk of diabetic vascular complications by as much as 50% in Hp 2-2 individuals. We sought to develop a rapid and accurate test for Hp phenotype (which is 100% concordant with the three major Hp genotypes) to facilitate widespread diagnostic testing as well as prospective clinical trials. Methods A monoclonal antibody raised against human Hp was shown to distinguish between the three Hp phenotypes in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hp phenotypes obtained in over 8000 patient samples using this ELISA method were compared with those obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or the TaqMan PCR method. Results Our analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test for Hp 2-2 phenotype is 99.0% and 98.1%, respectively. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value for Hp 2-2 phenotype is 97.5% and 99.3%, respectively. Similar results were obtained for Hp 2-1 and Hp 1-1 phenotypes. In addition, the ELISA was determined to be more sensitive and specific than the TaqMan method. Conclusions The Hp ELISA represents a user-friendly, rapid and highly accurate diagnostic tool for determining Hp phenotypes. This test will greatly facilitate the typing of thousands of samples in ongoing clinical studies. PMID:23492570

  19. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with Brucella native hapten polysaccharide and smooth lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Urmeneta, B; Moriyón, I; Díaz, R; Blasco, J M

    1988-01-01

    Brucella melitensis native haptens (NH) are polysaccharides identical to the O-side chain of the smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) (E. Moreno, H. Mayer, and I. Moriyón, Infect. Immun. 55:2850-2853, 1987) which precipitate with sera from infected cattle but not from strain 19-vaccinated cattle. In the present work, NH was extracted by the hot-water method (R. Díaz, J. Toyos, M.D. Salvo, and M.L. Pardo, Ann. Rech. Vet. 12:35-39, 1981) and purified free of S-LPS and protein. Purified NH lacked the ability to coat polystyrene and sheep erythrocytes. In contrast, NH acylated with stearoyl chloride bound to both polystyrene and erythrocytes. By hemagglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), S-LPS and acylated NH gave similar results with blood sera from brucellosis-free, strain 19-vaccinated, and infected cattle. Moreover, a significant correlation between the results of NH ELISA and S-LPS ELISA was demonstrated with milk sera. However, in a competitive ELISA with milk sera, S-LPS in the liquid phase abrogated the binding of antibodies to acylated NH adsorbed to polystyrene, while NH in the liquid phase did not influence the binding of antibodies to polystyrene-adsorbed S-LPS. It is hypothesized that the different precipitations of NH and S-LPS with sera from infected or strain 19-vaccinated cattle are due to differences in the affinity of the antibodies produced upon vaccination or infection and in the physical state of aggregation of NH and S-LPS in aqueous solutions. Images PMID:3147993

  20. Accuracy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for quantification of antibodies against Aleutian mink disease virus.

    PubMed

    Farid, A H; Rupasinghe, P P

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest among mink ranchers to select their stock for tolerance to the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are used to identify mink which have low anti-AMDV antibody titres and are expected to tolerate the AMDV infection. The objective of this study was to calculate the accuracy of three ELISA systems which were performed on blood or serum of AMDV-inoculated American mink (Neovison vison) at five laboratories in Canada, USA, Finland, the Netherlands and Denmark. The accuracy was determined by comparing the ELISA results with antibody titres measured by the counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) using 10 two-fold serial dilutions of the plasma. Antibody titres of 880 black mink which were inoculated with a spleen homogenate from a naturally infected mink were measured between 16 and 176 weeks post-inoculation. Each ELISA result from every laboratory covered a wide range of antibody titres and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between CIEP and ELISA results from different laboratories varied between 0.41 and 0.83, indicating a low to moderate accuracy of ELISA systems for ranking mink by antibody titre. The recombinant VP2-based ELISA used in the Netherlands and Finland ranked the mink by antibody titres more accurately than did the AMDV-G-based ELISA platforms developed in Denmark and the USA, suggesting that the source of antigen was one of the factors affecting the accuracy of ELISA results. It was concluded that the ELISA systems, particularly those based on AMDV-G antigen, require further refinement to improve their accuracy for ranking mink by antibody titre. PMID:27283885

  1. Assessment of Dextran Antigenicity of Intravenous Iron Preparations with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    PubMed Central

    Neiser, Susann; Koskenkorva, Taija S.; Schwarz, Katrin; Wilhelm, Maria; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous iron preparations are typically classified as non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based complexes. The carbohydrate shell for each of these preparations is unique and is key in determining the various physicochemical properties, the metabolic pathway, and the immunogenicity of the iron-carbohydrate complex. As intravenous dextran can cause severe, antibody-mediated dextran-induced anaphylactic reactions (DIAR), the purpose of this study was to explore the potential of various intravenous iron preparations, non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based, to induce these reactions. An IgG-isotype mouse monoclonal anti-dextran antibody (5E7H3) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed to investigate the dextran antigenicity of low molecular weight iron dextran, ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000, ferric gluconate, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, as well as isomaltoside 1000, the isolated carbohydrate component of iron isomaltoside 1000. Low molecular weight iron dextran, as well as dextran-based ferumoxytol and iron isomaltoside 1000, reacted with 5E7H3, whereas ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, sodium ferric gluconate, and isolated isomaltoside 1000 did not. Consistent results were obtained with reverse single radial immunodiffusion assay. The results strongly support the hypothesis that, while the carbohydrate alone (isomaltoside 1000) does not form immune complexes with anti-dextran antibodies, iron isomaltoside 1000 complex reacts with anti-dextran antibodies by forming multivalent immune complexes. Moreover, non-dextran based preparations, such as iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, do not react with anti-dextran antibodies. This assay allows to assess the theoretical possibility of a substance to induce antibody-mediated DIARs. Nevertheless, as this is only one possible mechanism that may cause a hypersensitivity reaction, a broader set of assays will be required to get an understanding of the mechanisms that may

  2. Detection of walnut residues in foods using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Lynn; Taylor, Steve L; Hefle, Susan L

    2009-08-01

    Tree nuts, including walnuts, can be responsible for allergic reactions. Food manufacturers have the responsibility to declare the presence of walnuts on packaged foods even when trace residues may be present from the use of shared equipment or the adventitious contamination of ingredients. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for the detection of walnut protein residues. Mixtures of raw and roasted English walnuts of several varieties were defatted, powdered, and used as separate antigens in sheep and New Zealand white rabbits. An ELISA was developed using the sheep antiroasted walnut serum as the capture reagent and rabbit antiroasted walnut serum as the detector reagent followed by addition of commercial goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase and subsequent substrate addition. The performance of the ELISA was validated by testing known amounts of walnut (0 to 100 ppm) either spiked into or manufactured into milk chocolate, cookies, muffins, or ice cream. Recoveries of 1 to 100 ppm walnut-in-chocolate ranged from 71.6% to 119%+/- 7% to 16.5%. The walnut ELISA has a detection limit of 1 ppm (1 microg/g) walnut in several food matrices. Substantial cross-reactivity was observed with pecan while minimal cross-reactivity was noted for hazelnut, mustard, mace, and poppy seed among almost 100 foods and food ingredients tested. This walnut ELISA can be used to detect undeclared walnut residues in foods and ingredients and as a tool to validate the effectiveness of allergen control programs for walnuts.

  3. Detection of walnut residues in foods using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Lynn; Taylor, Steve L; Hefle, Susan L

    2009-08-01

    Tree nuts, including walnuts, can be responsible for allergic reactions. Food manufacturers have the responsibility to declare the presence of walnuts on packaged foods even when trace residues may be present from the use of shared equipment or the adventitious contamination of ingredients. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for the detection of walnut protein residues. Mixtures of raw and roasted English walnuts of several varieties were defatted, powdered, and used as separate antigens in sheep and New Zealand white rabbits. An ELISA was developed using the sheep antiroasted walnut serum as the capture reagent and rabbit antiroasted walnut serum as the detector reagent followed by addition of commercial goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase and subsequent substrate addition. The performance of the ELISA was validated by testing known amounts of walnut (0 to 100 ppm) either spiked into or manufactured into milk chocolate, cookies, muffins, or ice cream. Recoveries of 1 to 100 ppm walnut-in-chocolate ranged from 71.6% to 119%+/- 7% to 16.5%. The walnut ELISA has a detection limit of 1 ppm (1 microg/g) walnut in several food matrices. Substantial cross-reactivity was observed with pecan while minimal cross-reactivity was noted for hazelnut, mustard, mace, and poppy seed among almost 100 foods and food ingredients tested. This walnut ELISA can be used to detect undeclared walnut residues in foods and ingredients and as a tool to validate the effectiveness of allergen control programs for walnuts. PMID:19723237

  4. Establishment of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for lipoprotein lipase with newly developed antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, M; Gotoda, T; Mori, N; Shimano, H; Kozaki, K; Harada, K; Shimada, M; Inaba, T; Watanabe, Y; Yazaki, Y

    1994-09-01

    We developed eight new antibodies against lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which included polyclonal antibodies raised against recombinant human LPL produced by transformant cells and two synthetic peptides corresponding to either amino (N)- or carboxy (C)-terminus of human LPL. With these antibodies, we established three effective sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for LPL, which enabled us to examine LPL mass not only in the postheparin plasma from human, rat, mouse, and guinea pig but also in the media and lysates of cultured cells. All of the developed antibodies showed high affinities for LPL, but their binding to LPL did not always influence the lipolytic activity of the enzyme. Interestingly, although the anti-C-terminus antibody should bind to a common epitope of human and mouse LPL, its binding selectively suppressed only human LPL activity. Because amino acid sequence surrounding the epitope is common to both LPLs, difference in the sequence outside the epitope will contribute to the selective suppression of LPL activity by the antibody. Our results also suggested that both termini of LPL would be exposed on the surface of the molecule because they were fully accessible to antibodies and that the N-terminus of LPL would be functionally less important because binding of the anti-N-terminus antibody did not affect human LPL activity. The ELISAs were further utilized to demonstrate the presence of C-terminus truncated LPL protein in the postheparin plasma of an LPL-deficient patient, to map an epitope of the anti-C-terminus antibody within residues 433-436, and to gain insight into the structure-function relationship of the LPL molecule.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of almonds in foods.

    PubMed

    Hlywka, J J; Hefle, S L; Taylor, S L

    2000-02-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect almonds as potential allergenic contaminants in food. Polyclonal antibodies directed against roasted almonds were partially purified from immunized sheep and rabbits and used as capture and secondary antibodies, respectively, in a sandwich-type, 96-well plate format. Food samples and almond-spiked samples were extracted 1:10 in phosphate-buffered saline at 60 degrees C for 2 h, centrifuged, and applied to wells coated with sheep anti-almond antibody. After incubation, washing, and the addition of rabbit anti-almond antibody, the amount of almond present was detected with the subsequent addition of goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate. Plate absorbances were read at 410 nm, and standard curves were developed in all matrices to quantify unknowns. Antibodies developed were specific for almond; however, some cross-reactivity was observed with extracts of some tree nuts and sesame seeds. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western immunoblotting indicated that sheep anti-almond antibody recognized proteins extracted from black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pistachios, and sesame seeds in addition to those from almond. The assay was optimized to detect less than 1 ppm of almond and was used successfully to determine almond residues in cereal and chocolate without cross-reacting interferences. A retail survey of 20 brands of cereal demonstrated that the assay produced statistically consistent results. This assay provides a useful quality control tool for the food industry for the protection of consumers allergic to almonds. PMID:10678432

  6. Development of a biotinylated broad-specificity single-chain variable fragment antibody and a sensitive immunoassay for detection of organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fengchun; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Huimin; Liu, Jiye; Han, Xiao; Yang, Zhengyou

    2016-09-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, and OP residues have been broadly reported in food and environmental samples. The aim of this study is to develop a recombinant antibody-based broad-specificity immunoassay for OPs. A phage display library was prepared from a mouse pre-immunized with a generic immunogen of OPs, and a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody was selected. The selected scFv antibody was fused with biotin acceptor domain (BAD) and overexpressed as an inclusion body in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Then, the protein was refolded by stepwise urea gradient dialysis and biotinylated in vitro by E. coli biotin ligase (BirA). Subsequently, the scFv-BAD protein was purified from the biotinylated system with high yield (66.7 mg L(-1)) and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Based on the biotinylated scFv-BAD, a sensitive and broad-specificity competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) for detection of OPs was developed. The cross-reactivity (CR) studies demonstrated that the ciELISA described here exhibited the broadest detection spectrum for OPs up to now, and 30 OPs could be determined with 50 % inhibition value (IC50) values ranging from 19.4 to 515.2 ng mL(-1). Moreover, the developed ciELISA was used for the recovery study of the spiked samples and showed satisfactory recoveries. Graphical Abstract Schematic diagram of the development of biotinylated broad-specificity single-chain variable fragment antibody-based immunoassay for organophosphorus pesticides. PMID:27411546

  7. Hydrogel nanoparticle based immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Espina, Virginia

    2015-04-21

    An immunoassay device incorporating porous polymeric capture nanoparticles within either the sample collection vessel or pre-impregnated into a porous substratum within fluid flow path of the analytical device is presented. This incorporation of capture particles within the immunoassay device improves sensitivity while removing the requirement for pre-processing of samples prior to loading the immunoassay device. A preferred embodiment is coreshell bait containing capture nanoparticles which perform three functions in one step, in solution: a) molecular size sieving, b) target analyte sequestration and concentration, and c) protection from degradation. The polymeric matrix of the capture particles may be made of co-polymeric materials having a structural monomer and an affinity monomer, the affinity monomer having properties that attract the analyte to the capture particle. This device is useful for point of care diagnostic assays for biomedical applications and as field deployable assays for environmental, pathogen and chemical or biological threat identification.

  8. New trends in immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cangel Pui-yee; Cheung, Yiu-chi; Renneberg, Reinhard; Seydack, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a special focus on signal amplification technologies in immunoassays and new generations of lateral-flow assays. Novel signal amplification technologies based either on new classes of biofunctional nanocrystals consisting of releasable fluorophores or on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) can improve the sensitivity and the limits of detection in immunoassays. A bio-barcode assay also allows signal amplification by utilizing antibody-coated magnetic beads to concentrate the analytes and antibody-coated gold nanoparticle probes to carry with a large number of oligonucleotides. These innovative technologies boost the development of immunoassays. Growth in rapid immunoassay is fueled by the increasing number of diabetics, the globalization of infectious diseases and the surge in cardiovascular and other chronic diseases as well as other chronic conditions. Rapid, near patient, decentralized, point-of-care (POC) tests are emerging as a tool for more efficient diagnosis and patient evaluation. Technological innovations in lateral-flow assays have enabled a move to bring testing closer to the patient. A novel "digital-style" lateral-flow assay provides semi-quantitative results by simply counting the number of red lines in the test without any expensive reading instrument. An immuno-threshold-based assay can give a signal directly proportional to the concentration of a hapten to prevent confusion on interpretation of the test results. In addition, POC tests become more meaningful to healthcare professionals by combining the benefits of new technologies to provide quantitative results. A molecular compact disc provides a high-resolution imaging capability that can identify and quantify many different antigens simultaneously in highly complex immunoassays. Further advances in immunoassays will bring diagnostic testing even closer to the patient, and can help physicians to monitor diseases that require immediate test results, thereby enhancing the quality

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOASSAY (ELISA) METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN HUMAN URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development of a 96-microwell high sample capacity ELISA method for measuring 2,4-D in urine; the analysis of 2,4-D in real-world urine samples by both ELISA and GC/MS methods; and compares the ELISA and GC/MS results in several key areas: accuracy, preci...

  10. A colorimetric sandwich-type assay for sensitive thrombin detection based on enzyme-linked aptamer assay.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Hee; Cho, Yea Seul; Kang, Sungmuk; Lee, Eun Jeong; Lee, Gwan-Ho; Hah, Sang Soo

    2014-10-01

    A colorimetric sandwich-type assay based on enzyme-linked aptamer assay has been developed for the fast and sensitive detection of as low as 25 fM of thrombin with high linearity. Aptamer-immobilized glass was used to capture the target analyte, whereas a second aptamer, functionalized with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), was employed for the conventional 3,5,3',5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-based colorimetric detection. Without the troublesome antibody requirement of the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as low as 25 fM of thrombin could be rapidly and reproducibly detected. This assay has superior, or at least equal, recovery and accuracy to that of conventional antibody-based ELISA.

  11. Visualization of minute centers of viral infection in unfixed cell cultures by an enzyme-linked antibody assay.

    PubMed

    Smith, K O; Kennell, W L; Lamm, D L

    1981-01-01

    Enzyme-linked antibody was used to treat unfixed herpesvirus-infected human fetal lung cell cultures in a mode which permitted the visualizing of local sites of infection. Foci containing as few as 20 herpesvirus-infected cells produced sufficient viral mass to be easily detectable by this method. 'Clouds' or 'plumes' of colored reaction product diffused into the substrate overlay, accumulated above and around each focus of infection and allowed quantitation of the number of foci in a culture. The number of minute centers of viral infection determined by the enzyme-linked antibody method corresponded almost exactly with values obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Quantitation of herpes simplex infectivity by focus assay was possible within only 17 h after culture inoculation, well before cytopathic effects were visible macroscopically. The technique was also applied to demonstrate measles and mumpsvirus plaques (infectious centers) in Vero cell cultures.

  12. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-chlamydial secretory immunoglobulin A in guinea pig tears.

    PubMed

    Finney, P M; Bushell, A C

    1986-01-22

    A method is described which permits the assay of specific secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies produced by guinea pigs in response to ocular infection with the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis strain of Chlamydia psittaci (GPIC agent). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed was shown to be more sensitive and less subjective than the micro-immunofluorescence assay as a means of assaying specific antibody.

  13. High Frequency of False-Positive Hepatitis C Virus Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mullis, Caroline E.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Reynolds, Steven J.; Ocama, Ponsiano; Quinn, Jeffrey; Boaz, Iga; Gray, Ronald H.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Thomas, David L.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Stabinski, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. We tested 1000 individuals from Rakai, Uganda, with the Ortho version 3.0 HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All serologically positive samples were tested for HCV RNA. Seventy-six of the 1000 (7.6%) participants were HCV antibody positive; none were confirmed by detection of HCV RNA. PMID:24051866

  14. Detection of Molecular signatures of life using immunoassay techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, D.; Steele, A.; Warmflash, D.; Maule, J.; Lynch, K.

    The Miniaturized Array for Solar System Exploration (MASSE) will use a microarray of antibody assays to search for biomarkers in extraterrestrial environments. We have now used enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to demonstrate the feasibility of immuno-detection of biomarkers in terrestrial soil, JSC-1 Mars regolith simulant, and terrestrial polar permafrost as analogues f ro extraterrestrial materials. We have also demonstrated that the technique works at microgravity and Martian gravity. Studies are now underway to test immunoassay techniques and antibody arrays at varying pressures and temperatures. It is expected that these studies will lead to a flight ready biomarker detection instrument that will be landed and operated on the Martian surface in 2009.

  15. Determination of papain in raw meat by immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J G; Bowie, H M; Billington, M J

    1993-01-01

    An antibody raised to papain, a meat tenderising proteolytic enzyme obtained from papaya (Carica papaya), has been used in the development of an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of papain in raw meat. Quantitative determinations of papain up to 4 mg/kg of raw meat have been obtained using standard extracts prepared by the exogeneous addition of papain to raw beef. A sample of commercially treated 'tenderised beef' was shown to contain papain at the level of 0·40 mg/kg. In collaboration with a Public Analyst, a papain immunoassay kit has been used to assay 50 samples of beef bought from retail outlets, with a view to monitoring the use of this tenderiser by the meat industry. PMID:22060266

  16. Use of Peptide-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay followed by Immunofluorescence Assay To Document Ehrlichia chaffeensis as a Cause of Febrile Illness in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Chikeka, Ijeuru; Matute, Armando J; Dumler, J Stephen; Woods, Christopher W; Mayorga, Orlando; Reller, Megan E

    2016-06-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), has been extensively studied as a cause of acute febrile illness and an emerging tick-borne zoonosis in the United States. Limited data suggest its presence in other regions, including Central and South America but not Nicaragua to date. Diagnosis of E. chaffeensis infection by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is the reference standard due to its presumed high sensitivity and specificity, but IFA is impractical, variably reproducible, and cumbersome for large epidemiologic studies and for clinical diagnosis in resource-poor regions. We evaluated a high-throughput, objective peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for use alone or in combination with IFA. We found that it performed best as a screening test (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 84%) to reduce the proportion of serum samples that were required by the more cumbersome and subjective IFA testing to <20%. Using a two-step diagnostic approach (IFA is performed if the ELISA is positive), we identified E. chaffeensis or a serologically and antigenically similar organism as a heretofore unrecognized cause of acute febrile illness in humans in Nicaragua and demonstrated the utility of the peptide ELISA as a screening tool for large-scale clinical studies.

  17. Presence of human antibodies reacting with Candida albicans O-linked oligomannosides revealed by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and neoglycolipids.

    PubMed Central

    Hayette, M P; Strecker, G; Faille, C; Dive, D; Camus, D; Mackenzie, D W; Poulain, D

    1992-01-01

    In order to study the presence of antibodies directed against Candida albicans O-linked oligomannosides (oligomannosides O) in patient sera, we have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) involving neoglycolipids constructed with these residues (NGLO). Oligomannosides O released by mild alkaline degradation of the C. albicans cell wall phosphopeptidomannan (PPM) contained one to seven mannose residues, among which the quantitatively major components, mannobiose and mannotriose, were shown by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance to contain exclusively alpha (1-2) linkages. The pool of oligomannosides was converted to neoglycolipids by coupling them to 4-hexadecylaniline in an equimolar reaction checked by thin-layer chromatography. We have tested against these neoantigens, coated on ELISA plates, 15 pairs of sera corresponding to individual seroconversions observed in 15 patients during the course of a mycological and serological survey of candidiasis. For all patients, seroconversions resulted in an increased level of antibodies against NGLO. A significant correlation was observed between the results of ELISA-NGLO, ELISA involving the original PPM molecule, and routine antibody detection tests, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and cocounterimmunoelectrophoresis. These results therefore demonstrate the synthesis of human antibodies reactive with oligomannosides O constitutive of the C. albicans mannan molecule which have been previously described as exhibiting an inhibitory effect on human lymphocytic proliferation. Images PMID:1537911

  18. Development and application of a double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to porcine circovirus 2.

    PubMed

    Ge, Meng; Luo, Wei; Jiang, Daliang; Li, Runcheng; Zhao, Wenwei; Chen, Guoliang; Yang, Xingdong; Yu, Xinglong

    2012-09-01

    A double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described for detection of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) antibodies using the well-characterized recombinant PCV2 capsid protein. In a comparative test of 394 pig sera against an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test and a commercial ELISA kit (also based on the recombinant PCV2 capsid protein), the results showed that the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the assay were, respectively, 90.61, 94.02, and 91.62% compared with IIF and 94.38, 95.28, and 94.67% compared with the commercial ELISA kit. Assay of 12 PCV-free pigs over a 5-week period produced only PCV2-negative titers by all 3 methods. These results and the seroprofiles of 4 pig farms obtained by both the commercial ELISA kit and the double-antigen sandwich ELISA indicate that the sandwich ELISA is a reliable method for detection of antibodies to PCV2. Additionally, the method described here permits the use of undiluted test serum samples simultaneously loaded with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antigen into the test well, and the complete test procedure can be performed in less than 90 min. This double-antigen sandwich ELISA should be a useful tool to aid swine industry professionals in deciding the intervention strategies for the control of PCV2-associated diseases.

  19. Production of monoclonal antibody for okadaic acid and its utilization in an ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and one-step immunochromatographic strip.

    PubMed

    Liu, Biing-Hui; Hung, Chun-Tse; Lu, Chuan-Chen; Chou, Hong-Non; Yu, Feng-Yih

    2014-02-12

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a common marine biotoxin that accumulates in bivalves and causes diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). This study generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific to OA from a hybridoma cell line, 6B1A3, which was obtained by fusion of myeloma cells (P3/NS1/1-AG4-1) with spleen cells isolated from a BALB/c mouse immunized with OA-γ-globulin. The 6B1A3 mAb belongs to the immunoglobulin G1 (κ chain) isotype. Both competitive direct and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were established for characterization of the antibody. The concentrations causing 50% inhibition of binding of OA-horseradish peroxidase to the antibody by OA were calculated to be 0.077 ng/mL in the cdELISA. A rapid and sensitive mAb-based gold nanoparticle immunochromatographic strip was also established. This proposed strip has a detection limit of 5 ng/mL for OA and can be finished in 10 min. Extensive analyses of 20 seafood samples with ELISA revealed that 10 were slightly contaminated with OA, with a mean concentration of 0.892 ng/g. Analysis of OA in shellfish samples showed that data acquired by the immunochromatographic strip agreed well with those acquired by the ELISA. The mAb-based ELISA and immunochromatographic strip assay developed in this study have adequate sensitivity and accuracy for rapid screening of OA in shellfish samples.

  20. Detecting quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal tissues by using sensitive rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Le, Tao; Yu, Huan; Niu, Xiaodong

    2015-05-15

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) based on an anti-N-butylquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (BQCA) monoclonal antibody were standardized and validated for quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) screening in animal tissues and its performance were compared to HPLC. The sensitivities obtained for edible tissue extracts were 1.62 and 1.12 ng ml(-1) for ic-ELISA and TR-FIA detection, respectively. Two samples were spiked with QCA and analyzed by both methods. The recovery values ranged from 92.6% to 112.2% and the coefficients of variation were less than 15% for QCA spiking into swine tissue samples at concentrations of 2.5-50.0 μg kg(-1). Excellent correlations (r(2)=0.987-0.996) of the ic-ELISA/HPLC and TR-FIA/HPLC data were observed for processed samples. The results demonstrated that the ic-ELISA and TR-FIA methods were rapid and accurate for the residue detection of QCA in animal tissues.

  1. Use of Peptide-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay followed by Immunofluorescence Assay To Document Ehrlichia chaffeensis as a Cause of Febrile Illness in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Chikeka, Ijeuru; Matute, Armando J; Dumler, J Stephen; Woods, Christopher W; Mayorga, Orlando; Reller, Megan E

    2016-06-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), has been extensively studied as a cause of acute febrile illness and an emerging tick-borne zoonosis in the United States. Limited data suggest its presence in other regions, including Central and South America but not Nicaragua to date. Diagnosis of E. chaffeensis infection by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is the reference standard due to its presumed high sensitivity and specificity, but IFA is impractical, variably reproducible, and cumbersome for large epidemiologic studies and for clinical diagnosis in resource-poor regions. We evaluated a high-throughput, objective peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for use alone or in combination with IFA. We found that it performed best as a screening test (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 84%) to reduce the proportion of serum samples that were required by the more cumbersome and subjective IFA testing to <20%. Using a two-step diagnostic approach (IFA is performed if the ELISA is positive), we identified E. chaffeensis or a serologically and antigenically similar organism as a heretofore unrecognized cause of acute febrile illness in humans in Nicaragua and demonstrated the utility of the peptide ELISA as a screening tool for large-scale clinical studies. PMID:27053675

  2. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2013-07-16

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  3. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W.; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2005-12-13

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  4. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2007-12-04

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  5. Preprogrammed, parallel on-chip immunoassay using system-level capillarity control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2013-07-16

    Fully manual use of conventional multiwell plates makes enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based immunoassays highly time-consuming and labor-intensive. Here, we present a capillarity-driven on-chip immunoassay that greatly saves time and labor with an inexpensive setup. Our immunoassay process starts with pipetting multiple solutions into multiwells constructed on a microfluidic device chip. Subsequently, capillarity spontaneously transports multiple sample solutions and common reagent solutions into assigned detection channels on the chip in a purely passive and preprogrammed manner. Our device implements capillarity-driven immunoassays involving four sample and six reagent solutions within 30 min by orchestrating the functions of on-chip passive components. Notably, our immunoassay technique reduces the total number of pipetting processes by ~5 times, as compared to assays on multiwell plates (48 vs 10). This assay technique allows us to quantify the concentrations of C-reactive protein and suppressor of tumorigenicity 2 with a detection limit of 8 and 90 pM, respectively. This device should be useful for sophisticated, parallel biochemical microfluidic processing in point-of-care settings under limited resources.

  6. A simple and rapid fluorescence-based immunoassay for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B.

    PubMed

    Khan, Akbar S; Cao, Cheng J; Thompson, Roy G; Valdes, James J

    2003-01-01

    The bioterrorism threat is perceived to be a real challenge to our nation's security. This threat has necessitated the design of better and faster assays for the detection of biothreat agents including staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), a causative agent of food poisoning. This study describes a simple, fast and highly sensitive fluorescence-based immunoassay, in which the antibody is fluorescently-labeled for use in this assay. Use of labeled antibodies resulted in very low level of detection of SEB, 100 pg/well. This method is four times faster than classical and conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PMID:12788034

  7. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development for the beta-adrenergic agonist zilpaterol.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; Smith, David J

    2004-04-21

    Zilpaterol is an beta-adrenergic agonist approved for use in cattle in South Africa and Mexico as a growth promoter. It is not currently approved for use in the EU, USA, or Asia. Here, we report the development of an ELISA for zilpaterol. Zilpaterol was reacted with ethyl 4-bromobutyrate followed by refluxing in 0.1 M potassium hydroxide. The resulting hapten was reacted with two carrier proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) as an activating agent. Immunization of goats with the zilpaterol-butyrate-KLH resulted in an antibody useful for an ELISA. We utilized zilpaterol-butyrate-BSA as a coating antigen for ELISA development. The average IC(50) derived from the developed zilpaterol immunoassay was 3.94 +/- 0.48 ng/mL (n = 25). The antibody did not cross react with N-alkyl [bamethane, clenbuterol, (-)-isoproterenol, (+)-isoproterenol, metaproterenol, or salbutamol] or N-arylalkyl (dobutamine, fenoterol, isoxsuprine, ractopamine, or salmeterol) beta-agonists. The assay was tolerant of up to 10% (v/v) of acetone, ethanol, or methanol, and 15% (v/v) of acetonitrile or DMSO. Salt concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 M minimally affected B(0) or IC(50) values. When buffer pH was <7 or >8.8, the IC(50) values increased in comparison to those measured at pH 7.4. In conclusion, a sensitive, specific zilpaterol ELISA has been developed that can serve as a rapid screening assay.

  8. Chemiluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Competitive Immunoassay Employing Hapten-Functionalized Quantum Dots for the Detection of Sulfamethazine.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingfang; Wen, Kai; Beier, Ross C; Eremin, Sergei A; Li, Chenglong; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui

    2016-07-20

    We describe a new strategy for using chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) by employing hapten-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) in a competitive immunoassay for detection of sulfamethazine (SMZ). Core/multishell QDs were synthesized and modified with phospholipid-PEG. The modified QDs were functionalized with the hapten 4-(4-aminophenyl-sulfonamido)butanoic acid. The CRET-based immunoassay exhibited a limit of detection for SMZ of 9 pg mL(-1), which is >4 orders of magnitude better than a homogeneous fluorescence polarization immunoassay and is 2 orders of magnitude better than a heterogeneous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This strategy represents a simple, reliable, and universal approach for detection of chemical contaminants.

  9. Chemiluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Competitive Immunoassay Employing Hapten-Functionalized Quantum Dots for the Detection of Sulfamethazine.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingfang; Wen, Kai; Beier, Ross C; Eremin, Sergei A; Li, Chenglong; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui

    2016-07-20

    We describe a new strategy for using chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) by employing hapten-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) in a competitive immunoassay for detection of sulfamethazine (SMZ). Core/multishell QDs were synthesized and modified with phospholipid-PEG. The modified QDs were functionalized with the hapten 4-(4-aminophenyl-sulfonamido)butanoic acid. The CRET-based immunoassay exhibited a limit of detection for SMZ of 9 pg mL(-1), which is >4 orders of magnitude better than a homogeneous fluorescence polarization immunoassay and is 2 orders of magnitude better than a heterogeneous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This strategy represents a simple, reliable, and universal approach for detection of chemical contaminants. PMID:27362827

  10. Enzyme-catalysed deposition of ultrathin silver shells on gold nanorods: a universal and highly efficient signal amplification strategy for translating immunoassay into a litmus-type test.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinjian; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2015-04-25

    On the basis of enzyme-catalysed reduction of silver ions and consequent deposition of ultrathin silver shells on gold nanorods, a highly efficient signal amplification method for immunoassay is developed. For a model analyte prostate-specific antigen, a 10(4)-fold improvement over conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is accomplished by leveraging on the cumulative nature of the enzymatic reaction and the sensitive response of plasnomic gold nanorods to the deposition the silver shells.

  11. Simultaneous detection of antibodies to mouse hepatitis virus recombinant structural proteins by a microsphere-based multiplex fluorescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Kunita, Satoshi; Kato, Kanako; Ishida, Miyuki; Hagiwara, Kozue; Kameda, Shuko; Ishida, Tomoko; Takakura, Akira; Goto, Kazuo; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Yagami, Ken-Ichi

    2011-05-01

    We describe a new microsphere-based multiplex fluorescent immunoassay (MFI) using recombinant mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) proteins to detect antibodies to coronaviruses in mouse and rat sera. All the recombinant proteins, including nucleocapsid (N) and 3 subunits of spike protein, S1, S2, and Smid, showed positive reactivity in MFI with mouse antisera to 4 MHV strains (MHV-S, -A59, -JHM, and -Nu67) and rat antiserum to a strain of sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV-681). The MFI was evaluated for its diagnostic power, with panels of mouse sera classified as positive or negative for anti-MHV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using MHV virion antigen and indirect fluorescent antibody assay. The reactivities of 236 naturally infected mouse sera were examined; 227 samples were positive by MFI using S2 antigen (96% sensitivity), and 208 samples were positive using N antigen (88% sensitivity). Based on the assessment by MFI using the S2 and N antigens, only 3 serum samples showed double-negative results, indicating a false-negative rate of 1.3%. In 126 uninfected mouse sera, including 34 ELISA false-positive sera, only 7 samples showed false-positive results by MFI using either the S2 or N antigen (94% specificity). Similarly, the S2 and N antigen-based MFI was 98% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting anticoronavirus antibodies in rat sera. Thus, this MFI-based serologic assay using the S2 and N antigens promises to be a reliable diagnostic method, representing a highly sensitive and specific alternative to traditional ELISA for detection of coronavirus infections in laboratory mouse and rat colonies.

  12. Modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay strategy using graphene oxide sheets and gold nanoparticles functionalized with different antibody types.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongjun; Liu, Yingfu; Huo, Jingrui; Zhang, Aihong; Pan, Yiting; Bai, Haihong; Jiao, Zhang; Fang, Tian; Wang, Xin; Cai, Yun; Wang, Qingming; Zhang, Yangjun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2013-07-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and graphene oxide (GO) sheets are excellent nano carriers in many analytical methods. In this study, a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) strategy was developed using antibody-functionalized GO sheets and GNPs. This modification significantly reduced the limit of detection (LOD) and cost greatly of this assay. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by detecting HSP70 in a human serum sample. This result suggests that the 3G-ELISA method is feasible to detect an antigen in a complex mixture, and the LOD is up to 64-fold and the cost is as low as one-tenth of the conventional ELISA method.

  13. Detection of antibodies to Anisakis simplex larvae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoelectrophoresis using crude or purified antigens.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez Ramos, R; Tsuji, M

    1994-12-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) were used for the serodiagnosis of larval Anisakis simplex infections in man and immunized rabbits. Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration was used for separating crude antigen. Four fractions were obtained. Sera from patients with other helminth infections sometimes cross reacted with Anisakis larval antigens. With IEP, crude antigen is more sensitive than purified antigens. With ELISA, the third fraction is the most sensitive for detecting antibodies to Anisakis larvae in the sera of humans and immunized rabbits.

  14. Purification of a baculovirus-expressed hepatitis E virus structural protein and utility in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    He, J; Ching, W M; Yarbough, P; Wang, H; Carl, M

    1995-01-01

    We report on the purification of the full-length structural protein encoded by open reading frame 2 (ORF-2) of hepatitis E virus. The ORF-2 protein, expressed in Sf9 cells by using a recombinant baculovirus vector system, was successfully purified to homogeneity. Gel electrophoresis of the purified ORF-2 protein showed a single polypeptide of 75 kDa by Coomassie blue staining and by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. We demonstrated that the partially purified ORF-2 protein could be used successfully in a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to hepatitis E virus. PMID:8586723

  15. Updates in immunoassays: virology.

    PubMed

    Josko, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Virus identification is a challenge to the clinical microbiologist since growing viruses in traditional cell culture is labor intensive, time consuming, and subject to contamination. The advent of rapid and automated immunoassays has eliminated this problem by generating positive results in minutes to hours. For example, testing for infectious mononucleosis can yield a positive result in 3-8 minutes as seen with the Beckman Coulter, Inc. ICON Mono test or in 5-15 minutes with the MONO Mononucleosis Rapid Test Device marketed by ACON Laboratories, Inc. Fully automated immunoassay analyzers provide fast, accurate, sensitive results that aid in a prompt and accurate diagnosis for the patient. Turnaround times are shortened, allowing for timely medical intervention and treatment. The priority in any hospital or medical facility is to treat the patient as quickly and appropriately as possible. By using immunoassays, clinical laboratory professionals are able to report out correct results in a timely manner, ensuring overall positive patient outcomes and improved quality of healthcare.

  16. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Abraxis Ecologenia® 17β-Estradiol (E2) Microplate Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test Kits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This verification test was conducted according to procedures specifiedin the Test/QA Planfor Verification of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test Kis for the Quantitative Determination of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) in Aqueous Phase Samples. Deviations to the...

  17. Mixed immunoassay design for multiple chemical residues detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanshen; Li, Peng; Luo, Xiangshu; Hao, Zhihui; Wang, Zhanhui; Shen, Jianzhong; Cao, Xingyuan; Zhang, Suxia

    2013-04-01

    In this research, a mixed immunoassay design for multiple chemical residues detection based on combined reverse competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure was developed. This method integrated two reverse ELISA reactions in one assay by labeling horseradish peroxidase to deoxynivalenol (DON) and orbifloxacin. Within this method, IC50 of the two mAbs for each analyte we produced ranged from 23~68 ng mL(-1) for DONs and 4.1~49 ng mL(-1) for quinolones (QNs). The limit of detection measured by IC10 was achieved at 0.45-1.3 ng mL(-1) for DONs and 0.59-6.9 ng mL(-1) for QNs, which was lower than the maximum residue levels. Recoveries in negative samples spiked at concentrations of 100, 200, and 500 ng mL(-1) ranged from 91.3 to 102.2 % for DONs and 88.7-98.05 % for QNs with relative standard deviation less than 9.88 and 12.67 %. The results demonstrated that this developed immunoassay was suitable for screening of low molecular weight contaminants.

  18. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition in a seroepidemiological study of influenza type C infection.

    PubMed

    Troisi, C L; Monto, A S

    1981-11-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the detection of antibodies to influenza type C. Based on replicate testing it was decided that an increase of more than three times the standard error of the mean from one serum specimen to the next represented a significant increase in antibody content. After removal of potentially chicken egg albumin antibodies, the test appeared to be more sensitive for the detection of rises in antibody levels than was hemagglutination inhibition. In some cases, heat treatment of the serum before use in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay increased the readings. The strains C/AA/1/59 and C/NJ/1/76 were used in a pilot epidemiological study of influenza C infection in Tecumseh, Mich. Sera tested were collected from autumn of 1976 to autumn of 1978. The overall incidence rate for influenza C infection in the 2-year period was 7.8%. Most cases occurred in children aged 5 to 9 years, and the rates decreased rapidly with increasing age. There appeared to be no relationship to influenza C infection with influenza A or B coinfection. All 17 influenza C infections observed occurred during the 1976 to 1977 respiratory disease season. This indicates that type C virus may not occur endemically, but may exhibit year-to-year variation in infection frequency, as is the case with types A and B.

  19. Gold nanoparticle-based enzyme-linked antibody-aptamer sandwich assay for detection of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenhe; Li, Jun; Pan, Dun; Li, Jiang; Song, Shiping; Rong, Mingge; Li, Zixi; Gao, Jimin; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-10-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provides a convenient means for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM), which is important for rapid diagnosis of foodborne pathogens. However, conventional ELISA is limited by antibody-antigen immunoreactions and suffers from poor sensitivity and tedious sample pretreatment. Therefore, development of novel ELISA remains challenging. Herein, we designed a comprehensive strategy for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of STM with high specificity by gold nanoparticle-based enzyme-linked antibody-aptamer sandwich (nano-ELAAS) method. STM was captured and preconcentrated from samples with aptamer-modified magnetic particles, followed by binding with detector antibodies. Then nanoprobes carrying a large amount of reporter antibodies and horseradish peroxidase molecules were used for colorimetric signal amplification. Under the optimized reaction conditions, the nano-ELAAS assay had a quantitative detection range from 1 × 10(3) to 1 × 10(8) CFU mL(-1), a limit of detection of 1 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1), and a selectivity of >10-fold for STM in samples containing other bacteria at higher concentration with an assay time less than 3 h. In addition, the developed nanoprobes were improved in terms of detection range and/or sensitivity when compared with two commercial enzyme-labeled antibody signal reporters. Finally, the nano-ELAAS method was demonstrated to work well in milk samples, a common source of STM contamination.

  20. Prediction of estrus cyclicity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) through estimation of fecal progesterone metabolite: development of an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, R; Sukumar, R; Seshagiri, P B

    2010-05-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), prominent "flagship species", are listed under the category of endangered species (EN - A2c, ver. 3.1; IUCN Red List 2009) and there is a need for their conservation. This requires understanding demographic and reproductive dynamics of the species. Monitoring reproductive status of any species is traditionally being carried out through invasive blood sampling and this is restrictive for large animals such as wild or semi-captive elephants due to legal, ethical, and practical reasons. Hence, there is a need for a non-invasive technique to assess reproductive cyclicity profiles of elephants, which will help in the species' conservation strategies. In this study, we developed an indirect competitive enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate the concentration of one of the progesterone-metabolites i.e., allopregnanolone (5 alpha-P-3OH) in fecal samples of Asian elephants. We validated the assay which had a sensitivity of 0.25 microM at 90% binding with an EC(50) value of 1.37 microM. Using female elephants, kept under semi-captive conditions in the forest camps of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu and Bandipur National Park, Karnataka, India, we measured fecal progesterone-metabolite (5 alpha-P-3OH) concentrations in six animals and showed their clear correlation with those of serum progesterone, measured by a standard radio-immuno assay. Statistical analyses using a Linear Mixed Effect model showed a positive correlation (P<0.1) between the profiles of fecal 5 alpha-P-3OH (range: 0.5-10 microg/g) and serum progesterone (range: 0.1-1.8 ng/mL). Therefore, our studies show, for the first time, that the fecal progesterone-metabolite assay could be exploited to predict estrus cyclicity and to potentially assess the reproductive status of captive and free-ranging female Asian elephants, thereby helping to plan their breeding strategy.

  1. Evaluation of an IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Serological Assay for Detection of Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Wawegama, Nadeeka K; Markham, Philip F; Kanci, Anna; Schibrowski, Meghan; Oswin, Sally; Barnes, Tamsin S; Firestone, Simon M; Mahony, Timothy J; Browning, Glenn F

    2016-05-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen of emerging significance in cattle throughout the world that is causing a range of diseases, including mastitis, arthritis, and pneumonia. The limited availability and efficacy of current diagnostic and prophylactic tools for its control and its increasing antimicrobial resistance are contributing to its increasing importance in beef and dairy cattle. We have developed an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a recombinant fragment of the MilA protein and have shown its potential as an effective diagnostic tool. To more comprehensively estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this IgG ELISA for detection of infection with M. bovis in cattle and to define a suitable cutoff for use in the field, we further assessed its performance in experimentally infected calves in a closed beef herd and by applying Bayesian latent class modeling to laboratory testing results from 7,448 cattle entering Australian feedlots. The most effective cutoff points were estimated to be 68.6 antibody units (AU) for experimentally infected calves and to be 58.7 AU for a closed adult herd. Under field conditions, in feedlot cattle the globally optimal cutoff was estimated to be 105 AU. At this cutoff, the diagnostic sensitivity was 94.3% (95% probability interval [PI], 89.9% to 99.6%) with a diagnostic specificity of 94.4% (95% PI, 90.3% to 99.6%). Applying this 105 AU cutoff, 13.1% of cattle were seropositive for infection with M. bovis on entry into feedlots, and 73.5% were seropositive when followed up approximately 6 weeks later suggesting a high risk of infection shortly after entry into feedlots.

  2. Development of a sensitive monoclonal-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring T-2 toxin in food and feed.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dapeng; Chang, Fangfang; Wang, Yulian; Chen, Dongmei; Liu, Zhenli; Zhou, Xiaodong; Feng, Liang; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of food or feed contaminated with high levels of T-2 toxin may cause adverse health effects in humans and other animals. In this study, to monitor T-2 toxin rapidly in food and feed, a sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against T-2 toxin was generated and a simple and rapid indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) developed. T-2 toxin was first converted to T-2-hemisuccinate (T-2HS) and T-2-hemiglutarate (T-2HG), which were then conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) to prepare an immunogen and coating antigen, respectively. After the inoculation of female Balb/c mice and cell fusions, one cell line, 4D8, with the IgG1 isotype was obtained. The 4D8 antibody exhibited the ability specifically to recognise T-2 toxin with IC50 1.46 µg l(-1). Based on this 4D8 mAb, an optimised ic-ELISA protocol was developed using only methanol-water (7:3, v/v) in feed and cereal samples and ethyl acetate in muscle samples. The limits of detection of T-2 toxin in various sample matrices varied from 0.07 to 15.8 µg kg(-1); the recoveries ranged from 50.3% to 113.6%; and the CVs were less than 19.0%. These results suggest that the prepared mAb and the developed ic-ELISA method will be a useful tool for detecting T-2 toxin in foods and feeds. PMID:26933973

  3. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Yellow Fever Virus and Application in Antigen Detection and IgM Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Adungo, Ferdinard; Kamau, David; Inoue, Shingo; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Sang, Rosemary; Mwau, Matilu

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute hemorrhagic viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes in Africa and South America. The major challenge in YF disease detection and confirmation of outbreaks in Africa is the limited availability of reference laboratories and the persistent lack of access to diagnostic tests. We used wild-type YF virus sequences to generate recombinant envelope protein in an Escherichia coli expression system. Both the recombinant protein and sucrose gradient-purified YF vaccine virus 17D (YF-17D) were used to immunize BALB/c mice to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Eight MAbs were established and systematically characterized by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The established MAbs showed strong reactivity with wild-type YF virus and recombinant protein with no detectable cross-reactivity to dengue virus or Japanese encephalitis virus. Epitope mapping showed strong binding of three MAbs to amino acid positions 1 to 51, while two MAbs mapped to amino acid positions 52 to 135 of the envelope protein. The remaining three MAbs did not show reactivity to envelope fragments. The established MAbs exert no neutralization against wild-type YF and 17D viruses (titer of <10 for both strains). The applicability of MAbs 8H3 and 3F4 was further evaluated using IgM capture ELISA. A total of 49 serum samples were analyzed, among which 12 positive patient and vaccinee samples were correctly identified. Using serum samples that were 2-fold serially diluted, the IgM capture ELISA was able to detect all YF-positive samples. Furthermore, MAb-based antigen detection ELISA enabled the detection of virus in culture supernatants containing titers of about 1,000 focus-forming units. PMID:27307452

  4. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Yellow Fever Virus and Application in Antigen Detection and IgM Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Adungo, Ferdinard; Yu, Fuxun; Kamau, David; Inoue, Shingo; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Sang, Rosemary; Mwau, Matilu; Morita, Kouichi

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute hemorrhagic viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes in Africa and South America. The major challenge in YF disease detection and confirmation of outbreaks in Africa is the limited availability of reference laboratories and the persistent lack of access to diagnostic tests. We used wild-type YF virus sequences to generate recombinant envelope protein in an Escherichia coli expression system. Both the recombinant protein and sucrose gradient-purified YF vaccine virus 17D (YF-17D) were used to immunize BALB/c mice to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Eight MAbs were established and systematically characterized by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The established MAbs showed strong reactivity with wild-type YF virus and recombinant protein with no detectable cross-reactivity to dengue virus or Japanese encephalitis virus. Epitope mapping showed strong binding of three MAbs to amino acid positions 1 to 51, while two MAbs mapped to amino acid positions 52 to 135 of the envelope protein. The remaining three MAbs did not show reactivity to envelope fragments. The established MAbs exert no neutralization against wild-type YF and 17D viruses (titer of <10 for both strains). The applicability of MAbs 8H3 and 3F4 was further evaluated using IgM capture ELISA. A total of 49 serum samples were analyzed, among which 12 positive patient and vaccinee samples were correctly identified. Using serum samples that were 2-fold serially diluted, the IgM capture ELISA was able to detect all YF-positive samples. Furthermore, MAb-based antigen detection ELISA enabled the detection of virus in culture supernatants containing titers of about 1,000 focus-forming units. PMID:27307452

  5. Evaluation of an IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Serological Assay for Detection of Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wawegama, Nadeeka K.; Markham, Philip F.; Kanci, Anna; Schibrowski, Meghan; Oswin, Sally; Barnes, Tamsin S.; Firestone, Simon M.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen of emerging significance in cattle throughout the world that is causing a range of diseases, including mastitis, arthritis, and pneumonia. The limited availability and efficacy of current diagnostic and prophylactic tools for its control and its increasing antimicrobial resistance are contributing to its increasing importance in beef and dairy cattle. We have developed an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a recombinant fragment of the MilA protein and have shown its potential as an effective diagnostic tool. To more comprehensively estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this IgG ELISA for detection of infection with M. bovis in cattle and to define a suitable cutoff for use in the field, we further assessed its performance in experimentally infected calves in a closed beef herd and by applying Bayesian latent class modeling to laboratory testing results from 7,448 cattle entering Australian feedlots. The most effective cutoff points were estimated to be 68.6 antibody units (AU) for experimentally infected calves and to be 58.7 AU for a closed adult herd. Under field conditions, in feedlot cattle the globally optimal cutoff was estimated to be 105 AU. At this cutoff, the diagnostic sensitivity was 94.3% (95% probability interval [PI], 89.9% to 99.6%) with a diagnostic specificity of 94.4% (95% PI, 90.3% to 99.6%). Applying this 105 AU cutoff, 13.1% of cattle were seropositive for infection with M. bovis on entry into feedlots, and 73.5% were seropositive when followed up approximately 6 weeks later suggesting a high risk of infection shortly after entry into feedlots. PMID:26912757

  6. Evaluation of the performance of a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies in horses.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Moretti, Annabella; Morganti, Giulia; Vardi, Doron Moshe; Laus, Fulvio; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Spaterna, Andrea; Coletti, Mauro; Fioretti, Daniela Piergili

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a commercially available rapid enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay, the Snap® 4Dx test, in the detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies in horses. Two hundred apparently healthy horses (asymptomatic) and 244 animals showing clinical symptoms (symptomatic), were tested for A. phagocytophilum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using both the Snap® 4Dx kit and an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), with the latter serving as a comparative test. Horses belonging to the symptomatic group were also tested for evidence of active infection with A. phagocytophilum by analysis of IFAT IgM titers and PCR assay amplifying a specific fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The overall agreement between the results obtained using the two tests, as well as the relative performance exhibited by the Snap® 4Dx test in the two groups, was assessed. Forty of the 45 animals (89%) testing positive for IgG antibodies using IFAT were correctly identified using Snap® 4Dx testing. The agreement between the results of the two tests was very high (k>0.9), with almost identical performances in both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals. Conversely, within the symptomatic group, only 44% (no. 11/25) of Snap® 4Dx positives appeared to be associated with a state of active infection, whereas the remaining 56% (no. 14/25) were related both to not infected animals (no. 1) and to horses whose status of infection needed further evaluations to be confirmed (no. 13/25). This study suggests that the Snap® 4Dx test could represent a valid screening method for use during epidemiological surveys of equine populations. Nevertheless, in-clinic application of the test does not appear to be merited.

  7. Four-layer enzyme immunoassay (EIA) detection of differences in IgG, IgM and IgA antibody response to Aujeszky's disease virus in infected and vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed

    Rodák, L; Smíd, B; Valícek, L; Jurák, E

    1987-02-01

    The use of the four-layer enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies against Aujeszky's disease virus in blood and oropharyngeal swabs of infected and vaccinated pigs is described. Mean antibody titres obtained using the four-layer EIA were 6.1 and 3829 times higher compared with the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization (VN) test, respectively. The VN test detected mainly IgG antibodies, while the IgM antibodies did not react. Using the EIA, the first antiviral antibodies in sera were demonstrated on Days 5-7 after infection or vaccination. Up to the 7th day, demonstrable antibodies were almost exclusively of the IgM class. In infected pigs high titres of IgM antibodies were still detected on Day 18, while in vaccinated animals they were absent by this time. Antibodies of the IgG class appeared in infected pigs sooner (Day 7) than in vaccinated pigs (Day 10) and reached higher mean titres. Antibodies of the IgA class were demonstrable from Day 10 only in samples from infected pigs. Similar antibody dynamics and distribution were detected in oropharyngeal swabs, except that the IgG and IgM titres were roughly 100 times lower than in sera. However, titres of IgA antibodies in oropharyngeal swabs were two times higher than in sera. The greatest differences between both groups of animals were recorded on Day 18; in the infected pigs, IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies were present in sera and oropharyngeal swabs at that time, while in vaccinated pigs only IgG antibodies were demonstrable. The effect of infection and vaccination on the pattern of the immune response as well as the importance of the detection of individual immunoglobulin classes for the specificity of the enzyme immunoassay are discussed.

  8. Automated imatinib immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Beumer, Jan H.; Kozo, Daniel; Harney, Rebecca L.; Baldasano, Caitlin N.; Jarrah, Justin; Christner, Susan M.; Parise, Robert; Baburina, Irina; Courtney, Jodi B.; Salamone, Salvatore J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Imatinib pharmacokinetic variability and the relationship of trough concentrations with clinical outcomes have been extensively reported. Though physical methods to quantitate imatinib exist, they are not widely available for routine use. An automated homogenous immunoassay for imatinib has been developed, facilitating routine imatinib testing. Methods Imatinib-selective monoclonal antibodies, without substantial cross-reactivity to the N-desmethyl metabolite or N-desmethyl conjugates, were produced. The antibodies were conjugated to 200 nm particles to develop immunoassay reagents on the Beckman Coulter AU480™ analyzer. These reagents were analytically validated using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute protocols. Method comparison to LC-MS/MS was conducted using 77 plasma samples collected from subjects receiving imatinib. Results The assay requires 4 µL of sample without pre-treatment. The non-linear calibration curve ranges from 0 to 3,000 ng/mL. With automated sample dilution, concentrations of up to 9,000 ng/mL can be quantitated. The AU480 produces the first result in 10 minutes, and up to 400 tests per hour. Repeatability ranged from 2.0 to 6.0% coefficient of variation (CV), and within-laboratory reproducibility ranged from 2.9 to 7.4% CV. Standard curve stability was two weeks and on-board reagent stability was 6 weeks. For clinical samples with imatinib concentrations from 438 – 2,691 ng/mL, method comparison with LC-MS/MS gave a slope of 0.995 with a y-intercept of 24.3 and a correlation coefficient of 0.978. Conclusion The immunoassay is suitable for quantitating imatinib in human plasma, demonstrating good correlation with a physical method. Testing for optimal imatinib exposure can now be performed on routine clinical analyzers. PMID:25551407

  9. Development of monoclonal immunoassays for the determination of triazole fungicides in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Manclús, Juan J; Moreno, María J; Plana, Emma; Montoya, Angel

    2008-10-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on monoclonal antibodies for the detection of triazole fungicides have been developed. With this aim, hapten-protein conjugates, containing the common triazole and chlorinated aromatic moieties, were prepared. From mice immunized with these conjugates, several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with the ability to sensitively bind several triazoles with different specificity were obtained. Both analyte- and class-specific ELISAs were developed. The hexaconazole-specific immunoassay can determine this fungicide with a limit of detection of 0.3 mug/L in standard buffer. The so-called triazole-specific immunoassay allowed for the detection of tetraconazole, penconazole, cyproconazole, and myclobutanil, with limits of detection in the 0.1-0.7 mug/L range. These immunoassays were applied to the determination of triazoles in spiked fruit juices. Samples were adequately diluted to minimize the matrix effects. Coefficients of variation were below 30%, and recoveries ranged from 62 to 135%. Therefore, the developed immunoassays can determine triazole fungicides in fruit juices down to the maximum residue limits currently legislated, without any sample treatment other than dilution.

  10. Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, florfenicol and florfenicol amine in ham sausage with a hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescent immunoassay utilising two types of primary antibodies (murine monoclonal antibody and rabbit polyclonal antibody) and two types of horseradish peroxidase-labelled secondary antibodies was established for simultaneously detecting multiple amphenicol residues in ham sausage. After combining the extract procedure of the target amphenicol into one simplified method, this hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen chloramphenicol (CAP), florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) at the same time by adding the corresponding secondary antibody. Ham sausage samples were analysed by using this hybrid immunoassay, with LODs of CAP being 0.01 μg kg⁻¹, of FF being 2.8 μg kg⁻¹ and of FFA being 3.0 μg kg⁻¹. The applicability of the proposed method has been validated by determining CAP, FF and FFA in ham sausage samples with satisfactory results. Good recoveries and high correlation with traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and LC-MS/MS results illustrated that the developed hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen high-throughput ultra-trace amphenicol residues effectively at one time.

  11. Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease by kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant VlsE1 or peptide antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi compared with 2-tiered testing using whole-cell lysates.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Rendi Murphree; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Schriefer, Martin E; Gilmore, Robert D; Philipp, Mario T; Steere, Allen C; Wormser, Gary P; Marques, Adriana R; Johnson, Barbara J B

    2003-04-15

    In a study of US patients with Lyme disease, immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM antibody responses to recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi antigen VlsE1 (rVlsE1), IgG responses to a synthetic peptide homologous to a conserved internal sequence of VlsE (C6), and IgM responses to a synthetic peptide comprising the C-terminal 10 amino acid residues of a B. burgdorferi outer-surface protein C (pepC10) were evaluated by kinetic enzyme-linked immunoassay. At 99% specificity, the overall sensitivities for detecting IgG antibody to rVlsE1 or C6 in samples from patients with diverse manifestations of Lyme disease were equivalent to that of 2-tiered testing. When data were considered in parallel, 2 combinations (IgG responses to either rVlsE1 or C6 in parallel with IgM responses to pepC10) maintained high specificity (98%) and were significantly more sensitive than 2-tiered analysis in detecting antibodies to B. burgdorferi in patients with acute erythema migrans. In later stages of Lyme disease, the sensitivities of the in parallel tests and 2-tiered testing were high and statistically equivalent.

  12. Use of the Falcon assay screening test--enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) to determine the prevalence of human fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Rodriguez-Perez, J; Bjorland, J; Silva de Lagrava, M; Ramirez Guzman, S; Bryan, R T

    1992-05-01

    A collaborative study between the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, the Centers for Disease Control, the Bolivian Ministry of Health, and private voluntary organizations (Foster Parents Plan International and Danchurchaid) working in Bolivia has identified a region in the northwestern Altiplano of Bolivia near Lake Titicaca as harboring the highest prevalence of human fascioliasis in the world reported to date. Two serologic techniques (the Falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [FAST-ELISA] and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot [EITB]) were used in the determination of its prevalence. One hundred serum samples and 73 stool samples were obtained from Aymara Indians from Corapata, Bolivia. Antibody absorbance levels to Fasciola hepatica excretion-secretion antigens were compared with EITB banding patterns using the same antigen preparation. A positive FAST-ELISA result was defined as an absorbance value greater than the mean plus three standard deviations of two sets of normal negative controls (Puerto Rican and Bolivian). Using this criterion, 53 of 100 sera tested were found positive by this technique. Within this group, 19 (95%) of 20 individuals who were parasite positive were also positive by FAST-ELISA. An additional 24 individuals who were negative for F. hepatica eggs and 10 individuals for whom no specimens were received were also positive by FAST-ELISA. Among the 53 individuals negative for F. hepatica eggs, 29 were also negative by FAST-ELISA. The EITB analysis of the sera from confirmed infected individuals revealed at least three F. hepatica (Fh) bands with molecular weights of 12, 17, and 63 kD, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Purification and characterisation of a fimbrial haemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis for use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Askelöf, P; Granström, M; Gillenius, P; Lindberg, A A

    1982-02-01

    The fimbrial haemagglutinin (F-HA) of Bordetella pertussis grown on solid medium was extracted with 1M sodium acetate for 72 h at 20 degree C, and partially purified by Sephacryl S-300 gel chromatography. A pooled fraction with fimbrial haemmagglutinating activity was shown to contain fimbriae haemagglutinating activity was shown to contain fimbriae of the expected morphology by electron microscopy. Chemical and biological assays showed that the F-HA fraction contained some heat-labile agglutinogen and lipopolysaccharide but no measureable lymphocytosis-promoting factor or heat-labile toxin. The F-HA fraction used as antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) permitted the detection of antibodies in convalescent serum from a patient with whooping cough. The impurities, heat-labile agglutinogens and lipopolysaccharide, did not contribute to the ELISA activity. The method for preparation of the F-HA antigen is simple, reproducible and gives a high yield. PMID:6292428

  14. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using an EDTA-extracted antigen for the serology of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Nicolet, J; Paroz, P; Krawinkler, M; Baumgartner, A

    1981-12-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was proposed as an alternative to the complement-fixation test (CF) for the detection of antibodies of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae, agent of the pleuropneumonia in pigs. In tests done with different antigen-extraction procedures (including Tween 20, sodium dodecyl sulfate, aqueous phenol, sonification, and heat treatment at 120 C), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) provided a satisfactorily reactive antigen. Chromatography purification on Sephacryl S200 improved the specificity of this antigen. Using hyperimmune rabbit sera, we investigated the specificity and the sensitivity of the ELISA with the EDTA-purified antigen of the different serotypes of H pleuropneumoniae on selected swine sera in herds with confirmed H pleuropneumoniae infection, from specific-pathogen-free animals showing doubtful CF reactions. The ELISA proved to be highly specific and more sensitive than the CF test. Furthermore, evidence of cross-reactions with H parasuis, a common bacteria isolated in swine populations, was not found.

  15. Micro-light-pipe array with an excitation attenuation filter for lensless digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Hironari; Nagasaki, Mizuki; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Takehara, Hiroaki; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used for detecting various biomarkers with hypersensitivity. We have been developing compact systems by replacing the fluorescence microscope with a CMOS image sensor. Here, we propose a micro-light-pipe array structure made of metal filled with dye-doped resin, which can be used as a fabrication substrate of the micro-reaction-chamber array of digital ELISA. The possibility that this structure enhances the coupling efficiency for fluorescence was simulated using a simple model. To realize the structure, we fabricated a 30-µm-thick micropipe array by copper electroplating around a thick photoresist pattern. The typical diameter of each fabricated micropipe was 10 µm. The pipes were filled with yellow-dye-doped epoxy resin. The transmittance ratio of fluorescence and excitation light could be controlled by adjusting the doping concentration. We confirmed that an angled excitation light incidence suppressed the leakage of excitation light.

  16. Application of immunomagnetic particles to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for improvement of detection sensitivity of HCG.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Ting; Yeh, Jay Z; Wu, Po-Hua; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at using superparamagnetic particles to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SPIO-ELISA) of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to enhance detection sensitivity of hCG. We found that N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) was the best cross-linking reagent to link anti hCG α antibody to superparamagnetic particle (SPIO-anti hCG α antibody immunomagnetic particle). To improve the specificity of the assay, a horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-hCG beta monoclonal antibody was used to detect captured hCG using double antibody sandwich ELISA assay. SPIO-ELISA application to determine hCG increased the sensitivity to 1 mIU/mL, which is a level of sensitivity enabling the diagnosis of pregnancy during the early gestational period.

  17. Development of atom transfer radical polymer-modified gold nanoparticle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Hou, Shike; Li, Qingsheng; Fan, Haojun; Fan, Rong; Xu, Zhongwei; Zhala, Gahu; Mai, Xia; Chen, Xiaoyi; Chen, Xuyi; Liu, Yingfu

    2014-10-21

    In this work, a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a low limit of detection and high sensitivity was developed using atom transfer radical polymer (ATRP)-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Clear signal amplification was achieved by introducing an abundance of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to the AuNPs, because of the ATRP modification. This result suggested that the new ELISA was able to detect antigens in complex mixtures, and the limit of detection (LOD) was lower than that of conventional ELISA by a factor of 81. The new ELISA strategy greatly decreased the LOD during analysis and exhibited excellent reproducibility, stability, and feasibility. Therefore, it is a promising technique with many potential applications in biochemistry and medical science research.

  18. Rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies in divergent small mammals.

    PubMed

    Cautivo, Karla; Schountz, Tony; Acuña-Retamar, Mariana; Ferrés, Marcela; Torres-Pérez, Fernando

    2014-05-06

    We assessed the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies from sera of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the principal reservoir of Andes virus (ANDV), using an antigen previously developed for detection of antibodies to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in sera from Peromyscus maniculatus. The assay uses a protein A/G horseradish peroxidase conjugate and can be performed in as little as 1.5 hours. Serum samples from Oligoryzomys longicaudatus collected in central-south Chile were used and the assay identified several that were antibody positive. This assay can be used for the rapid detection of antibodies to divergent hantaviruses from geographically and phylogenetically distant rodent species.

  19. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of human serum albumin fragment 408-423 in bodily fluids.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Katharina B; Zirafi, Onofrio; Hennies, Mark; Wiese, Sebastian; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Urinary levels of human serum albumin (hSA) fragment 408-423 have been proposed to represent an early marker for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and chronic kidney diseases. Here, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of hSA(408-423). The sandwich ELISA has a detection limit of 0.5ng/ml and is highly specific for hSA(408-423) because it does not cross-react with other albumin fragments or the full-length precursor. This ELISA allows rapid and convenient quantification of hSA(408-423) in bodily fluids, further clarifying the prognostic and diagnostic value of this peptide in GvHD, kidney disease, and other disorders.

  20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-format tissue culture infectious dose-50 test for titrating dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Hu, Dong-mei; Ding, Xi-xia; Chen, Yue; Pan, Yu-xian; Qiu, Li-wen; Che, Xiao-yan

    2011-01-01

    A dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based tissue culture infectious dose-50 (TCID(50)) test (TCID(50)-ELISA) was developed as an alternative to the standard plaque assay for titrating dengue virus. Virus titers obtained by TCID(50)-ELISA were comparable to those obtained by the plaque assay and by the traditional TCID(50)-cytopathic effect (CPE) test (TCID(50)-CPE), with a better reproducibility and a lower coefficient of variation. Quantitative comparison of TCID(50)-ELISA and TCID(50)-CPE resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.976. Moreover, this new method showed a wider application to C6/36, Vero E6, BHK-21, and Vero cells compared with other titration methods. In summary, the novel TCID(50)-ELISA method described here provides a more reliable and more accurate alternative compared to the plaque assay and TCID(50)-CPE for titration of dengue virus.

  1. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for virus infectivity titrations as exemplified in an adenovirus system.

    PubMed

    Everitt, E; Varga, M J

    1993-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), employing a capturing antihexon monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing free hexons, was developed for quantitative infectivity titration of adenovirus in a microscale titration assay. The method is based on the quantitative assessment of the total excess production of the major structural protein late in infection in samples consisting of 10(5) virus-infected HeLa cells maintained as stationary suspension cultures. Results are obtained with a coefficient of variation of 10% within 50 hours after virus infection. The method was designed for monitoring substances interfering with viral replication, e.g., neutralizing antibodies or antiviral drugs. Since it measured the total antigen content associated with cells as well as antigens possibly released into the growth medium the general approach should be applicable to any viral system where a structural protein is synthesized in excess.

  2. Detection and quantification of soy allergens in food: study of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    L'Hocine, Lamia; Boye, Joyce Irene; Munyana, Christella

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 2 commercially available soy enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and use them in detecting soy proteins in selected food commodities. Both ELISA kits exhibited high sensitivity. The determined limits of detection (LOD) (approximately 2 and <1 microg/mL for Tepnel Biosystems and Elisa Systems kits, respectively) were lower than those claimed by the manufacturer. Quantification range for both kits was, however, narrower and in a lower concentration range than defined by the kit providers. Our examination revealed a positive cross-reactivity with chickpea proteins and matrix interferences for both kits. The immunoreactivity of soy proteins, when tested by the Tepnel Biosystems kit, was partially reduced by papain and bromelain hydrolysis; it was significantly decreased by protein glycation (>47%). Nondenatured and nonheated soy protein isolate (SPI) samples were also significantly less antigenic than the treated ones.

  3. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the identification of Naegleria fowleri in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Reveiller, Fabienne L; Varenne, Marie-Pierre; Pougnard, Claire; Cabanes, Pierre-Andre; Pringuez, Emmanuelle; Pourima, Benedicte; Legastelois, Stephane; Pernin, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba, is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a fatal human disease of the central nervous system often contracted after swimming in fresh water. Identifying sites contaminated by N. fowleri is important in order to prevent the disease. An Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) has been developed for the specific identification of N. fawleri in primary cultures of environmental water samples. Of 939 samples isolated from artificially heated river water and screened by ELISA, 283 were positive. These results were subsequently confirmed by isoelectric focusing, the established reference method. A sensitivity of 97.4% and a specificity of 97% were obtained. These results indicate that this ELISA method is reliable and can be considered as a powerful tool for the detection of N. fowleri in environmental water samples. PMID:12744523

  4. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of tetrastatin in body fluids and tumor extracts.

    PubMed

    Dupont-Deshorgue, A; Oudart, J B; Brassart, B; Deslee, G; Perotin, J M; Diebold, M D; Monboisse, J C; Ramont, L; Brassart-Pasco, S

    2015-08-01

    Basement membrane collagens or derived fragments are measured in biological fluids such as blood and urine of patients and appear to be useful for diagnosis, prognostication, or treatment monitoring as proposed for endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, or tumstatin, a fragment of collagen IV. Tetrastatin, the NC1 alpha 4 collagen IV domain, was previously reported to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method to measure tetrastatin concentrations in human fluids. We developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It allowed measuring tetrastatin levels in human serum, bronchial aspiration and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and lung tissue extracts. The tetrastatin level was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in healthy lung tissues. Tetrastatin competitive ELISA could be useful to quantify tetrastatin in tissues and biological fluids for the diagnosis or prognostication of diseases in which basement membrane metabolism may be altered, especially tumor progression. PMID:25935259

  5. Detection of Leptospira-Specific Antibodies Using a Recombinant Antigen-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Halsey, Eric S.; Guevara, Carolina; Canal, Enrique; Hall, Eric; Maves, Ryan; Tilley, Drake H.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2013-01-01

    We produced three highly purified recombinant antigens rLipL32, rLipL41, and rLigA-Rep (leptospiral immunoglobulin-like A repeat region) for the detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The performance of these recombinant antigens was evaluated using 121 human sera. Among them, 63 sera were microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-confirmed positive sera from febrile patients in Peru, 22 sera were indigenous MAT-negative febrile patient sera, and 36 sera were from patients with other febrile diseases from Southeast Asia, where leptospirosis is also endemic. Combining the results of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG detection from these three antigens, the overall sensitivity is close to 90% based on the MAT. These results suggest that an ELISA using multiple recombinant antigens may be used as an alternative method for the detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies. PMID:24166046

  6. Application of immunomagnetic particles to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for improvement of detection sensitivity of HCG.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Ting; Yeh, Jay Z; Wu, Po-Hua; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at using superparamagnetic particles to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SPIO-ELISA) of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to enhance detection sensitivity of hCG. We found that N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) was the best cross-linking reagent to link anti hCG α antibody to superparamagnetic particle (SPIO-anti hCG α antibody immunomagnetic particle). To improve the specificity of the assay, a horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-hCG beta monoclonal antibody was used to detect captured hCG using double antibody sandwich ELISA assay. SPIO-ELISA application to determine hCG increased the sensitivity to 1 mIU/mL, which is a level of sensitivity enabling the diagnosis of pregnancy during the early gestational period. PMID:22963487

  7. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of type A streptococcal exotoxin: kinetics and regulation during growth of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Houston, C W; Ferretti, J J

    1981-01-01

    We describe the detection and quantitation of type A streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This sensitive and specific technique detected microgram amounts of type A exotoxin and was useful for studying the kinetics and regulation of type A exotoxin production during the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes NY5. Maximum production of type A exotoxin was observed during the mid-log phase of growth, similar to the production of other streptococcal extracellular products. When S. pyogenes NY5 was grown at 42 degrees C, decreases in both growth and type A exotoxin production were observed. The results obtained when we studied the influence of nutrient additives and metal ions on the production of type A exotoxin led to the conclusion that none of these factors significantly affected type A exotoxin synthesis and that regulation was constitutive. Images PMID:7026447

  8. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the identification of Naegleria fowleri in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Reveiller, Fabienne L; Varenne, Marie-Pierre; Pougnard, Claire; Cabanes, Pierre-Andre; Pringuez, Emmanuelle; Pourima, Benedicte; Legastelois, Stephane; Pernin, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba, is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a fatal human disease of the central nervous system often contracted after swimming in fresh water. Identifying sites contaminated by N. fowleri is important in order to prevent the disease. An Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) has been developed for the specific identification of N. fawleri in primary cultures of environmental water samples. Of 939 samples isolated from artificially heated river water and screened by ELISA, 283 were positive. These results were subsequently confirmed by isoelectric focusing, the established reference method. A sensitivity of 97.4% and a specificity of 97% were obtained. These results indicate that this ELISA method is reliable and can be considered as a powerful tool for the detection of N. fowleri in environmental water samples.

  9. Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, Omid; Durocher, Jean; Keefe, Greg

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs.

  10. Evaluation of indirect immunofluorescence antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of infection by Leishmania infantum in clinically normal and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Chatzis, Manolis K; Leontides, Leonidas; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Elias; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Mylonakis, Mathios; Rallis, Timoleon; Koutinas, Alexandros F; Andreadou, Margarita; Ikonomopoulos, John; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2014-12-01

    Cats that live in areas where canine and human leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum is endemic may become infected and may develop anti-Leishmania antibodies. In this study 50 clinically normal and 50 cats with cutaneous and/or systemic signs that lived in an endemic area and had been previously examined for infection by L. infantum using PCR in four different tissues were serologically tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania IgG (IFAT and ELISA) and IgM (IFAT). The aim was to compare the results of IFAT, ELISA and PCR and to investigate the possible associations between seropositivity to Leishmania spp and signalment, living conditions, season of sampling, health status of the cats, and seropositivity to other infectious agents. Low concentrations of anti-Leishmania IgG were detected by IFAT in 10% of the cats and by ELISA in 1%, whereas anti-Leishmania IgM were detected by IFAT in 1%. There was disagreement between the results of IFAT and ELISA for anti-Leishmania IgG (P = 0.039) and between all serological tests and PCR (P < 0.001). The diagnostic sensitivity of all serological tests, using PCR as the gold standard, was very low, but ELISA and IFAT for anti-Leishmania IgM had 100% specificity. The diagnostic sensitivity of all serological tests could not be improved by changing the cut-off values. Seropositivity for Leishmania spp was not associated with signalment, living conditions, season of sampling and health status of the cats or with seropositivity to feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline coronavirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella henselae. In conclusion, because of their low sensitivity and very high specificity two of the evaluated serological tests (ELISA for anti-Leishmania IgG and IFAT for anti-Leishmania IgM) may be useless as population screening tests but valuable for diagnosing feline infection by L. infantum.

  11. Evaluation of indirect TaSP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amr M; Abdel-Rady, Ahmed; Ahmed, Laila S; El-Hosary, Amira

    2012-05-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of Theileria annulata surface protein (TaSP)-ELISA, in comparison with traditional microscopic test, for the diagnosis of T. annulata infection among Egyptian baladi cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Molecular confirmation of infection using T. annulata merozoite surface (Tams-1) target amplification by PCR was used as a gold standard. A total of 76 clinically suspected animals including 64 baladi cattle and 12 water buffaloes were investigated in the current study by the three methods. Based on the PCR-confirmed results, the evaluation study revealed higher sensitivity of TaSP-ELISA (72.9% and 75%) as compared to microscopic examination (58.3% and 50%) among cattle and buffaloes, respectively. On the other hand, the specificity of TaSP-ELISA in diagnosis of T. annulata infection was higher (87.5%) in baladi cattle as compared to water buffaloes (37.5%). In conclusion, TaSP-ELISA was shown to be suitable for the diagnosis of T. annulata infection in cattle under field conditions.

  12. Lateral flow immunoassay using magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taton, Kristin; Johnson, Diane; Guire, Patrick; Lange, Erik; Tondra, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic particles have been adapted for use as labels in biochemical lateral flow strip tests. Standard gold particle lateral flow assays are generally qualitative; however, with magnetic particles, quantitative results can be obtained by using electronic detection systems with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. As described here, these small integrated sensor chips can detect the presence of magnetic labels in capture spots whose volume is approximately 150 μm×150 μm×150 μm. The range of linear detection is better than two orders of magnitude; the total range is up to four orders of magnitude. The system was demonstrated with both indirect and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for protein detection of rabbit IgG and interferon-γ, respectively, achieving detection of 12 pg/ml protein. Ultimately, the goal is for the detector to be fully integrated into the lateral flow strip backing to form a single consumable item that is interrogated by a handheld electronic reader.

  13. Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ching, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics. These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application. They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample. LFIAs rely on high quality monoclonal antibodies that recognize the analyte of interest. As monoclonal antibody technology becomes more accessible to smaller laboratories, there has been increased interest in developing LFIA prototypes for potential commercial manufacture. In this chapter, the basics of designing and building an LFIA prototype are described. PMID:26160571

  14. Broad-specificity immunoassay for O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides: Application of molecular modeling to improve assay sensitivity and study antibody recognition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against 4-(diethoxyphosphorothioyloxy)benzoic acid (hapten 1) was raised and used to develop a broad-specificity competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) for 14 O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Computer-assisted molecular modeling was...

  15. Morphological resonances for multicomponent immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, W. B.; Shapiro, M. J.; Ramsey, J. M.; Bronk, B. V.

    1995-06-01

    An immunoassay technique capable of detecting and identifying a number of species of microorganisms in a single analysis is described. The method uses optical-resonance size discrimination of microspheres to identify antibodies to which stained microorganisms are bound.

  16. Evaluation of microtiter-plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides in rainfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pomes, M.L.; Thurman, E.M.; Aga, D.S.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Triazine and chloroacetanilide concentrations in rainfall samples collected from a 23-state region of the United States were analyzed with microtiter-plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thirty-six percent of rainfall samples (2072 out of 5691) were confirmed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to evaluate the operating performance of ELISA as a screening test. Comparison of ELISA to GC/MS results showed that the two ELISA methods accurately reported GC/MS results (m = 1), but with more variability evident with the triazine than with the chloroacetanilide ELISA. Bayes's rule, a standardized method to report the results of screening tests, indicated that the two ELISA methods yielded comparable predictive values (80%), but the triazine ELISA yielded a false- positive rate of 11.8% and the chloroacetanilide ELISA yielded a false- negative rate of 23.1%. The false-positive rate for the triazine ELISA may arise from cross reactivity with an unknown triazine or metabolite. The false-negative rate of the chloroacetanilide ELISA probably resulted from a combination of low sensitivity at the reporting limit of 0.15 ??g/L and a distribution characterized by 75% of the samples at or below the reporting limit of 0.15 ??g/L.Triazine and chloroacetanilide concentrations in rainfall samples collected from a 23-state region of the United States were analyzed with microtiter-plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thirty-six percent of rainfall samples (2072 out of 5691) were confirmed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to evaluate the operating performance of ELISA as a screening test. Comparison of ELISA to GC/MS results showed that the two ELISA methods accurately reported GC/MS results (m = 1), but with more variability evident with the triazine than with the chloroacetanilide ELISA. Bayes's rule, a standardized method to report the results of screening tests, indicated that the two ELISA methods yielded comparable predictive

  17. Identification of a 17-kilodalton Fasciola hepatica immunodiagnostic antigen by the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot technique.

    PubMed Central

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M

    1988-01-01

    Sera obtained from human patients, calves, sheep, and rabbits infected with Fasciola hepatica were tested by the Falcon assay screening test enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) techniques with Fasciola hepatica excretory-secretory antigens in order to evaluate their immunodiagnostic potential. The study included sera from 13 patients infected with F. hepatica or a history suggesting fascioliasis, 5 patients infected and treated with bithionol or praziquantel (3 were cured with bithionol), 10 patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni, 6 infected with Trichinella spiralis, and 13 controls and sera from calves, sheep, and rabbits with a primary F. hepatica infection. By FAST-ELISA with F. hepatica excretory-secretory antigens, the serum samples from fascioliasis patients gave the highest absorbance values, and the schistosomiasis patient sera gave intermediate values compared with a normal human serum control. Also by FAST-ELISA, the values for serum from patients with fascioliasis decreased steadily after cure, reaching normal levels 20 to 47 weeks postcure. In contrast, the serum from two patients who had been treated but were not yet cured had high levels of antibodies for up to 3 years of infection. By EITB, the serum samples from humans, rabbits, cattle, and sheep with fascioliasis recognized two antigenic polypeptides of 17 and 63 kilodaltons (kDa) in the form of sharp bands. For humans, this recognition lasted for at least 3 years of infection. Sera from individuals with schistosomiasis mansoni or trichinosis or from normal controls did not recognize the 17-kDa F. hepatica antigenic polypeptide. However, serum from one human with S. mansoni and one with T. spiralis infection has slight bands in the 63-kDa region, suggesting cross-reactivity. Reactivity to the 17-kDa polypeptide was absent in fascioliasis patients at 1 year postcure. Reactivity to the 63-kDa polypeptide was significantly

  18. Plaque/focus immunoassay: a simple method for detecting antiviral monoclonal or other antibodies and viral antigens in cells.

    PubMed

    Pauli, G; Gregersen, J P; Ludwig, H

    1984-11-30

    A new, simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described which is performed directly on infected and fixed cell cultures in microtitre plates. It permits large scale screening of antiviral monoclonal antibodies and differentiation of specific antibodies from those usually responsible for high background reactions in other ELISA techniques. Time consuming purification of antigens is thus avoided. The plaque/focus immunoassay is also applicable to titration of antibodies in patients' sera and antigens in lytically or non-lytically virus-infected cells. It may also be used to localize antigens in different cell compartments. This immunoassay requires no special equipment and results may be evaluated either with the naked eye or using a light microscope.

  19. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a haemagglutination inhibition tests for the detection of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus in village chickens using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Chaka, H; Thompson, P N; Goutard, F; Grosbois, V

    2015-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an endemic disease in village chickens in Ethiopia with substantial economic importance. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA, Svanova Biotech), indirect ELISA (iELISA, Laboratoire Service International) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for ND virus (NDV) antibody detection were evaluated in a Bayesian framework in the absence of a gold standard test, on sera collected from unvaccinated chickens kept under the village production system in household flocks and at markets in two woredas (i.e. districts) of the Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. The outcomes of the iELISA test differed dramatically from those of the two other tests with 92% of the samples testing positive as compared with less than 15% for bELISA and HI. iELISA results were also inconsistent with previous estimations of Newcastle serological prevalence. The information provided by the iELISA test was thus considered as highly unreliable, probably due to an extremely low specificity, and thus not considered in the Bayesian models aiming at estimating serological prevalence and test performance parameters. Bayesian modelling of HI and bELISA test results suggested that bELISA had both the highest Se (86.6%; 95% posterior credible interval (PCI): 61.8%; 98.5%), and the highest Sp (98.3%; 95% PCI: 97.2%; 99.5%), while HI had a Se of 80.2% (95% PCI: 59.1%; 94.3%), and a Sp of 96.1% (95% PCI: 95.1%; 97.4%). Model selection and the range of the posterior distribution of the correlation between bELISA and HI test outcomes for truly seropositive animals (median at 0.461; PCI: -0.055; 0.894) suggested a tendency for bELISA and HI to detect the same truly positive animals and to fail to detect the same truly positive animals. The use of bELISA in screening and surveillance for NDV antibodies is indicated given its high Se and Sp, in addition to its ease of automation to handle large numbers of samples compared to HI. The

  20. Antibodies and immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Madersbacher, S; Berger, P

    2000-05-01

    As a glycoprotein hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is not a single molecular entity. This term comprises not only the bioactive heterodimer hCG but also an array of molecular protein backbone and glycosylation variants, such as its free beta (hCGbeta) and alpha (hCGalpha) subunits and clipped, cleaved, terminally differently sialylated, and overglycosylated forms. This heterogeneity places great demands on selective detection systems for hCG-derived molecules. Measurement of hCG and/or its derivatives is highly dependent on the selection of target molecules and the natural variability of hCG in the specimens analyzed. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based immunoassays are still the state-of-the-art technique for both clinical and research applications but a major problem is the different extents of recognition of hCG variants by mAbs used in different immunoassays. On the whole, construction of sandwich-type assays obviously must take into consideration mAb characteristics, such as main and fine specificities, cross-reactivities, epitope locations and compatibilities, overlap and overhang in specificities (pairs of mAbs), and, finally, overspecificity. Consequences of overhang and overlap in antigen recognition of coating and detection mAb specificities are nondesirable assay cross-reactions and competitive interference by antigenic variants. The general agreement on the most favorable assay design is contrasted by the variety of isotopic and nonisotopic detection systems in current use. The immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) technique is hampered by a relatively small measuring range and limited sensitivity. By measuring substrate absorption values off the absorption maximum, the measuring range of any IEMA can be extended significantly, as shown for 3,3',5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), without jeopardizing assay characteristics. Sensitivity of the IEMA can be enhanced by modifying the horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) labeling technique by using highly purified m

  1. Development of recombinant antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of skatole.

    PubMed

    Leivo, Janne; Mäkelä, Joonas; Rosenberg, Jaana; Lamminmäki, Urpo

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of boar taint and the European Commission recommendation to discontinue the surgical castration of pigs by the year 2018 creates an urgent need for new analytical methods that are simple, affordable, and suitable for field testing. We describe the generation and engineering of a skatole-specific antibody derived from a synthetic antibody library and the development of ELISA for its detection. The immunoassay is capable of detecting skatole with IC50 of 222 μg L(-1), which is within the analytical threshold level suggested for skatole, and with low cross-reactivity interference from other indolic compounds. PMID:26410338

  2. Performance comparison of immunodiffusion, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunochromatography and hemagglutination for serodiagnosis of human pythiosis.

    PubMed

    Chareonsirisuthigul, Takol; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Intaramat, Akarin; Inkomlue, Ruchuros; Sriwanichrak, Kanchana; Piromsontikorn, Savittree; Kitiwanwanich, Sureewan; Lowhnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Banyong, Ramrada; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Krajaejun, Theerapong

    2013-05-01

    Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by the fungus-like organism Pythium insidiosum. Morbidity and mortality rates of pythiosis are high. The treatment of choice for pythiosis is surgical debridement of infected tissue. Early and accurate diagnosis is critical for effective treatment. In-house serodiagnostic tests, including immunodiffusion (ID), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunochromatography (ICT) and hemagglutination (HA) have been developed to detect antibodies against P. insidiosum in sera. This study compares the diagnostic performance of ID, ELISA, ICT, and HA, using sera from 37 pythiosis patients and 248 control subjects. ICT and ELISA showed optimal diagnostic performance (100% sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value). ICT was both rapid and user-friendly. ELISA results were readily quantitated. ID is relatively insensitive. HA was rapid, but diagnostic performance was poor. Understanding the advantages offered by each assay facilitates selection of an assay that is circumstance-appropriate. This will promote earlier diagnoses and improved outcomes for patients with pythiosis. PMID:23537786

  3. The role of iron in neurodegeneration—Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and neuroimaging studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galazka-Friedman, Jolanta; Bauminger, Erika R.; Szlachta, Karol; Friedman, Andrzej

    2012-06-01

    The possible role of iron in neurodegeneration was studied by various techniques: electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Mössbauer spectroscopy, atomic absorption, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The measurements were made on human tissues extracted from liver and from brain structures involved in diseases of the human brain: substantia nigra (Parkinson’s, PD), hippocampal cortex (Alzheimer’s, AD) and globus pallidus (progressive supranuclear palsy, PSP). The sizes of the iron cores of ferritin, the main iron storage compound in tissues, were found to be smaller in brain than in liver. Brain ferritin has a higher proportion of H to L chains compared to liver. A significant decrease of the concentration of L chains in PD compared to control was found. No increase in the concentration of iron in PD versus control was detected; however, there was an increase of labile iron, which constitutes only 2‰ of brain iron. In AD an increase in the concentration of ferritin was noticed, without a significant increase in iron concentration. In PSP an increase of total iron was observed. Our findings suggest that the mechanisms leading to the death of nerve cells in these three diseases may be different, although all may be related to iron mediated oxidative stress.

  4. Detection by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of coronavirus antibodies in bovine serum and lacteal secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Rodak, L; Babiuk, L A; Acres, S D

    1982-01-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay (RIA), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a serum neutralization assay (SN) for detecting antibodies to bovine coronavirus in serum and colostrum were compared. Although there proved to be a good correlation among all three assays (r = 0.915 and 0.964 for RIA with SN and ELISA, respectively), RIA and ELISA proved to be at least 10 times more sensitive than neutralization tests. By using these techniques, it was possible to detect a time-dependent decrease in antibody levels in bovine colostrum after parturition. Using ELISA, we demonstrated that 12 of 12 herds in Saskatchewan, and 109 of 110 animals tested, and antibody to bovine coronavirus. There was no elevated antibody response in serum or lacteal secretions of cows vaccinated once or twice with a commercially available modified live rota-coronavirus vaccine. In addition to being more sensitive than SN, ELISA and RIA proved to have other advantages for measuring antibody levels to bovine coronavirus and therefore warrant wider use as tools in diagnostic virology. Images PMID:7107859

  5. Detection by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of coronavirus antibodies in bovine serum and lacteal secretions.

    PubMed

    Rodak, L; Babiuk, L A; Acres, S D

    1982-07-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay (RIA), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a serum neutralization assay (SN) for detecting antibodies to bovine coronavirus in serum and colostrum were compared. Although there proved to be a good correlation among all three assays (r = 0.915 and 0.964 for RIA with SN and ELISA, respectively), RIA and ELISA proved to be at least 10 times more sensitive than neutralization tests. By using these techniques, it was possible to detect a time-dependent decrease in antibody levels in bovine colostrum after parturition. Using ELISA, we demonstrated that 12 of 12 herds in Saskatchewan, and 109 of 110 animals tested, and antibody to bovine coronavirus. There was no elevated antibody response in serum or lacteal secretions of cows vaccinated once or twice with a commercially available modified live rota-coronavirus vaccine. In addition to being more sensitive than SN, ELISA and RIA proved to have other advantages for measuring antibody levels to bovine coronavirus and therefore warrant wider use as tools in diagnostic virology.

  6. Rational screening of antibodies and design of sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbant assay on the basis of a kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Hwan; Katakura, Yoshio; Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-03-01

    A rational strategy for the rapid establishment of a sensitive sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbant assay was developed. The kinetic properties required for the solid-phase and enzyme-conjugated antibodies of sandwich ELISA were determined rationally on the basis of a kinetic model describing antibody-antigen interaction. Some antibodies possessing the required kinetic properties against a model antigen, C-reactive protein (CRP), were successfully isolated from a phage antibody library under the screening conditions that were designed on the basis of simulation results. The best combination of solid-phase and enzyme-conjugated antibodies that gives the most sensitive sandwich ELISA was determined by simulation on the basis of the apparent association and dissociation rate constants of the isolated antibodies. It was confirmed by experiment that the sandwich ELISA using the best combination of antibodies was actually the most sensitive one. Our strategy would be useful for the rapid establishment of sensitive sandwich ELISAs compared with the traditional hybridoma method in which the best condition is determined by trial and error.

  7. Different strategies in the laboratory diagnosis of autoimmune disease: immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or both?

    PubMed

    Rondeel, J M; van Gelder, W; van der Leeden, H; Dinkelaar, R B

    1999-03-01

    We investigated the clinical utility of different strategies for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) testing. All requests for ANA and ENA (n = 485) in a 20-week period were tested by immunofluorescence (FANA) and immunodiffusion (strategy 1), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques (strategy 2) or a combination of FANA and ELISA (strategy 3). Results of strategy 1 were positive by FANA in 8% (by immunodiffusion in 2%). By ELISA, 11% of the samples tested positive. In 12% (n = 60) of the cases the two strategies did not agree. The positive predictive value (PPV) for autoimmune disease of strategy 1 was significantly higher than that for strategy 2, but after exclusion of rheumatoid arthritis this difference was abolished. In strategy 2 reagent costs were high but working time comparably shorter. With strategy 3 PPV results were not better, whereas costs and working time were higher. The most frequently occurring reasons for ANA/ENA test requests were: joint symptoms (37%), follow up (30%) or abnormal laboratory result (7%). In a survey of the clinicians 66% replied that the test result did not have any consequences, irrespective of the result or the strategy used. We conclude that FANA and immunodiffusion are superior to ELISA techniques. However, the clinical value of ANA/ENA testing is low and more selective test ordering is strongly recommended.

  8. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for a soluble antigen of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent for salmonid bacterial kidney disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, R.J.; Mulcahy, D.

    1987-01-01

    A double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of a soluble fraction of Renibacterium salmoninarum was developed from components extracted from the supernatant of an R. salmoninarum broth culture. The Costar® Serocluster™ EIA microplate gave the highest absorbance and signal-to-noise ratios among seven types tested. Including Tween 80 in the wash buffer resulted in higher absorbances than Tween 20 when antigen was present. Background absorbance did not increase when Tween 80 was added to the wash buffer, but did when Tween 80 replaced Tween 20 in antigen and conjugate diluents. Adsorption of coating antibody peaked within 4 h at 37 °C and 16 h at 4 °C. Antigen attachment to antibody-coated microplate wells depended more on incubation temperature than duration; we adopted a 3-h incubation at 25 °C. Conjugate incubation for longer than 1 h at 37 °C or 3 h at 25 °C resulted in unacceptable background levels. No cross-reactions resulted from heat-extracted antigens of 10 other species of bacteria. The optimized ELISA is a 6-h test that enables detection of levels of soluble antigen as low as 2–20 ng.

  9. Development of an equine coronavirus-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine serologic responses in naturally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, Lotte J; Mapes, Samantha M; Pusterla, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Equine coronavirus (EqCoV) infection has been documented in most reports through quantitative qPCR analysis of feces and viral genome sequencing. Although qPCR is used to detect antigen during the acute disease phase, there is no equine-specific antibody test available to study EqCoV seroprevalence in various horse populations. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) targeting antibodies to the spike (S) protein of EqCoV and validated its use, using acute and convalescent sera from 83 adult horses involved in 6 outbreaks. The EqCoV S protein-based ELISA was able to reliably detect antibodies to EqCoV in naturally infected horses. The greatest seroconversion rate was observed in horses with clinical signs compatible with EqCoV infection and EqCoV qPCR detection in feces. The EqCoV S protein-based ELISA could be used effectively for seroepidemiologic studies in order to better characterize the overall infection rate of EqCoV in various horse populations.

  10. Immunological tools: engaging students in the use and analysis of flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Ott, Laura E; Carson, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are commonly used techniques associated with clinical and research applications within the immunology and medical fields. The use of these techniques is becoming increasingly valuable in many life science and engineering disciplines as well. Herein, we report the development and evaluation of a novel half-semester course that focused on introducing undergraduate and graduate students to advance conceptual and technical skills associated with flow cytometry and ELISA, with emphasis on applications, experimental design, and data analysis. This course was offered in the North Carolina State University Biotechnology Program over three semesters and consisted of weekly lectures and laboratories. Students performed and/or analyzed flow cytometry and ELISA in three separate laboratory exercises: (1) identification of transgenic zebrafish hematopoietic cells, (2) analysis of transfection efficiency, and (3) analysis of cytokine production upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Student learning outcomes were achieved as demonstrated by multiple means of assessment, including three laboratory reports, a data analysis laboratory practicum, and a cumulative final exam. Further, anonymous student self-assessment revealed increased student confidence in the knowledge and skill sets defined in the learning outcomes.

  11. Comparison of different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato used as antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Nadelman, R B; Wormser, G P

    1994-01-01

    Eight strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were tested with serum samples from persons who had Lyme borreliosis or syphilis in class-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Antigens of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, of Borrelia garinii, and of Borrelia spirochetes in group VS461 were prepared from cultured bacteria isolated from ticks, a white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), or human tissues in North America, the former Soviet Union, and Japan. Nearly all of the serum specimens that contained immunoglobulins to strain 2591, a Connecticut isolate, were also positive in antibody tests with the other seven strains. In general, all eight strains reacted similarly and were suitable as coating antigens in class-specific ELISAs. Assay sensitivities ranged from 82.6 to 100% in analyses for immunoglobulin M and G antibodies. Compared with reference antigen strain 2591, strains 231 (a tick isolate from Canada) and NCH-1 (a human skin isolate from Wisconsin) resulted in higher antibody titers in an ELISA. Syphilitic sera cross-reacted in all tests regardless of the antigen used. Key immunodominant proteins are shared among the closely related strains of B. burgdorferi sensu lato tested, but it is suspected that variations in antigen compositions among these spirochetes may sometimes affect assay performance for detecting serum antibodies. PMID:8051239

  12. Smartphone-interfaced lab-on-a-chip devices for field-deployable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Arnold; Wang, Royal; Bever, Candace R. S.; Xing, Siyuan; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-01-01

    The emerging technologies on mobile-based diagnosis and bioanalytical detection have enabled powerful laboratory assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be conducted in field-use lab-on-a-chip devices. In this paper, we present a low-cost universal serial bus (USB)-interfaced mobile platform to perform microfluidic ELISA operations in detecting the presence and concentrations of BDE-47 (2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether), an environmental contaminant found in our food supply with adverse health impact. Our point-of-care diagnostic device utilizes flexible interdigitated carbon black electrodes to convert electric current into a microfluidic pump via gas bubble expansion during electrolytic reaction. The micropump receives power from a mobile phone and transports BDE-47 analytes through the microfluidic device conducting competitive ELISA. Using variable domain of heavy chain antibodies (commonly referred to as single domain antibodies or Nanobodies), the proposed device is sensitive for a BDE-47 concentration range of 10−3–104 μg/l, with a comparable performance to that uses a standard competitive ELISA protocol. It is anticipated that the potential impact in mobile detection of health and environmental contaminants will prove beneficial to our community and low-resource environments. PMID:25553178

  13. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to detect mustard protein in mustard seed oil.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Vlooswijk, Riek; Bottger, Gina; Van Duijn, Gert; Van der Schaft, Peter; Dekker, Jacco; Van Bergen, Hans

    2007-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of mustard protein was developed. The assay is based on a polyclonal antiserum directed against a mixture of mustard proteins raised in rabbits. The assay has a detection limit of 1.5 ppm (milligrams per kilogram) and is suitable for the detection of traces of mustard protein in mustard seed-derived flavoring ingredients. Limited cross-reactivity testing showed that no other plant proteins reacted significantly. From the animal proteins tested, only milk showed some cross-reactivity. With this sensitive assay, it was shown that refined mustard seed oil produced by steam distillation does not contain detectable amounts of mustard protein. Mustard seed oil is used as a flavoring in very low quantities, typically between 40 and 200 mg/kg. Thus, 100 g of a food product flavored with 200 mg of mustard seed oil per kg containing < 1.5 mg of protein per kg would represent an amount of mustard seed protein of <30 ng. Taking into account the published literature on allergic reactions to the unintended ingestion of mustard, this conservatively low calculated level indicates that it is unlikely that food products containing mustard seed oil as a flavoring ingredient will elicit an allergic reaction in mustard-allergic individuals. PMID:17265878

  14. Use of hydrophilic extra-viral domain of canine distemper virus H protein for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ki-hyun; Kim, Jeongmi; Yoo, Hyun-ah; Kim, Dae-hee; Park, Seung-yong; Song, Chang-seon; Choi, In-soo

    2014-01-01

    Simple methods for measuring the levels of serum antibody against canine distemper virus (CDV) would assist in the effective vaccination of dogs. To develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for CDV, we expressed hydrophilic extra-viral domain (HEVD) protein of the A75/17-CDV H gene in a pET 28a plasmid-based Escherichia (E.) coli vector system. Expression was confirmed by dot and Western blotting. We proposed that detection of E. coli-expressed H protein might be conformation-dependent because intensities of the reactions observed with these two methods varied. The H gene HEVD protein was further purified and used as an antigen for an ELISA. Samples from dogs with undetectable to high anti-CDV antibody titers were analyzed using this HEVD-specific ELISA and a commercial CDV antibody detection kit (ImmunoComb). Levels of HEVD antigenicity measured with the assays and immunochromatography correlated. These data indicated that the HEDV protein may be used as antigen to develop techniques for detecting antibodies against CDV. PMID:25234325

  15. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate acyclovir and BW B759U in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed Central

    Tadepalli, S M; Quinn, R P; Averett, D R

    1986-01-01

    A simple and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection and quantitation of acyclovir in human plasma and urine was developed. Acyclovir immobilized on a solid phase and free acyclovir in the sample solution were allowed to compete for a limited amount of anti-acyclovir monoclonal antibody. The specific antibody bound to the immobilized acyclovir was detected by the use of alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-mouse immunoglobulin. The resulting enzyme activity was inversely related to acyclovir concentration in the sample. The Hill plot of standard acyclovir concentrations was linear over a 100-fold concentration range, with a lower detection limit of 0.2 nM and a concentration of soluble ligand displacing 50% of available antibody of approximately 1 nM. The metabolites of acyclovir cross-reacted minimally, and there was no detectable interference by various unrelated compounds tested in the assay. However, BW B759U [9-(2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylethoxy)methylguanine], a congener of acyclovir, cross-reacted significantly. As a consequence, the assay was found useful in measuring the concentrations of BW B759U in clinical samples devoid of acyclovir. PMID:3488016

  16. Dual-color plasmonic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on enzyme-mediated etching of Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Longhua; Xu, Shaohua; Ma, Xiaoming; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-09-01

    Colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay utilizing 3‧-3-5‧-5-tetramethylbenzidine(TMB) as the chromogenic substrate has been widely used in the hospital for the detection of all kinds of disease biomarkers. Herein, we demonstrate a strategy to change this single-color display into dual-color responses to improve the accuracy of visual inspection. Our investigation firstly reveals that oxidation state of 3‧-3-5‧-5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB2+) can quantitatively etch gold nanoparticles. Therefore, the incorporation of gold nanoparticles into a commercial TMB-based ELISA kit could generate dual-color responses: the solution color varied gradually from wine red (absorption peak located at ~530 nm) to colorless, and then from colorless to yellow (absorption peak located at ~450 nm) with the increase amount of targets. These dual-color responses effectively improved the sensitivity as well as the accuracy of visual inspection. For example, the proposed dual-color plasmonic ELISA is demonstrated for the detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum with a visual limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.0093 ng/mL.

  17. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in european wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Aurtenetxe, Olaia; Barral, Marta; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian; Juste, Ramón A

    2008-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a significant problem in some parts of Spain largely because of contacts between cattle and wildlife reservoirs in extensive grazing systems. European Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the species involved in the transmission of the disease to other species. Fast and simple detection methods would be critical for assessing infection prevalence, study the mechanisms of pathogen transmission and monitoring the effects of TB control measures. Results An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in wild boar serum was developed and validated on 185 sera from TB positive and negative wild boar. Based on antigen inoculation of captive animals as well as tuberculosis compatible lesions, culture results and molecular analysis of hunted individuals, animals were allocated into two groups: tuberculosis positive group and tuberculosis negative group. After optimization of the positive to negative ratio using different combinations of serum dilutions and conjugate concentrations, the test yielded a sensitivity of 72.60% and a specificity of 96.43% for the best cut-off. Conclusion Although some negative group animals showed an ELISA positive reaction (< 3%), this assay showed a high potential for accurate diagnosis of TB in wild boar, as its large dynamic range supported a good discriminatory power and a satisfactory balance between sensitivity and specificity. PMID:18976491

  18. [An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of IgG antibodies against urease of Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Mizukami, T; Osawa, T; Niwa, M; Oya, A; Masubuchi, N; Takahashi, S

    1994-11-01

    We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori (HP) using purified HP urease as an antigen. The urease was purified from ultrasonicated extract of HP by NaCl linear gradient system on DEAE-Sepharose 4B chromatography. Two molecular weight bands, 65kD and 27kD were observed on a SDS-PAGE gel in the purified urease sample. The urease antigen did not crossreact to rabbit antibodies prepared against Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Out of 93 gastric biopsy patients, sixty nine patients (74.2%) were positive in HP culture test. Serum HP antibody titers (AU: arbitrary unit) of HP culture positive and negative patients were 42.9 +/- 47.4 and 16.7 +/- 25.7 (mean +/- SD), respectively (p < 0.05). The ELISA system have sensitivity of 72.5% and specificity of 70.8%. We believe that the ELISA system is useful for diagnosis and monitoring of HP infection.

  19. Interlaboratory study evaluating quantitation of antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Madore, D V; Anderson, P; Baxter, B D; Carlone, G M; Edwards, K M; Hamilton, R G; Holder, P; Käyhty, H; Phipps, D C; Peeters, C C; Schneerson, R; Siber, G R; Ward, J I; Frasch, C E

    1996-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to determine whether an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an antigen preparation composed of various-sized fragments of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide conjugated to human serum albumin could be standardized across laboratories and whether the ELISA-derived results from different laboratories are equivalent to those obtained by the standard radioactive antigen binding assay (RABA) for quantitation of anti-H, influenzae type b polysaccharide antibodies. Twenty coded human serum samples were quantitated by ELISA in 11 laboratories and by RABA in 5 laboratories. The mean RABA-derived values served as the basis for all comparisons. While the overall correspondence of antibody values between the two methods was good, significant differences were found among some of the 11 ELISA data sets and among the mean RABA values. Seven laboratories generated higher ELISA antibody values for low-titered sera. Four laboratories generated antibody concentrations that were not statistically different between the two assay methods. The results therefore indicate that the ELISA can tolerate substantial variations in protocol, such as the use of different plates and different antibody reagents, without affecting the quantitation of serum antibodies. However, attention should be focused on low-titered sera, as some assay conditions may yield spurious results. This ELISA is a serologic assay which can serve as an alternative to the RABA for quantitation of antibodies to H. influenzae type h polysaccharide. PMID:8770509

  20. Presumptive diagnosis of subclinical infections utilizing computer-assisted analysis of sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays against multiple antigens.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, E T; Snyder, D B; Marquardt, W W; Russek-Cohen, E; Savage, P K; Allen, D C; Yancey, F S

    1985-09-01

    One-hundred-seventy-two serum samples, collected sequentially from four flocks of egg- and meat-type chickens, were evaluated for antibodies to multiple infectious agents by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA). The MELISA system used provided simultaneous measurement of antibody titers against avian infectious bronchitis (IB), infectious bursal disease (BD), Newcastle disease, avian encephalomyelitis and reovirus infections, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The use of computer-generated graphic print outs of relative MELISA titers provided immediate visulization of over 740 data points and convenient detection of any temporal changes in median titer class (MTC). The temporally changing MTC, or flock profiles obtained, indicated that negligible or waning IB immunity may be a common occurrence in previously vaccinated commercial chickens. These profiles further suggested that, despite no IB revaccination, these same flocks experienced episodes of reexposure to IB which otherwise may have been difficult to detect by conventional clinical or diagnostic laboratory protocols. MELISA profiles and sequential histologic examinations of bursas of Fabricius also provided evidence of a possible BD vaccination problem in young chickens that also experienced excessive losses from coccidiosis, ulcerative enteritis, and Marek's disease. Short sampling intervals were found to foster the detection and definition of fluctuations in MTC which otherwise may have been missed. PMID:4048057

  1. Dual-color plasmonic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on enzyme-mediated etching of Au nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Longhua; Xu, Shaohua; Ma, Xiaoming; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-01-01

    Colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay utilizing 3′-3-5′-5-tetramethylbenzidine(TMB) as the chromogenic substrate has been widely used in the hospital for the detection of all kinds of disease biomarkers. Herein, we demonstrate a strategy to change this single-color display into dual-color responses to improve the accuracy of visual inspection. Our investigation firstly reveals that oxidation state of 3′-3-5′-5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB2+) can quantitatively etch gold nanoparticles. Therefore, the incorporation of gold nanoparticles into a commercial TMB-based ELISA kit could generate dual-color responses: the solution color varied gradually from wine red (absorption peak located at ~530 nm) to colorless, and then from colorless to yellow (absorption peak located at ~450 nm) with the increase amount of targets. These dual-color responses effectively improved the sensitivity as well as the accuracy of visual inspection. For example, the proposed dual-color plasmonic ELISA is demonstrated for the detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum with a visual limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.0093 ng/mL. PMID:27599832

  2. Identification of Proteinaceous Binders in Ancient Tripitaka by the Use of an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Li, Yi; Chang, Runxing; Zheng, Hailing; Li, Menglu; Hu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Proteinaceous materials, such as ovabumin and collagen, were commonly used as binding media, and as adhesives and protective coatings. However, the identification of ancient proteinaceous binders is a great challenge for archaeologists, due to their limited sample size, complex combinations of various ingredients and reduced availability of the binder during the process of protein degradation. In this paper, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provides to be a particularly promising method for the detection of proteinaceous binding materials in ancient relics. The present work focused on the specific identification of proteins in archaeological binders, which was brushed on the Tripitaka. Two samples, the adhesion area (S1) and the ink area (S2), were tested by ELISA. The results showed that both S1 and S2 reacted positively when treated with an anti-collagen-I antibody. It proved the existence of proteinaceous binders in Ancient Tripitaka, and the percentage of collagen in S1 and S2 was 61.44 and 15.4%, respectively. Compared with other conventional techniques, ELISA has advantages of high specificity, sensitivity, rapidity and low cost, making it especially suitable for the protein detection in the archaeological field. PMID:27396653

  3. Determination of okadaic acid in shellfish by using a novel chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.

    PubMed

    Vdovenko, Marina M; Hung, Chun-Tse; Sakharov, Ivan Yu; Yu, Feng-Yih

    2013-11-15

    A direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) was developed to determine okadaic acid (OA). Concentrations of the capture monoclonal anti-OA antibodies, conjugate of OA-HRP and a composition of blocking buffers were varied to optimize the assay condition. The values of IC10, IC50 and working range (IC20-IC80) for CL-ELISA were 0.01, 0.07, and 0.03-0.2 ng/mL, respectively. Additionally, the analytical recovery values of CL-ELISA from 3 shellfish spiked samples with OA concentrations of 0.03, 0.1 and 0.2 ng/mL ranged from 86.7% to 111.2%. Closely examining the OA concentrations in 19 various shellfish products performed by CL-ELISA revealed that OA concentrations in 6 of the 19 examined samples was undetected, whereas the 13 samples were contaminated with low levels of OA ranging from 1.2 to 8.0 ng/g.

  4. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring ileal symbiont intracellularis-specific immunoglobulin G response in sera of pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Holyoake, P K; Cutler, R S; Caple, I W; Monckton, R P

    1994-01-01

    Proliferative enteritis (PE) is a common intestinal disease on pig farms. The disease is caused by ileal symbiont (IS) intracellularis (Campylobacter-like organisms) bacteria. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure IS intracellularis-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response in the sera of pigs. The antigen used in the ELISA was filtered, percoll gradient-purified IS intracellularis extracted from the intestines of pigs affected with proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy. The antibody responses of pigs challenged with intestinal homogenates from pigs affected with proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy containing IS intracellularis or percoll-gradient purified IS intracellularis were low and variable. The low IgG titers measured in challenged pigs support previous findings that IgG plays a minor role in the immune response of pigs to IS intracellularis. On a farm in which infection was endemic, pigs seroconverted at between 7 and 24 weeks of age. High IgG titers, indicative of maternally acquired antibody, were present in 3-week-old pigs. The IgG titers in piglets were lowest at 6 weeks of age, which approximates the age of onset of clinical disease. These results suggest that IgG plays a role in determining the susceptibilities of pigs to natural infection. Measurements of seroconversion by the ELISA might aid in epidemiological investigations of PE in naturally infected herds. However, the variable antibody responses in experimentally challenged pigs would seem to limit its usefulness as an antemortem diagnostic test for PE. PMID:7989553

  5. Highly sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for immunoglobulin E detection based on sandwich assay using enzyme-linked aptamer.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Abdollah; Khezrian, Somayeh; Hallaj, Rahman; Vaziry, Asaad

    2014-12-01

    Here, we describe the fabrication of an electrochemical immunoglobulin E (IgE) aptasensor using enzyme-linked aptamer in the sandwich assay method and thionine as redox probe. In this protocol, 5'-amine-terminated IgE aptamer and thionine were covalently attached on glassy carbon electrode modified with carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid/chitosan nanocomposite. Furthermore, another IgE aptamer was modified with biotin and enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP), which attached to the aptamer via biotin-streptavidin interaction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry were performed at each stage of the chemical modification process to confirm the resulting surface changes. The presence of IgE induces the formation of a double aptamer sandwich structure on the electrode, and the electrocatalytic reduction current of thionine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was measured as the sensor response. Under optimized conditions and using differential pulse voltammetry as the measuring technique, the proposed aptasensor showed a low detection limit (6 pM) and high sensitivity (1.88 μA nM(-1)). This aptasensor also exhibited good stability and high selectivity for IgE detection without an interfering effect of some other proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme. The application of the aptasensor for IgE detection in human serum sample was also investigated. The proposed protocol is quite promising as an alternative sandwich approach for various protein assays. PMID:25172129

  6. Validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for qualitative screening of neomycin in muscle, liver, kidney, eggs and milk.

    PubMed

    Solomun, B; Bilandzic, N; Varenina, I; Scortichini, G

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the qualitative screening analysis of neomycin in food of animal origin (muscle, liver, kidney, eggs and milk) at levels corresponding to the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) set for this substance. The method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC established for qualitative screening methods. In this regard, the following parameters were determined: detection capability (CCβ), specificity, detection limit (LOD), quantification limit (LOQ), recovery, precision, linearity and ruggedness. LODs ranged from 5.7 microg kg(-1) in kidney to 29.3 microg kg(-1) in milk; LOQs ranged from 11.4 microg kg(-1) in kidney to 59.7 microkg(-1) in eggs. The recoveries from spiked samples at the MRL, half the MRL and double the MRL levels ranged from 65.8% to 122.8%, with a coefficient of variation (CV) between 5.9% and 28.6%. The CCβ value was less than the MRL for all examined matrices. Moderate variations of some critical factors in the sample pretreatment for muscle, milk and eggs were deliberately introduced for ruggedness evaluation and had a slight but not statistically significant effect on method performance. The proposed method is suitable for qualitative screening analysis of neomycin in the above-mentioned food in conformity with current European Union performance requirements.

  7. Detection of group D salmonellae including Salmonella Enteritidis in eggs by polymyxin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Blais, Burton W; Martinez-Perez, Amalia

    2008-02-01

    A high-throughput, rapid method was devised for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg products. For each target organism, preenrichment in nutrient broth was followed by selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis soya peptone and tetrathionate brilliant green broths or by plating on modified semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV) agar medium. The presence of Salmonella Enteritidis was determined by subjecting portions of the selective broth cultures or swarming growth on MSRV medium to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure using polymyxin immobilized in the wells of a microtiter plate as a high-affinity adsorbent for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens. Sample extracts were reacted with polymyxin-coated microwells, and captured LPS antigens were detected immunoenzymatically with a commercially available Salmonella factor O9-specific antibody. The polymyxin-ELISA was 100% sensitive and 100% specific for Salmonella strains bearing the O9 antigen. When the ELISA was combined with enrichment using either the selective broths or plating on MSRV medium, the system was an effective means for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in artificially inoculated egg products. The polymyxin-ELISA is a simple and inexpensive assay for group D salmonellae (including Salmonella Enteritidis) in a convenient 96-well microtiter plate format, making this system ideally suited for processing large numbers of samples.

  8. Large-scale purification of synaptophysin and quantification with a newly established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Schlaf, G; Göddecke, M; Wolff, J R; Felgenhauer, K; Mäder, M

    1996-09-01

    Synaptophysin (SYP I), an integral membrane protein, was purified on a large scale (0.55 - 2.7 mg) from isolated small synaptic vesicles (SSV) of porcine cortex. In order to achieve this, a conventional purification procedure which consists of size exlusion chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and chromatofocusing has been developed. This procedure was compared with purification of SYP I by immunoaffinity chromatography. The elution patterns of both procedures were monitored using sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with subsequent Coomassie blue staining of proteins and simultaneous immunoblotting with SYP I-specific antibody. Contaminating proteins with relative molecular masses (M(r)) very similar to SYP I could be removed during the process of purification, demonstrating that the 38 kDa protein found after Triton X-100 lysis of enriched SSV does not exclusively represent SYP I. A specific antiserum was raised in rabbits using a highly purified preparation of SYP I. This antiserum was used in combination with a monoclonal antibody to establish a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which allowed rapid and reliable quantification of this hydrophobic membrane protein in all purification steps, starting with Triton X-100-lysed brain homogenates. Using this ELISA, the concentration of SYP I in highly purified SSV was determined to be 5.8% of solubilized protein.

  9. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a monoclonal antibody for detecting group A meningococcal antigens in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Sugasawara, R J; Prato, C M; Sippel, J E

    1984-02-01

    Hybridomas were produced from spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with a membrane preparation from Neisseria meningitidis group A strain 4402 and S194/5.XXOBU.14 myeloma cells. The hybridomas were screened for secretion of antibodies suitable for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic for group A meningococcal meningitis. One hybridoma antibody, 3G7, was directed against the pilus protein. This antibody bound to all six lipopolysaccharide and protein group A meningococcal serotyping strains, as well as to meningococcal strains from serogroups C, W135, and Y, but not to a strain of Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae type b, or to two or more strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Salmonella typhi. The ELISA used on antibody, antigen, antibody-conjugate sandwich. Rabbit anti-meningococcal serum was the coating antibody for the antibody sandwich, cerebrospinal fluids contained the bacterial antigens, and 3G7-alkaline phosphatase conjugate was the detecting antibody. The monoclonal antibody conjugate ELISA system was able to detect group A meningococcal antigens in 21 of 25 cerebrospinal fluid specimens that were positive in an immune rabbit serum conjugate ELISA; cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with Haemophilus meningitis served as the controls. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis detected meningococcal antigens in 16 of the same 25 cerebrospinal fluid samples.

  10. Detection of proline-rich proteins for the identification of saliva by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Igoh, Akihisa; Tomotake, Sho; Doi, Yusuke

    2015-05-01

    Saliva is one of the most common body fluids found at a crime scene. Therefore, identifying saliva is important in forensic science. However, the current protein marker assays used to identify saliva are not sufficiently specific. Although proline-rich proteins (PRPs) are highly specific for saliva, their forensic potential has not yet been investigated. In this study, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect acidic salivary PRP HaeIII subfamily 1/2 (PRH1/2) and basic salivary PRP 2 (PRB2). The specificity, sensitivity, and efficiency of the ELISAs for PRH1/2 and PRB2 were compared with those of the ELISA for statherin (STATH), a known protein marker for saliva. The levels of PRH1/2 were significantly higher in saliva and saliva stains than in other body fluids (nasal secretions, urine, semen, vaginal fluid, blood, and sweat). PRB2 and STATH were detected in both nasal secretions and saliva. The PRH1/2 ELISA showed sensitivity similar to that of STATH ELISA. The detection rate of PRH1/2 ELISA was almost similar to that of STATH ELISA, followed by the ELISA for PRB2. The PRH1/2 ELISA had higher specificity for saliva than STATH ELISA. Therefore, the PRH1/2 ELISA has potential as a method to identify saliva for forensic investigation.

  11. Rapid diagnosis of echovirus type 33 meningitis by specific IgM detection using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Chomel, J J; Thouvenot, D; Fayol, V; Aymard, M

    1985-01-01

    During an outbreak of meningitis in France (in the Lyon area), from June to October 1982, serum and stool samples were collected from 227 patients. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for titrating IgG and IgM antibodies anti-echovirus type 33 was developed and compared with the virus isolation technique, and with the titration of neutralizing antibodies. In 39 patients excreting echovirus 33 in faeces, the ELISA test allowed a positive serodiagnosis in 85% of the cases by detection of specific IgM (64% of the cases) and by seroconversion (21%). Compared with the neutralization (Nt) test, ELISA was found to be more sensitive. The antibody titres in ELISA were over 50 times higher and detected earlier than the neutralizing antibodies. This early immune response allowed a rapid diagnosis by specific IgM detection in the acute sera collected within 8 days after the appearance of the clinical symptoms in more than 50% of the 97 patients examined, whereas the Nt test allowed a positive serodiagnosis in only 32% of the patients. The use of a caesium chloride purified antigen insured the specificity of the reactions.

  12. Analyzing swine sera for functional antibody titers against influenza A neuraminidase proteins using an enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA).

    PubMed

    Sandbulte, Matthew R; Eichelberger, Maryna C

    2014-01-01

    Neuraminidase (NA) is an envelope glycoprotein of influenza viruses, including swine-lineage influenza A viruses. NA possesses sialidase activity, which is functionally important at multiple points in viral replication, counter-balancing the sialic acid receptor binding activity of the hemagglutinin (HA), the other major envelope glycoprotein. The NA proteins of influenza A viruses have been classified into nine serological subtypes, and they undergo antigenic drift variation similar to that of HA. Antibodies to NA are analyzed much less often than antibodies to HA. The conventional assay for NA inhibition (NI) antibody titration, established decades ago, is widely considered unwieldy and inefficient for routine use. In recent years, a few new formats have been developed which still measure inhibition of NA enzymatic function, but more efficiently and with less chemical waste produced. Described here is the enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA), which is performed in 96-well plates and analyzed on a spectrophotometric plate reader. An important factor in adoption of the ELLA technique for animal studies, such as swine, is the choice of NA antigen, which may be purified protein or whole virus containing an antigenically irrelevant HA protein. This NI assay, in conjunction with the hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody assay, offers a practical way to characterize viral isolates more fully and to quantify antibodies induced by infection or vaccination.

  13. Effectiveness of natural and synthetic blocking reagents and their application for detecting food allergens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Huber, Denise; Rudolf, Judith; Ansari, Parisa; Galler, Brigitte; Führer, Manuela; Hasenhindl, Christoph; Baumgartner, Sabine

    2009-05-01

    Blocking is an important step before an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can be performed. It reduces non-specific binding to the microtiter plate to a minimum. For detecting food allergens by means of ELISA, the problem with protein blocking solutions is obvious. The blocker might interfere with the antibodies of the assay and leads to false positive results. Therefore, other blocking solutions are greatly needed. There are some alternatives like synthetic blockers or carbohydrates. Comparisons of these different blocking agents, namely proteins, carbohydrates, and synthetic blockers, were made at different reaction conditions. The incubation periods and temperatures were varied, as well as the pH. The best combinations were evaluated and compared, in respect of their blocking efficiency. The two best non-proteinaceous blockers, i.e. polyvinylalcohol and Ficoll, were subsequently applied to ELISA tests for the determination of alpha-casein and peanut. The study showed that Ficoll and PVA did as well as BSA in buffer solution. Therefore, they can be considered as alternative blocking reagents for ELISA, especially for the detection of food allergens.

  14. Sensitive radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the simultaneous determination of chloroquine and its metabolites in biological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Escande, C.; Chevalier, P.; Verdier, F.; Bourdon, R. )

    1990-01-01

    Two new methods for the simultaneous determination of chloroquine and its two main metabolites (monodesethylchloroquine and bisdesethylchloroquine) in biological samples, radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are described. Antiserum is produced in rabbits immunized with N-(2-carboxyethyl)desethylchloroquine:protein conjugate. Besides chloroquine, this antiserum recognizes with good affinity the two main metabolites, monodesethylchloroquine and bisdesethylchloroquine (70 and 40% of crossreaction, respectively). Amodiaquine cross reacts by 4.5%; cross reactions with monodesethylamodiaquine, bisdesethylamodiaquine, and other antimalarial drugs are less than 1%. No extraction step or sample preparation is required for either system. Sensitivity limits are, respectively, 0.70 nM (3 pg of chloroquine sulfate measured in 10 microL of plasma sample) for RIA, and 10 nM (22 pg of chloroquine sulfate measured in 5 microL of plasma sample) for ELISA. The interassay coefficients of variation are, respectively, less than 10 and less than 16% for RIA and ELISA in the range 14-410 nM (6-180 ng/mL). The results of both methods are well correlated (r = 0.97) and correlate with spectrophotometry (r = 0.98) and HPLC results (r = 0.93). Because of their high sensitivity, both methods can be used in the case of chloroquine poisoning and in the control of malaria prophylaxis and treatment.

  15. Comparison of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with an Immunochromatographic Assay for Detection of Lincomycin in Milk and Honey.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shanshan; Song, Shanshan; Liu, Liqiang; Kong, Na; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunochromatographic assay were constructed for the detection of lincomycin (LIN) in both milk and honey samples based on the monoclonal antibody named 5F6. The half-maximum inhibition of ELISA was 0.3 ng/mL after optimizing pH and ionic strength conditions; the limit of detection was 0.07 ng/mL. The cross-reactivity with clindamycin was 0.6%. LIN recovery in spiked milk and honey samples ranged from 84.6% to 115.6% with intra-assay coefficient variations of 1.7-25.4% and inter-assay coefficient variations of 2.7-8.9%. The detection limits were estimated as 2.1 µg/L for milk and 2.1 µg/kg for honey samples. The immunochromatographic assay revealed a LIN cut-off value of 10 ng/mL in PBS, 5 ng/mL in milk, and 120 ng/g in honey, and a visual lower detection limit of 2.5 ng/mL, 1 ng/mL and 30 ng/g in PBS, milk and honey, respectively. The immunochromatographic assay is preferred for large-scale practical application for its simpler pretreatment and satisfied sensitivity compared with ELISA assay. PMID:26107744

  16. Detection of herpes simplex virus type-specific antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on glycoprotein G.

    PubMed

    Hashido, M; Lee, F K; Inouye, S; Kawana, T

    1997-12-01

    In order to develop a simple and quantitative method to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-specific antibodies, the usefulness of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using HSV glycoprotein G (gG) captured on a plate by monoclonal antibodies as antigen was studied. The gG1- and gG2-specific IgG antibody activities were measured by the ELISA for 54 sera which had been collected from culture-proven genital herpes patients and pre-characterized by an immunodot assay using purified gG antigens. Thirty control sera without antibodies against the HSV whole antigens were also included. In comparison with the immunodot assay as standard, the sensitivities of the ELISA were 88.9% (32/36) for HSV-1 antibody and 89.2% (33/37) for HSV-2 antibody and the specificities were both 100%. Sera taken within a few months after primary infection tended to give false negative results. The HSV type-specific ELISA based on easy-to-prepare gG antigens might be useful to help improve the serological assessment of HSV infections.

  17. Detection of group D salmonellae including Salmonella Enteritidis in eggs by polymyxin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Blais, Burton W; Martinez-Perez, Amalia

    2008-02-01

    A high-throughput, rapid method was devised for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg products. For each target organism, preenrichment in nutrient broth was followed by selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis soya peptone and tetrathionate brilliant green broths or by plating on modified semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV) agar medium. The presence of Salmonella Enteritidis was determined by subjecting portions of the selective broth cultures or swarming growth on MSRV medium to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure using polymyxin immobilized in the wells of a microtiter plate as a high-affinity adsorbent for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens. Sample extracts were reacted with polymyxin-coated microwells, and captured LPS antigens were detected immunoenzymatically with a commercially available Salmonella factor O9-specific antibody. The polymyxin-ELISA was 100% sensitive and 100% specific for Salmonella strains bearing the O9 antigen. When the ELISA was combined with enrichment using either the selective broths or plating on MSRV medium, the system was an effective means for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in artificially inoculated egg products. The polymyxin-ELISA is a simple and inexpensive assay for group D salmonellae (including Salmonella Enteritidis) in a convenient 96-well microtiter plate format, making this system ideally suited for processing large numbers of samples. PMID:18326193

  18. A highly rapid and simple competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Kawatsu, Kentaro; Kanki, Masashi; Harada, Tetsuya; Kumeda, Yuko

    2014-11-01

    Using a streptavidin-coated well plate, a biotin-labelled anti-gonyautoxin 2/3 monoclonal antibody GT-13A, and a decarbamoyl saxitoxin-peroxidase conjugate, a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PSP-ELISA) was developed for monitoring paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish. This assay is simple to perform and can be completed in approximately 20 min. The PSP-ELISA was compared to the mouse bioassay (MBA) for the detection of PSP toxins in shellfish samples (n=83) collected from the coast of Osaka Prefecture, Japan. When positive and negative results were indicated based on the regulatory limit for PSP toxins (4 mouse unit(MU)/g of shellfish meat), the PSP-ELISA results showed a sensitivity of 100% (25 of 25) and a specificity of 89.7% (52 of 58 samples) compared to the MBA results. These results suggest that the PSP-ELISA could be used as a rapid and simple screening method prior to the MBA.

  19. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of Mycoplasma bovis-specific antibody in bison sera.

    PubMed

    Register, Karen B; Sacco, Randy E; Olsen, Steven C

    2013-09-01

    Mycoplasma bovis has recently emerged as a significant and costly infectious disease problem in bison. A method for the detection of M. bovis-specific serum antibodies is needed in order to establish prevalence and transmission patterns. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) validated for the detection of M. bovis-specific serum IgG in cattle are commercially available, but their suitability for bison sera has not been determined. A collection of bison sera, most from animals with a known history of infection or vaccination with M. bovis, was tested for M. bovis-specific IgG using commercially available kits as well as an in-house ELISA in which either cattle or bison M. bovis isolates were used as a source of antigen. Comparison of the results demonstrates that ELISAs optimized for cattle sera may not be optimal for the identification of bison seropositive for M. bovis, particularly those with low to moderate antibody levels. The reagent used for the detection of bison IgG and the source of the antigen affect the sensitivity of the assay. Optimal performance was obtained when the capture antigen was derived from bison isolates rather than cattle isolates and when a protein G conjugate rather than an anti-bovine IgG conjugate was used for the detection of bison IgG.

  20. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of avian influenza virus subtypes H5 and H7 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 attracts particular attention because of the risk of their potential pathogenicity in poultry. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is widely used as subtype specific test for serological diagnostics despite the laborious nature of this method. However, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are being explored as an alternative test method. H5 and H7 specific monoclonal antibodies were experimentally raised and used in the development of inhibition ELISAs for detection of serological response specifically directed against AIV subtypes H5 and H7. The ELISAs were evaluated with polyclonal chicken anti-AIV antibodies against AIV subtypes: H1N2, H5N2, H5N7, H7N1, H7N7, H9N9, H10N4 and H16N3. Results Both the H5 and H7 ELISA proved to have a high sensitivity and specificity and the ELISAs detected H5 and H7 antibodies earlier during experimental infection than the HI test did. The reproducibility of the ELISA’s performed at different times was high with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.96-0.98. Conclusions The ELISAs are a potential alternative to the HI test for screening of large amounts of avian sera, although only experimental sera were tested in this study. PMID:24256721

  1. Quantification of osteoclastic resorption of the bovine otic capsule in vitro by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Frisch, T; Foged, N T; Sørensen, M S; Bretlau, P

    2000-01-01

    The bony shell surrounding the inner ear is known to have a very pronounced centripetal inhibition of remodelling in vivo, with almost no bone turnover immediately adjacent to the perilymphatic spaces and a gradually increasing turnover rate towards outer parts of the bony otic capsule. By the use of in vitro markers of bone resorption, including an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of type I collagen degradation and a colorimetric enzyme assay for quantification of osteoclast tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity, this study demonstrates that there are no ex vivo differences in bone matrix resorption between the inner and outer parts of the otic capsule when exposed to seeded osteoclasts from rabbits. Thus, the unique spatial distribution of perilabyrinthine bone turnover is not caused by a shift in resorbability from inner to outer capsular bone that is due to inherent bone quality differences particular to these bone compartments. More likely, the sustained action of some intravital 'field force', originating from the inner ear spaces, is responsible for the unique spatial distribution of the otic capsular bone turnover found in vivo. Though the character of this force is not yet defined, it is appealing to relate it to the large electromagnetic potential gradient present in the inner ear. PMID:10965257

  2. Studies on neurosteroids XV. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for examining whether pregnenolone sulfate is a veritable neurosteroid.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Daifu, Yuri; Ikeshima, Takehiro; Yagi, Takako; Shimada, Kazutake

    2003-01-15

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of pregnenolone sulfate (PREGS) has been developed for examining whether it is a veritable neurosteroid. 11alpha-Hemiglutaryloxy-PREGS was newly synthesized and conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was injected to rabbits for the production of anti-PREGS antibodies. A bridge-heterologous ELISA system employing the sequential saturation method exhibited a high sensitivity with a midpoint of 30 pg. Although the antibody showed some cross-reactivity with PREG (4.4%), it easily discriminated other related steroids reported to exist in the mammalian brain. The rat brain homogenate was treated with hexane and subjected to an OASIS HLB cartridge, which was washed with AcOEt to remove the unconjugated steroids, and then the desired sulfate was eluted with EtOH. The recovery rate of PREGS through the pretreatment was satisfactory, but its brain levels in the preliminary experiments were much lower than those previously measured by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) after solvolysis. These results practically agreed with our previous results by liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS without deconjugation.

  3. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for cancer procoagulant and its potential as a new tumor marker.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S G; Cross, B A

    1990-10-01

    Cancer procoagulant (CP) is a Mr 68,000 cysteine proteinase that initiates blood coagulation and is expressed by a variety of malignant cells but not by normally differentiated cells. Polyclonal immunoglobulin G and monoclonal immunoglobulin M antibodies were developed to purified CP and used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze the antigen in human serum samples. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine whether or not the analysis of CP in the serum might be a useful tumor marker. Pure CP was added to normal serum to establish a quantitative standard curve; the correlation coefficient of seven standard curves was 0.99. The upper limit of the normal range was established with 46 normal sera (mean +/- 2 SD = 0.57 microgram/ml). A total of 128 blinded serum samples were analyzed: 54 were from cancer patients (29 with gastrointestinal cancer, 22 with lung cancer, and three with urogenital cancer); 20 were from benign disease patients; and 54 were from normal individuals. All of the 13 early stage cancers were greater than 0.57 microgram/ml (positive), 31 of 41 (76%) of the late stage cancers were positive; overall, 44 of the 54 cancers (81%) were positive. Forty-nine of 54 (91%) of the normal sera and 16 of 20 (80%) of the benign disease sera were negative. Overall, the assay had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 88%.

  4. Smartphone-interfaced lab-on-a-chip devices for field-deployable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Arnold; Wang, Royal; Bever, Candace R S; Xing, Siyuan; Hammock, Bruce D; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-11-01

    The emerging technologies on mobile-based diagnosis and bioanalytical detection have enabled powerful laboratory assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be conducted in field-use lab-on-a-chip devices. In this paper, we present a low-cost universal serial bus (USB)-interfaced mobile platform to perform microfluidic ELISA operations in detecting the presence and concentrations of BDE-47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether), an environmental contaminant found in our food supply with adverse health impact. Our point-of-care diagnostic device utilizes flexible interdigitated carbon black electrodes to convert electric current into a microfluidic pump via gas bubble expansion during electrolytic reaction. The micropump receives power from a mobile phone and transports BDE-47 analytes through the microfluidic device conducting competitive ELISA. Using variable domain of heavy chain antibodies (commonly referred to as single domain antibodies or Nanobodies), the proposed device is sensitive for a BDE-47 concentration range of 10(-3)-10(4 ) μg/l, with a comparable performance to that uses a standard competitive ELISA protocol. It is anticipated that the potential impact in mobile detection of health and environmental contaminants will prove beneficial to our community and low-resource environments. PMID:25553178

  5. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and virus neutralization test for detection of antibodies to avian pneumovirus.

    PubMed

    Alkahalaf, A N; Halvorson, D A; Saif, Y M

    2002-01-01

    Two different whole-virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), developed in Ohio (OH) with APV/Minnesota/turkey/2a/97 and in Minnesota (MN) with APV/Colorado/turkey/97, and the virus neutralization (VN) test were used to test 270 turkey serum samples from 27 Minnesota turkey flocks for avian pneumovirus (APV) antibodies. In addition, 77 turkey serum samples and 128 ostrich serum samples from Ohio were tested. None of the turkey samples from Ohio had antibodies to APV by the VN test and OH ELISA. The ostrich samples were only tested with the VN test and were all negative for antibodies to APV. For the Minnesota serum samples, 107, 115, and 120 were positive by the VN test, the OH ELISA, and the MN ELISA, respectively. The Kappa values of 0.938 and 0.825 showed excellent agreement between the VN test and the OH ELISA and the MN ELISA, respectively, for detection of antibodies to the APV. The OH ELISA and MN ELISA had sensitivities of 1.0 and 0.953, specificities of 0.950 and 0.889, and accuracies of 0.970 and 0.914, respectively. Our results indicate that the 3 methods are sensitive and specific for diagnosis of the APV infection.

  6. Comparison of methods of immobilization to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates for the detection of sugar chains.

    PubMed

    Satoh, A; Fukui, E; Yoshino, S; Shinoda, M; Kojima, K; Matsumoto, I

    1999-11-15

    The immobilization of carbohydrates for solid-phase assays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), is difficult because they are hydrophilic. We developed four new methods for the immobilization of oligosaccharides. ELISA plates were first coated with methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer (MMAC) and an excess of active anhydride groups was introduced. They were subsequently reacted, in four different ways, to bind oligosaccharides. In method 1, the anhydride groups were reacted with hydrazide groups, in the presence of adipic acid dihydrazide, and then coupled to the reducing ends of sugar chains by reductive amination. In method 2, the anhydride groups were reacted with p-aminophenyl glycoside obtained by reduction with p-nitrophenyl glycoside. In method 3, the anhydride groups were reacted with 1, 6-hexamethylenediamine. Aminooxy groups were coupled to the amino groups introduced and then aminooxyacetic acid with carbodiimide and ligated to oligosaccharides by oxime formation. In method 4, stereospecifically aminated oligosaccharides reacted with the anhydride groups. We compared, in solid-phase assays systems, the ability of lectins to detect oligosaccharides immobilized with either one of these four new methods or one of the two methods previously described. Detection of sugars with lectins is useful because, in most cases, they recognize sugars stereospecifically. The immobilization method should therefore be carefully selected to avoid changing the configuration and substitution in C-1. PMID:10552909

  7. Quality Evaluation of Five Commercial Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay Kits for Detecting Aflatoxin B1 in Feedstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan-dan; Gu, Xu; Li, Jun-guo; Yao, Ting; Dong, Ying-chao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of five commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (A, B, C, D, and E) from different suppliers for detecting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). AFB1-free corn samples supplemented with different levels of AFB1 (5, 10, and 20 μg/kg) were used as positive controls and 6 replicates of each control sample were tested to evaluate the accuracy and precision of these kits. In addition, we also evaluated the performance of these ELISA kits for AFB1 in 30 feed samples, including corn, distillers dried grains with soluble, wheat samples, soybean meal, and poultry feed, which were verified by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the coefficients of variation ranged from 1.18% to 16.22% in intra-plate and 2.85% to 18.04% in inter-plate for the determination of AFB1. The half maximal inhibitory concentration for five kits ranged from 3.72 to 7.22 μg/kg. The quantitation limits of AFB1 were all under the legal limit in China but somewhat inconsistent with kit instructions. Although the recovery rate of four of the five kits were either less than 90% or more than 110%, all these values were acceptable in practice. Two kits had high false positive rates (C and E). In conclusion, our results revealed that the qualities of five tested ELISA kits were significantly different. PMID:25924961

  8. Development of monoclonal antibodies and quantitative sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the characteristic sialoglycoprotein of edible bird's nest.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiwei; Lai, Xintian; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yun; Li, Bifang; Huang, Xiuli; Zhang, Qinlei; Chen, Wei; Lin, Lin; Yang, Guowu

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for identification of edible bird's nest. The characteristic sialoglycoproteins were found by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and purified by liquid-phase isoelectric focusing (LIEF). According to the analysis, the molecular weight was 106-128 kDa and the isoelectric point was ≤pH 3.0. Two anti-characteristic sialoglycoprotein monoclonal antibodies were produced. The monoclonal antibodies were examined by western-blot assay. One of the monoclonal antibody was used as coating and the other as the enzyme-labeled antibody after being coupled to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Based on the optimized ELISA condition, the method was established with IC(50) of 1.5 ng/mL, and low cross-reactivity with various fake materials (<0.01%). ELISA provided a suitable means for screening of a large number of samples. The coefficients of variation were between 2.9% and 5.8%.

  9. A new competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (MRP83-CA15-3) for MUC1 measurement in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnejad, J; Rasaee, Mohammad J; Saqhafi, B; Rajabibazl, M; Rahbarizadeh, F; Omidfar, K; Paknejad, M

    2006-01-01

    A new competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed in this study. Monoclonal antibody (PR81) against the tandem repeat of the core protein was prepared, characterized, purified, and conjugated to HRP. This antibody exhibited no cross reactions with proteins such as bovine serum albumin, keyhole limpet homocyanin, human serum albumin, casein, human milk fat globin (HMFG), and peptone. The native cancerous MUC1 protein was purified from ascites fluid of a patient suffering from small cell lung carcinoma by immunoaffinity chromatography and used as a standard preparation in the assay buffer. The standard curve was constructed following a competitive procedure in the range of 0-200 U/mL. The level of MUC1 in normal and cancerous samples was compared following this procedure and using available CA15-3 EIA (Can Ag), as well as LIAISON CA15-3 commercial kits. The correlation coefficient between the procedure reported in this work (MRP83-CA15-3) and CA15-3 EIA (Can Ag) was 0.68 and was 0.95 with the LIAISON CA15-3 kit. We concluded that the present assay can detect MUC1 in breast cancer patients with great sensitivity and accuracy.

  10. A Magnetic Nanoparticle Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Sensitive Quantification of Zearalenone in Cereal and Feed Samples

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian; Wang, Xin; Sun, Mengjiao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Song, Houhui; Yan, Yaxian; Sun, Jianhe; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan

    2015-01-01

    A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on magnetic nanoparticles and biotin/streptavidin-HRP (MNP-bsELISA) was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of zearalenone (ZEN). The detection signal was enhanced and the sensitivity of the assay was improved by combined use of antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles and biotin-streptavidin system. Under the optimized conditions, the regression equation for quantification of ZEN was y = −0.4287x + 0.3132 (R2 = 0.9904). The working range was 0.07–2.41 ng/mL. The detection limit was 0.04 ng/mL and IC50 was 0.37 ng/mL. The recovery rates of intra-assay and inter-assay ranged from 92.8%–111.9% and 91.7%–114.5%, respectively, in spiked corn samples. Coefficients of variation were less than 10% in both cases. Parallel analysis of cereal and feed samples showed good correlation between MNP-bsELISA and liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (R2 = 0.9283). We conclude that this method is suitable for rapid detection of zearalenone in cereal and feed samples in relevant laboratories. PMID:26492271

  11. Dual-color plasmonic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on enzyme-mediated etching of Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longhua; Xu, Shaohua; Ma, Xiaoming; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-01-01

    Colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay utilizing 3'-3-5'-5-tetramethylbenzidine(TMB) as the chromogenic substrate has been widely used in the hospital for the detection of all kinds of disease biomarkers. Herein, we demonstrate a strategy to change this single-color display into dual-color responses to improve the accuracy of visual inspection. Our investigation firstly reveals that oxidation state of 3'-3-5'-5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB(2+)) can quantitatively etch gold nanoparticles. Therefore, the incorporation of gold nanoparticles into a commercial TMB-based ELISA kit could generate dual-color responses: the solution color varied gradually from wine red (absorption peak located at ~530 nm) to colorless, and then from colorless to yellow (absorption peak located at ~450 nm) with the increase amount of targets. These dual-color responses effectively improved the sensitivity as well as the accuracy of visual inspection. For example, the proposed dual-color plasmonic ELISA is demonstrated for the detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum with a visual limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.0093 ng/mL. PMID:27599832

  12. Restricted access supramolecular solvents for sample treatment in enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay of mycotoxins in food.

    PubMed

    García-Fonseca, Sergio; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Rubio, Soledad

    2016-09-01

    A restricted access supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS-RAM) made up of tetradecanoic acid reverse micelles is proposed as a wide-scope and low-cost strategy for the treatment of agrifood samples prior to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The approach was assessed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wines and spices and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in cereals, two ubiquitous mycotoxins that were selected as representative contaminants for this study. The samples were selected to cover a variety of matrices in terms diverse composition and high complexity. Macromolecules such as proteins and carbohydrates were not-co-extracted due to the restricted access properties of the SUPRAS that are provided by chemical and physical mechanisms. In this sense, analyte extraction and clean-up were carried out in a single step. Parameters determining the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Certified reference materials were used for method validation. Recoveries of OTA ranged between 83% and 96% in wines (with relative standard deviation, RSD, of about 10%) and between 81% and 93% in spices (RSD 7%). Recoveries for AFB1 in wheat ranged from 75% to 85% (RSD 8%). The detection limits were all below the maximum levels established for OTA and for AFB1 by EU directives. This method offers a green and low-cost alternative to the organic solvent-based extraction and/or immunoaffinity columns-based cleanup of complex samples prior to ELISA. PMID:27543022

  13. Expression screen by enzyme-linked immunofiltration assay designed for high-throughput purification of affinity-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Kery, Vladimir; Savage, Justin R; Widjaja, Kartika; Blake, B Kelly; Conklin, David R; Ho, Yew-Seng J; Long, Xinghua; von Rechenberg, Moritz; Zarembinski, Thomas I; Boniface, J Jay

    2003-06-15

    High-throughput purification of affinity-tagged fusion proteins is currently one of the fastest developing areas of molecular proteomics. A prerequisite for success in protein purification is sufficient soluble protein expression of the target protein in a heterologous host. Hence, a fast and quantitative evaluation of the soluble-protein levels in an expression system is one of the key steps in the entire process. Here we describe a high-throughput expression screen for affinity-tagged fusion proteins based on an enzyme linked immunofiltration assay (ELIFA). An aliquot of a crude Escherichia coli extract containing the analyte, an affinity-tagged protein, is adsorbed onto the membrane. Subsequent binding of specific antibodies followed by binding of a secondary antibody horseradish peroxidase (HRP) complex then allows quantitative evaluation of the analyte using tetramethylbenzidine as the substrate for HRP. The method is accurate and quantitative, as shown by comparison with results from western blotting and an enzymatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) assay. Furthermore, it is a far more rapid assay and less cumbersome than western blotting, lending itself more readily to high-throughput analysis. It can be used at the expression level (cell lysates) or during the subsequent purification steps to monitor yield of specific protein.

  14. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of Nocardia brasiliensis and clinical correlation with mycetoma infections.

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Casillas, S M

    1993-01-01

    We previously identified three immunodominant antigens obtained from a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and recognized by sera from mycetoma patients (M. C. Salinas-Carmona, L. Vera, O. Welsh, and M. Rodríguez, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 276:390-397, 1992). In the present work, we obtained a crude extract from a mass culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and purified two immunodominant antigens, the 26- and 24-kDa proteins, by using simple physiochemical techniques. With these antigens, we developed a conventional solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tested 30 serum samples from mycetoma patients, 29 from tuberculosis patients, 24 from a leprosy group, and 31 from healthy individuals. Our results show for the first time statistically significant differences in serology among these groups. All mycetoma patients with a positive culture for N. brasiliensis had absorbance values higher than 0.3. On the other hand, the mycobacterium-infected patients as well as the healthy individuals all had absorbance values below that level. Moreover, we found a close correlation between the clinical condition of the mycetoma patients and the anti-26- and anti-24-kDa protein antibody concentrations. We therefore propose the use of this assay in routine clinical laboratories to confirm the diagnosis of N. brasiliensis infection in human mycetoma cases. In addition, the possible application of this assay in the serodiagnosis of Nocardia asteroides infection is also discussed. Images PMID:8263174

  15. Coupling solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for ultratrace determination of herbicides in pristine water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were coupled for automated trace analysis of pristine water samples containing 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamine-s-triazine (atrazine) and 2-chloro-2???,6???-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetanilide (alachlor). The isolation of the two herbicides on a C18-resin involved the selection of an elution solvent that both removes interfering substances and is compatible with ELISA. Ethyl acetate was selected as the elution solvent followed by a solvent exchange with methanol/water (20/80, % v/v). The SPE-ELISA method has a detection limit of 5.0 ng/L (5 ppt), >90% recovery, and a relative standard deviation of ??10%. The performance of a microtiter plate-based ELISA and a magnetic particle-based ELISA coupled to SPE was also evaluated. Although the sensitivity of the two ELISA methods was comparable, the precision using magnetic particles was improved considerably (??10% versus ??20%) because of the faster reaction kinetics provided by the magnetic particles. Finally, SPE-ELISA and isotope dilution gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry correlated well (correlation coefficient of 0.96) for lake-water samples. The SPE-ELISA method is simple and may have broader applications for the inexpensive automated analysis of other contaminants in water at trace levels.

  16. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the determination of pollutants in environmental and industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, M; Goda, Y; Okayasu, Y; Tomita, J; Takigami, H; Ike, M; Tanaka, H

    2006-01-01

    Twelve enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), for the determination of surfactants [linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), alkyl ethoxylates (AE), and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APE)], endocrine disruptors [alkylphenol (AP), AP + APE, and bisphenol A (BPA)], estrogens [17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (El), estrogen (ES: El + E2 + estriol (E3)), 1 7alfa-ethynylestradiol (EE2)], dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were validated on environmental water and industrial wastes. The lowest quantification limits of these ELISAs were 0.05 microg/L (BPA, E2, El, ES and EE2), 2 microg/L (AE), 3 microg/L (dioxins and PCBs), 5 microg/L (AP, AP + APE) and 20 microg/L (LAS and APE). To apply these ELISAs to environmental or industrial waste samples, simple and appropriate pre-treatment methods were also developed for each ELISA. With optimized pre-treatments, the values of ELISAs were well co-related, in all cases, to those of instrumental analytical methods such as liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and high-resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HR-GC-MS), etc. PMID:17302299

  17. ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR SCREENING DIOXIN SOIL CONTAMINATION BY UNCONTROLLED COMBUSTION DURING INFORMAL RECYCLING IN SLUMS

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Mirta; Nording, Malin; Nichkova, Mikaela; Spinnel, Erik; Haglund, Peter; Last, Michael S.; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce; Last, Jerold A.; González-Sapienza, Gualberto; Brena, Beatriz M.

    2010-01-01

    Uncontrolled combustion due to garbage recycling is a widespread activity among slum dwellers in distressed economy countries and has been indicated as a major source of dioxin contamination. However, because of the high cost and complexity of gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) analysis, the magnitude of the problem remains largely unknown. The present study describes a first approach toward the use of a dioxin antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as the basis for a sustainable, simple, and low-cost monitoring program to assess the toxicological impact of uncontrolled combustion in slums. A panel of 16 samples was analyzed by GC-HRMS and ELISA on split extracts. Close to 20% of the analyzed samples showed dioxin concentrations up to almost twice the guidance level for residential soil in several countries, pointing out the need for performing a large-scale monitoring program. Despite the potential for variations in dioxin congener distribution due to the mixed nature of the incinerated material, there was a good correlation between the toxic equivalents as determined by GC-HRMS and ELISA. Furthermore, an interlaboratory ELISA validation showed that the capacity to perform the dioxin ELISA was successfully transferred between laboratories. It was concluded that the ELISA method performed very well as a screening tool to prioritize samples for instrumental analysis, which allows cutting down costs significantly. PMID:18522475

  18. Preparation of Antibodies and Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Lapatinib and Nilotinib.

    PubMed

    Saita, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yuta; Shin, Masashi; Nakano, Yukitaka

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the production of the first specific antibodies against the tyrosine kinase inhibitors lapatinib and nilotinib. Anti-lapatinib antibody was obtained by immunizing rabbits with an antigen conjugated with bovine serum albumin using 3-chloro-4-((3-fluorobenzyl)oxy)aniline. Anti-nilotinib antibody was produced by immunizing mice with an antigen conjugated with bovine serum albumin using 2-(5-amino-2-methylanilino)-4-(3-pyridyl)pyrimidine. The generated antibodies were used to develop highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for lapatinib and nilotinib in human serum. The assays were capable of detecting lapatinib and nilotinib at serum concentrations as low as 40 and 8 ng/mL, respectively. Using the two ELISAs, drugs levels were easily measured in the serum of rats after a single dose oral administration of lapatinib or nilotinib. The assays are therefore expected be valuable tools for therapeutic drug monitoring in the clinical setting and pharmacokinetic studies of lapatinib and nilotinib.

  19. Serologic diagnosis of canine and equine borreliosis: use of recombinant antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, L A; Flavell, R A; Padula, S J; Anderson, J F; Fikrig, E

    1997-01-01

    Serum samples from dogs and equids suspected of having canine or equine borreliosis, respectively, were analyzed in polyvalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Purified preparations of recombinant antigens included outer surface protein A (OspA), OspB, OspC, OspE, OspF, and p41-G (a fragment of flagellin). Of the 36 dog sera that reacted positively to whole-cell antigen, 32 (88.9%) contained antibodies to one or more recombinant antigens. Reactivities to OspF (88.9% positive) and p41-G (75% positive) were most prevalent. In analyses of 30 equid sera positive in an ELISA with whole cells, 24 (80%) contained antibodies to one or more recombinant antigens. Seropositivities in ELISAs with p41-G (50% positive) and OspF (46.7% positive) were more than twofold greater than in ELISAs with OspA, OspB, or OspC (10 to 20% positive). In parallel tests of eight canine and three equine sera, there was good agreement in results of Western blot (immunoblot) analyses and ELISAs. Although dog and equid sera with antibodies to whole-cell B. burgdorferi frequently reacted positively to one or more recombinant antigens, the inclusion of OspF and p41-G antigens in ELISAs was most useful in the serologic diagnosis of canine and equine borreliosis. PMID:8968901

  20. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein C expression in MDBK cells and its reactivity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P K; Saini, M; Bandyopadhyay, S K; Garg, S K

    1998-12-01

    Glycoprotein C (gC) of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) is a major viral glycoprotein expressed at high level on the surface of infected cells and on the virion envelope. This glycoprotein is also a major target of immune response at both humoral and cellular levels. The plasmid pRSV-gC having complete coding gene for BHV-1 gC was transfected into MDBK cells and the expression of gC in these cells was detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analysis. Transcription of the gC gene was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of total RNA isolated from transfected cells. MDBK cells expressing BHV-1 gC were used as antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of antibodies against BHV-1 in field sera. The results were found comparable (92.44%) with those obtained with BHV-1 purified antigen.

  1. Screening of Dengue Virus Antiviral Activity of Marine Seaweeds by an In Situ Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Zanello, Paula Rodrigues; Bianco, Éverson Miguel; Bordignon, Juliano; Nunes Duarte dos Santos, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa) were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization. PMID:23227238

  2. Rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection of Salmonella serotype typhi antigens in urine.

    PubMed

    Fadeel, Moustafa Abdel; Crump, John A; Mahoney, Frank J; Nakhla, Isabelle A; Mansour, Adel M; Reyad, Baheia; El Melegi, Dawlat; Sultan, Yehia; Mintz, Eric D; Bibb, William F

    2004-03-01

    We developed and evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies to capture somatic antigen 9 (O9), flagellar antigen d (Hd), and the Vi capsular polysaccharide antigen (Vi) from the urine of persons with and without typhoid fever. Sequential urine samples were collected from 44 patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever and from two control groups. The first control group included patients with brucellosis (n = 12) and those with clinically diagnosed, non-typhoid, acute, febrile illness (n = 27). The second control group was a sample of healthy volunteer laboratory workers (n = 11). When assessed relative to date of fever onset, sensitivity was highest during the first week for all three antigens: Vi was detected in the urine of nine (100%) patients, O9 in 4 (44%) patients, and Hd in 4 (44%) patients. Sequential testing of two urine samples from the same patient improved test sensitivity. Combined testing for Vi with O9 and Hd produced a trend towards increased sensitivity without compromising specificity. The specificity for Vi exceeded 90% when assessed among both febrile and healthy control subjects, but was only 25% when assessed among patients with brucellosis. Detection of urinary Vi antigen with this ELISA shows promise for the diagnosis of typhoid fever, particularly when used within the first week after fever onset. However, positive reactions for Vi antigen in patients with brucellosis must be understood before urinary Vi antigen detection can be developed further as a useful rapid diagnostic test.

  3. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) METHOD FOR THE URINARY BIOMONITORING OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHRENOCYACETIC ACID (2,4-D)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was developed to quantitatively measure 2,4-dichlorophenoyacetic acid (2,4-D) in human urine. Samples were diluted (1:5) with phosphate-buffered saline, 0.05% Tween 20, with 0.02% sodium azide, and analyzed by a 96-microwekk pl...

  4. Validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that detects Histoplasma capsulatum antigenuria in Colombian patients with AIDS for diagnosis and follow-up during therapy.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Diego H; Scheel, Christina M; Tobón, Angela M; Ahlquist Cleveland, Angela; Restrepo, Angela; Brandt, Mary E; Chiller, Tom; Gómez, Beatriz L

    2014-09-01

    We validated an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Colombian persons with AIDS and proven histoplasmosis and evaluated the correlation between antigenuria and clinical improvement during follow-up. The sensitivity of the Histoplasma capsulatum ELISA was 86%, and the overall specificity was 94%. The antigen test successfully monitored the response to therapy.

  5. Analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Antigens Used in an In-house Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for Johne's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), called EVELISA, for the detection of MAP infection in cattle which showed a higher sensitivity than current ELISA test. We previously reported that the use of heat-killed M. flavascens for pre-absorption of cross-reactive antibodies im...

  6. Development of a Multianalyte Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Permethrin and Aroclors and Its Implementation for Analysis of Soil/Sediment and House Dust ExtractsExtracts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of a multianalyte enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of permethrin and aroclors 1248 or 1254, and implementation of the assay for analysis of soil/sediment samples are described. The feasibility of using the multianalyte ELISA to monitor aroclors ...

  7. Sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, complement fixation, and hemagglutination inhibition serological tests for detection of Sendai virus antibody in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Parker, J C; O'Beirne, A J; Collins, M J

    1979-03-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique for detection of Sendai virus antibody in mice was approximately 100- and 300-fold more sensitive than the complement fixation and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. The assay also permitted direct quantitative measurement of the amount of antibody on a single serum dilution rather than by the more traditional serial titration.

  8. Comparison of Hand-Held Test Kits, Immunofluorescence Microscopy, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, and Flow Cytometric Analysis for Rapid Presumptive Identification of Yersinia pestis▿

    PubMed Central

    Tomaso, H.; Thullier, P.; Seibold, E.; Guglielmo, V.; Buckendahl, A.; Rahalison, L.; Neubauer, H.; Scholz, H. C.; Splettstoesser, W. D.

    2007-01-01

    An in-house immunochromatographic test, Plague BioThreat Alert test strips, ABICAP columns, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence microscopy were compared for the detection of the fraction 1 capsular antigen of Yersinia pestis, using spiked buffer and clinical specimens. Hand-held test kits proved to be excellent benchtop tools. PMID:17652472

  9. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of the furaltadone etabolite, 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ) in animal tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, sensitive, and specific competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cdELISA) for determination of protein bound 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ) residues is described to monitor the illegal use of furaltadone. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were produced in...

  10. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, surface plasmon resonance and biolayer interferometry for screening of deoxynivalenol in wheat and wheat dust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sample preparation method was developed for the screening of deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat and wheat dust. Extraction was carried out with water and was successful due to the polar character of DON. For detection, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared to the sensor-based techni...

  11. Monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies to O:4 Salmonella in the sera of livestock and poultry.

    PubMed

    Aribam, Swarmistha Devi; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Matsui, Hidenori; Hirota, Jiro; Okamura, Masashi; Akiba, Masato; Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Serotyping is an important element for surveillance of Salmonella. In this study, an anti-O:4 Salmonella monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that could identify Salmonella infection in cow, pig, horse, and chicken was developed. This detection system can therefore be useful for a wide range of animals and for humans.

  12. Production of anti-idiotype antibodies for deoxynivalenol and their evaluation with three immunoassay platforms.

    PubMed

    Maragos, C M

    2014-05-01

    Immunoassays for deoxynivalenol (DON) that involve binding to DON-specific antibodies have been widely developed. In such assays, the responses of samples are generally compared with calibration curves generated by using DON in competition with labeled reagents such as enzymatic or fluorescent conjugates of the toxin. However, materials that mimic the toxin can also be used, provided that they compete effectively with the labeled reagents for the DON-specific antibodies. Examples include certain types of anti-idiotype antibodies, obtained by the immunization of animals with toxin-specific antibodies. In the present work, anti-idiotype antibodies were developed which mimicked DON in the ability to bind to a DON-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab). Fab fragments of the Mab (Ab1) were used to immunize rabbits. Sera were screened by competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA) for the presence of anti-idiotype antibodies (Ab2). In order to determine the most effective screening format and also the potential efficacy in various forms of biosensors, the sera were further evaluated in biolayer interferometry (BLI) and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) formats. All three formats were used to demonstrate the presence of anti-idiotypes capable of binding to the paratope of the DON antibody (subtypes Ab2β or Ab2γ). Such materials have the potential to replace DON as calibrants in immunoassays for this toxin.

  13. Evaluation of the Double Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Test and of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in the Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Priscila Zacarias; Sylvestre, Tatiane Fernanda; Cavalcante, Ricardo de Souza; de Carvalho, Lídia Raquel; Moris, Daniela Vanessa; de Oliveira, Maria Luiza Cotrim Sartor; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) depends on the radiologic image and the identification of specific antibodies. The present study aimed to evaluate accuracy parameters of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and of the determination of serum galactomannan level in the diagnosis of patients with CPA, comparing these results with the double agar gel immunodiffusion (DID) test. In addition, the prevalence of cross-reactivity and the serological progression after treatment were evaluated by comparing DID and ELISA. Six study groups were formed: G1: 22 patients with CPA, 17 of whom had Aspergillus fungus ball, one chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) and four chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis (CFPA); G2: 28 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB); G3: 23 patients with histoplasmosis (HST); G4: 50 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM); G5: 20 patients with cryptococcosis (CRC); and G6: 200 healthy controls. Serum antibodies were measured by DID and ELISA, with two antigen preparations--Aspergillus fumigatus (DID1, ELISA1) and a pool of A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger antigens (DID2, ELISA2). The Platélia Aspergillus Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) kit was used to measure galactomannan. The cut-off points of ELISA were determined for each antigen preparation and for the 95% and 99% confidence intervals. Despite the low sensitivity, DID was the technique of choice due to its specificity, positive and negative predictive values and positive likelihood ratio-especially with the antigen pool and due to the low frequency of cross-reactivity. ELISA1 and a 0.090 cut-off showed high sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value, but a high frequency of cross-reactivity with CRC. The best degree of agreement was observed between ELISA1 and ELISA2. The detection of serum galactomannan showed high sensitivity, comparable to ELISA2. The immunodiffusion test showed an excellent relationship with the progression after

  14. Preparation of horseradish peroxidase hydrazide and its use in immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Tulsidas G

    2003-01-01

    Preparation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) hydrazide that is HRP linked to adipic acid dihydrazide (HRP-ADH) and its use in enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is described. In this new strategy, horseradish peroxidase was conjugated to adipic acid dihydrazide using a carbodiimide coupling method. The resulting HRP-ADH was then coupled to cortisol-21-hemisuccinate (Cortisol-21-HS) to prepare enzyme conjugate. The prepared cortisol-21-HS coupled ADH-HRP (Cortisol-21-HS-ADH-HRP) enzyme conjugate was used for the development of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for direct estimation of cortisol. To the cortisol antibody coated microtiter wells, standard or serum samples (50 microL), along with cortisol-21-HS-ADH-HRP enzyme conjugate (100 microL) were incubated for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Bound enzyme activity was measured by using tetramethyl benzidine/hydrogen peroxide (TMB/H2O2) as substrate. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.05 microg/dL and the analytical recovery ranged from 92.9 to 101.7%. PMID:12953974

  15. Acoustic micromixing increases antibody-antigen binding in immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Tran, Phong; Petkovic-Duran, Karolina; Swallow, Tony; Zhu, Yonggang

    2015-08-01

    Sound wave-assisted acoustic micromixing has been shown to increase the binding of molecules in small volumes (10-100 μL) where effective mixing is difficult to achieve through conventional techniques. The aim of this work is to study whether acoustic micromixing can increase the binding efficiency of antibodies to their antigens, a reaction that forms the basis of immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using a procedure from a general ELISA and immobilizing an antigen on wells of 96-well plates, it was found that acoustic micromixing at 125-150 Hz increased the initial rate of antibody-antigen binding by over 80 % and the total binding at the end point (i.e., 45 min) by over 50 %. As a result, acoustic micromixing achieved a binding level in 9 min that would otherwise take 45 min on a standard platform rocking mixer. Therefore acoustic micromixing has the potential to increase the detection sensitivity of ELISA as well as shorten the antigen-antibody binding times from typically 45-60 min to 15 min.

  16. Quantitative analysis of plasma interleiukin-6 by immunoassay on microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yatsushiro, S.; Yamamura, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ooie, T.; Baba, Y.; Kataoka, M.

    2012-03-01

    Sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) is one of the most frequently employed assays for clinical diagnosis, since this enables the investigator to identify specific protein biomarkers. However, the conventional assay using a 96-well microtitration plate is time- and sample-consuming, and therefore is not suitable for rapid diagnosis. To overcome these drawbacks, we performed a sandwich ELISA on a microchip. We employed the piezoelectric inkjet printing for deposition and fixation of 1st antibody on the microchannnel surface (300 μm width and 100 μm depth). Model analyte was interleukin-6 (IL-6) which was one of the inflammatory cytokine. After blocking the microchannel, antigen, biotin-labeled 2nd antibody, and avidin-labeled peroxidase were infused into the microchannel and incubated for 20 min, 10 min, and 5 min, respectively. This assay could detect 2 pg/ml and quantitatively measure the range of 0-32 pg/ml. Liner regression analysis of plasma IL-6 concentration obtained by microchip and conventional methods exhibited a significant relationship (R2 = 0.9964). This assay reduced the time for the antigen-antibody reaction to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method. This assay enables us to determine plasma IL-6 with accuracy, high sensitivity, time saving ability, and low consumption of sample and reagents, and thus will be applicable to clinic diagnosis.

  17. Development of a monoclonal immunoassay selective for chlorinated cyclodiene insecticides.

    PubMed

    Manclús, Juan J; Abad, Antonio; Lebedev, Mijail Y; Mojarrad, Fatemeh; Micková, Barbora; Mercader, Josep V; Primo, Jaime; Miranda, Miguel A; Montoya, Angel

    2004-05-19

    Organochlorine pesticides still generate public health concerns because of their unresolved health impact and their persistence in living beings, which is demanding appropriate analytical techniques for their monitoring. In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for the detection of an important group of organochlorine pesticides, the cyclodiene group, has been developed. With this aim, several hapten-protein conjugates, characterized by exposure of the common hexachlorinated bicyclic (norbornene) moiety and differing in the linking structure to the carrier protein, were prepared. From mice immunized with these conjugates, several MAbs with the ability to sensitively bind the majority of cyclodienes were obtained. Among them CCD2.2 MAb displaying the broadest recognition to cyclodiene compounds (endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, toxaphene: I(50) values in the 6-25 nM range) was selected for the assay. Interestingly, this MAb showed certain stereospecificity toward other polychlorinated cycloalkanes because the gamma-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) was also very well recognized (I(50) value of 22 nM). This immunoassay is potentially a very valuable analytical tool for the rapid and sensitive determination of cyclodiene insecticides and related compounds, which in turn may contribute to the understanding of the biological activities and of the overall environmental impact of these persistent organic pollutants.

  18. Development of an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and an Immunochromatographic Assay for Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Different Agricultural Products

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xiude; Yang, Jifei; Wang, Limin; Fang, Qingkui; Zhang, Gaiping; Liu, Fengquan

    2012-01-01

    Objective Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are considered hazardous substances because of their high toxicity to nontarget species and their persistence in the environment and agricultural products. Therefore, it is important to develop a rapid, sensitive, and economical method for detecting OP pesticides and their residues in food and the environment. Methods A broad, selective monoclonal antibody (MAb) for organophosphorus pesticides was produced. Based on the MAb, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunochromatography assay (ICA) for detecting OP pesticides in different agricultural products were developed using a binding inhibition format on microtiter plates and a membrane strip, respectively. Results Under the optimized conditions, the IC50 values of the ELISA ranged from 3.7 to 162.2 ng mL–1 for the 8 OP pesticides. The matrix interferences of Apple, Chinese cabbage, and greengrocery were removed by 40-fold dilution, the recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 79.1% to 118.1%. The IC50 values of ICA for the 8 OP pesticides ranged from 11.8 to 470.4 ng mL−1. The matrix interference was removed from the Chinese cabbage and Apple samples with 5-fold dilution, and the interference was removed from the greengrocery samples with 20-fold dilution. The recoveries from the spiked samples ranged between 70.6 and 131.9%. The established ELISA and ICA were specific selectivity for the 8 OP pesticides. Conclusions The established ELISA is a sensitive screening method for the detection of OP pesticides, but the ELISA detection method depends on a laboratory platform and requires a relative long assay time and several steps operation. The established ICA is very useful as a screening method for the quantitative, semi-quantitative or qualitative detection of OP pesticides in agricultural products, and it has advantages over ELISA methods with regard to factors such as the testing procedure, testing time, and matrix interferences, among others. PMID

  19. Preparation of a specific monoclonal antibody to asiaticoside for the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Amornnopparattanakul, Paveena; Tassanawat, Patcharin; Putalun, Waraporn; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2011-03-01

    Asiaticoside (AS), the major active component of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, is used as a memory enhancer and for wound healing. We have successfully prepared monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against AS, and developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for its determination. AS was conjugated to the carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), which acted as an immunogen. In order to confirm its immunogenicity, the ratio of hapten in the AS-BSA conjugate was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). After immunization, hybridomas secreting MAbs against AS were produced by fusing splenocytes with the mouse myeloma cell line, SP2/0-Ag14. After the screening, anti-asiaticoside MAb 2B4 was obtained. Weak cross-reactivities occurred with madecassoside (7.08%), but no cross-reactivities were observed with other related triterpenoid glycosides (<0.01%). The assay was suitable for quantitating AS in the range of 0.78 to 50 µg mL(-1). A good correlation of AS concentrations in crude extracts of C. asiatica between ELISA and HPLC methods was obtained (r(2) = 0.999). The contents of AS in various cultivated C. asiatica samples were assayed by the newly established ELISA. The recovery rates of AS in the samples were in the range of 95-103% with coefficients of variation of <10%. The intra- and inter-assay variations were 3.9 and 4.5%, respectively. The ELISA method described should prove useful as an analytical tool for quality control and standardization of medicinal plants and pharmaceutical products containing AS.

  20. Evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of Renibacterium salmoninarum bacterins affected by persistence of bacterial antigens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, R.J.; Goodrich, T.D.; McKibben, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were injected intraperitoneally with a bacterin containing killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells delivered alone or in an oil-based adjuvant. We evaluated the relative abilities of the batterins to prevent the initiation or progression of infection in fish challenged by waterborne exposure to R. salmoninarum. Sixty-one days after vaccination, fish were held for 24 h in water containing either no bacteria or approximately 1.7 x 103, 1.7 x 105, or 5.3 x 106 live R. salmoninarum cells/mL. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to monitor changes in the levels of R. salmoninarum antigen in live fish before and after the immersion challenges. High levels of R. salmoninarum antigens were detected by ELISA in kidney-spleen tissue homogenates from vaccinated fish immediately before the challenges. Levels of those antigens remained high in the tissues of unchallenged fish throughout the study. We found that the ELISA used in this study may be unsuitable for evaluating the efficacy of batterins because it did not distinguish antigens produced by the challenge bacteria during an infection from those of the bacterins. Groups of control and vaccinated fish also were injected with either 1.7 x 104 or 1.7 x 106 R. salmoninarum cells and served as R. salmoninarum virulence controls. Relative survival among the various subgroups in the injection challenge suggests that adverse effects might have been associated with the adjuvant used in this study. The lowest survival at both injection challenge levels was among fish vaccinated with bacteria in adjuvant.

  1. Comparison of three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and biopsy-dependent diagnosis for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed Central

    van de Wouw, B A; de Boer, W A; Jansz, A R; Roymans, R T; Staals, A P

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in detecting serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies to Helicobacter pylori; two were new ones from Pyloriset (Pyloriset EIA-G update and Pyloriset EIA-A update; Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland), and the third was the Malakit EIA-G (Biolab, Limal, Belgium). Serum samples from 154 dyspeptic patients were collected. As a reference method, multiple biopsy specimens from different anatomical areas of the stomach were obtained by endoscopy and were analyzed by culture and/or histology and direct urease testing. Accordingly, 126 patients (82%) were found to be H. pylori positive and 28 patients (18%) were found to be H. pylori negative. To validate serology as a predictor of H. pylori infection, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of the assays were calculated against the H. pylori status as determined by the reference method. The corresponding data for the different ELISAs were 100%, 79%, 95%, 100%, and 96% for the Pyloriset ELA-G update, 81%, 89%, 97%, 52%, and 82% for the Pyloriset EIA-A update, and 87%, 86%, 96%, 60%, and 87% for the Malakit EIA-G, respectively. We conclude that the Pyloriset EIA-G update is a reliable and accurate test and that because of its 100% sensitivity, conjunctional IgA testing is not necessary. Its 100% negative predictive value makes it a very useful screening test. For purposes of excluding infection with H. pylori, the performance of the Malakit EIA-G is moderate but can be improved by conjunctional IgA testing. The Pyloriset EIA-A update can be useful as such a conjunctional test. PMID:8748281

  2. Assessment of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests marketed for detection of ruminant proteins in finished feed.

    PubMed

    Myers, Michael J; Yancy, Haile F; Farrell, Dorothy E; Washington, Jewell D; Deaver, Christine M; Frobish, Russell A

    2007-03-01

    The performance characteristics of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits, ELISA Technologies' MELISA-Tek test and Tepnel BioSystems' BioKit for (Cooked) Species Identification test, designed to detect ruminant proteins in animal feed, were evaluated. The test kits were evaluated by using acceptance criteria developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Center for Veterinary Medicine Office of Research for evaluating selectivity, sensitivity, ruggedness, and specificity. The acceptance criteria for determining success used a statistical approach requiring a 90% probability of achieving the correct response within a 95% confidence interval. In practice, this measure requires the test to achieve the correct response 58 times for every 60 samples evaluated, or a 96.7% accuracy rate. A minimum detection level of 0.1% bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM) was required, consistent with the sensitivity of the analytical methods presently used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Selectivity was assessed by testing 60 dairy feed samples that contained no added animal proteins; sensitivity was determined by evaluating 60 samples (per level of fortification) of this same feed that contained 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, or 2% BMBM. The MELISA-Tek test passed the acceptance set-point criteria for selectivity assessment but failed the sensitivity assessment at all levels except at the 2% level. The MELISA-Tek test came close to passing at the 1% level, detecting true-positive findings at a rate of 93%, but failed at lower levels, in spite of the label claim of 0.5% sensitivity. The BioKit for (Cooked) Species Identification test detected only 2 of 17 samples fortified at the 2% BMBM level and failed to detect any other BMBM-fortified samples. The results of this evaluation indicate that neither test is adequate for regulatory use. PMID:17388061

  3. Plasmon-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on large arrays of individual particles made by electron beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Svedendahl, Mikael; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J; Käll, Mikael

    2013-10-22

    Ultrasensitive biosensing is one of the main driving forces behind the dynamic research field of plasmonics. We have previously demonstrated that the sensitivity of single nanoparticle plasmon spectroscopy can be greatly enhanced by enzymatic amplification of the refractive index footprint of individual protein molecules, so-called plasmon-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The technique, which is based on generation of an optically dense precipitate catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase at the metal surface, allowed for colorimetric analysis of ultralow molecular surface coverages with a limit of detection approaching the single molecule limit. However, the plasmonic response induced by a single enzyme can be expected to vary for a number of reasons, including inhomogeneous broadening of the sensing properties of individual particles, variation in electric field enhancement over the surface of a single particle and variation in size and morphology of the enzymatic precipitate. In this report, we discuss how such inhomogeneities affect the possibility to quantify the number of molecules bound to a single nanoparticle. The discussion is based on simulations and measurements of large arrays of well-separated gold nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL). The new data confirms the intrinsic single-molecule sensitivity of the technique but we were not able to clearly resolve the exact number of adsorbed molecules per single particle. The results indicate that the main sources of uncertainty come from variations in sensitivity across the surface of individual particles and between different particles. There is also a considerable uncertainty in the actual precipitate morphology produced by individual enzyme molecules. Possible routes toward further improvements of the methodology are discussed.

  4. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to turkey coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Mohamed; Loa, Chien Chang; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-06-01

    Nucleocapsid (N) protein gene of turkey coronavirus (TCoV) was expressed in a prokaryotic system and used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibody to TCoV. Anti-TCoV hyperimmune turkey serum and normal turkey serum were used as positive or negative controls for optimization of the ELISA. Goat anti-turkey IgG (H+L) conjugated with horseradish peroxidase was used as detector antibody. Three hundred and twenty two turkey sera from the field were used to evaluate the performance of ELISA and determine the cut-off point of ELISA. The established ELISA was also examined with serum samples obtained from turkeys experimentally infected with TCoV. Those serum samples were collected at various time intervals from 1 to 63 days post-infection. The optimum conditions for differentiation between anti-TCoV hyperimmune serum and normal turkey serum were recombinant TCoV N protein concentration at 20 μg/ml, serum dilution at 1:800, and conjugate dilution at 1:10,000. Of the 322 sera from the field, 101 were positive for TCoV by immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA relative to IFA test were 86.0% and 96.8%, respectively, using the optimum cut-off point of 0.2 as determined by logistic regression method. Reactivity of anti-rotavirus, anti-reovirus, anti-adenovirus, or anti-enterovirus antibodies with the recombinant N protein coated on the ELISA plates was not detected. These results indicated that the established antibody-capture ELISA in conjunction with recombinant TCoV N protein as the coating protein can be utilized for detection of antibodies to TCoV in turkey flocks.

  5. A feasible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against glucosyltransferase-B from Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hashizume-Takizawa, Tomomi; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2012-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been considered the principal etiological agent of dental caries in humans. S. mutans can secrete three kinds of glucosyltransferases (GTFs). One of these, GTF-B, which synthesizes water-insoluble glucans from sucrose, has been considered to be one of the most important factors of cariogenic dental plaque formation. Therefore, determination of whether GTF-B is present in plaque and saliva samples may contribute to the evaluation of individual virulence potential (caries risk). The aim of this study was to develop a feasible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the routine quantification of GTF-B in plaque-derived cultures and clinical samples, and to apply this assay to an epidemiological study. To determine the presence of GTF-B in plaque samples, a sandwich-ELISA was devised, consisting of mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies against GTF-B and a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-rabbit antibody. The developed ELISA allowed for quantification of the amounts of purified GTF-B with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity; this method was not affected by other components such as plaque and saliva. Plaque samples from healthy volunteers were examined using this ELISA method and microbial analysis to apply the assay to an epidemiological study. A correlation was observed between the amount of extracted GTF-B and S. mutans levels as determined by ELISA and cultivated with Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar plates derived from plaque samples, although there were some exceptions. In this regard, this ELISA system has the advantage of estimating both the individual numbers of S. mutans and the productivity of GTF-B, namely, the cariogenic potential of S. mutans simultaneously. These results indicate that this ELISA method is a useful tool for the diagnosis of caries risk.

  6. Missing the target: Characterization of bullous pemphigoid patients who are negative using the BP180 enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, Janet A.; Bream, Matthew; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Syrbu, Sergei; Chen, Mei; Messingham, Kelly N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoanti-bodies specific for the 180-kd BP antigen-2 (BP180) (also termed “type XVII collagen”) protein. The BP180 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is specific for the immunodominant NC16A domain of the protein. However, we and others have observed patients whose reactivity to BP180 is exclusive of the NC16A domain (referred to henceforth as non-NC16A BP). Objective We sought to determine the incidence of non-NC16A BP and identify regions of reactivity within the BP180 protein. Methods Sera from 51 patients who met the clinical and histologic criteria for BP were screened for NC16A reactivity by ELISA. Sera that were negative by ELISA were screened for IgG reactivity to an epidermal extract, recombinant BP180 protein, and subregions of BP180, by immunoblot. Demographic and clinical data were also collected on all patients. Results Four sera (7.8%) were negative using the BP180 ELISA but positive for IgG reactivity to the extracellular domain of BP180. Further mapping identified 4 regions outside of NC16A recognized by these sera: amino acid (AA) 1280 to 1315, AA 1080 to 1107, AA 1331 to 1404, and AA 1365 to 1413. One of these sera also had IgE specific for NC16A. One patient had an atypical presentation with lesions limited to the lower aspect of the legs and scarring of the nail beds. Limitations The small total number of patients with non-NC16A BP limits the identification of demographic or clinical correlates. Conclusion It is significant that 7.8% of sera from patients with new BP react to regions of BP180 exclusively outside of NC16A and, thus, would not be identified using the currently available BP180 ELISA. PMID:23083837

  7. Sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting serum antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in fallow deer.

    PubMed

    Prieto, José M; Balseiro, Ana; Casais, Rosa; Abendaño, Naiara; Fitzgerald, Liam E; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramon A; Alonso-Hearn, Marta

    2014-08-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the diagnostic test most commonly used in efforts to control paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants. However, commercial ELISAs have not been validated for detecting antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in wild animals. In this study, we compared the sensitivities and specificities of five ELISAs using individual serum samples collected from 41 fallow deer with or without histopathological lesions consistent with paratuberculosis. Two target antigenic preparations were selected, an ethanol-treated protoplasmic preparation obtained from a fallow deer M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolate (ELISAs A and B) and a paratuberculosis protoplasmic antigen (PPA3) (ELISAs C and D). Fallow deer antibodies bound to the immobilized antigens were detected by using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-fallow deer IgG antibody (ELISAs A and C) or HRP-conjugated protein G (ELISAs B and D). A commercially available assay, ELISA-E, which was designed to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in cattle, sheep, and goats, was also tested. Although ELISAs A, C, and E had the same sensitivity (72%), ELISAs A and C were more specific (100%) for detecting fallow deer with lesions consistent with paratuberculosis at necropsy than was the ELISA-E (87.5%). In addition, the ELISA-A was particularly sensitive for detecting fallow deer in the latent stages of infection (62.5%). The antibody responses detected with the ELISA-A correlated with both the severity of enteric lesions and the presence of acid-fast bacteria in gut tissue samples. In summary, our study shows that the ELISA-A can be a cost-effective diagnostic tool for preventing the spread of paratuberculosis among fallow deer populations.

  8. Magnetic-nanobead-based competitive enzyme-linked aptamer assay for the analysis of oxytetracycline in food.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunxia; Tang, Zonggui; Liu, Changbin; Kang, Lichao; Sun, Fengxia

    2015-05-01

    This study presents a novel analytical method for the detection of oxytetracycline (OTC) in complex food matrices based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked aptamer assay and magnetic separation technology. In this protocol, free OTC competed with horseradish peroxidase labeled OTC (OTC-HRP) for binding to the OTC aptamer immobilized on magnetic beads. The parameters that can affect the response, such as avidin concentration, aptamer concentration, OTC-HRP concentration, incubation temperature, incubation time, blocking agent, and binding buffer, were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range for the OTC concentration detection is 0.5-100 ng mL(-1), with a concentration of OTC needed to obtain 50 % of the maximum signal of 14.47 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were 0.88 and 3.40 ng mL(-1), respectively. There was no obvious cross-reactivity with most of the tetracycline pesticides. The recovery rates ranged from 71.0 to 91.2 % for the food samples, including chicken, milk, and honey, and the relative standard deviation was less than 15.0 %. The proposed method was applied to measure OTC in real samples, and was validated using high-performance liquid chromatography. This method has the advantages of magnetic separation and the concentration effect of magnetic nanoparticles, the specificity of the aptamer, and the high-throughput of microtiter plates; it offers a promising approach for the screening of OTC because it is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and has low cost.

  9. Hantavirus antigen detection using human serum immunoglobulin M as the capturing antibody in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Alexeyev, O A; Elgh, F; Ahlm, C; Stigbrand, T; Settergren, B; Wadell, G; Juto, P

    1996-04-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect different hantavirus antigens in cell culture; i.e. Puumala (PUU), Hantaan (HTN), and Dobrava (DOB) viruses. The assay was based on binding human serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to the solid phase by use of goat anti-IgM antibodies. The captured IgM antibodies were present in the acute phase serum from two patients: one infected in Sweden and the other in Bosnia. Antigens being bound to the solid phase by the human anti-PUU and anti-DOB/HTN IgM antibodies were detected by a broadly reacting polyclonal rabbit anti PUU-recombinant nucleocapsid protein antiserum. The IgM isotype was proven to be at least five times more efficient than IgG when used as the capturing antibody. The sensitivity of the PUU antigen ELISA was approximately 0.5 ng/ml, as measured by titration with a PUU recombinant nucleoprotein antigen. Cell-associated PUU antigen in tissue culture was seen after 48 hr by the PUU-ELISA and after 96 hr by immunofluorescent assay. When tested for capacity to discriminate between PUU, DOB, and HTN viruses, significant differences were found: the Swedish serum detected PUU antigen at high titers, whereas no reactivity was found against DOB and HTN; the Bosnian serum detected both DOB and HTN at high titers but had a low reactivity to PUU. The method was also tested for its usefulness in detecting PUU antigen in bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) lungs. Of 59 animals captured from the surroundings of patients with nephropathia epidemica, three became positive with a high activity in the PUU-ELISA, but with low reactivity in the DOB/HTN-ELISA. It is concluded that a sensitive ELISA has been developed to detect different hantaviruses in cell culture and lungs of bank voles.

  10. Purification of Vibrio cholerae fur and estimation of its intracellular abundance by antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Watnick, P I; Eto, T; Takahashi, H; Calderwood, S B

    1997-01-01

    The Vibrio cholerae fur gene was previously cloned and sequenced. A putative Fur box was identified in the divergent promoters of irgA, a virulence factor of V. cholerae, and irgB, a transcriptional activator of irgA. In this work, V. cholerae Fur was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to approximately 95% homogeneity. The purified protein bound a DNA fragment containing the irgA-irgB promoter in a gel shift assay. The purified protein was used to raise monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to V. cholerae Fur, and a Fur sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to estimate the intracellular abundance of Fur under a variety of growth conditions. The number of Fur molecules per cell during exponential growth was approximately 2,500, which is higher than most measurements for other bacterial repressors but comparable to the intracellular concentration of the leucine-responsive regulatory protein. The number of Fur molecules per cell increased in the late logarithmic and stationary phases. Growth of V. cholerae in low-iron medium did not alter the intracellular abundance of Fur significantly. Growth under microaerophilic conditions resulted in a significant, approximately twofold decrease in the intracellular levels of Fur. The measurements of intracellular Fur abundance indicate that a large amount of this repressor is produced constitutively and that the concentration of Fur in the cell varies by less than a factor of 2 under the conditions studied. We hypothesize that the high constitutive expression of Fur is necessary for its role as an iron-responsive regulator. PMID:8982004

  11. Magnetic-nanobead-based competitive enzyme-linked aptamer assay for the analysis of oxytetracycline in food.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunxia; Tang, Zonggui; Liu, Changbin; Kang, Lichao; Sun, Fengxia

    2015-05-01

    This study presents a novel analytical method for the detection of oxytetracycline (OTC) in complex food matrices based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked aptamer assay and magnetic separation technology. In this protocol, free OTC competed with horseradish peroxidase labeled OTC (OTC-HRP) for binding to the OTC aptamer immobilized on magnetic beads. The parameters that can affect the response, such as avidin concentration, aptamer concentration, OTC-HRP concentration, incubation temperature, incubation time, blocking agent, and binding buffer, were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range for the OTC concentration detection is 0.5-100 ng mL(-1), with a concentration of OTC needed to obtain 50 % of the maximum signal of 14.47 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were 0.88 and 3.40 ng mL(-1), respectively. There was no obvious cross-reactivity with most of the tetracycline pesticides. The recovery rates ranged from 71.0 to 91.2 % for the food samples, including chicken, milk, and honey, and the relative standard deviation was less than 15.0 %. The proposed method was applied to measure OTC in real samples, and was validated using high-performance liquid chromatography. This method has the advantages of magnetic separation and the concentration effect of magnetic nanoparticles, the specificity of the aptamer, and the high-throughput of microtiter plates; it offers a promising approach for the screening of OTC because it is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and has low cost. PMID:25855149

  12. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of organophosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase: A biomarker of exposure to organophosphate agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liming; Du, Dan; Lu, Donglai; Lin, Chiann Tso; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Liu, Fengquan; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-05-05

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) is developed for detection of organophosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (OP-BChE), a potential biomarker for human exposure to organophosphate insecticides and nerve agents. A pair of antibodies specific to OP-BChE adduct were identified through systematic screening of several anti BChE antibodies (anti-BChE) and anti-phosphoserine antibodies (anti-Pser) from different sources. The selected anti-BChE (set as capture antibody) antibodies recognize both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated BChE. These antibodies can therefore be used to capture both BChE and OP-BChE from the sample matrices. The anti- Pser (set as detecting antibody) was used to recognize the OP moiety of OP-BChE adducts. With the combination of the selected antibody pair, several key parameters (such as the concentration of anti-BChE and anti-Pser, and the blocking agent) were optimized to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of the sELISA. Under the optimal conditions, the sELISA has shown a wide linear range from 0.03 nM to 30 nM, with a detection limit of 0.03 nM. Furthermore, the sELISA was successfully applied to detect OP-BChE using in-vitro biological samples such as rat plasma spiked with OP-BChE with excellent adduct recovery (z>99 %). These results demonstrate that this novel approach holds great promise to develop an ELISA kit and offers a simple and cost-effective tool for screening/evaluating exposure to organophosphate insecticides and nerve agents.

  13. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot Assay To Measure Serum-Neutralizing Antibodies against Coxsackievirus B3

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lisheng; He, Delei; Tang, Min; Li, Zhiqun; Liu, Che; Xu, Longfa; Chen, Yixin; Du, Hailian; Zhao, Qinjian; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is the most common pathogen that induces acute and chronic viral myocarditis in children. The cytopathic effect (CPE)-based neutralization test (Nt-CPE) and the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) are the most common methods for measuring neutralizing antibody titers against CVB3 in blood serum samples. However, these two methods are inefficient for CVB3 vaccine clinical trials, which require the testing of a large number of serum specimens. In this study, we developed an efficient neutralization test based on the enzyme-linked immunospot (Nt-ELISPOT) assay for measuring CVB3-neutralizing antibodies. This modified ELISPOT assay was based on the use of a monoclonal antibody against the viral capsid protein VP1 to detect the cells that are infected with CVB3, which, after immunoperoxidase staining, are counted as spots using an automated ELISPOT analyzer. Using the modified ELISPOT assay, we characterized the infection kinetics of CVB3 and divided the infection process of CVB3 on a cluster of cells into four phases. The stability of the Nt-ELISPOT was then evaluated. We found that over a wide range of infectious doses (102 to 106.5× 50% tissue culture infectious dose [TCID50] per well), the neutralizing titers of the sera were steady as long as they were tested during the log phase or the first half of the stationary phase of growth of the spots. We successfully shortened the testing period from 7 days to approximately 20 h. We also found that there was a good correlation (R2 = 0.9462) between the Nt-ELISPOT and the Nt-CPE assays. Overall, the Nt-ELISPOT assay is a reliable and efficient method for measuring neutralizing antibodies in serum. PMID:24391137

  14. Comparison of Seven Commercial Antigen and Antibody Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Acute Dengue Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Richard G.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Mammen, Mammen P.; Nisalak, Ananda; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Bailey, Mark S.; Premaratna, Ranjan; de Silva, H. Janaka; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Lalloo, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Seven commercial assays were evaluated to determine their suitability for the diagnosis of acute dengue infection: (i) the Panbio dengue virus Pan-E NS1 early enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), second generation (Alere, Australia); (ii) the Panbio dengue virus IgM capture ELISA (Alere, Australia); (iii) the Panbio dengue virus IgG capture ELISA (Alere, Australia); (iv) the Standard Diagnostics dengue virus NS1 antigen ELISA (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea); (v) the Standard Diagnostics dengue virus IgM ELISA (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea); (vi) the Standard Diagnostics dengue virus IgG ELISA (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea); and (vii) the Platelia NS1 antigen ELISA (Bio-Rad, France). Samples from 239 Thai patients confirmed to be dengue virus positive and 98 Sri Lankan patients negative for dengue virus infection were tested. The sensitivities and specificities of the NS1 antigen ELISAs ranged from 45 to 57% and 93 to 100% and those of the IgM antibody ELISAs ranged from 85 to 89% and 88 to 100%, respectively. Combining the NS1 antigen and IgM antibody results from the Standard Diagnostics ELISAs gave the best compromise between sensitivity and specificity (87 and 96%, respectively), as well as providing the best sensitivity for patients presenting at different times after fever onset. The Panbio IgG capture ELISA correctly classified 67% of secondary dengue infection cases. This study provides strong evidence of the value of combining dengue virus antigen- and antibody-based test results in the ELISA format for the diagnosis of acute dengue infection. PMID:22441389

  15. Serosurveillance for Francisella tularensis Among Wild Animals in Japan Using a Newly Developed Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Uda, Akihiko; Fujita, Osamu; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Shindo, Junji; Park, Chun-Ho; Kudo, Noboru; Hatai, Hitoshi; Oyamada, Toshifumi; Yamada, Akio; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tularemia, a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, occurs sporadically in Japan. However, little is known about the prevalence of the disease in wild animals. A total of 632 samples obtained from 150 Japanese black bears, 142 Japanese hares, 120 small rodents, 97 rats, 53 raptors, 26 Japanese monkeys, 21 Japanese raccoon dogs, 20 masked palm civets, and three Japanese red foxes between 2002 and 2010 were investigated for the presence of antibodies to F. tularensis by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination (MA) test. Seropositive cELISA and MA results were obtained in 23 and 18 Japanese black bears, three and two Japanese raccoon dogs, and two and one small rodents, respectively. All MA-positive samples (n=21) were also positive by cELISA. Six of seven samples that were only positive by cELISA were confirmed to be antibody-positive by western blot analysis. These findings suggest that cELISA is a highly sensitive and useful test for serosurveillance of tularemia among various species of wild animals. Because this is the first study to detect F. tularensis–seropositive Japanese raccoon dogs, these could join Japanese black bears as sentinel animals for tularemia in the wild in Japan. Further continuous serosurveillance for F. tularensis in various species of wild animals using appropriate methods such as cELISA is important to assess the risks of human exposure and to improve our understanding of the ecology of F. tularensis in the wild. PMID:24689989

  16. Development of monoclonal antibodies to pre-haptoglobin 2 and their use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Flanagan, J J; Arjomandi, A; Delanoy, M L; Du Paty, E; Galea, P; Laune, D; Rieunier, F; Walker, R P; Binder, S R

    2014-04-01

    Haptoglobins (HPs) are alpha 2-globulin proteins that bind free hemoglobin in plasma to prevent oxidative damage. HPs are produced as preproteins that are proteolytically cleaved in the ER into alpha and beta chains prior to forming mature, functional tetramers. Two alleles exist in humans (HP1 and HP2), therefore three genotypes are present in the population, i.e., HP1-1, HP2-1, and HP2-2. A biochemical role for nascent haptoglobin 2 (pre-haptoglobin 2 or pre-HP2) as the only known modulator of intestinal permeability has been established. In addition, elevated levels of serum pre-HP2 have been detected in multiple conditions including celiac disease and type I diabetes, which are believed to result in part through dysregulation of the intestinal barrier. In this study, we report the development of a monoclonal antibody that is specific for pre-HP2 with a binding affinity in the nanomolar range. Additional antibodies with specificities for preHP but not mature haptoglobin were also characterized. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established and validated. The ELISA showed high specificity for pre-HP2 even in the presence of excess pre-HP1 or mature haptoglobins, and has excellent linearity and inter- and intra-assay reproducibility with a working range from 3.1ng/mL to 200ng/mL. Testing of sera from 76 healthy patients revealed a non-Gaussian distribution of pre-HP2 levels with a mean concentration of 221.2ng/mL (95% CI: 106.5-335.9ng/mL) and a median value of 23.9ng/mL. Compared to current approaches, this ELISA offers a validated, monoclonal-based method with high sensitivity and specificity for measuring pre-HP2 in human serum. PMID:24583194

  17. Serosurveillance for Francisella tularensis among wild animals in Japan using a newly developed competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Uda, Akihiko; Fujita, Osamu; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Shindo, Junji; Park, Chun-Ho; Kudo, Noboru; Hatai, Hitoshi; Oyamada, Toshifumi; Yamada, Akio; Morikawa, Shigeru; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    Tularemia, a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, occurs sporadically in Japan. However, little is known about the prevalence of the disease in wild animals. A total of 632 samples obtained from 150 Japanese black bears, 142 Japanese hares, 120 small rodents, 97 rats, 53 raptors, 26 Japanese monkeys, 21 Japanese raccoon dogs, 20 masked palm civets, and three Japanese red foxes between 2002 and 2010 were investigated for the presence of antibodies to F. tularensis by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination (MA) test. Seropositive cELISA and MA results were obtained in 23 and 18 Japanese black bears, three and two Japanese raccoon dogs, and two and one small rodents, respectively. All MA-positive samples (n=21) were also positive by cELISA. Six of seven samples that were only positive by cELISA were confirmed to be antibody-positive by western blot analysis. These findings suggest that cELISA is a highly sensitive and useful test for serosurveillance of tularemia among various species of wild animals. Because this is the first study to detect F. tularensis-seropositive Japanese raccoon dogs, these could join Japanese black bears as sentinel animals for tularemia in the wild in Japan. Further continuous serosurveillance for F. tularensis in various species of wild animals using appropriate methods such as cELISA is important to assess the risks of human exposure and to improve our understanding of the ecology of F. tularensis in the wild. PMID:24689989

  18. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate serum ferritin in black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia Sue; Crawford, Graham

    2005-12-01

    Lemurs in captivity progressively accumulate iron deposits in a variety of organs (hemosiderosis) including duodenum, liver, and spleen throughout their lives. When excessive, the toxic effects of intracellular iron on parenchymal cells, particularly the liver, can result in clinical disease and death. The pathogenesis of excessive iron storage in these species has been attributed to dietary factors related to diets commonly fed in captivity. Tissue iron stores can be directly estimated by tissue biopsy and histologic examination, or quantitated by chemical analysis of biopsy tissue, However, expense and risk associated with anesthesia and surgery prevent routine use of tissue biopsy to assess iron status. A noninvasive means of assessing total body iron stores is needed to monitor iron stores in lemurs to determine whether dietary modification is preventing excessive iron deposition, and to monitor potential therapies such as phlebotomy or chelation. Serum ferritin concentration correlates with tissue iron stores in humans, horses, calves, dogs, cats, and pigs. Serum ferritin is considered the best serum analyte to predict total body iron stores in these species and is more reliable than serum iron or total iron binding capacity, both of which may be affected by disorders unrelated to iron adequacy or excess including hypoproteinemia, chronic infection, hemolytic anemia, hypothyroidism, renal disease, and drug administration. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum ferritin in lemurs. The assay uses polyclonal rabbit anti-human ferritin antibodies in a sandwich arrangement. Ferritin isolated from liver and spleen of a black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) was used as a standard. Ferritin standards were linear from 0 to 50 microg/L. Recovery of purified ferritin from lemur serum varied from 95% to 110%. The within-assay variability was 4.5%, and the assay-to-assay variability for three different samples ranged

  19. Evaluation of Recombinant Leptospira Antigen-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Serodiagnosis of Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Flannery, Brendan; Costa, Dirceu; Carvalho, Fernanda Pinheiro; Guerreiro, Hygia; Matsunaga, James; Da Silva, Emilson Domingos; Ferreira, Antonio Gomes Pinto; Riley, Lee W.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Haake, David A.; Ko, Albert I.

    2001-01-01

    There is an urgent need for development of new serodiagnostic strategies for leptospirosis, an emerging zoonosis with worldwide distribution. We have evaluated the diagnostic utility of five recombinant antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis. Sera from 50 healthy residents of a high-incidence region were used to determine cutoff values for 96% specificity. In paired sera from 50 cases of leptospirosis confirmed by the microscopic agglutination test, immunoglobulin G (IgG) but not IgM reacted with the recombinant leptospiral proteins. The recombinant LipL32 IgG ELISA had the highest sensitivities in the acute (56%) and convalescent (94%) phases of leptospirosis. ELISAs based on recombinant OmpL1, LipL41, and Hsp58 had sensitivities of 16, 24, and 18% during the acute phase and 72, 44, and 32% during convalescence, respectively. Compared to sera from healthy individuals, patient sera did not react significantly with recombinant LipL36 (P > 0.05). Recombinant LipL32 IgG ELISA demonstrated 95% specificity among 100 healthy individuals, and specificities ranging from 90 to 97% among 30 dengue patients, 30 hepatitis patients, and 16 patients with diseases initially thought to be leptospirosis. Among 39 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test-positive individuals and 30 Lyme disease patients, 13 and 23% of sera, respectively, reacted positively with the rLipL32 antigen. These findings indicate that rLipL32 may be an useful antigen for the serodiagnosis of leptospirosis. PMID:11526167

  20. Evaluation of five different antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of avian pneumovirus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Maherchandani, Sunil; Patnayak, Devi P; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia A; Lauer, Dale; Goyal, Sagar M

    2005-01-01

    Five different antigens were evaluated in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for the detection of avian pneumovirus (APV) antibodies. Two of the 5 antigens were prepared from recent APV isolates from Minnesota. The 2 older isolates were passage 63 of a strain currently used as a live, attenuated vaccine and a Colorado strain isolated for the first time in the United States and currently used in an ELISA test. The fifth antigen is based on an APV recombinant N-protein. Basic parameters and positive-negative threshold of the assays were established for all 5 antigens on the basis of data obtained by testing 46 known negative and 46 known positive serum samples. Subsequently, 449 field samples were tested by all 5 ELISAs. The optical density difference (ODD) was calculated by subtracting optical density of the sample in the negative antigen well from that in the positive antigen well. In the current ELISA test based on the Colorado strain, an ODD of 0.2 is considered to be the cutoff value to classify samples as negative or positive. In this study, however, use of different cutoffs, based on ODD of negative control plus 3 SD or values estimated from Receiver operating characteristic analysis, was considered to be more appropriate for the various antigens used. Overall person-to-person and day-to-day variability was found to be large for all tests using either ODD or sample to positive ratio to report results. In addition, results suggest that antigenicity of the APV isolates in the United States has not changed between 1997 and 2000.