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Sample records for indirect fluorescent-antibody test

  1. Results from an indirect fluorescent antibody test using three different strains of Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Enara; Ayllón, Tania; Sainz, Angel; Amusategui, Inmaculada; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Tesouro, Miguel A

    2009-11-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test is usually performed to detect antibodies in dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis. In this work, results obtained using three different E. canis strains as antigen (a commercial antigen, the E. canis Oklahoma strain and the E. canis Madrid strain) were compared. One hundred and forty-nine serum samples obtained from dogs living in the centre of Spain were analysed. When qualitative results were evaluated, identical results were detected in 87.2% of samples for the three antigens tested. When comparing antibody titre results, differences between the Madrid strain and the commercial antigen, and between the Madrid and Oklahoma strains were statistically significant (P<0.0001). No differences were found when comparing the Oklahoma strain with the commercial antigen (P=0.562). Subtle intra-laboratory variations shown in this study suggest a higher sensitivity of the IFA test when an autochthonous strain is used as antigen.

  2. Indirect fluorescent-antibody and quantitative agar-gel immunodiffusion tests for the serological diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, A; Moncada, L H

    1972-07-01

    The value of various serological tests in the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis was studied. Quantitative agar-gel immunodiffusion and indirect immunofluorescent tests were performed, and the results were compared with those of complement fixation and qualitative agar-gel procedures. The quantitative immunodiffusion procedure was found to serve as the simplest and safest quantitative test that could be performed for evaluation purposes, whereas the indirect fluorescent-antibody test gave nonspecific reactions and, as such, proved unsuitable.

  3. Indirect fluorescent antibody test and surface antigen ELISAs for antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Morrow, J K; Sweeney, R W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that serum : CSF titer ratios could provide the most accurate antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of two commercially available tests, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the surface antigen 2, 4/3 ELISA (SAG2, 4/3 ELISA), using archived paired serum and CSF samples. Samples were obtained from 4 types of clinical patients. Confirmed positive cases (n = 9 horses; 11 sample sets) had neurologic deficits and postmortem lesions consistent with EPM. Confirmed negative cases (n = 28) had variable clinical signs and postmortem lesions consistent with another disease. Suspected positive cases (n = 6) had neurologic deficits consistent with EPM, marked improvement after treatment, and exclusion of other diseases. Suspected negative cases (n = 14) had variable signs with a strong presumptive diagnosis of another disease. For each test, descriptive statistics were calculated using serum results alone, CSF results alone, and a serum : CSF titer ratio. Overall accuracy was highest for SAG2, 4/3 ELISA titer ratio at 0.97 (95% CI 0.88-0.99) with sensitivity = 0.88 (95% CI 0.66-0.97) and specificity = 1 (95% CI 0.92-1). IFAT CSF and titer ratio results also showed high accuracy at 0.88 (95% CI 0.77-0.94), but lower sensitivity = 0.65 (95% CI 0.41-0.83). Using serum results alone was least accurate for both test types. The more accurate methods, such as the SAG2, 4/3 ELISA serum : CSF titer ratio, should be utilized. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of Babesia gibsoni infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamane, I; Thomford, J W; Gardner, I A; Dubey, J P; Levy, M; Conrad, P A

    1993-10-01

    We determined the extent of the serologic cross-reactivity in the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test for Babesia gibsoni, and the optimal cut-off titer for seropositivity in the test. The lowest titer to B gibsoni detected in a dog with naturally acquired clinical babesiosis was 1,280, and 7 of 12 dogs had titer between 10,240 and 20,480. Two experimentally infected normosplenic dogs developed high titer (40,960 to 81,920) to B gibsoni, and the same sera reacted in IFA tests for B canis (titer < or = 640), Toxoplasma gondii (titer < or = 2,560), and Neospora caninum (titer < or = 10,240). Dogs that were experimentally infected with B canis and T gondii had titer < or = 160 to B gibsoni. Dogs that were experimentally infected with N caninum had titer (80 to 10,240) to N caninum, but failed to have serologic reactivity to B gibsoni. Serologic titer of healthy dogs from Australia, a country where B gibsoni is not known to exist, was < or = 160 to B gibsoni. On the basis of these findings, a cut-off titer of 320 was considered to be appropriate for serodiagnosis of B gibsoni in dogs with clinical signs of babesiosis. A more conservative titer of 1,280 was established as the cut-off titer for seroepidemiologic studies based on relative costs and benefits of false-positive results and failure to isolate B gibsoni parasites after splenectomy and immunosuppression from a clinically normal dog with B gibsoni titer of 640.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Immunofluorescence of spirochetes with serum from swine recovered from swine dysentery using an indirect fluorescent antibody test.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C H; Olson, L D

    1976-01-01

    Using an indirect fluorescent antibody test, immunofluorescence of large spirochetes was observed with serum from swine that had recovered from swine dysentery. The spirochetes were obtained from scrapings of the colonic mucosa on the first day of diarrhea which was the time when the spirochete population was observed to be the highest. Of 29 exposed nonmedicated swine which developed and recovered from a diarrhea characteristic of swine dysentery 27 had antispirochete serum titers which ranged from 1:2 to 1:16. None of the 50 nonexposes swine developed a titer. Of 19 swine with a serum titer and reexposed with infective swine dysentery inoculum, 18 did not develop a diarrhea and were presumed to be immune. Considering these findings it is possible that this test could be used to detect antispirochete antibody in unknown swine serum. Images Fig. 1. PMID:793698

  6. A comparison of the complement fixation, indirect fluorescent antibody, and microagglutination tests for the serological diagnosis of rickettsial diseases.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, V F; Shepard, C C; Redus, M D; Tzianabos, T; McDade, J E

    1979-03-01

    Three techniques for the serological diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever were compared by testing 417 sera from 178 patients who very probably did not have rickettsial infections and 88 sera from 41 patients who very probably had Rocky Mountain spotted fever (SF). The techniques were complement fixation (CF), indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), and microagglutination (MA). To avoid possible degradation during unnecessary purification, the antigens were prepared by methods that were as simple as possible. In the CF tests of 417 sera from patients with nonrickettsial diseases there was only one titer of 8 and none at higher dilutions, whereas with the IFA and MA tests 4-8% of the sera reacted with SF antigens and 4-20% reacted with murine typhus (MT) antigens; the evidence indicated that these reactions were not caused by specific rickettsial antibody. With the SF sera, it could be seen that the IFA test was the most sensitive and the MA test was the least sensitive at each interval after infection. Moreover, the IFA results showed the least number of confusing cross-reactions with MT antigens and the MA test showed the most. The relative advantages of the three tests in serodiagnosis of rickettsial diseases are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the diagnosis and screening of lumpy skin disease using Bayesian method.

    PubMed

    Gari, G; Biteau-Coroller, F; LeGoff, C; Caufour, P; Roger, F

    2008-06-22

    The performance of indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for serological diagnosis and screening of lumpy skin disease (LSD) was evaluated using methods without gold standard. Virus neutralization test (VNT) was used as the second test and the study sites were selected from two different geographical places in Ethiopia to get different disease prevalence. The analysis of conditional dependent Bayesian model for the accuracy of IFAT showed that sensitivity, specificity, prevalence of the population Pi(1) and the population Pi(2) were 0.92 (0.89-0.95), 0.88 (0.85-0.91), 0.28 (0.25-0.32) and 0.06 (0.048-0.075), respectively. The posterior inferences obtained for VNT sensitivity, specificity and conditional correlation between the tests for sensitivity (rhoD) and specificity (rhoDc) were 0.78 (0.74-0.83), 0.97 (0.95-0.99), 0.052 (-0.03-0.15) and 0.019 (-0.01-0.06), respectively. The interval estimation of conditional correlation for both sensitivity and specificity clusters around zero and thus conditional dependence between the two tests was not significant. Although accuracy measure would not be the only basis for test selection, the result of our study demonstrated that IFAT has a reasonable high accuracy to be used for the diagnosis and sero-surveillance analysis of LSD in the target population.

  8. Serological cross-reaction between Legionella pneumophila and campylobacter in the indirect fluorescent antibody test.

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, T. C.; Kudesia, G.

    1992-01-01

    Sera from 50 patients with culture-proven campylobacter gastroenteritis were examined for the presence of antibodies to Legionella pneumophila. Ten patients (20%) had a positive titre (> or = 16) as measured by indirect immunofluorescence. Antibodies were detected in only 1 of 36 acute sera but in 10 of 14 (71%) sera obtained more than 10 days after the onset of symptoms. All positive sera contained specific IgM antibodies but specific IgG or IgA could not be detected in any sample. No legionella antibodies could be detected in sera from 42 similar patients with salmonella gastroenteritis. These results were shown to be due to serological cross-reaction between L. pneumophila and campylobacter. PMID:1397117

  9. A Modified Agglutination Test for Neospora caninum: Development, Optimization, and Comparison to the Indirect Fluorescent-Antibody Test and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Packham, Andrea E.; Sverlow, Karen W.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Loomis, Emily F.; Rowe, Joan D.; Anderson, Mark L.; Marsh, Antoinette E.; Cray, Carolyn; Barr, Bradd C.

    1998-01-01

    Current serologic tests used to detect antibodies to Neospora caninum require species-specific secondary antibodies, limiting the number of species that can be tested. In order to examine a wide variety of animal species that may be infected with N. caninum, a modified direct agglutination test (N-MAT) similar to the Toxoplasma gondii modified direct agglutination test (T-MAT) was developed. This test measures the direct agglutination of parasites by N. caninum-specific antibodies in serum, thus eliminating the need for secondary host-specific anti-isotype sera. The N-MAT was compared to the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a “gold standard” serum panel from species for which secondary antibodies were available (n = 547). All positive samples tested were from animals with histologically confirmed infections. Up to 16 different species were tested. The N-MAT gave a higher sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97%) than the ELISA (74 and 94%, respectively) and had a higher sensitivity but a lower specificity than the IFAT (98 and 99%, respectively). The reduced specificity of the N-MAT was due to false-positive reactions in testing fetal fluids with particulate matter or severely hemolyzed serum. Overall, the N-MAT proved to be highly sensitive and specific for both naturally and experimentally infected animals, highly reproducible between and within readers, easy to use on large sample sizes without requiring special equipment, and useful in testing serum from any species without modification. PMID:9665950

  10. Effects of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid on results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests for detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi.

    PubMed

    Finno, Carrie J; Packham, Andrea E; David Wilson, W; Gardner, Ian A; Conrad, Patricia A; Pusterla, Nicola

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFATs) for Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. The in vitro study used antibody-negative CSF collected from non-neurologic horses immediately after euthanasia and blood samples from 40 healthy horses that had a range of IFAT antibody titers against S. neurona and N. hughesi. Serial dilutions of whole blood were made in seronegative CSF to generate blood-contaminated CSF with red blood cell (RBC) concentrations ranging from 10 to 100,000 RBCs/microl. The blood-contaminated CSF samples were then tested for antibodies against both pathogens using IFAT. Blood contamination of CSF had no detectable effect on IFAT results for S. neurona or N. hughesi at any serologic titer when the RBC concentration in CSF was <10,000 RBCs/microl. At concentrations of 10,000-100,000 RBCs/microl of CSF, positive CSF results (IFAT titer >or=5) for S. neurona and N. hughesi were detected only when the corresponding serum titers were >or=160 and >or=80, respectively. The IFAT performed on CSF is reliable for testing horses for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis caused by S. neurona or N. hughesi, even when blood contamination causes the RBC concentration in CSF to be up to 10,000 RBCs/microl.

  11. Diagnosis and clinical virology of Lassa fever as evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect fluorescent-antibody test, and virus isolation.

    PubMed

    Bausch, D G; Rollin, P E; Demby, A H; Coulibaly, M; Kanu, J; Conteh, A S; Wagoner, K D; McMullan, L K; Bowen, M D; Peters, C J; Ksiazek, T G

    2000-07-01

    The Lassa virus (an arenavirus) is found in West Africa, where it sometimes causes a severe hemorrhagic illness called Lassa fever. Laboratory diagnosis has traditionally been by the indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) test. However, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for Lassa virus antigen and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies have been developed that are thought to be more sensitive and specific. We compared ELISA and IFA testing on sera from 305 suspected cases of Lassa fever by using virus isolation with a positive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) test as the "gold standard." Virus isolation and RT-PCR were positive on 50 (16%) of the 305 suspected cases. Taken together, Lassa virus antigen and IgM ELISAs were 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77 to 95%) sensitive and 90% (95% CI, 88 to 91%) specific for acute infection. Due to the stringent gold standard used, these likely represent underestimates. Diagnosis could often be made on a single serum specimen. Antigen detection was particularly useful in providing early diagnosis as well as prognostic information. Level of antigenemia varied inversely with survival. Detection by ELISA of IgG antibody early in the course of illness helped rule out acute Lassa virus infection. The presence of IFA during both acute and convalescent stages of infection, as well as significant interobserver variation in reading the slides, made interpretation difficult. However, the assay provided useful prognostic information, the presence of IFA early in the course of illness correlating with death. The high sensitivity and specificity, capability for early diagnosis, and prognostic value of the ELISAs make them the diagnostic tests of choice for the detection of Lassa fever.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on reactivity of rinderpest virus antigen with bovine immune serum in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and virus neutralization and indirect fluorescent-antibody tests.

    PubMed Central

    Saliki, J T; Berninger, M L; Torres, A; House, J A; Mebus, C A; Dubovi, E J

    1993-01-01

    Gamma irradiation effectively inactivated gradient-purified rinderpest virus. Irradiated antigen and sera remained functional in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, virus neutralization tests, and indirect fluorescent-antibody tests. Irradiation, however, led to a dose-dependent decrease in reactivity, particularly significant (P < 0.05) when both reagents were irradiated. To avoid false-positive reactions, only one reagent (serum or antigen) may be irradiated. PMID:8432831

  13. Comparison of indirect fluorescent antibody test and the modified agglutination test for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in stray dogs from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Jonatas Campos; Frehse, Michelle Salmon; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Freire, Roberta Lemos

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by two serological techniques in sera of 364 stray dogs from Brazil by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT, cut off point 1:16) and to the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off points 1:25 and 1:50). A total of 175/364 (48.07%) sera were positive by IFAT, and 108/364 (29.67%) and 85/364 (23.35%) were positive by MAT with cutoff points 1:25 and 1:50, respectively were positive by MAT. Cohen's Kappa Coefficient between IFAT and MAT was 0.81 (excellent) and 0.66 (substantial) with cutoff points 1:25 and 1:50, respectively. Using IFAT as gold standard, MAT sensitivity and specificity were 78% and 99% for 1:25 and 61% and 99% for 1:50, respectively. The results document of the usefulness of MAT for serological diagnosis because it does not require species-specific conjugate.

  14. A fast and indirect fluorescent antibody assay for the vibrio in large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Su, Yongquan; Yan, Qingpi

    2003-03-01

    A fast and indirect fluorescent antibody assay for the Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus infecting the large yellow croaker has been developed. The specific antisera for the two strains of vibrio were prepared with New Zealand rabbit and the antiserum and cross-reactive efficacy was tested by coagulation in tube. It showed that the goat anti-rabbit IgG had been labeled by fluorescence isothiocyanate (FITC). The results showed that positive reactions were 100% for the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea with typical symptom of vibrio infection, while the positive reaction to the pathogen in healthy yellow croakers reached 40%, but seemed negative for aquaculture water. The results demonstrated that this fast and indirect fluorescent antibody assay can be used not only to test the vibrio pathogen in diseased yellow croaker but also in infected animals with no symptom.

  15. Immunoglobulin M indirect-fluorescent antibody test for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy in the avidity era: A 14-year experience at the Tuscany Reference Center for Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy, Florence, Italy.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Michele; Borchi, Beatrice; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Sterrantino, Gaetana; Brogi, Michela; Kiros, Seble Tekle; Lorini, Chiara; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Colao, Maria Grazia; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate immunoglobulin M indirect-fluorescent antibody test (IgM IFAT) for the diagnosis of acute or chronic Toxoplasma infection in pregnancy. Pregnant women with suspected acute toxoplasmosis referred to the Tuscany Reference Center for Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy during the period 1998-2012 were retrospectively enrolled. All women were tested with a panel of serological tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG avidity and IgM IFAT. On the basis of anamnestic, clinical, and serological criteria, pregnant women were classified into three groups: recently infected (RI), latently infected (LI), and doubtful latently infected (DLI). Patients classified as DLI were excluded from the analysis. The association between IgM IFAT (positive or negative) and the diagnosis of infection (acute or chronic) was assessed. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the IgM IFAT were calculated. A total of 810 pregnant women were enrolled in the study: 302 in the RI group and 508 in the LI group. Fifty-two women classified as DLI were excluded. IgM IFAT was positive in 172 out of 302 (56.9%) pregnant women in the RI group and in 29 out of 508 (5.7%) in the LI group. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IgM IFAT in predicting RI was 85.6% and 78.6%, respectively. IgM IFAT has reasonable sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing recent infection and, mostly in case of borderline avidity test, could be considered as a further aid for an accurate diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Indirect Fluorescent-Antibody Method for the Identification of Corynebacterium vaginale

    PubMed Central

    Vice, John L.; Smaron, Mary F.

    1973-01-01

    The indirect fluorescent-antibody technique was employed in an attempt to develop a rapid method of identification of Corynebacterium vaginale. Six reference strains and ten clinical isolates selected on the basis of morphology and conventional biochemical tests were compared. Antisera were prepared in rabbits against the six reference strains. The most satisfactory antiserum was that prepared using strain 14018 grown diphasically (14018 Di) as the antigen. Certain of the antisera did exhibit a cross-reacting titer when reacted against Corynebacterium diptheriae, Corynebacterium xerosis, or Lactobacillus acidophilus. However, antisera adsorbed with these bacteria did not exhibit a significant decrease in titer when reacted against the homologous strain. Various other species of Corynebacterium as well as species of Nocardia, Actinomyces, Hemophilus, and Streptococcus did not fluoresce with the antisera. A specific antiserum was prepared by adsorbing anti-14018 Di with L. acidophilus. The adsorption removed the cross-reacting antibody but did not affect the staining reaction with C. vaginale strains. All reference strains and clinical isolates characterized as C. vaginale gave a definite positive reaction with the adsorbed anti-14018 Di. The specificity of the reactions was assessed by adsorbing the antiserum with the homologous strain. The data suggest that the indirect staining method will be of value in the rapid presumptive identification of C. vaginale. Images PMID:4197767

  17. A direct fluorescent antibody test for large spirochetes in swine dysentery using hyperimmunized swine serum.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C H; Olson, L D

    1976-01-01

    A direct fluorescent antibody test was developed for the identification of large spirochetes which are considered to be the cause of swine dysentery. Sera from swine which had recovered from swine dysentery and had been hyperimmunized by the intravenous and intraperitoneal injection of filtered spirochetes were used for conjugation with fluorescein isothiocyanate. A bright greenish fluorescence of large spirochetes was observed with the conjugated serum from hyperimmunized pig No. 1 when diluted 1:8 and hyperimmunized pig No. 2 when diluted 1:2. Pig No. 1 had developed a serum titer of 1:64 using the indirect fluorescent antibody test for large spirochetes. The conjugated serum from the three swine which had recovered from swine dysentery fluoresced spirochetes only when undiluted. The conjugated serum from the two swine treated while having a hemorrhagic diarrhea did not fluoresce spirochetes. No immunofluorescence of Vibrio spp. was observed. Images Fig. 1. PMID:793697

  18. DIRECT AND INDIRECT FLUORESCENT-ANTIBODY TECHNIQUES FOR THE PSITTACOSIS-LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM-TRACHOMA GROUP OF AGENTS1

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Martin R.; Borman, Earle K.

    1963-01-01

    Ross, Martin R. (Connecticut State Department of Health, Hartford) and Earle K. Borman. Direct and indirect fluorescent-antibody techniques for the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma venereum-trachoma group of agents. J. Bacteriol. 85:851–858. 1963.—Direct and indirect fluorescent-antibody (FA) techniques were developed for the detection of group antigen in infected tissue cultures and the titration of group antibody in human antiserum. The growth of the agent of meningopneumonitis (MP) in mouse embryo lung cell monolayers was followed by infectivity and complement-fixing (CF) antigen titrations, and cytological examination of FA stained cultures. Although infectivity and CF antigen reached a peak at 2 days and remained constant for an additional 3 days, only cells tested 2 to 3 days after infection were suitable for FA staining with labeled anti-MP serum because of excessive artifacts in the older cultures. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rooster and guinea pig anti-MP serums and human antipsittacosis serums were titrated in direct FA and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests. The rooster conjugate showed brighter staining and higher antibody titers than the guinea pig or human conjugates and was more effective in detecting minimal amounts of virus antigen. FA staining reactions with 1 and 2 units of labeled rooster serum were inhibited by unlabeled rooster serum but clear-cut inhibition with human antipsittacosis serum could not be demonstrated. The indirect FA technique was successfully used for the titration of group antibody in human serum. A comparison of the indirect FA, HI, and CF tests showed the indirect FA technique to be intermediate in sensitivity between the HI and CF tests. None of the three tests showed significant cross reactions with human serums reactive for influenza A and B; parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3; respiratory syncytial virus; Q fever; or the primary atypical pneumonia agent. PMID:14044954

  19. Evaluation of Two rK39 Dipstick Tests, Direct Agglutination Test, and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a New Epidemic Site in Highland Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Cañavate, Carmen; Herrero, Merce; Nieto, Javier; Cruz, Israel; Chicharro, Carmen; Aparicio, Pilar; Mulugeta, Abate; Argaw, Daniel; Blackstock, Anna J.; Alvar, Jorge; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the performance characteristics of two rK39 immunochromatographic tests, a direct agglutination test (DAT), and an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in the site of a new epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in northwestern Ethiopia. The study population was composed of 179 patients with suspected VL and 67 controls. The sensitivities of Kalazar Detect®, DiaMed-IT Leish®, DAT, and IFAT in 35 polymerase chain reaction–confirmed VL cases were 94.3%, 91.4%, 91.4%, and 100%, respectively, and the specificities were 98.5%, 94%, 98.5%, and 98.5%, respectively. In a Bayesian latent class analysis of all 246 specimens, the estimated sensitivities were 90.5%, 89%, 88.8%, and 96% for Kalazar Detect®, DiaMed-IT Leish®, DAT, and IFAT, respectively; DAT showed the highest estimated specificity (97.4%). Both rK39 immunochromatographic tests perform as well as DAT, and are suitable for VL diagnosis in first-level health centers in this area of Ethiopia. PMID:21212210

  20. Evaluation of two rK39 dipstick tests, direct agglutination test, and indirect fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in a new epidemic site in highland Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cañavate, Carmen; Herrero, Merce; Nieto, Javier; Cruz, Israel; Chicharro, Carmen; Aparicio, Pilar; Mulugeta, Abate; Argaw, Daniel; Blackstock, Anna J; Alvar, Jorge; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the performance characteristics of two rK39 immunochromatographic tests, a direct agglutination test (DAT), and an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in the site of a new epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in northwestern Ethiopia. The study population was composed of 179 patients with suspected VL and 67 controls. The sensitivities of Kalazar Detect(®), DiaMed-IT Leish(®), DAT, and IFAT in 35 polymerase chain reaction-confirmed VL cases were 94.3%, 91.4%, 91.4%, and 100%, respectively, and the specificities were 98.5%, 94%, 98.5%, and 98.5%, respectively. In a Bayesian latent class analysis of all 246 specimens, the estimated sensitivities were 90.5%, 89%, 88.8%, and 96% for Kalazar Detect(®), DiaMed-IT Leish(®), DAT, and IFAT, respectively; DAT showed the highest estimated specificity (97.4%). Both rK39 immunochromatographic tests perform as well as DAT, and are suitable for VL diagnosis in first-level health centers in this area of Ethiopia.

  1. The utility of a country-specific Bartonella henselae antigen in an IgM-indirect fluorescent antibody assay for the improved diagnosis of cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Yanagihara, Masashi; Tanimoto, Ayano; Tokuda, Nobuko; Otsuyama, Ken-Ichiro; Nojima, Junzo; Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Bartonella henselae strains genetically differ among nations. The utility of Japanese-specific YH-01 strain was investigated in developing indirect fluorescence antibody assay (IFA) for IgM in comparison with conventional IFA employing Houston-1 strain by testing 100 Japanese patients suspected of cat scratch disease. The country-specific IFA greatly improved the accuracy of diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening for IgG antinuclear autoantibodies by HEp-2 indirect fluorescent antibody assays and the need for standardization.

    PubMed

    Copple, Susan S; Giles, S Rashelle; Jaskowski, Troy D; Gardiner, Anna E; Wilson, Andrew M; Hill, Harry R

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated 5 commercially available HEp-2 antinuclear antibody (ANA) indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assays using patient serum samples from 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 50 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 35 with scleroderma, 20 with Sjögren syndrome, 10 with polymyositis, and 100 healthy control subjects. In addition, 12 defined serum samples from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and 100 patient serum samples sent to ARUP Laboratories (Salt Lake City, UT) for ANA IFA testing were also examined (n = 372). Standardization among the HEp-2 IFA assays occurred when they exhibited the same titer ± 1 doubling dilution. Agreement of the 5 assays was 78%. Within the specific groups of serum samples, agreement ranged from 44% in scleroderma serum samples to 93% in healthy control subjects, with 72% agreement in the SLE group. Variations in slide and substrate quality were also noted (ie, clarity, consistency of fluorescence, cell size, number and quality of mitotic cells). Along with subjectivity of interpretation, HEp-2 IFA assays are also vulnerable to standardization issues similar to other methods for ANA screening.

  3. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.

  4. Evaluation of fluorescent-antibody tests as a means of confirming infant botulism.

    PubMed Central

    Glasby, C; Hatheway, C L

    1984-01-01

    Fluorescent-antibody techniques were evaluated for confirming infant botulism. Seventy-seven stool specimens from suspected cases were examined. All 34 specimens containing viable Clostridium botulinum at time of study gave positive results (29 on direct smears and 34 on enrichments). Two false-positive reactions were observed. Images PMID:6394626

  5. Use of monoclonal antibodies in an epidemiological marker system: a retrospective study of lung specimens from the 1976 outbreak of Legionnaires disease in Philadelphia by indirect fluorescent-antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S L; Bibb, W F; McKinney, R M

    1985-01-01

    Autopsy specimens of lung tissues from 15 patients that contracted legionellosis during the 1976 Philadelphia outbreak of Legionnaires disease were examined for the presence of Legionella organisms and soluble antigens by indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) testing and by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. In all 15 cases, at least one specimen was positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1) antigens by a polyclonal antibody ELISA system. Of the 15 cases tested for Lp-1, 9 were positive by a polyclonal antibody IFA test. Nine mouse monoclonal antibodies to Lp-1 gave essentially the same reactivity pattern with extracts from lung tissue homogenates as that obtained with a Philadelphia 1 culture extract by using a monoclonal antibody ELISA system. The same monoclonal antibody panel gave similar results when used in the IFA system with tissue homogenates. Monoclonal antibodies can be used as epidemiological marker systems with both IFA and ELISA testing. This study provides evidence that the 1976 common source outbreak in Philadelphia was probably caused by a single Lp-1 strain. ELISA testing of the soluble antigen of Lp-1 from lung tissue homogenate supernatants was more sensitive than IFA testing of the homogenates and should be extremely useful as either a primary test or as an adjunct to fluorescent antibody testing for legionellosis. Images PMID:3881470

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Genital Herpes.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sardana, Kabir; Sethi, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    To compare laboratory tests that can simultaneously detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) directly from the genital ulcer specimens in clinically suspected cases of genital herpes. A study was conducted over 10 months and 44 adult male and female patients clinically suspected with genital herpes were recruited. Genital ulcer swab specimens were subjected to glycoprotein-G gene-based conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercially available direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and the results were compared. PCR for HSV was positive in 82% (36/44) cases. DFA was positive in 68.2% (30/44) cases. There was 100% agreement between HSV types detected by DFA and PCR. The strength of agreement between the results was better in primary genital herpes than recurrent cases. PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA.

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sardana, Kabir; Sethi, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare laboratory tests that can simultaneously detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) directly from the genital ulcer specimens in clinically suspected cases of genital herpes. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted over 10 months and 44 adult male and female patients clinically suspected with genital herpes were recruited. Genital ulcer swab specimens were subjected to glycoprotein-G gene-based conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercially available direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and the results were compared. Results: PCR for HSV was positive in 82% (36/44) cases. DFA was positive in 68.2% (30/44) cases. There was 100% agreement between HSV types detected by DFA and PCR. The strength of agreement between the results was better in primary genital herpes than recurrent cases. Conclusion: PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA. PMID:28042218

  8. Genital chlamydial infection among women in Nicaragua: validity of direct fluorescent antibody testing, prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, B; Espinoza, F; Villegas, R R; Smith, G D; Ramos, A; Egger, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the performance of a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations of cervical chlamydia infection in different groups of women in Nicaragua. STUDY POPULATION: 926 women, 863 routine clinic attenders (mean age 27 years) and 63 sex workers (mean age 25 years) attending health centres in León, Corinto, Matagalpa and Bluefields. METHODS: Cervical specimens were examined using the Syva MicroTrak test system with a cut-off of 10 or more elementary bodies (EBs). The DFA results were validated by a one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Discordant results were further examined in nested PCR assays directed at two different target genes. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standard gynaecological examination were completed. RESULTS: Sensitivity of DFA was 80.1%, specificity 98.3%, and positive and negative predictive values 62.5% and 99.3%, respectively. Values were lower in locations where samples thawed because of electricity breaks and higher among sex workers. The majority of discordant results was confirmed as positive in nested PCR assays. Prevalence of cervical chlamydia infection based on positivity in DFA and/or PCR ranged from 2% among routine clinic attenders aged 35 years or older, to 8% among adolescent clinic attenders, and to 14% among sex workers. Among routine clinic attenders, young age (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 1.4-8.9 for women aged 15-19 years as compared with 1 in women 25 years of age or older) and use of oral contraceptives (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7-9.6) were the only statistically significant risk factors identified in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Presence of mucopurulent cervical discharge (OR 5.9, 95% CI 3.0-11.5) and presence of ectropion (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.5) were the clinical signs independently associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the DFA test was sensitive and

  9. Goat serums for fluorescent antibody conjugates to chlamydial antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Tessler, J

    1984-01-01

    Serums from goats hyperimmunized with Chlamydia psittaci consistently produce antichlamydial fluorescent antibody conjugate of high titer. The titer of the fluorescent antibody conjugate prepared from a given serum correlated well with the titer obtained by agar gel precipitin, but not with the complement fixation. The agar gel precipitin test can be used to predict whether a given serum is satisfactory for use in production of a conjugate for direct fluorescent antibody tests. Serums with an agar gel precipitin titer of 1/8 or higher generally produce a usable fluorescent antibody conjugate. Labeling gamma globulins with fluorescein isothiocyanate at a ratio of 1/150 resulted in satisfactory fluorescent antibody conjugates. Cultures of Vero cells infected with chlamydiae were found to be suitable for titration of the fluorescent antibody conjugates. PMID:6372973

  10. Incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates negative by Syva direct fluorescent-antibody test but positive by Gen-Probe accuprobe test in a sexually transmitted disease clinic population.

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, J L; Rau, M P; Flageolle, S; Calhoon, B; Knapp, J S

    1993-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of the Syva (Palo Alto, Calif.) direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) test in comparison with the Gen-Probe (San Diego, Calif.) Accuprobe culture confirmation test, we tested 395 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from cultures obtained from patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic from 1 July 1991 through 30 June 1992. All isolates were tested for DFA reactivity with a polyclonal reagent (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) and a monoclonal reagent (Syva, Inc., direct specimen test) and for specific molecular probe reactivity by the Gen-Probe Accuprobe culture confirmation test for N. gonorrhoeae. The 395 isolates gave positive results for the Gen-Probe culture confirmation test and the Difco polyclonal direct specimen test. However, 18 (4.6%) of the isolates were negative for N. gonorrhoeae by the Syva DFA test. With the exception of six beta-lactamase-positive isolates, all isolates that were negative by Syva DFA were sensitive to penicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, and ceftriaxone by disk-diffusion susceptibility testing. Auxotyping and serotyping studies indicated that strains negative by Syva DFA consisted of several variants. The frequency of N. gonorrhoeae isolates showing negative results by Syva DFA in this patient population ranged from 0 to 11.5%/month. Laboratories using only the Syva DFA test for confirmation of N. gonorrhoeae may incur a significant risk of misidentification. PMID:8408585

  11. Comparative field evaluation of the fluorescent-antibody test, virus isolation from tissue culture, and enzyme immunodiagnosis for rapid laboratory diagnosis of rabies.

    PubMed Central

    Bourhy, H; Rollin, P E; Vincent, J; Sureau, P

    1989-01-01

    The rabies tissue culture infection test (RTCIT) and rapid rabies enzyme immunodiagnosis (RREID) were compared to the fluorescent-antibody test (FAT) with field specimens. At the French National Reference Center for Rabies, 15,248 specimens were analyzed by FAT and RTCIT, and 2,290 of those specimens were also tested by RREID; 818 other specimens were tested by FAT and RREID in 12 laboratories located in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The sensitivities and specificities of RREID and RTCIT were comparable. This study showed that both tests can be used as backup procedures to confirm FAT. RREID is also strongly recommended for epidemiological studies and for laboratories which are not equipped for performing FAT. PMID:2654181

  12. Comparative assessment of seller's staining test (SST) and direct fluorescent antibody test for rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies.

    PubMed

    Tekki, Ishaya S; Ponfa, Zhakum N; Nwosuh, Chika I; Kumbish, Peterside R; Jonah, Clement L; Okewole, Philip A; Shamaki, David; Ahmed, Sani M

    2016-03-01

    Rabies causes 55, 000 annual human deaths globally and about 10,000 people are exposed annually in Nigeria. Diagnosis of animal rabies in most African countries has been by direct microscopic examination. In Nigeria, the Seller's stain test (SST) was employed until 2009. Before then, both SST and dFAT were used concurrently until the dFAT became the only standard method. This study was designed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the SST in relation to the 'gold standard' dFAT in diagnosis of rabies in Nigeria. A total of 88 animal specimens submitted to the Rabies National Reference Laboratory, Nigeria were routinely tested for rabies by SST and dFAT. Overall, 65.9% of the specimens were positive for rabies by SST, while 81.8% were positive by dFAT. The sensitivity of SST in relation to the gold standard dFAT was 81.0% (95% CIs; 69.7% - 88.6%), while the specificity was 100% (95% CIs; 76% - 100%). The relatively low sensitivity of the SST observed in this study calls for its replacement with the dFAT for accurate diagnosis of rabies and timely decisions on administration of PEP to prevent untimely deaths of exposed humans.

  13. Comparison of the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the polymerase chain reaction to detect Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmon ovarian fluid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, Ronald J.; Chase, Dorothy M.; McKibben, Constance L.

    1998-01-01

    Ovarian fluid samples from naturally infected chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined for the presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum by the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT), an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the MF-FAT, 64% (66/103) samples contained detectable levels of R. salmoninarum cells. Among the positive fish, the R. salmoninarum concentrations ranged from 25 cells/ml to 4.3 × 109cells/ml. A soluble antigenic fraction of R. salmoninarum was detected in 39% of the fish (40/103) by the ELISA. The ELISA is considered one of the most sensitive detection methods for bacterial kidney disease in tissues, yet it did not detect R. salmoninarum antigen consistently at bacterial cell concentrations below about 1.3 × 104cells/ml according to the MF-FAT counts. When total DNA was extracted and tested in a nested PCR designed to amplify a 320-base-pair region of the gene encoding a soluble 57-kD protein of R. salmoninarum, 100% of the 100 samples tested were positive. The results provided strong evidence that R. salmoninarum may be present in ovarian fluids thought to be free of the bacterium on the basis of standard diagnostic methods.

  14. Modification of the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation test--elimination of the cytotoxic effect for the detection of rabies virus neutralising antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bedeković, Tomislav; Lemo, Nina; Lojkić, Ivana; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Jungić, Andreja; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Cač, Zeljko; Hostnik, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The virus neutralisation test is used for the quantitation of specific antibodies in serum samples. However, the success of the test depends on the quality of samples. In the case of poor quality samples, a cytotoxic effect can be observed and the results of the test can be compromised. Additionally, the cytotoxic effect limits the use of different substances, such as muscle extract or liquid from thoracic cavity (thoracic liquid), as a sample for the detection of rabies virus neutralising antibodies in the follow-up of fox oral vaccination campaigns. To eliminate the cytotoxic effect, a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation (mFAVN) test was developed and evaluated. In the mFAVN test, inocula were removed after a 1h and the cytotoxic effect was prevented. According to the results obtained, the specificity of the mFAVN test compared to the FAVN test was 88.8% and the sensitivity was 94.4%. The diagnostic validity of the test was 0.99 (CI=0.98-1.00). To evaluate the possibility of using muscle extract and thoracic liquid as samples for the virus neutralisation test, 102 sera, muscle extract and thoracic liquid samples of dog origin were tested with the mFAVN test. The correlation between sera and muscle extracts was 87.9% (r=0.88, p<0.001). The correlation between sera and thoracic liquid was 94.2% (r=0.94, p<0.001). These findings indicated that both muscle extract and thoracic liquid could be used as samples for detection of rabies virus neutralising antibodies in the follow-up of oral vaccination campaigns. To evaluate the level of elimination of the cytotoxic effect, the 102 samples of sera, muscle extracts and thoracic liquid of dog origin were also tested in parallel using the mFAVN and FAVN tests. In the mFAVN test, no instance of cytotoxic effect was observed in the cells. In the FAVN test, two sera (1.9%), 35 muscle extracts (34.3%) and 56 thoracic liquid samples (54.9%) showed cytotoxic effect. The results of this study strongly suggest that

  15. Evaluation of Three Commercial Varicella-Zoster Virus IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays in Comparison to the Fluorescent-Antibody-to-Membrane-Antigen Test

    PubMed Central

    Schäfler, Anna; Hofmann, Jörg; Schacke, Michael; Gruhn, Bernd; Wutzler, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Commercial serologic assays for varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which enable reliable determination of VZV immune status and are amenable to automation, are needed. The present study compares the automated performance of the VZV whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Enzygnost anti-VZV/IgG, the Euroimmun anti-VZV ELISA (IgG) based on highly purified viral proteins, and the VZV glycoprotein (gp)-based Serion ELISA Classic VZV IgG. The fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antibody (FAMA) test was used as a reference. A total of 638 serum samples from VZV-negative children, blood donors, varicella vaccinees, and bone marrow transplant recipients were included. The Enzygnost anti-VZV/IgG and the Serion ELISA Classic VZV IgG showed sensitivities of 99.6% and 99.2%, respectively, and the Euroimmun anti-VZV ELISA (IgG) had a significantly lower sensitivity of 90.5%. Specificity was calculated as 100% for both the Euroimmun anti-VZV ELISA (IgG) and for the Enzygnost anti-VZV/IgG, and the Serion ELISA Classic VZV IgG had a significantly lower specificity of 89.4%. Quantitative results of all ELISAs correlated well, but there was a poor quantitative correlation between the ELISAs and FAMA. In conclusion, this study does not show any superiority of a gp- and a protein-based ELISA compared to a whole-cell ELISA for the automated detection of VZV-specific IgG. The automated performance of the Enzygnost anti-VZV/IgG assay correlated best with the FAMA reference assay. PMID:22718131

  16. Design and construction of an apparatus for the growth of micro cell cultures on standard glass microscope slides and its application for screening large numbers of sera by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique.

    PubMed

    Lawman, M J; Caie, I S

    1975-09-01

    A simple stainless-steel apparatus was designed to contain standard microscope slides on which were grown micro cell cultures in the form of 16 individual monolayers per slide. The application of this apparatus for the screening of serum samples by fluorescent antibody techniques is described.

  17. AN APPRAISAL OF THE FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY METHOD IN GONORRHOEA.

    PubMed

    OVCINNIKOV, N M

    1963-01-01

    Fluorescent antibody procedures have in a short time become valued techniques for the detection of many pathogenic micro-organisms, and are used in syphilis, for instance. A fluorescent antibody test has also been proposed for use in gonorrhoea, but the author of this paper suggests that there are still many questions to be answered before that test can be recommended for widespread practical application. In particular, large-scale further research is necessary on the antigenic structure of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and other organisms of the Neisseria group, before reliance can be placed on the strict specificity of this test.The author also describes the fluorescent antibody technique for gonorrhoea used in the USSR, discussing its advantages and disadvantages.

  18. Comparative evaluation of the fluorescent antibody test and microtiter immunoperoxidase assay for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from bull semen.

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, A; Dulac, G C; Dubuc, C; Howard, T H

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase staining technique (IP) is described for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in bovine semen. The performance of the IP was compared to the reference immunofluorescent staining test in its ability to detect BVDV in 23 coded field semen samples. The IP assay which can be applied with ease to a large number of samples and does not require expensive fluorescence microscope equipment, appears to be an alternative method for BVDV detection. The IP assay can be strongly recommended for certification of BVDV-free bovine semen for artificial insemination and trading purposes and for laboratories which are not equipped for performing the immunofluorescent test. PMID:1653102

  19. Comparison of anticomplement immunofluorescence and fluorescent antibody-to-membrane antigen tests for determination of immunity status to varicella-zoster virus and for serodifferentiation of varicella-zoster and herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, D; Schmidt, N J

    1981-01-01

    The anticomplement immunofluorescence (ACIF) test was compared with the fluorescent antibody-to-membrane antigen (FAMA) test for determining varicella-zoster virus antibody levels as a measure of varicella-zoster virus immunity status. The ACIF test was found to be comparable to the FAMA test in sensitivity and could be used for examining sera at low dilutions of 1:2 and 1:4. In addition, the ACIF method proved to be a more economical procedure in terms of antigen required and personnel time necessary to perform the test. Heterologous varicella-zoster virus antibody titer rises were demonstrated by the FAMA test with 10 serum pairs from patients with clinically diagnosed genital herpes simplex virus infection, indicating that the FAMA test is no more suitable than other serological methods for serodifferentiation of those herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections in which antibody increases occur to both antigens. PMID:6273453

  20. Community Laboratory Testing for Cryptosporidium: Multicenter Study Retesting Public Health Surveillance Stool Samples Positive for Cryptosporidium by Rapid Cartridge Assay with Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing

    PubMed Central

    Roellig, Dawn M.; Yoder, Jonathan S.; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Robinson, Trisha J.; Van, Tam T.; Collier, Sarah A.; Boxrud, Dave; Monson, Timothy; Bates, Leigh Ann; Blackstock, Anna J.; Shea, Shari; Larson, Kirsten; Xiao, Lihua; Beach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a common cause of sporadic diarrheal disease and outbreaks in the United States. Increasingly, immunochromatography-based rapid cartridge assays (RCAs) are providing community laboratories with a quick cryptosporidiosis diagnostic method. In the current study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), and four state health departments evaluated RCA-positive samples obtained during routine Cryptosporidium testing. All samples underwent “head to head” re-testing using both RCA and direct fluorescence assay (DFA). Community level results from three sites indicated that 54.4% (166/305) of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 87.0% (67/77) of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed by DFA. When samples were retested by RCA at state laboratories and compared with DFA, 83.3% (155/186) of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 95.2% (60/63) of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed. The percentage of confirmed community results varied by site: Minnesota, 39.0%; New York, 63.9%; and Wisconsin, 72.1%. The percentage of confirmed community results decreased with patient age; 12.5% of community positive tests could be confirmed by DFA for patients 60 years of age or older. The percentage of confirmed results did not differ significantly by sex, storage temperature, time between sample collection and testing, or season. Findings from this study demonstrate a lower confirmation rate of community RCA positives when compared to RCA positives identified at state laboratories. Elucidating the causes of decreased test performance in order to improve overall community laboratory performance of these tests is critical for understanding the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in the United States (US). PMID:28085927

  1. Community Laboratory Testing for Cryptosporidium: Multicenter Study Retesting Public Health Surveillance Stool Samples Positive for Cryptosporidium by Rapid Cartridge Assay with Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Dawn M; Yoder, Jonathan S; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Robinson, Trisha J; Van, Tam T; Collier, Sarah A; Boxrud, Dave; Monson, Timothy; Bates, Leigh Ann; Blackstock, Anna J; Shea, Shari; Larson, Kirsten; Xiao, Lihua; Beach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a common cause of sporadic diarrheal disease and outbreaks in the United States. Increasingly, immunochromatography-based rapid cartridge assays (RCAs) are providing community laboratories with a quick cryptosporidiosis diagnostic method. In the current study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), and four state health departments evaluated RCA-positive samples obtained during routine Cryptosporidium testing. All samples underwent "head to head" re-testing using both RCA and direct fluorescence assay (DFA). Community level results from three sites indicated that 54.4% (166/305) of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 87.0% (67/77) of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed by DFA. When samples were retested by RCA at state laboratories and compared with DFA, 83.3% (155/186) of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 95.2% (60/63) of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed. The percentage of confirmed community results varied by site: Minnesota, 39.0%; New York, 63.9%; and Wisconsin, 72.1%. The percentage of confirmed community results decreased with patient age; 12.5% of community positive tests could be confirmed by DFA for patients 60 years of age or older. The percentage of confirmed results did not differ significantly by sex, storage temperature, time between sample collection and testing, or season. Findings from this study demonstrate a lower confirmation rate of community RCA positives when compared to RCA positives identified at state laboratories. Elucidating the causes of decreased test performance in order to improve overall community laboratory performance of these tests is critical for understanding the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in the United States (US).

  2. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test in chicken leucocytozoonosis.

    PubMed

    Isobe, T; Akiba, K

    1982-01-01

    The indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique was applied to detection of antigens of different developmental stages of Leucocytozoon caulleryi and antibodies in the sera of chickens infected with L. caulleryi by using second generation merozoite and gametocyte antigens. Zygotes, ookinetes and sporozoites in midges, and second generation merozoites and gametocytes in chickens indicated specific fluorescence. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody titers were higher than agar gel precipitation antibody titers. So the detection of the antibody by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique was possible in the sera in which the antibody could not be detected by the agal gel precipitation test. Therefore, the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique was applicable to chicken leucocytozoonosis as a highly sensitive serological diagnostic method.

  3. An Indirect Test of Oral Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Martha; Shaw, Victor

    The development of an indirect oral proficiency test for foreign languages by the Defense Language Institute is described. The technique uses taped questions to elicit answers, also taped, that are evaluated according to the Foreign Service Institute's oral proficiency rating scale of 0 to 5. Tape recordings are used because of the large numbers…

  4. Failed detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 subgenotype a (BVDV-2a) by direct fluorescent antibody test on tissue samples due to reduced reactivity of field isolates to raw anti-BVDV antibody.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lifang; Pace, Lanny W; Baughman, Brittany; Wilson, Floyd D; Zhang, Shuping; Zhang, Michael Z

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is associated with mild or subclinical infections, whereas BVDV-2 is frequently implicated in outbreaks of severe thrombocytopenia and acute fatal disease. In the present study, the carcass of a beef breed cow and tissue samples of a beef calf were received for laboratory diagnosis. Both animals exhibited severe clinical signs compatible with thrombocytopenia or hemorrhagic syndrome. Direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) failed to detect BVDV antigen in the tissue specimens of both cases. However, immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed the presence of BVDV antigen in oral and esophageal mucosa and Peyer patches of the beef breed cow. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) detected BVDV-2 in selected tissues of both animals. Subsequently, BVDV was isolated from both cases and subjected to genetic and serologic characterizations. Mutations in the 5'-untranslated genomic region (5'-UTR) primer and probe binding sites and the E2 gene were associated with reduced efficiency of an established real-time RT-PCR assay and amino acid alterations in the E2 glycoprotein, respectively. Both viral isolates were classified by real-time RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis as BVDV-2 subgenotype a. Unlike BVDV reference strains Singer and 125c, the isolates cross-reacted with anti-BVDV-1 and anti-BVDV-2 reference sera, indicating antigenic variations in field isolates. The isolates also showed reduced reactivity to porcine anti-BVDV antiserum (the raw serum used to produce BVDV DFA conjugate). In summary, data from the present investigation indicated that genetic and antigenic variations affected the performance of detection assays, especially DFAT, highlighting the need for regular evaluation and modification of BVDV tests.

  5. Fluorescent-antibody method useful for detecting viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. in chlorinated wastewater.

    PubMed Central

    Desmonts, C; Minet, J; Colwell, R; Cormier, M

    1990-01-01

    An indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) technique, which employed adsorbed Behring polyvalent I O antiserum, was used to detect Salmonella spp. in environmental water systems. The IFA method used in this study detected 95% of Salmonella serotypes encountered in human infections in France, with a sensitivity threshold of 7.5 x 10(3) bacteria per ml of wastewater. Specificity was assessed by testing IFA against Salmonella-free seawater and a variety of bacteria other than Salmonella spp. When used to examine raw and chlorinated wastewater over a 2-month period, the IFA method was successful in detecting Salmonella spp. in all 12 of the samples examined, with total numbers determined to be 4.5 x 10(5) to 3.3 x 10(7) salmonellae per 100 ml. In comparison, for the same samples, enumeration by culture, using the most-probable-number technique, was effective in detecting Salmonella spp. in only four of eight raw-water samples and one of four chlorinated water samples tested. Three samples were further tested by using the direct viable count procedure combined with IFA and results showed that 5 to 31.5% of the Salmonella spp. enumerated by this method in chlorinated water were substrate responsive. PMID:2187414

  6. A comparison of gel diffusion, fluorescent antibody and virus isolation methods in experimental and natural cases of infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ide, P R

    1975-01-01

    In studies with chicks inoculated with the Sk-1 strain of infectious bursal agent the bursa of Fabricius was found to be the tissue of choice for virus isolation as well as for use in the fluorescent antibody test and the agar gel diffusion test. In separate experiments positive results were obtained until postinoculation days 3 or 4 by the agar gel diffusion test, 5 or 6 by the fluorescent antibody test and 14 by the virus isolation method, respectively. Bursas from chickens involved in seven natural outbreaks of infectious bursal disease were then examined by these three methods. Virus was isolated from six outbreaks and infectious bursal agent antigen was demonstrated in three by the agar gel diffusion test method and seven (three by direct examination and four after one passage in chicks) by the fluorescent antibody test method. Passage in chicks was required when nonspecific fluorescence complicated the interpretation of fluorescent antibody test results. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:164991

  7. Fluorescent Antibody Studies in Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sera from 57 patients with malignant melanoma and 39 control patients were tested by immunofluorescence techniques against 6 melanoma cell lines. Thirty-two per cent of tests with sera from melanoma patients showed fluorescence with these cell lines whereas only 17% of tests with control sera were positive. Reactions occurred in 21% of tests with sera from patients with primary melanoma compared with 40% with secondary melanomata and 54% with “cured” melanomata. The cell lines varied in antigenicity but this did not correlate with either pigmentation or length of time in culture. The cell lines which were most reactive with sera from melanoma patients were also most reactive with control sera. PMID:4205845

  8. Fluorescent antibody detection of microorganisms in terrestrial environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The fluorescent antibody technique and its use in direct microscopic examination of the soil is discussed. Feasibility analyses were made to determine if the method could be used to simultaneously observe and recognize microorganisms in the soil. Some data indicate this may be possible. Data are also given on two related problems involving the interaction of soil microorganisms with plant roots to form symbiotic structures. One was concerned with the developmental ecology and biology of the root nodule of alder and the second was concerned with the ectotrophic mycorrhizal structure on forest trees, especially pines. In both, the fluorescent antibody detection of the microbial symbiont both as a free living form in soil, and as a root inhabiting form in the higher plant was emphasized. A third aspect of the research involved the detection of autotrophic ammonia oxidizing microorganisms in soil.

  9. Theoretical and testing performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2010-12-15

    An indirect evaporative chiller is a device used to produce chilled water at a temperature between the wet bulb temperature and dew point of the outdoor air, which can be used in building HVAC systems. This article presents a theoretical analysis and practical performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller. First, the process of the indirect evaporative chiller is introduced; then, the matching characteristics of the process are presented and analyzed. It can be shown that the process that produces cold water by using dry air is a nearly-reversible process, so the ideal produced chilled water temperature of the indirect evaporative chiller can be set close to the dew point temperature of the chiller's inlet air. After the indirect evaporative chiller was designed, simulations were done to analyze the output water temperature, the cooling efficiency relative to the inlet dew point temperature, and the COP that the chiller can performance. The first installation of the indirect evaporative chiller of this kind has been run for 5 years in a building in the city of Shihezi. The tested output water temperature of the chiller is around 14-20 C, which is just in between of the outdoor wet bulb temperature and dew point. The tested COP{sub r,s} of the developed indirect evaporative chiller reaches 9.1. Compared with ordinary air conditioning systems, the indirect evaporative chiller can save more than 40% in energy consumption due to the fact that the only energy consumed is from pumps and fans. An added bonus is that the indirect evaporative chiller uses no CFCs that pollute to the aerosphere. The tested internal parameters, such as the water-air flow rate ratio and heat transfer area for each heat transfer process inside the chiller, were analyzed and compared with designed values. The tested indoor air conditions, with a room temperature of 23-27 C and relative humidity of 50-70%, proved that the developed practical indirect evaporative chiller successfully

  10. One-Day Fluorescent-Antibody Procedure for Detecting Salmonellae in Frozen and Dried Foods 1

    PubMed Central

    Goepfert, J. M.; Mann, M. E.; Hicks, R.

    1970-01-01

    The indirect fluorescent-antibody technique was used to examine 422 food samples for the presence of salmonellae. A cultural phase involving a 16-hr preenrichment in buffered nutrient broth-milk medium followed by a 4- to 5-hr subculture into fresh medium of the same composition was evaluated. This procedure yielded a sufficient population of salmonellae so that no false-negative results were obtained. Of the 31 false-positives obtained, 12 samples yielded positive cultural results upon extensive subculture of the original enrichment broths. Yeast cells and both vegetative and spore forms of bacilli were observed to fluoresce when stained with anti-Salmonella serum. Efforts to ascertain the cause of these cross-reactions and several alternate explanations are discussed. PMID:4923810

  11. Application of the Fluorescent-Antibody Technique to an Ecological Study of Bacteria in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Hill, I. R.; Gray, T. R. G.

    1967-01-01

    The fluorescent-antibody technique was used to identify cells and spores of Bacillus subtilis and cells of B. circulans from soil. From cells grown in three broth media of different nutrient status, i.e., a cold extracted soil medium (CSE), an unamended autoclaved soil extract (HSE), and nutrient broth (NB), antisera were produced with both quantitative and qualitative differences in antibody content. The specificities of antisera to two strains of each of the Bacillus species were determined. Antisera for B. subtilis O antigens were species-specific and showed no cross-reactions, whereas those for the B. circulans O antigens were strain-specific and in some cases showed cross-reactions with B. alvei. This cross-reaction was removed by absorption of the antiserum with B. alvei O antigen. Fluorescein isothiocyanate γ-globulin conjugates prepared from these antisera showed the same specificity reactions. A method for staining bacteria on soil particles was developed, by use of small staining troughs. By mounting stained soil particles on slides and irradiating them with transmitted and incident ultraviolet blue light, bacteria on both mineral and organic particles, taken directly from soil, could be observed. Fluorescent antibodies against cells grown in CSE gave brighter fluorescence of stained bacteria on soil particles than did fluorescent antibodies against cells grown in either HSE or NB. Colonies of both Bacillus species were generally small and localized. Spore antisera, though not rigorously tested for specificity, were used to identify spores of B. subtilis on soil particles. The uses and implications of the technique in soil bacteriology are discussed. Images PMID:4960897

  12. Fluorescent-Antibody Measurement Of Cancer-Cell Urokinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1993-01-01

    Combination of laboratory techniques provides measurements of amounts of urokinase in and between normal and cancer cells. Includes use of fluorescent antibodies specific against different forms of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, (uPA), fluorescence microscopy, quantitative analysis of images of sections of tumor tissue, and flow cytometry of different uPA's and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) found in suspended-tumor-cell preparations. Measurements provide statistical method for indicating or predicting metastatic potentials of some invasive tumors. Assessments of metastatic potentials based on such measurements used in determining appropriate follow-up procedures after surgical removal of tumors.

  13. Fluorescent-Antibody Study of Natural Finger-Like Zooloeae

    PubMed Central

    Farrah, Samuel R.; Unz, Richard F.

    1975-01-01

    Fluorescent-antibody techniques using Zoogloea ramigera 106 antiserum were used to study fresh activated sludge flocs and finger-like zoogloeae in the microbial film that developed over stored samples of activated sludge. Few cells in fresh activated sludge reacted positively with the fluorescein-labeled antiserum. Finger-like zoogloeae containing reactive cells were readily observed in the microbial film layer over stored activated sludge. Certain of the natural finger-like projections were entirely composed of cells that reacted positively to the labeled Z. ramigera 106 antiserum, whereas other projections were devoid of reactive cells. Images PMID:1096822

  14. Fluorescent-Antibody Measurement Of Cancer-Cell Urokinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1993-01-01

    Combination of laboratory techniques provides measurements of amounts of urokinase in and between normal and cancer cells. Includes use of fluorescent antibodies specific against different forms of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, (uPA), fluorescence microscopy, quantitative analysis of images of sections of tumor tissue, and flow cytometry of different uPA's and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) found in suspended-tumor-cell preparations. Measurements provide statistical method for indicating or predicting metastatic potentials of some invasive tumors. Assessments of metastatic potentials based on such measurements used in determining appropriate follow-up procedures after surgical removal of tumors.

  15. Indirect scaling methods for testing quantitative emotion theories.

    PubMed

    Junge, Martin; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the utility of indirect scaling methods, based on graded pair comparisons, for the testing of quantitative emotion theories. In Study 1, we measured the intensity of relief and disappointment caused by lottery outcomes, and in Study 2, the intensity of disgust evoked by pictures, using both direct intensity ratings and graded pair comparisons. The stimuli were systematically constructed to reflect variables expected to influence the intensity of the emotions according to theoretical models of relief/disappointment and disgust, respectively. Two probabilistic scaling methods were used to estimate scale values from the pair comparison judgements: Additive functional measurement (AFM) and maximum likelihood difference scaling (MLDS). The emotion models were fitted to the direct and indirect intensity measurements using nonlinear regression (Study 1) and analysis of variance (Study 2). Both studies found substantially improved fits of the emotion models for the indirectly determined emotion intensities, with their advantage being evident particularly at the level of individual participants. The results suggest that indirect scaling methods yield more precise measurements of emotion intensity than rating scales and thereby provide stronger tests of emotion theories in general and quantitative emotion theories in particular.

  16. The Use of Fluorescent Antibody Staining in the Diagnosis of Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, M.; Boulanger, P.; Webster, W. A.

    1965-01-01

    Brain material from 750 domestic and wild animals submitted to this laboratory for rabies diagnosis was studied by the following three methods: a) microscopic examination of Williams' stained impressions, b) mouse inoculation test, and c) microscopic examination of impressions stained with fluorescein-tagged antibodies. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the sensitivity of the fluorescent antibody technique with that of two classical methods, when applied to the routine diagnosis of rabies. From the results obtained by one or the other method of study, 175 specimens were diagnosed as positive. Of these, only 58 (33 per cent) were detected by the examination of Williams' stained impressions. On the other hand, two rabid cases were missed by the mouse inoculation test, and four by the fluorescent antibody technique. Without being completely reliable, the last two methods proved to be almost equally sensitive and much more so than the examination of Williams' stained impressions. ImagesFigure 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:14290946

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF AN EPITHELIAL ANTIGEN IN COLON BY MEANS OF FLUORESCENT ANTIBODIES FROM CHILDREN WITH ULCERATIVE COLITIS

    PubMed Central

    Broberger, Ove; Perlmann, Peter

    1962-01-01

    Thirteen sera from children with ulcerative colitis were examined for antibodies reacting with constituents of human colonic tissue by means of immunofluorescent methods. 3 out of 10 sera reacted positively when tested by the direct staining method while 6 out of 13 reacted positively when tested by the indirect method with conjugates of rabbit anti-human gamma globulin. The specificity of the reactions could be confirmed by inhibition tests. 16 sera from healthy children and adults yielded completely negative results. The staining capacity of various sera was correlated to their hemagglutinating titer when they were tested with sheep erythrocytes, coated with phenol-water extract of human colon. Absorption experiments indicated that the stainable antigen was also present in the extracts used for the hemagglutination experiments. In unfixed tissue sections, fluorescent antibodies were adsorbed onto the epithelial cells of the mucosa. Adsorption on epithelial basement membranes could not be demonstrated. Fluorescent H agglutinins, isolated from eel serum, were adsorbed onto the same mucosal structures of human colon (blood group O) as the antibodies in the sera of patients with ulcerative colitis. However, any immunological relationship between H substance and the colonic antigen of ulcerative colitis could be ruled out by cross-inhibition and hemagglutination inhibition experiments. Fluorescent serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis also stained sections of human colon but the localization of the stainable antigens was different from that visualized with the ulcerative colitis sera. Inhibition experiments indicated that the rheumatoid arthritis serum contained antibodies staining colon antigens different from those reacting with antibodies in the ulcerative colitis sera. Sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or with the nephrotic syndrome, which all hemagglutinated erythrocytes coated with colon extract, did not stain the sections of the colon

  18. Efficacy of a Fluorescent-Antibody Procedure for Identifying Bacillus cereus in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H. U.; Goepfert, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    One hundred and seventeen strains of Bacillus were examined by the fluorescent-antibody technique by using the globulin fraction of serum prepared against spores of B. cereus T. All but one strain of the 59 B. cereus tested fluoresced at the exosporium surface. Fluorescent staining of B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides was also observed. Absorption of the globulin fraction with B. anthracis and B. mycoides resulted in the elimination of staining of these organisms. Absorption with B. thuringiensis ATCC 10792 removed antibodies reacting with 6 of the strains of B. thuringiensis tested. Absorption with B. thuringiensis var. galleriae removed antibodies against B. cereus to such a degree that the globulin fraction was unusable. PMID:4629698

  19. Studies on the relationship between fluorescent antibody response and the ecology of malaria in Malaysia*

    PubMed Central

    Collins, William E.; Warren, McWilson; Skinner, Jimmie C.; Fredericks, Harry J.

    1968-01-01

    The fluorescent antibody (FA) technique was used to detect the presence of malarial antibody in populations living in 3 different ecological areas of Malaysia. Serum samples were tested using Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. fieldi antigens. An area of hyperendemic malaria had a good correlation between the antibody responses and active parasitaemias. The percentage and intensity of responses increased with the age of the individuals. In an area of hypoendemic malaria, each of 17 sites had ecological conditions which would favour or discourage the transmission of malaria. The reasons for high FA responses in some villages and low responses in others were readily apparent. The effect of even limited control programmes on the malarial ecology could be measured by an examination of the antibody responses. An aboriginal population receiving suppressive drugs had FA responses indicating both past experience and the effect of the drug programme. PMID:4882987

  20. Evaluation of Commercial Conjugates for Fluorescent Antibody Detection of Salmonellae

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Berenice M.; Hebert, G. Ann

    1974-01-01

    Fluorescent antibody (FA) reagents for Salmonella produced by Difco, Sylvana, and Clinical Sciences, Inc., were evaluated for physicochemical and performance characteristics. The Difco panvalent (A through 064) and the Difco polyvalent (A through S) were similar in physicochemical characteristics. They had less than 60% gamma globulin with 3% albumin and had fluorescein to protein (F/P) ratios of less than 10. The Sylvana conjugate had 81% gamma globulin with less than 1% albumin. Its F/P was 33.9. The Clinical Sciences reagent contained 75% unlabeled albumin as packaged in the Fluoro-kit. Analysis of the original conjugate showed 86.5% gamma globulin with only 0.5% albumin. The (F/P) was 32.8. The performance characteristics were determined by using a variety of Enterobacteriaceae and food and feed samples. All conjugates stained the homologous Salmonella strains. The majority of cross-reactions were limited primarily to the Arizona, Citrobacter, and Escherichia coli groups. The Difco panvalent was more reactive with heterologous organisms. It stained 89% of the Arizona compared with 42% stained by the Difco polyvalent (A through S) and 39% stained by the Sylvana and Clinical Sciences reagents. We found 90% agreement between FA and culture when the Difco polyvalent was used to examine food and feed samples and 94% agreement when the Clinical Sciences Fluoro-kit was used on another group of samples. PMID:4133829

  1. Assessing Mediational Models: Testing and Interval Estimation for Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Falk, Carl F.; Savalei, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models specifying indirect or mediated effects are common in the social sciences. An indirect effect exists when an independent variable's influence on the dependent variable is mediated through an intervening variable. Classic approaches to assessing such mediational hypotheses (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Sobel, 1982) have in recent years…

  2. Direct agglutination test for serologic diagnosis of Neospora caninum infection.

    PubMed

    Romand, S; Thulliez, P; Dubey, J P

    1998-01-01

    A direct agglutination test was evaluated for the detection and quantitation of IgG antibodies to Neospora caninum in both experimental and natural infections in various animal species. As compared with results obtained by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, the direct agglutination test appeared reliable for the serologic diagnosis of neosporosis in a variety of animal species. The direct agglutination test should provide easily available and inexpensive tools for serologic testing for antibodies to N. caninum in many host species.

  3. Rapid identification of 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus using fluorescent antibody methods.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Gary P

    2010-12-01

    Identification of the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus requires emergency use authorized (EUA) molecular reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Laboratories lacking molecular capabilities outsource testing, which is costly and may delay result reporting. A fluorescent antibody (FA; D(3) Ultra 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus ID Kit, Diagnostic Hybrids, Athens, OH) recently received Food and Drug Administration EUA status for 2009 H1N1 virus identification. The performance of this FA reagent was evaluated in this study. Influenza A-positive nasopharyngeal specimens (seasonal H1, H3, and 2009 H1N1) were prepared for culture and FA testing and were stained using influenza A antibodies and the 2009 H1N1 reagent. Other respiratory viruses were also evaluated. The FA reagent demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity. Bright, apple-green fluorescence was effortlessly identified in culture-positive cells, particularly around cell membrane perimeters. Laboratory-prepared slides were preferred over bedside-prepared specimens because background fluorescence obscured identification in the latter. The new FA reagent provides an accurate, rapid, and inexpensive assay for identifying the 2009 H1N1 virus in nonmolecular diagnostic laboratories.

  4. Evaluation of multivalent Leptospira fluorescent antibody conjugates for general diagnostic use.

    PubMed

    Miller, D A; Wilson, M A; Kirkbride, C A

    1989-04-01

    Four lots of conjugate were evaluated for optimal dilution and degree of fluorescence produced with reference cultures and bovine and porcine leptospira isolates. One lot that uniformly produced better fluorescence was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity with reference cultures, isolates, culture-positive tissues, and 13 other bacterial species. Further evaluation of the conjugates was done with bovine, porcine, and ovine specimens submitted to a diagnostic laboratory. Leptospires were detected with the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) in 9 of 21 culture-positive bovine kidneys and were detected in diluted cultures when present at concentrations of 10(2)-10(3) organisms/ml. With the exception of Treponema hyodysenteriae, FAT's of other bacterial cultures produced minimal fluorescence or were negative. Positives were characterized by moderate to brilliant fluorescence of typical cell forms, and most nonspecific fluorescence was eliminated with a flazo-orange counterstain. The results indicated that the FAT utilizing multivalent conjugates could be used successfully as an additional method for diagnosis of leptospira infections.

  5. Multiple-group analysis approach to testing group difference in indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ehri

    2015-06-01

    This article introduces five methods that take a multiple-group analysis approach to testing a group difference in indirect effects. Unlike the general frameworks for testing moderated indirect effects, the five methods provide direct tests for equality of indirect effects between groups. A simulation study was conducted to examine the performance of the methods in terms of the empirical type I error rate, statistical power, and coverage of 95 % confidence intervals. The likelihood ratio test and percentile bootstrap confidence intervals are recommended. The methods are illustrated using an empirical data set.

  6. Direct fluorescent antibody technique for the detection of bacterial kidney disease in paraffin-embedded tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ochiai, T.; Yasutake, W.T.; Gould, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The direct fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) was successfully used to detect the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), Renibacterium salmoninarum, in Bouin's solution flexed and paraffinembedded egg and tissue sections. This method is superior to gram stain and may be particularly useful in detecting the BKD organism in fish with low-grade infection.

  7. Development and Use of Fluorescent Antibody and qPCR Protocols for the Electrostatic Spore Trap

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fluorescent antibody (FA) and qPCR protocols were evaluated for the newly developed aerobiological sampler (Ionic Spore Trap), which depends upon electrostatic deposition of particulates onto a 25 mm aluminum disk (stub). This device was originally designed for assessment of captured particulates by...

  8. 9 CFR 113.47 - Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique. 113.47 Section 113.47 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... or in a filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Monolayer cultures of cells (monolayers), at...

  9. 9 CFR 113.47 - Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique. 113.47 Section 113.47 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... or in a filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Monolayer cultures of cells (monolayers), at...

  10. 9 CFR 113.47 - Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique. 113.47 Section 113.47 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... or in a filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Monolayer cultures of cells (monolayers), at...

  11. 9 CFR 113.47 - Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique. 113.47 Section 113.47 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... or in a filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Monolayer cultures of cells (monolayers), at...

  12. 9 CFR 113.47 - Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique. 113.47 Section 113.47 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... or in a filed Outline of Production for a product. (a) Monolayer cultures of cells (monolayers), at...

  13. Comparing Direct versus Indirect Measures of the Pedagogical Effectiveness of Team Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Direct measures (tests) of the pedagogical effectiveness of team testing and indirect measures (student surveys) of pedagogical effectiveness of team testing were collected in several sections of an undergraduate marketing course with varying levels of the use of team testing. The results indicate that although students perceived team testing to…

  14. Comparing Direct versus Indirect Measures of the Pedagogical Effectiveness of Team Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Direct measures (tests) of the pedagogical effectiveness of team testing and indirect measures (student surveys) of pedagogical effectiveness of team testing were collected in several sections of an undergraduate marketing course with varying levels of the use of team testing. The results indicate that although students perceived team testing to…

  15. Cold Regions Test of Indirect Fire Weapons Ammunition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-08

    comparison with test item is on hand. Inspect all test ammunition shipping containers for com- pleteness, general condition, and damage. Record all lot numbers and...insure that the temperature of the ammunition components are at near ambient. During this period ammunition lot numbers and serial numbers will be

  16. Test Report: Direct and Indirect Lightning Effects on Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    Lightning tests were performed on composite materials as a part of an investigation of electromagnetic effects on the materials. Samples were subjected to direct and remote simulated lightning strikes. Samples included various thicknesses of graphite filament reinforced plastic (GFRP), material enhanced by expanded aluminum foil layers, and material with an aluminum honeycomb core. Shielding properties of the material and damage to the sample surfaces and joints were investigated. Adding expanded aluminum foil layers and increasing the thickness of GFRP improves the shielding effectiveness against lightning induced fields and the ability to withstand lightning strikes. A report describing the lightning strike tests performed by the U.S. Army Redstone Technical Test Center, Redstone Arsenal, AL, STERT-TE-E-EM, is included as an appendix.

  17. Comparison of Enrichment Procedures for Fluorescent Antibody and Cultural Detection of Salmonellae in Raw Meat and Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Berenice M.; Dodd, David J.

    1976-01-01

    No advantage was shown in preenriching raw meat samples for detecting salmonellae by fluorescent antibodies or culture. Trypticase soy-tryptose (Edwards and Ewing, 1972) was equal to or better than selenite-cystine as a postenrichment broth. PMID:776088

  18. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  19. [Evaluation of the indirect hemagglutination inhibition and radial immunodiffusion tests as methods of quantitative immunoglobulin determination].

    PubMed

    Kukain, E M; Nikolaeva, T A; Khazenson, L B

    1975-03-01

    In comparison with the radial immunodiffusion method, the sensitivity of the indirect hemagglutination test in determining the concentration of immunoglobulins G, M and A in various biological substrates (blood serum, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, feces) was 35--100 greater. Under the action of proteolytic enzymes immunoglobulin fragmentation led to increase in the concentration of the Ig indices (according to the data of radial immunodiffusion) and produced no effect on the indices of the indirect hemagglutination test; The latter should be used to determine the immunoglobulins in the external secretions characterized by a low content of the given proteins and a marked probability of their proteolytic splitting. In assessing the results of the indirect hemagglutination test it should be remembered that it was less precise and less reproducible than the radial immunodiffusion method.

  20. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation.

    PubMed

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2-90.8% and 83.3-86.9% and a specificity of 97.7-98.8% and 95.1-97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values.

  1. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation

    PubMed Central

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2–90.8% and 83.3–86.9% and a specificity of 97.7–98.8% and 95.1–97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values. PMID:26904678

  2. Comparison of Automated Quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR and Direct Fluorescent-Antibody Detection for Routine Rabies Diagnosis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Michelle; Brunt, Scott; Appler, Kim; Rudd, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Rabies virus found worldwide and prevalent throughout the United States continues to be a public health concern. Direct-fluorescent antibody (DFA) detection remains the gold standard for rabies virus diagnostics. Assessing the utility of a high-throughput molecular platform such as the QIAsymphony SP/AS, in conjunction with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), to augment or potentially replace the DFA test, was the focus of this project. Here we describe a triplex qRT-PCR assay, including assembly and evaluation for sensitivity, specificity, and ability to detect variants. Additionally, we compared the qRT-PCR assay to the gold standard direct fluorescent-antibody test. More than 1,000 specimens submitted for routine rabies diagnosis were tested to directly compare the two methods. All results were in agreement between the two methods, with one additional specimen detected by qRT-PCR below the limits of the DFA sensitivity. With the proper continued validation for variant detection, molecular methods have a place in routine rabies diagnostics within the United States. PMID:26179300

  3. Towards a Bullet-proof test for indirect signals of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Rajendran, Surjeet; Van Tilburg, Ken; Wiser, Timothy D.

    2015-05-01

    Merging galaxy clusters such as the Bullet Cluster provide a powerful testing ground for indirect detection of dark matter. The spatial distribution of the dark matter is both directly measurable through gravitational lensing and substantially different from the distribution of potential astrophysical backgrounds. We propose to use this spatial information to identify the origin of indirect detection signals, and we show that even statistical excesses of a few sigma can be robustly tested for consistency—or inconsistency—with a dark matter source. For example, our methods, combined with already-existing observations of the Coma Cluster, would allow the 3.55 keV line to be tested for compatibility with a dark matter origin. We also discuss the optimal spatial reweighting of photons for indirect detection searches. The current discovery rate of merging galaxy clusters and associated lensing maps strongly motivates deep exposures in these dark matter targets for both current and upcoming indirect detection experiments in the x-ray and gamma-ray bands.

  4. An indirect hemagglutination test for the detection of antibodies to Clostridium chauvoei.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Y; Makie, H; Tanaka, S

    1985-06-01

    An indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test using sonicated extract as the antigen was developed for the detection of antibodies to Clostridium chauvoei. This antigen can be adsorbed onto glutaraldehyde-fixed sheep red blood cells treated with tannic acid and can be destroyed by trypsin and heat treatment. It corresponded well with the flagella of the organism, when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the gel diffusion test. No serological cross-reactivity was found in the IHA test when the antigen was tested against 4 species of clostridial antibodies. Our results suggest that the IHA test mainly detects antibodies against the flagella of C. chauvoei.

  5. Testing the optimal defence hypothesis for two indirect defences: extrafloral nectar and volatile organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, Venkatesan; Kost, Christian; Bartram, Stefan; Heil, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many plants respond to herbivory with an increased production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) and/or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to attract predatory arthropods as an indirect defensive strategy. In this study, we tested whether these two indirect defences fit the optimal defence hypothesis (ODH), which predicts the within-plant allocation of anti-herbivore defences according to trade-offs between growth and defence. Using jasmonic acid-induced plants of Phaseolus lunatus and Ricinus communis, we tested whether the within-plant distribution pattern of these two indirect defences reflects the fitness value of the respective plant parts. Furthermore, we quantified photosynthetic rates and followed the within-plant transport of assimilates with 13C labelling experiments. EFN secretion and VOC emission were highest in younger leaves. Moreover, the photosynthetic rate increased with leaf age, and pulse-labelling experiments suggested transport of carbon to younger leaves. Our results demonstrate that the ODH can explain the within-plant allocation pattern of both indirect defences studied. PMID:18493790

  6. False recognition of objects in visual scenes: findings from a combined direct and indirect memory test.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Nash, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    We report an extension of the procedure devised by Weinstein and Shanks (Memory & Cognition 36:1415-1428, 2008) to study false recognition and priming of pictures. Participants viewed scenes with multiple embedded objects (seen items), then studied the names of these objects and the names of other objects (read items). Finally, participants completed a combined direct (recognition) and indirect (identification) memory test that included seen items, read items, and new items. In the direct test, participants recognized pictures of seen and read items more often than new pictures. In the indirect test, participants' speed at identifying those same pictures was improved for pictures that they had actually studied, and also for falsely recognized pictures whose names they had read. These data provide new evidence that a false-memory induction procedure can elicit memory-like representations that are difficult to distinguish from "true" memories of studied pictures.

  7. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  8. Application of the Fluorescent-Antibody Technique for the Detection of Sphaerotilus natans in Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Howgrave-Graham, Alan R.; Steyn, Pieter L.

    1988-01-01

    Sphaerotilus natans, one of the most widely reported causes of bulking in activated sludge, can exist both within and outside of a sheath. It can easily be confused with similar activated sludge bacteria and thus can be overlooked when present in low numbers. Fluorescent antiserum was successfully prepared against the nonfilamentous form and was shown to be highly specific, showing no reaction with either pure cultures of similar filamentous bacteria or entirely unrelated organisms. It did, however, show a lack of strain specificity since it reacted with S. natans isolates from the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States and with filamentous bacteria in South African activated sludges. Fluorescent antibody is capable of penetrating the filaments of S. natans to stain the cells individually. The use of fluorescent antiserum in the identification of S. natans filaments obscured by activated sludge flocs and other suspended matter was simple since the cells stained brightly and could be observed through the less dense matter, while the use of other microscope techniques would be hampered by these obstructions. The use of fluorescent antibody will facilitate ecological studies of S. natans in activated sludge and other aqueous environments. Images PMID:16347588

  9. In vivo imaging using fluorescent antibodies to tumor necrosis factor predicts therapeutic response in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Raja; Neumann, Helmut; Neufert, Clemens; Waldner, Maximilian J; Billmeier, Ulrike; Zopf, Yurdagül; Willma, Marcus; App, Christine; Münster, Tino; Kessler, Hermann; Maas, Stefanie; Gebhardt, Bernd; Heimke-Brinck, Ralph; Reuter, Eva; Dörje, Frank; Rau, Tilman T; Uter, Wolfgang; Wang, Thomas D; Kiesslich, Ralf; Vieth, Michael; Hannappel, Ewald; Neurath, Markus F

    2014-03-01

    As antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) suppress immune responses in Crohn's disease by binding to membrane-bound TNF (mTNF), we created a fluorescent antibody for molecular mTNF imaging in this disease. Topical antibody administration in 25 patients with Crohn's disease led to detection of intestinal mTNF(+) immune cells during confocal laser endomicroscopy. Patients with high numbers of mTNF(+) cells showed significantly higher short-term response rates (92%) at week 12 upon subsequent anti-TNF therapy as compared to patients with low amounts of mTNF(+) cells (15%). This clinical response in the former patients was sustained over a follow-up period of 1 year and was associated with mucosal healing observed in follow-up endoscopy. These data indicate that molecular imaging with fluorescent antibodies has the potential to predict therapeutic responses to biological treatment and can be used for personalized medicine in Crohn's disease and autoimmune or inflammatory disorders.

  10. Use of stable, sensitized cells in an indirect microhemagglutination test for melioidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hambie, E A; Larsen, S A; Felker, M; Jones, W L; Feeley, J C

    1977-01-01

    Two evaluations were carried out in this study. The first was a comparison of the standard tube test with the automated microtitration test for the detection of antibodies to Pseudomonas pseudomallei by the indirect hemagglutination method. Data from this comparison indicated that the tests were equivalent. The second evaluation consisted of reproducibility studies on two lots of pyruvic aldehyde-stabilized sensitized erythrocytes in comparison with freshly prepared sensitized erythrocytes in the automated microtitration test. The influence of different types of the microtitration plates used was also examined. Results indicated that the use of stabilized antigens is feasible, and these antigens offer the advantage of being ready for immediate use. PMID:557498

  11. Seroprevalence Study of Human Brucellosis by Conventional Tests and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Agasthya, Annapurna S.; Isloor, Srikrishna; Krishnamsetty, Prabhudas

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart attacks. The focus of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and specific indirect ELISA by using smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella abortus 99 to detect anti-Brucella antibodies at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Serum samples collected from 652 individuals in whom fever was not the major symptom but the complaint was of joint pain, headache, lower backache, and so forth, were screened by Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and standard tube agglutination test (STAT). Subsequent testing of sera by indigenous indirect ELISA detected 20 samples positive (3.6% seroprevalence), and indirect ELISA was found to be more sensitive than RBPT and STAT. The seroprevalence in South Karnataka was 2.14%, and in North Karnataka it was 0.92%. PMID:22566755

  12. A cautionary note on the power of the test for the indirect effect in mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loeys, Tom; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Recent simulation studies have pointed to the higher power of the test for the mediated effect vs. the test for the total effect, even in the presence of a direct effect. This has motivated applied researchers to investigate mediation in settings where there is no evidence of a total effect. In this paper we provide analytical insight into the circumstances under which higher power of the test for the mediated effect vs. the test for the total effect can be expected in the absence of a direct effect. We argue that the acclaimed power gain is somewhat deceptive and comes with a big price. On the basis of the results, we recommend that when the primary interest lies in mediation only, a significant test for the total effect should not be used as a prerequisite for the test for the indirect effect. However, because the test for the indirect effect is vulnerable to bias when common causes of mediator and outcome are not measured or not accounted for, it should be evaluated in a sensitivity analysis. PMID:25628585

  13. Environmental tests comparing Kress indirect dry cooling with conventional coke oven pushing and quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, C.A.; Ponder, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process and gives results of an evaluation through baseline and demonstration emission testing. The KIDC process offers a technology that has the potential to reduce emissions from coke pushing and quenching at existing coke oven batteries. In a 2-month demonstration on a 4-m battery, all 321 Kress pushes were successful. A box slightly larger than the coke charge was positioned flush against the coke oven and received the push. Then the box was sealed and transferred to the quenching station where the coke was indirectly quenched by running cooling water on the outside of the box. In the conventional process, the coke is exposed to air and water, often resulting in extensive particulate and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions.

  14. Rapid Detection and Identification of Streptococcus Iniae Using a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems . The traditional plate culture technique to detect and identify S. iniae is time consuming and may be problematic due to phenotypic variations...

  15. How Good Are Indirect Tests at Detecting Recombination in Human mtDNA?

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel James; Bryant, David; Gemmell, Neil John

    2013-01-01

    Empirical proof of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination in somatic tissues was obtained in 2004; however, a lack of irrefutable evidence exists for recombination in human mtDNA at the population level. Our inability to demonstrate convincingly a signal of recombination in population data sets of human mtDNA sequence may be due, in part, to the ineffectiveness of current indirect tests. Previously, we tested some well-established indirect tests of recombination (linkage disequilibrium vs. distance using D′ and r2, Homoplasy Test, Pairwise Homoplasy Index, Neighborhood Similarity Score, and Max χ2) on sequence data derived from the only empirically confirmed case of human mtDNA recombination thus far and demonstrated that some methods were unable to detect recombination. Here, we assess the performance of these six well-established tests and explore what characteristics specific to human mtDNA sequence may affect their efficacy by simulating sequence under various parameters with levels of recombination (ρ) that vary around an empirically derived estimate for human mtDNA (population parameter ρ = 5.492). No test performed infallibly under any of our scenarios, and error rates varied across tests, whereas detection rates increased substantially with ρ values > 5.492. Under a model of evolution that incorporates parameters specific to human mtDNA, including rate heterogeneity, population expansion, and ρ = 5.492, successful detection rates are limited to a range of 7−70% across tests with an acceptable level of false-positive results: the neighborhood similarity score incompatibility test performed best overall under these parameters. Population growth seems to have the greatest impact on recombination detection probabilities across all models tested, likely due to its impact on sequence diversity. The implications of our findings on our current understanding of mtDNA recombination in humans are discussed. PMID:23665874

  16. Are indirect genetic benefits associated with polyandry? Testing predictions in a natural population of lemon sharks.

    PubMed

    DiBattista, Joseph D; Feldheim, Kevin A; Gruber, Samuel H; Hendry, Andrew P

    2008-02-01

    Multiple mating has clear fitness benefits for males, but uncertain benefits and costs for females. We tested for indirect genetic benefits of polyandry in a natural population, by using data from a long-term genetic and demographic study of lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) at Bimini, Bahamas. To do so, we followed the fates of individuals from six cohorts (450 age-0 and 254 age-1 fish) in relation to their individual level of genetic variation, and whether they were from polyandrous or monoandrous litters. We find that offspring from polyandrous litters did not have a greater genetic diversity or greater survival than did the offspring of monoandrous litters. We also find no evidence of positive associations between individual offspring genetic diversity metrics and our surrogate measure of fitness (i.e. survival). In fact, age-1 individuals with fewer heterozygous microsatellite loci and more genetically similar parents were more likely to survive to age-2. Thus, polyandry in female lemon sharks does not appear to be adaptive from the perspective of indirect genetic benefits to offspring. It may instead be the result of convenience polyandry, whereby females mate multiply to avoid harassment by males. Our inability to find indirect genetic benefits of polyandry despite detailed pedigree and survival information suggests the need for similar assessments in other natural populations.

  17. Indirect immunofluorescence test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Schaber, E; Umlauft, F; Stöffler, G; Aigner, F; Paulweber, B; Sandhofer, F

    1989-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence test (IIF) has been developed for detecting Campylobacter pylori in gastroduodenal biopsies. This test was compared with standard methods of C. pylori diagnosis, namely Gram staining and urease test, in a study population of 226 patients; 121 of the biopsy specimens were cultured for C. pylori as well. C. pylori colonization was detected in 154 of 226 patients (68%) by at least one of these methods (IIF, 96%; Gram staining, 78%; urease test, 60%; cultivation, 55%). Serum samples from 191 patients of the study population were screened for circulating antibodies to C. pylori by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with whole, untreated bacteria as antigen. Of these serum specimens, 140 (73%) revealed absorbance readings above the limit of positivity, which was determined as an optical density of greater than 0.35 at 405/620 nm. Of 132 serum specimens, 128 (97%) from patients with C. pylori detected in biopsies, but only 12 (20%) of 59 specimens from those without C. pylori detection showed elevated specific antibody levels. Our data revealed that IIF proved to be the superior rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic method. The correlation between microbiological findings and the immune response favors our enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as an additional tool in C. pylori diagnosis. PMID:2644295

  18. [Comparison of the methenamine silver staining, direct fluorescent antibody and nested-polymerase chain reaction methods in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Güneş, Ilkay; Kalkanci, Ayşe; Kuştimur, Semra; Ergüven, Sibel; Ozet, Gülsüm; Ekim, Numan

    2004-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii is one of the most common causative agents of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients, but the problems in the laboratory diagnosis of the disease frequently leads to diagnosis according to the response to medical treatment. In this study, the presence of P. carinii was investigated in immunocompromised patients who were presenting with the clinical symptoms of atypical pneumonia, by Gomori methenamine silver staining (GMS), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and nested-polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) methods. Fifty-three samples of 49 patients were included in the study. Twelve of the samples (22.6%) were found to be positive by nPCR, 6 of them (11.3%) were found to be positive by DFA, while only one of them (1.8%) was positive by GMS staining method. As a result, for the appropriate treatment and prophylaxis of P. carinii infections, PCR which is a rapid and reliable diagnostic test should be used for diagnosis.

  19. Reading and listening to music increase resting energy expenditure during an indirect calorimetry test.

    PubMed

    Snell, Blaire; Fullmer, Susan; Eggett, Dennis L

    2014-12-01

    Indirect calorimetry is often done early in the morning in a fasting state, with the subject unshowered and abstained from caffeine or other stimulants. Subjects often fall asleep, resulting in measurement of a sleeping metabolic rate rather than a resting metabolic rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether listening to self-selected relaxing music or reading an electronic device or magazine affects resting energy expenditure (REE) during measurement in healthy adults. A randomized trial comparing three different conditions (ie, resting, reading, and listening to music) was performed. Sixty-five subjects (36 female and 29 male) were used in final data analysis. Inclusion criteria included healthy subjects between the ages of 18 and 50 years with a stable weight. Exclusion criteria included pregnant or lactating women or use of medications known to affect metabolism. Results showed that reading either a magazine or an electronic device significantly increased REE by 102.7 kcal/day when compared with resting (P<0.0001); however, there was no difference in REE between the electronic device and magazine. Listening to self-selected relaxing music increased REE by 27.6 kcal/day compared with rest (P=0.0072). Based on our results, we recommend subjects refrain from reading a magazine or electronic device during an indirect calorimetry test. Whether or not the smaller difference found while listening to music is practically significant would be a decision for the indirect calorimetry test administrator. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Micro-indirect hemagglutination test for detection of antibody against transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, M; Shimizu, Y

    1977-01-01

    A micro-indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test was developed for detecting antibody against transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus of pigs. TGE virus propagated in swine kidney cell cultures was highly purified and concentrated by the combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, treatment with fluorocarbon, and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Tanned sheep erythrocytes were sensitized with purified virus for use in the IHA test. The results of testing 104 serum samples collected from pigs in the field indicated that the IHA antibody titers were approximately five times higher than those obtained by a serum neutralization test and that there was good correlation between the antibody titers determined by the two tests. High IHA antibody titers developed in pigs experimentally exposed to virulent TGE virus. Sensitized sheep erythrocytes were stable under long-term storage at 4 degrees C (at least for 50 days). The conclusions made are that the IHA test described is more sensitive than the serum neutralization test for the detection of TGE antibody and may be of value for serodiagnosis of TGE. Images PMID:197119

  1. Evaluation of two ELISA and two indirect hemagglutination tests for serodiagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Eris, Fatma Nur; Akisu, Ciler; Aksoy, Umit

    2009-12-01

    To establish a definite diagnosis for pulmonary hydatid disease, combination of radiology and serology is useful. In this study, 19 preoperative sera from patients with surgically confirmed pulmonary hydatidosis, 40 sera from patients with other parasitosis and pulmonary diseases, and 20 sera from healthy donors were evaluated using 4 different serological tests, i.e., the commercial ELISA (ELISA-kit) test, the ELISA (ELISA-lab) test prepared in our laboratory, the commercial indirect hemagglutination assay kit (IHA-kit) test, and the IHA test using sensitized sheep red blood cells with tannic acid (IHA-TA). The ELISA-kit was the most sensitive (84.2%) and the most specific test (100.0%). The ELISA-kit also demonstrated the highest positive (100.0%) and negative (95.2%) predictive values. The sensitivity of the ELISA-lab test, that we prepared, was found to be 73.6%, whereas the IHA-kit test and the IHA-TA test were found to be 73.6% and 68.4%, respectively. The specificity of these tests was 96.6%, 98.3%, and 83.3%, respectively. When all 4 tests were assessed together, it was found that the sensitivity had risen to 94.7%. When the ELISA-kit was assessed with the IHA-kit and IHA-TA together, it was found that the sensitivity was 89.5% and 84.2%, respectively. Likewise, the combination of the ELISA-lab and IHA-kit or IHA-TA allowed us to achieve a sensitivity of 84.2% in cases of pulmonary echinococcosis. In conclusion, the diagnosis would be imminent if least 2 tests were applied together.

  2. Paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Natasha; McLiesh, Heather; Guan, Liyun; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and simple paper-based elution assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) was established. This allows to type blood using IgG antibodies for the important blood groups in which IgM antibodies do not exist. Red blood cells incubated with IgG anti-D were washed with saline and spotted onto the paper assay pre-treated with anti-IgG. The blood spot was eluted with an elution buffer solution in a chromatography tank. Positive samples were identified by the agglutinated and fixed red blood cells on the original spotting area, while red blood cells from negative samples completely eluted away from the spot of origin. Optimum concentrations for both anti-IgG and anti-D were identified to eliminate the washing step after the incubation phase. Based on the no-washing procedure, the critical variables were investigated to establish the optimal conditions for the paper-based assay. Two hundred ten donor blood samples were tested in optimal conditions for the paper test with anti-D and anti-Kell. Positive and negative samples were clearly distinguished. This assay opens up new applications of the IAT on paper including antibody detection and blood donor-recipient crossmatching and extends its uses into non-blood typing applications with IgG antibody-based diagnostics. Graphical abstract A rapid and simple paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

  3. Conceptualizing and Testing Random Indirect Effects and Moderated Mediation in Multilevel Models: New Procedures and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Gil, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors propose new procedures for evaluating direct, indirect, and total effects in multilevel models when all relevant variables are measured at Level 1 and all effects are random. Formulas are provided for the mean and variance of the indirect and total effects and for the sampling variances of the average indirect and total effects.…

  4. Development of indirect ring tension test for fracture characterization of asphalt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeinali Siavashani, Alireza

    Low temperature cracking is a major distress in asphalt pavements. Several test configurations have been introduced to characterize the fracture properties of hot mix (HMA); however, most are considered to be research tools due to the complexity of the test methods or equipment. This dissertation describes the development of the indirect ring tension (IRT) fracture test for HMA, which was designed to be an effective and user-friendly test that could be deployed at the Department of Transportation level. The primary advantages of this innovative and yet practical test include: relatively large fracture surface test zone, simplicity of the specimen geometry, widespread availability of the required test equipment, and ability to test laboratory compacted specimens as well as field cores. Numerical modeling was utilized to calibrate the stress intensity factor formula of the IRT fracture test for various specimen dimensions. The results of this extensive analysis were encapsulated in a single equation. To develop the test procedure, a laboratory study was conducted to determine the optimal test parameters for HMA material. An experimental plan was then developed to evaluate the capability of the test in capturing the variations in the mix properties, asphalt pavement density, asphalt material aging, and test temperature. Five plant-produced HMA mixtures were used in this extensive study, and the results revealed that the IRT fracture test is highly repeatable, and capable of capturing the variations in the fracture properties of HMA. Furthermore, an analytical model was developed based on the viscoelastic properties of HMA to estimate the maximum allowable crack size for the pavements in the experimental study. This analysis indicated that the low-temperature cracking potential of the asphalt mixtures is highly sensitive to the fracture toughness and brittleness of the HMA material. Additionally, the IRT fracture test data seemed to correlate well with the data from

  5. Evaluation of an automated fluorescent antibody procedure for detection of Salmonella in foods and feeds.

    PubMed Central

    Munson, T E; Schrade, J P; Bisciello, N B; Fantasia, L D; Hartung, W H; O'Connor, J J

    1976-01-01

    A prototype automated system using fluorescent antibody (FA) was evaluated for rapid detection of salmonellae in foods. Samples were enriched in selenite cystine and tetrathionate broths. After incubation, both were transferred into fresh selenite cystine for a 4-h "post-enrichment" to dilute possible background fluorescence from product. These cultures were then analyzed automatically, and results were compared with those obtained by the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Initially, 167 samples of milk powder, dried yeast, and imported frog legs were examined. The AOAC and automated FA methods correlated well with all samples but frog legs. Difficulty with the latter was caused by procedural and mechanical problems coupled with high numbers of competing microorganisms in post-enrichment cultures. Modification of procedure and partial redesign of equipment corrected these difficulties, and excellent correlation was obtained with another 116 frog leg samples. All 89 AOAC-confirmed positives were also detected by the automated FA method, and there were only 4% false FA positives. The system shows potential for screening products for salmonellae; however, all positives should be confirmed by manual biochemical and serological methods. PMID:773305

  6. Test-Potentiated Learning: Distinguishing between Direct and Indirect Effects of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kathleen M.; McDermott, Kathleen B.

    2013-01-01

    The facilitative effect of retrieval practice, or testing, on the probability of later retrieval has been the focus of much recent empirical research. A lesser known benefit of retrieval practice is that it may also enhance the ability of a learner to benefit from a subsequent restudy opportunity. This facilitative effect of retrieval practice on…

  7. Test-Potentiated Learning: Distinguishing between Direct and Indirect Effects of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kathleen M.; McDermott, Kathleen B.

    2013-01-01

    The facilitative effect of retrieval practice, or testing, on the probability of later retrieval has been the focus of much recent empirical research. A lesser known benefit of retrieval practice is that it may also enhance the ability of a learner to benefit from a subsequent restudy opportunity. This facilitative effect of retrieval practice on…

  8. The intra- and inter-assay variation of the indirect mixed antiglobulin reaction test: is a quality control suitable?

    PubMed

    Bohring, C; Krause, W

    1999-07-01

    The test most commonly used to detect sperm antibodies is the mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR), standardized by the World Health Organization. The indirect MAR test detects soluble sperm antibodies in seminal plasma by using healthy donor spermatozoa as antigen. In this study we systematically investigated the influence of donor spermatozoa and the source of sperm antibodies upon the results of the indirect MAR test, and calculated the intra- and inter-assay variations. Using one individual seminal plasma and the same donor semen, results of the indirect MAR test are highly reproducible (low intra-assay variation). Two dimensions of inter-assay variation must be considered: (i) serial ejaculates of an individual donor may be used at different times; (ii) different donors may be applied to identical antibody sources. Donor spermatozoa strongly influenced the results of the indirect MAR test. Using multivariate statistical tests, highly significant main effects between the different donors (P < 0.001) and specific reciprocal effects between donor spermatozoa and seminal plasma samples (P < 0.001) were observed. The high inter-assay variation of the indirect MAR test will lead to incorrect results. There is urgent need of a reliable and reproducible test for sperm antibody detection to improve quality control of the methods.

  9. Religiosity and substance use: test of an indirect-effect model in early and middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Walker, Carmella; Ainette, Michael G; Wills, Thomas A; Mendoza, Don

    2007-03-01

    The authors tested hypothesized pathways from religiosity to adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana) with data from samples of middle school (n = 1,273) and high school students (n = 812). Confirmatory analysis of measures of religiosity supported a 2-factor solution with behavioral aspects (belonging, attendance) and personal aspects (importance, value, spirituality, forgiveness) as distinct factors. Structural modeling analyses indicated inverse indirect effects of personal religiosity on substance use, mediated through more good self-control and less tolerance for deviance. Religiosity was correlated with fewer deviant peer affiliations and nonendorsement of coping motives for substance use but did not have direct effects on these variables. Parental support and parent-child conflict also had significant effects (with opposite direction) on substance use, mediated through self-control and deviance-prone attitudes. Implications for prevention research are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Infantry Weapons Test Methodology Study. Volume V. Indirect Fire Weapons Test Methodology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-06-01

    this paragraph the advantages and disadvantages of the new system are compared to the system now within the Infantry Board capability. The new system...should have landed. The disadvantages include infrequency of motor testing, cost of development, procurement, installation, and mainte- nance. However...Defensie Deliberatc, Defense Re trograde Operations Combat in Cities Fronr~al Attack Amb ushi River Crossing Advance to Contact Exp loi tat ion The

  11. Effect of substrate selection on indirect immunofluorescence testing of canine autoimmune subepidermal blistering diseases.

    PubMed

    Favrot, C; Dunston, S; Deslandes, J; Paradis, M; Olivry, T

    2002-01-01

    The detection by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) of circulating antibodies in the serum of dogs with autoimmune subepidermal blistering diseases (AISBD) was regarded for a long time as an unrewarding tool. It was, however, demonstrated in humans that the sensitivity of IIF assays depended on the selection of the substrates used. The effects of substrate selection on IIF tests was thus studied by examining sera from 12 dogs with AISBD tested against 8 different substrates from 3 different normal dogs. Patients with AISBD suffered from bullous pemphigoid (n = 4 sera), mucous membrane pemphigoid (n = 4 sera), and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (n = 4 sera). Substrates included canine tongue, canine lip, canine dorsal haired skin, and ventral haired skin. The same 4 substrates were also split with salt splitting technique (using 1 M sodium chloride), in order to cleave the basement membrane within the lamina lucida and to expose the targeted antigens. The strength of the specific fluorescence of each slide was scored after processing for IIF testing with anti-canine IgG polyclonal antibody. Other criteria, such as background fluorescence, easiness of the interpretation, and variations within a same substrate, were also assessed. Intact canine lip and canine salt-split lip demonstrated consistently stronger intensity of fluorescence and a better ease of interpretation. We concluded that the performance of IIF tests with such substrates was a reliable tool for the detection of circulating IgG autoantibodies of canine patients with AISBD.

  12. INCIDENCE AND DETECTION OF PLEUROPNEUMONIA-LIKE ORGANISMS IN CELL CULTURES BY FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY AND CULTURAL PROCEDURES1

    PubMed Central

    Barile, Michael F.; Malizia, Walter F.; Riggs, Donald B.

    1962-01-01

    Barile, Michael F. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.), Walter F. Malizia, and Donald B. Riggs. Incidence and detection of pleuropneumonia-like organisms in cell cultures by fluorescent antibody and cultural procedures. J. Bacteriol. 84:130–136. 1962—A total of 102 tissue-cell cultures from 17 separate laboratories was examined for pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) by the fluorescent antibody and cultural procedures. PPLO were isolated from 48 of the 49 tissue-cell cultures found positive for PPLO by the fluorescent antibody procedure, and results of the two procedures agreed in 101 of the 102 (99%) cases. PPLO were isolated from none of 10 primary-cell cultures prepared from six animal species and from 48 of 92 (52%) continuous-cell cultures prepared from eight animal species. Cells grown in media containing antibiotics were more frequently contaminated with PPLO (72%) than cells grown in antibiotic-free media (7%). Cultures (91%) from tissue-culture-producing laboratories and cultures (76%) used for propagation of microorganisms were contaminated with PPLO, although none used for tissue-culture metabolic studies was contaminated. In addition, our findings support the view that PPLO contamination of cell cultures is probably owing to bacterial contaminants which revert to L forms in the presence of antibiotics. Images PMID:13865001

  13. An indirect microimmunofluorescence test for detection of chlamydial antibodies in ovine fetal fluids.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, T P; Andersen, A A; Miller, L D; Andrews, J J; Janke, B H; Larson, D L; Schwartz, K J

    1994-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate an indirect microimmunofluorescence test (IMIF) for detection of chlamydial antibodies in serum and/or thoracic fluids of aborted ovine fetuses. One hundred eighty-two ovine fetuses, including 64 fetuses from 40 ewes that were experimentally infected with an ovine abortion strain of Chlamydia psittaci at gestation days 90-100, 10 fetuses from 6 normal ewes, and 108 fetuses selected from those received at the Iowa Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, were evaluated in this study. Fetuses from experimentally infected ewes were examined 4-60 days after inoculation. The IMIF findings were compared with the results of complement fixation serology for chlamydiae and concentrations of immunoglobulin (IgG). Chlamydiae-specific antibodies were detected by IMIF in 28 of 38 fetuses infected with C. psittaci. Elevated levels of IgG and IMIF titers > or = 1:8 were consistent findings in ovine fetuses infected with chlamydiae for more than 24 days. IgG levels and titers of chlamydial antibodies increased with maturity of the fetus and duration of chlamydial infection. Chlamydial antibodies were not detected with the complement fixation test. Fluids from ovine fetuses aborted as a result of other causes also were examined, and IMIF results were negative. The results of this study indicate that the IMIF is a useful and relatively rapid test for identification of chlamydial antibodies in ovine fetuses.

  14. Prediction of VO2max from a new field test based on portable indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Flouris, Andreas D; Metsios, Giorgos S; Famisis, Konstantinos; Geladas, Nikos; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the validity and reliability of the new 15m square shuttle run test (SST) for predicting laboratory treadmill test (TT) maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) compared to the 20 m multistage shuttle run test (MST) in 45 adult males. Thirty participants performed a TT and a SST once to develop a VO( 2max) prediction model. The remaining 15 participants performed the TT and MST once and the SST twice for cross-validation purposes. Throughout testing V O(2max) was determined via portable indirect calorimetry while blood lactate concentration was assessed at the fifth recovery minute. Comparisons of TT V O(2 max) (51.3+/-3.1 ml kg(-1)min(-1)) with SST measured (51.2+/-3.2 ml kg(-1)min(-1)) and predicted (50.9+/-3.3 ml kg(-1)min(-1)) V O(2 max) showed no differences while TT blood lactate was higher compared to SST (10.3+/-1.7 mmol vs. 9.7+/-1.7 mmol, respectively). In contrast, MST measured (53.4+/-3.5 ml kg(-1)min(-1)) and predicted (57.0+/-4.5 ml kg(-1)min(-1)) V O(2 max) and blood lactate (11.2+/-2.0 mmol) were significantly higher compared to TT. No test-retest differences were detected for SST measured and predicted V O(2 max) and blood lactate. It is concluded that the SST is a highly valid and reliable predictive test for V O(2 max). Copyright (c) 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantifying and Testing Indirect Effects in Simple Mediation Models when the Constituent Paths Are Nonlinear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Andrew F.; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Most treatments of indirect effects and mediation in the statistical methods literature and the corresponding methods used by behavioral scientists have assumed linear relationships between variables in the causal system. Here we describe and extend a method first introduced by Stolzenberg (1980) for estimating indirect effects in models of…

  16. Reconstructing a 3-dimensional image of the results of antinuclear antibody testing by indirect immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Murai, Ryosei; Yamada, Koji; Tanaka, Maki; Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tsuji, Naoki; Watanabe, Naoki

    2013-01-31

    Indirect immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody testing (IIF-ANAT) is an essential screening tool in the diagnosis of various autoimmune disorders. ANA titer quantification and interpretation of immunofluorescence patterns are determined subjectively, which is problematic. First, we determined the examination conditions under which IIF-ANAT fluorescence intensities are quantified. Next, IIF-ANAT was performed using homogeneous, discrete speckled, and mixed serum samples. Images were obtained using Bio Zero BZ-8000, and 3-dimensional images were reconstructed using the BZ analyzer software. In the 2-dimensional analysis, homogeneous ANAs hid the discrete speckled pattern, resulting in a diagnosis of homogeneous immunofluorescence. However, 3-dimensional analysis of the same sample showed discrete speckled-type ANA in the homogeneous background. This study strengthened the current IIF-ANAT method by providing a new approach to quantify the fluorescence intensity and enhance the resolution of IIF-ANAT fluorescence patterns. Reconstructed 3-dimensional imaging of IIF-ANAT can be a powerful tool for routine laboratory examination.

  17. Does shrub invasion indirectly limit grass establishment via seedling herbivory? A test at grassland-shrubland ecotones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Does shrub invasion at ecotones indirectly limit grass establishment by increasing mammalian seedling herbivory, Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico? We tested the hypothesis that herbivore-related mortality of seedlings of the dominant perennial grass Bouteloua eriopoda would be highest in shrub-dominate...

  18. Re-assessment of direct fluorescent antibody negative brain tissues with a real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of raccoon rabies virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Szanto, Annamaria G; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Rosatte, Richard C; White, Bradley N

    2011-06-01

    The first report of the raccoon variant of rabies virus was in Ontario, Canada in 1999. As part of the control of this outbreak a Point Infection Control (PIC) strategy of trapping and euthanizing vector species was implemented. To evaluate whether this strategy was indeed removing diseased animals, rabies diagnosis was performed on these specimens. During a PIC program conducted in 2003, 721 animals (raccoons, striped skunks and red foxes) were collected and euthanized and brain material from each specimen was divided into two halves; one half was submitted for rabies diagnosis by a direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test while the other was tested using a sensitive real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), to detect raccoon rabies virus (RRV) RNA. This latter assay can detect less than ten viral copies in 200ng of total cellular RNA. All 721 PIC brain samples were negative by the DFA test but ten of them (5 raccoons, 5 skunks) tested positive for raccoon rabies virus by the RT-qPCR assay albeit at low levels. Three of these samples were confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Little correlation was observed between clinical rabies DFA positive scoring categories and viral copy number as determined by RT-qPCR.

  19. Fitness consequences of female multiple mating: A direct test of indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The observation that females mate multiply when males provide nothing but sperm - which sexual selection theory suggests is unlikely to be limiting - continues to puzzle evolutionary biologists. Here we test the hypothesis that multiple mating is prevalent under such circumstances because it enhances female fitness. We do this by allowing female Trinidadian guppies to mate with either a single male or with multiple males, and then tracking the consequences of these matings across two generations. Results Overall, multiply mated females produced 67% more F2 grand-offspring than singly mated females. These offspring, however, did not grow or mature faster, nor were they larger at birth, than F2 grand-offspring of singly mated females. Our results, however, show that multiple mating yields benefits to females in the form of an increase in the production of F1. The higher fecundity among multiply mated mothers was driven by greater production of sons but not daughters. However, contrary to expectation, individually, the offspring of multiply mated females do not grow at different rates than offspring of singly mated females, nor do any indirect fitness benefits or costs accrue to second-generation offspring. Conclusions The study provides strong evidence that multiple mating is advantageous to females, even when males contribute only sperm. This benefit is achieved through an increase in fecundity in the first generation, rather than through other fitness correlates such as size at birth, growth rate, time to sexual maturation and survival. Considered alongside previous work that female guppies can choose to mate with multiple partners, our results provide compelling evidence that direct fitness benefits underpin these mating decisions. PMID:22978442

  20. Indirect Haemagglutination Test in Comparison with ELISA for Detection of Antibodies against Invasive Amoebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Dhanalakshmi, Sankaramoorthy; Meenachi, Chidambaram

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diagnosis of amoebiasis is based on combination of tests like microscopy, imaging, serology and molecular methods. In absence of molecular techniques, serology can be used as an alternative aid. Various serological techniques were reported with different sensitivity and specificity. The diagnostic efficiency of these assays mainly depends on the characteristics of antigen that is being used and various conditions of performance. Aim To evaluate the efficiency of recombinant calcium binding domain containing protein by Indirect Haemagglutination Assay (IHA) against a commercial ELISA among amoebic liver abscess cases and control group. Materials and Methods The study was carried out during the period of 2011-2015 and blood samples were collected from suspected amoebiasis cases who were attending the clinics of Medicine and Paediatrics department, JIPMER. A total of 200 sera samples which included 100 Amoebic Liver Abscess (ALA), 50 cases of other parasitic infections and liver diseases and 50 presumed healthy controls were examined by IHA and commercial ELISA. In brief, chick cells were stabilized by Double Aldehyde Sensitization (DAS) method. Optimum Sensitizing Dose (OSD) of the antigen was determined. The test was performed in a U-bottomed microtiter plate with recombinant amoebic antigen (12.5μg/ml), incubated at Room Temperature (RT) for 2 hours. RIDASCREEN Entamoeba IgG ELISA kit which is commercially available was used to evaluate the samples as per manufacturer’s instruction. Results The overall sensitivity and specificity of the IHA was 62% and 96%, respectively when compared to ELISA having sensitivity and specificity of 69% and 90%, respectively. The positive predictive value of the IHA was 91% while negative predictive value was 79%. Similarly, the positive predictive value of the ELISA was 87% while negative predictive value was 74%. Conclusion As serology heavily suffers due to lack of a standardised test system employing the native

  1. Indirect Haemagglutination Test in Comparison with ELISA for Detection of Antibodies against Invasive Amoebiasis.

    PubMed

    Dhanalakshmi, Sankaramoorthy; Meenachi, Chidambaram; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis of amoebiasis is based on combination of tests like microscopy, imaging, serology and molecular methods. In absence of molecular techniques, serology can be used as an alternative aid. Various serological techniques were reported with different sensitivity and specificity. The diagnostic efficiency of these assays mainly depends on the characteristics of antigen that is being used and various conditions of performance. To evaluate the efficiency of recombinant calcium binding domain containing protein by Indirect Haemagglutination Assay (IHA) against a commercial ELISA among amoebic liver abscess cases and control group. The study was carried out during the period of 2011-2015 and blood samples were collected from suspected amoebiasis cases who were attending the clinics of Medicine and Paediatrics department, JIPMER. A total of 200 sera samples which included 100 Amoebic Liver Abscess (ALA), 50 cases of other parasitic infections and liver diseases and 50 presumed healthy controls were examined by IHA and commercial ELISA. In brief, chick cells were stabilized by Double Aldehyde Sensitization (DAS) method. Optimum Sensitizing Dose (OSD) of the antigen was determined. The test was performed in a U-bottomed microtiter plate with recombinant amoebic antigen (12.5μg/ml), incubated at Room Temperature (RT) for 2 hours. RIDASCREEN Entamoeba IgG ELISA kit which is commercially available was used to evaluate the samples as per manufacturer's instruction. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the IHA was 62% and 96%, respectively when compared to ELISA having sensitivity and specificity of 69% and 90%, respectively. The positive predictive value of the IHA was 91% while negative predictive value was 79%. Similarly, the positive predictive value of the ELISA was 87% while negative predictive value was 74%. As serology heavily suffers due to lack of a standardised test system employing the native antigen, there arises need to identify alternative source of

  2. Improving preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Fragile X syndrome: two new powerful single-round multiplex indirect and direct tests.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Emmanuelle; Nicod, Jean-Christophe; Gardes, Nathalie; Kastner, Claire; Becker, Nicolas; Celebi, Catherine; Pirrello, Olivier; Rongières, Catherine; Koscinski, Isabelle; Gosset, Philippe; Moutou, Céline

    2016-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG repeat located in the Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) gene. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) can be proposed to couples at risk of transmitting the disease, that is, when the female carries a premutation or a full mutation. We describe two new single-cell, single-round multiplex PCR for indirect and direct diagnosis of FraX on biopsied embryos. These tests include five unpublished, highly heterozygous simple sequence repeats, and the co-amplification of non-expanded CGG repeats for the direct test. Heterozygosity of the new markers ranged from 69 to 81%. The mean rate of non-informative marker included in the tests was low (26% and 23% for the new indirect and direct tests, respectively). This strategy allows offering a PGD for FraX to 96% of couples requesting it in our centre. A conclusive genotype was obtained in all cells with a rate of cells presenting an allele dropout ranging from 17% for the indirect test to 26% for the direct test. The new indirect test was applied for eight PGD cycles: 32 embryos were analysed, 9 were transferred and 3 healthy babies were born. By multiplexing these highly informative markers, robustness of the diagnosis is improved and the loss of potentially healthy embryos (because they are non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed) is limited. This may increase the chances of success of couples requesting a PGD for FraX, in particular, when premature ovarian insufficiency in premutated women leads to a reduced number of embryos available for analysis.

  3. Correcting for Indirect Range Restriction in Meta-Analysis: Testing a New Meta-Analytic Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Huy; Schmidt, Frank L.

    2006-01-01

    Using computer simulation, the authors assessed the accuracy of J. E. Hunter, F. L. Schmidt, and H. Le's (2006) procedure for correcting for indirect range restriction, the most common type of range restriction, in comparison with the conventional practice of applying the Thorndike Case II correction for direct range restriction. Hunter et…

  4. Testing the sensitivity of past climates to the indirect effects of dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagoo, Navjit; Storelvmo, Trude

    2017-06-01

    Mineral dust particles are important ice nuclei (IN) and as such indirectly impact Earth's radiative balance via the properties of cold clouds. Using the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.6, and Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1, and a new empirical parameterization for ice nucleation on dust particles, we investigate the radiative forcing induced by dust IN for different dust loadings. Dust emissions are representative of global conditions for the Last Glacial Maximum and the mid-Pliocene Warm Period. Increased dust leads to smaller and more numerous ice crystals in mixed phase clouds, impacting cloud opacity, lifetime, and precipitation. This increases the shortwave cloud radiative forcing, resulting in significant surface temperature cooling and polar amplification—which is underestimated in existing studies relative to paleoclimate archives. Large hydrological changes occur and are linked to an enhanced dynamical response. We conclude that dust indirect effects could potentially have a significant impact on the model-data mismatch that exists for paleoclimates.Plain Language SummaryMineral dust and climate are closely linked, with large fluctuations in dust deposition recorded in geological archives. Dusty conditions are generally associated with cold, glacial periods and low dust with warmer climates. The direct effects of dust on the climate (absorbing and reflecting radiation) are well understood; however, the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of dust on climate have been overlooked. Dust <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> impacts the climate through its role as ice nuclei; the presence of dust makes it easier for ice to form in a cloud. We explore the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of dust in climates with different dust loading from the present by conducting a climate modeling study in which dust are able to act as ice nuclei. Including dust <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects increases the sensitivity of our model to changes in dust emission. Increasing dust impacts ice</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=379896','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=379896"><span>Evaluation of a <span class="hlt">Fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">Antibody</span>-Enrichment Serology Combination Procedure for the Detection of Salmonellae in Condiments, Food Products, Food By-Products, and Animal Feeds1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hilker, John S.; Solberg, Myron</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The reliability of the enrichment serology (ES), <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> (FA), and a combination of the FA and ES procedures for the detection of salmonellae were compared to the Salmonella cultural procedure outlined in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM). A total of 126 subsamples from 22 different products were analyzed. By utilizing the BAM procedure as the reference standard, a total of 66 samples were positive for salmonellae. Within 44 h approximately 65% of the Salmonella-negative samples could be cleared by the FA <span class="hlt">test</span>. At the end of 50 h 97% of the Salmonella-negative samples could be cleared by the combination FA-ES <span class="hlt">test</span>. The FA procedure detected all 66 BAM positives but exhibited a high incidence of presumptive positives which were cultural negatives. The ES procedure detected 64 of the 66 BAM positives but exhibited a low incidence of presumptive positives which were cultural negatives. Incorporating positive FA and positive ES results in a combination FA-ES technique revealed that FA-ES positives were statistically equivalent to BAM positives. PMID:4586931</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23593851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23593851"><span>[<span class="hlt">Indirect</span> hemagglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> capabilities of personnel from institutes of schistosomiasis control at basic levels in lake areas].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qin, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Ting; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Hong-Qing; Bao, Zi-Ping; Li, Hua-Zhong; Li, Shi-Zhu</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>To understand the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> hemagglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> capabilities of personnel from the institutes of schistosomiasis control at the basic levels in lake areas. All the contestants were grouped by the operation standard, qualitative judgment, quantitative determination, and geographical location of Hunan and Hubei provinces, and their scores were statistically analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software. The total scores of the contestants of the two provinces were high and there was no significant difference between them. Among the professional persons, the scores of operation standard and qualitative judgment were significantly higher than those of quantitative determination. There were no significant differences among the scores grouped by the different genders, ages, professional titles and areas (all P > 0.05). The quantitative determination of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> hemagglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> of personnel from the institutes of schistosomiasis control at the basic levels is not very good. Therefore, the training of <span class="hlt">test</span> capacity still should be strengthened.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4479137','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4479137"><span>In vivo imaging using <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibodies</span> to tumor necrosis factor predicts therapeutic response in Crohn’s disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Atreya, Raja; Neumann, Helmut; Neufert, Clemens; Waldner, Maximilian J; Billmeier, Ulrike; Zopf, Yurdagül; Willma, Marcus; App, Christine; Münster, Tino; Kessler, Hermann; Maas, Stefanie; Gebhardt, Bernd; Heimke-Brinck, Ralph; Reuter, Eva; Dörje, Frank; Rau, Tilman T; Uter, Wolfgang; Wang, Thomas D; Kiesslich, Ralf; Vieth, Michael; Hannappel, Ewald; Neurath, Markus F</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>As antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) suppress immune responses in Crohn’s disease by binding to membrane-bound TNF (mTNF), we created a <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> for molecular mTNF imaging in this disease. Topical antibody administration in 25 patients with Crohn’s disease led to detection of intestinal mTNF+ immune cells during confocal laser endomicroscopy. Patients with high numbers of mTNF+ cells showed significantly higher short-term response rates (92%) at week 12 upon subsequent anti-TNF therapy as compared to patients with low amounts of mTNF+ cells (15%). This clinical response in the former patients was sustained over a follow-up period of 1 year and was associated with mucosal healing observed in follow-up endoscopy. These data indicate that molecular imaging with <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibodies</span> has the potential to predict therapeutic responses to biological treatment and can be used for personalized medicine in Crohn’s disease and autoimmune or inflammatory disorders. PMID:24562382</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12385903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12385903"><span>Micro-tensile bond <span class="hlt">testing</span> of resin cements to dentin and an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resin composite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mak, Yiu-Fai; Lai, Shirley C N; Cheung, Gary S P; Chan, Alex W K; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Micro-tensile bond strength (microTBS) evaluation and fractographic analysis were used to compare four resin cement systems (AC: All-Bond 2/Choice; RX: Single Bond/RelyX ARC; SB: Super-Bond C & B; and PF: Panavia F) in <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composite/dentin adhesive joints. Flat dentin surfaces were created on extracted human third molars. The resin cements were used according to the manufacturers' instructions for bonding silanized composite overlays to deep coronal dentin. 0.9x0.9 composite-dentin beams prepared from the luted specimens were stressed to failure in tension. Dentin sides of all fractured specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the failure modes. In group PF, morphologic features that could not be resolved at the SEM level were further validated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of the SEM specimens. Statistical analyses revealed significant difference (p<0.05) among microTBS and failure modes in the resin cement groups. The two groups (AC and RX) with highest microTBS failed predominantly along the composite overlay/cement interface. Cohesive failure in resin cement was primarily observed in group SB that exhibited intermediate microTBS values. In group PF with the lowest microTBS, failure occurred mostly along the dentin surface. Globular resin agglomerates seen by SEM on PF-treated dentin were distinguished from silica fillers by TEM. The bond between the processed composite and the luting resin cement was the weak link in <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composite restorations cemented with AC or RX. Super-Bond C&B exhibited intermediate tensile strength and Panavia F is less reliable when used in conjunction with a self-etching primer for bonding <span class="hlt">indirect</span> restorations to dentin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25614095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25614095"><span>An automated approach to the segmentation of HEp-2 cells for the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence ANA <span class="hlt">test</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tonti, Simone; Di Cataldo, Santa; Bottino, Andrea; Ficarra, Elisa</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The automatization of the analysis of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Immunofluorescence (IIF) images is of paramount importance for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. This paper proposes a solution to one of the most challenging steps of this process, the segmentation of HEp-2 cells, through an adaptive marker-controlled watershed approach. Our algorithm automatically conforms the marker selection pipeline to the peculiar characteristics of the input image, hence it is able to cope with different fluorescent intensities and staining patterns without any a priori knowledge. Furthermore, it shows a reduced sensitivity to over-segmentation errors and uneven illumination, that are typical issues of IIF imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2136192','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2136192"><span>THE LOCALIZATION OF HOMOLGOUS PLASMA PROTEINS IN THE TISSUES OF YOUNG HUMAN BEINGS AS DEMONSTRATED WITH <span class="hlt">FLUORESCENT</span> <span class="hlt">ANTIBODIES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gitlin, David; Landing, Benjamin H.; Whipple, Ann</p> <p>1953-01-01</p> <p>Employing <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibodies</span> for the detection of homologous plasma proteins in tissue sections, the distribution of plasma albumin, γ-globulin, β-lipoprotein, β1-metal-combining globulin, and fibrinogen has been studied in the tissues of infants and children. Plasma albumin, γ-globulin, and β1-metal-combining globulin were found in many cells and particularly cell nuclei, connective tissues and interstitial spaces, lymphatics, and blood vessels. β-Lipoprotein was found mostly in the nuclei of all cell types while fibrinogen was restricted largely to the lymphatic and vascular channels, connective tissues and the interstitial spaces. The widespread distribution of these plasma proteins in cells and connective tissues indicates the magnitude of the extravascular plasma protein pool which is in equilibrium with circulating plasma. Unfortunately, these results do not permit accurate localization of the sites of production of these plasma proteins, but do give some idea of their intimate relationship to the tissues. PMID:13022871</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5321283','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5321283"><span>Direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of enablers on HIV <span class="hlt">testing</span>, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and to AIDS-related mortality. Methods Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality. Findings The model’s fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104]) and the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, <span class="hlt">testing</span> service delivery, and logistics. Interpretation Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations. PMID:28225790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26646170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26646170"><span>Development and validation of an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA as a confirmatory <span class="hlt">test</span> for surveillance of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in vaccinated herds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bertolotti, Luigi; Muratore, Elvira; Nogarol, Chiara; Caruso, Claudio; Lucchese, Laura; Profiti, Margherita; Anfossi, Laura; Masoero, Loretta; Nardelli, Stefano; Rosati, Sergio</p> <p>2015-12-08</p> <p>Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) is a member of the viral subfamily of Alphaherpesvirinae that infects various species, including cattle, sheep, and goats. The virus causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), which is included in a European list of diseases that may require control and eradication programs. The lack of confirmatory <span class="hlt">tests</span> affects the validity of diagnostic tools, especially those used for vaccinated herds. In this study, we report the development and validation of an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on BoHV1 glycoprotein E, which was expressed as a secreted recombinant antigen in a mammalian cell system. The performance of the new rec-gE ELISA was compared with that of commercially available <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and/or blocking ELISAs. The sample set included blood sera from animals from IBR-positive farms, IBR-free farms, and marker-vaccinated farms. The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA proposed in this study is based on antibody reactivity against BoHV1 gE, and showed high sensitivity and specificity (98.41 and 99.76 %, respectively). The ELISA performed well, in terms of both its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and as a confirmatory methodology, and therefore should improve the diagnostic protocols used for IBR surveillance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23369531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23369531"><span>Aberrant pain perception in direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> non-suicidal self-injury: an empirical <span class="hlt">test</span> of Joiner's interpersonal theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>St Germain, Sarah A; Hooley, Jill M</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Using a community sample (N=148) we examined pressure pain perception in 3 study groups--people who engaged in non-suicidal self-injury, people who engaged in <span class="hlt">indirect</span> forms of self-injury, and non-self-injuring controls. In so doing we <span class="hlt">tested</span> hypotheses derived from Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicide. Consistent with previous studies and with Joiner's model, people who engaged in NSSI endured pain for significantly longer than non-self-injuring controls. Importantly, pain endurance in the <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> self-injury group was comparable to that found in the NSSI group and significantly elevated relative to controls. This pattern of results suggests that abnormal pain perception may not be specific to forms of self-injury (e.g., NSSI) that involve immediate physical pain (e.g., cutting). Our findings further suggest that the concept of acquired capability for suicide might have relevance for both direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> forms of self-injurious behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020076','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020076"><span>Comparison of two <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> techniques (FATS) for detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum in coelomic fluid of spawning chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Elliott, D.G.; McKibben, C.L.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Two versions of the <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> technique (FAT) were compared for detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum in coelomic fluid samples from naturally infected spawning chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. For the membrane filtration-FAT (MF-FAT), trypsin-treated samples were passed through 0.2 ??m polycarbonate filters to concentrate bacteria for direct enumeration by immunofluorescence microscopy. For the smear-FAT (S-FAT), samples were centrifuged at 8800 x g for 10 min and the pelleted material was smeared on slides for immunofluorescence staining Detected prevalences of Renibacterium salmoninarum were 1.8 to 3.4 times higher by the MF-FAT than by the S-FAT: differences were significant at p ??? 0.0002. The S-FAT consistently detected R. salmoninarum only in samples with calculated bacterial concentrations ??? 2.4 x 103 cells ml-1 by MF-FAT <span class="hlt">testing</span>. Increasing the area examined on a filter or slide from 50 to 100 microscope fields at 1000x magnification resulted in the detection of a maximum of 4% additional positive samples by the MF-FAT and 7% additional positive samples by the S-FAT. In individual samples for which bacterial counts were obtained by both the MF-FAT and the S-FAT, the counts averaged from 47 times (??30 SD) to 175 times (??165 SD) higher by the MF-FAT. Centrifugation of samples at 10000 x g for 10 min resulted in a 4-fold increase in mean bacterial counts by the S-FAT compared with a 10-min centrifugation at 2000 x g, but the highest calculated bacterial concentration obtained by S-FAT <span class="hlt">testing</span> was more than 6-fold lower than that obtained for the same sample by MF-FAT <span class="hlt">testing</span>. Because of its greater sensitivity, the MF-FAT is preferable to the S-FAT for use in critical situations requiring the detection of low numbers of R. salmoninarum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17083572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17083572"><span>Evaluation of a serological <span class="hlt">test</span> (<span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA) for the diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bornstein, Set; Frössling, Jenny; Näslund, Katarina; Zakrisson, Göran; Mörner, Torsten</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Sarcoptic mange occurs in many parts of the world and is common in populations of domestic and wild canids, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). In recent years, an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with higher sensitivity and specificity than traditional diagnostic methods, has been successfully applied in the diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in dogs. The same ELISA has also demonstrated specific antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in experimentally infected red foxes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA when used to detect antibodies to S. scabiei in field sera from Swedish red foxes. One cohort of both infected and non-infected red foxes (cohort 1; n = 88), and one cohort of apparently non-infected foxes (cohort 2; n = 67) were examined for skin lesions and presence of S. scabiei by thorough visual examination at autopsy and skin scrapings. Samples of blood-tinted body liquid from the abdomen or thorax cavity were collected and analysed by the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA at different cut-offs (OD values) were estimated by comparing the <span class="hlt">test</span> results to the infection status as determined by examination and skin scrapings. The highest combination of relative sensitivity and specificity, calculated based on cohort 1, was 95.4 and 100.0%, respectively. These estimates were constant for cut-offs 0.150-0.225, which included the cut-off based on the mean plus three standard deviations of <span class="hlt">test</span> results from cohort 2 (0.165). It is concluded that this <span class="hlt">test</span> can be useful in diagnosis and epidemiological studies of S. scabiei infection in red foxes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=z+AND+test&pg=7&id=EJ782867','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=z+AND+test&pg=7&id=EJ782867"><span>Resampling and Distribution of the Product Methods for <span class="hlt">Testing</span> <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effects in Complex Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Williams, Jason; MacKinnon, David P.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in <span class="hlt">testing</span> mediation have found that certain resampling methods and <span class="hlt">tests</span> based on the mathematical distribution of 2 normal random variables substantially outperform the traditional "z" <span class="hlt">test</span>. However, these studies have primarily focused only on models with a single mediator and 2 component paths. To address this limitation, a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=distribution+AND+product&pg=2&id=EJ782867','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=distribution+AND+product&pg=2&id=EJ782867"><span>Resampling and Distribution of the Product Methods for <span class="hlt">Testing</span> <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effects in Complex Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Williams, Jason; MacKinnon, David P.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in <span class="hlt">testing</span> mediation have found that certain resampling methods and <span class="hlt">tests</span> based on the mathematical distribution of 2 normal random variables substantially outperform the traditional "z" <span class="hlt">test</span>. However, these studies have primarily focused only on models with a single mediator and 2 component paths. To address this limitation, a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26000128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26000128"><span>Automation in <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence <span class="hlt">testing</span>: a new step in the evolution of the autoimmunology laboratory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tozzoli, Renato; Antico, Antonio; Porcelli, Brunetta; Bassetti, Danila</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> immunofluorescence (IIF) plays an important role in immunological and immunometric assays for detecting and measuring autoantibodies. This technology was the first multiplex method used to detect cardinal autoantibodies for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Over the last 20 years, research has enabled the progressive identification of cell and tissue autoantigens which are the target of autoantibodies originally detected by IIF. Accordingly, newer immunometric methods, capable of measuring concentrations of specific autoantibodies directed against these autoantigens, allowed for a gradual replacement of the IIF method in the autoimmunology laboratory. Currently, IIF remains the method of choice only in selected fields of autoimmune diagnostics. Following the recent statement by the American College of Rheumatology that the IIF technique should be considered as the standard screening method for the detection of ANA, the biomedical industry has developed technological solutions which significantly improve automation of the procedure, not only in the preparation of substrates and slides, but also in microscope reading. This review summarizes the general and specific features of new available commercial systems (Aklides, Medipan; Nova View, Inova; Zenit G Sight, A. Menarini Diagnostics; Europattern, Euroimmun; Helios, Aesku.Diagnostics; Image Navigator, Immuno Concepts; Cytospot, Autoimmun Diagnostika) for automation of the IIF method. The expected advantages of automated IIF are the reduction in frequency of false negative and false positive results, the reduction of intra- and inter-laboratory variability, the improvement of correlation of staining patterns with corresponding autoantibody reactivities, and higher throughput in the laboratory workflow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...831...38V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...831...38V"><span>The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of the Cosmic Horseshoe: A <span class="hlt">Test</span> of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasei, Kaveh; Siana, Brian; Shapley, Alice E.; Quider, Anna M.; Alavi, Anahita; Rafelski, Marc; Steidel, Charles C.; Pettini, Max; Lewis, Geraint F.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>High-redshift star-forming galaxies are likely responsible for the reionization of the universe, yet direct detection of their escaping ionizing (Lyman continuum [LyC]) photons has proven to be extremely challenging. In this study, we search for escaping LyC of the Cosmic Horseshoe, a gravitationally lensed, star-forming galaxy at z = 2.38 with a large magnification of ∼24. Transmission at wavelengths of low-ionization interstellar absorption lines in the rest-frame ultraviolet suggests a patchy, partially transparent interstellar medium. This makes it an ideal candidate for direct detection of the LyC. We obtained a 10-orbit Hubble near-UV image using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/UVIS F275W filter that probes wavelengths just below the Lyman limit at the redshift of the Horseshoe in an attempt to detect escaping LyC radiation. After fully accounting for the uncertainties in the opacity of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and accounting for the charge transfer inefficiency in the WFC3 CCDs, we find a 3σ upper limit for the relative escape fraction of {f}{esc,{rel}}\\lt 0.08. This value is a factor of five lower than the value (0.4) predicted by the 40% transmission in the low-ion absorption lines. Though possible, it is unlikely that the nondetection is due to a high-opacity line of sight through the IGM (\\lt 20% chance). We discuss several possible causes for the discrepancy between the escape fraction and the covering fraction and consider the implications for future attempts at both direct LyC detection and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> estimates of the escape fraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Smarter+AND+Balanced+AND+Assessment&pg=5&id=EJ1002205','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Smarter+AND+Balanced+AND+Assessment&pg=5&id=EJ1002205"><span>The Need for a Principled Approach for Examining <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effects of <span class="hlt">Test</span> Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lane, Suzanne</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In Shepard's (1997) discussion on the importance of <span class="hlt">test</span> use and consequences in a validity argument for educational assessments, she reflected on Cronbach and Meehl's (1955) perspective on the role of <span class="hlt">test</span> developers in providing consequential evidence. In the following year, a special issue in "Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice"…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21502422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21502422"><span>Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening then <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence confirmation of antinuclear antibodies: a statistical analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Copple, Susan S; Sawitzke, Allen D; Wilson, Andrew M; Tebo, Anne E; Hill, Harry R</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to analyze antinuclear antibody (ANA) screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> (IFA) <span class="hlt">testing</span> to confirm and characterize the pattern and titer of the antibody. We evaluated 4 ANA ELISAs and 1 HEp-2 IFA substrate in 224 clinically defined serum samples consisting of 30 from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cases, 94 from rheumatoid arthritis cases, and 100 from healthy donors plus 495 serum samples submitted for routine ANA <span class="hlt">testing</span> and 12 reference serum samples distributed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. IFA <span class="hlt">tests</span> were read independently by 2 certified medical technologists. ELISA sensitivities ranged from 90% to 97% compared with 80% by IFA in the SLE serum samples. The ELISAs had specificities of 36% to 94%, whereas the IFA had 99% specificity. Overall, ELISAs for ANA assays demonstrated better sensitivity and good specificity, suggesting ELISA is a more cost-effective alternative to IFA <span class="hlt">testing</span> for initial ANA screening. Samples positive by ANA ELISA should be <span class="hlt">tested</span> on HEp-2 to determine the titer and pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22123003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22123003"><span>Evaluation of cytotoxic effects of six self-etching adhesives with direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> contact <span class="hlt">tests</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kusdemir, Mahmut; Gunal, Solen; Ozer, Fusun; Imazato, Satoshi; Izutani, Naomi; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Blatz, Markus B</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of self-etching primers/adhesives by direct contact and dentin barrier <span class="hlt">tests</span>. The three two-step self-etching systems Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), Prime&Bond NT/NRC (PB) and one-step self-etching systems Reactmer Bond (RB), Clearfil Tri-S Bond (CTS), and Adper Prompt L-Pop (AP) were examined. In direct contact <span class="hlt">tests</span>, L929 cells were cultured in the presence of diluted solutions (50, 20, 10, and 1%) of primer/conditioner of adhesive systems. For dentin barrier <span class="hlt">tests</span>, each system was applied onto 0.5 or 1.5 mm thick human dentin assembled in a simple pulp chamber device and incubated for 24 h at 37°C to make the diffusive components contact the L929 cells placed at the bottom of the chamber. The cytotoxic effects were assessed by MTT assay. Cell culture without application of any primers/adhesives served as the control for both <span class="hlt">tests</span>. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD <span class="hlt">tests</span> were used for statistical analyses. The direct contact <span class="hlt">tests</span> demonstrated that CSE and CPB were less toxic than the other materials at all dilutions. In the dentin barrier <span class="hlt">tests</span>, toxic effects of materials were reduced with an increase in thickness of intervening dentin. CSE and CPB showed less cytotoxicity than the other adhesives (p<0.05) when applied to 0.5 mm-thick dentin, and CSE was the least toxic in the 1.5 mm-dentin group (p<0.05). Dentin thickness positively affected biocompatibility of the <span class="hlt">tested</span> bonding systems. Two-step self-etching systems with HEMA-based primers were more biocompatible than other self-etching adhesives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=263754','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=263754"><span>Comparison of PCR with other <span class="hlt">tests</span> for early diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Iqbal, Z; Chaichanasiriwithaya, W; Rikihisa, Y</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the study was to compare the sensitivity of PCR with those of cell culture reisolation of Ehrlichia canis, the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> (IFA), and Western immunoblotting (WI) in the early diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis. Five German shepherd dogs were intravenously inoculated with 10(7) E. canis-infected DH82 cells. Blood was collected on alternate days during a 2-week postinoculation period. Mononuclear cell fractions were harvested and used for E. canis reisolation and DNA extraction for PCR. The plasma was used for assaying antibodies against E. canis. By PCR, the 16S rRNA gene of E. canis was detected in the mononuclear cell specimens collected as early as day 4 to 10 postexposure (PE). E. canis was reisolated from the blood starting on day 2 PE from all five dogs. The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> and Western immunoblotting could detect E. canis antibodies as early as 2 to 8 days PE. Cell culture reisolation proved to be the most sensitive and definitive for early diagnosis of ehrlichiosis, but it is not very convenient, since it takes a long time (14 to 34 days) to show up positive. The sensitivity of PCR is comparable to or slightly less than that of other established methods; however, the convenience, quickness, and direct nature of detecting E. canis DNA is expected to make PCR more useful for clinical diagnosis. Images PMID:7929754</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3699512','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3699512"><span>Water Developments and Canids in Two North American Deserts: A <span class="hlt">Test</span> of the <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effect of Water Hypothesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hall, Lucas K.; Larsen, Randy T.; Knight, Robert N.; Bunnell, Kevin D.; McMillan, Brock R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments) to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis) by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans) to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect of water hypothesis). We <span class="hlt">tested</span> the two predictions of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes) and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet) and without (dry) free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations) or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited) segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids. PMID:23844097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4047744','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4047744"><span>Detection of Schistosoma mansoni Antibodies in a Low-Endemicity Area Using <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Immunofluorescence and Circumoval Precipitin <span class="hlt">Test</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carvalho do Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Pedro Luiz; Gargioni, Cybele; Viviana Alvarado-Mora, Monica; Pagliusi Castilho, Vera Lúcia; Pinho, João Ranato Rebello; de Albuquerque Luna, Expedito José; Borges Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Parasitological diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis lack sensitivity, especially in regions of low endemicity. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections by antibody detection using the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence assay (IFA-IgM) and circumoval precipitin <span class="hlt">test</span> (COPT). Serum samples of 572 individuals were randomly selected. The IFA-IgM and COPT were used to detect anti-S. mansoni antibodies. Of the patients studied, 15.9% (N = 91) were IFA-IgM positive and 5.1% (N = 29) had COPT reactions (P < 0.001 by McNemar's <span class="hlt">test</span>). Immunodiagnostic techniques showed higher infection prevalence than had been previously estimated. This study suggests that combined use of these diagnostic tools could be useful for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in epidemiological studies in areas of low endemicity. PMID:24639303</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22035852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22035852"><span>Extended diagnostic criteria used for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> challenge <span class="hlt">testing</span> in elite asthmatic swimmers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Romberg, Kerstin; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of asthma with or without exercise induced symptoms among elite and elite aspiring swimmers and to compare sport specific exercise provocation with mannitol provocation. 101 adolescent swimmers were investigated with mannitol provocation and sport specific exercise challenge <span class="hlt">test</span>. Mannitol positivity was defined as either direct FEV(1) PD15 (ordinary criteria) or as β(2)-reversibility ≥15% after challenge (extended criteria). A direct positive exercise <span class="hlt">test</span> was defined as a drop in FEV(1) of 10% (ordinary criteria) or a difference in FEV of ≥15% either spontaneous, variability, or with β2-agonist, reversibility (extended criteria). We found a high prevalence of mannitol and/or exercise positivity. Twenty-six swimmers were mannitol direct positive and 14 were direct exercise positive using ordinary criteria. Using extended criteria 43 were mannitol positive and 24 were exercise positive. When including reversibility and variability to define a positive <span class="hlt">test</span> the sensitivity for current asthma with or without exercise induced symptoms increased while the specificity remained roughly unchanged. Direct positivity for mannitol and exercise poorly overlapped using ordinary criteria but improved using extended criteria. We found a high prevalence of asthma among elite swimmers. The use of variability and reversibility (liability) as additional criteria to define a positive <span class="hlt">test</span> provided to our mind relevant information and should be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16997595','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16997595"><span>[Validation of antibody screening by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> antigloblin <span class="hlt">test</span> and ABO blood typing by filtration and microplate techniques: assessment of robustness].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mannessier, L; Delamaire, M; Bouix, O; Krause, C; Roubinet, F</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>According to requirements of the French Committee for Accreditation (Cofrac), it is essential to use validated and standardised methods in Immunohematology. This imposes first the knowledge of metrological tolerances for all the technics. Two multicenter studies were carried out to define the maximal acceptable deviations concerning incubation temperature and time, volumes of patient plasma and <span class="hlt">tests</span> cells for antibody screening using <span class="hlt">indirect</span> antiglobulin <span class="hlt">test</span> on one hand and for reverse grouping on another hand. All equipment used (temperature <span class="hlt">test</span> chamber, chronometer, pipettes) were calibrated according to Cofrac standards. The antibody screenings were performed manually using 3 different filtration systems: ID Diamed, Biovue Ortho and Scangel Biorad, the same <span class="hlt">tests</span> cells, a standard 20 ng/mL anti RH1, a positive control anti KEL1 and a negative control; the reverse blood grouping was performed manually using the above mentionned filtration systems and microplate technic with the same A1 and B <span class="hlt">test</span> cells. These two studies showed that all the <span class="hlt">tests</span> from the multiples combinations of the above parameters gave the same results and allowed us to define a range of tolerance for 4 critical physical parameters involved in the antibody screening and blood typing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4983122','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4983122"><span>A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination <span class="hlt">test</span>, microtiter plate agglutination <span class="hlt">test</span>, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> hemagglutination assay, and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mohan, Anju; Saxena, Hari Mohan; Malhotra, Puneet</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> (MAT), <span class="hlt">indirect</span> hemagglutination assay (IHA), and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001). The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005). The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002). However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014) and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014) was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. PMID:27536032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15239607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15239607"><span>[Comparison of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescent (IFAT), ELISA <span class="hlt">test</span> and the comercial Chagatek <span class="hlt">test</span> for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies detection].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enciso, Clara; Montilla, Marleny; Santacruz, María M; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Rodríguez, Adriana; Mercado, Marcela; Puerta, Concepción</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>Chagas disease is a public health problem in Colombia, particularly in the eastern region. Because of human migration from rural areas to urban centers, the possibility of transfusional transmission becomes increasingly important. However the risk can be minimized by a careful screening of blood donors by means of serological <span class="hlt">tests</span>. Colombian blood banks use comercial, foreign serological <span class="hlt">tests</span> for screening for T. cruzi infection. The purpose of the current study was to compare the IFAT and ELISA <span class="hlt">tests</span> (both use antigen obtained from Colombian strains) with the comercially available Chagatek <span class="hlt">tests</span>. Sera of blood donors were classified in two groups on the basis of the IFAT: group I, 15 positive patients and group II, 14 negative patients. Sera from each group were <span class="hlt">tested</span> by the ELISA and Chagatek <span class="hlt">tests</span>. The ELISA <span class="hlt">test</span> detected 100% of the patients as positive in group I and 7% (1/14) of patients as positive in group II. The Chagatek <span class="hlt">test</span> detected 93% (14/15) of the patients as positive in group I and 50% (7/14) in group II. The kappa index for concordance between the ELISA and IFAT <span class="hlt">tests</span> was 0.93 (95% C.I.: 0.80-1.00); between IFAT and Chagatek 0.43 (95% C.I.: 0.26-0.62), and between ELISA and Chagatek 0.49 (95% C.I.: 0.31-0.67). These results highlighted the importance of using autochtonous Colombian strains as antigens in screening <span class="hlt">tests</span> for blood donors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3673413','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3673413"><span>Identification of Metals (Heavy and Radioactive) in Drinking Water by an <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Analysis Method Based on Scale <span class="hlt">Tests</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rajkovic, Miloš B.; Lacnjevac, Caslav M.; Ralevic, Nebojsa R.; Stojanović, Mirjana D.; Tosković, Dragan V.; Pantelic, Gordana K.; Ristic, Nikola M.; Jovanic, Sasa</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The analysis of water quality, regarding the content of metals, especially heavy and radioactive ones, has been carried out in an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> way, by <span class="hlt">testing</span> scale formed in a hot-water heater, using water from the water-supply network of the city of Belgrade – the district of New Belgrade. The determination of the composition and the structure of the scale has resulted in its complete identification, and its crystallochemical formula has been defined. It has unequivocally been established that the obtained results are within the tolerance boundary with the results acquired by a conventional analysis of water, when it is a matter of very low concentrations. The presence of radioactive elements of uranium and strontium in a scale sample has been found and the way of their penetrating its composition and structure has been explained. Applying the fractional extraction method, uranium has been established to be of an anthropogenic origin. PMID:27879817</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27514015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27514015"><span>Development of a novel immunoassay for herbal cannabis using a new <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> probe, "Ultra Quenchbody".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsujikawa, Kenji; Saiki, Fujio; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Iwata, Yuko T; Abe, Ryoji; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Kaigome, Rena; Yamane, Kyosuke; Kuwayama, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We developed a novel immunoassay for herbal cannabis based on a new immunoassay principle that uses Ultra Quenchbody ("UQ-body"), a recombinant antibody Fab fragment fluorolabeled at the N-terminal regions. When the antigen binds to anti-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) UQ-body, the fluorescence intensity (FI) decreases. The analytical conditions of the immunoassay were optimized based on the FI reduction rate (FIRR). Following are the steps in the final analytical procedure: (1) 10mg of samples were extracted with 1ml of a 60:40 mixture of methanol and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS); (2) the extract was filtered through a centrifugal 0.2-μm polytetrafluoroethylene membrane filter; (3) the filtrate was diluted 100 times with extraction solvent; (4) 6-μl diluted solution was mixed with 19-μl PBS and 75-μl UQ-body solution; and (5) FIRR was measured under 275-mV excitation light. Herbal cannabis samples containing ≥4.0-mg/g THC gave FIRRs of ≥5.2%. FIRRs of negative samples (cigarette, tea, spice, and so-called "synthetic marijuana") were ≤3.1%. When setting the FIRR threshold to 5.0%, cannabis samples containing ≥4.0-mg/g THC were correctly judged as positive without being affected by false positives caused by the negative samples. This detection limit was lower than total THC level (10-200mg/g) in most herbal cannabis samples seized in Japan. In seven of the 10 cannabis samples, the results of the UQ-body <span class="hlt">test</span> were comparable with those of the Duquenois-Levine <span class="hlt">test</span>. Thus, the UQ-body-based immunoassay is presumed to be an effective and objective drug screening method for herbal cannabis; however, to show the true usefulness, it is necessary to <span class="hlt">test</span> a number of real case samples in the field situation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4888861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4888861"><span>Membrane filter-<span class="hlt">fluorescent-antibody</span> method for detection and enumeration of bacteria in water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guthrie, R K; Reeder, D J</p> <p>1969-03-01</p> <p>A technique which employs nonfluorescing membrane filters and specific fluoresceinisothiocynate-labeled antiserum has been successfully used in the identification and enumeration of known species of Escherichia coli which have been added to natural populations of bacteria found in water. The quantitative results compared favorably with those of standard <span class="hlt">tests</span>. The use of a dissecting microscope with an external lighting arrangement provided a simple requirement for equipment. This method may be useful in monitoring specific bacterial types from waters which were being monitored for specific pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1771992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1771992"><span>[<span class="hlt">Indirect</span> detection of ovulation and fertilization in the dog by progesterone level <span class="hlt">testing</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arbeiter, K; Dobretsberger, M; Müller, E; Holzmann, A</p> <p>1991-11-01</p> <p>In addition to already published data (Arbeiter et al., 1990) we could achieve important facts concerning the estimation of mating time of the bitch by measuring the progesterone (P4) level continuously and observing the clinical signs on a collective of 106 ambulant patients. We found that a P4-concentration of 5 ng/ml plasma and above is signaling ovulation or ova fertilisation; a sudden rise of the progesterone over 10 ng (Ovucheck), reflecting 19.2 ng/ml (Serozyme-Progesterone), turned out to be a diagnostic mark for determination of mating time. Copulation took place between the 9th and 19th day of heat. 89% of the controllable bitches (n = 79) conceive and birth occurred 61.4 days (mean) later. The litter size and the loss of dead born puppies (4.7%) was normal with regard to the pertinent races. Because of their easy handling the P4-<span class="hlt">test</span> kits (Ovucheck; Serozyme-Progesterone) are of good use for the practitioner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4608768','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4608768"><span>Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis and Usefulness of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Diagnostic <span class="hlt">Tests</span> in School-Age Children in Cubal, Central Angola</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bocanegra, Cristina; Gallego, Sara; Mendioroz, Jacobo; Moreno, Milagros; Sulleiro, Elena; Salvador, Fernando; Sikaleta, Nicolau; Nindia, Arlette; Tchipita, Daniel; Joromba, Morais; Kavaya, Sebastiao; Sánchez Montalvá, Adrián; López, Teresa; Molina, Israel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Schistosomiasis remains a public health major problem and little is known in many areas, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa Objectives To assess the burden and risk factors of schistosomiasis and intestinal parasitic helminthes in the children of Cubal, Angola, and to compare different diagnostic approaches for urinary schistosomiasis under field conditions. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted. Urine and faeces samples of school children were microscopically studied. A random sample of children was obtained from an alphabetically arranged list of children, taking one of two children. Urine dipstick, colorimetric <span class="hlt">test</span> and macrohaematuria were considered as <span class="hlt">indirect</span> diagnostic methods and compared to direct urine examination. Possible risk factors for the infection were sex, age, distance to the river and previous treatment with praziquantel; the assessment was performed using Chi-square <span class="hlt">test</span>. Results A total of 785 (61.18%) children showed S. haematobium eggs in urine; children living within 500 meters from the river had a higher odds for infection: Odds ratio 1.97 (1.45–2.7 CI 95%); urine dipstick showed sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 61.3%, with a positive predictive value; colorimetric <span class="hlt">test</span> showed sensitivity of 52.5%, specificity of 74.6% and a positive predictive value of 77%. Proteinuria was present in 653 (51.1%) children, being more frequent in children with S. haematobium in urine (75.2%); 32 of 191 stool samples (16%) showed the presence of other intestinal parasites and 8 (4%) for S. haematobium. Conclusions Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in our study area is much higher than the national average, considering it as a high-risk community. Proximity to a source of water was a risk factor for the infection. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> <span class="hlt">tests</span>, as urine dipstick and colorimetric <span class="hlt">test</span>, were useful tools for diagnosis, due to ease of use and low cost. Proteinuria was a common finding, probably showing an early structural damage due to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=380629','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=380629"><span>Rapid, Direct <span class="hlt">Fluorescent-Antibody</span> Method for the Detection of Salmonellae in Food and Feeds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Insalata, N. F.; Mahnke, C. W.; Dunlap, W. G.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>An improved immunofluorescent-antibody (FA) method for the detection of salmonellae in foods and feeds was developed. This FA method combines a rapid cultural phase and a serological phase that allow for propagation of salmonellae in a minimum time, employing the industrial 8-hr work day as a guide. Two hundred fifty naturally contaminated human food and animal feed samples, representing 647 trials, were <span class="hlt">tested</span> by the FA method. A total of 18 different food and feed samples was used. The method used by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) for the detection of salmonellae was the control method. The percent agreement when comparing the FA slide method to the AOAC method ranged from 87.1 to 95.3%, depending upon the conjugated antisera used in comparative studies. PMID:4564047</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18987230','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18987230"><span>Evaluation of an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for routine screening of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus antibodies in mice colonies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laborde, Juan M; Carbone, Cecilia; Corva, Santiago G; Galosi, Cecilia M</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The current study demonstrates the ability of an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) to detect antibodies against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus in mice colonies. The antigen was produced from infected baby hamster kidney (BHK)-21 cells and treated with 1% Nonidet P40 in saline buffer. Control antigen was prepared following the same procedure using uninfected BHK-21 cells. The optimal antigen and serum dilutions were established. The reaction was revealed using an anti-mouse-horseradish peroxidase conjugate and 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). Optimized iELISA was validated by detection of antibodies in known positive and negative serum samples before <span class="hlt">testing</span> the samples of unknown status. Performance of the iELISA was compared with the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span>, and the cutoff value was determined by receiver operating curve. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> ELISA showed 100% sensitivity, 99.38% specificity, and 97.78% predictive positive value. The antigen used is easy to produce, and no special equipment is required. The iELISA developed is simple and provides a rapid and less costly tool for diagnosis and research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25050968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25050968"><span><span class="hlt">Testing</span> usability and trainability of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> touch interaction: perspective for the next generation of air traffic control systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Causse, Mickaël; Alonso, Roland; Vachon, François; Parise, Robert; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre; Tremblay, Sébastien; Terrier, Patrice</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study aims to determine whether <span class="hlt">indirect</span> touch device can be used to interact with graphical objects displayed on another screen in an air traffic control (ATC) context. The introduction of such a device likely requires an adaptation of the sensory-motor system. The operator has to simultaneously perform movements on the horizontal plane while assessing them on the vertical plane. Thirty-six right-handed participants performed movement training with either constant or variable practice and with or without visual feedback of the displacement of their actions. Participants then performed a <span class="hlt">test</span> phase without visual feedback. Performance improved in both practice conditions, but accuracy was higher with visual feedback. During the <span class="hlt">test</span> phase, movement time was longer for those who had practiced with feedback, suggesting an element of dependency. However, this 'cost' of feedback did not extend to movement accuracy. Finally, participants who had received variable training performed better in the <span class="hlt">test</span> phase, but accuracy was still unsatisfactory. We conclude that continuous visual feedback on the stylus position is necessary if tablets are to be introduced in ATC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=380369','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=380369"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Hemagglutination and Immunodiffusion <span class="hlt">Tests</span> for Detecting Type II Leukosis (Marek's) Infection in S- and K-Line Chickens1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hong, Chou C.; Sevoian, Martin</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> hemagglutination and immunodiffusion <span class="hlt">tests</span> were compared for detection of antigen and antibody to JM strain of leukosis virus infection between S- and K-line chickens. The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> hemagglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> was more sensitive than the immunodiffusion <span class="hlt">test</span> for detecting the smallest amount of viral antigen and corresponding antibody in the plasma of infected chickens. The Cornell S-line had higher levels of antigen and antibody as compared with the Cornell K-line during the 20-week experimental period. Images PMID:4336659</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26581239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26581239"><span>Automated Evaluation of Crithidia luciliae Based <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Immunofluorescence <span class="hlt">Tests</span>: A Novel Application of the EUROPattern-Suite Technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gerlach, Stefan; Affeldt, Kai; Pototzki, Lena; Krause, Christopher; Voigt, Jörn; Fraune, Johanna; Fechner, Kai</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a severe rheumatic autoimmune disease with various clinical manifestations. Anti-dsDNA antibodies are an important immunological hallmark of SLE and their occurrence represents a major criterion for the diagnosis. Among the commonly applied <span class="hlt">test</span> systems for determination of anti-dsDNA antibodies, the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence <span class="hlt">test</span> (IIFT) using the flagellated kinetoplastida Crithidia luciliae is considered to be highly disease specific at moderate sensitivity. Since IIFT, however, is claimed to be affected by subjective interpretation and a lack of standardization, there has been an increasing demand for automated pattern interpretation of immunofluorescence reactions in recent years. Corresponding platforms are already available for evaluation of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) IIFT on HEp-2 cells, the recommended "gold standard" for ANA screening in the diagnosis of various systemic rheumatic autoimmune diseases. For one of these systems, the "EUROPattern-Suite" computer-aided immunofluorescence microscopy (CAIFM), automated interpretation of microscopic fluorescence patterns was extended to the Crithidia luciliae based anti-dsDNA IIFT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=z+AND+test&pg=3&id=EJ964191','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=z+AND+test&pg=3&id=EJ964191"><span>Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: <span class="hlt">Testing</span> Direct and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study <span class="hlt">tested</span> the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-<span class="hlt">test</span> and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2674895','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2674895"><span>Genetic variability in residual feed intake in rainbow trout clones and <span class="hlt">testing</span> of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> selection criteria (Open Access publication)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grima, Laure; Quillet, Edwige; Boujard, Thierry; Robert-Granié, Christèle; Chatain, Béatrice; Mambrini, Muriel</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Little is known about the genetic basis of residual feed intake (RFI) variation in fish, since this trait is highly sensitive to environmental influences, and feed intake of individuals is difficult to measure accurately. The purpose of this work was (i) to assess the genetic variability of RFI estimated by an X-ray technique and (ii) to develop predictive criteria for RFI. Two predictive criteria were <span class="hlt">tested</span>: loss of body weight during feed deprivation and compensatory growth during re-feeding. Ten heterozygous rainbow trout clones were used. Individual intake and body weight were measured three times at threeweek intervals. Then, individual body weight was recorded after two cycles of a three-week feed deprivation followed by a three-week re-feeding. The ratio of the genetic variance to the phenotypic variance was found high to moderate for growth, feed intake, and RFI (VG/VP = 0.63 ± 0.11, 0.29 ± 0.11, 0.29 ± 0.09, respectively). The index that integrates performances achieved during deprivation and re-feeding periods explained 59% of RFI variations. These results provide a basis for further studies on the origin of RFI differences and show that <span class="hlt">indirect</span> criteria are good candidates for future selective breeding programs. PMID:18990354</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17998551','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17998551"><span>Development of a sensitive and specific <span class="hlt">indirect</span> enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a baculovirus recombinant antigen for detection of specific antibodies against Ehrlichia canis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>López, Lissett; Venteo, Angel; Aguirre, Enara; García, Marga; Rodríguez, Majosé; Amusátegui, Inmaculada; Tesouro, Miguel A; Vela, Carmen; Sainz, Angel; Rueda, Paloma</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on baculovirus recombinant P30 protein of Ehrlichia canis and the 1BH4 anticanine IgG monoclonal antibody was developed and evaluated by examining a panel of 98 positive and 157 negative sera using the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> (IFA) <span class="hlt">test</span> as the reference technique. The P30-based ELISA appeared to be sensitive and specific (77.55% and 95.54%, respectively) when qualitative results (positive/negative) were compared with those of the IFA <span class="hlt">test</span>; the coefficient of correlation (R) between the 2 <span class="hlt">tests</span> was 0.833. Furthermore, it was possible to establish a mathematical formula for use in comparing the results of both techniques. These results indicate that recombinant P30 antigen-based ELISA is a suitable alternative of the IFA <span class="hlt">test</span> for simple, consistent, and rapid serodiagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis. Moreover, the use of this recombinant protein as antigen offers a great advantage for antigen preparation in comparison with other techniques in which the whole E. canis organism is used as antigen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471835"><span>Specific chemoluminescence and immunoasdorption <span class="hlt">tests</span> for anti-DFS70 antibodies avoid false positive results by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bizzaro, Nicola; Tonutti, Elio; Tampoia, Marilina; Infantino, Maria; Cucchiaro, Francesco; Pesente, Fiorenza; Morozzi, Gabriella; Fabris, Martina; Villalta, Danilo</p> <p>2015-12-07</p> <p>To evaluate two new diagnostic methods for the identification of anti-DFS70 antibodies in samples showing a DFS70-staining pattern by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence (IIF). We studied 731 patients: 576 were collected consecutively among those that in the ANA <span class="hlt">test</span> on HEp-2 cells had produced a DFS70 fluorescence pattern and 155 were a consecutive series of patients sent by referring physicians for routine ANA <span class="hlt">testing</span>. As controls we studied 50 patients with autoimmune diseases and 120 patients with active infectious disease. All 731 sera were assayed for anti-DFS70 antibodies by a specific chemoluminescence assay (CLIA); 70 randomly selected IIF-positive sera and 35 samples from patients with autoimmune diseases were studied by inhibition <span class="hlt">tests</span> using the HEp-2 Select method. Assays performed with the CLIA-DFS70 method were positive in 30.4% of the samples presenting a DFS70 pattern by IIF, in 1.3% of the routine ANA sera, in 1.6% of the infectious sera and in none of the 50 autoimmune controls. However, as the IIF-DFS70 positive group included 106 patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD), 11 of which were DFS70 positive by CLIA, the prevalence of DFS70 antibodies in SARD was 7.5%. The ANA <span class="hlt">test</span> performed after the use of HEp-2 Select showed an inhibition in 95.7% of the sera. No change in fluorescence intensity and pattern morphology between the native sera and the same sera <span class="hlt">tested</span> with the solution containing the DFS70 antigen was observed in the 35 samples from patients with autoimmune diseases. To avoid misinterpretation of ANA pattern and consequent diagnostic errors, confirmation of the DFS70-IIF pattern by CLIA or other specific methods is mandatory before reporting the presence of anti-DFS70 antibodies. The HEp-2 Select <span class="hlt">test</span> in most cases eliminates the interference by anti-DFS70 antibodies and avoids the possible reporting of false positive results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114163','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114163"><span>Influence of Curing Units and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Restorative Materials on the Hardness of Two Dual-curing Resin Cements Evaluated by the Nanoindentation <span class="hlt">Test</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuguimiya, Rosiane Noqueira; Rode, Kátia Martins; Carneiro, Paula Mendes Acatauassú; Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corrêa; Turbino, Miriam Lacalle</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>To evaluate the hardness of a dual-curing self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U200) and a conventional dual-curing resin cement (RelyX ARC) cured with different light curing units of different wavelengths (Elipar Freelight 2 LED [430 to 480 nm, conventional], Bluephase LED [380 to 515 nm, polywave], AccuCure 3000 Laser [488 nm]) by means of the nanoindentation <span class="hlt">test</span>. Bovine incisors were cleaned and then sectioned at the cementoenamel junction to remove the crown. After embedding in acrylic, dentin surfaces of the specimens were exposed and ground flat to standardize the surfaces. To simulate clinically placing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> restorations, ceramic (IPS e.maxPress/Ivoclar Vivadent) or <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composite resin (SR Adoro/Ivoclar Vivadent) slabs were cemented on dentin surfaces. The specimens were sectioned longitudinally at low speed under constant irrigation and then polished. In the positive control group, the cement was light cured without the interposition of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> restorative material; in the negative control group, after the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> restorative material was cemented, no light curing was performed, allowing only chemical polymerization of the cement. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. Nanoindentadion hardness of the cement layer was measured under a 100-mN load. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's <span class="hlt">test</span> (p < 0.05). Although the self-adhesive cement is technically simple, conventional cement showed the best polymerization performance. The polywave LED technology did not differ significantly from other light-curing units. The hardness of the resin cements evaluated was negatively influenced by the interposition of an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> restorative material; only the LEDs were able to maintain the same degree of cement polymerization when an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> restorative material was used. The photoactivation step is required during the cementation of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> restorations to ensure adequate polymerization of dual-curing resin cements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27789950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27789950"><span>Physical activity and self-esteem: <span class="hlt">testing</span> direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zamani Sani, Seyed Hojjat; Fathirezaie, Zahra; Brand, Serge; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus; Talepasand, Siavash</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA) and self-esteem (SE), while introducing body mass index (BMI), perceived physical fitness (PPF), and body image (BI) in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years). The findings indicated that PA was directly and <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor <span class="hlt">indirectly</span>, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5068479','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5068479"><span>Physical activity and self-esteem: <span class="hlt">testing</span> direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zamani Sani, Seyed Hojjat; Fathirezaie, Zahra; Brand, Serge; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus; Talepasand, Siavash</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA) and self-esteem (SE), while introducing body mass index (BMI), perceived physical fitness (PPF), and body image (BI) in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years). The findings indicated that PA was directly and <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor <span class="hlt">indirectly</span>, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE. PMID:27789950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918962','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918962"><span>Development and Evaluation of a <span class="hlt">Fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">Antibody</span>-Drug Conjugate for Molecular Imaging and Targeted Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Knutson, Steve; Raja, Erum; Bomgarden, Ryan; Nlend, Marie; Chen, Aoshuang; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy; Desai, Surbhi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p> inhibiting tumor growth more effectively than equimolar amounts of unconjugated drug. Overall, our results demonstrate that non-selective, amine-targeting chemistry is an effective dual-labeling method for synthesizing and evaluating a bifunctional <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span>-drug conjugate, allowing concurrent detection, monitoring and treatment of cancer. PMID:27336622</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27336622','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27336622"><span>Development and Evaluation of a <span class="hlt">Fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">Antibody</span>-Drug Conjugate for Molecular Imaging and Targeted Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knutson, Steve; Raja, Erum; Bomgarden, Ryan; Nlend, Marie; Chen, Aoshuang; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy; Desai, Surbhi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p> inhibiting tumor growth more effectively than equimolar amounts of unconjugated drug. Overall, our results demonstrate that non-selective, amine-targeting chemistry is an effective dual-labeling method for synthesizing and evaluating a bifunctional <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span>-drug conjugate, allowing concurrent detection, monitoring and treatment of cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21300534','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21300534"><span>Magnetic protein microbead-aided <span class="hlt">indirect</span> fluoroimmunoassay for the determination of canine virus specific antibodies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Xueqin; Ren, Li; Tu, Qin; Wang, Jianchun; Zhang, Yanrong; Li, Manlin; Liu, Rui; Wang, Jinyi</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus are common contagious viral diseases of dogs and many other carnivores, and pose a severe threat to the population dynamics of wild carnivores, as well as endangering carnivore conservation. However, clinical diagnosis of these diseases, especially canine distemper and canine parvovirus, is difficult because of the broad spectrum of symptoms that may be confused with other respiratory and enteric diseases of dogs. The most frequently used and proven techniques for diagnosing viral diseases include the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), rapid fluorescent focus inhibition <span class="hlt">test</span> (RFFIT), mouse neutralisation <span class="hlt">test</span> (MNT), and <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> virus neutralization (FAVN) <span class="hlt">test</span>. However, these methods still have some inherent limitations. In this study, a magnetic protein microbead-aided <span class="hlt">indirect</span> fluoroimmunoassay was developed to detect canine virus specific antibodies, human rabies immunoglobulin, CDV McAbs, and CPV McAbs. In this assay, an avidin-biotin system was employed to combine magnetic microbeads and virus antigens (rabies virus, canine distemper virus, and canine parvovirus). Quantification of the targeted virus antibodies was analyzed through <span class="hlt">indirect</span> fluoroimmunoassay using the specific antigen-antibody reaction, as well as their corresponding FITC-labeled detection antibodies (mouse anti-human IgG/FITC conjugate or rabbit anti-dog IgG/FITC conjugate). The results indicated that the fluorescence intensity increased when a higher concentration of the targeted analyte was used, but the control had almost no fluorescence, much like the conventional ELISA. For human rabies immunoglobulin, CDV McAbs, and CPV McAbs, the minimum detectable concentrations were 0.2 IU/mL, 0.3 ng/mL, and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. All of these results indicate that this assay can be employed to determine the presence of canine virus specific antibodies. In addition, the method devised here can be utilized as a general</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4557781','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4557781"><span>A case-control study evaluating RT-PCR/ESI-MS technology compared to direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> and xTAG RVP PCR☆,☆☆,★</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hardick, Justin; Sadiq, Sufyan; Perelstein, Elizabeth; Peterson, Stephen; Rothman, Richard; Gaydos, Charlotte A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Waste nasopharyngeal swabs (N = 244) were evaluated by the reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry PLEX-ID Broad Respiratory Virus Surveillance Kit version 2.5 compared to direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> and xTAG Respiratory Virus Panel for percent agreement, sensitivity, and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity were 91% (111/122) and 95.1% (116/122), respectively. Sensitivity by virus, except parainfluenza, was 92.9–100%, and specificity was 99–100%. PMID:24657170</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27311277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27311277"><span>[Evaluation of a Computer-Aided Microscope System and Its Anti-Nuclear Antibody <span class="hlt">Test</span> Kit for <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Immunofluorescence Assay].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hayashi, Nobuhide; Saegusa, Jun; Uto, Kenichi; Oyabu, Chinami; Saito, Toshiharu; Sato, Itsuko; Kawano, Seiji; Kumagai, Shunichi</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Antinuclear antibody (ANA) <span class="hlt">testing</span> is indispensable for diagnosing and understanding clinical conditions of autoimmune diseases. The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is the gold standard for ANA screening, and it can detect more than 100 different antibodies, such as anti-PCNA as well as anti-cytoplasmic antibodies. However, complicated procedures of conventional IFA and visual interpretation require highly skilled laboratory staff. This study evaluates the capability, characteristics, and applicability of the recently developed ANA detection system (EUROPattern Cosmic IFA System, EPA) using HEp20-10 cells and the automated pattern recognition microscope. Findings using EPA and conventional methods were compared in 282 sera obtained from connective tissue disease patients and 250 sera from healthy individuals. The concordance of the positivity rate, antibody titer (within +/- 1 tube difference), and the accurate recognition rate of ANA patterns between the automated EPA method and the microscopic judgement of the EPA image by eye was 98.9, 97.4, and 55.3%, respectively. The EPA method showed concordance of the positivity rate as high as 93.3% and concordance of the antibody titer as high as 94.0% (within +/- 1 titer) compared with the conventional method. Regarding the four typical patterns of ANA (homogeneous, speckled, nucleolar, and centromere), large differences between the EPA and conventional methods were not observed, and the rate of concordance between the final EPA result and the conventional method was from 94.1 to 100%. The positivity rate of ANA using the EPA and conventional methods showed marked agreement among the six connective tissue diseases (SLE, MCTD, SSc, PM/DM, and SS) and healthy individuals. Although the EPA system is not considered a complete system and laboratory staff should verify the results, it is a useful system for routine ANA analysis because it contributes to ANA standardization and an efficient workflow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522756"><span>Basophil markers for identification and activation in the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> basophil activation <span class="hlt">test</span> by flow cytometry for diagnosis of autoimmune urticaria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Zehwan; Choi, Bong Seok; Kim, Jong Kun; Won, Dong Il</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> basophil activation <span class="hlt">test</span> using flow cytometry is a promising tool for autoimmune urticaria diagnosis. We aimed to identify better donor basophils (from atopic vs. non-atopic donors and interleukin-3 primed vs. unprimed basophils) and improve basophil identification and activation markers (eotaxin CC chemokine receptor-3 [CCR3] vs. CD123 and CD63 vs. CD203c). Donor basophils were obtained from non-atopic and atopic group O donors. Positive control sera were artificially prepared to simulate autoimmune urticaria patients' sera. Patient sera were obtained from nine children with chronic urticaria. Assay sensitivity was compared among each variation by using positive control sera (n=21), applying cutoff values defined from negative control sera (n=20). For basophil identification, a combination of CCR3 and CD123 markers revealed a higher correlation with automated complete blood count (r=0.530) compared with that observed using CD123 (r=0.498) or CCR3 alone (r=0.195). Three activation markers on the atopic donor basophils attained 100% assay sensitivity: CD203c on unprimed basophils, CD63+CD203+ or CD63 alone on primed basophils; however, these markers on the non-atopic donor basophils attained lower assay sensitivity. For basophil identification markers, a combination of CD123 and CCR3 is recommended, while CD123 alone may be used as an alternative. Donor basophils should be obtained from an atopic donor. For basophil activation markers, either CD203c alone on unprimed basophils or CD203c and CD63 on primed basophils are recommended, while CD63 alone on primed basophils may be used as an alternative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162109','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162109"><span>Membrane filtration – <span class="hlt">Fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> staining procedure for detecting and quantifying Renibacterium salmoninarum in coelomic fluid of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Elliott, D.G.; Barila, T.Y.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>We developed a rapid method for detecting and quantifying the pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum in coelomic fluid of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by concentrating the bacteria on 0.2-μm polycarbonate filters and staining them with specific fluorescein-labeled antibody. Centrifugation of samples and resuspension of the sedimented material in phosphate-buffered saline containing Triton X-100 increased the ease of filtration. Background fluorescence was reduced by counterstaining filters with Eriochrome black T. Postfiltration staining, rinsing, and counterstaining were done in the syringe-mounted filter holders, reducing handling of the filters and possible loss of bacteria. The number of bacteria detected by the filtration – <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> technique in a broth culture of R. salmoninarum ranged from 6.7 × 107to7.6 × 107/mL and was slightly higher than that determined by plate count (9.6 × 106/mL). Increasing the sample dilution or decreasing the number of microscope fields examined generally increased the variability of filter counts of R. salmoninarum. Using the filtration – <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> technique, we detected the bacterium in the coelomic fluid of 85% of spawning female spring chinook salmon sampled from a hatchery population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=269409','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=269409"><span>Evaluation of MUREX SUDS Toxo <span class="hlt">test</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moyer, N P; Hudson, J D; Hausler, W J</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The SUDS Toxo <span class="hlt">test</span> (MUREX Corp., Norcross, Ga.) was compared with the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> hemagglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> (IHA) and the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent-antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> (IFA) by examining 404 serum specimens, including 64 (15.8%) specimens with IFA titers of greater than or equal to 1:2. When SUDS was compared with IHA, sensitivity (96.4%), specificity (97.9%), and negative predictive value (99.4%) indicated that there were similar reactivities between the two <span class="hlt">tests</span>. When an IFA titer of greater than or equal to 1:16 was considered significant and IHA and SUDS were compared with IFA, IHA was slightly less sensitive but had a higher positive predictive value than did SUDS; however, there was no statistical difference between the <span class="hlt">tests</span>. When SUDS was compared with IFA, in which a titer of greater than or equal to 1:16 was considered significant, the high negative predictive value (100%), excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.3%), and ease of performance made SUDS an attractive alternative to IHA for screening single serum specimens for toxoplasmosis. PMID:3320079</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3320079','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3320079"><span>Evaluation of MUREX SUDS Toxo <span class="hlt">test</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moyer, N P; Hudson, J D; Hausler, W J</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>The SUDS Toxo <span class="hlt">test</span> (MUREX Corp., Norcross, Ga.) was compared with the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> hemagglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> (IHA) and the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent-antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> (IFA) by examining 404 serum specimens, including 64 (15.8%) specimens with IFA titers of greater than or equal to 1:2. When SUDS was compared with IHA, sensitivity (96.4%), specificity (97.9%), and negative predictive value (99.4%) indicated that there were similar reactivities between the two <span class="hlt">tests</span>. When an IFA titer of greater than or equal to 1:16 was considered significant and IHA and SUDS were compared with IFA, IHA was slightly less sensitive but had a higher positive predictive value than did SUDS; however, there was no statistical difference between the <span class="hlt">tests</span>. When SUDS was compared with IFA, in which a titer of greater than or equal to 1:16 was considered significant, the high negative predictive value (100%), excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.3%), and ease of performance made SUDS an attractive alternative to IHA for screening single serum specimens for toxoplasmosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=124815','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=124815"><span>Comparison of Performance and Cost-Effectiveness of Direct <span class="hlt">Fluorescent-Antibody</span>, Ligase Chain Reaction, and PCR Assays for Verification of Chlamydial Enzyme Immunoassay Results for Populations with a Low to Moderate Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dean, Deborah; Ferrero, Dennis; McCarthy, Michael</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Many laboratories use a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with verification <span class="hlt">testing</span> to diagnose Chlamydia trachomatis infections in an effort to contain costs. This study was designed to compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent-antibody</span> assay (DFA), commercial PCR, and ligase chain reaction (LCR) for the verification of EIA results. Cervical specimens were screened by EIA. DFA, PCR, and LCR were compared as verification <span class="hlt">tests</span> for EIA-reactive specimens and negative greyzone (NGZ) specimens at 50% below the cutoff value. These samples were also <span class="hlt">tested</span> by in-house PCR, which was used in the analysis of verification results. A total of 477 (7%) of 6,571 samples were reactive or within the NGZ. EIA results with verification by DFA <span class="hlt">testing</span> (EIA/DFA results) agreed with 93% of the true results compared with 97% for EIA/PCR results for one set of 242 samples; there was 97% agreement with true results for EIA/DFA results versus 95% for EIA/LCR results for another set of 235 samples. Ten samples were false positive by LCR. Time and costs were equivalent for EIA with the DFA, PCR, or LCR as the verification <span class="hlt">test</span> but were two- to threefold greater for PCR or LCR alone than for EIA with verification. Since it is important to balance cost containment with public health objectives, DFA, PCR, and LCR as EIA verification <span class="hlt">tests</span> for cervical samples offer acceptable sensitivities and specificities at reasonable cost for low- to moderate-risk populations and therefore can be extended to a broader spectrum of at-risk populations. PMID:9431928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=95699','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=95699"><span>Performance of Competitive and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays, Gel Immunoprecipitation with Native Hapten Polysaccharide, and Standard Serological <span class="hlt">Tests</span> in Diagnosis of Sheep Brucellosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marín, C. M.; Moreno, E.; Moriyón, I.; Díaz, R.; Blasco, J. M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Competitive and standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), rose bengal (RB), complement fixation, and agar gel immunoprecipitation with native hapten (AGID-NH) were compared by using sera from Brucella-free, Brucella melitensis-infected, and B. melitensis Rev1-vaccinated sheep. The most sensitive <span class="hlt">tests</span> were <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA and RB, and the most specific <span class="hlt">tests</span> were AGID-NH and competitive ELISA. We show that RB followed by AGID-NH is a simple and effective system for diagnosing sheep brucellosis. PMID:10066666</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5301S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5301S"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> inversions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sergienko, Olga</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Since Doug MacAyeal's pioneering studies of the ice-stream basal traction optimizations by control methods, inversions for unknown parameters (e.g., basal traction, accumulation patterns, etc) have become a hallmark of the present-day ice-sheet modeling. The common feature of such inversion exercises is a direct relationship between optimized parameters and observations used in the optimization procedure. For instance, in the standard optimization for basal traction by the control method, ice-stream surface velocities constitute the control data. The optimized basal traction parameters explicitly appear in the momentum equations for the ice-stream velocities (compared to the control data). The inversion for basal traction is carried out by minimization of the cost (or objective, misfit) function that includes the momentum equations facilitated by the Lagrange multipliers. Here, we build upon this idea, and demonstrate how to optimize for parameters <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> related to observed data using a suite of nested constraints (like Russian dolls) with additional sets of Lagrange multipliers in the cost function. This method opens the opportunity to use data from a variety of sources and types (e.g., velocities, radar layers, surface elevation changes, etc.) in the same optimization process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25486788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25486788"><span>[Diagnostics of ataxia-telangiectasia by the express-<span class="hlt">test</span> found on the method of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuranova, M L; Ledashcheva, T A; Tulush, E K; Beliaev, D L; Zherebtsov, S V; Pleskach, N M; Prokof'eva, V V; Mikhel'son, V M; Spivak, I M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a hereditary severe neurodegenerative disease developing, when mutations take place in both alleles of the atm gene, which encodes the key protein of the cellular response to DNA damage (DDR)--ATM proteinkinase. In response to the occurrence of double-strand DNA breaks, the ATM proteinkinase pass the autophosphorylation, and its active form--the phospho-ATM (P-ATM) appears in cells. In the nuclei of cells having the atm gene, P-ATM is revealed, being absent in cells with mutated forms of this gene, by means of the application of the modified method of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence. This peculiarity may be applied in the clinic, in order to confirm the diagnosis of AT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3196746','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3196746"><span>Thrill Seeking and Religiosity in Relation to Adolescent Substance Use: <span class="hlt">Tests</span> of Joint, Interactive, and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Influences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Thrill seeking is a robust positive predictor of adolescent substance use. Religiosity is negatively associated with substance use among teens, although findings are mixed. Few studies have examined the interplay between these two prominent risk and protective factors. The current study addresses this gap by examining the joint, interactive, and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> influences of thrill seeking and each of two dimensions of religiosity, religious salience and religious attendance, in relation to adolescent substance use. Participants were 667 rural youths (345 girls and 322 boys) and their families participating in a longitudinal family-focused prevention trial. Data were collected via self-report surveys at six time points across seven years, spanning ages 11 through 18. Results from latent growth curve analyses showed that both religious salience and religious attendance growth factors were associated negatively with late adolescent substance use, while adjusting for thrill seeking and selected covariates. Although the link between thrill seeking and substance use was not moderated by religiosity, there was a statistically significant <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect of thrill seeking on the outcome through a faster rate of downturn in religious attendance. Family intervention also predicted a slower rate of downturn in religious attendance and was associated negatively with substance use in late adolescence. Early adolescent substance use predicted a faster rate of decrease in religious salience throughout the teen years. The pattern of associations was similar for boys and girls. Findings suggest that teens who are elevated on thrill seeking could be targeted for specially-designed substance use prevention programs and provide additional evidence for the efficacy of family interventions. PMID:21574673</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4712449','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4712449"><span>Parent Training to Reduce Problem Behaviors over the Transition to High School: <span class="hlt">Tests</span> of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effects through Improved Emotion Regulation Skills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mason, W. Alex; January, Stacy-Ann A.; Fleming, Charles B.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Snyder, James J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Adolescent problem behaviors are costly for individuals and society. Promoting the self-regulatory functioning of youth may help prevent the development of such behaviors. Parent-training and family intervention programs have been shown to improve child and adolescent self-regulation. This study helps fill gaps in knowledge by <span class="hlt">testing</span> for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of the Common Sense Parenting® (CSP) program on reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions through previously identified short-term improvements in parents’ reports of their children’s emotion regulation skills. Over two cohorts, 321 low income families of 8th graders were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the standard CSP program, an adapted CSP Plus program, or a minimal-contact control condition. Pretest, posttest, 1-year follow-up, and 2-year follow-up survey assessments were completed by parents and students with 94% retention. Intent-to-treat multivariate path analyses were conducted. Neither intervention had statistically significant total effects on the three targeted adolescent outcomes. CSP, but not CSP Plus, had statistically significant <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects on reduced substance use and school suspensions at the 1-year follow-up as well as conduct problems and school suspensions at the 2-year follow-up through increased child emotion regulation skills at posttest. Findings provide some support for emotion regulation as one pathway through which the intervention was associated, <span class="hlt">indirectly</span>, with reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions among at-risk students over the high school transition. PMID:26778871</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26778871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26778871"><span>Parent Training to Reduce Problem Behaviors over the Transition to High School: <span class="hlt">Tests</span> of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effects through Improved Emotion Regulation Skills.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mason, W Alex; January, Stacy-Ann A; Fleming, Charles B; Thompson, Ronald W; Parra, Gilbert R; Haggerty, Kevin P; Snyder, James J</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Adolescent problem behaviors are costly for individuals and society. Promoting the self-regulatory functioning of youth may help prevent the development of such behaviors. Parent-training and family intervention programs have been shown to improve child and adolescent self-regulation. This study helps fill gaps in knowledge by <span class="hlt">testing</span> for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of the Common Sense Parenting(®) (CSP) program on reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions through previously identified short-term improvements in parents' reports of their children's emotion regulation skills. Over two cohorts, 321 low income families of 8(th) graders were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the standard CSP program, an adapted CSP Plus program, or a minimal-contact control condition. Pretest, posttest, 1-year follow-up, and 2-year follow-up survey assessments were completed by parents and students with 94% retention. Intent-to-treat multivariate path analyses were conducted. Neither intervention had statistically significant total effects on the three targeted adolescent outcomes. CSP, but not CSP Plus, had statistically significant <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects on reduced substance use and school suspensions at the 1-year follow-up as well as conduct problems and school suspensions at the 2-year follow-up through increased child emotion regulation skills at posttest. Findings provide some support for emotion regulation as one pathway through which the intervention was associated, <span class="hlt">indirectly</span>, with reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions among at-risk students over the high school transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RMRE...48.1849H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RMRE...48.1849H"><span>Semi-analytical and Numerical Studies on the Flattened Brazilian Splitting <span class="hlt">Test</span> Used for Measuring the <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Tensile Strength of Rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Y. G.; Wang, L. G.; Lu, Y. L.; Chen, J. R.; Zhang, J. H.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Based on the two-dimensional elasticity theory, this study established a mechanical model under chordally opposing distributed compressive loads, in order to perfect the theoretical foundation of the flattened Brazilian splitting <span class="hlt">test</span> used for measuring the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tensile strength of rocks. The stress superposition method was used to obtain the approximate analytic solutions of stress components inside the flattened Brazilian disk. These analytic solutions were then verified through a comparison with the numerical results of the finite element method (FEM). Based on the theoretical derivation, this research carried out a contrastive study on the effect of the flattened loading angles on the stress value and stress concentration degree inside the disk. The results showed that the stress concentration degree near the loading point and the ratio of compressive/tensile stress inside the disk dramatically decreased as the flattened loading angle increased, avoiding the crushing failure near-loading point of Brazilian disk specimens. However, only the tensile stress value and the tensile region were slightly reduced with the increase of the flattened loading angle. Furthermore, this study found that the optimal flattened loading angle was 20°-30°; flattened load angles that were too large or too small made it difficult to guarantee the central tensile splitting failure principle of the Brazilian splitting <span class="hlt">test</span>. According to the Griffith strength failure criterion, the calculative formula of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tensile strength of rocks was derived theoretically. This study obtained a theoretical <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tensile strength that closely coincided with existing and experimental results. Finally, this paper simulated the fracture evolution process of rocks under different loading angles through the use of the finite element numerical software ANSYS. The modeling results showed that the Flattened Brazilian Splitting <span class="hlt">Test</span> using the optimal loading angle could guarantee the tensile</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28237091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28237091"><span>Development of an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> competitive immunochromatographic strip <span class="hlt">test</span> for rapid detection and determination of anticancer drug, harringtonine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakamoto, Seiichi; Yusakul, Gorawit; Nuntawong, Poomraphie; Kitisripanya, Tharita; Putalun, Waraporn; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi</p> <p>2017-03-24</p> <p>Harringtonine (HT) is a natural compound, which is mainly produced by the genus Cephalotaxus, and has been clinically utilized in China for the treatment of acute leukemia and lymphoma. However, the amounts of HT in the Cephalotaxus species are very small; therefore, plant tissue cultures have been focused upon to enhance HT production. Qualitative/quantitative methods for HT detection are required to screen superior cell lines. We developed a one-step <span class="hlt">indirect</span> competitive immunochromatographic assay (ICA) using colloidal gold nanoparticles conjugated with highly specific monoclonal antibodies against HT (MAb 1D2) for simple, rapid, and sensitive detection of HT in plant samples. This ICA can be completed in 15min after dipping the strip into analytes with a limit of detection of ∼313ng/mL. In developed ICA, fiber pad which is usually used for conventional ICA, was not used to shorten the time for preparing chromatographic strip, resulting in a decrease in the volume of valuable analytes (20μL). Considering simplicity, rapidity, and sensitivity of the developed ICA, this study could be applied to a fieldwork study for finding new natural resources containing HT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4349043','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4349043"><span>The place of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> venography <span class="hlt">tests</span> after pulmonary computed tomography angiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboemboli</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Karaoglu, Oguzhan; Tertemiz, Kemal Can; Yilmaz, Erkan; Akkoclu, Atila; Elibol, Cenk; Elibol, Funda Dinc</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Aim To investigate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> computed tomography (CT) venography applied after pulmonary CT angiography to patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Material and methods The study comprised 80 patients at high/moderate risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) according to the clinical findings. Computed tomography venography (CTV) was performed 3-3.5 minutes after taking pulmonary CTA images. Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) of the lower extremities was applied to all patients before pulmonary CTA or within 24 hours after CTA. Results Pulmonary embolism was determined in a total of 19 patients (23%). Six patients had deep venous thrombosis on CTV examination even though the CDUS findings were normal. Accepting color Doppler ultrasonography findings as the gold standard, the sensitivity of CTV in determining deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was found to be 100%, specificity 91%, positive predictive value 60%, negative predictive value 100%, likelihood of giving a positive result 11.1, and likelihood of giving a negative result 0. There was a statistically significant good degree of correlation between the two methods (r = 0.741, p < 0.001). Conclusions Computed tomography venography examination applied after pulmonary CTA is a fast imaging technique that has high diagnostic value and can be an alternative to CDUS, especially when CDUS is insufficient in application and evaluation. PMID:26336468</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26468267','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26468267"><span>Power evaluation of asymptotic <span class="hlt">tests</span> for comparing two binomial proportions to detect direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> association in large-scale studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Emily, Mathieu; Friguet, Chloé</p> <p>2015-10-14</p> <p>Asymptotic <span class="hlt">tests</span> are commonly used for comparing two binomial proportions when the sample size is sufficiently large. However, there is no consensus on the most powerful <span class="hlt">test</span>. In this paper, we clarify this issue by comparing the power functions of three popular asymptotic <span class="hlt">tests</span>: the Pearson's χ(2) <span class="hlt">test</span>, the likelihood-ratio <span class="hlt">test</span> and the odds-ratio based <span class="hlt">test</span>. Considering Taylor decompositions under local alternatives, the comparisons lead to recommendations on which <span class="hlt">test</span> to use in view of both the experimental design and the nature of the investigated signal. We show that when the design is balanced between the two binomials, the three <span class="hlt">tests</span> are equivalent in terms of power. However, when the design is unbalanced, differences in power can be substantial and the choice of the most powerful <span class="hlt">test</span> also depends on the value of the parameters of the two compared binomials. We further investigated situations where the two binomials are not compared directly but through tag binomials. In these cases of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> association, we show that the differences in power between the three <span class="hlt">tests</span> are enhanced with decreasing values of the parameters of the tag binomials. Our results are illustrated in the context of genetic epidemiology where the analysis of genome-wide association studies provides insights regarding the low power for detecting rare variants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11686263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11686263"><span>Who's afraid of the big bad wolf: a prospective paradigm to <span class="hlt">test</span> Rachman's <span class="hlt">indirect</span> pathways in children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Field, A P; Argyris, N G; Knowles, K A</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>Rachman's theory [The conditioning theory of fear insition: a critical examination. Behav. Res. Ther. 15 (1977) 375-387] of fear acquisition suggests that fears and phobias can be acquired through three pathways: direct conditioning, vicarious learning and information/instruction. Although retrospective studies have provided some evidence for these pathways in the development of phobias during childhood [see King, Gullone, & Ollendick, Etiology of childhood phobias: current status of Rachman's three pathway's theory. Behav. Res. Ther. 36 (1998) 297-309 for a review], these studies have relied on long-term past memories of adult phobics or their parents. The current study was aimed towards developing a paradigm in which the plausibility of Rachman's <span class="hlt">indirect</span> pathways could be investigated prospectively. In Experiment 1, children aged between 7 and 9 were presented with two types of information about novel stimuli (two monsters): video information and verbal information in the form of a story. Fear-related beliefs about the monsters changed significantly as a result of verbal information but not video information. Having established an operational paradigm, Experiment 2 looked at whether the source of verbal information had an effect on changes in fear-beliefs. Using the same paradigm, information about the monsters was provided by either a teacher, an adult stranger or a peer, or no information was given. Again, verbal information significantly changed fear-beliefs, but only when the information came from an adult. The role of information in the acquisition of fear and maintenance of avoidant behaviour is discussed with reference to modern conditioning theories of fear acquisition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23094583','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23094583"><span>Development and evaluation of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for a screening <span class="hlt">test</span> to detect antibodies against classical swine fever virus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Wakamoto, Hiroaki; Tamura, Tehpin; Nomura, Takushi; Naito, Michiko; Aoki, Hiroshi; Morita, Hiroshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Fukusho, Akio</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for a screening <span class="hlt">test</span> to detect antibodies against classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Viral glycoproteins, which were purified from swine kidney cells infected with CSFV ALD/A76 strain by the immunoaffinity purification using monoclonal antibody against E2 protein, were adsorbed on a microtiter plate as the antigen for the antibody detection. Each antibody titer of serum sample was expressed as a sample per positive value calculated with optical absorbance of each sample and that of a positive control. The advantage of this ELISA is its higher sensitivity: most sera containing more than 4 neutralization titers were determined to be positive. This ELISA is unable to discriminate between antibodies against CSFV and those against other ruminant pestiviruses, therefore positive sera in this ELISA should be evaluated by a cross-neutralization <span class="hlt">test</span> using CSFV, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and border disease virus. Taken together, the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA developed in this study is useful screening tool to detect antibodies against CSFV for the large-scale monitoring of classical swine fever.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23024418','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23024418"><span>Development and comparative evaluation of a competitive ELISA with rose bengal <span class="hlt">test</span> and a commercial <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA for serological diagnosis of brucellosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mythili, Tadepalli; Rajendra, Lingala; Bhavesh, Trangadia; Thiagarajan, Dorairajan; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The development of a competitive ELISA for the detection of brucella-specific antibodies in bovines is described. Anti-brucella guinea pig serum was used as a source of competing antibodies. Lipo-polysaccharide purified from inactivated B. abortus S19 culture was used as antigen for the development of the assay. Sera from cattle were used in the competitive ELISA, rose bengal <span class="hlt">test</span> and a commercial <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA. The following cattle sera were <span class="hlt">tested</span>: (i) known positive sera (n = 80) (ii) known negative sera (n = 100) and (iii) field sera (n = 1184). Based on the receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and frequency distribution of the percentage of inhibition, 30% inhibition was considered the cut-off for positive and negative results. The sensitivity and specificity estimate on comparison with the commercial <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA was 94.87 and 92.12% respectively. The competitive ELISA described is a simple method for the routine screening of animal sera for detecting Brucella-specific antibodies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1009449','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1009449"><span>Development of a Physical Employment <span class="hlt">Testing</span> Battery for Infantry Soldiers: 11B Infantryman and 11C Infantryman - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Fire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The loads stated herein refer to size large body armor, so the loads represent the middle of the actual range of weight worn. Descriptions...employment batteries developed for military personnel by these other countries are provided in Table 3.1. Predictor <span class="hlt">tests</span> range from those highly associated...USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T16-10 DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSICAL EMPLOYMENT <span class="hlt">TESTING</span> BATTERY FOR INFANTRY SOLDIERS: 11B INFANTRYMAN AND 11C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1009448','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1009448"><span>Development of a Physical Employment <span class="hlt">Testing</span> Battery for Infantry Soldiers: 11B Infantryman and 11C Infantryman-<span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Fire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>to size large body armor, so the loads represent the middle of the actual range of weight worn. Descriptions of the <span class="hlt">testing</span> condition for each...From - To) December 20 I 5 Technical Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Development of a Physical Employment <span class="hlt">Testing</span> Battery for...and legally defensible physical performance battery to predict a Soldier’s ability to serve in the MOS. Study I involved measuring and identifying</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17014973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17014973"><span>Development and application of an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA <span class="hlt">test</span> for the detection of antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli infection in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawo, Fufa; Mohan, Krishna</p> <p>2007-01-31</p> <p>Non-availability of a standardized rapid serodiagnostic <span class="hlt">test</span> for quick and accurate diagnosis of Mycoplasma crocodyli (M. crocodyli) infection in crocodiles was the underlining reason for conducting the present study. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) for the detection of antibodies (Ab) to M. crocodyli infection in crocodile sera was developed using sonicated antigen (Ag) and anti-crocodile conjugate. The iELISA <span class="hlt">test</span> was optimised with different reagents and at different steps. A cut-off value of percent positive greater than or equal to 53.47% resulted in an estimated sensitivity and specificity of 85.67 and 100%, respectively. The developed iELISA could be used for detection of Abs to M. crocodyli infection in crocodiles and may enable to understand the transmission of the disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27829375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27829375"><span>Selection of performance-<span class="hlt">tested</span> young bulls and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> responses in commercial beef cattle herds on pasture and in feedlots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raidan, Fernanda S S; Santos, Dalinne C C; Moraes, Mariana M; Araújo, Andresa E M; Ventura, Henrique T; Bergmann, José A G; Turra, Eduardo M; Toral, Fabio L B</p> <p>2016-11-09</p> <p>Central <span class="hlt">testing</span> is used to select young bulls which are likely to contribute to increased net income of the commercial beef cattle herd. We present genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits on performance-<span class="hlt">tested</span> young bulls and commercial animals that are raised on pasture and in feedlots. Records on young bulls and heifers in performance <span class="hlt">tests</span> or commercial herds were used. Genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits were estimated. Correlated responses for commercial animals when selection was applied on performance-<span class="hlt">tested</span> young bulls were computed. The 90% highest posterior density (HPD90) intervals for heritabilities of final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG) and scrotal circumference (SC) ranged from 0.41 to 0.49, 0.23 to 0.30 and 0.47 to 0.57, respectively, for performance-<span class="hlt">tested</span> young bulls on pasture, from 0.45 to 0.60, 0.20 to 0.32 and 0.56 to 0.70, respectively, for performance-<span class="hlt">tested</span> young bulls in feedlots, from 0.29 to 0.33, 0.14 to 0.18 and 0.35 to 0.45, respectively, for commercial animals on pasture, and from 0.24 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.24 and 0.35 to 0.57 respectively, for commercial animals in feedlots. The HPD90 intervals for genetic correlations of FW, ADG and SC in performance-<span class="hlt">tested</span> young bulls on pasture (feedlots) with FW, ADG and SC in commercial animals on pasture (feedlots) ranged from 0.86 to 0.96 (0.83 to 0.94), 0.78 to 0.90 (0.40 to 0.79) and from 0.92 to 0.97 (0.50 to 0.83), respectively. Age at first calving was genetically related to ADG (HPD90 interval = -0.48 to -0.06) and SC (HPD90 interval = -0.41 to -0.05) for performance-<span class="hlt">tested</span> young bulls on pasture, however it was not related to ADG (HPD90 interval = -0.29 to 0.10) and SC (HPD90 interval = -0.35 to 0.13) for performance-<span class="hlt">tested</span> young bulls in feedlots. Heritabilities for growth and SC are higher for performance-<span class="hlt">tested</span> young bulls than for commercial animals. Evaluating and selecting for increased growth and SC on performance-<span class="hlt">tested</span> young bulls is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64993&keyword=Salem&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64993&keyword=Salem&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>A COMPARISON OF FOUR <span class="hlt">FLUORESCENT</span> <span class="hlt">ANTIBODY</span> BASED METHODS FOR PURIFYING, DETECTING AND CONFIRMING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM IN SURFACE WATERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cryptosporidiosis has been traced to drinking contaminated surface water, either not treated, or ineffectively treated. <span class="hlt">Testing</span> to detect Cryptosporidium parvum in surface water has been suggested to help prevent future outbreaks. This study compared purifications and detection...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64993&keyword=Salem&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89682338&CFTOKEN=95839914','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64993&keyword=Salem&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89682338&CFTOKEN=95839914"><span>A COMPARISON OF FOUR <span class="hlt">FLUORESCENT</span> <span class="hlt">ANTIBODY</span> BASED METHODS FOR PURIFYING, DETECTING AND CONFIRMING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM IN SURFACE WATERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cryptosporidiosis has been traced to drinking contaminated surface water, either not treated, or ineffectively treated. <span class="hlt">Testing</span> to detect Cryptosporidium parvum in surface water has been suggested to help prevent future outbreaks. This study compared purifications and detection...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22876746','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22876746"><span>Serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases: prospective comparison of the BIOCHIP mosaic-based <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence technique with the conventional multi-step single <span class="hlt">test</span> strategy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Beek, Nina; Rentzsch, Kristin; Probst, Christian; Komorowski, Lars; Kasperkiewicz, Michael; Fechner, Kai; Bloecker, Inga M; Zillikens, Detlef; Stöcker, Winfried; Schmidt, Enno</p> <p>2012-08-09</p> <p>Various antigen-specific immunoassays are available for the serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases. However, a spectrum of different tissue-based and monovalent antigen-specific assays is required to establish the diagnosis. BIOCHIP mosaics consisting of different antigen substrates allow polyvalent immunofluorescence (IF) <span class="hlt">tests</span> and provide antibody profiles in a single incubation. Slides for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> IF were prepared, containing BIOCHIPS with the following <span class="hlt">test</span> substrates in each reaction field: monkey esophagus, primate salt-split skin, antigen dots of tetrameric BP180-NC16A as well as desmoglein 1-, desmoglein 3-, and BP230gC-expressing human HEK293 cells. This BIOCHIP mosaic was probed using a large panel of sera from patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n=65), pemphigus foliaceus (PF, n=50), bullous pemphigoid (BP, n=42), and non-inflammatory skin diseases (n=97) as well as from healthy blood donors (n=100). Furthermore, to evaluate the usability in routine diagnostics, 454 consecutive sera from patients with suspected immunobullous disorders were prospectively analyzed in parallel using a) the IF BIOCHIP mosaic and b) a panel of single antibody assays as commonly used by specialized centers. Using the BIOCHIP mosaic, sensitivities of the desmoglein 1-, desmoglein 3-, and NC16A-specific substrates were 90%, 98.5% and 100%, respectively. BP230 was recognized by 54% of the BP sera. Specificities ranged from 98.2% to 100% for all substrates. In the prospective study, a high agreement was found between the results obtained by the BIOCHIP mosaic and the single <span class="hlt">test</span> panel for the diagnosis of BP, PV, PF, and sera without serum autoantibodies (Cohen's κ between 0.88 and 0.97). The BIOCHIP mosaic contains sensitive and specific substrates for the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> IF diagnosis of BP, PF, and PV. Its diagnostic accuracy is comparable with the conventional multi-step approach. The highly standardized and practical BIOCHIP mosaic will facilitate the serological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25921809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25921809"><span>Evaluation of immunochromatographic <span class="hlt">test</span> for the detection of antibodies against Echinococcosis granulosus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tamer, Gülden Sönmez; Dündar, Devrim; Uzuner, Hüseyin; Baydemir, Canan</p> <p>2015-04-29</p> <p>Echinococcosis in humans is a disease caused by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) and Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis). Serological <span class="hlt">tests</span> are valuable, especially in the clarification of unexplained clinical findings and imaging methods. For this reason, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> hemagglutination (IHA), latex agglutination, immunoelectrophoresis, immunoblotting, immuno-enzymatic <span class="hlt">tests</span>, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescence</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of an immunochromatographic <span class="hlt">test</span> (ICT) specific for E. granulosus antibodies in the diagnosis of echinococcosis. ICT evaluated 102 cases of cystic echinococcosis, 38 cases of other parasitic diseases, and 50 healthy individuals. ELISA (DRG, Germany) that detects IgG antibodies specific for E. granulosus was used as the reference method. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ICT were 96.8%, 87.5%, 98.9%, and 70%, respectively. Diagnostic value was 96.1%. No significant differences and high degrees of agreement were found between ELISA and immunochromatographic <span class="hlt">test</span> for cystic echinococcosis. Serum samples included 4 taeniasis, 2 leishmaniasis, and 2 healthy individuals were diagnosed to be positive with immunochromatographic <span class="hlt">test</span>. The ability of <span class="hlt">test</span> to give fast results without need for equipment, devices, and specific storage conditions is an advantage. This <span class="hlt">test</span> may be used due to its advantages in endemic regions for screening and diagnostic purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=29157&keyword=Salem&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=29157&keyword=Salem&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>A COMPARISON OF FOUR <span class="hlt">FLUORESCENT</span> <span class="hlt">ANTIBODY</span>-BASED METHODS FOR PURIFYING, DETECTING, AND CONFIRMING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM IN SURFACE WATERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cryptosporidiosis has been traced to drinking contaminated surface water, which was either not treated or was ineffectively treated. <span class="hlt">Testing</span> to detect Cryptosporidium parvum in surface water has been suggested to help prevent future outbreaks. In the present study, the same sampl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=29157&keyword=Salem&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89682338&CFTOKEN=95839914','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=29157&keyword=Salem&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89682338&CFTOKEN=95839914"><span>A COMPARISON OF FOUR <span class="hlt">FLUORESCENT</span> <span class="hlt">ANTIBODY</span>-BASED METHODS FOR PURIFYING, DETECTING, AND CONFIRMING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM IN SURFACE WATERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cryptosporidiosis has been traced to drinking contaminated surface water, which was either not treated or was ineffectively treated. <span class="hlt">Testing</span> to detect Cryptosporidium parvum in surface water has been suggested to help prevent future outbreaks. In the present study, the same sampl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10957825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10957825"><span>Dishabituation processes in height fear and dental fear: an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> of the non-associative model of fear acquisition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poulton, R; Waldie, K E; Craske, M G; Menzies, R G; McGee, R</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>The fear dishabituation hypothesis described in the non-associative model of fear acquisition was <span class="hlt">tested</span> in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Results were consistent with height fear and phobia dishabituation. That is, 're-emergence' of a fear of heights occurred between age 11 and 18 years among individuals who reported higher levels of non-specific stress at age 15. Interestingly, there was no evidence for dental fear dishabituation--a finding consistent with the non-associative model of fear acquisition. Strengths and weaknesses of the study were considered and the results discussed in relation to laboratory-based findings on (dis)habituation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5329104','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5329104"><span>Accuracy of molecular diagnostics in pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid: comparison of commercial and modified mosaic <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence <span class="hlt">tests</span> as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Pietkiewicz, Paweł; Bartkiewicz, Paweł; Dmochowski, Marian</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid (BP) are identified by autoantibodies (abs) against desmoglein 1, 3 (DSG1/3) and BP180/BP230, respectively. A novel mosaic to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence (IIF) using purified BP180 recombinant proteins spotted on slide and transfected cells expressing BP230, DSG1, DSG3 is available. The commercial (IgG detection) and modified (IgG4 detection) mosaic for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence (IIFc – IIF commercial, IIFm – IIF modified) and IgG ELISAs were evaluated in pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid (BP) molecular diagnostics. Aim To compare diagnostic accuracy of commercial (IgG detection) and modified (IgG4 detection) mosaic IIF assay and to examine the diagnostic value of ELISAs in relation to mosaic IIF in routine laboratory diagnostics of pemphigus and BP. Material and methods Sera from 37 BP and 19 pemphigus patients were studied. Associations between <span class="hlt">tests</span> were assessed using Fisher’s exact <span class="hlt">test</span>. Results There are associations between the positive/negative samples detected by IIFc with desmoglein1 (DSG1)/desmoglein3 (DSG3)/BP230 transfected cells and ELISAs and no association between anti-BP180 IgG detection by IIFc and ELISA. IIFm with DSG1 and DSG3 showed both 100% sensitivity and 100% and 78% specificity, respectively, and 100% and 83% positive predictive value in relation to IIFc. IIFm with BP230 had 87% specificity, 55% sensitivity, whereas IIFm with BP180 had a 100% sensitivity and 13% specificity in relation to IIFc. Conclusions The IIFc with DSG1/DSG3/BP230 transfected cells, excluding BP180 spots, is an alternative method to ELISA in pemphigus/BP diagnostics. IgG4 antibodies, both pathogenically and diagnostically important, are inconsistently detectable with IIFm. PMID:28261028</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26761376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26761376"><span>Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British household panel: <span class="hlt">Tests</span> of the social causation, health selection and the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> selection hypothesis using dynamic fixed effects panel models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with <span class="hlt">testing</span> the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are <span class="hlt">tested</span> using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel regression models following the method suggested by Anderson and Hsiao. We propose using this method to estimate the associations over time since it allows one to control for all unobserved time-invariant factors and hence lower the chances of biased estimates due to unobserved heterogeneity. The results showed no proof of the social causation hypothesis over a one to five year period and limited support for the health selection hypothesis was seen only for men in relation to HH income. These findings were robust in multiple sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> selection hypothesis may be the most important in explaining social inequality in health in adulthood, indicating that the well-known cross-sectional correlations between health and SEP in adulthood seem not to be driven by a causal relationship, but instead by dynamics and influences in place before the respondents turn 30 years old that affect both their health and SEP onwards. The conclusion is limited in that we do not consider the effect of specific diseases and causal relationships in adulthood may be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15009262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15009262"><span><span class="hlt">Testing</span> alternative models for sexual isolation in natural populations of Littorina saxatilis: <span class="hlt">indirect</span> support for by-product ecological speciation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cruz, R; Carballo, M; Conde-Padín, P; Rolán-Alvarez, E</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>Two ecotypes of the rough periwinkle Littorina saxatilis occur at different shore levels, showing assortative mating for size and partial reproductive isolation when they meet at the mid-shore. This system represents a putative case of incomplete speciation in sympatry. Two processes contribute to the assortative mating: morph-specific microhabitat aggregation and mate choice. The estimation of mate choice coefficients in nature and a simulation of the aggregation effects on sexual isolation were used to disentangle these processes as well as to <span class="hlt">test</span> alternative mechanisms of mate choice. Mate choice significantly increased the frequency of within-morph pairs and significantly decreased the frequency of between-morph pairs, whereas those pairs including at least one hybrid morph mated randomly. These results allow us to reject a discriminant mate choice and support a model of evolution of sexual isolation as a side-effect of size-assortative mating in a context of divergent natural selection for size in the population. This mechanism is more compatible with a model of incomplete by-product ecological speciation, as suggested by previous evidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178593','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178593"><span>Brood stock segregation of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha by use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> technique (FAT) affects the prevalence and levels of Renibacterium salmoninarum infection in progeny</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pascho, Ronald J.; Elliott, Diane G.; Streufert, Jonathan M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A study of the effect of maternal Renibacterium salmoninarum infection levels on the prevalence and levels of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in progeny fish was conducted at a production salmon hatchery. A total of 302 mating pairs of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was screened in August 1988 for R. salmoninarum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). On the basis of ELISA <span class="hlt">testing</span> of kidney tissues from all fish and the <span class="hlt">testing</span> of ovarian fluid samples from a subsample of the females by a direct membrane filtration <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> technique (MF-FAT), selected egg lots were segregated into 2 groups of 30 egg lots or about 135 000 eggs each. One group contained egg lots from male and female parents that had low R. salmoninarum infection levels or <span class="hlt">tested</span> negative for R. salmoninarum (low-BKD group), and the other group contained egg lots from female parents with relatively high R. salmoninarum infection levels and male parents with various infection levels (high-BKD group). The progeny groups were maintained in separate rearing units supplied with untreated river water, and were monitored for R. salmoninarum by the ELISA until they were released from the hatchery in April 1990. Total mortality of the juvenile fish was higher (p = 0.0001) in the high-BKD group (20%) than in the low-BKD group (10 %). Mortality in the high-BKD group was highest after the fish were moved from nursery tanks to raceways, and clinical BKD became evident in this group. During the 11 mo of raceway rearing, mortality in the high-BKD group was 17 % compared with 5 % for the low-BKD group. An ELISA analysis of smolts just before release showed an R. salmoninarum infection rate of 85 % in the high-BKD group and 62 % in the low-BKD group. Of the positive fish, 98 % in the low-BKD group and 55 % in the high-BKD group had low infection levels, whereas 36 % in the high-BKD group and only 1 % in the low-BKD group had high infection levels. The results of this research</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27605818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27605818"><span>Evaluation of modified Ziehl-Neelsen, direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent-antibody</span> and PCR assay for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in children faecal specimens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aghamolaie, S; Rostami, A; Fallahi, Sh; Tahvildar Biderouni, F; Haghighi, A; Salehi, N</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>To determine the sensitivity and specificity of routine screening methods for cryptosporidiosis, three methods including conventional modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN), direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent-antibody</span> (DFA) and Nested-PCR assay compared together. To this end, their ability to identify the low concentrations of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in children fecal samples was evaluated. The sample population of this study was children under 12 years old who had diarrhea and referred to pediatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. 2,510 stool specimens from patients with diarrhea were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts by concentration method and MZN. To determine sensitivity and specificity, Nested-PCR and DFA were performed on 30 positive and 114 negative samples which previously had been proved by MZN. By using the microscopic method, DFA assay and PCR analysis, a total of 30 (1.2 %), 28 (1.1 %) and 32 (1.27 %) positive samples were detected respectively. According to the results, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Nested-PCR assay were 100 %, compared to 94, 100, 100, and 98 %, respectively, for MZN and 87.5, 100, 100, and 96 %, respectively, for DFA. Results of the present study showed that the Nested-PCR assay was more sensitive than the other two methods and laboratories can use the Nested-PCR method for precise diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. However, regarding the costs of Nested-PCR and its unavailability in all laboratories and hospitals, MZN staining on smears has also enough accuracy for Cryptosporidium diagnosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=167300','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=167300"><span>Detection of Legionella species in reclaimed water and air with the EnviroAmp Legionella PCR kit and direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> staining.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Palmer, C J; Bonilla, G F; Roll, B; Paszko-Kolva, C; Sangermano, L R; Fujioka, R S</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Reclaimed water is an important resource for areas with inadequate water supplies. However, there have been few studies on the variety of microorganisms found in this type of water, since typically reclaimed water is examined only for the presence of coliform bacteria. Many microorganisms, including the legionellae, are known to be more resistant to chlorine than are coliform bacteria. Previously, we detected > 10(3) Legionella cells per ml in primary and secondary sewage effluents and observed no significant reduction in population numbers throughout the treatment process. In this study, we detected Legionella spp. in chlorinated effluent by using an EnviroAmp Legionella PCR kit and direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> (DFA) staining. However, we were not able to isolate Legionella spp. from either natural or seeded reclaimed water samples. This suggests that the Legionella spp. detected by the PCR and DFA methods may be injured or viable but nonculturable after exposure to the high residual chlorine levels typically found in this type of water source. The numbers of coliform bacteria were low (< 2 cells per 100 ml) in most reclaimed water samples and were not correlated with the presence or absence of Legionella spp. We also collected air samples from above a secondary aeration basin and analyzed them by using the PCR, DFA, and plate culture methods. Legionella spp. were detected in the air obtained from above the secondary basin with all three methods. We concluded that the PCR was superior to the culture and DFA methods for detecting Legionella spp. in environmental water samples. PMID:7574578</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3533694','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3533694"><span>Serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases: Prospective comparison of the BIOCHIP mosaic-based <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence technique with the conventional multi-step single <span class="hlt">test</span> strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Various antigen-specific immunoassays are available for the serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases. However, a spectrum of different tissue-based and monovalent antigen-specific assays is required to establish the diagnosis. BIOCHIP mosaics consisting of different antigen substrates allow polyvalent immunofluorescence (IF) <span class="hlt">tests</span> and provide antibody profiles in a single incubation. Methods Slides for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> IF were prepared, containing BIOCHIPS with the following <span class="hlt">test</span> substrates in each reaction field: monkey esophagus, primate salt-split skin, antigen dots of tetrameric BP180-NC16A as well as desmoglein 1-, desmoglein 3-, and BP230gC-expressing human HEK293 cells. This BIOCHIP mosaic was probed using a large panel of sera from patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n = 65), pemphigus foliaceus (PF, n = 50), bullous pemphigoid (BP, n = 42), and non-inflammatory skin diseases (n = 97) as well as from healthy blood donors (n = 100). Furthermore, to evaluate the usability in routine diagnostics, 454 consecutive sera from patients with suspected immunobullous disorders were prospectively analyzed in parallel using a) the IF BIOCHIP mosaic and b) a panel of single antibody assays as commonly used by specialized centers. Results Using the BIOCHIP mosaic, sensitivities of the desmoglein 1-, desmoglein 3-, and NC16A-specific substrates were 90%, 98.5% and 100%, respectively. BP230 was recognized by 54% of the BP sera. Specificities ranged from 98.2% to 100% for all substrates. In the prospective study, a high agreement was found between the results obtained by the BIOCHIP mosaic and the single <span class="hlt">test</span> panel for the diagnosis of BP, PV, PF, and sera without serum autoantibodies (Cohen’s κ between 0.88 and 0.97). Conclusions The BIOCHIP mosaic contains sensitive and specific substrates for the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> IF diagnosis of BP, PF, and PV. Its diagnostic accuracy is comparable with the conventional multi-step approach. The highly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17901794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17901794"><span>Comparison of polymerase chain reaction and the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> particle agglutination antibody <span class="hlt">test</span> for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children during two outbreaks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Jin A; Eun, Byung Wook; Shin, Sun Hee; Chung, Eun Hee; Park, Ki Won; Choi, Eun Hwa; Lee, Hoan Jong</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia is challenging because of the lack of standardized rapid <span class="hlt">tests</span>. Many serologic <span class="hlt">tests</span> and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods are used with different diagnostic criteria. This retrospective study was conducted to compare the diagnostic values of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> particle agglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> and nested PCR of nasopharyngeal aspirates for the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in children. These assays were evaluated in 234 hospitalized children with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections during 2 outbreaks of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in 2000 and 2003. The cumulative PCR positive rate was 26.7% in patients with maximum antibody titers of < or =1:320 and 78.2% in those with titers of > or =1:640. Based on these data, a positive PCR, a 4-fold increase in antibody titer, or a single titer > or =1:640 were considered to indicate acute M. pneumoniae infection. Overall, 152 children were diagnosed to have M. pneumoniae pneumonia; 27 (18%) by serology only, 26 (17%) by PCR only, and 99 (65%) by both methods. Children who were diagnosed by PCR only were significantly younger (P = 0.003) and were more often immunocompromised (P = 0.019) than those that were PCR negative. Duration of cough before PCR diagnosis was shorter in cases diagnosed by PCR only than those that were PCR negative (P = 0.045). In conclusion, during the 2 outbreaks of M. pneumoniae infection, we found that the PCR <span class="hlt">test</span> may be useful for the rapid diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia, particularly in young children and in immunocompromised patients and in early stage disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003553.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003553.htm"><span>Sputum direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> (DFA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 17. Murray PR. The clinician and the microbiology laboratory. In: ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26101772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26101772"><span>Evaluation of an <span class="hlt">Indirect</span>-ELISA <span class="hlt">Test</span> for Trypanosoma evansi Infection (Surra) in Buffaloes and Its Application to a Serological Survey in Thailand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kocher, Arthur; Desquesnes, Marc; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Yangtara, Sarawut; Leboucher, Emilye; Rodtian, Pranee; Dargantes, Alan; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi, is a neglected disease due to frequent subclinical evolution, especially in bovines in Asia. However, acute and chronic signs are regularly observed, with significant sanitary and economic impacts. In this study, we evaluated and applied an <span class="hlt">indirect</span>-ELISA <span class="hlt">test</span> for the detection of anti-T. evansi immunoglobulin G in buffaloes using antibovine conjugate. Based on buffalo reference sera from the Philippines, a two-graph receiver operating characteristics analysis (TG-ROC) was conducted to define an optimal cut-off value; sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 92.5% and 94.2%, respectively. A cross-sectional serological survey was carried out in the major buffalo breeding areas of Thailand; 892 buffaloes from 8 provinces were sampled in North, Northeastern, and Southern Thailand. Seropositive buffaloes were found in all 8 provinces, on 20.3% of farms for an overall prevalence of 12.2% (95% CI 10.2-14.5%). Nearly one-third of the sampled population was exposed to infection. Broader sampling would be necessary but is not possible in the southern half-wild breeding systems. According to our results, buffaloes may constitute a large and robust reservoir for T. evansi, which is a permanent threat to other livestock such as cattle and horses as well as wild animals such as elephants in Southest Asia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4458525','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4458525"><span>Evaluation of an <span class="hlt">Indirect</span>-ELISA <span class="hlt">Test</span> for Trypanosoma evansi Infection (Surra) in Buffaloes and Its Application to a Serological Survey in Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kocher, Arthur; Desquesnes, Marc; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Yangtara, Sarawut; Leboucher, Emilye; Rodtian, Pranee; Dargantes, Alan; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi, is a neglected disease due to frequent subclinical evolution, especially in bovines in Asia. However, acute and chronic signs are regularly observed, with significant sanitary and economic impacts. In this study, we evaluated and applied an <span class="hlt">indirect</span>-ELISA <span class="hlt">test</span> for the detection of anti-T. evansi immunoglobulin G in buffaloes using antibovine conjugate. Based on buffalo reference sera from the Philippines, a two-graph receiver operating characteristics analysis (TG-ROC) was conducted to define an optimal cut-off value; sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 92.5% and 94.2%, respectively. A cross-sectional serological survey was carried out in the major buffalo breeding areas of Thailand; 892 buffaloes from 8 provinces were sampled in North, Northeastern, and Southern Thailand. Seropositive buffaloes were found in all 8 provinces, on 20.3% of farms for an overall prevalence of 12.2% (95% CI 10.2–14.5%). Nearly one-third of the sampled population was exposed to infection. Broader sampling would be necessary but is not possible in the southern half-wild breeding systems. According to our results, buffaloes may constitute a large and robust reservoir for T. evansi, which is a permanent threat to other livestock such as cattle and horses as well as wild animals such as elephants in Southest Asia. PMID:26101772</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24211046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24211046"><span>Detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in sylvatic lagomorphs from an epidemic area of Madrid using the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence antibody <span class="hlt">test</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moreno, Inmaculada; Álvarez, Julio; García, Nerea; de la Fuente, Santiago; Martínez, Irene; Marino, Eloy; Toraño, Alfredo; Goyache, Joaquin; Vilas, Felipe; Domínguez, Lucas; Domínguez, Mercedes</p> <p>2014-01-31</p> <p>An outbreak of human leishmaniasis was confirmed in the southwest of the province of Madrid, Spain, between July 2009 and December 2012. Incidence of Leishmania infection in dogs was unchanged in this period, prompting a search for alternative sylvatic infection reservoirs. We evaluated exposure to Leishmania in serum samples from animals in the area with an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence <span class="hlt">test</span> (IFAT). Using promastigotes from six culture passages and a 1/25 threshold titer, we found anti-Leishmania infantum seroreactivity in 9.3% of cats (4 of 43), 45.7% of rabbits (16/35) and 74.1% of hares (63/85). Use of promastigotes from >10 in vitro passages resulted in a notably IFAT lower titer, suggesting antigenic changes during extended culture. Postmortem inspection of seropositive animals showed no clinical signs of infection. The results clearly suggest that asymptomatic hares were the main reservoir in the outbreak, and corroborate IFAT as a sensitive serological surveillance method to detect such cryptic Leishmania infections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3294322','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3294322"><span>Evaluation of a Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical <span class="hlt">Test</span> for Rabies Diagnosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lembo, Tiziana; Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ernest, Eblate; Rupprecht, Charles E.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A direct rapid immunohistochemical <span class="hlt">test</span> (dRIT) was evaluated under field and laboratory conditions to detect rabies virus antigen in frozen and glycerol-preserved field brain samples from northwestern Tanzania. Compared to the direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span>, the traditional standard in rabies diagnosis, the dRIT was 100% sensitive and specific. PMID:16494761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23276401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23276401"><span>Bayesian estimation of true prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA, Rose Bengal <span class="hlt">Test</span> and Slow Agglutination <span class="hlt">Test</span> for the diagnosis of brucellosis in sheep and goats in Bangladesh.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rahman, A K M Anisur; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk; Fretin, David; Gani, Md Osman; Ershaduzzaman, Md; Ahmed, Muzahed Uddin; Emmanuel, Abatih</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The true prevalence of brucellosis and diagnostic <span class="hlt">test</span> characteristics of three conditionally dependent serological <span class="hlt">tests</span> were estimated using the Bayesian approach in goats and sheep populations of Bangladesh. Serum samples from a random selection of 636 goats and 1044 sheep were <span class="hlt">tested</span> in parallel by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA (iELISA), Rose Bengal <span class="hlt">Test</span> (RBT) and Slow Agglutination <span class="hlt">Test</span> (SAT). The true prevalence of brucellosis in goats and sheep were estimated as 1% (95% credibility interval (CrI): 0.7-1.8) and 1.2% (95% CrI: 0.6-2.2) respectively. The sensitivity of iELISA was 92.9% in goats and 92.0% in sheep with corresponding specificities of 96.5% and 99.5% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity estimates of RBT were 80.2% and 99.6% in goats and 82.8% and 98.3% in sheep. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT were 57.1% and 99.3% in goats and 72.0% and 98.6% in sheep. In this study, three conditionally dependent serological <span class="hlt">tests</span> for the diagnosis of small ruminant brucellosis in Bangladesh were validated. Considerable conditional dependence between IELISA and RBT and between RBT and SAT was observed among sheep. The influence of the priors on the model fit and estimated parameter values was checked using sensitivity analysis. In multiple <span class="hlt">test</span> validation, conditional dependence should not be ignored when the <span class="hlt">tests</span> are in fact conditionally dependent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1034885','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1034885"><span><span class="hlt">Indirection</span> and computer security.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berg, Michael J.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The discipline of computer science is built on <span class="hlt">indirection</span>. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of <span class="hlt">indirection</span>. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the <span class="hlt">indirections</span> in system designs and that focusing on the <span class="hlt">indirections</span> involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that <span class="hlt">indirection</span> be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between <span class="hlt">indirections</span> and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3019763','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3019763"><span>The Future of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Efron, Bradley</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Familiar statistical <span class="hlt">tests</span> and estimates are obtained by the direct observation of cases of interest: a clinical trial of a new drug, for instance, will compare the drug’s effects on a relevant set of patients and controls. Sometimes, though, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evidence may be temptingly available, perhaps the results of previous trials on closely related drugs. Very roughly speaking, the difference between direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> statistical evidence marks the boundary between frequentist and Bayesian thinking. Twentieth-century statistical practice focused heavily on direct evidence, on the grounds of superior objectivity. Now, however, new scientific devices such as microarrays routinely produce enormous data sets involving thousands of related situations, where <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evidence seems too important to ignore. Empirical Bayes methodology offers an attractive direct/<span class="hlt">indirect</span> compromise. There is already some evidence of a shift toward a less rigid standard of statistical objectivity that allows better use of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evidence. This article is basically the text of a recent talk featuring some examples from current practice, with a little bit of futuristic speculation. PMID:21243111</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22841669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22841669"><span>Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid <span class="hlt">testing</span> with rapid antigen <span class="hlt">testing</span> for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen <span class="hlt">tests</span>, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">testing</span> for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">testing</span>, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">testing</span>, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">testing</span>. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12184700','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12184700"><span>Cross-sectional study of serum antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in cats <span class="hlt">tested</span> for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rossano, Mary G; Murphy, Alice J; Vrable, Ruth A; Vanzo, Nicole E; Lewis, Stacy K; Sheline, Katherine D; Kaneene, John B; Mansfield, Linda S</p> <p>2002-08-15</p> <p>To determine apparent seroprevalence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in a population of domestic cats previously <span class="hlt">tested</span> for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Cross-sectional study. Serum from 196 domestic cats. Banked serum samples submitted to the Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory for T. gondii diagnostic <span class="hlt">testing</span> were <span class="hlt">tested</span> for antibodies against S. neurona by use of an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> (IFA) <span class="hlt">test</span> and a western blot <span class="hlt">test</span>. Submission records were analyzed to determine descriptive statistics and <span class="hlt">test</span> for associations between positive results of a <span class="hlt">test</span> for S. neurona and other variables in the data set. 10 of 196 (5%) samples yielded positive results for antibodies against S. neurona by use of western blot analysis, whereas 27 samples yielded positive results by use of the IFA. No association was found between S. neurona western blot <span class="hlt">test</span> results and T. gondii <span class="hlt">test</span> results, age, sex, or the reason for T. gondii <span class="hlt">testing</span>. The S. neurona IFA titer was positively and significantly associated with positive results of western blot analysis. Domestic cats are not likely to play a substantial role as intermediate hosts in the natural life cycle of S. neurona. Results indicate that natural infection of domestic cats may occur, and small animal practitioners should be aware of this fact when evaluating cats with neurologic disease. The S. neurona IFA <span class="hlt">test</span> had lower specificity than western blot analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=269089','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=269089"><span>Comparison of two new <span class="hlt">tests</span> for rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Freymuth, F; Quibriac, M; Petitjean, J; Amiel, M L; Pothier, P; Denis, A; Duhamel, J F</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The sensitivity and the specificity of two new commercial reagent <span class="hlt">tests</span>, an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> (FAT) with a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) RSV antigen detection kit, were determined by a comparison of results from these <span class="hlt">tests</span> with those of tissue culture isolation and an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> FAT with bovine polyclonal antibody (BPA). Of 251 nasal aspirates from infants with suspected RSV infection, positive results were found for 99 (39%) by the FAT-MAb, 93 (37%) by the FAT-BPA, and 87 (35%) by the ELISA; 69 of 240 (29%) were positive by cultures. The FAT-MAb was a more sensitive technique than cultures, with 87% sensitivity for the FAT-MAb and 84% for the ELISA. It was also more sensitive than the FAT-BPA, with 97% sensitivity for the FAT-MAb and 85% for the ELISA. This could be caused only by the distinctive volume of suspended specimens used in these <span class="hlt">tests</span>. Of 171 negative culture specimens, positive (but not false-positive) results were found for 18% by the FAT-MAb and for 12% by the ELISA. Inversely, 13% of 69 culture positive specimens were FAT-MAb negative and 16% were ELISA negative, emphasizing the importance of tissue cultures for the maximum recovery of RSV, as well as for detection of other respiratory viruses. The FAT-MAb and ELISA were easy to perform and interpret, thus facilitating wider use. PMID:3536993</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=educacion&pg=4&id=EJ779164','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=educacion&pg=4&id=EJ779164"><span><span class="hlt">Testing</span> Direct and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effects of Sports Participation on Perceived Health in Spanish Adolescents between 15 and 18 Years of Age</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; Garcia-Merita, Marisa</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M AGE=16.31, S. D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson,…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ciencia&pg=2&id=EJ779164','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ciencia&pg=2&id=EJ779164"><span><span class="hlt">Testing</span> Direct and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effects of Sports Participation on Perceived Health in Spanish Adolescents between 15 and 18 Years of Age</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; Garcia-Merita, Marisa</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M AGE=16.31, S. D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title9-vol1-sec130-16.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title9-vol1-sec130-16.pdf"><span>9 CFR 130.16 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology <span class="hlt">tests</span> performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... Plaque reduction neutralization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 18.00 18.00 19.00 19.00 19.00 Rabies <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> neutralization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 45.00 46.00 47.00 49.00 50.00 Virus neutralization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 13.00 13.00 14.00 14.00...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol1-sec130-16.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol1-sec130-16.pdf"><span>9 CFR 130.16 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology <span class="hlt">tests</span> performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... Plaque reduction neutralization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 18.00 18.00 19.00 19.00 19.00 Rabies <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> neutralization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 45.00 46.00 47.00 49.00 50.00 Virus neutralization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 13.00 13.00 14.00 14.00...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title9-vol1-sec130-16.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title9-vol1-sec130-16.pdf"><span>9 CFR 130.16 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology <span class="hlt">tests</span> performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... Plaque reduction neutralization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 18.00 18.00 19.00 19.00 19.00 Rabies <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> neutralization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 45.00 46.00 47.00 49.00 50.00 Virus neutralization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 13.00 13.00 14.00 14.00...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title9-vol1-sec130-16.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title9-vol1-sec130-16.pdf"><span>9 CFR 130.16 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology <span class="hlt">tests</span> performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... Plaque reduction neutralization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 18.00 18.00 19.00 19.00 19.00 Rabies <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> neutralization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 45.00 46.00 47.00 49.00 50.00 Virus neutralization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 13.00 13.00 14.00 14.00...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20385057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20385057"><span>[Canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis by immunohistochemistry and PCR in skin tissues in association with IFAT and ELISA-<span class="hlt">test</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Queiroz, Nina M G P; de Assis, Juliana; Oliveira, Trícia M F S; Machado, Rosângela Z; Nunes, Cáris M; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma A</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the immunohistochemistry (IMHC) and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) <span class="hlt">tests</span> for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis and compare the results with serological <span class="hlt">tests</span> such as the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescence</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> (IFAT), ELISA and a parasitological <span class="hlt">test</span> (microscopic direct examination of the parasite stained with haematoxylin and eosin--HE). For this study, samples of healthy or lesion skin tissues were obtained from 34 CVL naturally infected dogs classified in three groups: asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polisymptomatic. Not only lesion (56.5%) but also healthy skins (31.8%) were positives by IMHC and confirmed by PCR in 97.8% of skin samples. In asymptomatic group, 87.5% dogs were negatives by serological <span class="hlt">tests</span>, but positives by IMHC in 50% and by PCR in 100%. In oligosymptomatic group, 100%, 85.7% and 28.6% of dogs were positives, respectively by PCR, serological and IMHC <span class="hlt">tests</span>. In addition, 91.7% of polisymptomatic dogs were serum positive and had intact parasites in the skin. In general, PCR showed higher positivity (100%). The efficiency of each <span class="hlt">test</span> varied with the evolution of the disease. IMHC may be used to confirm the results of the serology and PCR in inconclusive cases after HE and IMHC. The association of techniques proposed in this study may increase the positivity and contributed to the control of this canine disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14643742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14643742"><span><span class="hlt">Testing</span> direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of sports participation on perceived health in Spanish adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; García-Merita, Marisa</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>This paper examines the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M age=16.31, S.D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson, Vilhjalmsson and Valgeirsson's (Social Science and Medicine 31 (1990) 551) model which introduces smoking, alcohol use, feelings of anxiety, feelings of depression and psychophysiological symptoms as mediator variables; Model B is an extension of Model A with perceived physical fitness as an added mediator variable. Both models show a good fit to the data. Results showed that, in both models, sports participation affected perceived health directly and <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> by decreasing smoking and alcohol consumption, feelings of depression and psychophysiological symptoms. In Model B, sport also affected perceived health via increased perceived physical fitness explaining almost 10% more of the variance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930064450&hterms=learning+experience&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dlearning%2Bexperience','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930064450&hterms=learning+experience&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dlearning%2Bexperience"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> decentralized learning control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Longman, Richard W.; Lee, Soo C.; Phan, M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> learning control based on use of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper develops improved <span class="hlt">indirect</span> learning control algorithms, and studies the use of such controllers in decentralized systems. The original motivation of the learning control field was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the nominal trajectory, and using the usual robot controllers that are decentralized, treating each link as if it is independent of any coupling with other links. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures convergence to zero tracking error of the decentralized <span class="hlt">indirect</span> learning control of the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3771302','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3771302"><span>Comparison of Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular <span class="hlt">Tests</span> for Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Cross-Sectional Delayed-Type Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; de Sousa, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas Nogueira, Betânia Mara; Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Oliveira, Edward; Assis, Tália Santana Machado; de Mendonça, Andréa Laender Pessoa; Pinto, Bruna Fernandes; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Rabello, Ana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of invasive and non-invasive <span class="hlt">tests</span> for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a large series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In this delayed-type cross-sectional study, 113 HIV-infected symptomatic patients were evaluated by an adjudication committee after clinical follow-up to establish the presence or absence of VL as the target condition (reference <span class="hlt">test</span>). The index <span class="hlt">tests</span> were recombinant K39 antigen-based immunochromatographic <span class="hlt">test</span> (rK39), <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> (IFAT), prototype kit of direct agglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> (DAT-LPC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in peripheral blood. Compared with parasitological <span class="hlt">test</span> and adjudication committee diagnosis or latent class model analyses, IFAT and rk39 dipstick <span class="hlt">test</span> presented the lowest sensitivity. DAT-LPC exhibited good overall performance, and there was no statistical difference between DAT-LPC and qPCR diagnosis accuracy. Real-time PCR emerges as a less invasive alternative to parasitological examination for confirmation of cases not identified by DAT. PMID:23836568</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22458424','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22458424"><span>Complementary <span class="hlt">test</span> of the dark matter self-interaction in dark U(1) model by direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> dark matter detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Chian-Shu; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yen-Hsun</p> <p>2016-01-07</p> <p>The halo dark matter (DM) can be captured by the Sun if its final velocity after the collision with a nucleus in the Sun is less than the escape velocity. We consider a selfinteracting dark matter (SIDM) model where U(1) gauge symmetry is introduced to account for the DM self-interaction. Such a model naturally leads to isospin violating DM-nucleon interaction, although isospin symmetric interaction is still allowed as a special case. We present the IceCube-PINGU 2σ sensitivity to the parameter range of the above model with 5 years of search for neutrino signature from DM annihilation in the Sun. This <span class="hlt">indirect</span> detection complements the direct detection by probing those SIDM parameter ranges which are either the region for very small m{sub χ} or the region opened up due to isospin violations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22525085','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22525085"><span>Complementary <span class="hlt">test</span> of the dark matter self-interaction in dark U(1) model by direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> dark matter detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Chian-Shu; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yen-Hsun E-mail: glin@cc.nctu.edu.tw</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The halo dark matter (DM) can be captured by the Sun if its final velocity after the collision with a nucleus in the Sun is less than the escape velocity. We consider a selfinteracting dark matter (SIDM) model where U(1) gauge symmetry is introduced to account for the DM self-interaction. Such a model naturally leads to isospin violating DM-nucleon interaction, although isospin symmetric interaction is still allowed as a special case. We present the IceCube-PINGU 2σ sensitivity to the parameter range of the above model with 5 years of search for neutrino signature from DM annihilation in the Sun. This <span class="hlt">indirect</span> detection complements the direct detection by probing those SIDM parameter ranges which are either the region for very small m{sub χ} or the region opened up due to isospin violations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27743128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27743128"><span>New automated <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescent antinuclear antibody <span class="hlt">testing</span> compares well with established manual immunofluorescent screening and titration for antinuclear antibody on HEp-2 cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Daves, M; Blecken, J; Matthias, T; Frey, A; Perkmann, V; Dall Acqua, A; Joos, A; Platzgummer, S</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The IIF using the HEp-2 cell substrate should be still considered the "gold standard" techniques for determination of antinuclear antibody (ANA). Standardization and automation can be considered to be still in progress. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the commercially automated <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescent antinuclear HEp-2 antibody assay. The study was designed to compare two commercially available HEp-2 ANA by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescent antibody assays using a sensitivity panel (120 clinically determined patients) and a specificity panel consisting of 78 clinically confirmed negative patients. We compared the NOVA View(®) system [INOVA Diagnostics San Diego, USA] with the new HELIOS Processor from AESKU Systems/AESKU.Diagnostics (Wendelsheim, Germany) to assess their capability for screening, pattern recognition and titration of the samples. These automated methods were directly compared to manual reading of the same processed slides on respective microscopes and also compared with the known clinical information. The results of the two automated methods were in very good agreement with recognizing negative and positive samples. The HELIOS system detected 188 samples correctly as negative or positive versus 187 detected by the NOVA View(®) system. The diagnostic sensitivity of the systems was 95.8 versus 96.7 % for HELIOS and NOVA View(®), respectively. The systems exhibited a diagnostic specificity of 93.5 % for the HELIOS system and 91.0 % for the NOVA View(®). Both systems are suitable for fast and reliable detection of positivity/negativity due to their high sensitivity and will lead to a further increase of standardization in autoimmunity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24095606','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24095606"><span>Comparison of direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> bronchoprovocation <span class="hlt">testing</span> using ventilator-acquired pulmonary mechanics in healthy cats and cats with experimental allergic asthma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, C-H; Dodam, J R; Cohn, L A; Reinero, C R</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a key feature of asthma and can be measured using bronchoprovocation. Direct (methacholine, MCh) or <span class="hlt">indirect</span> (adenosine-5-monophosphate, AMP; or mannitol) bronchoprovocants are used in human patients, the latter inducing AHR only with pre-existing airway inflammation. The present study compared the responses to direct (MCh) and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> (mannitol, AMP) bronchoprovocation in healthy and asthmatic cats (n=6/group). The order of bronchoprovocant was randomized using a published table of random numbers and there was a 1-month washout before crossover to the next treatment. Pulmonary mechanics were measured in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated cats using a critical care ventilator. Saline at baseline and increasing doses of each bronchoprovocant were aerosolized for 30 s, followed by 4 min of data collection between doses. The endpoint for each bronchoprovocant was reached when airway resistance exceeded 200% of baseline values (EC200Raw). There was a significant difference (P<0.001) in the airway response of asthmatic vs. healthy cats over the range of MCh concentrations, despite there being no significant difference in the EC200Raw between the groups. Response to MCh was significantly greater (P<0.05) in asthmatic than in healthy cats at MCh concentrations as low as 0.0625 mg/mL. For AMP, a small subset of asthmatics (n=2/6) responded at low concentrations; four asthmatic cats and all healthy cats failed to respond even to the highest concentrations of AMP. One asthmatic cat but no healthy cats responded to mannitol. In conclusion, MCh discriminated asthmatic from healthy cats but neither AMP nor mannitol was an effective bronchoprovocant in this model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790000515&hterms=microbial+growth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmicrobial%2Bgrowth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790000515&hterms=microbial+growth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmicrobial%2Bgrowth"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> microbial detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilkins, J. R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> method for detection of microbial growth utilizes flow of charged particles across barrier that physically separated growing cells from electrodes and measures resulting difference in potential between two platinum electrodes. Technique allows simplified noncontact monitoring of all growth in highly infectious cultures or in critical biochemical studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950049751&hterms=Task-Based+Learning&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTask-Based%2BLearning','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950049751&hterms=Task-Based+Learning&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTask-Based%2BLearning"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> decentralized repetitive control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Soo Cheol; Longman, Richard W.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Learning control refers to controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> decentralized learning control based on use of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper extends these results to apply to the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> repetitive control problem in which a periodic (i.e., repetitive) command is given to a control system. Decentralized <span class="hlt">indirect</span> repetitive control algorithms are presented that have guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error under very general conditions. The original motivation of the repetitive control and learning control fields was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the desired trajectory. Decentralized repetitive control is natural for this application because the feedback control for link rotations is normally implemented in a decentralized manner, treating each link as if it is independent of the other links.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4537968','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4537968"><span><span class="hlt">Test</span> of 259 serums from patients with arthritis or neurological symptoms confirmed existence of Lyme disease in Hainan province, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Xiong; Hou, Xuexia; Geng, Zhen; Chen, Hai; Hao, Qin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> <span class="hlt">Fluorescent-Antibody</span> <span class="hlt">Test</span> (IFA), Western Blot (WB) and Nested-PCR were applied to identify the Borrelia burgdorferi in human serum samples in Hainan province. A total of 259 serum samples were collected from Sanya Peoples’ Hospital, Hainan province. These samples were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi serologically and etiologically by the two tier <span class="hlt">tests</span> (IFA and WB) and Nested-PCR. 43 in total of 259 serum samples were <span class="hlt">tested</span> positive by IFA assay, the positive rate was 16.6%. Among 43 IFA-positive samples, 6 were identified positive by WB. Nested-PCR were also used to <span class="hlt">test</span> B. burgdorferi DNA in 259 serum samples at the same time, 27 samples were <span class="hlt">tested</span> positive with positive rate of 10.42%. It is the first time to confirm that there are Lyme patients in Hainan province of China. The study suggested that Lyme disease should be commonly considered by clinicians with the patients who had correlated symptoms with lyme disease in Hainan. PMID:26309619</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25455225','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25455225"><span>Hep-2 cell based <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence assay for antinuclear antibodies as a potential diagnosis of drug-induced autoimmunity in nonclinical toxicity <span class="hlt">testing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hong, Min; Ma, Ben; Lin, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaobing; Geng, Xingchao; Shen, Lianzhong; Li, Bo</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are important biomarkers in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases in humans; however, the diagnostic performance of ANA in nonclinical safety studies are not well understood. Here, we studied the use of ANAs as potential nonclinical biomarkers for drug-induced autoimmunity (DIA) using a Hep-2 based <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Initially, MRL-fas(lpr)/J mice and HgCl₂-treated rats were used as SLE-positive models. Serum samples obtained from 94 normal mice or 204 normal rats aged one to four months served as the negative control. The IFA effectively distinguished ANAs-positive samples in both species with a cut-off titer of 1:100. Brown Norway rats were treated with 450 mg/kg D-penicillamine for 30 consecutive days. ANAs were generated and corresponded with DIA development. Human Hep-2 cells, mice Neuro 2A cells, and Chinese Hamster Lung cells served as antigen from different species, which were found cross-reactive with ANA-positive serum samples from mice, rats, and humans without any differences in diagnosis. This methodology showed no species-specificity for ANA detection. Furthermore, we found approximately 20 percentage of the mice aged seven to eight months demonstrated age-related ANAs, which was consistent with humans. Overall, our findings demonstrated the use of ANA detection using IFA in the nonclinical diagnosis of murine drug-induced autoimmunity, and age-related ANAs should be considered when aged animals are used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3010022','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3010022"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> resin composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nandini, Suresh</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘<span class="hlt">indirect</span> resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27018820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27018820"><span>The differences in short- and long-term varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunoglobulin G levels following varicella vaccination of healthcare workers measured by VZV <span class="hlt">fluorescent-antibody</span>-to-membrane-antigen assay (FAMA), VZV time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay and a VZV purified glycoprotein enzyme immunoassay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maple, P A C; Haedicke, J; Quinlivan, M; Steinberg, S P; Gershon, A A; Brown, K E; Breuer, J</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Healthcare workers (HCWs) reporting no history of varicella frequently receive varicella vaccination (vOka) if they <span class="hlt">test</span> varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) negative. In this study, the utilities of VZV-IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (VZV-TRFIA) and a commercial VZV-IgG purified glycoprotein enzyme immunoassay (gpEIA) currently used in England for confirming VZV immunity have been compared to the <span class="hlt">fluorescent-antibody</span>-to-membrane-antigen assay (FAMA). A total of 110 HCWs received two doses of vOka vaccine spaced 6 weeks apart and sera collected pre-vaccination (n = 100), at 6 weeks post-completion of vaccination (n = 86) and at 12-18 months follow-up (n = 73) were analysed. Pre-vaccination, by FAMA, 61·0% sera were VZV IgG negative, and compared to FAMA the sensitivities of VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA were 74·4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 57·9-87·0] and 46·2% (95% CI 30·1-62·8), respectively. Post-completion of vaccination the seroconversion rate by FAMA was 93·7% compared to rates of 95·8% and 70·8% determined by VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA, respectively. At 12-18 months follow-up seropositivity rates by FAMA, VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA were 78·1%, 74·0% and 47·9%, respectively. Compared to FAMA the sensitivities of VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA for measuring VZV IgG following vaccination were 96·4% (95% CI 91·7-98·8) and 74·6% (95% CI 66·5-81·6), respectively. Using both FAMA and VZV-TRFIA to identify healthy adult VZV susceptibles and measure seroconversion showed that vOka vaccination of HCWs is highly immunogenic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647943"><span>Comparison of two immunochromatographic assays and the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence antibody <span class="hlt">test</span> for diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs in south central Louisiana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nieto, Prixia D; Boughton, Roger; Dorn, Patricia L; Steurer, Frank; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Esfandiari, Javan; Gonçalves, Edson; Diaz, James; Malone, John B</p> <p>2009-11-12</p> <p>Two rapid <span class="hlt">tests</span> evaluated in dogs considered to be of high risk of infection with the Chagas parasite Trypanosoma cruzi using two immunochromatographic assays: Trypanosoma Detect for canine, InBios, Seattle, WA and CHAGAS STAT-PAK assay, Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Medford, NY, in south central Louisiana. For this purpose a serological survey was carried out in a total of 122 dogs and a serum bank was created. These 122 animals were first <span class="hlt">tested</span> by IFAT that was used as the standard <span class="hlt">test</span>. From the serum bank 50 samples were <span class="hlt">tested</span> using the two rapid Chagas assays and results compared to the standard <span class="hlt">test</span> IFAT. The serological survey using IFAT showed a prevalence of T. cruzi infection in 22.1% of the <span class="hlt">tested</span> dogs. In the immunochromatographic assays, 13 and 11 animals were positive on rapid assay: Trypanosoma Detect for canine, InBios and CHAGAS STAT-PAK, Chembio Diagnostic Systems, respectively compared to 11 positive by IFAT. These two immunochromatographic <span class="hlt">tests</span> have shown high susceptibility and specificity compared to our standard method IFAT. The rapid, easy and accurate screening assays used in conjunction with confirmatory <span class="hlt">tests</span>, would be an excellent tool for veterinarians to diagnose T. cruzi infection. Early detection of T. cruzi infection may prevent complications through an effective treatment. Greater awareness by veterinarians of the risk, clinical findings, history along with diagnostic methods will contribute greatly to an understanding of the true prevalence of Chagas disease in dogs in Louisiana.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595036"><span>Bayesian Estimation of Sensitivity and Specificity of Rose Bengal, Complement Fixation, and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> ELISA <span class="hlt">Tests</span> for the Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis in Ethiopia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Getachew, T; Getachew, G; Sintayehu, G; Getenet, M; Fasil, A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Test</span> evaluation in the absence of a gold standard <span class="hlt">test</span> was conducted for the diagnosis and screening of bovine brucellosis using three commercially available <span class="hlt">tests</span> including RBPT, CFT, and I-ELISA in National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center (NAHDIC) Ethiopia. A total of 278 sera samples from five dairy herds were collected and <span class="hlt">tested</span>. Each serum sample was subjected to the three <span class="hlt">tests</span> and the results obtained were recorded and the <span class="hlt">test</span> outcomes were cross-classified to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the <span class="hlt">tests</span> using Bayesian model. Prior information generated on the sensitivity and specificity of bovine brucellosis from published data was used in the model. The three <span class="hlt">test</span>-one population Bayesian model was modified and applied using WinBug software with the assumption that the dairy herds have similar management system and unknown disease status. The Bayesian posterior estimate for sensitivity was 89.6 (95% PI: 79.9-95.8), 96.8 (95% PI: 92.3-99.1), and 94 (95% PI: 87.8-97.5) and for specificity was 84.5 (95% PI: 68-94.98), 96.3 (95% PI: 91.7-98.8), and 88.5 (95% PI: 81-93.8) for RBT, I-ELISA, and CFT, respectively. In this study I-ELISA was found with the best sensitivity and specificity estimates 96.8 (95% PI: 92.3-99.1) and 96.3 (95% PI: 91.7-98.8), compared to both CFT and RBPT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4993953','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4993953"><span>Bayesian Estimation of Sensitivity and Specificity of Rose Bengal, Complement Fixation, and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> ELISA <span class="hlt">Tests</span> for the Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis in Ethiopia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Getachew, T.; Getachew, G.; Getenet, M.; Fasil, A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Test</span> evaluation in the absence of a gold standard <span class="hlt">test</span> was conducted for the diagnosis and screening of bovine brucellosis using three commercially available <span class="hlt">tests</span> including RBPT, CFT, and I-ELISA in National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center (NAHDIC) Ethiopia. A total of 278 sera samples from five dairy herds were collected and <span class="hlt">tested</span>. Each serum sample was subjected to the three <span class="hlt">tests</span> and the results obtained were recorded and the <span class="hlt">test</span> outcomes were cross-classified to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the <span class="hlt">tests</span> using Bayesian model. Prior information generated on the sensitivity and specificity of bovine brucellosis from published data was used in the model. The three <span class="hlt">test</span>-one population Bayesian model was modified and applied using WinBug software with the assumption that the dairy herds have similar management system and unknown disease status. The Bayesian posterior estimate for sensitivity was 89.6 (95% PI: 79.9–95.8), 96.8 (95% PI: 92.3–99.1), and 94 (95% PI: 87.8–97.5) and for specificity was 84.5 (95% PI: 68–94.98), 96.3 (95% PI: 91.7–98.8), and 88.5 (95% PI: 81–93.8) for RBT, I-ELISA, and CFT, respectively. In this study I-ELISA was found with the best sensitivity and specificity estimates 96.8 (95% PI: 92.3–99.1) and 96.3 (95% PI: 91.7–98.8), compared to both CFT and RBPT. PMID:27595036</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6518379','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6518379"><span>Bioechnology of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> liquefaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.</p> <p>1990-05-07</p> <p>The project on biotechnology of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25307685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25307685"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence antibody <span class="hlt">test</span> and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of infection by Leishmania infantum in clinically normal and sick cats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chatzis, Manolis K; Leontides, Leonidas; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Elias; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Mylonakis, Mathios; Rallis, Timoleon; Koutinas, Alexandros F; Andreadou, Margarita; Ikonomopoulos, John; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Cats that live in areas where canine and human leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum is endemic may become infected and may develop anti-Leishmania antibodies. In this study 50 clinically normal and 50 cats with cutaneous and/or systemic signs that lived in an endemic area and had been previously examined for infection by L. infantum using PCR in four different tissues were serologically <span class="hlt">tested</span> for the presence of anti-Leishmania IgG (IFAT and ELISA) and IgM (IFAT). The aim was to compare the results of IFAT, ELISA and PCR and to investigate the possible associations between seropositivity to Leishmania spp and signalment, living conditions, season of sampling, health status of the cats, and seropositivity to other infectious agents. Low concentrations of anti-Leishmania IgG were detected by IFAT in 10% of the cats and by ELISA in 1%, whereas anti-Leishmania IgM were detected by IFAT in 1%. There was disagreement between the results of IFAT and ELISA for anti-Leishmania IgG (P = 0.039) and between all serological <span class="hlt">tests</span> and PCR (P < 0.001). The diagnostic sensitivity of all serological <span class="hlt">tests</span>, using PCR as the gold standard, was very low, but ELISA and IFAT for anti-Leishmania IgM had 100% specificity. The diagnostic sensitivity of all serological <span class="hlt">tests</span> could not be improved by changing the cut-off values. Seropositivity for Leishmania spp was not associated with signalment, living conditions, season of sampling and health status of the cats or with seropositivity to feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline coronavirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella henselae. In conclusion, because of their low sensitivity and very high specificity two of the evaluated serological <span class="hlt">tests</span> (ELISA for anti-Leishmania IgG and IFAT for anti-Leishmania IgM) may be useless as population screening <span class="hlt">tests</span> but valuable for diagnosing feline infection by L. infantum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24444552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24444552"><span>Evaluation of recombinant LigB antigen-based <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ELISA and latex agglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> for the serodiagnosis of bovine leptospirosis in India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deneke, Yosef; Sabarinath, T; Gogia, Neha; Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Viswas, K N; Chaudhuri, Pallab</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, causing febrile infection characterized by multi-organ failure in humans and animals. Leptospiral Ig-like protein B (LigB) is a surface-expressed antigen that mediates host cell invasion or attachment. In this study, N-terminal conserved region of LigB protein (46 kDa) was evaluated for its diagnostic potential to detect anti-leptospiral antibodies in the sera of various animal species. Dot blot analysis revealed immunoreactivity of Leptospira-positive sera of cattle, buffalo, dog, sheep and goat to purified LigB protein. We have analyzed 1126 bovine serum samples, collected from Northern and Eastern part of India, by microscopic agglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> (MAT) and recombinant LigB (rLigB) based ELISA and latex agglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> (LAT). The sensitivity of rLigB based ELISA for 554 MAT positive sera was 96.9% and the specificity with 572 MAT negative sera was 91.08% whereas LAT showed sensitivity and specificity of 93.68% and 92.31%, respectively. Kappa values of 0.879 and 0.860 for recombinant antigen based ELISA and LAT indicate excellent agreement with the gold standard serological <span class="hlt">test</span>, MAT, for the detection of anti-leptospiral antibodies in sera. Further, LAT based on rLigB antigen is a simple and rapid <span class="hlt">test</span>, suitable for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis under field conditions, owing to its portability and longer shelf life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4165783','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4165783"><span>Internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and early adolescent substance use: A <span class="hlt">test</span> of a latent variable interaction and conditional <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scalco, Matthew D.; Colder, Craig R.; Hawk, Larry W.; Read, Jennifer P.; Wieczorek, William F.; Lengua, Liliana J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Externalizing problem behavior is a robust predictor of early adolescent substance use (SU); however findings regarding internalizing problems have been mixed, suggesting that there may be important moderators of the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. The present study used a community sample (mean age was 12.1 at the first assessment, 55% female, 83% White) to <span class="hlt">test</span> a longitudinal latent variable interaction structural equation model to examine whether externalizing problems moderated the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. Peer delinquency was <span class="hlt">tested</span> as a mediator in the model and prior levels of the mediator and outcome were controlled at each wave to establish temporal precedence. Results suggested that (1) internalizing problems were protective against associating with deviant peers, but only at high levels of externalizing symptomatology, (2) higher levels of peer delinquency were associated with increases in SU, and (3) peer delinquency mediated the effect of the problem behavior interaction on SU. Our findings suggest that the impact of internalizing problems on peer delinquency and SU needs to be considered in the context of externalizing problems. Moreover, developmental models involving internalizing symptoms should consider that internalizing symptoms are generally protective against substance use in early adolescence. PMID:25134030</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25134030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25134030"><span>Internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and early adolescent substance use: a <span class="hlt">test</span> of a latent variable interaction and conditional <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scalco, Matthew D; Colder, Craig R; Hawk, Larry W; Read, Jennifer P; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Externalizing problem behavior is a robust predictor of early adolescent substance use (SU); however, findings regarding internalizing problems have been mixed, suggesting that there may be important moderators of the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. The present study used a community sample (mean age was 12.1 at the first assessment, 55% women, 83% White) to <span class="hlt">test</span> a longitudinal latent variable interaction structural equation model to examine whether externalizing problems moderated the relationship between internalizing problems and SU. Peer delinquency was <span class="hlt">tested</span> as a mediator in the model and prior levels of the mediator and outcome were controlled at each wave to establish temporal precedence. Results suggested that (1) internalizing problems were protective against associating with deviant peers, but only at high levels of externalizing symptomatology, (2) higher levels of peer delinquency were associated with increases in SU, and (3) peer delinquency mediated the effect of the problem behavior interaction on SU. Our findings suggest that the impact of internalizing problems on peer delinquency and SU needs to be considered in the context of externalizing problems. Moreover, developmental models involving internalizing symptoms should consider that internalizing symptoms are generally protective against substance use in early adolescence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27456204','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27456204"><span>The burden of the variability introduced by the HEp-2 assay kit and the CAD system in ANA <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence <span class="hlt">test</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Infantino, M; Meacci, F; Grossi, V; Manfredi, M; Benucci, M; Merone, M; Soda, P</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>According to the recent recommendations of the American College of Rheumatology, ANA Task Force, IIF technique should be considered the gold standard in antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) <span class="hlt">testing</span>. To overcome the lack of standardization, biomedical industries have developed several computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Two hundred and sixty-one consecutive samples with suspected autoimmune diseases were <span class="hlt">tested</span> for ANA by means of IIF on routinely HEp-2 assay kit (Euroimmun AG). Assignment of result was made if consensus for positive/negative was reached by at least 2 out of 3 expert physicians. ANA-IIF was also carried out using 3 CAD systems: Zenit G-Sight (n = 84), Helios (n = 85) and NOVA View (n = 92); human evaluation was repeated on the same substrate of each CAD system (Immco, Aesku and Inova HEp-2 cells, respectively). To anonymize the results, we randomly named these three systems as A, B and C. We ran a statistical analysis computing several measures of agreement between the ratings, and we also improved the evaluation by using the Wilcoxon's <span class="hlt">test</span> for nonparametric data. Agreement between the human readings on routinely HEp-2 assay kit and human readings on CAD HEp-2 assay was substantial for A (k = 0.82) and B (k = 0.72), and almost perfect for C (k = 0.89). Such readings were statistically different only in case A. Comparing experts' readings with the readings of CAD systems, when the samples were prepared using CAD HEp-2 assay kits, we found almost perfect agreement for B and C (k = 0.86; k = 0.82) and substantial agreement for A (k = 0.73). Again, human and CAD readings were statistically different only in A. When we compared the readings of medical experts on routinely HEp-2 assay kit with the output of the CAD systems that worked using their own slides, we found substantial agreement for all the systems (A: k = 0.62; B: k = 0.65; C: k = 0.71). Such readings were not statistically different. The change of the assay kit and/or the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11813202','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11813202"><span>Detection of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. Campestris in seed extracts of Brassica sp. Applying <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibodies</span> and flow cytometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chitarra, L G; Langerak, C J; Bergervoet, J H W; van den Bulk, R W</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p>Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a seed-transmitted plant pathogenic bacterium that causes black rot of crucifers. Seed lots and plants are screened for contamination with this pathogen using plating or serological assays. These methods, however, are time consuming and not very sensitive, respectively. Therefore, flow cytometry (FCM) was evaluated as a tool for the rapid detection and quantification of Xcc cells labeled with a mixture of specific fluorescein isothicyanate (FITC)-monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in pure culture, in mixed cultures of Xcc with either the common saprophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens (Psf) or a nonpathogenic X. campestris isolate (Xc), and in crude seed extracts. The mAb 18G12, conjugated with FITC, was <span class="hlt">tested</span> at dilutions of 1:50, 1:100, 1:200, and 1:400. For mixed suspensions of Xcc and Psf, mAb 18G12 was used at a dilution of 1:100. The combination of mAbs 18G12, 2F4, and 20H6, all conjugated with FITC, was used at a dilution of 1:100 for the detection and quantification of Xcc cells in mixed suspensions containing Xcc and Xc and in crude seed extracts. The analyses were performed with a Coulter EPICS XL-MCL flow cytometer, at low flow rate during 2 min. Using FCM, Xcc cells labeled with FITC-conjugated mAbs (18G12, 2F4, and 20H6) were detected and quantified rapidly at low numbers, i.e., 10(3) colony-forming units per milliliter in pure and in mixed cultures with Psf. The presence of the nonpathogenic Xc in the seed extracts did not interfere with the FCM results. Xcc cells were distinguished from the cells of other organisms and from small particles present in the seed extract based on the high-intensity fluorescence of the labeled cells. The application of FCM in combination with FITC-conjugated mAbs appears to be a promising technique for the detection and quantification of Xcc cells in seed extracts of crucifers. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol1-sec130-15.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol1-sec130-15.pdf"><span>9 CFR 130.15 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic isolation and identification <span class="hlt">tests</span> performed at NVSL...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... special characterization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 92.00 94.00 96.00 98.00 101.00 DNA fingerprinting <span class="hlt">Test</span> 59.00 61.00 62.00 63.00 64.00 DNA probe <span class="hlt">Test</span> 83.00 85.00 86.00 88.00 89.00 <span class="hlt">Fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">Test</span> 19.00 19.00 20.00 20...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title9-vol1-sec130-15.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title9-vol1-sec130-15.pdf"><span>9 CFR 130.15 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic isolation and identification <span class="hlt">tests</span> performed at NVSL...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... special characterization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 92.00 94.00 96.00 98.00 101.00 DNA fingerprinting <span class="hlt">Test</span> 59.00 61.00 62.00 63.00 64.00 DNA probe <span class="hlt">Test</span> 83.00 85.00 86.00 88.00 89.00 <span class="hlt">Fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">Test</span> 19.00 19.00 20.00 20...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol1-sec130-15.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol1-sec130-15.pdf"><span>9 CFR 130.15 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic isolation and identification <span class="hlt">tests</span> performed at NVSL...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... special characterization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 92.00 94.00 96.00 98.00 101.00 DNA fingerprinting <span class="hlt">Test</span> 59.00 61.00 62.00 63.00 64.00 DNA probe <span class="hlt">Test</span> 83.00 85.00 86.00 88.00 89.00 <span class="hlt">Fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">Test</span> 19.00 19.00 20.00 20...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title9-vol1-sec130-15.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title9-vol1-sec130-15.pdf"><span>9 CFR 130.15 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic isolation and identification <span class="hlt">tests</span> performed at NVSL...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... special characterization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 92.00 94.00 96.00 98.00 101.00 DNA fingerprinting <span class="hlt">Test</span> 59.00 61.00 62.00 63.00 64.00 DNA probe <span class="hlt">Test</span> 83.00 85.00 86.00 88.00 89.00 <span class="hlt">Fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">Test</span> 19.00 19.00 20.00 20...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title9-vol1-sec130-15.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title9-vol1-sec130-15.pdf"><span>9 CFR 130.15 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic isolation and identification <span class="hlt">tests</span> performed at NVSL...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... special characterization <span class="hlt">Test</span> 92.00 94.00 96.00 98.00 101.00 DNA fingerprinting <span class="hlt">Test</span> 59.00 61.00 62.00 63.00 64.00 DNA probe <span class="hlt">Test</span> 83.00 85.00 86.00 88.00 89.00 <span class="hlt">Fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">Test</span> 19.00 19.00 20.00 20...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spanish&pg=6&id=EJ1124437','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spanish&pg=6&id=EJ1124437"><span>Comprehension of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Meaning in Spanish as a Foreign Language</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taguchi, Naoko; Gomez-Laich, Maria Pia; Arrufat-Marques, Maria-Jose</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated comprehension of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> meaning among learners of L2 Spanish via an original computer-delivered multimedia listening <span class="hlt">test</span>. The comprehension of implied speaker intention is a type of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> communication that involves the ability to understand implied intention by using linguistic knowledge, contextual cues, and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=signal+AND+processing&pg=3&id=EJ1124437','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=signal+AND+processing&pg=3&id=EJ1124437"><span>Comprehension of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Meaning in Spanish as a Foreign Language</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taguchi, Naoko; Gomez-Laich, Maria Pia; Arrufat-Marques, Maria-Jose</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated comprehension of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> meaning among learners of L2 Spanish via an original computer-delivered multimedia listening <span class="hlt">test</span>. The comprehension of implied speaker intention is a type of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> communication that involves the ability to understand implied intention by using linguistic knowledge, contextual cues, and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED204413.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED204413.pdf"><span>A Comparison of Direct and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Writing Assessment Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stiggins, Richard J.</p> <p></p> <p>An area of current concern is that of the advantages and disadvantages of measuring writing proficiency directly via writing samples, and <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> via objective <span class="hlt">tests</span>. Much research has been completed documenting the correlation between direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> measures. However, there had not yet been a systematic and detailed conceptual analysis…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4895011','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4895011"><span>Bayesian Validation of the <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Immunofluorescence Assay and Its Superiority to the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and the Complement Fixation <span class="hlt">Test</span> for Detecting Antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in Goat Serum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stenos, John; Vincent, Gemma; Campbell, Angus; Graves, Stephen; Warner, Simone; Devlin, Joanne M.; Nguyen, Chelsea; Stevenson, Mark A.; Wilks, Colin R.; Firestone, Simon M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Although many studies have reported the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to be more sensitive in detection of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii than the complement fixation <span class="hlt">test</span> (CFT), the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the assay have not been previously established for use in ruminants. This study aimed to validate the IFA by describing the optimization, selection of cutoff titers, repeatability, and reliability as well as the DSe and DSp of the assay. Bayesian latent class analysis was used to estimate diagnostic specifications in comparison with the CFT and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The optimal cutoff dilution for screening for IgG and IgM antibodies in goat serum using the IFA was estimated to be 1:160. The IFA had good repeatability (>96.9% for IgG, >78.0% for IgM), and there was almost perfect agreement (Cohen's kappa > 0.80 for IgG) between the readings reported by two technicians for samples <span class="hlt">tested</span> for IgG antibodies. The IFA had a higher DSe (94.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.3, 99.6) for the detection of IgG antibodies against C. burnetii than the ELISA (70.1%; 95% CI, 52.7, 91.0) and the CFT (29.8%; 95% CI, 17.0, 44.8). All three <span class="hlt">tests</span> were highly specific for goat IgG antibodies. The IFA also had a higher DSe (88.8%; 95% CI, 58.2, 99.5) for detection of IgM antibodies than the ELISA (71.7%; 95% CI, 46.3, 92.8). These results underscore the better suitability of the IFA than of the CFT and ELISA for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in goat serum and possibly in serum from other ruminants. PMID:27122484</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26412738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26412738"><span>Direct vs. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Moral Enhancement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schaefer, G Owen</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span>. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on <span class="hlt">indirect</span> moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such <span class="hlt">indirect</span> moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25238242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25238242"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> antiglobulin <span class="hlt">test</span>-crossmatch using low-ionic-strength saline-albumin enhancement medium and reduced incubation time: effectiveness in the detection of most clinically significant antibodies and impact on blood utilization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dinardo, C L; Bonifácio, S L; Mendrone, A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> antiglobulin <span class="hlt">test</span>-crossmatch (IAT-XM) using enhancement media such as low-ionic-strength saline (LISS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) usually requires 15 minutes of incubation. These methods are necessary when <span class="hlt">testing</span> samples from blood recipients who have a higher risk of alloimmunization. In emergency situations, IAT-XM can be time-consuming and can influence presurgery routine, resulting in more red blood cell (RBC) units being <span class="hlt">tested</span> and stored to avoid the transfusion of uncrossmatched ones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a LISS-albumin enhancer to intensify antigen-antibody reaction after 5 minutes of 37oC incubation and compare this performance with that of other enhancers, gel, and conventional tube <span class="hlt">testing</span>. Second, the study evaluated the impact of this method's implementation in the C:T ratio (crossmatched to transfused RBC units) of a transfusion laboratory. Ninety serum samples containing alloantibodies of potential clinical significance were <span class="hlt">tested</span> against phenotyped RBCs using four different methods: (1) tube with LISS-albumin enhancer (5 minutes of incubation), (2) tube with LISS-albumin and PEG (15 minutes of incubation), (3) gel, and (4) conventional tube method (60 minutes of incubation). In parallel, the study compared the C:T ratio of a tertiary-hospital transfusion laboratory in two different periods: 3 months before and 3 months after the implementation of the 5-minute IAT-XM protocol. The use of LISS-albumin with 5 minutes of incubation exhibited the same performance as LISS-albumin, PEG, and gel with 15 minutes of incubation. Conventional tube method results were equally comparable, but reactions were significantly less intense, except for anti-c (p = 0.406). Accuracy was 100 percent for all selected methods. After the implementation of the 5-minute IAT-XM protocol, the C:T ratio fell from 2.74 to 1.29 (p < 0.001). IAT-XM can have its incubation time reduced to 5 minutes with the use of LISS</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2242675','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2242675"><span>The logic of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> speech</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>When people speak, they often insinuate their intent <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for <span class="hlt">indirectness</span> even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=272439','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=272439"><span>New method of antibody detection by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunoperoxidase plaque staining for serodiagnosis of African swine fever.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pan, I C; Huang, T S; Hess, W R</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunoperoxidase plaque-staining method was developed for detecting antibody to African swine fever virus infection. In both sensitivity and specificity, the <span class="hlt">test</span> was comparable to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence. Because it has all of the desirable features of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence <span class="hlt">test</span> and may also be readily used for <span class="hlt">testing</span> large numbers of sera, the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunoperoxidase plaque-staining method can be used as a single and final serodiagnostic <span class="hlt">test</span> in a large-scale survey of African swine fever. The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunoperoxidase plaque-staining method should be applicable to other viruses that can be adapted to and grown in cell cultures. Images PMID:6185528</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=direct-writing&pg=5&id=EJ261476','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=direct-writing&pg=5&id=EJ261476"><span>A Comparison of Direct and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Writing Assessment Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stiggins, Richard J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Compares direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> writing assessment strategies and contrasts them in terms of the relationship each has to specific classroom decision-making situations, the components of writing assessed, practical <span class="hlt">testing</span> matters, characteristics of <span class="hlt">test</span> exercises, <span class="hlt">test</span> scoring procedures, and procedures for determining <span class="hlt">test</span> quality. (HOD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21755011','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21755011"><span>Modified habitats influence kelp epibiota via direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Underwood, Antony J; Coleman, Ross A</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Addition of man-made structures alters abiotic and biotic characteristics of natural habitats, which can influence abundances of biota directly and/or <span class="hlt">indirectly</span>, by altering the ecology of competitors or predators. Marine epibiota in modified habitats were used to <span class="hlt">test</span> hypotheses to distinguish between direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> processes. In Sydney Harbour, kelps on pier-pilings supported greater covers of bryozoans, particularly of the non-indigenous species Membranipora membranacea, than found on natural reefs. Pilings influenced these patterns and processes directly due to the provision of shade and <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> by altering abundances of sea-urchins which, in turn, affected covers of bryozoans. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> effects were more important than direct effects. This indicates that artificial structures affect organisms living on secondary substrata in complex ways, altering the biodiversity and <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> affecting abundances of epibiota. Understanding how these components of habitats affect ecological processes is necessary to allow sensible prediction of the effects of modifying habitats on the ecology of organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043712"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Reciprocity; A Field Experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity. We find no support for upstream <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one's trustworthiness as a service user.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820101','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820101"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Reciprocity; A Field Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity. We find no support for upstream <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one’s trustworthiness as a service user. PMID:27043712</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3145664','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3145664"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Reciprocity under Incomplete Observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even <span class="hlt">indirectly</span>. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient. PMID:21829335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18276930','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18276930"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> bonding--a new transfer method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wendl, B; Droschl, H; Muchitsch, P</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate both shear bond strength (SBS) by shear <span class="hlt">testing</span> of <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> bonded brackets, and the accuracy of a new transfer method, the Aptus bonding device (ABD). For comparison, the SBS of directly bonded brackets in two experimental arrangements was also measured. The precision of the positioning of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> bracket transfer was assessed by photographic superimposition and three-dimensional (3D) measurement of the bracket positions on the working and plaster models using a 3D laser scan. Statistical analysis was carried out by means of descriptive and explorative data using the SPSS program. To compare groups, a one-factor analysis of variance and post hoc <span class="hlt">tests</span> (Tukey-HSD) were used. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. SBS using <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct bonding, with the same experimental arrangement and the same adhesives (Concise and Transbond), showed no significant differences. For direct bonding, using only one adhesive (Transbond), lower values were observed, but they were only statistically significant for the premolar teeth. The clinically required minimum bond strength of 6 MPa was achieved in all groups. Superimposition of the photographs of the <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> bonded upper labial segment brackets showed no deviations. The results of the 3D measurement of the positions of the brackets on the working and plaster models only yielded small deviations (0.15 mm along the X-axis in the centre, 0.17 mm along the Y-axis, and 0.19 mm along the Z-axis). The ABD is a useful adjunct to bond placement and does not compromise bond strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16336730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16336730"><span>Development of a practical immunochromatographic <span class="hlt">test</span> with recombinant P50 for the diagnosis of Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verdida, R A; Xuan, X; Fukumoto, S; Huang, X; Zhou, J; Igarashi, I; Claveria, F G; Nagasawa, H</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>An immunochromatographic <span class="hlt">test</span> (ICT), using recombinant truncated P50 (P50t), for the detection of antibodies to Babesia gibsoni was developed and evaluated. Whereas all sera from specific pathogen-free dogs were clearly negative, all sera from dogs experimentally infected with B. gibsoni were clearly positive in the ICT. In addition, the ICT detected no cross-reactivity with sera from dogs experimentally infected with closely related parasites, B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli, and B. canis rossi, or with Neospora caninum, and Leishmania infantum. Sequential sera from a dog experimentally infected with B. gibsoni were <span class="hlt">tested</span> with the ICT; it was shown that the specific antibodies are detectable as early as 6 days post-infection (p.i.) and that strong antibody responses remained until the end of the experiment (144 days p.i.). To evaluate the clinical application of the ICT, a total of 54 serum samples collected from domestic dogs that had been identified as having signs of anaemia at veterinary hospitals in Japan, were <span class="hlt">tested</span> with the ICT, the previously established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and with the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> (IFAT). Twenty-four of the <span class="hlt">tested</span> samples (44.4%) were positive in both ICT and ELISA, and (51.8%) in IFAT. The concordance between ELISA and ICT was found to be 100%, and 85.7% with IFAT. Taken together, the results above suggest that the ICT using P50t is rapid, simple, accurate, and suitable for use at clinical sites for the diagnosis of B. gibsoni infection in dogs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=distribution+AND+product&id=EJ683932','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=distribution+AND+product&id=EJ683932"><span>Confidence Limits for the <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effect: Distribution of the Product and Resampling Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.; Williams, Jason</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The most commonly used method to <span class="hlt">test</span> an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect is to divide the estimate of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect by its standard error and compare the resulting z statistic with a critical value from the standard normal distribution. Confidence limits for the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect are also typically based on critical values from the standard normal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25305556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25305556"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> reciprocity with optional interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A</p> <p>2015-01-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......289C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......289C"><span>Modeling <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Tunneling in Silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Edward</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> tunneling in silicon p-n junctions catches people's attention again in recent years. First, the phenomenon induces a serious leakage problem, so called gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) effect, in modern metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Second, it is utilized to develop a novel tunneling transistor with the sharp turn-on ability for continuing ITRS roadmap. Although the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tunneling is important for the state-of-the-art transistor-technology, the accuracy of the present tunneling models in technology computer-aided design (TCAD) tools is still vague. In the research work, the theory of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tunneling in silicon has been thoroughly studied. The phonon-assisted tunneling model has been developed and compared with the existing ones in the Sentaurus-Synopsys, Medici-Synopsys, and Atlas-Silvaco TCAD tools. Beyond these existing models, ours successfully predicts the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tunneling current under the different field direction in silicon. In addition, bandgap narrowing in heavily-doped p-n junctions under the reverse-biased condition is also studied during the model development. At the end of the research work, the application to low standby power (LSTP) transistors is demonstrated to show the capability of our tunneling model in the device level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.703a2007B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.703a2007B"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> methods in nuclear astrophysics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bertulani, C. A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We discuss recent developments in <span class="hlt">indirect</span> methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-879.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-879.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.879 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such <span class="hlt">indirect</span> materials may be included in meeting the value-content...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-816.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-816.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.816 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such <span class="hlt">indirect</span> materials may be included in meeting the value-content...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-816.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-816.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.816 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such <span class="hlt">indirect</span> materials may be included in meeting the value-content...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec10-879.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec10-879.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.879 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such <span class="hlt">indirect</span> materials may be included in meeting the value-content...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec10-816.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec10-816.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.816 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such <span class="hlt">indirect</span> materials may be included in meeting the value-content...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-776.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-776.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.776 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such <span class="hlt">indirect</span> materials may be included in meeting the value-content...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-879.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-879.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.879 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such <span class="hlt">indirect</span> materials may be included in meeting the value-content...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec10-776.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec10-776.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.776 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such <span class="hlt">indirect</span> materials may be included in meeting the value-content...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-776.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-776.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.776 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such <span class="hlt">indirect</span> materials may be included in meeting the value-content...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec10-776.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec10-776.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.776 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such <span class="hlt">indirect</span> materials may be included in meeting the value-content...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec10-816.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec10-816.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.816 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such <span class="hlt">indirect</span> materials may be included in meeting the value-content...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20707841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20707841"><span>Utility of 2 immunological <span class="hlt">tests</span> for antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (Sarcocystis neurona Infection) in naturally occurring cases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, A L; Burton, A J; Sweeney, R W</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is challenging. Limited information is available regarding a commercial <span class="hlt">test</span> (surface antigen 1 [SAG-1] ELISA). Performance of another commercial <span class="hlt">test</span> (<span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> [IFAT]) using samples from an independent group has not been well described. The primary goal was to evaluate the SAG-1 ELISA and IFAT using naturally occurring EPM cases. A secondary goal was to obtain more information regarding clinical presentation. Hospital cases were admitted over 20 months and classified into 4 groups. Confirmed positive cases (n = 9) had asymmetric or multifocal neurologic deficits or both and postmortem lesions consistent with EPM. Confirmed negative cases (n = 17) had variable clinical signs and postmortem lesions consistent with another neurologic disease (or no lesions). Suspected positive cases (n = 10) had asymmetric or multifocal deficits or both, marked improvement after treatment for EPM, and other likely diseases excluded. Suspected negative cases (n = 29) had orthopedic disease and no neurologic deficits. Results of immunological <span class="hlt">testing</span> (SAG-1 ELISA and IFAT on serum or cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] or both), neurologic examinations, CSF analyses, and postmortem examinations were analyzed retrospectively. SAG-1 ELISA sensitivity was 12.5% (95% CI, 1.6-38.4) and specificity was 97.1% (95% CI, 84.7-99.9) using serum. IFAT sensitivity was 94.4% (95% CI, 72.7-99.9) and specificity was 85.2% (95% CI, 66.3-95.8) using serum; sensitivity was 92.3% (95% CI, 64.0-99.8) and specificity was 89.7% (95% CI, 72.7-97.8) using CSF. Low sensitivity of the SAG-1 ELISA limited its usefulness for antemortem diagnosis of EPM in this patient population. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4996070','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4996070"><span>Reconstructing direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions in networked public goods game</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions and <span class="hlt">test</span> our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions in a representative complex system. PMID:27444774</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26594694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26594694"><span>Quantifying nonadditive selection caused by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ecological effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>TerHorst, Casey P; Lau, Jennifer A; Cooper, Idelle A; Keller, Kane R; La Rosa, Raffica J; Royer, Anne M; Schultheis, Elizabeth H; Suwa, Tomomi; Conner, Jeffrey K</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In natural biological communities, species interact with many other species. Multiple species interactions can lead to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ecological effects that have important fitness consequences and can cause nonadditive patterns of natural selection. Given that <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ecological effects are common in nature, nonadditive selection may also be quite common. As a result, quantifying nonadditive selection resulting from <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ecological effects may be critical for understanding adaptation in natural communities composed of many interacting species. We describe how to quantify the relative strength of nonadditive selection resulting from <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ecological effects compared to the strength of pairwise selection. We develop a clear method for <span class="hlt">testing</span> for nonadditive selection caused by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ecological effects and consider how it might affect adaptation in multispecies communities. We use two case studies to illustrate how our method can be applied to empirical data sets. Our results suggest that nonadditive selection caused by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ecological effects may be common in nature. Our hope is that trait-based approaches, combined with multifactorial experiments, will result in more estimates of nonadditive selection that reveal the relative importance of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ecological effects for evolution in a community context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...630241H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...630241H"><span>Reconstructing direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions in networked public goods game</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions and <span class="hlt">test</span> our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions in a representative complex system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19875101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19875101"><span>Can Rachman's <span class="hlt">indirect</span> pathways be used to un-learn fear? A prospective paradigm to <span class="hlt">test</span> whether children's fears can be reduced using positive information and modelling a non-anxious response.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, Vicky L; Barker, Helen; Field, Andy P; Wilson, Charlotte; Reynolds, Shirley</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>This study investigated whether children's fears could be un-learned using Rachman's <span class="hlt">indirect</span> pathways for learning fear. We hypothesised that positive information and modelling a non-anxious response are effective methods of un-learning fears acquired through verbal information. One hundred and seven children aged 6-8 years received negative information about one animal and no information about another. Fear beliefs and behavioural avoidance were measured. Children were randomised to receive positive verbal information, modelling, or a control task. Fear beliefs and behavioural avoidance were measured again. Positive information and modelling led to lower fear beliefs and behavioural avoidance than the control condition. Positive information was more effective than modelling in reducing fear beliefs and both methods significantly reduced behavioural avoidance. The results support Rachman's <span class="hlt">indirect</span> pathways as viable fear un-learning pathways and supports associative learning theories. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol15-sec2903-4.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol15-sec2903-4.pdf"><span>7 CFR 2903.4 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rate negotiated with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol15-sec2903-4.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol15-sec2903-4.pdf"><span>7 CFR 2903.4 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rate negotiated with the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SuMi..108...27N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SuMi..108...27N"><span>Bosonic cascades of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nalitov, A. V.; De Liberato, S.; Lagoudakis, P.; Savvidis, P. G.; Kavokin, A. V.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Recently, the concept of the terahertz bosonic cascade laser (BCL) based on a parabolic quantum well (PQW) embedded in a microcavity was proposed. We refine this proposal by suggesting transitions between <span class="hlt">indirect</span> exciton (IX) states as a source of terahertz emission. We explicitly propose a structure containing a narrow-square QW and a wide-parabolic QW for the realisation of a bosonic cascade. Advantages of this type of structures are in large dipole matrix elements for terahertz transitions and in long exciton radiative lifetimes which are crucial for realisation of threshold and quantum efficiency BCLs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-460.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-460.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.460 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-603.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-603.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.603 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-460.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-460.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.460 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec10-460.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec10-460.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.460 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-2024.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-2024.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.2024 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.2024 Section 10.2024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.2024 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.2013(i), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec10-541.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec10-541.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.541 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec10-541.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec10-541.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.541 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-541.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-541.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.541 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-541.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-541.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.541 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-1024.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-1024.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.1024 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1024 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.1002(n) of.... Korean Producer A produces good C using non-originating material B. Producer A imports...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-603.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-603.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.603 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-924.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-924.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.924 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.924 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.902(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-3024.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-3024.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.3024 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.3024 Section 10.3024... Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3024 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.3013(h), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec10-603.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec10-603.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.603 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-603.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-603.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.603 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-460.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec10-460.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.460 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec10-603.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec10-603.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.603 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol5-sec154-1720.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol5-sec154-1720.pdf"><span>46 CFR 154.1720 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol5-sec154-1720.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol5-sec154-1720.pdf"><span>46 CFR 154.1720 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol5-sec154-1720.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol5-sec154-1720.pdf"><span>46 CFR 154.1720 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol5-sec154-1720.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol5-sec154-1720.pdf"><span>46 CFR 154.1720 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol5-sec154-1720.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol5-sec154-1720.pdf"><span>46 CFR 154.1720 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol15-sec3430-54.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol15-sec3430-54.pdf"><span>7 CFR 3430.54 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cost rates for grants and cooperative agreements shall be determined in accordance with the applicable assistance regulations and cost...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol1-sec31-203.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol1-sec31-203.pdf"><span>48 CFR 31.203 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. 31.203... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.203 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. (a) For contracts subject to full CAS coverage, allocation of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs shall be based...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol15-sec2903-4.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol15-sec2903-4.pdf"><span>7 CFR 2903.4 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rate negotiated with the... funds. Grantees electing this alternative will not be allowed to charge, as direct costs, <span class="hlt">indirect</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol15-sec2903-4.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol15-sec2903-4.pdf"><span>7 CFR 2903.4 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rate negotiated with the... funds. Grantees electing this alternative will not be allowed to charge, as direct costs, <span class="hlt">indirect</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol15-sec2903-4.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol15-sec2903-4.pdf"><span>7 CFR 2903.4 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rate negotiated with the... funds. Grantees electing this alternative will not be allowed to charge, as direct costs, <span class="hlt">indirect</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23123557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23123557"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> reciprocity with trinary reputations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki</p> <p>2013-01-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4847321','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4847321"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs of rheumatoid arthritis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Raciborski, Filip; Kwiatkowska, Brygida</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5–1%). According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000–157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems): M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment. PMID:27407258</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26453666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26453666"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Immunofluorescence for the Detection of Autoimmune Urticaria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bahrani, Bahar; Gattey, Natasha T; Hull, Peter R</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>An autoimmune basis is believed to be responsible for about half of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) cases. The autologous serum skin <span class="hlt">test</span> is used as a possible indicator, but there is currently no <span class="hlt">test</span> that directly indicates an autoimmune etiology. In this study, an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence was used to identify patients with autoantibodies directed at mast cells. Two substrates were used including paraffin embedded sections of skin biopsies from an infant with bullous mastocytosis and cord blood-derived mast cells (CBMC). Sera from 76 patients with CSU were incubated with substrates and conjugated with human IgG. Using the bullous mastocytosis preparations, positive <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence was found in 46% (n = 76), while the CBMC substrate was positive in 39% (n = 70). The IgG autoantibodies directed at mast cells could be detected in about half the patients with CSU. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> immunofluorescence should be considered as an indicator of the autoimmune form of CSU. © The Author(s) 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000004831&hterms=materials+industry+Aerospace&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmaterials%2Bindustry%2BAerospace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000004831&hterms=materials+industry+Aerospace&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmaterials%2Bindustry%2BAerospace"><span>Synopsis of Direct and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Lightning Effects on Composite Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Tony</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded a study on electromagnetic environmental effect issues of composite materials used by the aerospace industry. The results of which are published by Ross Evans, Tec-Masters Inc., in NASA-CR-4783, "<span class="hlt">Test</span> Report - Direct and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Lightning Effects on Composite Materials." <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> effects include the electric and magnetic field shielding provided by a composite material illuminated by a near or direct lightning strike. Direct effects includes the physical damage of composites and/or assembly joint with a direct strike injection. This paper provides a synopsis of NASA-CR-4783. A short description is provided of the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">tests</span> performed during the sturdy. General results and design guidelines are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11228266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11228266"><span>In vitro validation and clinical <span class="hlt">testing</span> of an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> calorimetry system for ventilated preterm infants that is unaffected by endotracheal tube leaks and can be used during nasal continuous positive airway pressure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bauer, K; Ketteler, J; Laurenz, M; Versmold, H</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>Energy expenditure measurements in ventilated preterm infants are difficult because <span class="hlt">indirect</span> calorimetry underestimates energy expenditure during gas leaks around uncuffed endotracheal tubes routinely used in preterm infants or during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We, therefore, developed a breath collector that simultaneously sampled expired air expelled at the ventilator outlet and escaping via the tube leak from the infant's mouth and nose. Our breath collector was combined with a proprietary calorimeter (Deltatrac II). In vitro validation was done by methanol burning (VO(2), 13.8 mL/min; VCO(2), 9.2 mL/min) during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with two commonly used ventilators (Sechrist IV-100B and Infant Star). Measurement error was determined at different ventilator flows, peak inspiratory pressures of 12-24 cm H(2)O, and during a complete tube leak. The mean measurement error with both ventilators was low (VO(2) +/- 3 %, VCO(2) +/- 2 %) even during a complete tube leak and did not increase with peak inspiratory pressure. The system response time was 2 min. In vivo measurements at the bedside were performed in 25 preterm infants (body weight, 537-1402 g). Energy expenditure during IPPV was 40 +/- 9 kcal/kg per day and 46 +/- 15 kcal/kg per day during nasal CPAP. The tube leak in the preterm infants studied during IPPV was 0 to 47 %, and during nasal CPAP 84 to 97 %. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> calorimetry performed with our breath collector was accurate during IPPV and nasal CPAP and was unaffected by tube leaks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=156023','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=156023"><span>Separate spheres and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> benefits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brock, Dan W</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other <span class="hlt">indirect</span> benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10921987','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10921987"><span>Detection of rabies virus antigen in dog saliva using a latex agglutination <span class="hlt">test</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kasempimolporn, S; Saengseesom, W; Lumlertdacha, B; Sitprija, V</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>Dog bites are responsible for more than 90% of human rabies deaths in Asia. We developed a simple and inexpensive <span class="hlt">test</span> based on latex agglutination (LA) for rabies virus antigen detection in dog saliva. Rabies virus antigen could be detected by agglutination on a glass slide using latex particles coated with gamma globulin. By evaluation of paired saliva-brain specimens from 238 dogs, the LA <span class="hlt">test</span> using saliva was 99% specific and 95% sensitive compared to the <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> (FAT) on brain smears. The advantages of the LA <span class="hlt">test</span> over the standard FAT are that it is comparatively simple and there is no need to kill the animal before examination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27579208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27579208"><span>Pantaloon Hernia: Obstructed <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kariappa, Mohan Kumar; Harihar, Vivek; Kothudum, Ashwini Rajareddy; Hiremath, Vivekanand Kedarlingayya</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both <span class="hlt">testes</span> have not passed down into the scrotal sac. It is categorized as true undescended testis in which <span class="hlt">testes</span> are present in the normal path of descent, and as ectopic testis, in which <span class="hlt">testes</span> are present at abnormal site. Common complications of cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, subfertility, inguinal hernia, and testicular cancer. Here we present a rare case of pantaloon hernia of obstructed <span class="hlt">indirect</span> component and direct component with cryptorchidism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4989057','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4989057"><span>Pantaloon Hernia: Obstructed <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kariappa, Mohan Kumar; Hiremath, Vivekanand Kedarlingayya</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both <span class="hlt">testes</span> have not passed down into the scrotal sac. It is categorized as true undescended testis in which <span class="hlt">testes</span> are present in the normal path of descent, and as ectopic testis, in which <span class="hlt">testes</span> are present at abnormal site. Common complications of cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, subfertility, inguinal hernia, and testicular cancer. Here we present a rare case of pantaloon hernia of obstructed <span class="hlt">indirect</span> component and direct component with cryptorchidism. PMID:27579208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030062817','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030062817"><span>Remote Leak Detection: <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Thermal Technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clements, Sandra</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Remote sensing technologies are being considered for efficient, low cost gas leak detection. Eleven specific techniques have been identified for further study and evaluation of several of these is underway. The <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Thermal Technique is one of the techniques that is being explored. For this technique, an infrared camera is used to detect the temperature change of a pipe or fitting at the site of a gas leak. This temperature change is caused by the change in temperature of the gas expanding from the leak site. During the 10-week NFFP program, the theory behind the technique was further developed, experiments were performed to determine the conditions for which the technique might be viable, and a proof-of-concept system was developed and <span class="hlt">tested</span> in the laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17628707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17628707"><span>Evaluation of a rapid immunodiagnostic <span class="hlt">test</span> kit for rabies virus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, BoKyu; Oh, JinSik; Lee, ChulSeung; Park, Bong-Kyun; Park, YoungNam; Hong, KyungSoo; Lee, KyungGi; Cho, ByungKi; Song, DaeSub</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>A rapid immunodiagnostic <span class="hlt">test</span> kit for rabies virus detection was evaluated using 51 clinical samples and 4 isolates of rabies virus. The quick detection of rabies virus under field conditions may be helpful in determining if post-exposure prophylaxis is needed, thereby avoiding unnecessary treatments, as well as undue economic burden. There are several widely used diagnostic methods for rabies, including <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">tests</span>, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and electron microscopy; however, these methods include time-consuming, intricate, and costly procedures. The rapid immunodiagnostic <span class="hlt">test</span> was able to detect rabies virus in clinical samples, including brain tissue and saliva, in addition to 10(3.2) 50% lethal dose (LD(50))/mL cell-adapted rabies virus. The assay was not cross-reactive with non-rabies virus microbes. When the performance of the rapid immunodiagnostic <span class="hlt">test</span> was compared to a <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span>, the rapid immunodiagnostic <span class="hlt">test</span> had a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 100% (95.8% CI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED242771.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED242771.pdf"><span>Assessing Students' Writing Skills: A Comparison of Direct & <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koffler, Stephen L.</p> <p></p> <p>This research examined the results from direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> writing assessments to determine the most effective method of discrimination. The New Jersey State Department of Education developed a <span class="hlt">test</span> for ninth-grade students which was designed to measure the ability to apply writing mechanics to written text and to communicate effectively in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=uri&pg=3&id=EJ898344','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=uri&pg=3&id=EJ898344"><span>Searching for <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Evidence for the Effects of Statewide Reforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Grissmer, David W.; Flanagan, Ann</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>States are the primary policymakers in several important areas of K-12 education. Given their dominant role in educational funding and regulation, states not surprisingly have been the primary initiators of the latest wave of educational reform starting in the mid-1980s. In this paper, the authors sought to <span class="hlt">test</span> <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> for the effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/959070','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/959070"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D</p> <p>2009-04-24</p> <p>Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from <span class="hlt">indirect</span> lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8324497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8324497"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> discrimination and breast screening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Botha, J L; Manku-Scott, T K; Moledina, F; Williams, A</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Uptake of screening services in inner-city communities has been low, particularly in older age groups, lower social classes, and ethnic minorities. In Leicester City, where up to 25% of the population belong to ethnic minorities, this may have important implications for breast screening. We randomly sampled 701 inner-city women aged 45 to 64 years, stratified by neighborhood and by women's "likely home language." Trained interviewers succeeded in interviewing 79% of those eligible, and we report here a preliminary analysis of 413 respondents. Knowledge of breast cancer and screening varied markedly and significantly by actual language: 60.4% of English-speaking and 12.5% of non-English-speaking women correctly answered 10 or more questions (of 14) about breast cancer and screening (chi 2(1) = 89.884; P = .000). Despite that, 80% or more women stated their intention to attend for screening and assessment if necessary, irrespective of neighborhood, language, age, or social class. We suggest that the difference in knowledge between language groups arose from <span class="hlt">indirect</span> discrimination in the way in which health-related information is disseminated in British society. However, after providing appropriate screening information, we report similarly high intended acceptance rates in the two language groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3684441','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3684441"><span>Lifespan based <span class="hlt">indirect</span> response models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruixo, Juan Jose Perez</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the field of hematology, several mechanism-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models have been developed to understand the dynamics of several blood cell populations under different clinical conditions while accounting for the essential underlying principles of pharmacology, physiology and pathology. In general, a population of blood cells is basically controlled by two processes: the cell production and cell loss. The assumption that each cell exits the population when its lifespan expires implies that the cell loss rate is equal to the cell production rate delayed by the lifespan and justifies the use of delayed differential equations for compartmental modeling. This review is focused on lifespan models based on delayed differential equations and presents the structure and properties of the basic lifespan <span class="hlt">indirect</span> response (LIDR) models for drugs affecting cell production or cell lifespan distribution. The LIDR models for drugs affecting the precursor cell production or decreasing the precursor cell population are also presented and their properties are discussed. The interpretation of transit compartment models as LIDR models is reviewed as the basis for introducing a new LIDR for drugs affecting the cell lifespan distribution. Finally, the applications and limitations of the LIDR models are discussed. PMID:22212685</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9216033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9216033"><span>Accuracy of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> estimates of maternal mortality: a simulation model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garenne, M; Friedberg, F</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>A simulation model was developed to <span class="hlt">test</span> the accuracy of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> estimates of maternal mortality (the sisterhood method). The model generated a first generation of grandmothers, a second generation of mothers (with brothers and sisters), and a third generation of children (births). In the second generation, maternal mortality was introduced. Empirical values for the parameters of fertility and mortality were taken from a prospective survey in Senegal (Niakhar). Results based on 100 simulations of the same situation revealed several limitations of the sisterhood method: The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> estimates could fall as far as 33 percent from the true values on individual cases; the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> estimates tended to be systematically higher than the direct estimates; their range was wider, as were their confidence intervals; and biases were particularly strong for the younger age groups of respondents. Reasons for these biases are explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130789','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130789"><span>Modified Habitats Influence Kelp Epibiota via Direct and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.; Underwood, Antony J.; Coleman, Ross A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Addition of man-made structures alters abiotic and biotic characteristics of natural habitats, which can influence abundances of biota directly and/or <span class="hlt">indirectly</span>, by altering the ecology of competitors or predators. Marine epibiota in modified habitats were used to <span class="hlt">test</span> hypotheses to distinguish between direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> processes. In Sydney Harbour, kelps on pier-pilings supported greater covers of bryozoans, particularly of the non-indigenous species Membranipora membranacea, than found on natural reefs. Pilings influenced these patterns and processes directly due to the provision of shade and <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> by altering abundances of sea-urchins which, in turn, affected covers of bryozoans. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> effects were more important than direct effects. This indicates that artificial structures affect organisms living on secondary substrata in complex ways, altering the biodiversity and <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> affecting abundances of epibiota. Understanding how these components of habitats affect ecological processes is necessary to allow sensible prediction of the effects of modifying habitats on the ecology of organisms. PMID:21755011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27917493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27917493"><span>Quantifying <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evidence in network meta-analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noma, Hisashi; Tanaka, Shiro; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Cipriani, Andrea; Furukawa, Toshi A</p> <p>2017-03-15</p> <p>Network meta-analysis enables comprehensive synthesis of evidence concerning multiple treatments and their simultaneous comparisons based on both direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evidence. A fundamental pre-requisite of network meta-analysis is the consistency of evidence that is obtained from different sources, particularly whether direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evidence are in accordance with each other or not, and how they may influence the overall estimates. We have developed an efficient method to quantify <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evidence, as well as a <span class="hlt">testing</span> procedure to evaluate their inconsistency using Lindsay's composite likelihood method. We also show that this estimator has complete information for the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evidence. Using this method, we can assess the degree of consistency between direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evidence and their contribution rates to the overall estimate. Sensitivity analyses can be also conducted with this method to assess the influences of potentially inconsistent treatment contrasts on the overall results. These methods can provide useful information for overall comparative results that might be biased from specific inconsistent treatment contrasts. We also provide some fundamental requirements for valid inference on these methods concerning consistency restrictions on multi-arm trials. In addition, the efficiency of the developed method is demonstrated based on simulation studies. Applications to a network meta-analysis of 12 new-generation antidepressants are presented. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26164838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26164838"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsirigotis, Konstantinos</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between <span class="hlt">indirect</span> self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> self-destructiveness. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> self-destructiveness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175472','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175472"><span>Two stage <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evaporative cooling system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan</p> <p>2005-08-23</p> <p>A two stage <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23374374','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23374374"><span>Direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> associations between the family physical activity environment and sports participation among 10-12 year-old European children: <span class="hlt">testing</span> the EnRG framework in the ENERGY project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Timperio, Anna F; van Stralen, Maartje M; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling; Chinapaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Nataša; Maes, Lea; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis A; Salmon, Jo; Te Velde, Saskia J</p> <p>2013-02-03</p> <p>Sport participation makes an important contribution to children's overall physical activity. Understanding influences on sports participation is important and the family environment is considered key, however few studies have explored the mechanisms by which the family environment influences children's sport participation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether attitude, perceived behavioural control, health belief and enjoyment mediate associations between the family environment and 10-12 year-old children's sports participation. Children aged 10-12 years ( = 7,234) and one of their parents (n = 6,002) were recruited from 175 schools in seven European countries in 2010. Children self-reported their weekly duration of sports participation, physical activity equipment items at home and the four potential mediator variables. Parents responded to items on financial, logistic and emotional support, reinforcement, modelling and co-participation in physical activity. Cross-sectional single and multiple mediation analyses were performed for 4952 children with complete data using multi-level regression analyses. Availability of equipment (OR = 1.16), financial (OR = 1.53), logistic (OR = 1.47) and emotional (OR = 1.51) support, and parental modelling (OR = 1.07) were positively associated with participation in ≥  30 mins/wk of sport. Attitude, beliefs, perceived behavioural control and enjoyment mediated and explained between 21-34% of these associations. Perceived behavioural control contributed the most to the mediated effect for each aspect of the family environment. Both direct (unmediated) and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> (mediated) associations were found between most family environment variables and children's sports participation. Thus, family-based physical activity interventions that focus on enhancing the family environment to support children's sport participation are warranted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3621808','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3621808"><span>Direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> associations between the family physical activity environment and sports participation among 10–12 year-old European children: <span class="hlt">testing</span> the EnRG framework in the ENERGY project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Sport participation makes an important contribution to children’s overall physical activity. Understanding influences on sports participation is important and the family environment is considered key, however few studies have explored the mechanisms by which the family environment influences children’s sport participation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether attitude, perceived behavioural control, health belief and enjoyment mediate associations between the family environment and 10–12 year-old children’s sports participation. Methods Children aged 10–12 years ( = 7234) and one of their parents (n = 6002) were recruited from 175 schools in seven European countries in 2010. Children self-reported their weekly duration of sports participation, physical activity equipment items at home and the four potential mediator variables. Parents responded to items on financial, logistic and emotional support, reinforcement, modelling and co-participation in physical activity. Cross-sectional single and multiple mediation analyses were performed for 4952 children with complete data using multi-level regression analyses. Results Availability of equipment (OR = 1.16), financial (OR = 1.53), logistic (OR = 1.47) and emotional (OR = 1.51) support, and parental modelling (OR = 1.07) were positively associated with participation in ≥ 30mins/wk of sport. Attitude, beliefs, perceived behavioural control and enjoyment mediated and explained between 21-34% of these associations. Perceived behavioural control contributed the most to the mediated effect for each aspect of the family environment. Conclusions Both direct (unmediated) and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> (mediated) associations were found between most family environment variables and children’s sports participation. Thus, family-based physical activity interventions that focus on enhancing the family environment to support children’s sport participation are warranted. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313189"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>In this review, we discuss the present status of three <span class="hlt">indirect</span> techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these <span class="hlt">indirect</span> approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol1-sec31-203.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol1-sec31-203.pdf"><span>48 CFR 31.203 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... contract or other work, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs are those remaining to be allocated to intermediate or two or more... by removing individual elements. All items properly includable in an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost base shall bear a... unallowable, and these items shall bear their pro rata share of G&A costs. (e) The method of allocating...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol2-sec452-119.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol2-sec452-119.pdf"><span>29 CFR 452.119 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> elections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> elections. National...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED125391.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED125391.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Costs in Universities. ACE Special Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Woodrow, Raymond J.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs of sponsored research projects and educational programs are as necessary as are the direct costs. This report demonstrates that they are real costs and that sponsors such as the Federal Government receive more than equitable treatment in the computation and application of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs. The areas discussed include: the computation…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec6-26.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec6-26.pdf"><span>27 CFR 6.26 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> interest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> interest. Industry member interest in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec6-32.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec6-32.pdf"><span>27 CFR 6.32 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> interest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> interest. Industry member interest in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16150325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16150325"><span>Sliding <span class="hlt">indirect</span> hernia containing both ovaries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fowler, Carol L</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Although sliding <span class="hlt">indirect</span> inguinal hernias containing the ipsilateral ovary and fallopian tube are not uncommon in infant girls, sliding hernias containing both ovaries are rare. This report describes a large <span class="hlt">indirect</span> inguinal hernia in a 1-year-old infant girl that contained the left uterine fundus, left bladder ear, as well as both ovaries and fallopian tubes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARL34011T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARL34011T"><span>Photovoltaic efficiency of an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> bandgap material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tomasik, Michelle; Mangan, Niall; Grossman, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Photovoltaic materials with direct band gap transitions absorb light more readily than those with <span class="hlt">indirect</span> gaps, allowing for thinner devices. However, direct bands also suffer faster rates of radiative recombination than <span class="hlt">indirect</span> bandgap materials. Some novel photovoltaic absorber materials, such as tin sulfide, have both direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> gaps. Such materials raise the question of whether the multiple energy states benefit or harm device efficiency. We develop a model for current in a device with direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> band gaps using detailed balance, similar to the Shockley-Quiesser model for direct band photovoltaics. We explore the effects of the following on device performance: transition probability of carriers between the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> state, and relative transport rate in each band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED246130.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED246130.pdf"><span>A Program for Standard Errors of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effects in Recursive Causal Models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wolfle, Lee M.; Ethington, Corinna A.</p> <p></p> <p>In his early exposition of path analysis, Duncan (1966) noted that the method "provides a calculus for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects." Despite the interest in <span class="hlt">indirect</span> causal effects, most users treat them as if they are population parameters and do not <span class="hlt">test</span> whether they are statistically significant. Sobel (1982) has recently derived the asymptotic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=229174','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=229174"><span>NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN WILD CARNIVORES FROM SPAIN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were <span class="hlt">tested</span> for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination <span class="hlt">test</span> (NAT) and/or by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> <span class="hlt">fluorescent</span> <span class="hlt">antibody</span> <span class="hlt">test</span> (I...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27406138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27406138"><span>Accuracy of five intraoral scanners compared to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> digitalization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Güth, Jan-Frederik; Runkel, Cornelius; Beuer, Florian; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Edelhoff, Daniel; Keul, Christine</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> digitalization offer two options for computer-aided design (CAD)/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)-generated restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different intraoral scanners and compare them to the process of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> digitalization. A titanium <span class="hlt">testing</span> model was directly digitized 12 times with each intraoral scanner: (1) CS 3500 (CS), (2) Zfx Intrascan (ZFX), (3) CEREC AC Bluecam (BLU), (4) CEREC AC Omnicam (OC) and (5) True Definition (TD). As control, 12 polyether impressions were taken and the referring plaster casts were digitized <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> with the D-810 laboratory scanner (CON). The accuracy (trueness/precision) of the datasets was evaluated by an analysing software (Geomagic Qualify 12.1) using a "best fit alignment" of the datasets with a highly accurate reference dataset of the <span class="hlt">testing</span> model, received from industrial computed tomography. Direct digitalization using the TD showed the significant highest overall "trueness", followed by CS. Both performed better than CON. BLU, ZFX and OC showed higher differences from the reference dataset than CON. Regarding the overall "precision", the CS 3500 intraoral scanner and the True Definition showed the best performance. CON, BLU and OC resulted in significantly higher precision than ZFX did. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the accuracy of the ascertained datasets was dependent on the scanning system. The direct digitalization was not superior to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> digitalization for all <span class="hlt">tested</span> systems. Regarding the accuracy, all <span class="hlt">tested</span> intraoral scanning technologies seem to be able to reproduce a single quadrant within clinical acceptable accuracy. However, differences were detected between the <span class="hlt">tested</span> systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26867672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26867672"><span>Evaluation of bone surrogates for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct ballistic fractures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as <span class="hlt">indirect</span>. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and <span class="hlt">testing</span>. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering <span class="hlt">testing</span> would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, p<0.05). Fractures patterns were found to be comparable to the PMHS for <span class="hlt">tests</span> conducted with Synbones, however the input parameters were slightly varied to produce similar results. The fractures patterns with the Sawbones were not found to be as comparable to the PMHS. An ideal bone surrogate for ballistic <span class="hlt">testing</span> was not identified and future work is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22617315','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22617315"><span>Collective phenomena in cold <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Butov, L. V.</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>Due to their long lifetimes, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons can cool to below the temperature of quantum degeneracy. This gives an opportunity to experimentally study cold composite bosons. Both theoretically predicted phenomena and phenomena that have not been anticipated were observed in a cold gas of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons. In this contribution, we overview our studies of cold <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons over the past decade, presenting spontaneous coherence and condensation of excitons, spatially modulated exciton state, long-range spin currents and spin textures, and exciton localization–delocalization transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25028908','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25028908"><span>[Introduction to the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> meta-analyses].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bolaños Díaz, Rafael; Calderón Cahua, María</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Meta-analyses are studies that aim to compile all available information, grouping them according to an specific theme and evaluating it through methodological quality tools. When there are two specific comparisons of treatments based on randomized clinical trials, standard meta-analyses are the best option, but there are scenarios in which there is no available literature for those direct comparisons. In these cases, an alternative method to consider is <span class="hlt">indirect</span> comparison or <span class="hlt">indirect</span> meta-analyses. The aim of this review is to understand the conceptual foundations, the need, applications and limitations of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> comparisons for further understanding of network meta-analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2324222','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2324222"><span>Capillary electrophoresis with <span class="hlt">indirect</span> amperometric detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olefirowicz, T M; Ewing, A G</p> <p>1990-01-19</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> amperometric detection with capillary electrophoresis is demonstrated. The system consists of a porous glass coupler which allows amperometric detection at a carbon fiber electrode placed in the end of the capillary. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzylamine is added to the buffer system as a continuously eluting electrophore. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> amperometric detection in 9-mumol I.D. capillaries provides detection limits as low as 380 attomole for the amino acid arginine. Finally, both direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> amperometric detection can be accomplished simultaneously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/161582','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/161582"><span>Climate response to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> anthropogenic sulfate forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Erickson, D.J.; Oglesby, R.J.; Marshall, S.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>A general circulation model (GCM) has been used to conduct sensitivity <span class="hlt">tests</span> of the climatic influence imparted by a cloud albedo change hypothesized to result from anthropogenic increases in atmospheric sulfur. The global distribution of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols is computed with a simplified 3-D transport model. The NCAR CCM1 has been run with a cloud albedo perturbation that is a function of the distribution of anthropegenic sulfur particles. The authors report climate statistics from the last 20 years of 30 year GCM control and experiment runs. The climate response is strongest in the northern hemisphere winter, with cooling over the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans on the order of 2-6{degrees}C. The 500 mb geopotential height field shows a significant deepening over the Canadian provinces, enhancing the northernly flow over the North American and North Atlantic regions during boreal winter. The equilibrium climate does not, however, cool over central Europe in northern hemisphere winter, despite this region being one of the most heavily impacted areas in the world by sulfate aerosol. The anthropogenic sulfate {open_quotes}<span class="hlt">indirect</span>{close_quotes} forcing elicits a highly non-linear climate response that can be explained through changes in the hemispheric wave train. These results may assist in explaining the long-standing climate change issue of what causes the cooling over the North Atlantic and North Pacific over the last decades, a feature that is not explained by increases in greenhouse gases alone. 18 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27555895','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27555895"><span>Shear bond strength of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composite material to monolithic zirconia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sari, Fatih; Secilmis, Asli; Simsek, Irfan; Ozsevik, Semih</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composite material (Tescera <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD <span class="hlt">tests</span> (α=.05). Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composite material and monolithic zirconia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4993839','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4993839"><span>Shear bond strength of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composite material to monolithic zirconia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composite material (Tescera <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD <span class="hlt">tests</span> (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730012417&hterms=Blood+pressure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DBlood%2Bpressure','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730012417&hterms=Blood+pressure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DBlood%2Bpressure"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Blood Pressure Measuring Device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental <span class="hlt">tests</span> with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730012417&hterms=pediatric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpediatric','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730012417&hterms=pediatric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpediatric"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Blood Pressure Measuring Device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental <span class="hlt">tests</span> with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+efficient+AND+lighting&pg=4&id=EJ165842','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+efficient+AND+lighting&pg=4&id=EJ165842"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Lighting--a Matter of Economics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Modern Schools, 1977</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Recent developments in the field of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> lighting and the use of high intensity discharge light sources reveal that the most efficient lighting system can also be the most economical. (Author/MLF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11271047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11271047"><span>Outcome indicators for direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> caregiving.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schoenfelder, D P; Swanson, E A; Specht, J K; Maas, M; Johnson, M</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>Informal caregiving and outcomes for caregiving are an important part of health care and of particular importance in nursing. The purpose of this research is to report the results of a survey mailed to nursing experts for validation of the outcome labels Caregiver Role Performance: Direct Care and Caregiver Role Performance: <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Care and their accompanying indicators. Experts were asked to rate how important the identified indicators were for assessing those two outcomes. In addition, the respondents were asked to what extent nursing interventions influence the achievement of each identified indicator for Caregiver Role Performance: Direct Care and Caregiver Role Performance: <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Care. In general, the validity of the concept analysis work by the caregiver focus group was supported. Ten indicators for Caregiver Performance: Direct Care were retained, 1 was dropped that was considered most appropriate for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> care, and 3 new indicators were added to reflect the nurse experts surveyed. For Caregiver Performance: <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Care, all of the indicators were retained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20019287','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20019287"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> punishment and generosity toward strangers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ule, Aljaz; Schram, Arthur; Riedl, Arno; Cason, Timothy N</p> <p>2009-12-18</p> <p>Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "<span class="hlt">indirect</span> rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can prevail in the long run only if rewarders earn higher payoffs than "defectors" who ignore strangers' kindness. We provide experimental evidence regarding the payoffs received by individuals who employ these and other strategies, such as "<span class="hlt">indirect</span> punishment," by imposing costs on unkind strangers. We find that if unkind strangers cannot be punished, defection earns most. If they can be punished, however, then <span class="hlt">indirect</span> rewarding earns most. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> punishment plays this important role, even if it gives a low payoff and is rarely implemented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec18-43.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec18-43.pdf"><span>19 CFR 18.43 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> exportation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.43 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> exportation. (a) When merchandise is to move from one U.S... loading, sealing or labeling, and affixing of TIR plates. He shall remove one voucher from the carnet...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec18-43.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec18-43.pdf"><span>19 CFR 18.43 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> exportation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.43 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> exportation. (a) When merchandise is to move from one U.S... loading, sealing or labeling, and affixing of TIR plates. He shall remove one voucher from the carnet...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec18-43.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec18-43.pdf"><span>19 CFR 18.43 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> exportation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.43 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> exportation. (a) When merchandise is to move from one U.S... loading, sealing or labeling, and affixing of TIR plates. He shall remove one voucher from the carnet...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec18-43.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec18-43.pdf"><span>19 CFR 18.43 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> exportation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.43 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> exportation. (a) When merchandise is to move from one U.S... loading, sealing or labeling, and affixing of TIR plates. He shall remove one voucher from the carnet...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=387953','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=387953"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Ultraviolet-Reactivation of Phage λ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>George, Jacqueline; Devoret, Raymond; Radman, Miroslav</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>When an F- recipient Escherichia coli K12 bacterium receives Hfr or F-lac+ DNA from an ultraviolet-irradiated donor, its capacity to promote DNA repair and mutagenesis of ultraviolet-damaged phage λ is substantially increased. We call this phenomenon <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ultraviolet-reactivation, since its features are essentially the same as those of ultraviolet-reactivation; this repair process occurs in pyrimidine dimer excision-deficient strains and produces clear plaque mutations of the restored phage. Moreover, this process is similar to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ultraviolet-induction of prophage λ, since it is promoted by conjugation. However, contrarily to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> induction, it is produced by Hfr donors and occurs in recipients restricting the incoming ultraviolet-damaged donor DNA. The occurrence of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ultraviolet-reactivation provides evidence for the existence in E. coli of an inducible error-prone mechanism for the repair of DNA. PMID:4589889</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARZ29008K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARZ29008K"><span>Direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects in causal networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krämer, Andreas</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Literature-derived networks of biomolecular interactions representing cause-effect relationships generally contain many <span class="hlt">indirect</span> relationships where the actually observed causal effect results from a sequence of events represented in the same network. A statistical method is developed, based on an Ising-like spin model operating on the edges of the network, to distinguish between direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects using only the network structure itself. This allows to identify paths representing likely causation mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841137','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841137"><span>An <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Route for Ethanol Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.</p> <p>2005-04-29</p> <p>The ZeaChem <span class="hlt">indirect</span> method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> route is placed on-line by the year 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol5-sec742-770.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol5-sec742-770.pdf"><span>48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rate agreement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Cost Rates 742.770 Negotiated <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negotiated <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost... Negotiated <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Cost Rate Agreement, executed by both parties. The Negotiated <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Cost...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol4-sec296-3.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol4-sec296-3.pdf"><span>14 CFR 296.3 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS <span class="hlt">INDIRECT</span> AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol4-sec296-3.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol4-sec296-3.pdf"><span>14 CFR 296.3 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS <span class="hlt">INDIRECT</span> AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol4-sec296-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol4-sec296-3.pdf"><span>14 CFR 296.3 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS <span class="hlt">INDIRECT</span> AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol4-sec296-3.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol4-sec296-3.pdf"><span>14 CFR 296.3 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS <span class="hlt">INDIRECT</span> AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol4-sec296-3.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol4-sec296-3.pdf"><span>14 CFR 296.3 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS <span class="hlt">INDIRECT</span> AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> cargo air carrier. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> in air...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830016735','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830016735"><span>The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects on the computation of geoid undulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wichiencharoen, C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects on the geoid computation due to the second method of Helmert's condensation were studied. when Helmert's anomalies are used in Stokes's equation, there are three types of corrections to the free air geoid. The first correction, the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect on geoid undulation due to the potential change in Helmert's reduction, had a maximum value of 0.51 meters in the <span class="hlt">test</span> area covering the United States. The second correction, the attraction change effect on geoid undulation, had a maximum value of 9.50 meters when the 10 deg cap was used in Stokes' equation. The last correction, the secondary <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect on geoid undulatin, was found negligible in the <span class="hlt">test</span> area. The corrections were applied to uncorrected free air geoid undulations at 65 Doppler stations in the <span class="hlt">test</span> area and compared with the Doppler undulations. Based on the assumption that the Doppler coordinate system has a z shift of 4 meters with respect to the geocenter, these comparisons showed that the corrections presented in this study yielded improved values of gravimetric undulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/bilirubin/tab/test','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/bilirubin/tab/test"><span>Bilirubin <span class="hlt">Test</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Also known as: Total Bilirubin; TBIL; Neonatal Bilirubin; Direct Bilirubin; Conjugated Bilirubin; <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Bilirubin; Unconjugated Bilirubin Formal ... Hepatitis B ; Hepatitis C ; Complete Blood Count ; Urinalysis ; Direct Antiglobulin <span class="hlt">Test</span> ; Haptoglobin ; Reticulocyte Count All content on ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26634940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26634940"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Comparisons and Network Meta-Analyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiefer, Corinna; Sturtz, Sibylle; Bender, Ralf</p> <p>2015-11-20</p> <p>Systematic reviews provide a structured summary of the results of trials that have been carried out on any particular subject. If the data from multiple trials are sufficiently homogenous, a meta-analysis can be performed to calculate pooled effect estimates. Traditional meta-analysis involves groups of trials that compare the same two interventions directly (head to head). Lately, however, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> comparisons and network metaanalyses have become increasingly common. Various methods of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> comparison and network meta-analysis are presented and discussed on the basis of a selective review of the literature. The main assumptions and requirements of these methods are described, and a checklist is provided as an aid to the evaluation of published <span class="hlt">indirect</span> comparisons and network meta-analyses. When no head-to-head trials of two interventions are available, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> comparisons and network metaanalyses enable the estimation of effects as well as the simultaneous analysis of networks involving more than two interventions. Network meta-analyses and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> comparisons can only be useful if the trial or patient characteristics are similar and the observed effects are sufficiently homogeneous. Moreover, there should be no major discrepancy between the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evidence. If trials are available that compare each of two treatments against a third one, but not against each other, then the third intervention can be used as a common comparator to enable a comparison of the other two. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> comparisons and network metaanalyses are an important further development of traditional meta-analysis. Clear and detailed documentation is needed so that findings obtained by these new methods can be reliably judged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18209357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18209357"><span>Comparison of "direct" and "<span class="hlt">indirect</span>" nuclear cystography in the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khriesat, I; Khriesat, S; Hazza, I</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This study was undertaken to compare "direct" and "<span class="hlt">indirect</span>" nuclear cystography for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Forty-five children (15 males and 30 females), ranging in age from 5 months to 10 years, were studied at the King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan between January 1998 and December 1999, using both direct (catheter) and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> techniques of nuclear cystography (NC). Of the 82 ureters that could be compared, 32 ureters were positive for VUR on the direct technique while only 20 ureters showed VUR on the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> technique (sensitivity 62%). Nine ureters, which did not show VUR on the direct cystogram, were read as positive on the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cystogram (specificity 82%). The false positive results of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> nuclear cystogram make it invalid for VUR screening program, while the ease of assessment and low radiation dose from the direct NC has made this the recommended <span class="hlt">test</span> for screening and follow-up of VUR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSV...332.4004T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSV...332.4004T"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> combustion noise of auxiliary power units</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is <span class="hlt">indirect</span> combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on <span class="hlt">indirect</span> combustion noise. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether <span class="hlt">indirect</span> combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible <span class="hlt">indirection</span> combustion noise. In the case of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20369723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20369723"><span>[<span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs in health technology assessment].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jakubczyk, Michał; Wrona, Witold; Macioch, Tomasz; Golicki, Dominik; Niewada, Maciej; Hermanowski, Tomasz</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In the health technology assessment it is crucial to define the perspective of the analysis. When the societal perspective is chosen it is necessary to include all the costs incurred by the society, also the costs of lost productivity resulting from absence of sick employees from work or their reduced efficiency at work. The aim of this article is to present the notion of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs, their importance in health technology assessment and the methods of calculation. The economic literature has been reviewed for the state of knowledge on <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs. Three methods of calculation are described: human capital method, friction cost method or health state valuation. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs in Western European countries can amount to more than half of total costs attributed to the illness and its treatment. In the literature there is no consensus regarding the proper method of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs calculation. It is necessary to conduct further theoretical and empirical research in the area of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs and enhance discussion among Polish pharmacoeconomists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAnSc..62..212S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAnSc..62..212S"><span>Global Search Capabilities of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Methods for Impulsive Transfers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Hong-Xin; Casalino, Lorenzo; Luo, Ya-Zhong</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>An optimization method which combines an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> method with homotopic approach is proposed and applied to impulsive trajectories. Minimum-fuel, multiple-impulse solutions, with either fixed or open time are obtained. The homotopic approach at hand is relatively straightforward to implement and does not require an initial guess of adjoints, unlike previous adjoints estimation methods. A multiple-revolution Lambert solver is used to find multiple starting solutions for the homotopic procedure; this approach can guarantee to obtain multiple local solutions without relying on the user's intuition, thus efficiently exploring the solution space to find the global optimum. The <span class="hlt">indirect</span>/homotopic approach proves to be quite effective and efficient in finding optimal solutions, and outperforms the joint use of evolutionary algorithms and deterministic methods in the <span class="hlt">test</span> cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27508545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27508545"><span>Direct and <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Costs of Pediatric Gastroenteritis in Vellore, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jacob, Joby; Joseph, Tej K; Srinivasan, Rajan; Kompithra, Rajeev Zachariah; Simon, Anna; Kang, Gagandeep</p> <p>2016-07-08</p> <p>To determine costs of pediatric gastroenteritis in out-patient and in-patient facilities. Cross-sectional survey of children with acute gastroenteritis attending out-patient clinic (n=30) or admitted in the ward (n=30) for management in the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India from July-September 2014 to estimate direct (drugs, <span class="hlt">tests</span>, consultation/hospitalization) and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> (travel, food, lost wages) costs associated with the episode. Median direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs were Rs 590 and Rs 190 for out-patient management and Rs 7258 and Rs. 610 for hospitalization, constituting 1.1% and 11% of median annual household income, respectively. Escalating healthcare costs need tracking for evaluation of interventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...67a2019K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...67a2019K"><span>Investigation of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> benefits of PV rooftop in Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khumkrong, T.; Chuangchote, S.; Chenvidhya, D.; Kirtikara, K.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Other than electricity generation, which is the direct benefit of PV rooftop, cooling load reduction due to PV shading is a benefit impact in the uses of PV rooftop. This report is a study of those <span class="hlt">indirect</span> benefits of PV rooftop. Relation of shading of PV modules and reduction of cooling load was studied in a real <span class="hlt">testing</span> cite at the office building of CES Solar Cell <span class="hlt">Testing</span> Center (CSSC). Several data, i.e. solar radiation, rooftop temperatures before/after PV-panel installation, and electricity consumed by equipment, were monitored and collected. This data could be further estimated for cooling load via transient heat conduction approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5321587','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5321587"><span>Microtensile bond strength of repaired <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resin composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suputtamongkol, Kallaya; Angkoonsit, Duangjai; Kaewthong, Sunattha; Charoonanan, Piyanan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>PURPOSE The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatments on microtensile bond strengths (MTBSs) of two types of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resin composites bonded to a conventional direct resin composite. MATERIALS AND METHODS <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> resin composite blocks of Ceramage and SR Nexco were prepared in a plastic mold having a dimension of 10 × 10 × 4 mm. These composite blocks were divided into three groups according to their surface treatments: Group1: Sandblast (SB); Group2: Sandblast and ultrasonically clean (SB+UL); Group3: Sandblast plus silane (SB+SI). After bonding with direct resin composite, <span class="hlt">indirect</span>-direct resin composite blocks were kept in distilled water for 24 hours at 37℃ and cut into microbars with the dimension of 1 × 1 × 8 mm. Microbar specimens (n = 40 per group) were loaded using a universal <span class="hlt">testing</span> machine. Failure modes and compositions were evaluated by SEM. The statistical analyses of MTBS were performed by two-way ANOVA and Dunnett's <span class="hlt">test</span> at α = .05. RESULTS Surface treatments and brands had effects on the MTBS without an interaction between these two factors. For SR Nexco, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI group were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. For Ceramage, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. The mean MTBS of the Ceramage specimens was significantly higher than that of SR Nexco for all surface treatments. CONCLUSION Sandblasting with or without silane application could improve the bond strengths of repaired <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resin composites to a conventional direct resin composite. PMID:28243390</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28243390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28243390"><span>Microtensile bond strength of repaired <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resin composite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Visuttiwattanakorn, Porntida; Suputtamongkol, Kallaya; Angkoonsit, Duangjai; Kaewthong, Sunattha; Charoonanan, Piyanan</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatments on microtensile bond strengths (MTBSs) of two types of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resin composites bonded to a conventional direct resin composite. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> resin composite blocks of Ceramage and SR Nexco were prepared in a plastic mold having a dimension of 10 × 10 × 4 mm. These composite blocks were divided into three groups according to their surface treatments: Group1: Sandblast (SB); Group2: Sandblast and ultrasonically clean (SB+UL); Group3: Sandblast plus silane (SB+SI). After bonding with direct resin composite, <span class="hlt">indirect</span>-direct resin composite blocks were kept in distilled water for 24 hours at 37℃ and cut into microbars with the dimension of 1 × 1 × 8 mm. Microbar specimens (n = 40 per group) were loaded using a universal <span class="hlt">testing</span> machine. Failure modes and compositions were evaluated by SEM. The statistical analyses of MTBS were performed by two-way ANOVA and Dunnett's <span class="hlt">test</span> at α = .05. Surface treatments and brands had effects on the MTBS without an interaction between these two factors. For SR Nexco, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI group were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. For Ceramage, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. The mean MTBS of the Ceramage specimens was significantly higher than that of SR Nexco for all surface treatments. Sandblasting with or without silane application could improve the bond strengths of repaired <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resin composites to a conventional direct resin composite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15017228','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15017228"><span>Dark matter dynamics and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bertone, Gianfranco; Merritt, David; /Rochester Inst. Tech.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Non-baryonic, or ''dark'', matter is believed to be a major component of the total mass budget of the universe. We review the candidates for particle dark matter and discuss the prospects for direct detection (via interaction of dark matter particles with laboratory detectors) and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> detection (via observations of the products of dark matter self-annihilations), focusing in particular on the Galactic center, which is among the most promising targets for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> detection studies. The gravitational potential at the Galactic center is dominated by stars and by the supermassive black hole, and the dark matter distribution is expected to evolve on sub-parsec scales due to interaction with these components. We discuss the dominant interaction mechanisms and show how they can be used to rule out certain extreme models for the dark matter distribution, thus increasing the information that can be gleaned from <span class="hlt">indirect</span> detection searches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..96l1201M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..96l1201M"><span>Resonant <span class="hlt">indirect</span> optical absorption in germanium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menéndez, José; Noël, Mario; Zwinkels, Joanne C.; Lockwood, David J.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The optical absorption coefficient of pure Ge has been determined from high-accuracy, high-precision optical measurements at photon energies covering the spectral range between the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct gaps. The results are compared with a theoretical model that fully accounts for the resonant nature of the energy denominators that appear in perturbation-theory expansions of the absorption coefficient. The model generalizes the classic Elliott approach to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons, and leads to a predicted optical absorption that is in excellent agreement with the experimental values using just a single adjustable parameter: the average deformation potential DΓ L coupling electrons at the bottom of the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> valleys in the conduction band. Remarkably, the fitted value, DΓ L=4.3 ×108eV /cm , is in nearly perfect agreement with independent measurements and ab initio predictions of this parameter, confirming the validity of the proposed theory, which has general applicability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4450688','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4450688"><span>Household Health Costs: Direct, <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> and Intangible</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>YOUSEFI, Mehdi; ASSARI ARANI, Abbas; SAHABI, Bahram; KAZEMNEJAD, Anoshirvan; FAZAELI, Somayeh</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Background This study aimed at identifying components of the household health costs. Methods This study was a qualitative research conducted in two main phases. The first phase consisted of interviews with sample households selected in eight provinces of Iran. They were to identify components of the household health costs. In the second phase, components were determined as direct, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and intangible based on a content analysis. Results In the first phase of the study, 93 components of households’ health costs were identified. According to the content analysis, 44 components were categorized as direct costs, 10 components were <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and 39 components were categorized as intangible. Conclusion All components of households’ health costs including: direct, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and intangible costs, should be considered in the planning and policy-making in the health system. PMID:26060744</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15806436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15806436"><span>[<span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs in idiopathic Parkinson's disease].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barth, F; Baum, B; Bremen, D; Meuser, T; Jost, W H</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>The economic impact of parkinsonism has been getting more significant due to the increasing prevalence of Parkinson's disease and the modern therapies available nowadays. The present study is supposed to update the existing databases and to provide a sound foundation for rational decision-making in the health care sector. It does not only focus on the direct costs of this disease incurred by 75 patients over a longer period, but also and for the first time, takes a look on the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost as well. The study shows that the expenses for PD-related house rebuilding and early retirement make up for a substantial share among the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs. In the overall analysis, the ratio between both, direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs appear to be relatively balanced with slight domination of the direct costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220286','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220286"><span>Biomass <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>none,</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass <span class="hlt">indirect</span> liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5305170','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5305170"><span>Quantification of progress in <span class="hlt">indirect</span> coal liquefaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gray, D.; ElSawy, A.; Tomlinson, G.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to quantify the economic and technical impact of incorporating various advanced technologies into the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> coal liquefaction system. These advanced technologies include entrained flow Shell gasification and slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. This objective was accomplished by substituting the Shell entrained goal gasifier system for the Lurgi and the advanced slurry F-T reactor for the Synthol and ARGE F-T systems in a SASOL-type <span class="hlt">indirect</span> liquefaction facility. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737901','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737901"><span>The Potential Neural Mechanisms of Acute <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Vibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>There is strong evidence to suggest that acute <span class="hlt">indirect</span> vibration acts on muscle to enhance force, power, flexibility, balance and proprioception suggesting neural enhancement. Nevertheless, the neural mechanism(s) of vibration and its potentiating effect have received little attention. One proposal suggests that spinal reflexes enhance muscle contraction through a reflex activity known as tonic vibration stretch reflex (TVR), which increases muscle activation. However, TVR is based on direct, brief, and high frequency vibration (>100 Hz) which differs to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> vibration, which is applied to the whole body or body parts at lower vibration frequency (5-45 Hz). Likewise, muscle tuning and neuromuscular aspects are other candidate mechanisms used to explain the vibration phenomenon. But there is much debate in terms of identifying which neural mechanism(s) are responsible for acute vibration; due to a number of studies using various vibration <span class="hlt">testing</span> protocols. These protocols include: different methods of application, vibration variables, training duration, exercise types and a range of population groups. Therefore, the neural mechanism of acute vibration remain equivocal, but spinal reflexes, muscle tuning and neuromuscular aspects are all viable factors that may contribute in different ways to increasing muscular performance. Additional research is encouraged to determine which neural mechanism(s) and their contributions are responsible for acute vibration. <span class="hlt">Testing</span> variables and vibration applications need to be standardised before reaching a consensus on which neural mechanism(s) occur during and post-vibration. Key points There is strong evidence to suggest that acute <span class="hlt">indirect</span> vibration acts on muscle to enhance force, power, flexibility, balance and proprioception, but little attention has been given to the neural mechanism(s) of acute <span class="hlt">indirect</span> vibration. Current findings suggest that acute vibration exposure may cause a neural response, but there is little</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA032004','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA032004"><span>Cold Regions Stability <span class="hlt">Test</span> of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Fire Artillery Weapons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-06-30</p> <p>lot numbers of all ammunition components, projectile weight zones. 3.4.2 Instrumentation: Type, nomenclature, serial numbers, range and accuracy...5.2.1.8 Ammunition lot numbers . 6 5.2.1.9 Surveyed locations of observation posts and weapon. 5.2.1.10 Quadrant elevation, weapon traverse position, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27809863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27809863"><span>Correlation between flexural and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tensile strength of resin composite cements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cassina, Gianluca; Fischer, Jens; Rohr, Nadja</p> <p>2016-11-04</p> <p>To evaluate a potential correlation between flexural strength and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tensile strength in assessing the mechanical strength of resin composite cements. Flexural strength (n = 5) and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tensile strength (n = 5) of 7 resin composite cements (RelyX Unicem 2 Automix [RXU], Panavia SA [PSA], Clearfil SA [CSA], Panavia F2.0 [PF2], Multilink Implant [MLI], DuoCem [DCM], Panavia 21 [P21]) were determined. Specimens were either auto-polymerized or dual-cured (except P21) and stored in water at 37 °C for 1 day prior to measurement. Flexural and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tensile strength of 4 cements (RXU, PSA, PF2, MLI) was additionally measured directly after curing and after 96 h water storage at 37 °C. Except for PF2, dual-cured specimens achieved higher flexural strength than auto-polymerized specimens. In the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tensile strength <span class="hlt">test</span> differences in auto-polymerized and dual-cured specimens were only detected for RXU and DCM. A general non-linear correlation was found between flexural and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tensile strength values. However, strength values of auto-polymerized and dual-cured specimens did not generally correlate. Flexural strength and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tensile strength of resin composite cements are correlated. At high strength values the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tensile <span class="hlt">test</span> is less sensitive than the flexural <span class="hlt">test</span>. The results suggest that the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> tensile <span class="hlt">test</span> may only be recommended as a screening <span class="hlt">test</span> especially for low or medium strength resin composite cements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1487808','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1487808"><span>Direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs of asthma in Canada, 1990.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krahn, M D; Berka, C; Langlois, P; Detsky, A S</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: To calculate the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs of asthma in Canada. DESIGN: Cost-of-illness study. SETTING: Canada. PATIENTS: All Canadians receiving inpatient or outpatient care for asthma in 1990. OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct costs incurred by inpatient care, emergency services, physician and nursing services, ambulance use, drugs and devices, outpatient diagnostic <span class="hlt">tests</span>, research and education. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs from productivity loss due to absence from work, inability to to perform housekeeping activities, need to care for children with asthma who were absent from school, time spent travelling and waiting for medical care, and premature death from asthma. All costs are in 1990 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: Depending on assumptions, the total cost of asthma was estimated to be between $504 million and $648 million. Direct costs were $306 million. The single largest component of direct costs was the cost of drugs ($124 million). The largest component of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs was illness-related disability ($76 million). CONCLUSIONS: Annual costs of treating asthma are comparable to the individual cost of infectious diseases, hematological diseases, congenital defects, perinatal illnesses, home care and ambulance services. Asthma costs may increase in the future, given current morbidity and mortality trends. Further evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of available asthma interventions in addition to aggregate cost data are required to determine whether resource allocation for the treatment of asthma can be improved. PMID:8634960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NW.....96..339K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NW.....96..339K"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> interactions between invasive and native plants via pollinators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N.; Müller, Christine B.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>In generalised pollination systems, the presence of alien plant species may change the foraging behaviour of pollinators on native plant species, which could result in reduced reproductive success of native plant species. We <span class="hlt">tested</span> this idea of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions on a small spatial and temporal scale in a field study in Mauritius, where the invasive strawberry guava, Psidium cattleianum, provides additional floral resources for insect pollinators. We predicted that the presence of flowering guava would <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> and negatively affect the reproductive success of the endemic plant Bertiera zaluzania, which has similar flowers, by diverting shared pollinators. We removed P. cattleianum flowers within a 5-m radius from around half the B. zaluzania target plants (treatment) and left P. cattleianum flowers intact around the other half (control). By far, the most abundant and shared pollinator was the introduced honey bee, Apis mellifera, but its visitation rates to treatment and control plants were similar. Likewise, fruit and seed set and fruit size and weight of B. zaluzania were not influenced by the presence of P. cattleianum flowers. Although other studies have shown small-scale effects of alien plant species on neighbouring natives, we found no evidence for such negative <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions in our system. The dominance of introduced, established A. mellifera indicates their replacement of native insect flower visitors and their function as pollinators of native plant species. However, the pollination effectiveness of A. mellifera in comparison to native pollinators is unknown.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5602376','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5602376"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> processes in electron-ion scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec18-43.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec18-43.pdf"><span>19 CFR 18.43 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> exportation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>.... port to another for actual exportation at the second port, any export declarations required to be... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> exportation. 18.43 Section 18.43 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec18-26.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec18-26.pdf"><span>19 CFR 18.26 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> exportation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... merchandise to be exported and provide such evidence of exportation as required by the port director under... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> exportation. 18.26 Section 18.26 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Exportation from Customs Custody of Merchandise Unentered...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-1024.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-1024.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.1024 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-1024.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-1024.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.1024 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/23583','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/23583"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> effects of recreation on wildlife</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>David N. Cole; Peter B. Landres</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Most of this book focuses on direct impacts to wildlife that result from contact with people. The purpose of our chapter is to provide a broad overview of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> influences that recreation has on wildlife. Recreational activities can change the habitat of an animal. This, in turn, affects the behavior, survival, reproduction, and distribution of individuals....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec10-460.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec10-460.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.460 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-17/pdf/2012-17366.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-17/pdf/2012-17366.pdf"><span>77 FR 41899 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Food Additives: Polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-17</p> <p>... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is amending the food additive regulations to no longer provide for the use of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..90c2808G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..90c2808G"><span>Epidemic spreading through direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ganguly, Niloy; Krueger, Tyll; Mukherjee, Animesh; Saha, Sudipta</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>In this paper we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic dynamics, considering a specialized setting where popular places (termed passive entities) are visited by agents (termed active entities). We consider two types of spreading dynamics: direct spreading, where the active entities infect each other while visiting the passive entities, and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> spreading, where the passive entities act as carriers and the infection is spread via them. We investigate in particular the effect of selection strategy, i.e., the way passive entities are chosen, in the spread of epidemics. We introduce a mathematical framework to study the effect of an arbitrary selection strategy and derive formulas for prevalence, extinction probabilities, and epidemic thresholds for both <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct spreading. We also obtain a very simple relationship between the extinction probability and the prevalence. We pay special attention to preferential selection and derive exact formulas. The analysis reveals that an increase in the diversity in the selection process lowers the epidemic thresholds. Comparing the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> spreading, we identify regions in the parameter space where the prevalence of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> spreading is higher than the direct one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA138388','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA138388"><span>Time Spent in <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Nursing Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-09-01</p> <p>Part of the FY 83 Army Study Program and intended to augment the FY 81 completed study titled ’ Nursing Care Hours Standards’ by providing valid and...reliable percentages for hospital patient nursing care unit requirements (i.e., direct care, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> care, and non-productive time). These data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-776.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-776.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.776 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol6-sec1631-203.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol6-sec1631-203.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1631.203 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. 1631.203 Section 1631.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol6-sec1631-203.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol6-sec1631-203.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1631.203 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. 1631.203 Section 1631.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol6-sec1631-203.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol6-sec1631-203.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1631.203 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. 1631.203 Section 1631.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol6-sec1631-203.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol6-sec1631-203.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1631.203 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. 1631.203 Section 1631.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-3024.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-3024.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.3024 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.3024 Section 10.3024 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B23G..06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B23G..06K"><span>Have <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Emissions from Biofuels Been Exaggerated?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kicklighter, D. W.; Gurgel, A.; Melillo, J. M.; Reilly, J. M.; Cronin, T.; Felzer, B. S.; Paltsev, S.; Schlosser, C. A.; Sokolov, A. P.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The production of biofuels may lead to enhanced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land to the atmosphere either by directly converting land to biofuel crops, or <span class="hlt">indirectly</span>, by causing the displacement of food production and other land uses which then require additional land conversions. The importance of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> GHG emissions from biofuel-related displacement of food production and other land uses is not known and is highly controversial. Here, we examine the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> land-use emissions over the 21st century from an expanded global bioenergy program, using a linked economic and terrestrial biogeochemistry modeling system under two different land use policies. We account for the dynamics of potential carbon losses or gains from land-use change along with nitrous oxide emissions from increased N fertilizer application. We find that: 1) <span class="hlt">indirect</span> emissions from land use are responsible for substantially more carbon loss (up to twice as much) than direct land use; 2) increased nitrous oxide emissions over the century are more important to the GHG balance than the carbon losses themselves; 3) the GHG effects of biofuels change in both sign and magnitude over time so that the GHG cost/benefit of biofuels depends on the time horizon considered; and 4) the economics of biofuels become favorable sooner with the protection of forests. While biofuels can be an effective low carbon energy source from a GHG balance perspective, the associated land conversions may lead to an unacceptable loss of other ecosystem services.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-924.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-924.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.924 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-924.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec10-924.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.924 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-541.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec10-541.pdf"><span>19 CFR 10.541 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894793','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894793"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Methods for Nuclear Reaction Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S</p> <p>2005-11-18</p> <p>Several <span class="hlt">indirect</span> approaches for obtaining reaction cross sections are briefly reviewed. The Surrogate Nuclear Reactions method, which aims at determining cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions, is discussed in some detail. The validity of the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation in the Surrogate approach is studied for the example of neutron-induced fission of an actinide nucleus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21426521','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21426521"><span>Astrophysical Reaction Rates Obtained By <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tribble, R. E.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Alharbi, A.; Banu, A.; Chen, X.; Clark, H. L.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Lui, Y.-W.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.; Simmons, E.; Tabacaru, G.; Tokimoto, Y.; Trache, L.</p> <p>2010-08-12</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> techniques have been used to obtain information about reaction rates for several proton capture reactions that occur on short-lived nuclei. The techniques used to carry out the measurements are reviewed and the results obtained are presented. Also future prospects for further measurements with a new facility, T-REX are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26734681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26734681"><span>Heat Treatment Influences Monomer Conversion and Bond Strength of <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Composite Resin Restorations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Magne, Pascal; Malta, Daniel Alexandre Menezes Pedrosa; Enciso, Reyes; Monteiro-Junior, Sylvio</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To assess the resin microtensile bond strength (MTBS) and the degree of conversion (DC) of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composite resin restorations polymerized with light and heat. Two direct (Filtek Z100 and Premise) and one <span class="hlt">indirect</span> (Premise <span class="hlt">Indirect</span>) composite resins were polymerized with a combination of light and heat (138°C for 20 min). For MTBS, 42 cylinders were fabricated (n = 7). After the surface treatment, cylinders were bonded to each other using adhesive resin (Optibond FL). Specimens were stored in water for 24 h. Another 15 cylinders (n = 5) were fabricated for determining degree of conversion using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry immediately and at 24 h. The MTBS and the DC was submitted to two-way ANOVA. The interaction with existing data was explored with univariate ANOVA and two-way ANOVA. Tukey's HSD post-hoc <span class="hlt">test</span> was used to detect pairwise differences (α = 0.05). The MTBS to light and heat polymerized Z100 was 75.7 MPa, significantly higher than that to Premise (58.6 MPa) and Premise <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> (63.9 MPa). The immediate DC for Z100, Premise, and Premise <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> were 51.0%, 68.7%, and 61.8%, respectively. The DC at 24 h ranged from 53.4% (Z100) to 72.8% (Premise <span class="hlt">Indirect</span>) and significantly increased for Premise <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> only. Comparison with previously published data revealed that the heat treatment increased both MTBS and DC of Premise and Premise <span class="hlt">Indirect</span>. Z100 showed better bond strength but lower DC. Heat treatment and a 24-h delay before delivery can benefit DC of Premise <span class="hlt">Indirect</span>. The increase in DC of Premise and Premise <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> did not affect their bond strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24234338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24234338"><span>A comparative investigation of seven <span class="hlt">indirect</span> attitude measures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bar-Anan, Yoav; Nosek, Brian A</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>We compared the psychometric qualities of seven <span class="hlt">indirect</span> attitude measures across three attitude domains (race, politics, and self-esteem) with a large sample (N = 23,413). We compared the measures on internal consistency, sensitivity to known effects, relationships with <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct measures of the same topic, the reliability and validity of single-category attitude measurement, their ability to detect meaningful variance among people with nonextreme attitudes, and their robustness to the exclusion of misbehaving or well-behaving participants. All seven <span class="hlt">indirect</span> measures correlated with each other and with direct measures of the same topic. These relations were always weak for self-esteem, moderate for race, and strong for politics. This pattern suggests that some of the sources of variation in the reliability and predictive validity of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> measures is a function of the concepts rather than the methods. The Implicit Association <span class="hlt">Test</span> (IAT) and Brief IAT (BIAT) showed the best overall psychometric quality, followed by the Go–No-Go association task, Single-Target IAT (ST-IAT), Affective Misattribution Procedure (AMP), Sorting Paired Features task, and Evaluative Priming. The AMP showed a steep decline in its psychometric qualities when people with extreme attitude scores were removed. Single-category attitude scores computed for the IAT and BIAT showed good relationships with other attitude measures but no evidence of discriminant validity between paired categories. The other measures, especially the AMP and ST-IAT, showed better evidence for discriminant validity. These results inform us on the validity of the measures as attitude assessments, but do not speak to the implicitness of the measured constructs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol1-sec35-940-4.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol1-sec35-940-4.pdf"><span>40 CFR 35.940-4 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. 35.940-4 Section 35.940-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> costs shall be allowable in accordance with an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost agreement negotiated...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19758146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19758146"><span>Autoantibody detection using <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sack, Ulrich; Conrad, Karsten; Csernok, Elena; Frank, Ingrid; Hiepe, Falk; Krieger, Thorsten; Kromminga, Arno; von Landenberg, Philipp; Messer, Gerald; Witte, Torsten; Mierau, Rudolf</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The detection of autoantibodies is an important element in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression in patients with autoimmune diseases. In laboratory diagnostic <span class="hlt">tests</span> for connective tissue and autoimmune liver diseases, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells plays a central role in a multistage diagnostic process. Despite the high quality of diagnostics, findings at different laboratories can differ considerably due to a lack of standardization, as well as subjective factors. The present paper formulates recommendations for the standardized processing and interpretation of the HEp-2 cell <span class="hlt">test</span> for the detection of non-organ-specific (especially antinuclear) antibodies. It provides requirements regarding the diagnostic <span class="hlt">tests</span> used, instructions for laboratory procedure and evaluation, and recommendations for interpretation. For an optimal laboratory diagnostic process, it is useful to have an informative, tentative clinical diagnosis and an experienced laboratory diagnostician. In addition, the following key elements are recommended: initial screening using <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence on carefully chosen HEp-2 cells beginning with a serum dilution of 1:80 and evaluation under a microscope with powerful illumination; results from a titer of 1:160 upwards being considered positive; internal laboratory quality control; and standardized interpretation. The aim is to improve diagnostic <span class="hlt">tests</span> and care of patients with autoimmune diseases as a central concern of the European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative (EASI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16409992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16409992"><span>ERP correlates of retrieval orientation: direct versus <span class="hlt">indirect</span> memory tasks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hornberger, Michael; Rugg, Michael D; Henson, Richard N A</p> <p>2006-02-03</p> <p>The neural correlates of the processes involved in cueing memory retrieval were investigated using ERPs to unstudied (new) items in a yes/no recognition <span class="hlt">test</span> (direct memory task) and a semantic judgement task (<span class="hlt">indirect</span> memory task). Subjects encoded either pictures or auditory words and were <span class="hlt">tested</span> on visual words. We replicated previous findings that ERPs to correct rejections of new items in a yes/no recognition <span class="hlt">test</span> differ according to the study material, with ERPs to words encoded as pictures being more negative (relative to a average mastoid reference) than words encoded auditorily [Hornberger, M., Morcom, A.M., et al., 2004. Neural correlates of retrieval orientation: effects of study-<span class="hlt">test</span> similarity. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 16 (7), 1196-1210]. This difference was sustained from approximately 450-1,200 ms. An effect of study material on the ERP to new items was found in the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> memory task but was both earlier onsetting and shorter lived, ca. 250-600 ms. These findings add weight to the concept of 'retrieval orientation' [Rugg, M.D., Wilding, E.L., 2000. Retrieval processing and episodic memory. Trends Cogn. Sci. 4 (3) 108-115] - differential processing of retrieval cues according to the form of the sought-for information - by showing that a putative ERP correlate of retrieval orientation is restricted to direct memory tasks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1058130','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1058130"><span>Technical Considerations in the Preparation of <span class="hlt">Fluorescent-Antibody</span> Conjugates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lewis, Vester J.; Jones, Wallis L.; Brooks, John B.; Cherry, William B.</p> <p>1964-01-01</p> <p>A comparison was made of (NH4)2SO4, HCl, ethodin, and ethanol for fractionation of rabbit antiserum prior to conjugation with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Fractionation with the salt was found to be the method of choice from the standpoints of simplicity and recovery of antibody effective in conjugates prepared from the fractions. Effects of pH, temperature, dye-protein ratio, and molarity and type of buffer upon conjugation were studied. These technical factors were adjusted to produce conjugates for Corynebacterium diphtheriae which possessed higher specific titers than did reagents obtained by previously employed techniques. PMID:14201087</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24591599','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24591599"><span>Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki</p> <p>2014-03-18</p> <p>Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3964069','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3964069"><span>Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards. PMID:24591599</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19488465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19488465"><span>Flexural strength and hardness of direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borba, Márcia; Della Bona, Alvaro; Cecchetti, Dileta</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength (sigma f) and hardness (H) of direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composites, <span class="hlt">testing</span> the hypotheses that direct resin composites produce higher sigma f and H values than <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composites and that these properties are positively related. Ten bar-shaped specimens (25 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm) were fabricated for each direct [D250 - Filtek Z250 (3M-Espe) and D350 - Filtek Z350 (3M-Espe)] and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> [ISin - Sinfony (3M-Espe) and IVM - VitaVM LC (Vita Zahnfabrik)] materials, according to the manufacturer's instructions and ISO4049 specifications. The sigma f was <span class="hlt">tested</span> in three-point bending using a universal <span class="hlt">testing</span> machine (EMIC DL 2000) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min (ISO4049). Knoop hardness (H) was measured on the specimens' fragments resultant from the sigma f <span class="hlt">test</span> and calculated as H = 14.2P/l(2), where P is the applied load (0.1 kg; dwell time = 15 s) and l is the longest diagonal of the diamond shaped indent (ASTM E384). The data were statistically analyzed using Anova and Tukey <span class="hlt">tests</span> (alpha = 0.05). The mean sigma f and standard deviation values (MPa) and statistical grouping were: D250 - 135.4 +/- 17.6a; D350 - 123.7 +/- 11.1b; ISin - 98.4 +/- 6.4c; IVM - 73.1 +/- 4.9 d. The mean H and standard deviation values (kg/mm(2)) and statistical grouping were: D250 - 98.12 +/- 1.8a; D350 - 86.5 +/- 1.9b; ISin - 28.3 +/- 0.9 c; IVM - 30.8 +/- 1.0 c. The direct composite systems examined produce higher mean sigma f and H values than the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> composites, and the mean values of these properties were positively correlated (r = 0.91), confirming the study hypotheses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10668028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10668028"><span>Color stability of new-generation <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resins for prosthodontic application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Douglas, R D</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>Several new-generation <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resins are being advocated for full contour restoration of teeth. Previous <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resin systems have failed in this application, due in part to color instability. This study evaluated and characterized the color stability of various new-generation <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resins (ceramic-polymers) when subjected to accelerated aging. Four new-generation <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resin systems, 1 direct resin system, and 1 dental porcelain control were subjected to accelerated aging for a period of 300 hours. Initial specimen color parameters were determined in the Commission International de l'Eclairage Lab (CIELAB) color order system with a colorimeter. Color changes (DeltaE) were calculated between baseline color measurements and measurements made after 150 and 300 hours of accelerated aging. Color difference data were subjected to a 1-way analysis of variance to examine the interaction between material and time interval of aging. Where significant interactions occurred, a least-squared means <span class="hlt">test</span> was performed to identify differences in the color stability between the materials (P </=.05). After 300 hours of accelerated aging, color changes of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resins ranged between 0.62 and 3.40 DeltaE units. Two of the products <span class="hlt">tested</span> demonstrated color stability that was not significantly different from the porcelain control. All the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> resins <span class="hlt">tested</span> demonstrated color stability at or below a quantitative level that would be considered clinically acceptable. Color changes of ceramic-polymers occurred because of changes in chroma, rather than alterations in lightness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15203299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15203299"><span>Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression increase viewers' subsequent <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct aggression on subsequent <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an <span class="hlt">indirect</span>, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression gave more <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSP...162..924B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSP...162..924B"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Acquisition of Information in Quantum Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ballesteros, M.; Fraas, M.; Fröhlich, J.; Schubnel, B.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Long sequences of successive direct (projective) measurements or observations of just a few "uninteresting" physical quantities pertaining to a quantum system, such as clicks of some detectors, may reveal <span class="hlt">indirect</span>, but precise and unambiguous information on the values of some very "interesting" observables of the system. In this paper, the mathematics underlying this claim is developed; i.e., we attempt to contribute to a mathematical theory of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and, in particular, non-demolition observations and measurements in quantum mechanics. Our attempt leads us to make some novel uses of classical notions and results of probability theory, such as the "algebra of functions measurable at infinity", the Central Limit Theorem, results concerning relative entropy and its role in the theory of large deviations, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19671436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19671436"><span>Real medical benefit assessed by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> comparison.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.<span class="hlt">Indirect</span> or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted <span class="hlt">indirect</span> comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19933101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19933101"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> emissions from biofuels: how important?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Melillo, Jerry M; Reilly, John M; Kicklighter, David W; Gurgel, Angelo C; Cronin, Timothy W; Paltsev, Sergey; Felzer, Benjamin S; Wang, Xiaodong; Sokolov, Andrei P; Schlosser, C Adam</p> <p>2009-12-04</p> <p>A global biofuels program will lead to intense pressures on land supply and can increase greenhouse gas emissions from land-use changes. Using linked economic and terrestrial biogeochemistry models, we examined direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of possible land-use changes from an expanded global cellulosic bioenergy program on greenhouse gas emissions over the 21st century. Our model predicts that <span class="hlt">indirect</span> land use will be responsible for substantially more carbon loss (up to twice as much) than direct land use; however, because of predicted increases in fertilizer use, nitrous oxide emissions will be more important than carbon losses themselves in terms of warming potential. A global greenhouse gas emissions policy that protects forests and encourages best practices for nitrogen fertilizer use can dramatically reduce emissions associated with biofuels production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6561083','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6561083"><span>Impact of developing technology on <span class="hlt">indirect</span> liquefaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gray, D.; Lytton, M.; Neuworth, M.; Tomlinson, G.</p> <p>1980-11-01</p> <p>The status of commercial technology for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> liquefaction, as exemplified by SASOL facilities in South Africa, is reviewed. The impact of substituting more advanced gasifiers and synthesis systems is then investigated. Slagging BGC/Lurgi, Texaco and Shell-Koppers gasifiers were substituted for the Dry Ash Lurgi units used at SASOL. SASOL SYNTHOL synthesis units were replaced by slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch units employing technology pioneered by Kolbel. The advanced systems were found to have a highly favorable impact on plant efficiency, product distribution and gasoline cost. If all the projected technical improvements can be realized for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> liquefaction, the yields of refined transportation fuels per ton of coal will approach those anticipated for direct liquefaction processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12114636C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12114636C"><span>Aerosol <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect dictated by liquid clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christensen, Matthew W.; Chen, Yi-Chun; Stephens, Graeme L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic aerosols have been shown to enhance the solar reflection from warm liquid clouds and mask part of the warming due to the buildup of greenhouse gases. However, very little is known about the effects of aerosol on mixed-phase stratiform clouds as well as other cloud regimes including cumulus, altocumulus, nimbostratus, deep convection, and anvil cirrus. These additional cloud categories are ubiquitous and typically overlooked in satellite-based assessments of the global aerosol <span class="hlt">indirect</span> forcing. Here we provide their contribution to the aerosol <span class="hlt">indirect</span> forcing estimate using satellite data collected from several colocated sensors in the A-train for the period 2006-2010. Cloud type is determined according to the 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR CloudSat product, and the observations are matched to the radiative flux measurements from CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) and aerosol retrievals from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The oceanic mean aerosol <span class="hlt">indirect</span> forcing is estimated to be -0.20 ± 0.31 W m-2 with warm low-level cloud largely dictating the strength of the response (-0.36 ± 0.21 W m-2) due to their abundance and strong cloud albedo effect. Contributions from mixed-phase low-level cloud (0.01 ± 0.06 W m-2) and convective cloud (0.15 ± 0.23 W m-2) are positive and buffer the system due to strong aerosol-cloud feedbacks that reduce the cloud albedo effect and/or lead to convective invigoration causing a countering positive longwave warming response. By combining all major cloud categories together, aerosol <span class="hlt">indirect</span> forcing decreases and now contains positive values in the uncertainty estimate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4536..127M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4536..127M"><span>Color <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects on melatonin regulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>Color <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADB372255','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADB372255"><span>Influence Operations: Redefining the <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>religious education. Reopened in 1959 after years of dormancy, Guzman subverted the university for use as a base to recruit and training of Shining Path...public and that its distribution is unlimited effective October 17, 2011. University Librarian Naval Postgraduate School http://www.nps.edu THIS PAGE...REDEFINING THE <span class="hlt">INDIRECT</span> APPROACH Edward M. Lopacienski Major, United States Army B.A., University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1996 William M</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bullying&pg=6&id=EJ1047640','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bullying&pg=6&id=EJ1047640"><span>Predictors of Teacher Intervention in <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Bullying at School and Outcome of a Professional Development Presentation for Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Shute, Rosalyn; Varlow, Megan; Murrihy, Rachael; Kidman, Tony</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study with 326 girls-school teachers developed and <span class="hlt">tested</span> a model of predictors of the likelihood that teachers will intervene in <span class="hlt">indirect</span> bullying, and evaluated a professional development presentation. Teachers responded to bullying vignettes before and after a presentation on <span class="hlt">indirect</span> bullying (Experimentals) or adolescent mental health…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bullying+AND+impacts&id=EJ1047640','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bullying+AND+impacts&id=EJ1047640"><span>Predictors of Teacher Intervention in <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Bullying at School and Outcome of a Professional Development Presentation for Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Shute, Rosalyn; Varlow, Megan; Murrihy, Rachael; Kidman, Tony</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study with 326 girls-school teachers developed and <span class="hlt">tested</span> a model of predictors of the likelihood that teachers will intervene in <span class="hlt">indirect</span> bullying, and evaluated a professional development presentation. Teachers responded to bullying vignettes before and after a presentation on <span class="hlt">indirect</span> bullying (Experimentals) or adolescent mental health…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491364','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491364"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all <span class="hlt">indirect</span> work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all <span class="hlt">indirect</span> work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28441935','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28441935"><span>Direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of influenza vaccination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eichner, Martin; Schwehm, Markus; Eichner, Linda; Gerlier, Laetitia</p> <p>2017-04-26</p> <p>After vaccination, vaccinees acquire some protection against infection and/or disease. Vaccination, therefore, reduces the number of infections in the population. Due to this herd protection, not everybody needs to be vaccinated to prevent infections from spreading. We quantify direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of influenza vaccination examining the standard Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model as well as simulation results of a sophisticated simulation tool which allows for seasonal transmission of four influenza strains in a population with realistic demography and age-dependent contact patterns. As shown analytically for the simple SIR and SIRS transmission models, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> vaccination effects are bigger than direct ones if the effective reproduction number of disease transmission is close to the critical value of 1. Simulation results for 20-60% vaccination with live influenza vaccine of 2-17 year old children in Germany, averaged over 10 years (2017-26), confirm this result: four to seven times as many influenza cases are prevented among non-vaccinated individuals as among vaccinees. For complications like death due to influenza which occur much more frequently in the unvaccinated elderly than in the vaccination target group of children, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> benefits can surpass direct ones by a factor of 20 or even more than 30. The true effect of vaccination can be much bigger than what would be expected by only looking at vaccination coverage and vaccine efficacy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26150906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26150906"><span>Discovering relations between <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> connected biomedical concepts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weissenborn, Dirk; Schroeder, Michael; Tsatsaronis, George</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The complexity and scale of the knowledge in the biomedical domain has motivated research work towards mining heterogeneous data from both structured and unstructured knowledge bases. Towards this direction, it is necessary to combine facts in order to formulate hypotheses or draw conclusions about the domain concepts. This work addresses this problem by using <span class="hlt">indirect</span> knowledge connecting two concepts in a knowledge graph to discover hidden relations between them. The graph represents concepts as vertices and relations as edges, stemming from structured (ontologies) and unstructured (textual) data. In this graph, path patterns, i.e. sequences of relations, are mined using distant supervision that potentially characterize a biomedical relation. It is possible to identify characteristic path patterns of biomedical relations from this representation using machine learning. For experimental evaluation two frequent biomedical relations, namely "has target", and "may treat", are chosen. Results suggest that relation discovery using <span class="hlt">indirect</span> knowledge is possible, with an AUC that can reach up to 0.8, a result which is a great improvement compared to the random classification, and which shows that good predictions can be prioritized by following the suggested approach. Analysis of the results indicates that the models can successfully learn expressive path patterns for the examined relations. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that the constructed graph allows for the easy integration of heterogeneous information and discovery of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> connections between biomedical concepts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21741497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21741497"><span>Detection of antinuclear antibodies by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence and by solid phase assay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Op De Beeck, Katrijn; Vermeersch, Pieter; Verschueren, Patrick; Westhovens, René; Mariën, Godelieve; Blockmans, Daniel; Bossuyt, Xavier</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Testing</span> for antinuclear antibodies is useful for the diagnosis of systemic rheumatic diseases. Solid phase assays are increasingly replacing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence for detection of antinuclear antibodies. In the most recent generation of solid phase assays, manufacturers attempt to improve the performance of the assays by adding extra antigens. Solid phase assay (EliA CTD Screen, Phadia, in which antibodies to 17 antigens are detected) was compared to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence for the detection of antinuclear antibodies in diagnostic samples of 236 patients with autoimmune connective tissue diseases, in 149 healthy blood donors, 139 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and 134 diseased controls. The sensitivity of EliA CTD Screen for systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, primary Sjögren's syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease, and inflammatory myopathy was 74%, 72%, 89%, 100%, and 39%, respectively. The reactivity in blood donors, in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and in diseased controls was <4%. Likelihood ratios increased with increasing antibody concentrations. Generally, a positive <span class="hlt">test</span> result by EliA CTD Screen had a higher likelihood ratio for systemic rheumatic disease than a positive <span class="hlt">test</span> result by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence. A negative <span class="hlt">test</span> result by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence, however, had a lower likelihood ratio than a negative <span class="hlt">test</span> result by EliA CTD Screen, indicating that the negative predictive value was higher for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence than for EliA CTD screen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/887430','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/887430"><span>Spatially <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons in coupled quantum wells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic <span class="hlt">indirect</span> exciton systems: general properties of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)<sup>2</sup> were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25566388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25566388"><span>Direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression and victimization in adolescents - associations with the development of psychological difficulties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Daukantaité, Daiva; Wångby-Lundh, Margit</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Previous research has established that direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> forms of aggression differ in their association with gender and type of psychological difficulties. One purpose of the present study was to <span class="hlt">test</span> if the same applies to direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> victimization. A second purpose was to study these associations not only cross-sectionally (as in most previous research) but also longitudinally. A third purpose was to <span class="hlt">test</span> the hypotheses that there are prospective bidirectional associations not only between victimization and psychological difficulties (which has been shown in previous research), but also between aggression and psychological difficulties, and that direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> forms of aggression and victimization show different associations with different types of psychological difficulties. The participants were a community sample of all students in two grades of regular school in a Swedish municipality who answered questionnaires as part of a two-wave longitudinal study with a one-year interval. The participants were 13-15 years old, and there were longitudinal data on 893 students, which represented 85% of all students. The cross-sectional associations were primarily <span class="hlt">tested</span> by semi-partial correlations, and the longitudinal associations by hierarchical multiple regression. The results corroborated the meaningfulness of differentiating not only between direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression but also between direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> victimization. Boys reported being more victim to direct aggression, whereas girls reported being more victim to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression. Direct aggression predicted increased conduct problems in boys, whereas <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression predicted increased conduct problems in girls, and conduct problems reciprocally predicted increased direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> victimization showed prospective bidirectional associations with emotional symptoms and conduct problems, suggesting the potential development of vicious cycles of escalating problems</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17495309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17495309"><span>Direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs of rabies exposure: a retrospective study in southern California (1998-2002).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shwiff, Stephanie A; Sterner, Ray T; Jay, Michele T; Parikh, Shefali; Bellomy, Amy; Meltzer, Martin I; Rupprecht, Charles E; Slate, Dennis</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>The direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs of suspected human rabies exposure were estimated for San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties, California, USA. Clinic, hospital, and county public health records (1998-2002) were examined to determine direct costs for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), and 55 (41%) former patients were contacted to voluntarily provide estimates of their <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs associated with receiving PEP. Additional costs due to public health and animal control personnel responses to rabid animals were collected, including diagnostic <span class="hlt">testing</span> and wages. The mean total cost of a suspected human rabies exposure was $3,688, the direct costs per case were $2,564, and the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs were $1,124 of that total. About one third of the total cost for suspected human rabies exposure was attributed to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs (e.g., lost wages, transportation, and day-care fees), most of which were not reimbursable to the patient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20016032','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20016032"><span>The unintended consequences of staffing mandates in Florida nursing homes: impacts on <span class="hlt">indirect</span>-care staff.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomas, Kali S; Hyer, Kathryn; Andel, Ross; Weech-Maldonado, Robert</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Research on nursing staff ratios and quality of care in nursing homes prompted Florida to implement minimum nursing staff ratios for certified nursing assistants (CNAs) in 2001. Using the contingency theory, the authors investigated the response to this mandate and its potential effects on <span class="hlt">indirect</span>-care staff. This study used the Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting (OSCAR) staffing data for freestanding Florida nursing homes between the years 1999 and 2004. Piecewise regression growth curve models were investigated to <span class="hlt">test</span> whether the percentage of Medicaid residents is associated with change in <span class="hlt">indirect</span>-care staffing levels. The number of <span class="hlt">indirect</span>-care staff hours per 100 residents declined significantly following the mandated increase in nursing staff, particularly among facilities with a low percentage of Medicaid residents. This may have stemmed from a partial transfer of <span class="hlt">indirect</span>-care to CNAs and was exacerbated in facilities that received less additional reimbursement to pay for CNA increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95l5304K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95l5304K"><span>Transport of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons in high magnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuznetsova, Y. Y.; Dorow, C. J.; Calman, E. V.; Butov, L. V.; Wilkes, J.; Muljarov, E. A.; Campman, K. L.; Gossard, A. C.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We present spatially and spectrally resolved photoluminescence measurements of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> excitons in high magnetic fields. Long <span class="hlt">indirect</span> exciton lifetimes give the opportunity to measure magnetoexciton transport by optical imaging. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> excitons formed from electrons and holes at zeroth Landau levels (0e-0h <span class="hlt">indirect</span> magnetoexcitons) travel over large distances and form a ring emission pattern around the excitation spot. In contrast, the spatial profiles of 1e-1h and 2e-2h <span class="hlt">indirect</span> magnetoexciton emission closely follow the laser excitation profile. The 0e-0h <span class="hlt">indirect</span> magnetoexciton transport distance reduces with increasing magnetic field. These effects are explained in terms of magnetoexciton energy relaxation and effective mass enhancement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18037654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18037654"><span>Effects of direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> bleach on dentin fracture toughness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tam, L E; Noroozi, A</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>There are concerns that tooth-whitening procedures irreversibly damage tooth structure. We investigated the hypothesis that dental bleaches significantly affect dentin structural integrity. The objective was to evaluate the effects of peroxide bleaches on dentin fracture toughness. Compact <span class="hlt">test</span> specimens, composed of human dentin, were used (n = 10/group). Bleach (16% or 10% carbamide peroxide or 3% hydrogen peroxide) or control material, containing 0.1% sodium fluoride, was applied directly or <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> to dentin through enamel (6 hrs/day) for 2 or 8 weeks. Fracture toughness results were analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's LSD <span class="hlt">test</span> (p < 0.05). There were significant decreases in mean fracture toughness after two- and eight-week direct (19-34% and 61-68%, respectively) and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> (up to 17% and 37%, respectively) bleach application. The in vitro reduction in dentin fracture toughness caused by the application of peroxide bleaches was greater for the direct application method, longer application time, and higher bleach concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.2616D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.2616D"><span>Evaluating The <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effect of Cirrus Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dobbie, S.; Jonas, P. R.</p> <p></p> <p>What effect would an increase in nucleating aerosols have on the radiative and cloud properties? What error would be incurred by evaluating the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect by taking an evolved cloud and fixing the integrated water content and vary the number of ice crystals? These questions will be addressed in this work. We will use the UK LES cloud resolving model to perform a sensitivity study for cirrus clouds to the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect, and will evaluate approximate methods in the process. In this work, we will initialize the base (no increase of aerosol) cirrus clouds so that the double moment scheme is constrained to agree with observations through the ef- fective radius. Effective radius is calculated using the local concentration and the ice water content. We then perform a sensitivity experiment to investigate the dependence of the average IWC, effective size, and radiative properties (including heating rates) to variations in the nucleation rate. Conclusions will be draw as to the possible ef- fect of changes in aerosol amounts on cirrus. We will determine how sensitive the cloud and radiative properties are to various aerosol increases. We will also discuss the applicability of the Meyer et al. (1992) nucleation formulae for our simulations. It is important to stress that in this work we only change the nucleation rate for the newly forming cloud. By doing this, we are not fixing the total water content and redistributing the water amongst increased ice crystals. We increase the number of aerosols available to be nucleated and allow the model to evolve the size distributions. In this way, there is competition for the water vapour, the ice particles are evolved dynamically with different fall speeds, the conversion rates to other hydrometers (such as aggregates) are affected, and the heating rates are different due to the different size distributions that evolve. We will look at how the water content, the distribution of water, and the radiative properties are affected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10065387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10065387"><span>[Direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs of schizophrenia].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kissling, W; Höffler, J; Seemann, U; Müller, P; Rüther, E; Trenckmann, U; Uber, A; Graf von der Schulenburg, J M; Glaser, P; Glaser, T; Mast, O; Schmidt, D</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>In the present study the costs of schizophrenia in Germany were studied using the "bottom up" prevalence-based method. In a random sample of 180 schizophrenic patients stratified according to the most important care institutions, direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs were retrospectively documented for a 12-month period. Depending on the place of recruitment and the extent of care provided, total yearly costs result between about DM 33,000 for a patient treated predominantly on an outpatient basis and about DM 126,000 for a patient requiring hospital care and about DM 135,000 for a patient in job rehabilitation. The direct yearly treatment costs were, as expected, lowest for patients recruited in the private practice of a psychiatrist and predominantly treated on an outpatient basis (DM 5,788), and were the highest in the psychiatric hospital (DM 64,661) and in job rehabilitation (DM 79,996). In the patients recruited in the outpatient domain, doctors' fees and medication together were responsible for only 4.5% of the total costs, whereas the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs (e.g., through work incapacity) were responsible for 87% of the total yearly costs. For methodological reasons the total costs caused by schizophrenic psychoses in Germany per year can at present be estimated only roughly. A conservative estimate is between 8.5 and 18 billion DM per year. The study shows that schizophrenia is a very expensive illness, the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs of which are on the whole comparable to those of the common somatic illnesses. Therefore, also for economical reasons, sufficient financial means should be invested in the research and treatment of this severe illness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20469552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20469552"><span>Computed tomography and radiographic <span class="hlt">indirect</span> lymphography for visualization of mammary lymphatic vessels and the sentinel lymph node in normal cats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patsikas, Michail N; Papadopoulou, Paraskevi L; Charitanti, Afroditi; Kazakos, George M; Soultani, Christina B; Tziris, Nikolaos E; Tzegas, Sotirios I; Jakovljevic, Samuel; Savas, Ioannis; Stamoulas, Konstantinos G</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The potential of computed tomography <span class="hlt">indirect</span> lymphography (CT-<span class="hlt">indirect</span> lymphography) and radiographic <span class="hlt">indirect</span> lymphography to demonstrate the draining lymphatic vessels and sentinel lymph node of normal mammary glands was <span class="hlt">tested</span> in 31 healthy female cats. The lymphatic drainage of each mammary gland was studied initially by CT-<span class="hlt">indirect</span> lymphography after intramammary injection of 0.5 ml of iopamidol, followed by images acquired at 1, 5, 15, and 30 min after injection. One day after CT-<span class="hlt">indirect</span> lymphography, the lymph drainage of the mammary gland was assessed using radiographic in direct lymphography af terintramammary injection of 0.5 ml of ethiodized oil followed by radiographs made at 1, 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after injection. The time between intramammary injection and opacification of the draining mammary lymphatic vessels and the sentinel lymph node, the duration of adequate opacification of the draining mammary lymphatic vessels and of the sentinel lymph node and also the number and course of draining mammary lymphatic vessels and location of sentinel lymph node were compared for CT-<span class="hlt">indirect</span> lymphography vs. radiographic <span class="hlt">indirect</span> lymphography in each examined gland. This results suggest that radiographic <span class="hlt">indirect</span> lymphography is easy to perform and can be used for accurate demonstration of the draining lymphatic pathways of mammary glands in radiographs made at 5-30 min after injection. However, CT-<span class="hlt">indirect</span> lymphography was able to better demonstrate small lymphatic vessels and accurately define the exact topography of the sentinel lymph node in images acquired at 1 min after injection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-science-and-assessing-pesticide-risks/indirect-dietary-residential-exposure-assessment','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-science-and-assessing-pesticide-risks/indirect-dietary-residential-exposure-assessment"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Dietary Residential Exposure Assessment Model (IDREAM) Implementation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Dietary Residential Exposure Assessment Model (IDREAM) estimates <span class="hlt">indirect</span> ingestion exposure to disinfectants used in residential settings on hard surfaces where there may be inadvertent transfer to edible items prepared on those surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/467797','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/467797"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> neutralino detection rates in neutrino telescopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bergstroem, L.; Edsjoe, J.; Gondolo, P.</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>Neutralinos annihilating in the center of the Sun or the Earth may give rise to a detectable signal of neutrinos. We derive the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> detection rates for neutrino telescopes in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model. We show that even after imposing all phenomenological and experimental constraints that make the theories viable, regions of parameter space exist which can already be probed by existing neutrino telescopes. We compare with the discovery potential of supersymmetry at CERN LEP 2 as well as direct detections and point out the complementarity of the methods. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612082','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612082"><span>{sup 17}F breakup reactions: a touchstone for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>De Napoli, M.; Raciti, G.; Sfienti, C.; Capel, P.; Baye, D.; Descouvemont, P.; Sparenberg, J.-M.; Giacoppo, F.; Rapisarda, E.; Cardella, G.; Mazzocchi, C.</p> <p>2011-10-28</p> <p>An exclusive study of {sup 17}F breakup reactions has been performed at the FRIBs facility of the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania (Italy). The experiment has been performed with the aim of <span class="hlt">testing</span> the accuracy of the Coulomb-breakup <span class="hlt">indirect</span> technique used to infer radiative-capture cross sections at low energies. This technique has been used in the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B case, but has never been <span class="hlt">tested</span>. By measuring the breakup of {sup 17}F into {sup 16}O+p, and comparing the inferred cross section for {sup 16}O(p,{gamma}){sup 17}F to direct precise measurements, the influence of E2 transitions and higher-order effects, that are predicted to be significant in Coulomb-breakup reactions, can be evaluated. The first results and preliminary model comparison are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19499499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19499499"><span>[Autoantibody detection by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sack, U; Conrad, K; Csernok, E; Frank, I; Hiepe, F; Krieger, T; Kromminga, A; Landenberg, P von; Messer, G; Witte, T; Mierau, R</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Systemic autoimmune diseases are characterized by the presence of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). Diluted patient sera are typically used to screen for the presence of ANA by immunfluorescence microscopy with fixed HEp-2 cells. Despite high-quality <span class="hlt">test</span> kits, reports of different laboratories frequently present controversial results. This article recommends unified processing and interpretation of HEp-2 based screening for autoantibodies. Suggestions are made for the selection of high-quality <span class="hlt">test</span> kits, optimized processing and diagnostic procedures. In addition to a relevant clinical diagnosis and an experienced laboratory specialist, the following procedure is highly recommended to achieve good laboratory practice: Initial HEp-2 based screening by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> immunofluorescence, starting with a 1:80 serum dilution, and evaluation in a bright fluorescence microscope, pathological values from a titer of 1:160 upwards, internal quality checks and unified interpretation. We aim to improve diagnosis and care of patients with autoimmune diseases as a central focus of the European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative (EASI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2877213','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2877213"><span>Social Organization and the Transition from Direct to <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Consumption*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Axinn, William G.; Barber, Jennifer S.; Biddlecom, Ann E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new theoretical framework for the study of environmental consumption at the micro-level by building on concepts from classical sociological theory and recent macro-level studies of the environment. The framework emphasizes the local community context as an important determinant of environmental consumption. We <span class="hlt">test</span> this framework with unique micro-level data on consumption, household size, household affluence, and community context from Nepal, a setting in the midst of dramatic change in community organization, population size, and consumption behavior. The results of these <span class="hlt">tests</span> are consistent with the hypothesis that local nonfamily organizations shift the consumption of environmental resources from direct to more <span class="hlt">indirect</span>. We argue that the framework presented here is a useful early step toward more comprehensive micro-level models of environmental quality. PMID:20514347</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15896405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15896405"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> oral immunization of captive vampires, Desmodus rotundus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Almeida, Marilene F; Martorelli, Luzia F A; Aires, Caroline C; Sallum, P C; Massad, Eduardo</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>A vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus (V-RG) vaccine was <span class="hlt">tested</span> in hematophagous bats (Desmodus rotundus) kept in captivity. The vaccine was applied in a neutral vehicle (Vaseline) spread on the back of one or two vector bats, which were then reintroduced into their groups. Our hypothesis was that, as in the case of vampire bat control by vampiricide paste, the administration of V-RG vaccine through paste to one bat could <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> protect other bats from the same group. Eight groups were <span class="hlt">tested</span>. The rabies virus strain used to challenge the bats was isolated from a naturally infected hematophagous bat (Desmodus rotundus). The survival proportion after the virus challenge ranged between 42.8 and 71.4%. The results are encouraging because a significant number of bats that did not receive the vaccine survived the challenge. The vaccine was shown to be safe and immunogenic to hematophagous bats. No adverse effects to vaccinia virus were observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2397510','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2397510"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> genomic effects on survival from gene expression data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ferkingstad, Egil; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Lyng, Heidi</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In cancer, genes may have <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects on patient survival, mediated through interactions with other genes. Methods to study the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects that contribute significantly to survival are not available. We propose a novel methodology to detect and quantify <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects from gene expression data. We discover <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects through several target genes of transcription factors in cancer microarray data, pointing to genetic interactions that play a significant role in tumor progression. PMID:18358079</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec870-3640.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec870-3640.pdf"><span>21 CFR 870.3640 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> pacemaker generator...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec870-3640.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec870-3640.pdf"><span>21 CFR 870.3640 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> pacemaker generator...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec870-3640.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec870-3640.pdf"><span>21 CFR 870.3640 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> pacemaker generator...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec870-3640.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec870-3640.pdf"><span>21 CFR 870.3640 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> pacemaker generator...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec870-3640.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec870-3640.pdf"><span>21 CFR 870.3640 - <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An <span class="hlt">indirect</span> pacemaker generator...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol5-sec742-770.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol5-sec742-770.pdf"><span>48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rate agreement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Negotiated <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rate agreement. 742.770 Section 742.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Cost Rates 742.770 Negotiated <span class="hlt">indirect</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol7/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol7-sec3442-705.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol7/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol7-sec3442-705.pdf"><span>48 CFR 3442.705 - Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates. 3442.705 Section 3442.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Cost Rates 3442.705 Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol6-sec1542-705.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol6-sec1542-705.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1542.705 - Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates. 1542.705 Section 1542.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Cost Rates 1542.705 Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol5-sec1342-703-2.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol5-sec1342-703-2.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1342.703-2 - Certificate of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... costs. 1342.703-2 Section 1342.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Cost Rates 1342.703-2 Certificate of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> costs... <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates is set forth in CAM 1301.70....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol1-sec30-9.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol1-sec30-9.pdf"><span>49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or <span class="hlt">indirect</span> control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or <span class="hlt">indirect</span> control. 30.9... Citizenship: Direct or <span class="hlt">indirect</span> control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall be considered to be a citizen or national of a foreign country, or controlled directly or <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> by...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title23-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title23-vol1-sec140-907.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title23-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title23-vol1-sec140-907.pdf"><span>23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> construction costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... which assure proper control and distribution of the overhead and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> construction costs. ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Overhead and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> construction costs. 140.907... REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Railroad Work § 140.907 Overhead and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> construction costs. (a) A...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol6-sec1542-705.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol6-sec1542-705.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1542.705 - Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates. 1542.705 Section 1542.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Cost Rates 1542.705 Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates. (a) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol6-sec1542-705.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol6-sec1542-705.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1542.705 - Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates. 1542.705 Section 1542.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Cost Rates 1542.705 Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates. (a) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol6-sec1542-705.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol6-sec1542-705.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1542.705 - Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates. 1542.705 Section 1542.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Cost Rates 1542.705 Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates. (a) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol6-sec1542-705.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol6-sec1542-705.pdf"><span>48 CFR 1542.705 - Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates. 1542.705 Section 1542.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Cost Rates 1542.705 Final <span class="hlt">indirect</span> cost rates. (a) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED219426.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED219426.pdf"><span>A Method for Estimating <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Effects in Path Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wolfle, Lee M.</p> <p></p> <p>Direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects in decomposed zero-order correlations among variables in causal models are considered. Under certain circumstances, the components of the decompositions could be interpreted as direct, <span class="hlt">indirect</span>, and spurious causal effects, plus a component called joint associations. The sum of the direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects is the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25012256','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25012256"><span>The role of psychological maturity in direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggressiveness in Spanish adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morales-Vives, Fabia; Camps, Elisa; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Vigil-Colet, Andreu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Understanding which factors are related to different kinds of aggressive behaviors in adolescents might help to improve violence-prevention programs for schools and families. Although some studies show that adolescents who are less psychologically mature tend to display more behavioral problems, few studies have been performed on the relationship between aggressive behavior and psychological maturity in adolescence, and no studies have focused specifically on <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression. For this reason, the current research <span class="hlt">tests</span> the role of psychological maturity in direct and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggressiveness in a sample of 193 Spanish adolescents (49% boys and 51% girls) between 14 and 18 years old (M = 16.1, SD = 1.18). The results show that psychological maturity is related to both kinds of aggressiveness. In fact, less mature adolescents tend to show higher levels of direct aggression (r = -.22, p < .01) and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression (r = -.44, p < .01). More specifically, the dimensions of psychological maturity most related to aggressiveness are self-reliance and identity: self-reliance is the main predictor of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression (p < .01) and identity is the main predictor of direct aggression (p < .01). Moreover, overall psychological maturity is more related to <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression in men than in women (p < .05), so the increase in psychological maturity implies a greater decrease of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression in men.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15641418','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15641418"><span>SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects in simple mediation models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Preacher, Kristopher J; Hayes, Andrew F</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more functional understanding of the relationships among variables. A necessary component of mediation is a statistically and practically significant <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect. Although mediation hypotheses are frequently explored in psychological research, formal significance <span class="hlt">tests</span> of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects are rarely conducted. After a brief overview of mediation, we argue the importance of directly <span class="hlt">testing</span> the significance of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects and provide SPSS and SAS macros that facilitate estimation of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect with a normal theory approach and a bootstrap approach to obtaining confidence intervals, as well as the traditional approach advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986). We hope that this discussion and the macros will enhance the frequency of formal mediation <span class="hlt">tests</span> in the psychology literature. Electronic copies of these macros may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society's Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10151335','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10151335"><span>Bioechnology of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> liquefaction. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.</p> <p>1990-05-07</p> <p>The project on biotechnology of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the <span class="hlt">indirect</span> liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2965081','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2965081"><span>Cooperation under <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Reciprocity and Imitative Trust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors. PMID:21048950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22402621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22402621"><span>Evolutionary <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects of biological invasions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lau, Jennifer A</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Just as ecological <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects can have a wide range of consequences for community structure and ecosystem function, theory suggests that evolutionary <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effects can also influence community dynamics and the outcome of species interactions. There is little empirical evidence documenting such effects, however. Here, I use a multi-generation selection experiment in the field to investigate: (1) how the exotic plant Medicago polymorpha and the exotic insect herbivore Hypera brunneipennis affect the evolution of anti-herbivore resistance traits in the native plant Lotus wrangelianus and (2) how observed Lotus evolutionary responses to Hypera alter interactions between Lotus and other members of the herbivore community. In one of two study populations, I document rapid evolutionary changes in Lotus resistance to Hypera in response to insecticide treatments that experimentally reduced Hypera abundance, and in response to Medicago-removal treatments that also reduced Hypera abundance. These evolutionary changes in response to Hypera result in reduced attack by aphids. Thus, an evolutionary change caused by one herbivore species alters interactions with other herbivore taxa, an example of an eco-evolutionary feedback. Given that many traits mediate interactions with multiple species, the effects of evolutionary changes in response to one key biotic selective agent may often cascade through interaction webs to influence additional community members.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..82c6111U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..82c6111U"><span>Effect of private information on <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uchida, Satoshi</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> reciprocity is one of the key mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation. It relies on mutual monitoring and assessments, i.e., individuals collect information about the past behavior of others and judge whether that behavior is “good” or “bad.” A player will not be helped if labeled with a bad image. There are many ways for assessing others, each of which can be interpreted as an elementary form of a moral sense (i.e., a view on what is good or bad). The information can be either public or private: private information can lead to mismatches between the opinions of individuals even when they share the same moral sense. In this paper, the effect of private information on the best-known assessment rules is investigated. In order to calculate payoffs, the concept of an image matrix is introduced. It describes who is good in the eyes of whom, and its time evolution is given by a probabilistic Boolean automaton. In contrast to the public information case, private information leads to the collapse of the sterner assessment rule. Alternatively, stable polymorphisms may subsist, with the milder rule and a more simple-minded rule coexisting together with unconditional cooperators; thus, cooperation can be sustained by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity even in the absence of public information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21230143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21230143"><span>Effect of private information on <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uchida, Satoshi</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> reciprocity is one of the key mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation. It relies on mutual monitoring and assessments, i.e., individuals collect information about the past behavior of others and judge whether that behavior is "good" or "bad." A player will not be helped if labeled with a bad image. There are many ways for assessing others, each of which can be interpreted as an elementary form of a moral sense (i.e., a view on what is good or bad). The information can be either public or private: private information can lead to mismatches between the opinions of individuals even when they share the same moral sense. In this paper, the effect of private information on the best-known assessment rules is investigated. In order to calculate payoffs, the concept of an image matrix is introduced. It describes who is good in the eyes of whom, and its time evolution is given by a probabilistic Boolean automaton. In contrast to the public information case, private information leads to the collapse of the sterner assessment rule. Alternatively, stable polymorphisms may subsist, with the milder rule and a more simple-minded rule coexisting together with unconditional cooperators; thus, cooperation can be sustained by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> reciprocity even in the absence of public information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5363933','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5363933"><span>Improving HybrID: How to best combine <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct encoding in evolutionary algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Helms, Lucas; Clune, Jeff</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Many challenging engineering problems are regular, meaning solutions to one part of a problem can be reused to solve other parts. Evolutionary algorithms with <span class="hlt">indirect</span> encoding perform better on regular problems because they reuse genomic information to create regular phenotypes. However, on problems that are mostly regular, but contain some irregularities, which describes most real-world problems, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> encodings struggle to handle the irregularities, hurting performance. Direct encodings are better at producing irregular phenotypes, but cannot exploit regularity. An algorithm called HybrID combines the best of both: it first evolves with <span class="hlt">indirect</span> encoding to exploit problem regularity, then switches to direct encoding to handle problem irregularity. While HybrID has been shown to outperform both <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct encoding, its initial implementation required the manual specification of when to switch from <span class="hlt">indirect</span> to direct encoding. In this paper, we <span class="hlt">test</span> two new methods to improve HybrID by eliminating the need to manually specify this parameter. Auto-Switch-HybrID automatically switches from <span class="hlt">indirect</span> to direct encoding when fitness stagnates. Offset-HybrID simultaneously evolves an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> encoding with directly encoded offsets, eliminating the need to switch. We compare the original HybrID to these alternatives on three different problems with adjustable regularity. The results show that both Auto-Switch-HybrID and Offset-HybrID outperform the original HybrID on different types of problems, and thus offer more tools for researchers to solve challenging problems. The Offset-HybrID algorithm is particularly interesting because it suggests a path forward for automatically and simultaneously combining the best traits of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct encoding. PMID:28334002</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28334002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28334002"><span>Improving HybrID: How to best combine <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct encoding in evolutionary algorithms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Helms, Lucas; Clune, Jeff</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Many challenging engineering problems are regular, meaning solutions to one part of a problem can be reused to solve other parts. Evolutionary algorithms with <span class="hlt">indirect</span> encoding perform better on regular problems because they reuse genomic information to create regular phenotypes. However, on problems that are mostly regular, but contain some irregularities, which describes most real-world problems, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> encodings struggle to handle the irregularities, hurting performance. Direct encodings are better at producing irregular phenotypes, but cannot exploit regularity. An algorithm called HybrID combines the best of both: it first evolves with <span class="hlt">indirect</span> encoding to exploit problem regularity, then switches to direct encoding to handle problem irregularity. While HybrID has been shown to outperform both <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct encoding, its initial implementation required the manual specification of when to switch from <span class="hlt">indirect</span> to direct encoding. In this paper, we <span class="hlt">test</span> two new methods to improve HybrID by eliminating the need to manually specify this parameter. Auto-Switch-HybrID automatically switches from <span class="hlt">indirect</span> to direct encoding when fitness stagnates. Offset-HybrID simultaneously evolves an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> encoding with directly encoded offsets, eliminating the need to switch. We compare the original HybrID to these alternatives on three different problems with adjustable regularity. The results show that both Auto-Switch-HybrID and Offset-HybrID outperform the original HybrID on different types of problems, and thus offer more tools for researchers to solve challenging problems. The Offset-HybrID algorithm is particularly interesting because it suggests a path forward for automatically and simultaneously combining the best traits of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct encoding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PNAS..11212264F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PNAS..11212264F"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> detection of dark matter with γ rays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Funk, Stefan</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The details of what constitutes the majority of the mass that makes up dark matter in the Universe remains one of the prime puzzles of cosmology and particle physics today - eighty years after the first observational indications. Today, it is widely accepted that dark matter exists and that it is very likely composed of elementary particles - that are weakly interacting and massive (WIMPs for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). As important as dark matter is in our understanding of cosmology, the detection of these particles has so far been elusive. Their primary properties such as mass and interaction cross sections are still unknown. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> detection searches for the products of WIMP annihilation or decay. This is generally done through observations of gamma-ray photons or cosmic rays. Instruments such as the Fermi-LAT, H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS, combined with the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will provide important and complementary constraints to other search techniques. Given the expected sensitivities of all search techniques, we are at a stage where the WIMP scenario is facing stringent <span class="hlt">tests</span> and it can be expected that WIMPs will be either be detected or the scenario will be so severely constrained that it will have to be re-thought. In this sense we are on the "Threshold of Discovery". In this article, I will give a general overview over the current status and the future expectations for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> searches for dark matter (WIMP) particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24821791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24821791"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> detection of dark matter with γ rays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Funk, Stefan</p> <p>2015-10-06</p> <p>The details of what constitutes the majority of the mass that makes up dark matter in the Universe remains one of the prime puzzles of cosmology and particle physics today-80 y after the first observational indications. Today, it is widely accepted that dark matter exists and that it is very likely composed of elementary particles, which are weakly interacting and massive [weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)]. As important as dark matter is in our understanding of cosmology, the detection of these particles has thus far been elusive. Their primary properties such as mass and interaction cross sections are still unknown. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> detection searches for the products of WIMP annihilation or decay. This is generally done through observations of γ-ray photons or cosmic rays. Instruments such as the Fermi large-area telescope, high-energy stereoscopic system, major atmospheric gamma-ray imaging Cherenkov, and very energetic radiation imaging telescope array, combined with the future Cherenkov telescope array, will provide important complementarity to other search techniques. Given the expected sensitivities of all search techniques, we are at a stage where the WIMP scenario is facing stringent <span class="hlt">tests</span>, and it can be expected that WIMPs will be either be detected or the scenario will be so severely constrained that it will have to be rethought. In this sense, we are on the threshold of discovery. In this article, I will give a general overview of the current status and future expectations for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> searches of dark matter (WIMP) particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28167412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28167412"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> effects of trait impulsivity on body mass.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meule, Adrian; Blechert, Jens</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Trait impulsivity has been suggested as a risk factor for weight gain. However, it is implausible that a construct that does not cover energy intake or expenditure affects fat mass directly. Instead, it is likely that eating-related variables mediate the effect of impulsivity on body mass. In the current study, a serial mediation model <span class="hlt">tested</span> two eating-related variables (trait food craving and perceived self-regulatory success in weight regulation) as mediators of the relationship between trait impulsivity and body mass. Participants (n=432, 88% female, 79% students) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - short form, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced, and the Perceived Self-Regulatory Success in Dieting Scale (PSRS), in addition to providing sociodemographic and anthropometric data. Trait impulsivity did not correlate with body mass index (BMI), but was <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> related to BMI via food cravings and PSRS scores. Specifically, higher impulsivity predicted more frequent food cravings, which in turn predicted lower perceived self-regulatory success in eating and weight regulation, which in turn predicted higher BMI. Findings suggest possible mechanisms that mediate the association between impulsivity and BMI. Importantly, they show that impulsivity can <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> affect BMI via eating-related variables, even in the absence of a total effect. Longitudinal studies are needed that support these assumed causal directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4603508','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4603508"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> detection of dark matter with γ rays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Funk, Stefan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The details of what constitutes the majority of the mass that makes up dark matter in the Universe remains one of the prime puzzles of cosmology and particle physics today—80 y after the first observational indications. Today, it is widely accepted that dark matter exists and that it is very likely composed of elementary particles, which are weakly interacting and massive [weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)]. As important as dark matter is in our understanding of cosmology, the detection of these particles has thus far been elusive. Their primary properties such as mass and interaction cross sections are still unknown. <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> detection searches for the products of WIMP annihilation or decay. This is generally done through observations of γ-ray photons or cosmic rays. Instruments such as the Fermi large-area telescope, high-energy stereoscopic system, major atmospheric gamma-ray imaging Cherenkov, and very energetic radiation imaging telescope array, combined with the future Cherenkov telescope array, will provide important complementarity to other search techniques. Given the expected sensitivities of all search techniques, we are at a stage where the WIMP scenario is facing stringent <span class="hlt">tests</span>, and it can be expected that WIMPs will be either be detected or the scenario will be so severely constrained that it will have to be rethought. In this sense, we are on the threshold of discovery. In this article, I will give a general overview of the current status and future expectations for <span class="hlt">indirect</span> searches of dark matter (WIMP) particles. PMID:24821791</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20020371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20020371"><span>The athlete's biological passport and <span class="hlt">indirect</span> markers of blood doping.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In the fight against doping, disciplinary sanctions have up to now been primarily based on the discovery of an exogenous substance in a biological fluid of the athlete. However, <span class="hlt">indirect</span> markers of altered erythropoiesis can provide enough evidence to differentiate between natural variations and blood doping. Forensic techniques for the evaluation of the evidence, and more particularly Bayesian networks, allow antidoping authorities to take into account firstly the natural variations of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> markers - through a mathematical formalism based on probabilities - and secondly the complexity due to the multiplicity of causes and confounding effects - through a distributed and flexible graphical representation. The information stored in an athlete's biological passport may be then sufficient to launch a disciplinary procedure against the athlete. The strength of the passport is that it relies on a statistical approach based on sound empirical <span class="hlt">testing</span> on large populations and justifiable protocols. Interestingly, its introduction coincides with the paradigm shift that is materializing today in forensic identification science, from archaic assumptions of absolute certainty and perfection to a more defensible empirical and probabilistic foundation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27008107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27008107"><span>Social Support <span class="hlt">Indirectly</span> Predicts Problem Drinking Through Reduced Psychological Distress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Segrin, Chris; McNelis, Melissa; Swiatkowski, Paulina</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The experience of psychological distress can contribute to problem drinking in young adults. Social support can protect against the development of distress and thus may <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> minimize problem drinking. To <span class="hlt">test</span> a model of problem drinking in young adults based on the concepts of social support and psychological distress. A two-wave panel study was conducted over the course of one year, during 2014-15, with 211 university students (M age = 21.06 years, SD = 1.60 years) who completed online survey measures of problem drinking, various indicators of social support, and various indicators of psychological distress. The data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. After controlling for concurrent problem drinking and psychological distress, there was no direct prospective effect of social support on problem drinking. However, social support predicted reductions in psychological distress over time, and this reduced psychological distress predicted reductions in problem drinking over time. Therefore, social support exhibited a significant <span class="hlt">indirect</span> effect on problem drinking. Social support from friends, emotional support, and informational support combine to form a protective factor that mitigates the risk of problem drinking in young adults through reduced psychological distress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26545161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26545161"><span><span class="hlt">Indirectly</span> Encoding Running and Jumping Sodarace Creatures for Artificial Life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szerlip, Paul; Stanley, Kenneth O</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article presents a lightweight platform for evolving two-dimensional artificial creatures. The aim of providing such a platform is to reduce the barrier to entry for researchers interested in evolving creatures for artificial life experiments. In effect the novel platform, which is inspired by the Sodarace construction set, makes it easy to set up creative scenarios that <span class="hlt">test</span> the abilities of Sodarace-like creatures made of masses and springs. In this way it allows the researcher to focus on evolutionary algorithms and dynamics. The new <span class="hlt">indirectly</span> encoded Sodarace (IESoR) system introduced in this article extends the original Sodarace by enabling the evolution of significantly more complex and regular creature morphologies. These morphologies are themselves encoded by compositional pattern-producing networks (CPPNs), an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> encoding previously shown effective at encoding regularities and symmetries in structure. The capability of this lightweight system to facilitate research in artificial life is then demonstrated through both walking and jumping domains, in which IESoR discovers a wide breadth of strategies through novelty search with local competition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology+AND+age+AND+Media&pg=6&id=EJ730754','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology+AND+age+AND+Media&pg=6&id=EJ730754"><span>Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent <span class="hlt">Indirect</span> Aggression?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing <span class="hlt">indirect</span> and direct aggression on subsequent <span class="hlt">indirect</span> aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20161657','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20161657"><span>Social cognition of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> speech: Evidence from Parkinson's Disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McNamara, Patrick; Holtgraves, Thomas; Durso, Raymon; Harris, Erica</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We examined potential neurocognitive mechanisms of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> speech in support of face management in 28 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 32 elderly controls with chronic disease. In experiment 1, we demonstrated automatic activation of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> meanings of particularized implicatures in controls but not in PD patients. Failure to automatically engage comprehension of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> meanings of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> speech acts in PD patients was correlated with a measure of prefrontal dysfunction. In experiment 2, we showed that while PD patients and controls offered similar interpretations of <span class="hlt">indirect</span> speech acts, PD participants were overly confident in their interpretations and unaware of errors of interpretation. Efficient reputational adjustment mechanisms apparently require intact striatal-prefrontal networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18967573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18967573"><span>Determination of fosfomycin by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> spectrophotometric method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Y L; Feng, Y Q; Zhang, Q H; Da, S L</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) is a sensitive photometric reagent for determination of zirconium, when fosfomycin is added, it can quantitatively replace 5-Br-PADAP by complexing with zirconium, thus, an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> spectrophotometric method based on ligand exchange has been established. The detection wavelength is at 605 nm, and the apparent molar absorption coefficient was found to be 4.59x10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1). Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 0-28x10(-6) M. The composition and stability constant of zirconium with 5-Br-PADAP and with fosfomycin has also been estimated. The proposed method is simple and reproducible, it was applicable to the analysis of fosfomycin from pharmaceutical manufacture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/88716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/88716"><span>Organic waste destruction by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> electrooxidation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Leffrang, U.; Ebert, K.; Flory, K.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>The destruction of organic model substances by <span class="hlt">indirect</span> electrooxidation was investigated. The oxidation agent Co(III) was used because of the high redox potential of the Co(III)/Co(II) redox couple (E{sub O}=1.808 V). Experiments were performed in a batch and in a continuous electrolytic cell by using various model substances (especially phenol and different chlorophenols). Intermediate and final products of the oxidation were identified and quantified. Organic carbon is ultimately transformed to CO{sub 2} and to small amounts of CO. The residual carbon in the process solution was determined by TOC measurement to be about 20 ppm. Organic chlorine is oxidized via chlorate to perchlorate. The remaining amount of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) was less than 3 ppm. Based on these results, a pilot plant was constructed and is presently in operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215829','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215829"><span><span class="hlt">Indirect</span> evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron</p> <p>2015-09-22</p> <p>A separator plate assembly for use in an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780011866&hterms=pea&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dpea','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780011866&hterms=pea&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dpea"><span>The <span class="hlt">indirect</span> binary n-cube array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pease, M. C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The array is built from a large number (hundreds or thousands) of microprocessors or microcomputers linked through a switching network into an <span class="hlt">indirect</span> binary n-cube array. Control is two level, the array operating synchronously, or in lock step, at the higher level, and with the broadcast commands being locally interpreted into rewritable microinstruction streams in the microprocessors and in the switch control units. The key to the design is the switching array. By properly programming it, the array can be made into a wide variety of virtual arrays which are well adapted to a wide range of applications. It is believed that the flexibility of the switching array can be used to obtain fault avoidance, which appears necessary in any highly parallel design.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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