Science.gov

Sample records for indirect recognition pathway

  1. Indirect readout in protein-peptide recognition: a different story from classical biomolecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua; Zhou, Peng; Deng, Maolin; Shang, Zhicai

    2014-07-28

    Protein-peptide interactions are prevalent and play essential roles in many living activities. Peptides recognize their protein partners by direct nonbonded interactions and indirect adjustment of conformations. Although processes of protein-peptide recognition have been comprehensively studied in both sequences and structures recently, flexibility of peptides and the configuration entropy penalty in recognition did not get enough attention. In this study, 20 protein-peptide complexes and their corresponding unbound peptides were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Energy analysis revealed that configurational entropy penalty introduced by restriction of the degrees of freedom of peptides in indirect readout process of protein-peptide recognition is significant. Configurational entropy penalty has become the main content of the indirect readout energy in protein-peptide recognition instead of deformation energy which is the main source of the indirect readout energy in classical biomolecular recognition phenomena, such as protein-DNA binding. These results provide us a better understanding of protein-peptide recognition and give us some implications in peptide ligand design.

  2. An indirect basal ganglia pathway in anuran amphibians?

    PubMed

    Maier, Silke; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Luksch, Harald; Endepols, Heike

    2010-09-01

    The mammalian subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a glutamatergic cell group within the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. It receives input from the external globus pallidus (GP) and in turn projects to the internal GP and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). While the direct pathway from striatum to SNr is well established in anurans, it is unknown whether they possess an indirect pathway including a STN homologue. The subthalamic region comprises the dorsocaudal suprachiasmatic nucleus (dcSC), the posterior entopeduncular nucleus (EP), and the ventral part of the ventral thalamus (vVM/VL). In the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis we investigated whether one of these areas match the criteria established for the mammalian STN. We delineated the SNr in the midbrain tegmentum by labeling the striatonigral terminal field by means of GABA-, substance P-, and enkephalin immunohistochemistry and striatal tracer injections. Subsequently, we used double fluorescence tracing with injections into the SNr and GP to stain different parts of the indirect pathway. Confocal laser scan analysis revealed that dcSC, EP, and vVM/VL contain retrogradely labeled neurons projecting to the SNr, contacted by anterogradely labeled terminals arising in the GP. Immunohistochemical stainings with antibodies against glutamate and the glutamate transporters EAAC1 and vGluT2 demonstrated that the investigated nuclei contain glutamatergic neurons. Our results suggest that all regions in the subthalamic region fulfill our morphological criteria, except the connection back to the GP. An indirect basal ganglia pathway seems to be present in anuran amphibians, although we cannot exclusively delineate an STN homologue.

  3. Direct and indirect dorsolateral striatum pathways reinforce different action strategies.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Ana M; Galvão-Ferreira, Pedro; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Costa, Rui M

    2016-04-01

    The basal ganglia, and the striatum in particular, are critical for action reinforcement [1,2]. The dorsal striatum, which can be further subdivided into dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral (DLS) striatum, is mainly composed of two subpopulations of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs): dopamine D1 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatonigral or direct pathway (dMSNs); and dopamine D2 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatopallidal or indirect pathway (iMSNs) [3]. It has been suggested that each pathway has opposing roles in reinforcement, with dMSNs being important to learn positive reinforcement and iMSNs to learn to avoid undesired actions (Go/No-Go) [1]. Furthermore, optogenetic self-stimulation of dMSNs in DMS leads to reinforcement of actions, while self-stimulation of iMSNs leads to avoidance of actions [2]. However, in DLS, which has been implicated in the consolidation of well-trained actions and habits in mice [4,5], both pathways are active during lever-pressing for reward [6]. Furthermore, extensive skill training leads to long-lasting potentiation of glutamatergic inputs into both dMSNs and iMSNs [4]. We report here that, in DLS, both dMSNs and iMSNs are involved in positive reinforcement, but support different action strategies. PMID:27046807

  4. [Detection of implicit memory for hard-to-encode tone sequences using an indirect recognition procedure].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Ayaka; Terasawa, Takafumi

    2010-10-01

    Two experiments, using an indirect recognition procedure (Terasawa & Ohta, 1993) as an implicit memory task, were conducted to examine implicit memory for random tone sequences. The indirect recognition procedure involved two sessions. The second session was a general recognition experiment consisting of learning and a recognition test phase. The effects of the learning during the first session were examined based on the recognition performance in the second session. The interval between the sessions was 10 weeks for experiment 1 and 8 weeks for experiment 2. In each session, participants were required to rate their liking for each of the sequences presented. In the second session, participants were required to respond to an old-new recognition test about the items just presented. The targets and distractors in the test consisted of stimuli presented or not presented in the first session. Analyses of the hits and false alarms showed an effect of the number of presentations in the first session. This result indicates an effect of long lasting implicit memory for tone sequences.

  5. False recognition of objects in visual scenes: findings from a combined direct and indirect memory test.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Nash, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    We report an extension of the procedure devised by Weinstein and Shanks (Memory & Cognition 36:1415-1428, 2008) to study false recognition and priming of pictures. Participants viewed scenes with multiple embedded objects (seen items), then studied the names of these objects and the names of other objects (read items). Finally, participants completed a combined direct (recognition) and indirect (identification) memory test that included seen items, read items, and new items. In the direct test, participants recognized pictures of seen and read items more often than new pictures. In the indirect test, participants' speed at identifying those same pictures was improved for pictures that they had actually studied, and also for falsely recognized pictures whose names they had read. These data provide new evidence that a false-memory induction procedure can elicit memory-like representations that are difficult to distinguish from "true" memories of studied pictures.

  6. [Distinct roles of the direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia circuit mechanism].

    PubMed

    Morita, Makiko; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2015-11-01

    The basal ganglia are key neural substrates that control not only motor balance but also emotion, motivation, cognition, learning, and decision-making. Dysfunction of the basal ganglia leads to neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease) and psychiatric disorders (e.g. drug addiction, schizophrenia, and depression). In the basal ganglia circuit, there are two important pathways: the direct and indirect striatal pathways. Recently, new molecular techniques that activate or inactive selectively the direct or indirect pathway neurons have revealed the function of each pathway. Here we review the distinct roles of the direct and indirect striatal pathways in brain function and drug addiction. We have developed a reversible neurotransmission blocking technique, in which transmission of each pathway is selectively blocked by specific expression of transmission-blocking tetanus toxin, and revealed that the activation of D1 receptors in the direct pathway is critical for reward learning/cocaine addiction, and that the inactivation of D2 receptors is critical for aversive learning/learning flexibility. We propose a new circuit mechanism by which the dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area can switch the direct and indirect pathways in the nucleus accumbens. These basal ganglia circuit mechanisms will give us insights into the pathophysiology of mental diseases. PMID:26785520

  7. Bidirectional Plasticity in Striatonigral Synapses: A Switch to Balance Direct and Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aceves, Jose J.; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernandez-Martinez, Ricardo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2011-01-01

    There is no hypothesis to explain how direct and indirect basal ganglia (BG) pathways interact to reach a balance during the learning of motor procedures. Both pathways converge in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) carrying the result of striatal processing. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity in striatonigral…

  8. The indirect pathway of the nucleus accumbens shell amplifies neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenjie; Centeno, Maria Virginia; Berger, Sara; Wu, Ying; Na, Xiaodong; Liu, Xianguo; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Apkarian, A Vania; Martina, Marco; Surmeier, D James

    2016-01-01

    We examined adaptations in nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons in mouse and rat peripheral nerve injury models of neuropathic pain. Injury selectively increased excitability of NAc shell indirect pathway spiny projection neurons (iSPNs) and altered their synaptic connectivity. Moreover, injury-induced tactile allodynia was reversed by inhibiting and exacerbated by exciting iSPNs, indicating that they not only participated in the central representation of pain, but gated activity in ascending nociceptive pathways. PMID:26691834

  9. Role of the Indirect Pathway of the Basal Ganglia in Perceptual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Rubin, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) play an important role in motor control, reinforcement learning, and perceptual decision making. Modeling and experimental evidence suggest that, in a speed–accuracy tradeoff, the corticostriatal pathway can adaptively adjust a decision threshold (the amount of information needed to make a choice). In this study, we go beyond the focus of previous works on the direct and hyperdirect pathways to examine the contribution of the indirect pathway of the BG system to decision making in a biophysically based spiking network model. We find that the mechanism of adjusting the decision threshold by plasticity of the corticostriatal connections is effective, provided that the indirect pathway counterbalances the direct pathway in their projections to the output nucleus. Furthermore, in our model, changes within basal ganglia connections similar to those that arise in parkinsonism give rise to strong beta oscillations. Specifically, beta oscillations are produced by an abnormal enhancement of the interactions between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external segment of globus pallidus (GPe) in the indirect pathway, with an oscillation frequency that depends on the excitatory cortical input to the STN and the inhibitory input to the GPe from the striatum. In a parkinsonian state characterized by pronounced beta oscillations, the mean reaction time and range of threshold variation (a measure of behavioral flexibility) are significantly reduced compared with the normal state. Our work thus reveals a specific circuit mechanism for impairments of perceptual decision making associated with Parkinson's disease. PMID:25740532

  10. Competition between direct and indirect dissociation pathways in ultraviolet photodissociation of HNCO.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengrui; Su, Shu; Dorenkamp, Yvonne; Wodtke, Alec M; Dai, Dongxu; Yuan, Kaijun; Yang, Xueming

    2013-11-21

    Photodissociation dynamics of HNCO at photolysis wavelengths between 200 and 240 nm have been studied using the H-atom Rydberg tagging time-of-flight technique. Product translational energy distributions and angular distributions have been determined. At low photon energy excitation, the product translational energy distribution is nearly statistical and the angular distribution is isotropic, which is consistent with an indirect dissociation mechanism, i.e., internal conversion from S1 to S0 surface and dissociation on S0 surface. As the photon energy increases, a direct dissociation pathway on S1 surface opens up. The product translational energy distribution appears to be quite nonstatistical and the product angular distribution is anisotropic. The fraction of direct dissociation pathway is determined to be 36 ± 5% at 202.67 nm photolysis. Vibrational structures are observed in both direct and indirect dissociation pathways, which can be assigned to the NCO bending mode excitation with some stretching excitation. PMID:23496141

  11. Direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways: shared ideas but different functions in motor control

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Juan; Azim, Eiman; Ekerot, Carl-Fredrik; Alstermark, Bror

    2015-01-01

    The impressive precision of mammalian limb movements relies on internal feedback pathways that convey information about ongoing motor output to cerebellar circuits. The spino-cerebellar tracts (SCT) in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord have long been considered canonical neural substrates for the conveyance of internal feedback signals. Here we consider the distinct features of an indirect spino-cerebellar route, via the brainstem lateral reticular nucleus (LRN), and the implications of this pre-cerebellar “detour” for the execution and evolution of limb motor control. Both direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways signal spinal interneuronal activity to the cerebellum during movements, but evidence suggests that direct SCT neurons are mainly modulated by rhythmic activity, whereas the LRN also receives information from systems active during postural adjustment, reaching and grasping. Thus, while direct and indirect spino-cerebellar circuits can both be regarded as internal copy pathways, it seems likely that the direct system is principally dedicated to rhythmic motor acts like locomotion, while the indirect system also provides a means of pre-cerebellar integration relevant to the execution and coordination of dexterous limb movements. PMID:26217214

  12. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n=917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  13. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  14. In situ TEM imaging of CaCO₃ nucleation reveals coexistence of direct and indirect pathways.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Michael H; Aloni, Shaul; De Yoreo, James J

    2014-09-01

    Mechanisms of nucleation from electrolyte solutions have been debated for more than a century. Recent discoveries of amorphous precursors and evidence for cluster aggregation and liquid-liquid separation contradict common assumptions of classical nucleation theory. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to explore calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nucleation in a cell that enables reagent mixing, we demonstrate that multiple nucleation pathways are simultaneously operative, including formation both directly from solution and indirectly through transformation of amorphous and crystalline precursors. However, an amorphous-to-calcite transformation is not observed. The behavior of amorphous calcium carbonate upon dissolution suggests that it encompasses a spectrum of structures, including liquids and solids. These observations of competing direct and indirect pathways are consistent with classical predictions, whereas the behavior of amorphous particles hints at an underlying commonality among recently proposed precursor-based mechanisms. PMID:25190792

  15. Direct vs. indirect pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis as a function of glucose infusion rate

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, G.J.; Lang, C.H.; Johnson, J.L.; Blakesly, H.L.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1986-03-05

    This study was initiated to determine the influence of the rate of exogenous glucose administration on liver glycogen synthesis by the direct (glucose uptake and incorporation into glycogen) vs the indirect pathway (glucose degradation to 3-carbon intermediates, e.g., lactate, prior to incorporation into glycogen). Catheterized rats were fasted 2 days prior to receiving a 3 hr infusion of glucose at rates of 0 to 230 ..mu..mol/min/kg containing tracer (6-/sup 3/H)- and (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose. Plasma glucose (r = 0.80), insulin (r = 0.90) and lactate (r = 0.84) were correlated with glucose infusion rate. The rate of liver glycogen deposition (0.46 +/- 0.03 ..mu..mol/min/g) did not differ between a glucose infusion rate of 20 and 230 ..mu..mol/min/kg. At the lowest and highest glucose infusion rates hepatic glycogenesis accounted for 87 +/- 6 and 9 +/- 1% of the total glucose load, respectively. The percent contribution of the direct pathways to glycogen deposition ((/sup 3/H) specific activity in hepatic glycogen/(/sup 3/H) specific activity in plasma glucose) increased from 16 +/- 3 to 83 +/- 5% from lowest to highest glucose infusion rates (prevailing plasma glucose concentrations: 9 +/- 1 and 21 +/- 2 mM, respectively). The results indicate that the relative contribution of the direct and indirect pathways of glucogen synthesis are dependent upon the glucose load or plasma glucose concentration.

  16. Different Roles of Direct and Indirect Frontoparietal Pathways for Individual Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Matthias; Fiebach, Christian J; Melzer, Corina; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Derrfuss, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in working memory is a hallmark of human intelligence and differs considerably across individuals, but the structural brain correlates underlying these differences in working memory capacity (WMC) are only poorly understood. In two separate studies, diffusion MRI data and WMC scores were collected for 70 and 109 healthy individuals. Using a combination of probabilistic tractography and network analysis of the white matter tracts, we examined whether structural brain network properties were predictive of individual WMC. Converging evidence from both studies showed that lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex of high-capacity individuals are more densely connected compared with low-capacity individuals. Importantly, our network approach was further able to dissociate putative functional roles associated with two different pathways connecting frontal and parietal regions: a corticocortical pathway and a subcortical pathway. In Study 1, where participants were required to maintain and update working memory items, the connectivity of the direct and indirect pathway was predictive of WMC. In contrast, in Study 2, where participants were required to maintain working memory items without updating, only the connectivity of the direct pathway was predictive of individual WMC. Our results suggest an important dissociation in the circuitry connecting frontal and parietal regions, where direct frontoparietal connections might support storage and maintenance, whereas subcortically mediated connections support the flexible updating of working memory content.

  17. Donor-specific indirect pathway analysis reveals a B-cell-independent signature which reflects outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Haynes, L D; Jankowska-Gan, E; Sheka, A; Keller, M R; Hernandez-Fuentes, M P; Lechler, R I; Seyfert-Margolis, V; Turka, L A; Newell, K A; Burlingham, W J

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the role of donor-specific indirect pathway T cells in renal transplant tolerance, we analyzed responses in peripheral blood of 45 patients using the trans-vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Subjects were enrolled into five groups-identical twin, clinically tolerant (TOL), steroid monotherapy (MONO), standard immunosuppression (SI) and chronic rejection (CR)-based on transplant type, posttransplant immunosuppression and graft function. The indirect pathway was active in all groups except twins but distinct intergroup differences were evident, corresponding to clinical status. The antidonor indirect pathway T effector response increased across patient groups (TOL < MONO < SI < CR; p < 0.0001) whereas antidonor indirect pathway T regulatory response decreased (TOL > MONO = SI > CR; p < 0.005). This pattern differed from that seen in circulating naïve B-cell numbers and in a cross-platform biomarker analysis, where patients on monotherapy were not ranked closest to TOL patients, but rather were indistinguishable from chronically rejecting patients. Cross-sectional analysis of the indirect pathway revealed a spectrum in T-regulatory:T-effector balance, ranging from TOL patients having predominantly regulatory responses to CR patients having predominantly effector responses. Therefore, the indirect pathway measurements reflect a distinct aspect of tolerance from the recently reported elevation of circulating naïve B cells, which was apparent only in recipients off immunosuppression. PMID:22151236

  18. Evidence for "direct" and "indirect" pathways through the song system basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Farries, Michael A; Ding, Long; Perkel, David J

    2005-03-28

    Song learning in oscine birds relies on a circuit known as the "anterior forebrain pathway," which includes a specialized region of the avian basal ganglia. This region, area X, is embedded within a telencephalic structure considered homologous to the striatum, the input structure of the mammalian basal ganglia. Area X has many features in common with the mammalian striatum, yet has distinctive traits, including largely aspiny projection neurons that directly innervate the thalamus and a cell type that physiologically resembles neurons recorded in the mammalian globus pallidus. We have proposed that area X is a mixture of striatum and globus pallidus and has the same functional organization as circuits in the mammalian basal ganglia. Using electrophysiological and anatomical approaches, we found that area X contains a functional analog of the "direct" striatopallidothalamic pathway of mammals: axons of the striatal spiny neurons make close contacts on the somata and dendrites of pallidal cells. A subset of pallidal neurons project directly to the thalamus. Surprisingly, we found evidence that many pallidal cells may not project to the thalamus, but rather participate in a functional analog of the mammalian "indirect" pathway, which may oppose the effects of the direct pathway. Our results deepen our understanding of how information flows through area X and provide more support for the notion that song learning in oscines employs physiological mechanisms similar to basal ganglia-dependent forms of motor learning in mammals. PMID:15717304

  19. Claudin-7 indirectly regulates the integrin/FAK signaling pathway in human colon cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lei; Wang, Liyong; Sui, Leiming; Zhao, Huanying; Xu, Xiaoxue; Li, Tengyan; Wang, Xiaonan; Li, Wenjing; Zhou, Ping; Kong, Lu

    2016-08-01

    The claudin family of proteins is integral to the structure and function of tight junctions. The role of claudin-7 (Cldn-7, CLDN7) in regulating the integrin/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/ERK signaling pathway remains poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated differences in gene expression, primarily focusing on CLDN7 and integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway genes, between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissues. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to verify the results of mRNA and protein expression, respectively. In silico analysis was used to predict co-regulation between Cldn-7 and integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway components, and the STRING database was used to analyze protein-protein interaction pairs among these proteins. Meta-analysis of expression microarrays in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used to identify significant correlations between Cldn-7 and components of predicted genes in the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway. Our results showed marked cancer stage-specific decreases in the protein expression of Cldn-7, Gelsolin, MAPK1 and MAPK3 in colon cancer samples, and the observed changes for all proteins except Cldn-7 were in agreement with changes in the corresponding mRNA levels. Cldn-7 might indirectly regulate MAPK3 via KRT8 due to KRT8 co-expression with MAPK3 or CLDN7. Our bioinformatics methods supported the hypothesis that Cldn-7 does not directly regulate any genes in the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway. These factors may participate in a common network that regulates cancer progression in which the MAPK pathway serves as the central node.

  20. Direct vs. indirect pathway for nitrobenzene reduction reaction on a Ni catalyst surface: a density functional study.

    PubMed

    Mahata, Arup; Rai, Rohit K; Choudhuri, Indrani; Singh, Sanjay K; Pathak, Biswarup

    2014-12-21

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to understand and address the previous experimental results that showed the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline prefers direct over indirect reaction pathways irrespective of the catalyst surface. Nitrobenzene to aniline conversion occurs via the hydroxyl amine intermediate (direct pathway) or via the azoxybenzene intermediate (indirect pathway). Through our computational study we calculated the spin polarized and dispersion corrected reaction energies and activation barriers corresponding to various reaction pathways for the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline over a Ni catalyst surface. The adsorption behaviour of the substrate, nitrobenzene, on the catalyst surface was also considered and the energetically most preferable structural orientation was elucidated. Our study indicates that the parallel adsorption behaviour of the molecules over a catalyst surface is preferable over vertical adsorption behaviour. Based on the reaction energies and activation barrier of the various elementary steps involved in direct or indirect reaction pathways, we find that the direct reduction pathway of nitrobenzene over the Ni(111) catalyst surface is more favourable than the indirect reaction pathway. PMID:25367892

  1. Modeling the role of basal ganglia in saccade generation: is the indirect pathway the explorer?

    PubMed

    Krishnan, R; Ratnadurai, S; Subramanian, D; Chakravarthy, V S; Rengaswamy, M

    2011-10-01

    We model the role played by the Basal Ganglia (BG) in the generation of voluntary saccadic eye movements. The BG model explicitly represents key nuclei like the striatum (caudate), Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and compata (SNc), the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN), the two pallidal nuclei and Superior Colliculus. The model is cast within the Reinforcement Learning (RL) framework, with the dopamine representing the temporal difference error, the striatum serving as the critic, and the indirect pathway playing the role of the explorer. Performance of the model is evaluated on a set of tasks such as feature and conjunction searches, directional selectivity and a successive saccade task. Behavioral phenomena such as independence of search time on number of distractors in feature search and linear increase in search time with number of distractors in conjunction search are observed. It is also seen that saccadic reaction times are longer and search efficiency is impaired on diminished BG contribution, which corroborates with reported data obtained from Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.

  2. It’s all connected: Pathways in visual object recognition and early noun learning

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    A developmental pathway may be defined as the route, or chain of events, through which a new structure or function forms. For many human behaviors, including object name learning and visual object recognition, these pathways are often complex, multi-causal and include unexpected dependencies. This paper presents three principles of development that suggest the value of a developmental psychology that explicitly seeks to trace these pathways and uses empirical evidence on developmental dependencies between motor development, action on objects, visual object recognition and object name learning in 12 to 24 month old infants to make the case. The paper concludes with a consideration of the theoretical implications of this approach. PMID:24320634

  3. Indirect genetic effects and kin recognition: estimating IGEs when interactions differ between kin and strangers.

    PubMed

    Alemu, S W; Berg, P; Janss, L; Bijma, P

    2014-02-01

    Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. The traditional IGE model assumes that an individual interacts equally with all its partners, whether kin or strangers. There is abundant evidence, however, that individuals behave differently towards kin as compared with strangers, which agrees with predictions from kin-selection theory. With a mix of kin and strangers, therefore, IGEs estimated from a traditional model may be incorrect, and selection based on those estimates will be suboptimal. Here we investigate whether genetic parameters for IGEs are statistically identifiable in group-structured populations when IGEs differ between kin and strangers, and develop models to estimate such parameters. First, we extend the definition of total breeding value and total heritable variance to cases where IGEs depend on relatedness. Next, we show that the full set of genetic parameters is not identifiable when IGEs differ between kin and strangers. Subsequently, we present a reduced model that yields estimates of the total heritable effects on kin, on non-kin and on all social partners of an individual, as well as the total heritable variance for response to selection. Finally we discuss the consequences of analysing data in which IGEs depend on relatedness using a traditional IGE model, and investigate group structures that may allow estimation of the full set of genetic parameters when IGEs depend on kin. PMID:24169647

  4. Quantifying hepatic glycogen synthesis by direct and indirect pathways in rats under normal ad libitum feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana F; Viega, Francisco J; Carvalho, Rui A; Jones, John G

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic glycogen synthesis from intact hexose (direct pathway) relative to that from gluconeogenic precursors (indirect pathway) was quantified in ad libitum-fed rats. Following (2)H(2)O administration and overnight feeding, the livers were removed and glycogen (2)H-enrichment was measured by (2)H NMR. Six controls and six rats rendered hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (STZ; fasting blood glucose = 385 +/- 31 mg/dl) were studied. The indirect pathway contribution, estimated as glycogen hydrogen 5 relative to hydrogen 2 enrichment, was 54% +/- 4% for control rats-similar to values from healthy, meal-fed humans. In STZ-treated rats, the indirect pathway contribution was significantly higher (68% +/- 4%, P < 0.05 vs. controls), similar to that of Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients. In conclusion, sources of hepatic glycogen synthesis in rats during ad libitum nocturnal feeding were quantified by analysis of glycogen enrichment from (2)H(2)O. STZ caused alterations resembling the pathophysiology of hepatic glycogen synthesis in T1D patients.

  5. Coding the direct/indirect pathways by D1 and D2 receptors is not valid for accumbens projections.

    PubMed

    Kupchik, Yonatan M; Brown, Robyn M; Heinsbroek, Jasper A; Lobo, Mary Kay; Schwartz, Danielle J; Kalivas, Peter W

    2015-09-01

    It is widely accepted that D1 dopamine receptor-expressing striatal neurons convey their information directly to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, whereas D2-expressing neurons do so indirectly via pallidal neurons. Combining optogenetics and electrophysiology, we found that this architecture does not apply to mouse nucleus accumbens projections to the ventral pallidum. Thus, current thinking attributing D1 and D2 selectivity to accumbens projections akin to dorsal striatal pathways needs to be reconsidered.

  6. The recognition component of the N-end rule pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, B; Wünning, I; Varshavsky, A

    1990-01-01

    The N-end rule-based degradation signal, which targets a protein for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, comprises a destabilizing amino-terminal residue and a specific internal lysine residue. We report the isolation and functional analysis of a gene (UBR1) for the N-end recognizing protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. UBR1 encodes a approximately 225 kd protein with no significant sequence similarities to other known proteins. Null ubr1 mutants are viable but are unable to degrade the substrates of the N-end rule pathway. These mutants are partially defective in sporulation and grow slightly more slowly than their wild-type counterparts. The UBR1 protein specifically binds in vitro to proteins bearing amino-terminal residues that are destabilizing according to the N-end rule, but does not bind to otherwise identical proteins bearing stabilizing amino-terminal residues. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2209542

  7. Role of Direct vs. Indirect Pathways from the Motor Cortex to Spinal Motoneurons in the Control of Hand Dexterity

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Tadashi; Kinoshita, Masaharu; Nishimura, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionally, development of the direct connection from the motor cortex to spinal motoneurons [corticomotoneuronal (CM) pathway] parallels the ability of hand dexterity. Damage to the corticofugal fibers in higher primates resulted in deficit of fractionated digit movements. Based on such observations, it was generally believed that the CM pathway plays a critical role in the control of hand dexterity. On the other hand, a number of “phylogenetically older” indirect pathways from the motor cortex to motoneurons still exist in primates. The indirect pathways are mediated by intercalated neurons such as segmental interneurons (sINs), propriospinal neurons (PNs) reticulospinal neurons (RSNs), or rubrospinal neurons (RuSNs). However, their contribution to hand dexterity remains elusive. Lesion of the brainstem pyramid sparing the transmission through the RuSNs and RSNs, resulted in permanent deficit of fractionated digit movements in macaque monkeys. On the other hand, in our recent study, after lesion of the dorsolateral funiculus (DLF) at the C5 segment, which removed the lateral corticospinal tract (l-CST) including the CM pathway and the transmission through sINs and RuSNs but spared the processing through the PNs and RSNs, fractionated digit movements recovered within several weeks. These results suggest that the PNs can be involved in the recovery of fractionated digit movements, but the RSNs and RuSNs have less capacity in this regard. However, on closer inspection, it was found that the activation pattern of hand and arm muscles considerably changed after the C5 lesion, suggesting limitation of PNs for the compensation of hand dexterity. Altogether, it is suggested that PNs, RSNs RuSNs, and the CM pathway (plus sINs) make a different contribution to the hand dexterity and appearance of motor deficit of the hand dexterity caused by damage to the corticofugal fibers and potential of recovery varies depending on the rostrocaudal level of the lesion. PMID

  8. Work Stressors, Social Support, and Burnout in Junior Doctors: Exploring Direct and Indirect Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sochos, Antigonos; Bowers, Alexis; Kinman, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The study tested a pathway model linking different occupational stressors, different sources of social support, and burnout. A sample of 184 junior medical doctors was used. Pathway analysis suggested that doctors who experienced increased time demands, organizational constraints, and a lack of personal confidence perceived their consultants as…

  9. Longitudinal direct and indirect pathways linking older sibling competence to the development of younger sibling competence.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Kim, Sooyeon; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C

    2003-05-01

    A 4-wave longitudinal model tested direct and indirect links between older sibling (OS; M = 11.7 years) and younger sibling (YS; M = 9.2 years) competence in 152 rural African American families. Data were collected at 1-year intervals. At each wave, different teachers assessed OS competence, YS competence, and YS self-regulation. Mothers reported their own psychological functioning; mothers and YSs reported parenting practices toward the YS. OS competence was stable across time and was linked with positive changes in mothers' psychological functioning from Wave 1 to Wave 2. Mothers' Wave 2 psychological functioning was associated with involved-supportive parenting of the YS at Wave 3. OS Wave 2 competence and Wave 3 parenting were indirectly linked with Wave 4 YS competence, through Wave 3 YS self-regulation. Structural equation modeling controlled for Wave 1 YS competence; thus, the model accounted for change in YS competence across 3 years.

  10. ERK Pathway Activation Bidirectionally Affects Visual Recognition Memory and Synaptic Plasticity in the Perirhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Silingardi, Davide; Angelucci, Andrea; De Pasquale, Roberto; Borsotti, Marco; Squitieri, Giovanni; Brambilla, Riccardo; Putignano, Elena; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Berardi, Nicoletta

    2011-01-01

    ERK 1,2 pathway mediates experience-dependent gene transcription in neurons and several studies have identified its pivotal role in experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and in forms of long term memory involving hippocampus, amygdala, or striatum. The perirhinal cortex (PRHC) plays an essential role in familiarity-based object recognition memory. It is still unknown whether ERK activation in PRHC is necessary for recognition memory consolidation. Most important, it is unknown whether by modulating the gain of the ERK pathway it is possible to bidirectionally affect visual recognition memory and PRHC synaptic plasticity. We have first pharmacologically blocked ERK activation in the PRHC of adult mice and found that this was sufficient to impair long term recognition memory in a familiarity-based task, the object recognition task (ORT). We have then tested performance in the ORT in Ras-GRF1 knock-out (KO) mice, which exhibit a reduced activation of ERK by neuronal activity, and in ERK1 KO mice, which have an increased activation of ERK2 and exhibit enhanced striatal plasticity and striatal mediated memory. We found that Ras-GRF1 KO mice have normal short term memory but display a long term memory deficit; memory reconsolidation is also impaired. On the contrary, ERK1 KO mice exhibit a better performance than WT mice at 72 h retention interval, suggesting a longer lasting recognition memory. In parallel with behavioral data, LTD was strongly reduced and LTP was significantly smaller in PRHC slices from Ras-GRF1 KO than in WT mice while enhanced LTP and LTD were found in PRHC slices from ERK1 KO mice. PMID:22232579

  11. Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia Is Related to Indirect Pathway Medium Spiny Neuron Excitotoxicity: A Hypothesis Based on an Unexpected Finding

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Svetlana A.

    2016-01-01

    A serendipitous pharmacogenetic finding links the vulnerability to developing levodopa-induced dyskinesia to the age of onset of Huntington's disease. Huntington's disease is caused by a polyglutamate expansion of the protein huntingtin. Aberrant huntingtin is less capable of binding to a member of membrane-associated guanylate kinase family (MAGUKs): postsynaptic density- (PSD-) 95. This leaves more PSD-95 available to stabilize NR2B subunit carrying NMDA receptors in the synaptic membrane. This results in increased excitotoxicity for which particularly striatal medium spiny neurons from the indirect extrapyramidal pathway are sensitive. In Parkinson's disease the sensitivity for excitotoxicity is related to increased oxidative stress due to genetically determined abnormal metabolism of dopamine or related products. This probably also increases the sensitivity of medium spiny neurons for exogenous levodopa. Particularly the combination of increased oxidative stress due to aberrant dopamine metabolism, increased vulnerability to NMDA induced excitotoxicity, and the particular sensitivity of indirect pathway medium spiny neurons for this excitotoxicity may explain the observed increased prevalence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. PMID:27144051

  12. Examining direct and indirect pathways to health behaviour: the influence of cognitive and affective probability beliefs.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to extricate the influence of rational (e.g., 'I think …') and intuitive (e.g., 'I feel …') probability beliefs in the behavioural decision-making process regarding skin cancer prevention practices. Structural equation modelling was used in two longitudinal surveys (sun protection during winter sports [N = 491]; sun protection during summer [N = 277]) to examine direct and indirect behavioural effects of affective and cognitive likelihood (i.e. unmediated or mediated by intention), controlled for attitude, social influence and self-efficacy. Affective likelihood was directly related to sun protection in both studies, whereas no direct effects were found for cognitive likelihood. After accounting for past sun protective behaviour, affective likelihood was only directly related to sun protection in Study 1. No support was found for the indirect effects of affective and cognitive likelihood through intention. The findings underscore the importance of feelings of (cancer) risk in the decision-making process and should be acknowledged by health behaviour theories and risk communication practices. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. Role of the direct and indirect pathways for glycogen synthesis in rat liver in the postprandial state

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, M.T.; Veech, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    The pathway for hepatic glycogen synthesis in the postprandial state was studied in meal-fed rats chronically cannulated in the portal vein. Plasma glucose concentration in the portal vein was found to be 4.50 +/- 1.01 mM (mean +/- SE; n = 3) before a meal and 11.54 +/- 0.70 mM (mean +/- SE; n = 4) after a meal in rats meal-fed a diet consisting of 100% commercial rat chow for 7 d. The hepatic-portal difference of plasma glucose concentration showed that liver released glucose in the fasted state and either extracted or released glucose after feeding depending on plasma glucose concentration in the portal vein. The concentration of portal vein glucose at which liver changes from glucose releasing to glucose uptake was 8 mM, the Km of glucokinase. The rate of glycogen synthesis in liver during meal-feeding was found to be approximately 1 mumol glucosyl U/g wet wt/min in rats meal-fed a 50% glucose supplemented chow diet. The relative importance of the direct vs. indirect pathway for the replenishment of hepatic glycogen was determined by the incorporation of (3-/sup 3/H,U-/sup 14/C)glucose into liver glycogen. Labeled glucose was injected into the portal vein at the end of meal-feeding. The ratio of /sup 3/H//sup 14/C in the glucosyl units of glycogen was found to be 83-92% of the ratio in liver free glucose six minutes after the injection, indicating that the majority of exogenous glucose incorporated into glycogen did not go through glycolysis. The percent contribution of the direct versus indirect pathway was quantitated from the difference in the relative specific activity (RSA) of (/sup 3/H) and (/sup 14/C)-glycogen in rats infused with (3-/sup 3/H,U-/sup 14/C)glucose. No significant difference was found between the RSA of (/sup 3/H)glycogen and (/sup 14/C)glycogen, indicating further that the pathway for glycogen synthesis in liver from exogenous glucose is from the direct pathway.

  14. Evaluating the indirect effect of self-compassion on binge eating severity through cognitive-affective self-regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Forman, Mallory J

    2013-04-01

    Current theory and evidence point to disruptions in self-concept and difficulties with emotion regulation as contributing to the severity of binge eating. Alternatively, contemporary perspectives on self-compassion suggest that individual differences in this adaptive approach to self-regulation may serve to counteract these cognitive-affective triggers presumably resulting in reductions in binge eating severity. Accordingly, the present cross-sectional analysis examined an indirect effect model of positive dimensions of self-compassion on binge eating severity through both emotional tolerance and unconditional self-acceptance pathways. Two hundred fifteen undergraduate students (78% female) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest; BMI was calculated from self-reported heights and weights. Pearson's correlations revealed a positive linear association between self-compassion and unconditional self-acceptance; negative links were observed between self-compassion and emotional intolerance along with the severity of binge eating symptoms. A subsequent multiple mediator analysis utilizing both normal test theory and robust non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures confirmed the presence of a significant total indirect effect of self-compassion on binge eating severity (-.15, p<0.001) through the combined mediators along with yielding specific indirect effects for both emotional tolerance (-.05, p<0.05) and unconditional self-acceptance (-.11, p<0.01) which were preserved in a model adjusted for BMI. Preliminary results underscore the need to further evaluate the tenability of this model in both prospective cohort and intervention-based research. Findings additionally invite considering the value of integrating self-compassion training into college health promotion efforts towards mitigating the appreciable levels of binge eating behavior prevalent in this at-risk population. PMID:23557826

  15. Evaluating the indirect effect of self-compassion on binge eating severity through cognitive-affective self-regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Forman, Mallory J

    2013-04-01

    Current theory and evidence point to disruptions in self-concept and difficulties with emotion regulation as contributing to the severity of binge eating. Alternatively, contemporary perspectives on self-compassion suggest that individual differences in this adaptive approach to self-regulation may serve to counteract these cognitive-affective triggers presumably resulting in reductions in binge eating severity. Accordingly, the present cross-sectional analysis examined an indirect effect model of positive dimensions of self-compassion on binge eating severity through both emotional tolerance and unconditional self-acceptance pathways. Two hundred fifteen undergraduate students (78% female) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest; BMI was calculated from self-reported heights and weights. Pearson's correlations revealed a positive linear association between self-compassion and unconditional self-acceptance; negative links were observed between self-compassion and emotional intolerance along with the severity of binge eating symptoms. A subsequent multiple mediator analysis utilizing both normal test theory and robust non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures confirmed the presence of a significant total indirect effect of self-compassion on binge eating severity (-.15, p<0.001) through the combined mediators along with yielding specific indirect effects for both emotional tolerance (-.05, p<0.05) and unconditional self-acceptance (-.11, p<0.01) which were preserved in a model adjusted for BMI. Preliminary results underscore the need to further evaluate the tenability of this model in both prospective cohort and intervention-based research. Findings additionally invite considering the value of integrating self-compassion training into college health promotion efforts towards mitigating the appreciable levels of binge eating behavior prevalent in this at-risk population.

  16. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-02-15

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors. PMID:26620495

  17. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-02-15

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors.

  18. M pathway and areas 44 and 45 are involved in stereoscopic recognition based on binocular disparity.

    PubMed

    Negawa, Tsuneo; Mizuno, Shinji; Hahashi, Tomoya; Kuwata, Hiromi; Tomida, Mihoko; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Era, Seiichi; Kuwata, Kazuo

    2002-04-01

    We characterized the visual pathways involved in the stereoscopic recognition of the random dot stereogram based on the binocular disparity employing a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The V2, V3, V4, V5, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the superior temporal sulcus (STS) were significantly activated during the binocular stereopsis, but the inferotemporal gyrus (ITG) was not activated. Thus a human M pathway may be part of a network involved in the stereoscopic processing based on the binocular disparity. It is intriguing that areas 44 (Broca's area) and 45 in the left hemisphere were also active during the binocular stereopsis. However, it was reported that these regions were inactive during the monocular stereopsis. To separate the specific responses directly caused by the stereoscopic recognition process from the nonspecific ones caused by the memory load or the intention, we designed a novel frequency labeled tasks (FLT) sequence. The functional MRI using the FLT indicated that the activation of areas 44 and 45 is correlated with the stereoscopic recognition based on the binocular disparity but not with the intention artifacts, suggesting that areas 44 and 45 play an essential role in the binocular disparity. PMID:12139777

  19. M pathway and areas 44 and 45 are involved in stereoscopic recognition based on binocular disparity.

    PubMed

    Negawa, Tsuneo; Mizuno, Shinji; Hahashi, Tomoya; Kuwata, Hiromi; Tomida, Mihoko; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Era, Seiichi; Kuwata, Kazuo

    2002-04-01

    We characterized the visual pathways involved in the stereoscopic recognition of the random dot stereogram based on the binocular disparity employing a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The V2, V3, V4, V5, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the superior temporal sulcus (STS) were significantly activated during the binocular stereopsis, but the inferotemporal gyrus (ITG) was not activated. Thus a human M pathway may be part of a network involved in the stereoscopic processing based on the binocular disparity. It is intriguing that areas 44 (Broca's area) and 45 in the left hemisphere were also active during the binocular stereopsis. However, it was reported that these regions were inactive during the monocular stereopsis. To separate the specific responses directly caused by the stereoscopic recognition process from the nonspecific ones caused by the memory load or the intention, we designed a novel frequency labeled tasks (FLT) sequence. The functional MRI using the FLT indicated that the activation of areas 44 and 45 is correlated with the stereoscopic recognition based on the binocular disparity but not with the intention artifacts, suggesting that areas 44 and 45 play an essential role in the binocular disparity.

  20. Immunomodulatory glycan LNFPIII alleviates hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance through direct and indirect control of metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Prerna; Li, Changlin; Stanya, Kristopher J; Jacobi, David; Dai, Lingling; Liu, Sihao; Gangl, Matthew R; Harn, Donald A; Lee, Chih-Hao

    2012-11-01

    Parasitic worms express host-like glycans to attenuate the immune response of human hosts. The therapeutic potential of this immunomodulatory mechanism in controlling the metabolic dysfunction that is associated with chronic inflammation remains unexplored. We demonstrate here that administration of lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFPIII), a Lewis(X)-containing immunomodulatory glycan found in human milk and on parasitic helminths, improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice. This effect is mediated partly through increased interleukin-10 (Il-10) production by LNFPIII-activated macrophages and dendritic cells, which reduces white adipose tissue inflammation and sensitizes the insulin response of adipocytes. Concurrently, LNFPIII treatment upregulates nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Fxr-α, also known as Nr1h4) to suppress lipogenesis in the liver, conferring protection against hepatosteatosis. At the signaling level, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)-activator protein 1 (Ap1) pathway seems to mediate the effects of LNFPIII on both inflammatory and metabolic pathways. Our results suggest that LNFPIII may provide new therapeutic approaches to treat metabolic diseases.

  1. Indirect CO2 Emission Implications of Energy System Pathways: Linking IO and TIMES Models for the UK.

    PubMed

    Daly, Hannah E; Scott, Kate; Strachan, Neil; Barrett, John

    2015-09-01

    Radical changes to current national energy systems-including energy efficiency and the decarbonization of electricity-will be required in order to meet challenging carbon emission reduction commitments. Technology explicit energy system optimization models (ESOMs) are widely used to define and assess such low-carbon pathways, but these models only account for the emissions associated with energy combustion and either do not account for or do not correctly allocate emissions arising from infrastructure, manufacturing, construction and transport associated with energy technologies and fuels. This paper addresses this shortcoming, through a hybrid approach that estimates the upstream CO2 emissions across current and future energy technologies for the UK using a multiregional environmentally extended input-output model, and explicitly models the direct and indirect CO2 emissions of energy supply and infrastructure technologies within a national ESOM (the UK TIMES model). Results indicate the large significance of nondomestic indirect emissions, particularly coming from fossil fuel imports, and finds that the marginal abatement cost of mitigating all emissions associated with UK energy supply is roughly double that of mitigating only direct emissions in 2050. PMID:26053304

  2. Indirect CO2 Emission Implications of Energy System Pathways: Linking IO and TIMES Models for the UK.

    PubMed

    Daly, Hannah E; Scott, Kate; Strachan, Neil; Barrett, John

    2015-09-01

    Radical changes to current national energy systems-including energy efficiency and the decarbonization of electricity-will be required in order to meet challenging carbon emission reduction commitments. Technology explicit energy system optimization models (ESOMs) are widely used to define and assess such low-carbon pathways, but these models only account for the emissions associated with energy combustion and either do not account for or do not correctly allocate emissions arising from infrastructure, manufacturing, construction and transport associated with energy technologies and fuels. This paper addresses this shortcoming, through a hybrid approach that estimates the upstream CO2 emissions across current and future energy technologies for the UK using a multiregional environmentally extended input-output model, and explicitly models the direct and indirect CO2 emissions of energy supply and infrastructure technologies within a national ESOM (the UK TIMES model). Results indicate the large significance of nondomestic indirect emissions, particularly coming from fossil fuel imports, and finds that the marginal abatement cost of mitigating all emissions associated with UK energy supply is roughly double that of mitigating only direct emissions in 2050.

  3. Large herbivores facilitate savanna tree establishment via diverse and indirect pathways.

    PubMed

    Goheen, Jacob R; Palmer, Todd M; Keesing, Felicia; Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2010-03-01

    1. Savanna ecosystems are defined largely by tree-grass mixtures, and tree establishment is a key driver of community structure and ecosystem function in these systems. The factors controlling savanna tree establishment are understudied, but likely involve some combination of seed, microsite and predator/fire limitation. In African savannas, suppression and killing of adult trees by large mammals like elephants (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach, 1797) and giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758) can maintain tree-grass co-dominance, although the impacts of even these conspicuous herbivores on tree establishment also are poorly understood. 2. We combined seed addition and predator exclusion experiments with a large-scale, long-term field manipulation of large herbivores to investigate the relative importance of seeds, microsites and predators in limiting establishment of a monodominant tree (Acacia drepanolobium Sjostedt) in a Kenyan savanna. 3. Both wild and domestic (i.e. cattle; Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758) large herbivores facilitated tree establishment by suppressing abundances of rodents, the most important seed and seedling predators. However, this indirect, positive effect of wild herbivores was negated by wild herbivores' suppression of seed production. Cattle did not have this direct, negative impact; rather, they further assisted tree establishment by reducing cover of understorey grasses. Thus, the impacts of both groups of large herbivores on tree establishment were largely routed through other taxa, with a negligible net effect of wild herbivores and a positive net effect of cattle on tree establishment. 4. The distinction between the (positive) net effect of cattle and (neutral) net effect of wild herbivores is due to the inclusion of browsers and mixed feeders within the assemblage of wild herbivores. Browsing by wild herbivores limited seed production, which reduced tree recruitment; grazing by cattle was more pronounced than that by wild

  4. Large herbivores facilitate savanna tree establishment via diverse and indirect pathways.

    PubMed

    Goheen, Jacob R; Palmer, Todd M; Keesing, Felicia; Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2010-03-01

    1. Savanna ecosystems are defined largely by tree-grass mixtures, and tree establishment is a key driver of community structure and ecosystem function in these systems. The factors controlling savanna tree establishment are understudied, but likely involve some combination of seed, microsite and predator/fire limitation. In African savannas, suppression and killing of adult trees by large mammals like elephants (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach, 1797) and giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758) can maintain tree-grass co-dominance, although the impacts of even these conspicuous herbivores on tree establishment also are poorly understood. 2. We combined seed addition and predator exclusion experiments with a large-scale, long-term field manipulation of large herbivores to investigate the relative importance of seeds, microsites and predators in limiting establishment of a monodominant tree (Acacia drepanolobium Sjostedt) in a Kenyan savanna. 3. Both wild and domestic (i.e. cattle; Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758) large herbivores facilitated tree establishment by suppressing abundances of rodents, the most important seed and seedling predators. However, this indirect, positive effect of wild herbivores was negated by wild herbivores' suppression of seed production. Cattle did not have this direct, negative impact; rather, they further assisted tree establishment by reducing cover of understorey grasses. Thus, the impacts of both groups of large herbivores on tree establishment were largely routed through other taxa, with a negligible net effect of wild herbivores and a positive net effect of cattle on tree establishment. 4. The distinction between the (positive) net effect of cattle and (neutral) net effect of wild herbivores is due to the inclusion of browsers and mixed feeders within the assemblage of wild herbivores. Browsing by wild herbivores limited seed production, which reduced tree recruitment; grazing by cattle was more pronounced than that by wild

  5. Molecular recognition between glyconectins as an adhesion self-assembly pathway to multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Misevic, Gradimir N; Guerardel, Yann; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Demarty, Maurice; Ripoll, Camille; Karamanos, Yannis; Maes, Emmanuel; Popescu, Octavian; Strecker, Gerard

    2004-04-01

    primordial glyconectin to glyconectin recognition may be a new paradigm in the self-assembly and non-self discrimination pathway of cellular adhesion leading to multicellularity.

  6. Different Corticostriatal Integration in Spiny Projection Neurons from Direct and Indirect Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Barrera, Edén; Vizcarra-Chacón, Bianca J.; Tapia, Dagoberto; Bargas, José; Galarraga, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    The striatum is the principal input structure of the basal ganglia. Major glutamatergic afferents to the striatum come from the cerebral cortex and make monosynaptic contacts with medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) and interneurons. Also: glutamatergic afferents to the striatum come from the thalamus. Despite differences in axonal projections, dopamine (DA) receptors expression and differences in excitability between MSNs from “direct” and “indirect” basal ganglia pathways, these neuronal classes have been thought as electrophysiologically very similar. Based on work with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice, here it is shown that corticostriatal responses in D1- and D2-receptor expressing MSNs (D1- and D2-MSNs) are radically different so as to establish an electrophysiological footprint that readily differentiates between them. Experiments in BAC mice allowed us to predict, with high probability (P > 0.9), in rats or non-BAC mice, whether a recorded neuron, from rat or mouse, was going to be substance P or enkephalin (ENK) immunoreactive. Responses are more prolonged and evoke more action potentials in D1-MSNs, while they are briefer and exhibit intrinsic autoregenerative responses in D2-MSNs. A main cause for these differences was the interaction of intrinsic properties with the inhibitory contribution in each response. Inhibition always depressed corticostriatal depolarization in D2-MSNs, while it helped in sustaining prolonged depolarizations in D1-MSNs, in spite of depressing early discharge. Corticostriatal responses changed dramatically after striatal DA depletion in 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned animals: a response reduction was seen in substance P (SP)+ MSNs whereas an enhanced response was seen in ENK+ MSNs. The end result was that differences in the responses were greatly diminished after DA depletion. PMID:20589098

  7. TAK-063, a PDE10A Inhibitor with Balanced Activation of Direct and Indirect Pathways, Provides Potent Antipsychotic-Like Effects in Multiple Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazunori; Harada, Akina; Suzuki, Hirobumi; Miyamoto, Maki; Kimura, Haruhide

    2016-08-01

    Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors are expected to be novel drugs for schizophrenia through activation of both direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons. However, excess activation of the direct pathway by a dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF82958 canceled antipsychotic-like effects of a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol in methamphetamine (METH)-induced hyperactivity in rats. Thus, balanced activation of these pathways may be critical for PDE10A inhibitors. Current antipsychotics and the novel PDE10A inhibitor TAK-063, but not the selective PDE10A inhibitor MP-10, produced dose-dependent antipsychotic-like effects in METH-induced hyperactivity and prepulse inhibition in rodents. TAK-063 and MP-10 activated the indirect pathway to a similar extent; however, MP-10 caused greater activation of the direct pathway than did TAK-063. Interestingly, the off-rate of TAK-063 from PDE10A in rat brain sections was faster than that of MP-10, and a slower off-rate PDE10A inhibitor with TAK-063-like chemical structure showed an MP-10-like pharmacological profile. In general, faster off-rate enzyme inhibitors are more sensitive than slower off-rate inhibitors to binding inhibition by enzyme substrates. As expected, TAK-063 was more sensitive than MP-10 to binding inhibition by cyclic nucleotides. Moreover, an immunohistochemistry study suggested that cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels in the direct pathway were higher than those in the indirect pathway. These data can explain why TAK-063 showed partial activation of the direct pathway compared with MP-10. The findings presented here suggest that TAK-063's antipsychotic-like efficacy may be attributable to its unique pharmacological properties, resulting in balanced activation of the direct and indirect striatal pathways. PMID:26849714

  8. The mouse and human genes encoding the recognition component of the N-end rule pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Tae; Reiss, Yuval; Fried, Victor A.; Hershko, Avram; Yoon, Jeong Kyo; Gonda, David K.; Sangan, Pitchai; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Varshavsky, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    The N-end rule relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. The N-end rule pathway is one proteolytic pathway of the ubiquitin system. The recognition component of this pathway, called N-recognin or E3, binds to a destabilizing N-terminal residue of a substrate protein and participates in the formation of a substrate-linked multiubiquitin chain. We report the cloning of the mouse and human Ubr1 cDNAs and genes that encode a mammalian N-recognin called E3α. Mouse UBR1p (E3α) is a 1,757-residue (200-kDa) protein that contains regions of sequence similarity to the 225-kDa Ubr1p of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mouse and human UBR1p have apparent homologs in other eukaryotes as well, thus defining a distinct family of proteins, the UBR family. The residues essential for substrate recognition by the yeast Ubr1p are conserved in the mouse UBR1p. The regions of similarity among the UBR family members include a putative zinc finger and RING-H2 finger, another zinc-binding domain. Ubr1 is located in the middle of mouse chromosome 2 and in the syntenic 15q15-q21.1 region of human chromosome 15. Mouse Ubr1 spans ≈120 kilobases of genomic DNA and contains ≈50 exons. Ubr1 is ubiquitously expressed in adults, with skeletal muscle and heart being the sites of highest expression. In mouse embryos, the Ubr1 expression is highest in the branchial arches and in the tail and limb buds. The cloning of Ubr1 makes possible the construction of Ubr1-lacking mouse strains, a prerequisite for the functional understanding of the mammalian N-end rule pathway. PMID:9653112

  9. Direct and indirect interactions in the recognition between a cross-neutralizing antibody and the four serotypes of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Lisova, Olesia; Belkadi, Laurent; Bedouelle, Hugues

    2014-04-01

    Dengue fever is the most important vector-borne viral disease. Four serotypes of dengue virus, DENV1 to DENV4, coexist. Secondary infection by a different serotype is a risk factor for severe dengue. Monoclonal antibody mAb4E11 neutralizes the four serotypes of DENV with varying efficacies by recognizing an epitope located within domain-III (ED3) of the viral envelope (E) protein. To better understand the cross-reactivities between mAb4E11 and the four serotypes of DENV, we constructed mutations in both Fab4E11 fragment and ED3, and we searched for indirect interactions in the crystal structures of the four complexes. According to the serotype, 7 to 12 interactions are mediated by one water molecule, 1 to 10 by two water molecules, and several of these interactions are conserved between serotypes. Most interfacial water molecules make hydrogen bonds with both antibody and antigen. Some residues or atomic groups are engaged in both direct and water-mediated interactions. The doubly-indirect interactions are more numerous in the complex of lowest affinity. The third complementarity determining region of the light chain (L-CDR3) of mAb4E11 does not contact ED3. The structures and double-mutant thermodynamic cycles showed that the effects of (hyper)-mutations in L-CDR3 on affinity were caused by conformational changes and indirect interactions with ED3 through other CDRs. Exchanges of residues between ED3 serotypes showed that their effects on affinity were context dependent. Thus, conformational changes, structural context, and indirect interactions should be included when studying cross-reactivity between antibodies and different serotypes of viral antigens for a better design of diagnostics, vaccine, and therapeutic tools against DENV and other Flaviviruses. PMID:24591178

  10. Direct and indirect interactions in the recognition between a cross-neutralizing antibody and the four serotypes of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Lisova, Olesia; Belkadi, Laurent; Bedouelle, Hugues

    2014-04-01

    Dengue fever is the most important vector-borne viral disease. Four serotypes of dengue virus, DENV1 to DENV4, coexist. Secondary infection by a different serotype is a risk factor for severe dengue. Monoclonal antibody mAb4E11 neutralizes the four serotypes of DENV with varying efficacies by recognizing an epitope located within domain-III (ED3) of the viral envelope (E) protein. To better understand the cross-reactivities between mAb4E11 and the four serotypes of DENV, we constructed mutations in both Fab4E11 fragment and ED3, and we searched for indirect interactions in the crystal structures of the four complexes. According to the serotype, 7 to 12 interactions are mediated by one water molecule, 1 to 10 by two water molecules, and several of these interactions are conserved between serotypes. Most interfacial water molecules make hydrogen bonds with both antibody and antigen. Some residues or atomic groups are engaged in both direct and water-mediated interactions. The doubly-indirect interactions are more numerous in the complex of lowest affinity. The third complementarity determining region of the light chain (L-CDR3) of mAb4E11 does not contact ED3. The structures and double-mutant thermodynamic cycles showed that the effects of (hyper)-mutations in L-CDR3 on affinity were caused by conformational changes and indirect interactions with ED3 through other CDRs. Exchanges of residues between ED3 serotypes showed that their effects on affinity were context dependent. Thus, conformational changes, structural context, and indirect interactions should be included when studying cross-reactivity between antibodies and different serotypes of viral antigens for a better design of diagnostics, vaccine, and therapeutic tools against DENV and other Flaviviruses.

  11. Indirect mate choice, direct mate choice and species recognition in a bower-building cichlid fish lek.

    PubMed

    Genner, M J; Young, K A; Haesler, M P; Joyce, D A

    2008-09-01

    Sexual selection arising through female mate choice typically favours males with larger, brighter and louder signals. A critical challenge in sexual selection research is to determine the degree to which this pattern results from direct mate choice, where females select individual males based on variation in signalling traits, or indirect mate choice, where male competition governs access to reproductively active females. We investigated female mate choice in a lekking Lake Malawi cichlid fish, Hemitilapia oxyrhynchus, in which males build and aggressively defend sand 'bowers'. Similar to previous studies, we found that male reproductive success was positively associated with bower height and centrality on the lek. However, this pattern resulted from males holding these territories encountering more females, and thus their greater success was due to indirect mate choice. Following initial male courtship, an increase in the relative mating success of some males was observed, but this relative increase was unrelated to bower size or position. Crucially, experimentally manipulating bowers to resemble those of a co-occurring species had no appreciable effect on direct choice by females or male spawning success. Together, these results suggest indirect mate choice is the dominant force determining male-mating success in this species, and that bowers are not signals used in direct mate choice by females. We propose that, in this species, bowers have a primary function in intraspecific male competition, with the most competitive males maintaining larger and more central bowers that are favoured by sexual selection due to higher female encounter rates.

  12. Activation of direct and indirect pathways of glycogen synthesis by hepatic overexpression of protein targeting to glycogen

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, Robert M.; Jensen, Per B.; Anderson, Paul; Jones, John G.; Berman, Hal K.; Kearney, Denise; Newgard, Christopher B.

    2000-01-01

    Glycogen-targeting subunits of protein phosphatase-1, such as protein targeting to glycogen (PTG), direct the phosphatase to the glycogen particle, where it stimulates glycogenesis. We have investigated the metabolic impact of overexpressing PTG in liver of normal rats. After administration of PTG cDNA in a recombinant adenovirus, animals were fasted or allowed to continue feeding for 24 hours. Liver glycogen was nearly completely depleted in fasted control animals, whereas glycogen levels in fasted or fed PTG-overexpressing animals were 70% higher than in fed controls. Nevertheless, transgenic animals regulated plasma glucose, triglycerides, FFAs, ketones, and insulin normally in the fasted and fed states. Fasted PTG-overexpressing animals receiving an oral bolus of [U-13C]glucose exhibited a large increase in hepatic glycogen content and a 70% increase in incorporation of [13C]glucose into glycogen. However, incorporation of labeled glucose accounted for only a small portion of the glycogen synthesized in PTG-overexpressing animals, consistent with our earlier finding that PTG promotes glycogen synthesis from gluconeogenic precursors. We conclude that hepatic PTG overexpression activates both direct and indirect pathways of glycogen synthesis. Because of its ability to enhance glucose storage without affecting other metabolic indicators, the glycogen-targeting subunit may prove valuable in controlling blood glucose levels in diabetes. PMID:10683377

  13. The chemotaxis-like Che1 pathway has an indirect role in adhesive cell properties of Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Siuti, Piro; Green, Calvin; Edwards, Amanda Nicole; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Alexandre, Gladys

    2011-10-01

    The Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like Che1 signal transduction pathway was recently shown to modulate changes in adhesive cell surface properties that, in turn, affect cell-to-cell aggregation and flocculation behaviors rather than flagellar-mediated chemotaxis. Attachment to surfaces and root colonization may be functions related to flocculation. Here, the conditions under which A. brasilense wild-type Sp7 and che1 mutant strains attach to abiotic and biotic surfaces were examined using in vitro attachment and biofilm assays combined with atomic force microscopy and confocal microscopy. The nitrogen source available for growth is found to be a major modulator of surface attachment by A. brasilense and could be promoted in vitro by lectins, suggesting that it depends on interaction with surface-exposed residues within the extracellular matrix of cells. However, Che1-dependent signaling is shown to contribute indirectly to surface attachment, indicating that distinct mechanisms are likely underlying flocculation and attachment to surfaces in A. brasilense.

  14. Synthetic heterovalent inhibitors targeting recognition E3 components of the N-end rule pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Jae; Pal, Krishnendu; Tasaki, Takafumi; Roy, Sayantani; Jiang, Yonghua; An, Jee Young; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Kwon, Yong Tae

    2008-01-01

    Multivalent binding allows high selectivity and affinity in a ligand-protein interaction. The N-end rule pathway is a ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent proteolytic system in which specific E3s, called N-recognins, mediate ubiquitylation through the recognition of types 1 and 2, destabilizing N-terminal residues of substrates. We recently identified a set of E3 Ub ligases (named UBR1-UBR7) containing the 70-residue UBR box, and we demonstrated that UBR1, UBR2, UBR4, and UBR5 can bind to destabilizing N-terminal residues. To explore a model of heterovalent interaction to the N-recognin family, we synthesized the small-molecule compound RF-C11, which bears two heterovalent ligands designed to target N-recognins, together with control molecules with two homovalent ligands. We demonstrate that heterovalent ligands of RF-C11 selectively and cooperatively bind cognate-binding sites of multiple N-recognins and thereby inhibit both types 1 and 2 N-end rule activities. Furthermore, the efficacy of heterovalent RF-C11 was substantially higher than homovalent inhibitors, which can target either a type 1 or type 2 site, providing the molecular basis of designing multivalent inhibitors for the control of specific intracellular pathways. In addition, RF-C11 exhibited higher efficacy and stability, compared with dipeptides bearing destabilizing N-terminal residues, which are known competitive inhibitors of the pathway. We also used the heterovalent compound to study the function of N-recognins in cardiac signaling. Using mouse and rat cardiomyocytes, we demonstrate that the N-end rule pathway has a cell-autonomous function in cardiac proliferation and hypertrophy, explaining our earlier results implicating the pathway in cardiac development and proteolysis of multiple cardiovascular regulators. PMID:18162545

  15. The crystal structure of the tandem-PAS sensing domain of Campylobacter jejuni chemoreceptor Tlp1 suggests indirect mechanism of ligand recognition.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Mayra A; Liu, Yu C; Beckham, Simone A; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Chemotaxis and motility play an important role in the colonisation of avian and human hosts by Campylobacter jejuni. Chemotactic recognition of extracellular signals is mediated by the periplasmic sensing domain of methyl-accepting chemotactic proteins (membrane-embedded receptors). In this work, we report a high-resolution structure of the periplasmic sensing domain of transducer-like protein 1 (Tlp1), an aspartate receptor of C. jejuni. Crystallographic analysis revealed that it contains two Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) subdomains. An acetate and chloride ions (both from the crystallisation buffer) were observed bound to the membrane-proximal and membrane-distal PAS subdomains, respectively. Surprisingly, despite being crystallised in the presence of aspartate, the structure did not show any electron density corresponding to this amino acid. Furthermore, no binding between the sensing domain of Tlp1 and aspartate was detected by microcalorimetric experiments. These structural and biophysical data suggest that Tlp1 does not sense aspartate directly; instead, ligand recognition is likely to occur indirectly via an as yet unidentified periplasmic binding protein. PMID:26923153

  16. Plastidial Expression of Type II NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase Increases the Reducing State of Plastoquinones and Hydrogen Photoproduction Rate by the Indirect Pathway in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1.

    PubMed

    Baltz, Anthony; Dang, Kieu-Van; Beyly, Audrey; Auroy, Pascaline; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles

    2014-05-12

    Biological conversion of solar energy into hydrogen is naturally realized by some microalgae species due to a coupling between the photosynthetic electron transport chain and a plastidial hydrogenase. While promising for the production of clean and sustainable hydrogen, this process requires improvement to be economically viable. Two pathways, called direct and indirect photoproduction, lead to sustained hydrogen production in sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures. The indirect pathway allows an efficient time-based separation of O2 and H2 production, thus overcoming the O2 sensitivity of the hydrogenase, but its activity is low. With the aim of identifying the limiting step of hydrogen production, we succeeded in overexpressing the plastidial type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDA2). We report that transplastomic strains overexpressing NDA2 show an increased activity of nonphotochemical reduction of plastoquinones (PQs). While hydrogen production by the direct pathway, involving the linear electron flow from photosystem II to photosystem I, was not affected by NDA2 overexpression, the rate of hydrogen production by the indirect pathway was increased in conditions, such as nutrient limitation, where soluble electron donors are not limiting. An increased intracellular starch was observed in response to nutrient deprivation in strains overexpressing NDA2. It is concluded that activity of the indirect pathway is limited by the nonphotochemical reduction of PQs, either by the pool size of soluble electron donors or by the PQ-reducing activity of NDA2 in nutrient-limited conditions. We discuss these data in relation to limitations and biotechnological improvement of hydrogen photoproduction in microalgae. PMID:24820024

  17. AFF4 binding to Tat-P-TEFb indirectly stimulates TAR recognition of super elongation complexes at the HIV promoter

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula; Lu, Huasong; Zhou, Qiang; Alber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Superelongation complexes (SECs) are essential for transcription elongation of many human genes, including the integrated HIV-1 genome. At the HIV-1 promoter, the viral Tat protein binds simultaneously to the nascent TAR RNA and the CycT1 subunit of the P-TEFb kinase in a SEC. To understand the preferential recruitment of SECs by Tat and TAR, we determined the crystal structure of a quaternary complex containing Tat, P-TEFb, and the SEC scaffold, AFF4. Tat and AFF4 fold on the surface of CycT1 and interact directly. Interface mutations in the AFF4 homolog AFF1 reduced Tat–AFF1 affinity in vivo and Tat-dependent transcription from the HIV promoter. AFF4 binding in the presence of Tat partially orders the CycT1 Tat–TAR recognition motif and increases the affinity of Tat-P-TEFb for TAR 30-fold. These studies indicate that AFF4 acts as a two-step filter to increase the selectivity of Tat and TAR for SECs over P-TEFb alone. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02375.001 PMID:24843025

  18. Production of resident fish benefits from experimental salmon subsidies via direct and indirect pathways across stream-riparian boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Scott F.; Baxter, Colden V.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial additions of nutrients of differing forms such as salmon carcasses and analog pellets (i.e. pasteurized fishmeal) have been proposed as a means of stimulating aquatic productivity and enhancing populations of anadromous and resident fishes. Nutrient mitigation to enhance fish production in stream ecosystems assumes that the central pathway by which effects occur is bottom-up, through aquatic primary and secondary production, with little consideration of reciprocal aquatic-terrestrial pathways. The net outcome (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down) of adding salmon-derived materials to streams depend on whether or not these subsidies indirectly intensify predation on in situ prey via increases in a shared predator or alleviate such predation pressure. We conducted a 3-year experiment across nine tributaries of the N. Fork Boise River, Idaho, USA, consisting of 500-m stream reaches treated with salmon carcasses (n = 3), salmon carcass analog (n = 3), and untreated control reaches (n = 3). We observed 2–8 fold increases in streambed biofilms in the 2–6 weeks following additions of both salmon subsidy treatments in years 1 and 2 and a 1.5-fold increase in standing crop biomass of aquatic invertebrates to carcass additions in the second year of our experiment. The consumption of benthic invertebrates by stream fishes increased 110–140% and 44–66% in carcass and analog streams in the same time frame, which may have masked invertebrate standing crop responses in years 3 and 4. Resident trout directly consumed 10.0–24.0 g·m−2·yr−1 of salmon carcass and <1–11.0 g·m−2·yr−1 of analog material, which resulted in 1.2–2.9 g·m−2·yr−1 and 0.03–1.4 g·m−2·yr−1 of tissue produced. In addition, a feedback flux of terrestrial maggots to streams contributed 0.0–2.0 g·m−2·yr−1 to trout production. Overall, treatments increased annual trout production by 2–3 fold, though density and biomass were unaffected. Our results

  19. From Middle School to College: Developing Aspirations, Promoting Engagement, and Indirect Pathways from Parenting to Post High School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E.; Wang, Ming-Te

    2015-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal sample of 1,452 African American and European American adolescents and their parents, parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, warmth, and autonomy support) at 7th grade had significant indirect effects on college enrollment 3 years post high school, through their effects on aspirations, school engagement, and grade point…

  20. Mechanism of Dis3L2 substrate recognition in the Lin28/let-7 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2014-01-01

    Summary paragraph The pluripotency factor Lin28 inhibits the biogenesis of the let-7 family of mammalian microRNAs1–4. Lin28 is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells and has a fundamental role in regulation of development5, glucose metabolism6 and tissue regeneration7. Alternatively, Lin28 overexpression is correlated with the onset of numerous cancers8, while let-7, a tumor suppressor, silences several human oncogenes5. Lin28 binds to precursor let-7 (pre-let-7) hairpins9, triggering the 3' oligo-uridylation activity of TUT4/710–12. The oligoU tail added to pre-let-7 serves as a decay signal, as it is rapidly degraded by Dis3L213,14, a homolog of the catalytic subunit of the RNA exosome. The molecular basis of Lin28 mediated recruitment of TUT4/7 to pre-let-7 and its subsequent degradation by Dis3L2 is largely unknown. To examine the mechanism of Dis3L2 substrate recognition we determined the structure of mouse Dis3L2 in complex with an oligoU RNA to mimic the uridylated tail of pre-let-7. Three RNA binding domains form an open funnel on one face of the catalytic domain that allows RNA to navigate a path to the active site different from its exosome counterpart. The resulting path reveals an extensive network of uracil-specific interactions spanning the first twelve nucleotides of an oligoU-tailed RNA. We identify three U-specificity zones that explain how Dis3L2 recognizes, binds and processes uridylated pre-let-7 in the final step of the Lin28/let-7 pathway. PMID:25119025

  1. Excitatory pathways from the vestibular nuclei to the NTS and the PBN and indirect vestibulo-cardiovascular pathway from the vestibular nuclei to the RVLM relayed by the NTS.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi-Ling; Ma, Wen-Ling; Wang, Jun-Qin; Li, Yi-Qian; Li, Min

    2008-11-13

    Previous studies have confirmed the existence of vestibulo-sympathetic pathways in the central nervous system. However, the exact pathways and neurotransmitters underlying this reflex are unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the vestibulo-cardiovascular responses are a result of activated glutamate receptors in the caudal vestibular nucleus. We also attempt to verify the indirect excitatory pathways from the vestibular nucleus (VN) to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) using a tracing method combined with a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluTs) immunofluorescence. In anesthetized rats, unilateral injection of l-glutamate (5 nmol) into the medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) and spinal vestibular nucleus (SpVe) slightly increased the mean arterial pressure (MVe: 93.29+/-11.58 to 96.30+/-11.66, SpVe: 91.72+/-15.20 to 95.48+/-17.16). Local pretreatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist MK-801 (2 nmol) significantly attenuated the pressor effect of L-glutamate injected into the MVe compared to the contralateral self-control. After injection of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the MVe and SpVe, and fluorogold (FG) into the RVLM, some BDA-labeled fibres and terminals in the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) were immunoreactive for VGluT1 and VGluT2. Several BDA-labeled fibres were closely apposed to FG-labeled neurons in the NTS. These results suggested that activation of caudal vestibular nucleus neurons could induce pressor response and NMDA receptors might contribute to this response in the MVe. The glutamatergic VN-NTS and VN-PBN pathways might exist, and the projections from the VN to the RVLM relayed by the NTS comprise an indirect vestibulo-cardiovascular pathway in the brain stem.

  2. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  3. From middle school to college: developing aspirations, promoting engagement, and indirect pathways from parenting to post high school enrollment.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nancy E; Wang, Ming-Te

    2015-02-01

    Based on a longitudinal sample of 1,452 African American and European American adolescents and their parents, parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, warmth, and autonomy support) at 7th grade had significant indirect effects on college enrollment 3 years post high school, through their effects on aspirations, school engagement, and grade point average (GPA). All 3 parenting practices were related to aspirations and behavioral engagement at 8th grade, with 2 of the 3 parenting practices related to the emotional (monitoring and warmth) and cognitive (autonomy support and warmth) engagement. The reciprocal relations between aspirations and engagement/GPA were significant, although the effects from 8th aspirations to 11th engagement were stronger than the reverse path. Ethnic differences were found only for parenting practices: monitoring had stronger associations with GPA and behavioral engagement for African Americans, whereas autonomy support had stronger associations with GPA for European Americans. For African American parents, a delicate balance is needed to capture the benefits of higher levels of monitoring for promoting GPA and behavioral engagement and the benefits of autonomy support for developing aspirations and cognitive engagement. Parental warmth was equally beneficial for supporting aspirations, engagement, and achievement across ethnicity.

  4. Behavioral and Physiological Neural Network Analyses: A Common Pathway toward Pattern Recognition and Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninness, Chris; Lauter, Judy L.; Coffee, Michael; Clary, Logan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Rumph, Marilyn; Rumph, Robin; Kyle, Betty; Ninness, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 3 diversified datasets, we explored the pattern-recognition ability of the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) artificial neural network as applied to diversified nonlinear data distributions in the areas of behavioral and physiological research. Experiment 1 employed a dataset obtained from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. Data for this study…

  5. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary J.; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  6. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  7. PDE10A inhibitors stimulate or suppress motor behavior dependent on the relative activation state of the direct and indirect striatal output pathways

    PubMed Central

    Megens, Anton A H P; Hendrickx, Herman M R; Mahieu, Michel M A; Wellens, Annemie L Y; de Boer, Peter; Vanhoof, Greet

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) regulates the activity of striatal, medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which are divided into a behaviorally stimulating, Gs-coupled D1 receptor-expressing “direct” pathway and a behaviorally suppressant, Gi-coupled D2 receptor-expressing “indirect” pathway. Activating both pathways, PDE10A inhibitors (PDE10AIs) combine functional characteristics of D2 antagonists and D1 agonists. While the effects of PDE10AIs on spontaneous and stimulated behavior have been extensively reported, the present study investigates their effects on suppressed behavior under various conditions of reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission: blockade of D1 receptors with SCH-23390, blockade of D2 receptors with haloperidol, or depletion of dopamine with RO-4-1284 or reserpine. In rats, PDE10AIs displayed relatively low cataleptic activity per se. After blocking D1 receptors, however, they induced pronounced catalepsy at low doses close to those required for inhibition of apomorphine-induced behavior; slightly higher doses resulted in behavioral stimulant effects, counteracting the catalepsy. PDE10AIs also counteracted catalepsy and related behaviors induced by D2 receptor blockade or dopamine depletion; catalepsy was replaced by behavioral stimulant effects under the latter but not the former condition. Similar interactions were observed at the level of locomotion in mice. At doses close to those inhibiting d-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, PDE10AIs reversed hypolocomotion induced by D1 receptor blockade or dopamine depletion but not hypolocomotion induced by D2 receptor blockade. It is concluded that PDE10AIs stimulate or inhibit motor behavior dependent on the relative activation state of the direct and indirect striatal output pathways. PMID:25505601

  8. Soluble Collectin-12 (CL-12) Is a Pattern Recognition Molecule Initiating Complement Activation via the Alternative Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying Jie; Hein, Estrid; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Bayarri-Olmos, Rafael; Romani, Luigina; Garred, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Soluble defense collagens including the collectins play important roles in innate immunity. Recently, a new member of the collectin family named collectin-12 (CL-12 or CL-P1) has been identified. CL-12 is highly expressed in umbilical cord vascular endothelial cells as a transmembrane receptor and may recognize certain bacteria and fungi, leading to opsonophagocytosis. However, based on its structural and functional similarities with soluble collectins, we hypothesized the existence of a fluid-phase analog of CL-12 released from cells, which may function as a soluble pattern-recognition molecule. Using recombinant CL-12 full length or CL-12 extracellular domain, we determined the occurrence of soluble CL-12 shed from in vitro cultured cells. Western blot showed that soluble recombinant CL-12 migrated with a band corresponding to ∼ 120 kDa under reducing conditions, whereas under nonreducing conditions it presented multimeric assembly forms. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of human umbilical cord plasma enabled identification of a natural soluble form of CL-12 having an electrophoretic mobility pattern close to that of shed soluble recombinant CL-12. Soluble CL-12 could recognize Aspergillus fumigatus partially through the carbohydrate-recognition domain in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. This led to activation of the alternative pathway of complement exclusively via association with properdin on A. fumigatus as validated by detection of C3b deposition and formation of the terminal complement complex. These results demonstrate the existence of CL-12 in a soluble form and indicate a novel mechanism by which the alternative pathway of complement may be triggered directly by a soluble pattern-recognition molecule.

  9. Novel pathways for injury from offshore oil spills: direct, sublethal and indirect effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on pelagic Sargassum communities.

    PubMed

    Powers, Sean P; Hernandez, Frank J; Condon, Robert H; Drymon, J Marcus; Free, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    The pelagic brown alga Sargassum forms an oasis of biodiversity and productivity in an otherwise featureless ocean surface. The vast pool of oil resulting from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill came into contact with a large portion of the Gulf of Mexico's floating Sargassum mats. Aerial surveys performed during and after the oil spill show compelling evidence of loss and subsequent recovery of Sargassum. Expanding on the trends observed in the aerial surveys, we conducted a series of mesocosm experiments to test the effect of oil and dispersants on the vertical position and weight of the Sargassum complex (Sargassum natans and S. fluitans), as well as on the dissolved oxygen concentrations surrounding the algae. Dispersant and dispersed-oil had significant effects on the vertical position of both species of Sargassum over a period of 72 hours. Similarly, dissolved oxygen concentrations were lowest in dispersant and dispersed-oil treatments, respectively. Cumulatively, our findings suggest three pathways for oil-spill related injury: (1) Sargassum accumulated oil on the surface exposing animals to high concentrations of contaminants; (2) application of dispersant sank Sargassum, thus removing the habitat and potentially transporting oil and dispersant vertically; and (3) low oxygen surrounded the habitat potentially stressing animals that reside in the alga. These pathways represent direct, sublethal, and indirect effects of oil and dispersant release that minimize the ecosystem services provided by floating Sargassum - the latter two effects are rarely considered in assessing impacts of oil spills or response procedures. PMID:24086378

  10. Novel pathways for injury from offshore oil spills: direct, sublethal and indirect effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on pelagic Sargassum communities.

    PubMed

    Powers, Sean P; Hernandez, Frank J; Condon, Robert H; Drymon, J Marcus; Free, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    The pelagic brown alga Sargassum forms an oasis of biodiversity and productivity in an otherwise featureless ocean surface. The vast pool of oil resulting from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill came into contact with a large portion of the Gulf of Mexico's floating Sargassum mats. Aerial surveys performed during and after the oil spill show compelling evidence of loss and subsequent recovery of Sargassum. Expanding on the trends observed in the aerial surveys, we conducted a series of mesocosm experiments to test the effect of oil and dispersants on the vertical position and weight of the Sargassum complex (Sargassum natans and S. fluitans), as well as on the dissolved oxygen concentrations surrounding the algae. Dispersant and dispersed-oil had significant effects on the vertical position of both species of Sargassum over a period of 72 hours. Similarly, dissolved oxygen concentrations were lowest in dispersant and dispersed-oil treatments, respectively. Cumulatively, our findings suggest three pathways for oil-spill related injury: (1) Sargassum accumulated oil on the surface exposing animals to high concentrations of contaminants; (2) application of dispersant sank Sargassum, thus removing the habitat and potentially transporting oil and dispersant vertically; and (3) low oxygen surrounded the habitat potentially stressing animals that reside in the alga. These pathways represent direct, sublethal, and indirect effects of oil and dispersant release that minimize the ecosystem services provided by floating Sargassum - the latter two effects are rarely considered in assessing impacts of oil spills or response procedures.

  11. Novel Pathways for Injury from Offshore Oil Spills: Direct, Sublethal and Indirect Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Pelagic Sargassum Communities

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Sean P.; Hernandez, Frank J.; Condon, Robert H.; Drymon, J. Marcus; Free, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The pelagic brown alga Sargassum forms an oasis of biodiversity and productivity in an otherwise featureless ocean surface. The vast pool of oil resulting from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill came into contact with a large portion of the Gulf of Mexico’s floating Sargassum mats. Aerial surveys performed during and after the oil spill show compelling evidence of loss and subsequent recovery of Sargassum. Expanding on the trends observed in the aerial surveys, we conducted a series of mesocosm experiments to test the effect of oil and dispersants on the vertical position and weight of the Sargassum complex (Sargassum natans and S. fluitans), as well as on the dissolved oxygen concentrations surrounding the algae. Dispersant and dispersed-oil had significant effects on the vertical position of both species of Sargassum over a period of 72 hours. Similarly, dissolved oxygen concentrations were lowest in dispersant and dispersed-oil treatments, respectively. Cumulatively, our findings suggest three pathways for oil-spill related injury: (1) Sargassum accumulated oil on the surface exposing animals to high concentrations of contaminants; (2) application of dispersant sank Sargassum, thus removing the habitat and potentially transporting oil and dispersant vertically; and (3) low oxygen surrounded the habitat potentially stressing animals that reside in the alga. These pathways represent direct, sublethal, and indirect effects of oil and dispersant release that minimize the ecosystem services provided by floating Sargassum – the latter two effects are rarely considered in assessing impacts of oil spills or response procedures. PMID:24086378

  12. Learning to read shapes the activation of neural lexical representations in the speech recognition pathway.

    PubMed

    Schild, Ulrike; Röder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K

    2011-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that written and spoken language processing are tightly linked. Here we focus on the development of this relationship at the time children start reading and writing. We hypothesize that the newly acquired knowledge about graphemes shapes lexical access in neural spoken word recognition. A group of preliterate children (six years old) and two groups of beginning readers (six and eight years old) were tested in a spoken word identification task. Using word onset priming we compared behavioural and neural facilitation for target words in identical prime-target pairs (e.g., mon-monster) and in prime target pairs that varied in the first speech sound (e.g., non-monster, Variation condition). In both groups of beginning readers priming was less effective in the Variation condition than in the Identity condition. This was indexed by less behavioural facilitation and enhanced P350 amplitudes in the event related potentials (ERPs). In the group of preliterate children, by contrast, both conditions did not differ. Together these results reveal that lexical access in beginning readers is based on more acoustic detail than lexical access in preliterate children. The results are discussed in the light of bidirectional speech and print interactions in readers. PMID:22436438

  13. Temporal Uncertainty and Temporal Estimation Errors Affect Insular Activity and the Frontostriatal Indirect Pathway during Action Update: A Predictive Coding Study

    PubMed Central

    Limongi, Roberto; Pérez, Francisco J.; Modroño, Cristián; González-Mora, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Action update, substituting a prepotent behavior with a new action, allows the organism to counteract surprising environmental demands. However, action update fails when the organism is uncertain about when to release the substituting behavior, when it faces temporal uncertainty. Predictive coding states that accurate perception demands minimization of precise prediction errors. Activity of the right anterior insula (rAI) is associated with temporal uncertainty. Therefore, we hypothesize that temporal uncertainty during action update would cause the AI to decrease the sensitivity to ascending prediction errors. Moreover, action update requires response inhibition which recruits the frontostriatal indirect pathway associated with motor control. Therefore, we also hypothesize that temporal estimation errors modulate frontostriatal connections. To test these hypotheses, we collected fMRI data when participants performed an action-update paradigm within the context of temporal estimation. We fit dynamic causal models to the imaging data. Competing models comprised the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG), right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG), rAI, right presupplementary motor area (rPreSMA), and the right striatum (rSTR). The winning model showed that temporal uncertainty drove activity into the rAI and decreased insular sensitivity to ascending prediction errors, as shown by weak connectivity strength of rSMG→rAI connections. Moreover, temporal estimation errors weakened rPreSMA→rSTR connections and also modulated rAI→rSTR connections, causing the disruption of action update. Results provide information about the neurophysiological implementation of the so-called horse-race model of action control. We suggest that, contrary to what might be believed, unsuccessful action update could be a homeostatic process that represents a Bayes optimal encoding of uncertainty. PMID:27445737

  14. Cocaine Withdrawal Impairs mGluR5-Dependent Long-Term Depression in Nucleus Accumbens Shell Neurons of Both Direct and Indirect Pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Chun; Liang, Ying-Ching; Lee, Cheng-Che; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported that animals withdrawn from repeated cocaine exposure exhibited a selective deficit in the ability to elicit metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. To determine whether such impairment occurs in the NAc in a cell-type-specific manner, we used bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of gene regulatory elements for the dopamine D1 receptor (Drd1) or dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2) to identify distinct subpopulations of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). We found that bath application of group I mGluR agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) reliably induced LTD in both NAc shell and core MSNs of wild-type, hemizygous Drd1-eGFP, and Drd2-eGFP mice. Confirming our previous results, cocaine withdrawal selectively impaired DHPG-LTD in NAc shell Drd1-expressing direct and Drd2-expressing indirect pathway MSNs. We also found that the expression of DHPG-LTD in NAc MSNs was not affected by the Ca(2+)-permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine. Furthermore, systemic administration of mGluR5-negative allosteric modulator fenobam before the daily injection of cocaine preserved mGluR5 function and significantly reduced the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. These results reveal that withdrawal from repeated cocaine exposure may result in the impairment of NAc mGluR5-LTD in a subregion- but not cell-type-specific manner and suggests that pharmacological antagonism of mGluR5 may represent a potential strategy for reducing cocaine-induced addictive behaviors.

  15. Sensing Positive versus Negative Reward Signals through Adenylyl Cyclase-Coupled GPCRs in Direct and Indirect Pathway Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Anu G.; Eriksson, Olivia; Vincent, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    importance of interaction between acetylcholine, dopamine, and adenosine signals via adenylyl-cyclase coupled GPCRs in shaping the dopamine-dependent cAMP/PKA signaling in striatal neurons. Specifically, a dopamine peak and an acetylcholine dip must interact, via D1 and M4 receptor, and a dopamine dip must interact with adenosine tone, via D2 and A2a receptor, in direct and indirect pathway neurons, respectively, to have any significant downstream PKA activation. PMID:26468202

  16. Impairment of object recognition memory by maternal bisphenol A exposure is associated with inhibition of Akt and ERK/CREB/BDNF pathway in the male offspring hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Li, Zhihui; Han, Haijun; Luo, Guangying; Zhou, Bingrui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Jundong

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commonly used endocrine-disrupting chemical used as a component of polycarbonates plastics that has potential adverse effects on human health. Exposure to BPA during development has been implicated in memory deficits, but the mechanism of action underlying the effect is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of maternal exposure to BPA on object recognition memory and the expressions of proteins important for memory, especially focusing on the ERK/CREB/BDNF pathway. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley female rats were orally treated with either vehicle or BPA (0.05, 0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg BW/day) during days 9-20 of gestation. Male offspring were tested on postnatal day 21 with the object recognition task. Recognition memory was assessed using the object recognition index (index=the time spent exploring the novel object/(the time spent exploring the novel object+the time spent exploring the familiar object)). In the test session performed 90 min after the training session, BPA-exposed male offspring not only spent more time in exploring the familiar object at the highest dose than the control, but also displayed a significantly decreased the object recognition index at the doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg BW/day. During the test session performed 24h after the training session, BPA-treated males did not change the time spent exploring the familiar object, but had a decreased object recognition index at 5 and 50 mg/kg BW/day, when compared to control group. These findings indicate that object recognition memory was susceptible to maternal BPA exposure. Western blot analysis of hippocampi from BPA-treated male offspring revealed a decrease in Akt, phospho-Akt, p44/42 MAPK and phospho-p44/42 MAPK protein levels, compared to controls. In addition, BPA significantly inhibited the levels of phosphorylation of CREB and BDNF in the hippocampus. Our results show that maternal BPA exposure may full impair object recognition memory, and that

  17. Impairment of object recognition memory by maternal bisphenol A exposure is associated with inhibition of Akt and ERK/CREB/BDNF pathway in the male offspring hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Li, Zhihui; Han, Haijun; Luo, Guangying; Zhou, Bingrui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Jundong

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commonly used endocrine-disrupting chemical used as a component of polycarbonates plastics that has potential adverse effects on human health. Exposure to BPA during development has been implicated in memory deficits, but the mechanism of action underlying the effect is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of maternal exposure to BPA on object recognition memory and the expressions of proteins important for memory, especially focusing on the ERK/CREB/BDNF pathway. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley female rats were orally treated with either vehicle or BPA (0.05, 0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg BW/day) during days 9-20 of gestation. Male offspring were tested on postnatal day 21 with the object recognition task. Recognition memory was assessed using the object recognition index (index=the time spent exploring the novel object/(the time spent exploring the novel object+the time spent exploring the familiar object)). In the test session performed 90 min after the training session, BPA-exposed male offspring not only spent more time in exploring the familiar object at the highest dose than the control, but also displayed a significantly decreased the object recognition index at the doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg BW/day. During the test session performed 24h after the training session, BPA-treated males did not change the time spent exploring the familiar object, but had a decreased object recognition index at 5 and 50 mg/kg BW/day, when compared to control group. These findings indicate that object recognition memory was susceptible to maternal BPA exposure. Western blot analysis of hippocampi from BPA-treated male offspring revealed a decrease in Akt, phospho-Akt, p44/42 MAPK and phospho-p44/42 MAPK protein levels, compared to controls. In addition, BPA significantly inhibited the levels of phosphorylation of CREB and BDNF in the hippocampus. Our results show that maternal BPA exposure may full impair object recognition memory, and that

  18. Externalizing Behavior Problems Among Polydrug Cocaine-exposed Children: Indirect Pathways via Maternal Harshness and Self-Regulation in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Coles, Claire D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined direct and indirect associations between prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and children’s externalizing problems in kindergarten via higher maternal harshness and lower self-regulation in early childhood. Other environmental risk variables such as child exposure to community violence and experience of hunger were used as additional predictors. The sample consisted of 216 mother-infant dyads recruited at delivery from local area hospitals (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 non-exposed). Maternal harshness was coded from observations of mother-toddler interactions at 2 years of age, and children’s self-regulation was measured at 3 years of age using several laboratory paradigms. Maternal reports of externalizing behavior problems were obtained at both time points and at kindergarten. Teacher reports were obtained and classroom observations of externalizing behaviors were conducted in the kindergarten classroom. Results indicated significant indirect associations between CE and maternal reports of externalizing problems via higher maternal harshness at 2 years and higher externalizing problems at 3 years of child age. A second indirect path from CE to externalizing problems in the school setting via higher maternal harshness at 2 years and lower self-regulation at 3 years was also significant. There were significant associations between community violence exposure and maternal reports of externalizing problems, and between hunger and externalizing problems in the school setting. Results highlight the role of parenting and self-regulation in early childhood as critical process variables in the indirect association between CE and externalizing behavior problems in kindergarten. PMID:23647157

  19. Estrogen protects against dopamine neuron toxicity in primary mesencephalic cultures through an indirect P13K/Akt mediated astrocyte pathway.

    PubMed

    Bains, Mona; Roberts, James L

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes regulate neuronal homeostasis and have been implicated in affecting the viability and functioning of surrounding neurons under stressed and injured conditions. Previous data from our lab suggests indirect actions of estrogen through ERα in neighboring astroglia to protect dopamine neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) toxicity in mouse mesencephalic cultures. We further evaluate estrogen signaling in astrocytes and the mechanism of estrogen's indirect neuroprotective effects on dopamine neurons. Primary mesencephalic cultures pre-treated with 17β-estradiol and the membrane impermeable estrogen, E2-BSA, were both neuroprotective against MPP(+) -induced dopamine neuron toxicity, suggesting membrane-initiated neuroprotection. ERα was found in the plasma membrane of astrocyte cultures and colocalized with the lipid raft marker, flotillin-1. A 17β-estradiol time course revealed a significant increase in Akt, which was inhibited by the PI3 kinase inhibitor, LY294004. Estrogen conditioned media collected from pure astrocyte cultures rescued glial deficient mesencephalic cultures from MPP(+). This indirect estrogen-mediated neuroprotective effect in mesencephalic cultures was significantly reduced when PI3 kinase signaling in astrocytes was blocked prior to collecting estrogen-conditioned media using the irreversible PI3 kinase inhibitor, Wortmannin. Estrogen signaling via astrocytes is rapidly initiated at the membrane level and requires PI3 kinase signaling in order to protect primary mesencephalic dopamine neurons from MPP(+) neurotoxicity. PMID:26520464

  20. Indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Since Doug MacAyeal's pioneering studies of the ice-stream basal traction optimizations by control methods, inversions for unknown parameters (e.g., basal traction, accumulation patterns, etc) have become a hallmark of the present-day ice-sheet modeling. The common feature of such inversion exercises is a direct relationship between optimized parameters and observations used in the optimization procedure. For instance, in the standard optimization for basal traction by the control method, ice-stream surface velocities constitute the control data. The optimized basal traction parameters explicitly appear in the momentum equations for the ice-stream velocities (compared to the control data). The inversion for basal traction is carried out by minimization of the cost (or objective, misfit) function that includes the momentum equations facilitated by the Lagrange multipliers. Here, we build upon this idea, and demonstrate how to optimize for parameters indirectly related to observed data using a suite of nested constraints (like Russian dolls) with additional sets of Lagrange multipliers in the cost function. This method opens the opportunity to use data from a variety of sources and types (e.g., velocities, radar layers, surface elevation changes, etc.) in the same optimization process.

  1. Parent Pathways: Recognition and Responses to Developmental Delays in Young Children: A Mixed-Methods Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer Tess

    2013-01-01

    The importance of early recognition and intervention for developmental delays is increasingly acknowledged, yet high rates of under-enrollment and 1-3 year delays in entry to the public early intervention system continue. Much research has examined developmental screening in health and child care settings, but less well understood is what prompts…

  2. Human L-ficolin, a recognition molecule of the lectin activation pathway of complement, activates complement by binding to pneumolysin, the major toxin of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Ali, Youssif M; Kenawy, Hany I; Muhammad, Adnan; Sim, Robert B; Andrew, Peter W; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J

    2013-01-01

    The complement system is an essential component of the immune response, providing a critical line of defense against different pathogens including S. pneumoniae. Complement is activated via three distinct pathways: the classical (CP), the alternative (AP) and the lectin pathway (LP). The role of Pneumolysin (PLY), a bacterial toxin released by S. pneumoniae, in triggering complement activation has been studied in vitro. Our results demonstrate that in both human and mouse sera complement was activated via the CP, initiated by direct binding of even non-specific IgM and IgG3 to PLY. Absence of CP activity in C1q(-/-) mouse serum completely abolished any C3 deposition. However, C1q depleted human serum strongly opsonized PLY through abundant deposition of C3 activation products, indicating that the LP may have a vital role in activating the human complement system on PLY. We identified that human L-ficolin is the critical LP recognition molecule that drives LP activation on PLY, while all of the murine LP recognition components fail to bind and activate complement on PLY. This work elucidates the detailed interactions between PLY and complement and shows for the first time a specific role of the LP in PLY-mediated complement activation in human serum.

  3. Indirect Effects of the Fast Track Intervention on Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Distinct Pathways Involving Discipline and Warmth.

    PubMed

    Pasalich, Dave S; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about intervening processes that explain how prevention programs improve particular youth antisocial outcomes. We examined whether parental harsh discipline and warmth in childhood differentially account for Fast Track intervention effects on conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in early adolescence. Participants included 891 high-risk kindergarteners (69% male; 51% African American) from urban and rural United States communities who were randomized into either the Fast Track intervention (n = 445) or non-intervention control (n = 446) groups. The 10-year intervention included parent management training and other services (e.g., social skills training, universal classroom curriculum) targeting various risk factors for the development of conduct problems. Harsh discipline (Grades 1 to 3) and warmth (Grades 1 and 2) were measured using parent responses to vignettes and direct observations of parent-child interaction, respectively. Parents reported on children's CD symptoms in Grade 6 and CU traits in Grade 7. Results demonstrated indirect effects of the Fast Track intervention on reducing risk for youth antisocial outcomes. That is, Fast Track was associated with lower scores on harsh discipline, which in turn predicted decreased levels of CD symptoms. In addition, Fast Track was associated with higher scores on warmth, which in turn predicted reduced levels of CU traits. Our findings inform developmental and intervention models of youth antisocial behavior by providing evidence for the differential role of harsh discipline and warmth in accounting for indirect effects of Fast Track on CD symptoms versus CU traits, respectively. PMID:26242993

  4. Indirect Effects of the Fast Track Intervention on Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Distinct Pathways Involving Discipline and Warmth.

    PubMed

    Pasalich, Dave S; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about intervening processes that explain how prevention programs improve particular youth antisocial outcomes. We examined whether parental harsh discipline and warmth in childhood differentially account for Fast Track intervention effects on conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in early adolescence. Participants included 891 high-risk kindergarteners (69% male; 51% African American) from urban and rural United States communities who were randomized into either the Fast Track intervention (n = 445) or non-intervention control (n = 446) groups. The 10-year intervention included parent management training and other services (e.g., social skills training, universal classroom curriculum) targeting various risk factors for the development of conduct problems. Harsh discipline (Grades 1 to 3) and warmth (Grades 1 and 2) were measured using parent responses to vignettes and direct observations of parent-child interaction, respectively. Parents reported on children's CD symptoms in Grade 6 and CU traits in Grade 7. Results demonstrated indirect effects of the Fast Track intervention on reducing risk for youth antisocial outcomes. That is, Fast Track was associated with lower scores on harsh discipline, which in turn predicted decreased levels of CD symptoms. In addition, Fast Track was associated with higher scores on warmth, which in turn predicted reduced levels of CU traits. Our findings inform developmental and intervention models of youth antisocial behavior by providing evidence for the differential role of harsh discipline and warmth in accounting for indirect effects of Fast Track on CD symptoms versus CU traits, respectively.

  5. Behavioral methods for the study of the Ras-ERK pathway in memory formation and consolidation: passive avoidance and novel object recognition tests.

    PubMed

    d'Isa, Raffaele; Brambilla, Riccardo; Fasano, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Memory is a high-level brain function that enables organisms to adapt their behavioral responses to the environment, hence increasing their probability of survival. The Ras-ERK pathway is a key molecular intracellular signalling cascade for memory consolidation. In this chapter we will describe two main one-trial behavioral tests commonly used in the field of memory research in order to assess the role of Ras-ERK signalling in long-term memory: passive avoidance and object recognition. Passive avoidance (PA) is a fear-motivated instrumental learning task, designed by Jarvik and Essman in 1960, in which animals learn to refrain from emitting a behavioral response that has previously been associated with a punishment. We will describe here the detailed protocol and show some examples of how PA can reveal impairments or enhancements in memory consolidation following loss or gain of function genetic manipulations of the Ras-ERK pathway. The phenotypes of global mutants as Ras-GRF1 KO, GENA53, and ERK1 KO mice, as well as of conditional region-specific mutants (striatal K-CREB mice), will be illustrated as examples. Novel object recognition (NOR), developed by Ennaceur and Delacour in 1988, is instead a more recent and highly ecological test, which relies on the natural tendency of rodents to spontaneously approach and explore novel objects, representing hence a useful non-stressful tool for the study of memory in animals without the employment of punishments or starvation/water restriction regimens. Careful indications will be given on how to select the positions for the novel object, in order to counterbalance for individual side preferences among mice during the training. Finally, the methods for calculating two learning indexes will be described. In addition to the classical discrimination index (DI) that measures the ability of an animal to discriminate between two different objects which are presented at the same time, we will describe the formula of a new index

  6. The chloroplast signal recognition particle (CpSRP) pathway as a tool to minimize chlorophyll antenna size and maximize photosynthetic productivity.

    PubMed

    Kirst, Henning; Melis, Anastasios

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the Truncated Light-harvesting chlorophyll Antenna (TLA) size, as a tool by which to maximize sunlight utilization and photosynthetic productivity in microalgal mass cultures or high-density plant canopies, is discussed. TLA technology is known to improve sunlight-to-product energy conversion efficiencies and is hereby exemplified by photosynthetic productivity estimates of wild type and a TLA strain under simulated mass culture conditions. Recent advances in the generation of TLA-type mutants by targeting genes of the chloroplast signal-recognition particle (CpSRP) pathway, affecting the thylakoid membrane assembly of light-harvesting proteins, are also summarized. Two distinct CpSRP assembly pathways are recognized, one entailing post-translational, the other a co-translational mechanism. Differences between the post-translational and co-translational integration mechanisms are outlined, as these pertain to the CpSRP-mediated assembly of thylakoid membrane protein complexes in higher plants and green microalgae. The applicability of the CpSRP pathway genes in efforts to generate TLA-type strains with enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency in photosynthesis is evaluated.

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to

  8. A Potential Protein-RNA Recognition Event Along the RISC-Loading Pathway from the Structure of A. aeolicus Argonaute with Externally Bound siRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan,Y.; Pei, Y.; Chen, H.; Tuschl, T.; Patel, D.

    2006-01-01

    Argonaute proteins are key components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). They provide both architectural and catalytic functionalities associated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) guide strand recognition and subsequent guide strand-mediated cleavage of complementary mRNAs. We report on the 3.0 {angstrom} crystal structures of 22-mer and 26-mer siRNAs bound to Aquifex aeolicus Argonaute (Aa-Ago), where one 2 nt 3' overhang of the siRNA inserts into a cavity positioned on the outer surface of the PAZ-containing lobe of the bilobal Aa-Ago architecture. The first overhang nucleotide stacks over a tyrosine ring, while the second overhang nucleotide, together with the intervening sugar-phosphate backbone, inserts into a preformed surface cavity. Photochemical crosslinking studies on Aa-Ago with 5-iodoU-labeled single-stranded siRNA and siRNA duplex provide support for this externally bound siRNA-Aa-Ago complex. The structure and biochemical data together provide insights into a protein-RNA recognition event potentially associated with the RISC-loading pathway.

  9. Heparin-coated cardiopulmonary bypass circuits selectively deplete the pattern recognition molecule ficolin-2 of the lectin complement pathway in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hein, E; Munthe-Fog, L; Thiara, A S; Fiane, A E; Mollnes, T E; Garred, P

    2015-02-01

    The complement system can be activated via the lectin pathway by the recognition molecules mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and the ficolins. Ficolin-2 exhibits binding against a broad range of ligands, including biomaterials in vitro, and low ficolin-2 levels are associated with increased risk of infections. Thus, we investigated the biocompatibility of the recognition molecules of the lectin pathway in two different types of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits. Bloods were drawn at five time-points before, during and postoperatively from 30 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups using different coatings of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits, Phisio® (phosphorylcholine polymer coating) and Bioline® (albumin-heparin coating). Concentrations of MBL, ficolin-1, -2 and -3 and soluble C3a and terminal complement complex (TCC) in plasma samples were measured. Ficolin-3-mediated complement activation potential was evaluated with C4, C3 and TCC as output. There was no significant difference between the two circuit materials regarding MBL, ficolin-1 and -3. In the Bioline® group the ficolin-2 levels decreased significantly after initiation of surgery (P < 0.0001) and remained reduced throughout the sampling period. This was not seen for Phisio®-coated circuits. Ficolin-3-mediated complement activation potential was reduced significantly in both groups after start of operation (P < 0.0001), whereas soluble C3a and TCC in the samples were increased (P < 0.0001). Ficolin-2 was depleted from plasma during cardiac surgery when using heparin-coated bypass circuits and did not reach baseline level 24 h postoperation. These findings may have implications for the postoperative susceptibility to infections in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation procedures.

  10. Astroglial U87 Cells Protect Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells from Indirect Effect of Radiation by Reducing DNA Damage and Inhibiting Fas Mediated Apoptotic Pathway in Coculture System.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Yasmeen; Rehman, Abdul; Xie, Bingjie; Xu, Jin; Hong, Ma; Hong, Qing; Deng, Yulin

    2015-08-01

    ((###) P < 0.001) in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells which was followed by significant reduction in expression of key apoptotic protein i.e., FADD ((###) P < 0.001), caspase-8 ((###) P < 0.001), and cleaved caspase-3 ((###) P < 0.001) as compare to neuronal SH-SY5Y cells which received ICCM without coculture. Intriguingly, concentration of neurotrophic factors such as, GDNF and BDNF were significantly increased ((###) P < 0.001) in neuronal SH-SY5Y after coculture (with glial U87) cells. Hence, these findings infer that the receptor mediated pathway could be the one way through which indirect effects of radiation cause neurotoxicity. However, in co-cultures system (with glial U87) neuronal SH-SY5Y depicts remarkable resistance against ICCM induced neurotoxicity.

  11. Persistence of Indirect but Not Direct T Cell Xenoresponses in Baboon Recipients of Pig Cell and Organ Transplants.

    PubMed

    Buhler, L; Illigens, B M-W; Nadazdin, O; Tena, A; Lee, S; Sachs, D H; Cooper, D K C; Benichou, G

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the contributions of direct and indirect T cell antigen recognition pathways to the immune response to porcine antigens in naïve baboons and baboon recipients of pig xenografts. In naïve baboons, in vitro culture of peripheral blood T cells with intact pig cells (direct xenorecognition pathway) or pig cell sonicates and baboon antigen-presenting cells (indirect xenorecognition pathway) induced the activation and expansion of xenoreactive T cells producing proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-2 and interferon-γ. Primary indirect xenoresponses were mediated by preexisting memory T cells, whose presence is not typically observed in primary alloresponses. Next, baboons were conditioned with a nonmyeloablative regimen before short-term immunosuppression and transplantation of xenogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cells and a kidney, heart, or pancreatic islets from a miniature swine. All transplants were rejected acutely within 30 days after their placement. Posttransplantation, we observed an inhibition of the direct xenoresponse but a significant expansion of indirectly activated proinflammatory T cells. These results suggest that additional treatment to suppress indirect T cell immunity in primates may be required to achieve tolerance of pig xenografts through hematopoietic chimerism.

  12. Indirection and computer security.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  13. In Situ-Targeting of Dendritic Cells with Donor-Derived Apoptotic Cells Restrains Indirect Allorecognition and Ameliorates Allograft Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiliang; Shufesky, William J.; Montecalvo, Angela; Divito, Sherrie J.; Larregina, Adriana T.; Morelli, Adrian E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is an atheromatous-like lesion that affects vessels of transplanted organs. It is a component of chronic rejection that conventional immuno-suppression fails to prevent, and is a major cause of graft loss. Indirect allo-recognition through T cells and allo-Abs are critical during CAV pathogenesis. We tested whether the indirect allo-response and its impact on CAV is down-regulated by in situ-delivery of donor Ags to recipient's dendritic cells (DCs) in lymphoid organs in a pro-tolerogenic fashion, through administration of donor splenocytes undergoing early apoptosis. Following systemic injection, donor apoptotic cells were internalized by splenic CD11chi CD8α+ and CD8− DCs, but not by CD11cint plasmacytoid DCs. Those DCs that phagocytosed apoptotic cells in vivo remained quiescent, resisted ex vivo-maturation, and presented allo-Ag for up to 3 days. Administration of donor apoptotic splenocytes, unlike cells alive, (i) promoted deletion, FoxP3 expression and IL-10 secretion, and decreased IFN-γ-release in indirect pathway CD4 T cells; and (ii) reduced cross-priming of anti-donor CD8 T cells in vivo. Targeting recipient's DCs with donor apoptotic cells reduced significantly CAV in a fully-mismatched aortic allograft model. The effect was donor specific, dependent on the physical characteristics of the apoptotic cells, and was associated to down-regulation of the indirect type-1 T cell allo-response and secretion of allo-Abs, when compared to recipients treated with donor cells alive or necrotic. Down-regulation of indirect allo-recognition through in situ-delivery of donor-Ag to recipient's quiescent DCs constitutes a promising strategy to prevent/ameliorate indirect allorecognition and CAV. PMID:19333400

  14. Indirect posterior composite resins.

    PubMed

    Leinfelder, Karl F

    2005-07-01

    The use of indirect posterior composite restorations has facilitated the generation of ideal anatomic form, marginal adaptation, and appropriate proximal contact and contour. Unfortunately, however, the use of post-cure heat treatments has done little to enhance the overall clinical performance of the restoration. The development of new curing techniques in conjunction with modifications of the formulae have contributed to a substantial improvement in both the mechanical characteristics and long-term clinical performance of indirect posterior composite resins.

  15. CD8 T-cell recognition of acquired alloantigen promotes acute allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Simon J. F.; Ali, Jason M.; Wlodek, Elizabeth; Negus, Marg C.; Harper, Ines G.; Chhabra, Manu; Qureshi, M. Saeed; Mallik, Mekhola; Bolton, Eleanor; Bradley, J. Andrew; Pettigrew, Gavin J.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive CD8 T-cell immunity is the principal arm of the cellular alloimmune response, but its development requires help. This can be provided by CD4 T cells that recognize alloantigen “indirectly,” as self-restricted allopeptide, but this process remains unexplained, because the target epitopes for CD4 and CD8 T-cell recognition are “unlinked” on different cells (recipient and donor antigen presenting cells (APCs), respectively). Here, we test the hypothesis that the presentation of intact and processed MHC class I alloantigen by recipient dendritic cells (DCs) (the “semidirect” pathway) allows linked help to be delivered by indirect-pathway CD4 T cells for generating destructive cytotoxic CD8 T-cell alloresponses. We show that CD8 T-cell–mediated rejection of murine heart allografts that lack hematopoietic APCs requires host secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT). SLT is necessary because within it, recipient dendritic cells can acquire MHC from graft parenchymal cells and simultaneously present it as intact protein to alloreactive CD8 T cells and as processed peptide alloantigen for recognition by indirect-pathway CD4 T cells. This enables delivery of essential help for generating cytotoxic CD8 T-cell responses that cause rapid allograft rejection. In demonstrating the functional relevance of the semidirect pathway to transplant rejection, our findings provide a solution to a long-standing conundrum as to why SLT is required for CD8 T-cell allorecognition of graft parenchymal cells and suggest a mechanism by which indirect-pathway CD4 T cells provide help for generating effector cytotoxic CD8 T-cell alloresponses at late time points after transplantation. PMID:26420874

  16. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis Shows That SAV-3 Infection Upregulates Pattern Recognition Receptors of the Endosomal Toll-Like and RIG-I-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways in Macrophage/Dendritic Like TO-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cheng; Evensen, Øystein; Mweemba, Hetron Munang’andu

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental step in cellular defense mechanisms is the recognition of “danger signals” made of conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by invading pathogens, by host cell germ line coded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we used RNA-seq and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) to identify PRRs together with the network pathway of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that recognize salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV-3) infection in macrophage/dendritic like TO-cells derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) headkidney leukocytes. Our findings show that recognition of SAV-3 in TO-cells was restricted to endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 8 together with RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and not the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors NOD-like receptor (NLRs) genes. Among the RLRs, upregulated genes included the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation association 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2). The study points to possible involvement of the tripartite motif containing 25 (TRIM25) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) in modulating RIG-I signaling being the first report that links these genes to the RLR pathway in SAV-3 infection in TO-cells. Downstream signaling suggests that both the TLR and RLR pathways use interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) 3 and 7 to produce IFN-a2. The validity of RNA-seq data generated in this study was confirmed by quantitative real time qRT-PCR showing that genes up- or downregulated by RNA-seq were also up- or downregulated by RT-PCR. Overall, this study shows that de novo transcriptome assembly identify key receptors of the TLR and RLR sensors engaged in host pathogen interaction at cellular level. We envisage that data presented here can open a road map for future intervention strategies in SAV infection of salmon. PMID:27110808

  17. Indirect decentralized learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longman, Richard W.; Lee, Soo C.; Phan, M.

    1992-01-01

    The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper develops improved indirect learning control algorithms, and studies the use of such controllers in decentralized systems. The original motivation of the learning control field was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the nominal trajectory, and using the usual robot controllers that are decentralized, treating each link as if it is independent of any coupling with other links. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the indirect learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures convergence to zero tracking error of the decentralized indirect learning control of the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.

  18. Indirect airway challenges.

    PubMed

    Joos, G F; O'Connor, B; Anderson, S D; Chung, F; Cockcroft, D W; Dahlén, B; DiMaria, G; Foresi, A; Hargreave, F E; Holgate, S T; Inman, M; Lötvall, J; Magnussen, H; Polosa, R; Postma, D S; Riedler, J

    2003-06-01

    Indirect challenges act by causing the release of endogenous mediators that cause the airway smooth muscle to contract. This is in contrast to the direct challenges where agonists such as methacholine or histamine cause airflow limitation predominantly via a direct effect on airway smooth muscle. Direct airway challenges have been used widely and are well standardised. They are highly sensitive, but not specific to asthma and can be used to exclude current asthma in a clinic population. Indirect bronchial stimuli, in particular exercise, hyperventilation, hypertonic aerosols, as well as adenosine, may reflect more directly the ongoing airway inflammation and are therefore more specific to identify active asthma. They are increasingly used to evaluate the prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and to assess specific problems in patients with known asthma, e.g. exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, evaluation before scuba diving. Direct bronchial responsiveness is only slowly and to a modest extent, influenced by repeated administration of inhaled steroids. Indirect challenges may reflect more closely acute changes in airway inflammation and a change in responsiveness to an indirect stimulus may be a clinically relevant marker to assess the clinical course of asthma. Moreover, some of the indirect challenges, e.g. hypertonic saline and mannitol, can be combined with the assessment of inflammatory cells by induction of sputum.

  19. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  20. Accuracy enhanced thermal face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Fu; Lin, Sheng-Fuu

    2013-11-01

    Human face recognition has been generally researched for the last three decades. Face recognition with thermal image has begun to attract significant attention gradually since illumination of environment would not affect the recognition performance. However, the recognition performance of traditional thermal face recognizer is still insufficient in practical application. This study presents a novel thermal face recognizer employing not only thermal features but also critical facial geometric features which would not be influenced by hair style to improve the recognition performance. A three-layer back-propagation feed-forward neural network is applied as the classifier. Traditional thermal face recognizers only use the indirect information of the topography of blood vessels like thermogram as features. To overcome this limitation, the proposed thermal face recognizer can use not only the indirect information but also the direct information of the topography of blood vessels which is unique for every human. Moreover, the recognition performance of the proposed thermal features would not decrease even if the hair of frontal bone varies, the eye blinks or the nose breathes. Experimental results show that the proposed features are significantly more effective than traditional thermal features and the recognition performance of thermal face recognizer is improved.

  1. Towards the Construction of a Personal Professional Pathway: An Experimental Project for the Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the University of Catania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, accreditation of prior learning is a sensitive issue. Despite the lack of laws or qualification frameworks regulating the recognition of non-formal and informal learning, most Italian universities proceed with caution, allowing only a restricted number of credits in the university curriculum related to practical activities or to external…

  2. Differential Involvement of Dopamine D1 Receptor and MEK Signaling Pathway in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Consolidation and Reconsolidation of Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroun, Mouna; Akirav, Irit

    2009-01-01

    We investigated MEK and D1 receptors in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in consolidation and reconsolidation of recognition memory in rats nonhabituated to the experimental context (NH) or with reduced arousal due to extensive prior habituation (H). The D1 receptor antagonist enhanced consolidation and impaired reconsolidation in NH but…

  3. Indirect decentralized repetitive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Cheol; Longman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Learning control refers to controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect decentralized learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper extends these results to apply to the indirect repetitive control problem in which a periodic (i.e., repetitive) command is given to a control system. Decentralized indirect repetitive control algorithms are presented that have guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error under very general conditions. The original motivation of the repetitive control and learning control fields was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the desired trajectory. Decentralized repetitive control is natural for this application because the feedback control for link rotations is normally implemented in a decentralized manner, treating each link as if it is independent of the other links.

  4. Indirect microbial detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Indirect method for detection of microbial growth utilizes flow of charged particles across barrier that physically separated growing cells from electrodes and measures resulting difference in potential between two platinum electrodes. Technique allows simplified noncontact monitoring of all growth in highly infectious cultures or in critical biochemical studies.

  5. The Cek1‑mediated MAP kinase pathway regulates exposure of α‑1,2 and β‑1,2‑mannosides in the cell wall of Candida albicans modulating immune recognition.

    PubMed

    Román, E; Correia, I; Salazin, A; Fradin, C; Jouault, T; Poulain, D; Liu, F-T; Pla, J

    2016-07-01

    The Cek1 MAP kinase (MAPK) mediates vegetative growth and cell wall biogenesis in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Alterations in the fungal cell wall caused by a defective Cek1‑mediated signaling pathway leads to increased β‑1,3‑glucan exposure influencing dectin‑1 fungal recognition by immune cells. We show here that cek1 cells also display an increased exposure of α‑1,2 and β‑1,2‑mannosides (α‑M and β‑M), a phenotype shared by strains defective in the activating MAPKK Hst7, suggesting a general defect in cell wall assembly. cek1 cells display walls with loosely bound material as revealed by transmission electron microscopy and are sensitive to tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N‑glycosylation. Transcriptomal analysis of tunicamycin treated cells revealed a differential pattern between cek1 and wild type cells which involved mainly cell wall and stress related genes. Mapping α‑M and β‑M epitopes in the mannoproteins of different cell wall fractions (CWMP) revealed an important shift in the molecular weight of the mannan derived from mutants defective in this MAPK pathway. We have also assessed the role of galectin‑3, a member of a β‑galactoside‑binding protein family shown to bind to and kill C. albicans through β‑M recognition, in the infection caused by cek1 mutants. Increased binding of cek1 to murine macrophages was shown to be partially blocked by lactose. Galectin-3(-/-) mice showed increased resistance to fungal infection, although galectin-3 did not account for the reduced virulence of cek1 mutants in a mouse model of systemic infection. All these data support a role for the Cek1‑mediated pathway in fungal cell wall maintenance, virulence and antifungal discovery.

  6. Indirect resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

  7. Direct and indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virieux, Jean; Brossier, Romain; Métivier, Ludovic; Operto, Stéphane; Ribodetti, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    A bridge is highlighted between the direct inversion and the indirect inversion. They are based on fundamental different approaches: one is looking after a projection from the data space to the model space while the other one is reducing a misfit between observed data and synthetic data obtained from a given model. However, it is possible to obtain similar structures for model perturbation, and we shall focus on P-wave velocity reconstruction. This bridge is built up through the Born approximation linearizing the forward problem with respect to model perturbation and through asymptotic approximations of the Green functions of the wave propagation equation. We first describe the direct inversion and its ingredients and then we focus on a specific misfit function design leading to a indirect inversion. Finally, we shall compare this indirect inversion with more standard least-squares inversion as the FWI, enabling the focus on small weak velocity perturbations on one side and the speed-up of the velocity perturbation reconstruction on the other side. This bridge has been proposed by the group led by Raul Madariaga in the early nineties, emphasizing his leading role in efficient imaging workflows for seismic velocity reconstruction, a drastic requirement at that time.

  8. HIV-infected CD4+ T Cells Use T-bet-dependent Pathway for Production of IL-10 Upon Antigen Recognition.

    PubMed

    Shete, A; Suryawanshi, P; Godbole, S; Pawar, J; Paranjape, R; Thakar, M

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 has been implicated in persistence of pathogens in a number of chronic infections. Infected CD4+ cells upon reactivation with HIV antigens were also shown to produce IL-10, which might contribute to their persistence. Hence, it is crucial to determine mechanisms regulating IL-10 production after activation with HIV antigens for devising effective blocking strategies. In this study, ERK-, T-bet- and FoxP3-dependent pathways were evaluated for their possible roles in IL-10 production by infected CD4+ cells after reactivation with HIV Env. Intracellular and secreted IL-10 levels were determined by flow cytometry and Bioplex assay after treating PBMCs with PD98059, tipifarnib and cyclosporin A for blocking of ERK-, T-bet-and FoxP3-dependent pathways, respectively. Baseline levels of T-bet, pERK were higher in P24+ CD4+ cells as compared to uninfected CD4+ cells, which increased further after activation with Env. Inhibition of T-bet resulted in 2.3-fold reduction of IL-10 expression whereas ERK and FoxP3 inhibition failed to cause suppression of IL-10 expression. Conversely, IL-10 secreted by PBMCs was inhibited maximally after ERK inhibition suggesting its role in regulation of cytokine secretory pathway. IFN-γ was found to be suppressed after treatment with inhibitors of all these pathways. Thus, the study highlighted need for IL-10 blockade along with the use of antigens for therapeutic vaccinations or latency reversal and identified the T-bet-dependent pathway as an important pathway regulating IL-10 production by infected CD4+ cells. However, simultaneous blockade of IFN-γ precludes use of inhibitor of this pathway as an IL-10 blocking strategy. PMID:27028319

  9. Magnesium modification up-regulates the bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 upon calcium phosphate cement via enhanced BMP receptor recognition and Smad signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ding, Sai; Zhang, Jing; Tian, Yu; Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-09-01

    Efficient presentation of growth factors is one of the great challenges in tissue engineering. In living systems, bioactive factors exist in soluble as well as in matrix-bound forms, both of which play an integral role in regulating cell behaviors. Herein, effect of magnesium on osteogenic bioactivity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was investigated systematically with a series of Mg modified calcium phosphate cements (xMCPCs, x means the content of magnesium phosphate cement wt%) as matrix model. The results indicated that the MCPC, especially 5MCPC, could promote the rhBMP-2-induced in vitro osteogenic differentiation via Smad signaling of C2C12 cells. Further studies demonstrated that all MCPC substrates exhibited similar rhBMP-2 release rate and preserved comparable conformation and biological activity of the released rhBMP-2. Also, the ionic extracts of MCPC made little difference to the bioactivity of rhBMP-2, either in soluble or in matrix-bound forms. However, with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), we observed a noticeable enhancement of rhBMP-2 mass-uptake on 5MCPC as well as a better recognition of the bound rhBMP-2 to BMPR IA and BMPR II. In vivo results demonstrated a better bone regeneration capacity of 5MCPC/rhBMP-2. From the above, our results demonstrated that it was the Mg anchored on the underlying substrates that tailored the way of rhBMP-2 bound on MCPC, and thus facilitated the recognition of BMPRs to stimulate osteogenic differentiation. The study will guide the development of Mg-doped bioactive bone implants for tissue regeneration. PMID:27156155

  10. Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Singman, Eric L; Daphalapurkar, Nitin; White, Helen; Nguyen, Thao D; Panghat, Lijo; Chang, Jessica; McCulley, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (ITON) refers to optic nerve injury resulting from impact remote to the optic nerve. The mechanism of injury is not understood, and there are no confirmed protocols for prevention, mitigation or treatment. Most data concerning this condition comes from case series of civilian patients suffering blunt injury, such as from sports- or motor vehicle-related concussion, rather than military-related ballistic or blast damage. Research in this field will likely require the development of robust databases to identify patients with ITON and follow related outcomes, in addition to both in-vivo animal and virtual human models to study the mechanisms of damage and potential therapies. PMID:26759722

  11. Nonclassical antigen-processing pathways are required for MHC class II-restricted direct tumor recognition by NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Tsuji, Takemasa; Luescher, Immanuel; Old, Lloyd J; Shrikant, Protul; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2014-04-01

    Tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that directly recognize cancer cells are important for orchestrating antitumor immune responses at the local tumor sites. However, the mechanisms of direct MHC class II (MHC-II) presentation of intracellular tumor antigen by cancer cells are poorly understood. We found that two functionally distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells were expanded after HLA-DPB1*04 (DP04)-binding NY-ESO-1157-170 peptide vaccination in patients with ovarian cancer. Although both subsets recognized exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein pulsed on DP04(+) target cells, only one type recognized target cells with intracellular expression of NY-ESO-1. The tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells more efficiently recognized the short 8-9-mer peptides than the non-tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells. In addition to endosomal/lysosomal proteases that are typically involved in MHC-II antigen presentation, several pathways in the MHC class I presentation pathways, such as the proteasomal degradation and transporter-associated with antigen-processing-mediated peptide transport, were also involved in the presentation of intracellular NY-ESO-1 on MHC-II. The presentation was inhibited significantly by primaquine, a small molecule that inhibits endosomal recycling, consistent with findings that pharmacologic inhibition of new protein synthesis enhances antigen presentation. Together, our data demonstrate that cancer cells selectively present peptides from intracellular tumor antigens on MHC-II by multiple nonclassical antigen-processing pathways. Harnessing the direct tumor-recognizing ability of CD4(+) T cells could be a promising strategy to enhance antitumor immune responses in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

  12. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 protects mRNAs from recognition by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhiyun; Quek, Bao Lin; Beemon, Karen L; Hogg, J Robert

    2016-01-01

    The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway degrades mRNAs containing long 3'UTRs to perform dual roles in mRNA quality control and gene expression regulation. However, expansion of vertebrate 3'UTR functions has required a physical expansion of 3'UTR lengths, complicating the process of detecting nonsense mutations. We show that the polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) shields specific retroviral and cellular transcripts from NMD. When bound near a stop codon, PTBP1 blocks the NMD protein UPF1 from binding 3'UTRs. PTBP1 can thus mark specific stop codons as genuine, preserving both the ability of NMD to accurately detect aberrant mRNAs and the capacity of long 3'UTRs to regulate gene expression. Illustrating the wide scope of this mechanism, we use RNA-seq and transcriptome-wide analysis of PTBP1 binding sites to show that many human mRNAs are protected by PTBP1 and that PTBP1 enrichment near stop codons correlates with 3'UTR length and resistance to NMD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11155.001 PMID:26744779

  13. Pharmacological efficacy of CPU 86017 on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats: mediated by direct inhibition of calcium channels and antioxidant action, but indirect effects on the ET-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Tai; Cui, Bing; Dai, De-Zai; Tang, Xiao-Yun

    2005-12-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of a novel compound p-chlorobenzyltetrahydroberberine (CPU 86017) on endothelin-1 system of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. SD male rats were divided into control, untreated pulmonary hypertension, nifedipine (10 mg/kg p.o.), and CPU 86017 (80, 40, and 20 mg/kg p.o.) groups. The pulmonary hypertension was established by housing the rats in a hypoxic (10 +/- 0.5% oxygen) chamber 8 hours per day for 4 weeks. Hemodynamic and morphologic assessment exhibited a significant increase in the central vein pressure (CVP), right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), and pulmonary arteriole remodeling in the pulmonary hypertensive rats, which were improved by CPU 86017 80 and 40 mg/kg administration (P < 0.01). The elevated pulmonary endothelin-1 level and the over-active preproET-1 and iNOS mRNA expression were also decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in CPU 86017 groups. The maladjustment of redox enzyme system in pulmonary hypertension rats was corrected after treatment. We concluded that CPU 86017 improves pulmonary hypertension mainly to suppress the endothelin-1 pathway at the upstream and downstream via calcium antagonism and antioxidative action, then, resulting in a relief in pathogenesis of the disease.

  14. Ecology: Dynamics of Indirect Extinction.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The experimental identification of the mechanism by which extinctions of predators trigger further predator extinctions emphasizes the role of indirect effects between species in disturbed ecosystems. It also has deep consequences for the hidden magnitude of the current biodiversity crisis.

  15. Direct vs. Indirect Moral Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G Owen

    2015-09-01

    Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on indirect moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such indirect moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement.

  16. Moral assessment in indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, Karl

    2012-04-21

    Indirect reciprocity is one of the mechanisms for cooperation, and seems to be of particular interest for the evolution of human societies. A large part is based on assessing reputations and acting accordingly. This paper gives a brief overview of different assessment rules for indirect reciprocity, and studies them by using evolutionary game dynamics. Even the simplest binary assessment rules lead to complex outcomes and require considerable cognitive abilities.

  17. The logic of indirect speech.

    PubMed

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A; Lee, James J

    2008-01-22

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence.

  18. Indirect electroanalytical detection of phenols.

    PubMed

    Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2015-05-01

    A novel indirect electrochemical protocol for the electroanalytical detection of phenols is presented for the first time. This methodology is demonstrated with the indirect determination of the target analytes phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol through an electrochemically adapted optical protocol. This electrochemical adaptation allows the determination of the above mentioned phenols without the use of any oxidising agents, as is the case in the optical method, where pyrazoline compounds (mediators) chemically react with the target phenols forming a quinoneimine product which is electrochemically active providing an indirect analytical signal to measure the target phenol(s). A range of commercially available pyrazoline substitution products, namely 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine, antipyrine, 3-methyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-2-pyrazolin-5-one, 3-amino-1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-2-Pyrazolin-5-one, 4-amino-1,2-dimethyl-3-pentadecyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one hydrochloride, 3-amino-1-(2-amino-4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-2-pyrazolin-5-one hydrochloride and 4-aminoantipyrine are evaluated as mediators for the indirect detection of phenols. The indirect electrochemical detection of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol through the use of 4-aminoantipyrine as a mediator are successfully determined in drinking water samples at analytically useful levels. Finally, the comparison of the direct (no mediator) and the proposed indirect determination (with 4-aminoantipyrine) towards the analytical detection of the target phenols in drinking water is presented. The limitation of the proposed electroanalytical protocol is quantified for all the four target phenols.

  19. The logic of indirect speech

    PubMed Central

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  20. Indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Schöttker, Ben; Lühmann, Dagmar; Boulkhemair, Dalila; Raspe, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Health political background The comparison of the effectiveness of health technologies is not only laid down in German law (Social Code Book V, § 139 and § 35b) but also constitutes a central element of clinical guidelines and decision making in health care. Tools supporting decision making (e. g. Health Technology Assessments (HTA)) are therefore in need of a valid methodological repertoire for these comparisons. Scientific background Randomised controlled head-to-head trials which directly compare the effects of different therapies are considered the gold standard methodological approach for the comparison of the efficacy of interventions. Because this type of trial is rarely found, comparisons of efficacy often need to rely on indirect comparisons whose validity is being controversially debated. Research questions Research questions for the current assessment are: Which (statistical) methods for indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions do exist, how often are they applied and how valid are their results in comparison to the results of head-to-head trials? Methods In a systematic literature research all medical databases of the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) are searched for methodological papers as well as applications of indirect comparisons in systematic reviews. Results of the literature analysis are summarized qualitatively for the characterisation of methods and quantitatively for the frequency of their application. The validity of the results from indirect comparisons is checked by comparing them to the results from the gold standard – a direct comparison. Data sets from systematic reviews which use both direct and indirect comparisons are tested for consistency by of the z-statistic. Results 29 methodological papers and 106 applications of indirect methods in systematic reviews are being analysed. Four methods for indirect comparisons can be identified: Unadjusted indirect comparisons include, independent of

  1. Indirect reciprocity under incomplete observation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-07-01

    Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient.

  2. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one’s trustworthiness as a service user. PMID:27043712

  3. Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions.

    PubMed

    Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip.

  4. Indirect pulp capping: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, G J

    1992-01-01

    This study addresses the acceptance of the clinical practice of indirect pulp capping. State and regional dental boards and postgraduate dental education programs throughout the United States were surveyed. Results indicate that no clear consensus exists for the acceptance of this clinical procedure.

  5. Ecology: Dynamics of Indirect Extinction.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The experimental identification of the mechanism by which extinctions of predators trigger further predator extinctions emphasizes the role of indirect effects between species in disturbed ecosystems. It also has deep consequences for the hidden magnitude of the current biodiversity crisis. PMID:26654371

  6. Water Rockets and Indirect Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Duane

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that teaches a number of scientific concepts including indirect measurement, Newton's third law of motion, manipulating and controlling variables, and the scientific method of inquiry. Uses process skills such as observation, inference, prediction, mensuration, and communication as well as problem solving and higher-order…

  7. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  8. Feedback control indirect response models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaping; D'Argenio, David Z

    2016-08-01

    A general framework is introduced for modeling pharmacodynamic processes that are subject to autoregulation, which combines the indirect response (IDR) model approach with methods from classical feedback control of engineered systems. The canonical IDR models are modified to incorporate linear combinations of feedback control terms related to the time course of the difference (the error signal) between the pharmacodynamic response and its basal value. Following the well-established approach of traditional engineering control theory, the proposed feedback control indirect response models incorporate terms proportional to the error signal itself, the integral of the error signal, the derivative of the error signal or combinations thereof. Simulations are presented to illustrate the types of responses produced by the proposed feedback control indirect response model framework, and to illustrate comparisons with other PK/PD modeling approaches incorporating feedback. In addition, four examples from literature are used to illustrate the implementation and applicability of the proposed feedback control framework. The examples reflect each of the four mechanisms of drug action as modeled by each of the four canonical IDR models and include: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and extracellular serotonin; histamine H2-receptor antagonists and gastric acid; growth hormone secretagogues and circulating growth hormone; β2-selective adrenergic agonists and potassium. The proposed feedback control indirect response approach may serve as an exploratory modeling tool and may provide a bridge for development of more mechanistic systems pharmacology models. PMID:27394724

  9. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  10. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  11. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  12. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  13. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  14. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  15. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  16. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  17. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  18. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  19. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  20. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  1. Recognition Tunneling

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Stuart; He, Jin; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel; Zhang, Peiming; Chang, Shuai; Huang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically-functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode (“tethered molecule-pair” configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the “free analyte” configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. PMID:20522930

  2. Textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-05-01

    The growing interest in affective computing (AC) brings a lot of valuable research topics that can meet different application demands in enterprise systems. The present study explores a sub area of AC techniques - textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing. Multi-label emotion recognition in text is able to provide a more comprehensive understanding of emotions than single label emotion recognition. A representation of 'emotion state in text' is proposed to encompass the multidimensional emotions in text. It ensures the description in a formal way of the configurations of basic emotions as well as of the relations between them. Our method allows recognition of the emotions for the words bear indirect emotions, emotion ambiguity and multiple emotions. We further investigate the effect of word order for emotional expression by comparing the performances of bag-of-words model and sequence model for multi-label sentence emotion recognition. The experiments show that the classification results under sequence model are better than under bag-of-words model. And homogeneous Markov model showed promising results of multi-label sentence emotion recognition. This emotion recognition system is able to provide a convenient way to acquire valuable emotion information and to improve enterprise competitive ability in many aspects.

  3. Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; Hengartner, Nicholas; Higdon, Dave; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2016-02-20

    Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosolmore » effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.« less

  4. N2-fixing red alder indirectly accelerates ecosystem nitrogen cycling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic N2-fixing tree species can accelerate ecosystem N dynamics through decomposition via direct pathways by producing readily decomposed leaf litter and increasing N supply to decomposers, as well as via indirect pathways by increasing tissue and detrital N in non-fixing vegetation. To evaluate the relative importance of these pathways, we compared three-year decomposition and N dynamics of N2-fixing red alder leaf litter (2.34 %N) to both low-N (0.68 %N) and high-N (1.21 %N) litter of non-fixing Douglas-fir, and decomposed each litter source in four forests dominated by either red alder or Douglas-fir. We also used experimental N fertilization of decomposition plots to assess elevated N availability as a potential mechanism of N2-fixer effects on litter mass loss and N dynamics. Direct effects of N2-fixing red alder on decomposition occurred primarily as faster N release from red alder than Douglas-fir litter, but direct increases in N supply to decomposers via fertilization did not stimulate decomposition of any litter. Fixed N indirectly influenced detrital dynamics by increasing Douglas-fir tissue and litter N concentrations, which accelerated litter N release without accelerating mass loss. By increasing soil N, tissue N, and the rate of N release from litter of non-fixers, we conclude that N2-fixing vegetation can indirectly foster plant-soil feedbacks that contribute to the persistence of elevated N availability in terrestrial ecosystems.

  5. Humoral pattern recognition and the complement system.

    PubMed

    Degn, S E; Thiel, S

    2013-08-01

    In the context of immunity, pattern recognition is the art of discriminating friend from foe and innocuous from noxious. The basis of discrimination is the existence of evolutionarily conserved patterns on microorganisms, which are intrinsic to these microorganisms and necessary for their function and existence. Such immutable or slowly evolving patterns are ideal handles for recognition and have been targeted by early cellular immune defence mechanisms such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and by humoral defence mechanisms such as the complement system. Complement is a proteolytic cascade system comprising around 35 different soluble and membrane-bound proteins. It constitutes a central part of the innate immune system, mediating several major innate effector functions and modulating adaptive immune responses. The complement cascade proceeds via controlled, limited proteolysis and conformational changes of constituent proteins through three activation pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway and the lectin pathway, which converge in common effector functions. Here, we review the nature of the pattern recognition molecules involved in complement activation, as well as their close relatives with no or unknown capacity for activating complement. We proceed to examine the composition of the pattern recognition complexes involved in complement activation, focusing on those of the lectin pathway, and arrive at a new model for their mechanism of operation, supported by recently emerging evidence.

  6. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  7. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost... assistance regulations and cost principles, unless superseded by another authority. Use of indirect costs...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  9. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  10. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  11. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  12. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  13. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative agreements shall be determined in accordance with the applicable assistance regulations and cost...

  14. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2903.4 Section 2903.4 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  15. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  16. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.1002(n) of.... Korean Producer A produces good C using non-originating material B. Producer A imports...

  17. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  18. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  19. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.1002(n) of.... Korean Producer A produces good C using non-originating material B. Producer A imports...

  20. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.924 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.902(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  1. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.924 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.902(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  2. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  3. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  4. 19 CFR 10.2024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.2024 Section 10.2024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.2024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.2013(i), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  5. 19 CFR 10.3024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.3024 Section 10.3024... Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.3013(h), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is...

  6. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  7. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  8. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  9. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions.

  10. Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?

    PubMed

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2013-10-01

    In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties.

  11. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. PMID:23123557

  12. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Dan W

    2003-01-01

    On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217

  13. Discriminating direct and indirect connectivities in biological networks.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taek; Moore, Richard; Li, Yi; Sontag, Eduardo; Bleris, Leonidas

    2015-10-13

    Reverse engineering of biological pathways involves an iterative process between experiments, data processing, and theoretical analysis. Despite concurrent advances in quality and quantity of data as well as computing resources and algorithms, difficulties in deciphering direct and indirect network connections are prevalent. Here, we adopt the notions of abstraction, emulation, benchmarking, and validation in the context of discovering features specific to this family of connectivities. After subjecting benchmark synthetic circuits to perturbations, we inferred the network connections using a combination of nonparametric single-cell data resampling and modular response analysis. Intriguingly, we discovered that recovered weights of specific network edges undergo divergent shifts under differential perturbations, and that the particular behavior is markedly different between topologies. Our results point to a conceptual advance for reverse engineering beyond weight inference. Investigating topological changes under differential perturbations may address the longstanding problem of discriminating direct and indirect connectivities in biological networks. PMID:26420864

  14. Building Group Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, George

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the value of name recognition for theater companies. Describes steps toward identity and recognition, analyzing the group, the mission statement, symbolic logic, designing and identity, developing a communications plan, and meaningful activities. (SR)

  15. Speech recognition and understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Vintsyuk, T.K.

    1983-05-01

    This article discusses the automatic processing of speech signals with the aim of finding a sequence of works (speech recognition) or a concept (speech understanding) being transmitted by the speech signal. The goal of the research is to develop an automatic typewriter that will automatically edit and type text under voice control. A dynamic programming method is proposed in which all possible class signals are stored, after which the presented signal is compared to all the stored signals during the recognition phase. Topics considered include element-by-element recognition of words of speech, learning speech recognition, phoneme-by-phoneme speech recognition, the recognition of connected speech, understanding connected speech, and prospects for designing speech recognition and understanding systems. An application of the composition dynamic programming method for the solution of basic problems in the recognition and understanding of speech is presented.

  16. Profiles of Discourse Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray

    2013-01-01

    A discourse recognition theory derived from more general memory formulations would be broad in its psychological implications. This study compared discourse recognition with some established profiles of item recognition. Participants read 10 stories either once or twice each. They then rated their confidence in recognizing explicit, paraphrased,…

  17. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  18. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  19. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  20. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  1. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration....

  3. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  4. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  5. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  6. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  7. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  8. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  9. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  10. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  11. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.203 Indirect costs. For the purposes of applying FAR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect costs....

  12. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.203 Indirect costs. For the purposes of applying FAR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Indirect costs....

  13. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.203 Indirect costs. For the purposes of applying FAR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect costs....

  14. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  15. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  16. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  17. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  18. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  19. Indirect Effects and Infants' Reaction to Strangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined whether an infant's reaction to a stranger would be indirectly influenced by the infant observing a stranger-third party interaction. Subjects were 45 15-month-old infants. Results suggest indirect effects influence social interactions and show that significant others can play an important role in mediating these effects. (Author/RH)

  20. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    PubMed

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  1. Postrecognition of interleaved melodies as an indirect measure of auditory stream formation.

    PubMed

    Bey, Caroline; McAdams, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    Primitive processes involved in auditory stream formation are measured with indirect, objective method. A target melody interleaved with a distractor sequence is followed by a probe melody that was identical to the target or differed by 2 notes. Listeners decided whether the probe melody was present or not in the composite sequence. Interleaved melody recognition is not possible when distractor sequences have the same mean frequency and maximum contour crossover with target melodies. Performance increases with mean frequency separation and timbral dissimilarity and is unaffected by the duration of the silent interval between composite sequence and probe melody. The relation between this indirect task measuring the interleaved melody recognition boundary and direct judgments measuring the fission boundary is discussed. PMID:12760614

  2. Postrecognition of interleaved melodies as an indirect measure of auditory stream formation.

    PubMed

    Bey, Caroline; McAdams, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    Primitive processes involved in auditory stream formation are measured with indirect, objective method. A target melody interleaved with a distractor sequence is followed by a probe melody that was identical to the target or differed by 2 notes. Listeners decided whether the probe melody was present or not in the composite sequence. Interleaved melody recognition is not possible when distractor sequences have the same mean frequency and maximum contour crossover with target melodies. Performance increases with mean frequency separation and timbral dissimilarity and is unaffected by the duration of the silent interval between composite sequence and probe melody. The relation between this indirect task measuring the interleaved melody recognition boundary and direct judgments measuring the fission boundary is discussed.

  3. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  4. Kin Recognition in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wall, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The ability of bacteria to recognize kin provides a means to form social groups. In turn these groups can lead to cooperative behaviors that surpass the ability of the individual. Kin recognition involves specific biochemical interactions between a receptor(s) and an identification molecule(s). Recognition specificity, ensuring that nonkin are excluded and kin are included, is critical and depends on the number of loci and polymorphisms involved. After recognition and biochemical perception, the common ensuing cooperative behaviors include biofilm formation, quorum responses, development, and swarming motility. Although kin recognition is a fundamental mechanism through which cells might interact, microbiologists are only beginning to explore the topic. This review considers both molecular and theoretical aspects of bacterial kin recognition. Consideration is also given to bacterial diversity, genetic relatedness, kin selection theory, and mechanisms of recognition. PMID:27359217

  5. Diagnostic odor recognition

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt; Phan; Desandre; Lobon; Hsu

    2000-10-01

    Many diseases, toxic ingestions, and intoxications have characteristic odors. These odors may provide diagnostic clues that affect rapid treatment long before laboratory confirmation or clinical deterioration. Odor recognition skills, similar to auscultation and palpation skills, require teaching and practical exposure. Dr. Goldfrank and colleagues recognized the importance of teaching odor recognition to emergency service providers. They proposed the "sniffing bar" method for odor recognition training. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the recognition rates of medically important odors among emergency care providers. (2) To investigate the effectiveness of teaching odor recognition. Hypothesis: The recognition rates of medically important odors will increase after teaching exposure. METHODS: The study exposed emergency care providers to 11 tubes of odors. Identifications of each substance were recorded. After corrective feedback, subjects were re-tested on their ability to identify the odors. Analysis of odor recognition improvement after teaching was done via chi-square test. RESULTS: Improvement in identification after teaching was seen in all odors. However, the improvement was significant only in the lesscommon substances because their initial recognition was especially low. Significant changes may improve with a larger sample size. Subjects often confuse the odors of alcohol with acetone, and wintergreen with camphor. CONCLUSIONS: The recognition rates are higher for the more-common odors, and lower for the less-common odors. Teaching exposures to the less well-known odors are effective and can significantly improve the recognition rate of these substances. Because odor recognition may affect rapid diagnosis and treatment of certain medical emergencies such as toxic ingestion, future studies should investigate the correlation between odor recognition and the ability to identify corresponding medical emergencies.

  6. Direct and indirect effects of particulate matter on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Nelin, Timothy D; Joseph, Allan M; Gorr, Matthew W; Wold, Loren E

    2012-02-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research.

  7. Impact of Father Involvement: A Closer Look at Indirect Effects Models Involving Marriage and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present a framework for understanding the indirect effects of fathering on child development in the context of the marriage. We discuss three central pathways of influence: through relations between marital quality and fathering, through children's exposure to father expressions of marital discord, and through relations between…

  8. Evolution of spite through indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Rufus A.; Bshary, Redouan

    2004-01-01

    How can cooperation persist in the face of a temptation to 'cheat'? Several recent papers have suggested that the answer may lie in indirect reciprocity. Altruistic individuals may benefit by eliciting altruism from observers, rather than (as in direct reciprocity) from the recipient of the aid they provide. Here, we point out that indirect reciprocity need not always favour cooperation; by contrast, it may support spiteful behaviour, which is costly for the both actor and recipient. Existing theory suggests spite is unlikely to persist, but we demonstrate that it may do so when spiteful individuals are less likely to incur aggression from observers (a negative form of indirect reciprocity). PMID:15347514

  9. Direct and indirect ecosystem effects of evolutionary adaptation in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Bassar, Ronald D; Ferriere, Regis; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Marshall, Michael C; Travis, Joseph; Pringle, Catherine M; Reznick, David N

    2012-08-01

    Ecological and evolutionary processes may interact on the same timescale, but we are just beginning to understand how. Several studies have examined the net effects of adaptive evolution on ecosystem properties. However, we do not know whether these effects are confined to direct interactions or whether they propagate further through indirect ecological pathways. Even less well understood is how the combination of direct and indirect ecological effects of the phenotype promotes or inhibits evolutionary change. We coupled mesocosm experiments and ecosystem modeling to evaluate the ecological effects of local adaptation in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The experiments show that guppies adapted to life with and without predators alter the ecosystem directly through differences in diet. The ecosystem model reveals that the small total indirect effect of the phenotype observed in the experiments is likely a combination of several large indirect effects that act in opposing directions. The model further suggests that these indirect effects can reverse the direction of selection that direct effects alone exert back on phenotypic variation. We conclude that phenotypic divergence can have major effects deep in the web of indirect ecological interactions and that even small total indirect effects can radically change the dynamics of adaptation.

  10. DNA recognition in Immunity and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Christian K.; Paludan, Søren R.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Great progress has been made in understanding how immune cells detect microbial pathogens. An area that has received particular attention is nucleic acid sensing where RNA and DNA sensing machineries have been uncovered. For DNA, TLR9 in endosomes and numerous cytoplasmic DNA binding proteins have been identified. Several of these have been proposed to couple DNA recognition to induction of type I IFNs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or caspase-1 activation. Given the ubiquitous expression of many of these DNA binding proteins and the significant potential for endogenous DNA to engage these molecules, it is important that DNA recognition is tightly regulated. A better understanding of DNA recognition pathways can provide new insights into infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23313533

  11. Indirect Ultraviolet-Reactivation of Phage λ

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacqueline; Devoret, Raymond; Radman, Miroslav

    1974-01-01

    When an F- recipient Escherichia coli K12 bacterium receives Hfr or F-lac+ DNA from an ultraviolet-irradiated donor, its capacity to promote DNA repair and mutagenesis of ultraviolet-damaged phage λ is substantially increased. We call this phenomenon indirect ultraviolet-reactivation, since its features are essentially the same as those of ultraviolet-reactivation; this repair process occurs in pyrimidine dimer excision-deficient strains and produces clear plaque mutations of the restored phage. Moreover, this process is similar to indirect ultraviolet-induction of prophage λ, since it is promoted by conjugation. However, contrarily to indirect induction, it is produced by Hfr donors and occurs in recipients restricting the incoming ultraviolet-damaged donor DNA. The occurrence of indirect ultraviolet-reactivation provides evidence for the existence in E. coli of an inducible error-prone mechanism for the repair of DNA. PMID:4589889

  12. Indirect Lighting--a Matter of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of indirect lighting and the use of high intensity discharge light sources reveal that the most efficient lighting system can also be the most economical. (Author/MLF)

  13. Indirect punishment and generosity toward strangers.

    PubMed

    Ule, Aljaz; Schram, Arthur; Riedl, Arno; Cason, Timothy N

    2009-12-18

    Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "indirect rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can prevail in the long run only if rewarders earn higher payoffs than "defectors" who ignore strangers' kindness. We provide experimental evidence regarding the payoffs received by individuals who employ these and other strategies, such as "indirect punishment," by imposing costs on unkind strangers. We find that if unkind strangers cannot be punished, defection earns most. If they can be punished, however, then indirect rewarding earns most. Indirect punishment plays this important role, even if it gives a low payoff and is rarely implemented.

  14. Indirect composite resin materials for posterior applications.

    PubMed

    Shellard, E; Duke, E S

    1999-12-01

    Indirect composite resin restorations were introduced a number of years ago as possible alternatives to traditional metallic or ceramic-based indirect restorations. However, the earlier formulations did not provide evidence of improvement in mechanical and physical properties over chairside-placed direct composite resin materials. Because they required more tooth structure removal than direct restorations, their use became unpopular and was abandoned by most clinicians. Over the past few years, a new class of composite resin indirect materials has surfaced in the profession. Various technologies have been suggested as reinforcement mechanisms. Fibers, matrix modifications, and an assortment of innovations have been proposed for enhancing indirect composite resin restorations. Applications are from inlay restorations all the way to multi-unit fixed prostheses. This manuscript summarizes some of the progress made in this area. When available, data is presented to provide clinicians with guidelines and indications for the use of these materials.

  15. Moreland Recognition Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland Elementary School District, San Jose, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Recognition for special effort and achievement has been noted as a component of effective schools. Schools in the Moreland School District have effectively improved standards of discipline and achievement by providing forty-six different ways for children to receive positive recognition. Good…

  16. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  17. Improving carbon fixation pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Ducat, DC; Silver, PA

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

  18. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    PubMed

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches. PMID:25313189

  19. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  20. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  1. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  2. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  3. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  4. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures.

  5. Indirectly Recognized HLA-C Mismatches and Their Potential Role in Transplant Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Thus, Kirsten A.; Te Boome, Liane; Kuball, Jürgen; Spierings, Eric

    2014-01-01

    HLA-C mismatches are clearly associated to alloreactivity after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation; in a number of large cohorts, HLA-C mismatches are correlated to an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) or even impaired survival. While for HLA-A and -B, both antigenic as well as allelic mismatches are associated with an increased risk of acute GVHD, such an increased risk is only observed for antigenic HLA-C mismatches and not for allelic mismatches. These observations raise the question what sets HLA-C apart from HLA-A and -B. The difference may well be related to the reduced levels of cell-surface expression of HLA-C as compared to HLA-A and -B, possibly due to, among other factors, a limited peptide-binding capacity. This limited peptide-binding capacity may retain HLA-C in the ER and enhance degradation of the HLA-C protein. Once degraded, HLA-C-derived peptides can be presented to the immune system via other HLA alleles and are thus available for indirect recognition. Indeed, such HLA-C-derived peptides have previously been eluted from other HLA alleles. We have recently developed an approach to predict indirect recognition of HLA molecules, by establishing the numbers of predicted indirectly recognizable HLA epitopes (PIRCHES). The number of PIRCHES presented on HLA class I and II (PIRCHE-I and -II, respectively), are highly correlated to clinical measures of alloreactivity, such as acute GVHD. In the present “Hypothesis & Theory,” we reviewed the current knowledge on HLA-C mismatches and alloreactivity. Moreover, we speculate about the role of direct and indirect recognition of HLA-C and the consequences for donor selection in HLA-C mismatched stem-cell transplantation. PMID:24860572

  6. PCA facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

  7. Recognition memory in developmental prosopagnosia: electrophysiological evidence for abnormal routes to face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Edwin J.; Tree, Jeremy J.; Weidemann, Christoph T.

    2014-01-01

    Dual process models of recognition memory propose two distinct routes for recognizing a face: recollection and familiarity. Recollection is characterized by the remembering of some contextual detail from a previous encounter with a face whereas familiarity is the feeling of finding a face familiar without any contextual details. The Remember/Know (R/K) paradigm is thought to index the relative contributions of recollection and familiarity to recognition performance. Despite researchers measuring face recognition deficits in developmental prosopagnosia (DP) through a variety of methods, none have considered the distinct contributions of recollection and familiarity to recognition performance. The present study examined recognition memory for faces in eight individuals with DP and a group of controls using an R/K paradigm while recording electroencephalogram (EEG) data at the scalp. Those with DP were found to produce fewer correct “remember” responses and more false alarms than controls. EEG results showed that posterior “remember” old/new effects were delayed and restricted to the right posterior (RP) area in those with DP in comparison to the controls. A posterior “know” old/new effect commonly associated with familiarity for faces was only present in the controls whereas individuals with DP exhibited a frontal “know” old/new effect commonly associated with words, objects and pictures. These results suggest that individuals with DP do not utilize normal face-specific routes when making face recognition judgments but instead process faces using a pathway more commonly associated with objects. PMID:25177283

  8. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  9. Perceptual representations in false recognition and priming of pictures.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2008-12-01

    Using a new procedure, we investigate whether imagination can induce false memory by creating a perceptual representation. Participants studied pictures and words with and without an imagery task and at test performed both a direct recognition test and an indirect perceptual identification test on pictorial stimuli. Corrected false recognition rates were 7% for pictures studied in word form (Experiment 1), 26% for pictures imagined once (Experiment 2), and 48% for pictures imagined multiple times (Experiment 3), although on the indirect test, no priming was found for these items. Furthermore, a perceptual/conceptual imagery manipulation did not affect the tendency to claim that imagined items had been studied as pictures (Experiment 4). These results suggest that the false memories reported on direct tests are not driven by perceptual representations.

  10. Pattern recognition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Technique operates regardless of pattern rotation, translation or magnification and successfully detects out-of-register patterns. It improves accuracy and reduces cost of various optical character recognition devices and page readers and provides data input to computer.

  11. Context based gait recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazazian, Shermin; Gavrilova, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Gait recognition has recently become a popular topic in the field of biometrics. However, the main hurdle is the insufficient recognition rate in the presence of low quality samples. The main focus of this paper is to investigate how the performance of a gait recognition system can be improved using additional information about behavioral patterns of users and the context in which samples have been taken. The obtained results show combining the context information with biometric data improves the performance of the system at a very low cost. The amount of improvement depends on the distinctiveness of the behavioral patterns and the quality of the gait samples. Using the appropriate distinctive behavioral models it is possible to achieve a 100% recognition rate.

  12. CASE Recognition Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A total of 294 schools, colleges, and universities received prizes in this year's CASE Recognition program. Awards were given in: public relations programs, student recruitment, marketing, program pulications, news writing, fund raising, radio programming, school periodicals, etc. (MLW)

  13. Progress in fold recognition.

    PubMed

    Flöckner, H; Braxenthaler, M; Lackner, P; Jaritz, M; Ortner, M; Sippl, M J

    1995-11-01

    The prediction experiment reveals that fold recognition has become a powerful tool in structural biology. We applied our fold recognition technique to 13 target sequences. In two cases, replication terminating protein and prosequence of subtilisin, the predicted structures are very similar to the experimentally determined folds. For the first time, in a public blind test, the unknown structures of proteins have been predicted ahead of experiment to an accuracy approaching molecular detail. In two other cases the approximate folds have been predicted correctly. According to the assessors there were 12 recognizable folds among the target proteins. In our postprediction analysis we find that in 7 cases our fold recognition technique is successful. In several of the remaining cases the predicted folds have interesting features in common with the experimental results. We present our procedure, discuss the results, and comment on several fundamental and technical problems encountered in fold recognition.

  14. Contaminants as viral cofactors: assessing indirect population effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springman, Katherine R.; Kurath, Gael; Anderson, James J.; Emlen, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Current toxicological methods often miss contaminant effects, particularly when immune suppression is involved. The failure to recognize and evaluate indirect and sublethal effects severely limits the applicability of those methods at the population level. In this study, the Vitality model is used to evaluate the population level effects of a contaminant exerting only indirect, sublethal effects at the individual level. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with 2.5 or 10.0 mg/kg doses of the model CYP1A inducer, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) as a pre-stressor, then exposed to a challenge dose of 102 or 104 pfu/fish of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an important viral pathogen of salmonids in North America. At the end of the 28-d challenge, the mortality data were processed according to the Vitality model which indicated that the correlation between the average rate of vitality loss and the pre-stressor dose was strong:R2 = 0.9944. Average time to death and cumulative mortality were dependent on the BNF dose, while no significant difference between the two viral dosages was shown, implying that the history of the organism at the time of stressor exposure is an important factor in determining the virulence or toxicity of the stressor. The conceptual framework of this model permits a smoother transfer of results to a more complex stratum, namely the population level, which allows the immunosuppressive results generated by doses of a CYP1A inducer that more accurately represent the effects elicited by environmentally-relevant contaminant concentrations to be extrapolated to target populations. The indirect effects of other environmental contaminants with similar biotransformation pathways, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), could be assessed and quantified with this model and the results applied to a more complex biological hierarchy.

  15. [Electrocardiograph beat pattern recognition].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qunyi; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huiling

    2005-02-01

    It is very important to recognize arrhythmia in clinical electrocardiography (ECG) analysis. The fundamental of beat pattern recognition is presented in this paper. Various prevalent methods for arrhythmia recognitiion are categorized and summarized, based on which the advantages and disadvantages among the methods are compared, and the main problems are discussed in depth. At last, the development trend of arrhythmia recognition technology is pointed out.

  16. Dark matter dynamics and indirect detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Merritt, David; /Rochester Inst. Tech.

    2005-04-01

    Non-baryonic, or ''dark'', matter is believed to be a major component of the total mass budget of the universe. We review the candidates for particle dark matter and discuss the prospects for direct detection (via interaction of dark matter particles with laboratory detectors) and indirect detection (via observations of the products of dark matter self-annihilations), focusing in particular on the Galactic center, which is among the most promising targets for indirect detection studies. The gravitational potential at the Galactic center is dominated by stars and by the supermassive black hole, and the dark matter distribution is expected to evolve on sub-parsec scales due to interaction with these components. We discuss the dominant interaction mechanisms and show how they can be used to rule out certain extreme models for the dark matter distribution, thus increasing the information that can be gleaned from indirect detection searches.

  17. Innate Invariant NKT Cell Recognition of HIV-1–Infected Dendritic Cells Is an Early Detection Mechanism Targeted by Viral Immune Evasion

    PubMed Central

    Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Gibbs, Anna; Bächle, Susanna M.; Checa, Antonio; Introini, Andrea; Leeansyah, Edwin; Wheelock, Craig E.; Nixon, Douglas F.; Broliden, Kristina; Tjernlund, Annelie; Moll, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are innate-like T cells that respond rapidly with a broad range of effector functions upon recognition of glycolipid Ags presented by CD1d. HIV-1 carries Nef- and Vpu-dependent mechanisms to interfere with CD1d surface expression, indirectly suggesting a role for iNKT cells in control of HIV-1 infection. In this study, we investigated whether iNKT cells can participate in the innate cell–mediated immune response to HIV-1. Infection of dendritic cells (DCs) with Nef- and Vpu-deficient HIV-1 induced upregulation of CD1d in a TLR7-dependent manner. Infection of DCs caused modulation of enzymes in the sphingolipid pathway and enhanced expression of the endogenous glucosylceramide Ag. Importantly, iNKT cells responded specifically to rare DCs productively infected with Nef- and Vpu-defective HIV-1. Transmitted founder viral isolates differed in their CD1d downregulation capacity, suggesting that diverse strains may be differentially successful in inhibiting this pathway. Furthermore, both iNKT cells and DCs expressing CD1d and HIV receptors resided in the female genital mucosa, a site where HIV-1 transmission occurs. Taken together, these findings suggest that innate iNKT cell sensing of HIV-1 infection in DCs is an early immune detection mechanism, which is independent of priming and adaptive recognition of viral Ag, and is actively targeted by Nef- and Vpu-dependent viral immune evasion mechanisms. PMID:27481843

  18. Innate Invariant NKT Cell Recognition of HIV-1-Infected Dendritic Cells Is an Early Detection Mechanism Targeted by Viral Immune Evasion.

    PubMed

    Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Gibbs, Anna; Bächle, Susanna M; Checa, Antonio; Introini, Andrea; Leeansyah, Edwin; Wheelock, Craig E; Nixon, Douglas F; Broliden, Kristina; Tjernlund, Annelie; Moll, Markus; Sandberg, Johan K

    2016-09-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are innate-like T cells that respond rapidly with a broad range of effector functions upon recognition of glycolipid Ags presented by CD1d. HIV-1 carries Nef- and Vpu-dependent mechanisms to interfere with CD1d surface expression, indirectly suggesting a role for iNKT cells in control of HIV-1 infection. In this study, we investigated whether iNKT cells can participate in the innate cell-mediated immune response to HIV-1. Infection of dendritic cells (DCs) with Nef- and Vpu-deficient HIV-1 induced upregulation of CD1d in a TLR7-dependent manner. Infection of DCs caused modulation of enzymes in the sphingolipid pathway and enhanced expression of the endogenous glucosylceramide Ag. Importantly, iNKT cells responded specifically to rare DCs productively infected with Nef- and Vpu-defective HIV-1. Transmitted founder viral isolates differed in their CD1d downregulation capacity, suggesting that diverse strains may be differentially successful in inhibiting this pathway. Furthermore, both iNKT cells and DCs expressing CD1d and HIV receptors resided in the female genital mucosa, a site where HIV-1 transmission occurs. Taken together, these findings suggest that innate iNKT cell sensing of HIV-1 infection in DCs is an early immune detection mechanism, which is independent of priming and adaptive recognition of viral Ag, and is actively targeted by Nef- and Vpu-dependent viral immune evasion mechanisms.

  19. Clinical guidelines for indirect resin restorations.

    PubMed

    Shannon, A

    1997-06-01

    Ongoing advances in adhesive dentistry have made it possible to successfully and predictably bond tooth-supporting restorations using conservative preparation techniques. Improvements in the durability and esthetic properties of tooth-colored restorative materials have also increased the range of available treatment options. However, dentists have been slow to accept both direct and indirect posterior esthetics. This article provides a step-by-step technique for practitioners who choose to treat their patients with indirect resin esthetic restorations. It will not discuss other posterior restorative treatment techniques or materials (i.e. gold, porcelain, amalgam, bonded amalgam, or direct resin).

  20. Epithelial Cells Augment Barrier Function via Activation of the Toll-Like Receptor 2/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway upon Recognition of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Curli Fibrils in the Gut

    PubMed Central

    Oppong, Gertrude O.; Rapsinski, Glenn J.; Newman, Tiffanny N.; Nishimori, Jessalyn H.; Biesecker, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    Curli fibrils, the best-characterized functional bacterial amyloids, are an important component of enterobacterial biofilms. We have previously shown that curli fibrils are recognized by the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/TLR1 heterodimer complex. Utilizing polarized T-84 cells, an intestinal epithelial cell line derived from colon carcinoma grown on semipermeable tissue culture inserts, we determined that infection with a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium csgBA mutant, which does not express curli, resulted in an increase in intestinal barrier permeability and an increase in bacterial translocation compared to infection with curliated wild-type S. Typhimurium. When the TLR2 downstream signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) was blocked using wortmannin or LY294002, the difference in disruption of the intestinal epithelium and bacterial translocation was no longer observed. Additionally, disruption of polarized T-84 cells treated basolaterally with the TLR5 ligand flagellin was prevented when the polarized cells were simultaneously treated with the synthetic TLR2/TLR1 ligand Pam3CSK4 or with purified curli fibrils in the apical compartment. Similar to in vitro observations, C57BL/6 mice infected with the csgBA mutant suffered increased disruption of the intestinal epithelium and therefore greater dissemination of the bacteria to the mesenteric lymph nodes than mice infected with wild-type S. Typhimurium. The differences in disruption of the intestinal epithelium and bacterial dissemination in the mice infected with csgBA mutant or wild-type S. Typhimurium were not apparent in TLR2-deficient mice. Overall, these studies report for the first time that activation of the TLR2/PI3K pathway by microbial amyloids plays a critical role in regulating the intestinal epithelial barrier as well as monitoring bacterial translocation during infection. PMID:23208603

  1. A 44 bp intestine-specific hermaphrodite-specific enhancer from the C. elegans vit-2 vitellogenin gene is directly regulated by ELT-2, MAB-3, FKH-9 and DAF-16 and indirectly regulated by the germline, by daf-2/insulin signaling and by the TGF-β/Sma/Mab pathway.

    PubMed

    Goszczynski, Barbara; Captan, Vasile V; Danielson, Alicia M; Lancaster, Brett R; McGhee, James D

    2016-05-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans vitellogenin genes are transcribed in the intestine of adult hermaphrodites but not of males. A 44-bp region from the vit-2 gene promoter is able largely to reconstitute this tissue-, stage- and sex-specific-expression. This "enhancer" contains a binding site for the DM-domain factor MAB-3, the male-specific repressor of vitellogenesis, as well as an activator site that we show is the direct target of the intestinal GATA factor ELT-2. We further show that the enhancer is directly activated by the winged-helix/forkhead-factor FKH-9, (whose gene has been shown by others to be a direct target of DAF-16), by an unknown activator binding to the MAB-3 site, and by the full C. elegans TGF-β/Sma/Mab pathway acting within the intestine. The vit-2 gene has been shown by others to be repressed by the daf-2/daf-16 insulin signaling pathway, which so strongly influences aging and longevity in C. elegans. We show that the activity of the 44 bp vit-2 enhancer is abolished by loss of daf-2 but is restored by simultaneous loss of daf-16. DAF-2 acts from outside of the intestine but DAF-16 acts both from outside of the intestine and from within the intestine where it binds directly to the same non-canonical target site that interacts with FKH-9. Activity of the 44 bp vit-2 enhancer is also inhibited by loss of the germline, in a manner that is only weakly influenced by DAF-16 but that is strongly influenced by KRI-1, a key downstream effector in the pathway by which germline loss increases C. elegans lifespan. The complex behavior of this enhancer presumably allows vitellogenin gene transcription to adjust to demands of body size, germline proliferation and nutritional state but we suggest that the apparent involvement of this enhancer in aging and longevity "pathways" could be incidental. PMID:26963674

  2. A 44 bp intestine-specific hermaphrodite-specific enhancer from the C. elegans vit-2 vitellogenin gene is directly regulated by ELT-2, MAB-3, FKH-9 and DAF-16 and indirectly regulated by the germline, by daf-2/insulin signaling and by the TGF-β/Sma/Mab pathway.

    PubMed

    Goszczynski, Barbara; Captan, Vasile V; Danielson, Alicia M; Lancaster, Brett R; McGhee, James D

    2016-05-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans vitellogenin genes are transcribed in the intestine of adult hermaphrodites but not of males. A 44-bp region from the vit-2 gene promoter is able largely to reconstitute this tissue-, stage- and sex-specific-expression. This "enhancer" contains a binding site for the DM-domain factor MAB-3, the male-specific repressor of vitellogenesis, as well as an activator site that we show is the direct target of the intestinal GATA factor ELT-2. We further show that the enhancer is directly activated by the winged-helix/forkhead-factor FKH-9, (whose gene has been shown by others to be a direct target of DAF-16), by an unknown activator binding to the MAB-3 site, and by the full C. elegans TGF-β/Sma/Mab pathway acting within the intestine. The vit-2 gene has been shown by others to be repressed by the daf-2/daf-16 insulin signaling pathway, which so strongly influences aging and longevity in C. elegans. We show that the activity of the 44 bp vit-2 enhancer is abolished by loss of daf-2 but is restored by simultaneous loss of daf-16. DAF-2 acts from outside of the intestine but DAF-16 acts both from outside of the intestine and from within the intestine where it binds directly to the same non-canonical target site that interacts with FKH-9. Activity of the 44 bp vit-2 enhancer is also inhibited by loss of the germline, in a manner that is only weakly influenced by DAF-16 but that is strongly influenced by KRI-1, a key downstream effector in the pathway by which germline loss increases C. elegans lifespan. The complex behavior of this enhancer presumably allows vitellogenin gene transcription to adjust to demands of body size, germline proliferation and nutritional state but we suggest that the apparent involvement of this enhancer in aging and longevity "pathways" could be incidental.

  3. Indirect Calibration In Electron-Probe Microanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terepka, F. M.; Vijaykumar, M.; Tewari, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Technique for indirect calibration in electron-probe microanalysis reduces number of measurements needed without significantly degrading precision of measurement data. Advantageous when many analyses must be performed; for example, determining varying chemical composition at many positions across specimen of multicomponent alloy. Time spent acquiring data reduced considerably.

  4. 7 CFR 2500.044 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2500.044 Section 2500.044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES Post-Award...

  5. 7 CFR 2500.044 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2500.044 Section 2500.044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES Post-Award...

  6. 7 CFR 2500.044 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2500.044 Section 2500.044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES Post-Award...

  7. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  8. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  9. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  10. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  11. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating...

  13. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... coverage, the contractor shall follow the criteria and guidance in 48 CFR 9904.406 for selecting the cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indirect costs. 31.203... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.203...

  14. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... coverage, the contractor shall follow the criteria and guidance in 48 CFR 9904.406 for selecting the cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect costs. 31.203... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.203...

  15. Teaching Indirect Speech: Deixis Points the Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests an alternative approach to the teaching of indirect or reported speech. Deixis is proposed as a means of clarifying the anomalies of reported speech. The problem is assessed from a grammatical and semantic point of view in the reporting of statements (as opposed to the reporting of questions or commands). (GLR)

  16. Goals and Indirect Objects in Seri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlett, Stephen A.

    A number of Seri verbs display a sensitivity to whether a goal, which is a term used for recipients, adressees, etc., is singular or plural. The data presented in this paper are of typological interest. It is argued that Seri has indirect objects, but that there is no one-to-one mapping between the semantic role goal and either the syntactic…

  17. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  18. Indirect Methods for Nuclear Reaction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S

    2005-11-18

    Several indirect approaches for obtaining reaction cross sections are briefly reviewed. The Surrogate Nuclear Reactions method, which aims at determining cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions, is discussed in some detail. The validity of the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation in the Surrogate approach is studied for the example of neutron-induced fission of an actinide nucleus.

  19. 48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Negotiated Indirect Cost Rate Agreement shall not change any monetary ceiling, obligation, or specific cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiated indirect cost... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 742.770 Negotiated indirect...

  20. 48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Negotiated Indirect Cost Rate Agreement shall not change any monetary ceiling, obligation, or specific cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Negotiated indirect cost... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 742.770 Negotiated indirect...

  1. 48 CFR 1542.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1542.705 Final indirect cost rates. (a) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Final indirect cost rates... shall be required to negotiate final indirect cost rates. (b) Contracting officers shall insert...

  2. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  3. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  4. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  5. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cost/tuition remission. 550.14 Section 550.14... Agreements § 550.14 Indirect cost/tuition remission. (a) Indirect cost—(1) State Cooperative Institutions... negotiated indirect cost rate schedule. (b) Tuition remission—(1) State Cooperative...

  6. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cost/tuition remission. 550.14 Section 550.14... Agreements § 550.14 Indirect cost/tuition remission. (a) Indirect cost—(1) State Cooperative Institutions... negotiated indirect cost rate schedule. (b) Tuition remission—(1) State Cooperative...

  7. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  8. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indirect cost/tuition remission. 550.14 Section 550.14... Agreements § 550.14 Indirect cost/tuition remission. (a) Indirect cost—(1) State Cooperative Institutions... negotiated indirect cost rate schedule. (b) Tuition remission—(1) State Cooperative...

  9. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  10. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost/tuition remission. 550.14 Section 550.14... Agreements § 550.14 Indirect cost/tuition remission. (a) Indirect cost—(1) State Cooperative Institutions... negotiated indirect cost rate schedule. (b) Tuition remission—(1) State Cooperative...

  11. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cost/tuition remission. 550.14 Section 550.14... Agreements § 550.14 Indirect cost/tuition remission. (a) Indirect cost—(1) State Cooperative Institutions... negotiated indirect cost rate schedule. (b) Tuition remission—(1) State Cooperative...

  12. Page Recognition: Quantum Leap In Recognition Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Larry

    1989-07-01

    No milestone has proven as elusive as the always-approaching "year of the LAN," but the "year of the scanner" might claim the silver medal. Desktop scanners have been around almost as long as personal computers. And everyone thinks they are used for obvious desktop-publishing and business tasks like scanning business documents, magazine articles and other pages, and translating those words into files your computer understands. But, until now, the reality fell far short of the promise. Because it's true that scanners deliver an accurate image of the page to your computer, but the software to recognize this text has been woefully disappointing. Old optical-character recognition (OCR) software recognized such a limited range of pages as to be virtually useless to real users. (For example, one OCR vendor specified 12-point Courier font from an IBM Selectric typewriter: the same font in 10-point, or from a Diablo printer, was unrecognizable!) Computer dealers have told me the chasm between OCR expectations and reality is so broad and deep that nine out of ten prospects leave their stores in disgust when they learn the limitations. And this is a very important, very unfortunate gap. Because the promise of recognition -- what people want it to do -- carries with it tremendous improvements in our productivity and ability to get tons of written documents into our computers where we can do real work with it. The good news is that a revolutionary new development effort has led to the new technology of "page recognition," which actually does deliver the promise we've always wanted from OCR. I'm sure every reader appreciates the breakthrough represented by the laser printer and page-makeup software, a combination so powerful it created new reasons for buying a computer. A similar breakthrough is happening right now in page recognition: the Macintosh (and, I must admit, other personal computers) equipped with a moderately priced scanner and OmniPage software (from Caere

  13. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  14. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards. PMID:24591599

  15. An algorithm for linear metabolic pathway alignment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Hofestaedt, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Metabolic pathway alignment represents one of the most powerful tools for comparative analysis of metabolism. It involves recognition of metabolites common to a set of functionally-related metabolic pathways, interpretation of biological evolution processes and determination of alternative metabolic pathways. Moreover, it is of assistance in function prediction and metabolism modeling. Although research on genomic sequence alignment is extensive, the problem of aligning metabolic pathways has received less attention. We are motivated to develop an algorithm of metabolic pathway alignment to reveal the similarities between metabolic pathways. A new definition of the metabolic pathway is introduced. The algorithm has been implemented into the PathAligner system; its web-based interface is available at http://bibiserv.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/pathaligner/.

  16. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  17. Toward hyperspectral face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robila, Stefan A.

    2008-02-01

    Face recognition continues to meet significant challenges in reaching accurate results and still remains one of the activities where humans outperform technology. An attractive approach in improving face identification is provided by the fusion of multiple imaging sources such as visible and infrared images. Hyperspectral data, i.e. images collected over hundreds of narrow contiguous light spectrum intervals constitute a natural choice for expanding face recognition image fusion, especially since it may provide information beyond the normal visible range, thus exceeding the normal human sensing. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of hyperspectral face recognition through an in house experiment that collected data in over 120 bands within the visible and near infrared range. The imagery was produced using an off the shelf sensor in both indoors and outdoors with the subjects being photographed from various angles. Further processing included spectra collection and feature extraction. Human matching performance based on spectral properties is discussed.

  18. Proline-rich Sequence Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Schlundt, Andreas; Sticht, Jana; Piotukh, Kirill; Kosslick, Daniela; Jahnke, Nadin; Keller, Sandro; Schuemann, Michael; Krause, Eberhard; Freund, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The tumor maintenance protein Tsg101 has recently gained much attention because of its involvement in endosomal sorting, virus release, cytokinesis, and cancerogenesis. The ubiquitin-E2-like variant (UEV) domain of the protein interacts with proline-rich sequences of target proteins that contain P(S/T)AP amino acid motifs and weakly binds to the ubiquitin moiety of proteins committed to sorting or degradation. Here we performed peptide spot analysis and phage display to refine the peptide binding specificity of the Tsg101 UEV domain. A mass spectrometric proteomics approach that combines domain-based pulldown experiments, binding site inactivation, and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was then used to delineate the relative importance of the peptide and ubiquitin binding sites. Clearly “PTAP” interactions dominate target recognition, and we identified several novel binders as for example the poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1), Sec24b, NFκB2, and eIF4b. For PABP1 and eIF4b the interactions were confirmed in the context of the corresponding full-length proteins in cellular lysates. Therefore, our results strongly suggest additional roles of Tsg101 in cellular regulation of mRNA translation. Regulation of Tsg101 itself by the ubiquitin ligase TAL (Tsg101-associated ligase) is most likely conferred by a single PSAP binding motif that enables the interaction with Tsg101 UEV. Together with the results from the accompanying article (Kofler, M., Schuemann, M., Merz, C., Kosslick, D., Schlundt, A., Tannert, A., Schaefer, M., Lührmann, R., Krause, E., and Freund, C. (2009) Proline-rich sequence recognition: I. Marking GYF and WW domain assembly sites in early spliceosomal complexes. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 8, 2461–2473) on GYF and WW domain pathways our work defines major proline-rich sequence-mediated interaction networks that contribute to the modular assembly of physiologically relevant protein complexes. PMID:19542561

  19. Pattern recognition receptors in microbial keratitis.

    PubMed

    Taube, M-A; del Mar Cendra, M; Elsahn, A; Christodoulides, M; Hossain, P

    2015-11-01

    Microbial keratitis is a significant cause of global visual impairment and blindness. Corneal infection can be caused by a wide variety of pathogens, each of which exhibits a range of mechanisms by which the immune system is activated. The complexity of the immune response to corneal infection is only now beginning to be elucidated. Crucial to the cornea's defences are the pattern-recognition receptors: Toll-like and Nod-like receptors and the subsequent activation of inflammatory pathways. These inflammatory pathways include the inflammasome and can lead to significant tissue destruction and corneal damage, with the potential for resultant blindness. Understanding the immune mechanisms behind this tissue destruction may enable improved identification of therapeutic targets to aid development of more specific therapies for reducing corneal damage in infectious keratitis. This review summarises current knowledge of pattern-recognition receptors and their downstream pathways in response to the major keratitis-causing organisms and alludes to potential therapeutic approaches that could alleviate corneal blindness.

  20. Indirect calorimetry in critically ill patients: role of the clinical dietitian in interpreting results.

    PubMed

    Porter, C; Cohen, N H

    1996-01-01

    Evaluation and interpretation of energy needs of critically ill patients require the expertise of clinical dietitians: Dietitians must be knowledgeable about the methods available to quantify energy needs and able to communicate effectively with physicians and nurses regarding nutritional requirements. Several prediction equations are available for calculating energy needs of critically ill patients. Indirect calorimetry is also used frequently to measure energy requirements in this patient population. This article defines when energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry may provide clinically useful information. Data obtained by indirect calorimetry must be interpreted carefully. Indirect calorimetry is based on the equations for oxidation of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Errors in interpretation can be made when metabolic pathways other than oxidation dominate or when clinical conditions exist that affect carbon dioxide excretion from the lungs. Before incorporating data obtained from indirect calorimetry into a nutrition care plan, the clinical dietitian should carefully evaluate the following factors for a patient: clinical conditions when the measurement was made, desired weight loss or gain, tolerance to food or nutrition support, relationship between protein intake and energy need, and need for anabolism or growth. This article provides clinical examples illustrating how measured values compare with calculated values and recommendations for how to incorporate measured values into nutrition care plans. PMID:8537570

  1. The differential effects of brief exposures and surrounding contours on direct and indirect tilt illusions.

    PubMed

    Wenderoth, P; Johnstone, S

    1988-01-01

    Four experiments in which logarithmic intervals between 25 and 1600 ms were used for stimulus duration in tests for the tilt illusion are reported. It is demonstrated that the direct and the indirect tilt illusions both increase in magnitude inversely with length of stimulus presentation. The data suggest that whereas the direct effect peaks with a value of about +7 degrees at the shortest flash duration used (25 ms), peak indirect effects (of about +2 degrees) do not occur at this duration. In addition, whereas direct effects level out after 100 ms stimulus exposure times, to the usual magnitude obtained with long presentations (about +2 degrees), indirect effects reach their standard magnitude (-0.5 degrees to -1.0 degrees) later, at exposures of about 400 ms. Even at very short flash durations, a luminance square frame surrounding the illusion display reduces the indirect effect by two thirds of its magnitude but has no effect at all on the direct effect. It is suggested that direct effects arise early in visual processing, in area V1, where there are transient mechanisms and where corruption of orientation analysis by the inducing grating would occur prior to later, extrastriate, global analysis of the surrounding peripheral frame. Indirect effects, on the other hand, may arise later, along the sustained parvocellular colour-form pathway, where more global processing occurs and susceptibility to surrounding fields might be expected.

  2. [Direct and indirect mucosal wave imaging techniques].

    PubMed

    Krasnodębska, Paulina; Szkiełkowska, Agata

    2016-04-01

    The vocal folds play a key role in the process of phonation. Cyclical movements of the vocal folds model a space called glottis, what leads to voice formation. The space contains surface between the vocal folds and the inner surface of the arytenoid cartilages. The best indicator of the vocal folds vibratory function is the mucosal wave. The presence and size of the mucosal wave is widely recognized as an indicator of tension and plasticity of vocal folds. It is also essential in the process of creating a proper, resonant voice. In the article, current knowledge of mucosal wave imaging techniques is given. Imaging can be carried out directly and indirectly. Among the direct methods, the following are distinguished: laryngostroboscopy, laryngovideostroboscopy, videokymography and high-speed digital imaging. Indirect methods include: electroglottography, photoglottography and ultrasonography. PMID:27137829

  3. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France. PMID:19671436

  4. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France.

  5. Indirect hemagglutination test for chlamydial antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, V J; Thacker, W L; Engelman, H M

    1972-07-01

    An indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test is described for chlamydial antibodies in psittacosis diagnostic sera; for this test tanned sheep erythrocytes sensitized with a deoxycholate extract of Chlamydia psittaci grown in Vero cell monolayers were used. Adaptation of the IHA test to the Microtiter system decreased sensitivity; nevertheless, the Microtiter-IHA test was more sensitive than the complement fixation test. Lymphogranuloma venereum antibodies also were detected by using antigen extracted from C. psittaci. PMID:4626906

  6. Indirect techniques for astrophysical reaction rates determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammache, F.; Oulebsir, N.; Benamara, S.; De Séréville, N.; Coc, A.; Laird, A.; Stefan, I.; Roussel, P.

    2016-05-01

    Direct measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest can be challenging. Alternative experimental techniques such as transfer reactions and inelastic scattering reactions offer the possibility to study these reactions by using stable beams. In this context, I will present recent results that were obtained in Orsay using indirect techniques. The examples will concern various astrophysical sites, from the Big-Bang nucleo synthesis to the production of radioisotopes in massive stars.

  7. Color indirect effects on melatonin regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan

    2002-04-01

    Color indirect effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.

  8. Direct and indirect mate choice on leks.

    PubMed

    Saether, Stein Are; Baglo, Ragnhild; Fiske, Peder; Ekblom, Robert; Höglund, Jacob; Kålås, John Atle

    2005-08-01

    Indirect mate choice is any behavior that restricts the individual's set of potential mates without discrimination of mate attributes directly, for example, by having preferences about where to mate. We analyzed a 14-year data set from great snipe (Gallinago media) leks for evidence of indirect mate choice based on relative and absolute position of lek territories. We found little or no effect of the centrality of territories on mating and no between-year consistency in the spatial distribution of matings within leks. Instead, the probability of matings occurring at a particular site increased if the current territory owner had mated the previous year. Furthermore, individual females returned in later seasons to mate with the same male as previously rather than at the same site. Previous work found that male interactions and dominance do not control matings and that females are very choosy about which territory they mate in. Here we show that this is because of the male occupying the territory rather than its position. We therefore conclude that direct female mate choice is the main behavioral process affecting variation in mating success among great snipe males, unlike in some lekking mammals where male competition and/or indirect mate choice appears more important.

  9. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  10. Recognition for Employed Inventors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Howard J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents arguments for monetary rewards and other forms of recognition by employers for inventions of employed inventors, particularly as the concept applies to stimulating innovativeness in America. Discusses the controversy of federally mandated compensation for employed inventors. The efforts of the American Chemical Society along these lines…

  11. Units of Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Carol M.; And Others

    Both psychologists and reading specialists have been interested in whether words are processed letter by letter or in larger units. A reaction time paradigm was used to evaluate these options with interest focused on potential units of word recognition which might be functional within single syllable words. The basic paradigm involved presenting…

  12. Optical Character Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  13. [Facial recognition and autism].

    PubMed

    Assumpçäo Júnior, F B; Sprovieri, M H; Kuczynski, E; Farinha, V

    1999-12-01

    Through the presentation of four facial expressions' illustrations, we evaluate the capacity of autistic children recognition, comparing with normal intelligence children and adults. The comparison of results was accomplished through the qui-square test. The differences observed were significant, showing that a disturbance of the facial expressions' perception is present in autistic children, and that it interferes directly in the social relationships.

  14. Recognition Memory for Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Participants are more likely to give positive responses on a recognition test to pseudowords (pronounceable nonwords) than words. A series of experiments suggests that this difference reflects the greater overall familiarity of pseudowords than of words. Pseudowords receive higher ratings of similarity to a studied list than do words. Pseudowords…

  15. Microprocessor for speech recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, H.; Watari, M.; Sakoe, H.; Chiba, S.; Iwata, T.; Matsuki, T.; Kawakami, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A new single-chip microprocessor for speech recognition has been developed utilizing multi-processor architecture and pipelined structure. By DP-matching algorithm, the processor recognizes up to 340 isolated words or 40 connected words in realtime. 6 references.

  16. 1987 CASE Recognition Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 CASE Recognition Awards are presented for: general excellence in programs; student recruitment marketing improvement; video public service announcements, news, and commercial spots; total publications; magazines of the decade; improvement in periodicals; photocommunications via print; designer of the year and series; and imagination in…

  17. Pattern recognition in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Dick; de Ridder, Jeroen; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2013-09-01

    Pattern recognition is concerned with the development of systems that learn to solve a given problem using a set of example instances, each represented by a number of features. These problems include clustering, the grouping of similar instances; classification, the task of assigning a discrete label to a given instance; and dimensionality reduction, combining or selecting features to arrive at a more useful representation. The use of statistical pattern recognition algorithms in bioinformatics is pervasive. Classification and clustering are often applied to high-throughput measurement data arising from microarray, mass spectrometry and next-generation sequencing experiments for selecting markers, predicting phenotype and grouping objects or genes. Less explicitly, classification is at the core of a wide range of tools such as predictors of genes, protein function, functional or genetic interactions, etc., and used extensively in systems biology. A course on pattern recognition (or machine learning) should therefore be at the core of any bioinformatics education program. In this review, we discuss the main elements of a pattern recognition course, based on material developed for courses taught at the BSc, MSc and PhD levels to an audience of bioinformaticians, computer scientists and life scientists. We pay attention to common problems and pitfalls encountered in applications and in interpretation of the results obtained.

  18. Soil-mediated indirect impacts of an invasive predator on plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, David A.; Bellingham, Peter J.; Fukami, Tadashi; Bonner, Karen I.

    2012-01-01

    While several studies have shown that invasive plant effects on soil biota influence subsequent plant performance, corresponding studies on how invasive animals affect plants through influencing soil biota are lacking. This is despite the fact that invasive animals often indirectly alter the below-ground subsystem. We studied 18 offshore islands in northern New Zealand, half of which have been invaded by rats that are predators of seabirds and severely reduce their densities, and half of which remain non-invaded; invasion of rats thwarts seabird transfer of resources from ocean to land. We used soil from each island in a glasshouse experiment involving soil sterilization treatments to determine whether rat invasion indirectly influences plant growth through the abiotic pathway (by impairing seabird-driven inputs to soil) or the biotic pathway (by altering the soil community). Rat invasion greatly impaired plant growth but entirely through the abiotic pathway. Plant growth was unaffected by the soil community or its response to invasion, meaning that the responses of plants and soil biota to invasion are decoupled. Our results provide experimental evidence for the powerful indirect effects that predator-instigated cascades can exert on plant and ecosystem productivity, with implications for the restoration of island ecosystems by predator removal. PMID:22496079

  19. Pathways of Antigen Processing

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Janice S.; Wearsch, Pamela A.; Cresswell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    T cell recognition of antigen presenting cells depends on their expression of a spectrum of peptides bound to Major Histocompatibility Complex class I (MHC-I) and class II (MHC-II) molecules. Conversion of antigens from pathogens or transformed cells into MHC-I and MHC-II-bound peptides is critical for mounting protective T cell responses, and similar processing of self proteins is necessary to establish and maintain tolerance. Cells use a variety of mechanisms to acquire protein antigens, from translation in the cytosol to variations on the theme of endocytosis, and to degrade them once acquired. In this review we highlight the aspects of MHC-I and MHC-II biosynthesis and assembly that have evolved to intersect these pathways and sample the peptides that are produced. PMID:23298205

  20. A neuromorphic system for video object recognition.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam

    2014-01-01

    Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS), is inspired by computational neuroscience models of feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what) and dorsal (where) streams of the mammalian visual pathway and integrates retinal processing, object detection based on form and motion modeling, and object classification based on convolutional neural networks. The object recognition performance and energy use of the NEOVUS was evaluated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Neovision2 program using three urban area video datasets collected from a mix of stationary and moving platforms. These datasets are challenging and include a large number of objects of different types in cluttered scenes, with varying illumination and occlusion conditions. In a systematic evaluation of five different teams by DARPA on these datasets, the NEOVUS demonstrated the best performance with high object recognition accuracy and the lowest energy consumption. Its energy use was three orders of magnitude lower than two independent state of the art baseline computer vision systems. The dynamic power requirement for the complete system mapped to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware that includes a 5.6 Megapixel color camera processed by object detection and classification algorithms at 30 frames per second was measured at 21.7 Watts (W), for an effective energy consumption of 5.45 nanoJoules (nJ) per bit of incoming video. These unprecedented results show that the NEOVUS has the potential to revolutionize automated video object recognition toward enabling practical low-power and mobile video processing

  1. A neuromorphic system for video object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam

    2014-01-01

    Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS), is inspired by computational neuroscience models of feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what) and dorsal (where) streams of the mammalian visual pathway and integrates retinal processing, object detection based on form and motion modeling, and object classification based on convolutional neural networks. The object recognition performance and energy use of the NEOVUS was evaluated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Neovision2 program using three urban area video datasets collected from a mix of stationary and moving platforms. These datasets are challenging and include a large number of objects of different types in cluttered scenes, with varying illumination and occlusion conditions. In a systematic evaluation of five different teams by DARPA on these datasets, the NEOVUS demonstrated the best performance with high object recognition accuracy and the lowest energy consumption. Its energy use was three orders of magnitude lower than two independent state of the art baseline computer vision systems. The dynamic power requirement for the complete system mapped to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware that includes a 5.6 Megapixel color camera processed by object detection and classification algorithms at 30 frames per second was measured at 21.7 Watts (W), for an effective energy consumption of 5.45 nanoJoules (nJ) per bit of incoming video. These unprecedented results show that the NEOVUS has the potential to revolutionize automated video object recognition toward enabling practical low-power and mobile video processing

  2. A neuromorphic system for video object recognition.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam

    2014-01-01

    Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS), is inspired by computational neuroscience models of feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what) and dorsal (where) streams of the mammalian visual pathway and integrates retinal processing, object detection based on form and motion modeling, and object classification based on convolutional neural networks. The object recognition performance and energy use of the NEOVUS was evaluated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Neovision2 program using three urban area video datasets collected from a mix of stationary and moving platforms. These datasets are challenging and include a large number of objects of different types in cluttered scenes, with varying illumination and occlusion conditions. In a systematic evaluation of five different teams by DARPA on these datasets, the NEOVUS demonstrated the best performance with high object recognition accuracy and the lowest energy consumption. Its energy use was three orders of magnitude lower than two independent state of the art baseline computer vision systems. The dynamic power requirement for the complete system mapped to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware that includes a 5.6 Megapixel color camera processed by object detection and classification algorithms at 30 frames per second was measured at 21.7 Watts (W), for an effective energy consumption of 5.45 nanoJoules (nJ) per bit of incoming video. These unprecedented results show that the NEOVUS has the potential to revolutionize automated video object recognition toward enabling practical low-power and mobile video processing

  3. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer){sup 2} were

  4. Supporting Quality Teachers with Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Hans A.

    2011-01-01

    Value has been found in providing recognition and awards programs for excellent teachers. Research has also found a major lack of these programs in both the USA and in Australia. Teachers receiving recognition and awards for their teaching have praised recognition programs as providing motivation for them to continue high-level instruction.…

  5. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  6. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  7. Indirect sources of herbicide exposure for families on Ontario farms.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Tye E; Bruce, Dana; Ritter, Len; Hall, J Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Although direct contact during mixing/loading, application or repair and clean-up is the major pathway by which individuals living on farms are exposed to herbicides, indirect sources such as contact with contaminated surfaces may also contribute. As part of a biomonitoring study to measure the nature and extent of exposure of farm families to herbicides, we attempted to identify potential indirect sources of exposure in a subset of 32 Ontario farms. Herbicide residues in drinking water samples as well as surface swipes of common surfaces within the home were measured and compared with urinary concentrations of the applicator, spouse and child. Residues of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were measured on all surfaces that were tested, with the highest levels found on the washing machine knob and wash-up faucet within the home. Drinking water was not a significant source of exposure to 2,4-D for farm families. Urine samples of family members were weakly correlated with residues of 2,4-D measured on the exterior door knob. The applicators in our study, the most highly exposed subpopulation in our study group, had exposures that were less than one-third of the exposure on a daily, lifetime basis deemed to be safe by regulatory agencies in Canada and the United States. As 2,4-D residues were detected on surfaces in farm homes where 2,4-D was not reportedly used at that time, this suggests that 2,4-D applied during a previous season (or on a neighbouring farm) may be tracked into the home and persist on hard surfaces and be a chronic, albeit low level, source of exposure for family members. Pesticide applicators and their families should be counselled on hygienic practices (e.g. removing footware and washing soiled hands prior to entering the home) to reduce indirect sources of exposure. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2006) 16, 98-104. doi:10.1038/sj.jea.7500441; published online 13 July 2005. PMID:16015277

  8. Recurrent Processing during Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Randall C.; Wyatte, Dean; Herd, Seth; Mingus, Brian; Jilk, David J.

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of naturally occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain’s visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time. PMID:23554596

  9. Indirect interactions in the High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Roslin, Tomas; Wirta, Helena; Hopkins, Tapani; Hardwick, Bess; Várkonyi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Indirect interactions as mediated by higher and lower trophic levels have been advanced as key forces structuring herbivorous arthropod communities around the globe. Here, we present a first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic. Targeting the Lepidoptera of Northeast Greenland, we introduce generalized overlap indices as a novel tool for comparing different types of indirect interactions. First, we quantify the scope for top-down-up interactions as the probability that a herbivore attacking plant species i itself fed as a larva on species j. Second, we gauge this herbivore overlap against the potential for bottom-up-down interactions, quantified as the probability that a parasitoid attacking herbivore species i itself developed as a larva on species j. Third, we assess the impact of interactions with other food web modules, by extending the core web around the key herbivore Sympistis nigrita to other predator guilds (birds and spiders). We find the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers. Indirect links through shared resources and through shared natural enemies both emerge as forces with a potential for shaping the herbivore community. The structure of the host-parasitoid submodule of the food web suggests scope for classic apparent competition. Yet, based on predation experiments, we estimate that birds kill as many (8%) larvae of S. nigrita as do parasitoids (8%), and that spiders kill many more (38%). Interactions between these predator guilds may result in further complexities. Our results caution against broad generalizations from studies of limited food web modules, and show the potential for interactions within and between guilds of extended webs. They also add a data point from the northernmost insect communities on Earth, and describe the baseline structure of a food web facing imminent climate change. PMID

  10. Evaluating The Indirect Effect of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, S.; Jonas, P. R.

    What effect would an increase in nucleating aerosols have on the radiative and cloud properties? What error would be incurred by evaluating the indirect effect by taking an evolved cloud and fixing the integrated water content and vary the number of ice crystals? These questions will be addressed in this work. We will use the UK LES cloud resolving model to perform a sensitivity study for cirrus clouds to the indirect effect, and will evaluate approximate methods in the process. In this work, we will initialize the base (no increase of aerosol) cirrus clouds so that the double moment scheme is constrained to agree with observations through the ef- fective radius. Effective radius is calculated using the local concentration and the ice water content. We then perform a sensitivity experiment to investigate the dependence of the average IWC, effective size, and radiative properties (including heating rates) to variations in the nucleation rate. Conclusions will be draw as to the possible ef- fect of changes in aerosol amounts on cirrus. We will determine how sensitive the cloud and radiative properties are to various aerosol increases. We will also discuss the applicability of the Meyer et al. (1992) nucleation formulae for our simulations. It is important to stress that in this work we only change the nucleation rate for the newly forming cloud. By doing this, we are not fixing the total water content and redistributing the water amongst increased ice crystals. We increase the number of aerosols available to be nucleated and allow the model to evolve the size distributions. In this way, there is competition for the water vapour, the ice particles are evolved dynamically with different fall speeds, the conversion rates to other hydrometers (such as aggregates) are affected, and the heating rates are different due to the different size distributions that evolve. We will look at how the water content, the distribution of water, and the radiative properties are affected

  11. Indirect Interactions in the High Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Roslin, Tomas; Wirta, Helena; Hopkins, Tapani; Hardwick, Bess; Várkonyi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Indirect interactions as mediated by higher and lower trophic levels have been advanced as key forces structuring herbivorous arthropod communities around the globe. Here, we present a first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic. Targeting the Lepidoptera of Northeast Greenland, we introduce generalized overlap indices as a novel tool for comparing different types of indirect interactions. First, we quantify the scope for top-down-up interactions as the probability that a herbivore attacking plant species i itself fed as a larva on species j. Second, we gauge this herbivore overlap against the potential for bottom-up-down interactions, quantified as the probability that a parasitoid attacking herbivore species i itself developed as a larva on species j. Third, we assess the impact of interactions with other food web modules, by extending the core web around the key herbivore Sympistis nigrita to other predator guilds (birds and spiders). We find the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers. Indirect links through shared resources and through shared natural enemies both emerge as forces with a potential for shaping the herbivore community. The structure of the host-parasitoid submodule of the food web suggests scope for classic apparent competition. Yet, based on predation experiments, we estimate that birds kill as many (8%) larvae of S. nigrita as do parasitoids (8%), and that spiders kill many more (38%). Interactions between these predator guilds may result in further complexities. Our results caution against broad generalizations from studies of limited food web modules, and show the potential for interactions within and between guilds of extended webs. They also add a data point from the northernmost insect communities on Earth, and describe the baseline structure of a food web facing imminent climate change. PMID

  12. Recognition of Teaching Excellence*

    PubMed Central

    Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, alumni, peer, and self-assessment. The task force identifies important considerations that colleges and schools must address when establishing teaching recognition programs including the purpose, criteria, number and mix of awards, frequency, type of award, and method of nominating and determining awardees. The report concludes with recommendations for the academy to consider when establishing and revising teaching award programs. PMID:21301598

  13. Recognition of teaching excellence.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Dana; Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven

    2010-11-10

    The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, alumni, peer, and self-assessment. The task force identifies important considerations that colleges and schools must address when establishing teaching recognition programs including the purpose, criteria, number and mix of awards, frequency, type of award, and method of nominating and determining awardees. The report concludes with recommendations for the academy to consider when establishing and revising teaching award programs.

  14. Is iprindole an indirect betamimetic drug?

    PubMed

    Ganry, H; Bourin, M

    1988-01-01

    Iprindole, an active antidepressant in clinical use, has no effect on norepinephrine reuptake and does not bind to receptors of the noradrenergic system. Iprindole weakly antagonizes reserpine hypothermia and potentiates yohimbine toxicity. This effect is antagonized by propranolol but not by atenolol or metoprolol. In an acute dose, iprindole potentiates the effect of maprotiline on yohimbine toxicity. Beta 2-adrenergic agonists and antagonists specifically modify the effect of iprindole on spontaneous motility. These results indicate that iprindole has an indirect beta 2-mimetic effect.

  15. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  16. Pathway fraction of bromate formation during O₃ and O₃/H₂O₂ processes in drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shengqi; Mao, Yuqin; Lv, Miao; Sun, Lili; Wang, Xiaomao; Yang, Hongwei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2016-02-01

    Ozone process has been widely used for drinking water treatment recently. In the oxidation process, bromate is formed by three pathways, i.e., the direct pathway, the direct-indirect pathway and the indirect-direct pathway. This study developed a method to calculate the percentage of these three pathways for bromate formation during O3 process and O3/H2O2 process. Two kinds of water, distilled water containing bromide (DW) and surface water from the Yellow River (SW) were selected as raw rater. The result showed that in natural water systems, the direct-indirect pathway was dominant for bromate formation during the oxidation process. When 3 mg L(-1) O3 was used as the only oxidant, nearly 26% of bromide ion was transferred into bromate in two kinds of water after 80 min. The dominant pathway in DW was the direct pathway (48.5%) and the direct-indirect pathway (46.5%), while that was the direct-indirect pathway (68.9%) in SW. When O3/H2O2 were used as oxidants, as the H2O2 dosage increased, the fractions of bromate formation by direct pathway and direct-indirect pathway decreased, while that by indirect-direct pathway increased. The conversion ratio from bromide to bromate first kept stable or increased, then decreased and reached its minimum when [H2O2]/[O3] ratio was 1.0 in DW and 1.5 in SW. Under this condition the indirect-direct pathway took the largest fraction of 70.7% in DW and 64.0% in SW, respectively.

  17. Pathway fraction of bromate formation during O₃ and O₃/H₂O₂ processes in drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shengqi; Mao, Yuqin; Lv, Miao; Sun, Lili; Wang, Xiaomao; Yang, Hongwei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2016-02-01

    Ozone process has been widely used for drinking water treatment recently. In the oxidation process, bromate is formed by three pathways, i.e., the direct pathway, the direct-indirect pathway and the indirect-direct pathway. This study developed a method to calculate the percentage of these three pathways for bromate formation during O3 process and O3/H2O2 process. Two kinds of water, distilled water containing bromide (DW) and surface water from the Yellow River (SW) were selected as raw rater. The result showed that in natural water systems, the direct-indirect pathway was dominant for bromate formation during the oxidation process. When 3 mg L(-1) O3 was used as the only oxidant, nearly 26% of bromide ion was transferred into bromate in two kinds of water after 80 min. The dominant pathway in DW was the direct pathway (48.5%) and the direct-indirect pathway (46.5%), while that was the direct-indirect pathway (68.9%) in SW. When O3/H2O2 were used as oxidants, as the H2O2 dosage increased, the fractions of bromate formation by direct pathway and direct-indirect pathway decreased, while that by indirect-direct pathway increased. The conversion ratio from bromide to bromate first kept stable or increased, then decreased and reached its minimum when [H2O2]/[O3] ratio was 1.0 in DW and 1.5 in SW. Under this condition the indirect-direct pathway took the largest fraction of 70.7% in DW and 64.0% in SW, respectively. PMID:26615492

  18. 48 CFR 3442.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates. 3442.705 Section 3442.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 3442.705 Final indirect cost...

  19. 48 CFR 942.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates. 942.705 Section 942.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 942.705 Final indirect cost rates....

  20. 48 CFR 1342.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... costs. 1342.703-2 Section 1342.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1342.703-2 Certificate of indirect costs... indirect cost rates is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  1. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  2. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  3. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  4. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  5. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  6. The Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway Negatively Regulates Nod2-Mediated NF-kB Pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing proteins (Nods) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved moieties of bacterial peptidoglycan and activate downstream signaling pathways including NF-kB pathway. Here, we show that Nod2 agonist MDP induces Ak...

  7. Direct and indirect exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Thron, R W

    1996-02-01

    Hazardous substances that originally are discharged as air pollutants may find their pathway to human exposure through multiple routes, including ingestion and dermal contact, as well as direct inhalation. The mechanisms for modeling and understanding the fate of air pollutants through atmospheric transport, deposition into water and soil, bioaccumulation, and ultimate uptake to receptor organs and systems in the human body are complex. Pollution prevention programs can be better engineered, pollution priorities can be identified, and greater environmental public health gains (attributable to pollution prevention) can be achieved by evaluating the multiple pathways to human exposure and through improved dosage calculations. A single contaminant source often may represent only a fraction of a total body pollutant burden. Further research is needed on source culpability and attributable risk, long-range transport of air pollutants, human dose contributions by various pathways, better techniques for health risk assessment, and an identification of human behavior patterns that affect exposure and dose.

  8. [Traumatic complications of indirect cardiac massage].

    PubMed

    Stefan, J; Gregora, Z; Krumlová, V

    1989-11-01

    The author analyzed injuries in 238 subjects where before death indirect cardiac massage was applied by skilled health workers. The ribs were fractures in 27.7% and the sternum in 16% of the deceased, injuries of other organs were detected 13 times (5.5%). In women injuries were more frequent and fractures of the sternum markedly more frequent than in men. While in men rib fractures on the left side were more frequent than on the rights side, in women this difference was not observed. Rib fractures were mostly in the medioclavicular line at the level of the 3rd-5th rib. The fractures of the sternum were also most frequently at the level between the 3rd and 5th rib. No fractures of the 10th-12th rib were found. The author observed an age-depunende cy of rib fractures in men and women, while fractures of the sternum were age-dependent only in men. There was no relationship with age as regards injuries of other organs. Only in two deceased subjects the injury which developed during indirect cardiac massage was the immediate cause of death. Once it was rupture of the interval mammary vein with haemorrhage into the mediastinum and haemorrhage into the chest, in the other case rupture of the right ventricle with cardiac tamponade.

  9. Evolutionary indirect effects of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jennifer A

    2012-09-01

    Just as ecological indirect effects can have a wide range of consequences for community structure and ecosystem function, theory suggests that evolutionary indirect effects can also influence community dynamics and the outcome of species interactions. There is little empirical evidence documenting such effects, however. Here, I use a multi-generation selection experiment in the field to investigate: (1) how the exotic plant Medicago polymorpha and the exotic insect herbivore Hypera brunneipennis affect the evolution of anti-herbivore resistance traits in the native plant Lotus wrangelianus and (2) how observed Lotus evolutionary responses to Hypera alter interactions between Lotus and other members of the herbivore community. In one of two study populations, I document rapid evolutionary changes in Lotus resistance to Hypera in response to insecticide treatments that experimentally reduced Hypera abundance, and in response to Medicago-removal treatments that also reduced Hypera abundance. These evolutionary changes in response to Hypera result in reduced attack by aphids. Thus, an evolutionary change caused by one herbivore species alters interactions with other herbivore taxa, an example of an eco-evolutionary feedback. Given that many traits mediate interactions with multiple species, the effects of evolutionary changes in response to one key biotic selective agent may often cascade through interaction webs to influence additional community members.

  10. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  11. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  12. Characterization and expression analysis of a peptidoglycan recognition protein gene, SmPGRP2 in mucosal tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) following bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linan; Gao, Chengbin; Liu, Fengqiao; Song, Lin; Su, Baofeng; Li, Chao

    2016-09-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition receptor proteins (PGRPs), a group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), can recognize peptidoglycan (PGN) of the bacteria cell wall and play an important role in host immune defense against pathogen infection. They are highly structurally conserved through evolution, but with different function in innate immunity between invertebrates and vertebrates. In teleost fish, several PGRPs have been characterized recently. They have both amidase activity and bactericidal activity and are involved in indirectly killing bacteria and regulating multiple signaling pathways. However, the knowledge of PGRPs in mucosal immunity of teleost fish is still limited. In this study, we identified a PGRPs gene (SmPGRP2) of turbot and investigated its expression patterns in mucosal tissues after challenge with Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus iniae and Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio anguillarum. Phylogenetic analysis showed the strongest relationship of turbot PGRP to halibut, which was consistent with their phylogenetic relationships. In addition, SmPGRP2 was ubiquitously expressed in turbot tissues, and constitutive expression levels were higher in classical immune tissues (including liver, spleen, and head-kidney) than mucosal tissues (intestine, gill and skin). After bacterial challenge, the expression of SmPGRP2 was induced and showed a general trend of up-regulation in mucosal tissues, except in intestine following V. anguillarum infection. These different expression patterns varied depending on both pathogen and tissue type, suggesting its distinct roles in the host immune response to bacterial pathogen. PMID:27461422

  13. In vitro particulate matter exposure causes direct and lung-mediated indirect effects on cardiomyocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Gorr, Matthew W.; Youtz, Dane J.; Eichenseer, Clayton M.; Smith, Korbin E.; Nelin, Timothy D.; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure induces a pathological response from both the lungs and the cardiovascular system. PM is capable of both manifestation into the lung epithelium and entrance into the bloodstream. Therefore, PM has the capacity for both direct and lung-mediated indirect effects on the heart. In the present studies, we exposed isolated rat cardiomyocytes to ultrafine particulate matter (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) and examined their contractile function and calcium handling ability. In another set of experiments, lung epithelial cells (16HBE14o- or Calu-3) were cultured on permeable supports that allowed access to both the basal (serosal) and apical (mucosal) media; the basal media was used to culture cardiomyocytes to model the indirect, lung-mediated effects of PM on the heart. Both the direct and indirect treatments caused a reduction in contractility as evidenced by reduced percent sarcomere shortening and reduced calcium handling ability measured in field-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with various anti-oxidants before culture with DEP was able to partially prevent the contractile dysfunction. The basal media from lung epithelial cells treated with PM contained several inflammatory cytokines, and we found that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was a key trigger for cardiomyocyte dysfunction. These results indicate the presence of both direct and indirect effects of PM on cardiomyocyte function in vitro. Future work will focus on elucidating the mechanisms involved in these separate pathways using in vivo models of air pollution exposure. PMID:25957217

  14. Smart pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Alam, M. S.

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test correlation methods for pattern recognition applications. A broad overview of the main correlation architectures is first given. Many correlation data are compared with those obtained from standard pattern recognition methods. We used our simulations to predict improved decisional performance from correlation methods. More specifically, we are focused on the POF filter and composite filter family. We present an optimized composite correlation filter, called asymmetric segmented phase-only filter (ASPOF) for mobile target recognition applications. The main objective is to find a compromise between the number of references to be merged in the correlation filter and the time needed for making a decision. We suggest an all-numerical implementation of a VanderLugt (VLC) type composite filter. The aim of this all-numerical implementation is to take advantage of the benefits of the correlation methods and make the correlator easily reconfigurable for various scenarios. The use of numerical implementation of the optical Fourier transform improves the decisional performance of the correlator. Further, it renders the correlator less sensitive to the saturation phenomenon caused by the increased number of references used for fabricating the composite filter. Different tests are presented making use of the peak-to-correlation energy criterion and ROC curves. These tests confirm the validity ofour technique. Elderly fall detection and underwater mine detection are two applications which are considered for illustrating the benefits of our approach. The present work is motivated by the need for detailed discussions of the choice of the correlation architecture for these specific applications, pre-processing in the input plane and post processing in the output plane techniques for such analysis.

  15. Histone deacetylase 3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Travis; Seiler, Caroline; Wolny, Marcin; Hughes, Ruth; Watson, Peter; Schwabe, John; Grigg, Ronald; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), a member of the Class I subfamily of HDACs, is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Its roles in the nucleus have been well characterized, but its cytoplasmic roles are still not elucidated fully. We found that blocking HDAC3 activity using MI192, a compound specific for HDAC3, modulated tubulin acetylation in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. A brief 1 h treatment of PC3 cells with MI192 significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation and ablated the dynamic behaviour of microtubules in live cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of HDAC3 in PC3 cells, significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation, and overexpression reduced it. However, the active HDAC3-silencing mediator of retinoic and thyroid receptors (SMRT)-deacetylase-activating domain (DAD) complex did not directly deacetylate tubulin in vitro. These data suggest that HDAC3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation.

  16. Sensitive indirect spectrophotometric determination of isoniazid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi, A.; Karimi, M. A.; Hormozi Nezhad, M. R.; Kamali, R.; Saghir, N.

    2004-03-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate indirect spectrophotometric method for the microdetermination of isoniazid (INH) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations is developed. The procedure is based on the reaction of copper(II) with isoniazid in the presence of neocuproine (NC). In the presence of neocuproine, copper(II) is reduced easily by isoniazid to a Cu(I)-neocuproine complex, which shows an absorption maximum at 454 nm. By measuring the absorbance of the complex at this wavelength, isoniazid can be determined in the range 0.3-3.5 μg ml -1. This method was applied to the determination of isoniazid in pharmaceutical formulation and enabled the determination of the isoniazid in microgram quantities (0.3-3.5 μg ml -1). The results obtained for the assay of pharmaceutical preparations compared well with those obtained by the official method and demonstrated good accuracy and precision.

  17. Sensitive indirect spectrophotometric determination of isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Safavi, A; Karimi, M A; Hormozi Nezhad, M R; Kamali, R; Saghir, N

    2004-03-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate indirect spectrophotometric method for the microdetermination of isoniazid (INH) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations is developed. The procedure is based on the reaction of copper(II) with isoniazid in the presence of neocuproine (NC). In the presence of neocuproine, copper(II) is reduced easily by isoniazid to a Cu(I)-neocuproine complex, which shows an absorption maximum at 454 nm. By measuring the absorbance of the complex at this wavelength, isoniazid can be determined in the range 0.3-3.5 microgml-1. This method was applied to the determination of isoniazid in pharmaceutical formulation and enabled the determination of the isoniazid in microgram quantities (0.3-3.5 microgml-1). The results obtained for the assay of pharmaceutical preparations compared well with those obtained by the official method and demonstrated good accuracy and precision.

  18. The indirect electrochemical refining of lunar ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    Recent work performed on an electrolytic cell is reported which addresses the implicit limitations in various approaches to refining lunar ores. The cell uses an oxygen vacancy conducting stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte to effect separation between a molten salt catholyte compartment where alkali metals are deposited, and an oxygen-evolving anode of composition La(0.89)Sr(0.1)MnO3. The cell configuration is shown and discussed along with a polarization curve and a steady-state current-voltage curve. In a practical cell, cathodically deposited liquid lithium would be continuously removed from the electrolytic cell and used as a valuable reducing agent for ore refining under lunar conditions. Oxygen would be indirectly electrochemically extracted from lunar ores for breathing purposes.

  19. Remote Leak Detection: Indirect Thermal Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Remote sensing technologies are being considered for efficient, low cost gas leak detection. Eleven specific techniques have been identified for further study and evaluation of several of these is underway. The Indirect Thermal Technique is one of the techniques that is being explored. For this technique, an infrared camera is used to detect the temperature change of a pipe or fitting at the site of a gas leak. This temperature change is caused by the change in temperature of the gas expanding from the leak site. During the 10-week NFFP program, the theory behind the technique was further developed, experiments were performed to determine the conditions for which the technique might be viable, and a proof-of-concept system was developed and tested in the laboratory.

  20. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  1. The indirect binary n-cube array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    The array is built from a large number (hundreds or thousands) of microprocessors or microcomputers linked through a switching network into an indirect binary n-cube array. Control is two level, the array operating synchronously, or in lock step, at the higher level, and with the broadcast commands being locally interpreted into rewritable microinstruction streams in the microprocessors and in the switch control units. The key to the design is the switching array. By properly programming it, the array can be made into a wide variety of virtual arrays which are well adapted to a wide range of applications. It is believed that the flexibility of the switching array can be used to obtain fault avoidance, which appears necessary in any highly parallel design.

  2. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  3. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  4. T cell responses to human platelet antigen–1a involve a unique form of indirect allorecognition

    PubMed Central

    Ahlen, Maria Therese; Husebekk, Anne; Killie, Ida Løken; Skogen, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a pregnancy-related condition caused by maternal antibodies binding an alloantigen on fetal platelets. In most cases the alloantigen is formed by a single amino acid, integrin β3 Leu33, referred to as human platelet antigen–1a (HPA-1a). Production of anti–HPA-1a antibodies likely depends on CD4+ T cells that recognize the same alloantigen in complex with the HLA-DRA/DRB3*01:01 molecule. While this complex is well characterized, T cell recognition of it is not. Here, to examine the nature of antigen recognition by HPA-1a–specific T cells, we assayed native and synthetic variants of the integrin β3 peptide antigen for binding to DRA/DRB3*01:01-positive antigen-presenting cells and for T cell activation. We found that HPA-1a–specific T cells recognize non-allogeneic integrin β3 residues anchored to DRA/DRB3*01:01 by the allogeneic Leu33, which itself is not directly recognized by these T cells. Furthermore, these T cell responses are diverse, with different T cells depending on different residues for recognition. This represents a unique form of indirect allorecognition in which a non-allogeneic peptide sequence becomes immunogenic by stable anchoring to MHC by an allogeneic residue.

  5. T cell responses to human platelet antigen–1a involve a unique form of indirect allorecognition

    PubMed Central

    Ahlen, Maria Therese; Husebekk, Anne; Killie, Ida Løken; Skogen, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a pregnancy-related condition caused by maternal antibodies binding an alloantigen on fetal platelets. In most cases the alloantigen is formed by a single amino acid, integrin β3 Leu33, referred to as human platelet antigen–1a (HPA-1a). Production of anti–HPA-1a antibodies likely depends on CD4+ T cells that recognize the same alloantigen in complex with the HLA-DRA/DRB3*01:01 molecule. While this complex is well characterized, T cell recognition of it is not. Here, to examine the nature of antigen recognition by HPA-1a–specific T cells, we assayed native and synthetic variants of the integrin β3 peptide antigen for binding to DRA/DRB3*01:01-positive antigen-presenting cells and for T cell activation. We found that HPA-1a–specific T cells recognize non-allogeneic integrin β3 residues anchored to DRA/DRB3*01:01 by the allogeneic Leu33, which itself is not directly recognized by these T cells. Furthermore, these T cell responses are diverse, with different T cells depending on different residues for recognition. This represents a unique form of indirect allorecognition in which a non-allogeneic peptide sequence becomes immunogenic by stable anchoring to MHC by an allogeneic residue. PMID:27699233

  6. Interpolated task effects on direct and mediated false recognition: effects of initial recall, recognition, and the ironic effect of guessing.

    PubMed

    Huff, Mark J; Coane, Jennifer H; Hutchison, Keith A; Grasser, Elisabeth B; Blais, Jessica E

    2012-11-01

    In two experiments, participants studied two types of word lists. Direct lists were taken from the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (e.g., water, bridge, run) and contained words directly related to a nonpresented critical item (CI; e.g., river, Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Mediated lists (e.g., faucet, London, jog) contained words related to the CI through a nonpresented mediator. After each study list, participants completed either a recall test, a recall test with a warning about the CI, arithmetic problems, or a recognition test, or they guessed the CI. On a final recognition test, both warning and guessing decreased direct false recognition but increased mediated false recognition, an ironic effect of guessing. An initial recognition test also increased final mediated false recognition. We argue that warning and guessing tasks strengthened associative pathways to the CI, increased the accessibility of associated mediators, and increased monitoring for the CI at test. Increased monitoring was able to reduce CIs from direct, but not mediated, lists.

  7. Retina vascular network recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tascini, Guido; Passerini, Giorgio; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of morphological and structural modifications of the retina vascular network is an interesting investigation method in the study of diabetes and hypertension. Normally this analysis is carried out by qualitative evaluations, according to standardized criteria, though medical research attaches great importance to quantitative analysis of vessel color, shape and dimensions. The paper describes a system which automatically segments and recognizes the ocular fundus circulation and micro circulation network, and extracts a set of features related to morphometric aspects of vessels. For this class of images the classical segmentation methods seem weak. We propose a computer vision system in which segmentation and recognition phases are strictly connected. The system is hierarchically organized in four modules. Firstly the Image Enhancement Module (IEM) operates a set of custom image enhancements to remove blur and to prepare data for subsequent segmentation and recognition processes. Secondly the Papilla Border Analysis Module (PBAM) automatically recognizes number, position and local diameter of blood vessels departing from optical papilla. Then the Vessel Tracking Module (VTM) analyses vessels comparing the results of body and edge tracking and detects branches and crossings. Finally the Feature Extraction Module evaluates PBAM and VTM output data and extracts some numerical indexes. Used algorithms appear to be robust and have been successfully tested on various ocular fundus images.

  8. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  9. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Suriani, Nor Surayahani; Hussain, Aini; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf

    2013-01-01

    Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1) the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2) frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3) the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4) various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition. PMID:23921828

  10. Frequency-Based Fingerprint Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Gualberto; Sánchez, Gabriel; Toscano, Karina; Pérez, Héctor

    abstract Fingerprint recognition is one of the most popular methods used for identification with greater success degree. Fingerprint has unique characteristics called minutiae, which are points where a curve track ends, intersects, or branches off. In this chapter a fingerprint recognition method is proposed in which a combination of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Gabor filters is used for image enhancement. A novel recognition stage using local features for recognition is also proposed. Also a verification stage is introduced to be used when the system output has more than one person.

  11. [Faces affect recognition in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Rózycka, Jagoda

    2012-01-01

    Clinical observations and the results of many experimental researches indicate that individuals suffering from schizophrenia reveal difficulties in the recognition of emotional states experienced by other people; however the causes and the range of these problems have not been clearly described. Despite early research results confirming that difficulties in emotion recognition are related only to negative emotions, the results of the researches conducted over the lat 30 years indicate that emotion recognition problems are a manifestation of a general cognitive deficit, and they do not concern specific emotions. The article contains a review of the research on face affect recognition in schizophrenia. It discusses the causes of these difficulties, the differences in the accuracy of the recognition of specific emotions, the relationship between the symptoms of schizophrenia and the severity of problems with face perception, and the types of cognitive processes which influence the disturbances in face affect recognition. Particular attention was paid to the methodology of the research on face affect recognition, including the methods used in control tasks relying on the identification of neutral faces designed to assess the range of deficit underlying the face affect recognition problems. The analysis of methods used in particular researches revealed some weaknesses. The article also deals with the question of the possibilities of improving the ability to recognise the emotions, and briefly discusses the efficiency of emotion recognition training programs designed for patients suffering from schizophrenia.

  12. An alternative route for efficient optical indirect-gap excitation in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Shuhei; Fukatsu, Susumu; Yasutake, Yuhsuke

    2014-07-28

    We explored optical excitation pathways in the multivalley semiconductor Ge in an attempt to expedite selective electron injection into the indirect L-band-edge. An off-peak resonant excitation route was developed, which offers the pumping efficiency outperforming the phonon-assisted near-indirect-edge absorption by more than six orders of magnitude. The valley selectivity results from the intra-valley relaxation that separates electrons and holes in momentum space following excitation. Fortuitously, the widely used green laser, 532 nm, is found to be nearly ideally suited to the efficient L-valley-selective excitation in Ge. Such valley-specific pumping may help clarify the otherwise complicated electron dynamics involving intervalley processes.

  13. Self-body recognition depends on implicit and explicit self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Richetin, Juliette; Xaiz, Annalisa; Maravita, Angelo; Perugini, Marco

    2012-03-01

    The present contribution bridges research on body image, self-esteem, and body recognition. Recent work in neuroscience indicates a superiority in the processing of self relative to others' body parts. The present contribution shows that this ability is not universal but it is qualified by individual differences in implicit and explicit self-esteem. In fact, two studies (n₁ = 41 and n₂ = 35) using two different paradigms in body recognition and direct and indirect measures of self-esteem reveal that this advantage in recognizing one's own body parts is associated with one's level of self-esteem. Moreover, it appears that measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem provide different contributions to self-body recognition abilities and that these contributions depend on how self-body recognition is assessed. Implications of these results are discussed notably in the perspective of research on body image.

  14. Protein recognition and selection through conformational and mutually induced fit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Pengzhi; Hoffman, Laurel; Tripathi, Swarnendu; Homouz, Dirar; Liu, Yin; Waxham, M. Neal; Cheung, Margaret S.

    2013-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions drive most every biological process, but in many instances the domains mediating recognition are disordered. How specificity in binding is attained in the absence of defined structure contrasts with well-established experimental and theoretical work describing ligand binding to protein. The signaling protein calmodulin presents a unique opportunity to investigate mechanisms for target recognition given that it interacts with several hundred different targets. By advancing coarse-grained computer simulations and experimental techniques, mechanistic insights were gained in defining the pathways leading to recognition and in how target selectivity can be achieved at the molecular level. A model requiring mutually induced conformational changes in both calmodulin and target proteins was necessary and broadly informs how proteins can achieve both high affinity and high specificity. PMID:24297894

  15. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  16. Teaching and the Dialectic of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Rauno; Heikkinen, Hannu L. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the processes of recognition within education are discussed. Frequently, recognition is reduced to polite behaviour or etiquette. Another narrow view of recognition is, behaviouristically speaking, to regard it as mere feedback. We claim that authentic recognition is a different matter. Receiving recognition, as Charles Taylor has…

  17. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field

    PubMed Central

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals’ willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation. PMID:25349390

  18. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    PubMed

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

  19. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    PubMed

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation. PMID:25349390

  20. Indirect economic impact of landslide hazards by disruption to national road transportation networks; Scotland, United Kingdom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The failure of engineered or natural slopes which support or are adjacent to transportation systems often inflicts costly direct physical damage and indirect system disruption. The consequences and severity of indirect impacts vary according to which links, nodes or network facilities are physically disrupted. Moreover, it is often the case that multiple slope failure disruptions are triggered simultaneously following prolonged or intense precipitation events due to a degree of local homogeneity of slope characteristics and materials. This study investigates the application of national commuter statistics and network agent simulation to evaluate indirect impacts of landslide events disrupting the Scottish trunk road transportation network (UK). Previous studies often employ shortest pathway analysis whereas agent simulation has received relatively little attention. British Geological Survey GeoSure landslide susceptibility data is used to select 35 susceptible trunk road segments by means of neighbouring total area at risk. For each of the candidate 35 segments the network and zonal variation in travel time is calculated for a single day of disruption, economic impact is approximated using established governmental and industry transport planning and appraisal values. The results highlight that a number of trunk road segments incur indirect economic losses in the order of tens of thousands of pounds for each day of closure. Calculated losses at the A83 Rest and Be Thankful are 50% greater than previous estimates at £75 thousand per day of closure. Also highlighted are events in which economic impact is relatively minor, yet concentrating on particular communities that can become substantially isolated as a consequence of a single event. The findings of this study are of interest and support wider investigations exploring cost considerations for decision makers and mitigation strategies, in addition to identifying network topological and demand indicators conducive

  1. Chemical recognition software

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.H. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures, even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  2. Chemical recognition software

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures. even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  3. Early recognition of speech

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E; Thomas, Emily F

    2013-01-01

    Classic research on the perception of speech sought to identify minimal acoustic correlates of each consonant and vowel. In explaining perception, this view designated momentary components of an acoustic spectrum as cues to the recognition of elementary phonemes. This conceptualization of speech perception is untenable given the findings of phonetic sensitivity to modulation independent of the acoustic and auditory form of the carrier. The empirical key is provided by studies of the perceptual organization of speech, a low-level integrative function that finds and follows the sensory effects of speech amid concurrent events. These projects have shown that the perceptual organization of speech is keyed to modulation; fast; unlearned; nonsymbolic; indifferent to short-term auditory properties; and organization requires attention. The ineluctably multisensory nature of speech perception also imposes conditions that distinguish language among cognitive systems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:213–223. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1213 PMID:23926454

  4. Recognition Using Hybrid Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Osadchy, Margarita; Keren, Daniel; Raviv, Dolev

    2016-04-01

    A canonical problem in computer vision is category recognition (e.g., find all instances of human faces, cars etc., in an image). Typically, the input for training a binary classifier is a relatively small sample of positive examples, and a huge sample of negative examples, which can be very diverse, consisting of images from a large number of categories. The difficulty of the problem sharply increases with the dimension and size of the negative example set. We propose to alleviate this problem by applying a "hybrid" classifier, which replaces the negative samples by a prior, and then finds a hyperplane which separates the positive samples from this prior. The method is extended to kernel space and to an ensemble-based approach. The resulting binary classifiers achieve an identical or better classification rate than SVM, while requiring far smaller memory and lower computational complexity to train and apply.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Recognition tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Stuart; He, Jin; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel; Zhang, Peiming; Chang, Shuai; Huang, Shuo

    2010-07-01

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode ('tethered molecule-pair' configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the 'free-analyte' configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules.

  6. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  7. Computer image processing and recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic introduction to the concepts and techniques of computer image processing and recognition is presented. Consideration is given to such topics as image formation and perception; computer representation of images; image enhancement and restoration; reconstruction from projections; digital television, encoding, and data compression; scene understanding; scene matching and recognition; and processing techniques for linear systems.

  8. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  9. Sign Facilitation in Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, Loes N.; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether use of sign language would facilitate reading word recognition by 16 deaf children (6- to 1 years-old) in the Netherlands. Results indicated that if words were learned through speech, accompanied by the relevant sign, accuracy of word recognition was greater than if words were learned solely through speech. (Contains…

  10. Word Recognition and Critical Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the distinctions between literal and critical reading and explains the role that word recognition ability plays in critical reading behavior. It concludes that correct word recognition provides the raw material on which higher order critical reading is based. (DB)

  11. Recognition without Rewards: Building Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Caren; Tate, Betty; MacNaughton, Daphne; Politano, Colleen

    Noting that the use of rewards in the form of stickers, trophies, prizes, points, tokens, and grades is commonplace in elementary education today, this book explores the differences between rewards and recognition and shows how teachers can build student confidence, motivate learning, and develop skills for lifelong learning through recognition.…

  12. Theoretical research on color indirect effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. C.; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Songhao

    1995-05-01

    Color indirect effects (CIE) means the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In this paper, we study CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine and the time quantum theory established by C. Y. Liu et al., respectively, and then put forward the color-automatic-nervous-subsystem model that could color excites parasympathetic subsystem and hot color excites sympathetic subsystem. Our theory is in agreement with modern color vision theory, and moreover, it leads to the resolution of the conflict between the color code theory and the time code theory oncolor vision. For the latitude phenomena on athlete stars number and the average lifespan, we also discuss the possibility of UV vision. The applications of our theory lead to our succeeding in explaining a number of physiological and psychological effects of color, in explaining the effects of age on color vision, and in explaining the Chinese chromophototherapy. We also discuss its application to neuroimmunology. This research provides the foundation of the clinical applications of chromophototherapy.

  13. Environmental risk analysis for indirect coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Suter, G.W. II; Baes, C.F. III; Bartell, S.M.; Cavendish, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Rosen, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the risks to fish, water quality (due to noxious algal blooms), crops, forests, and wildlife of two technologies for the indirect liquefaction of coal: Lurgi and Koppers-Totzek gasification of coal for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A variety of analytical techniques were used to make maximum use of the available data to consider effects of effluents on different levels of ecological organization. The most significant toxicants to fish were found to be ammonia, cadmium, and acid gases. An analysis of whole-effluent toxicity indicated that the Lurgi effluent is more acutely toxic than the Koppers-Totzek effluent. Six effluent components appear to pose a potential threat of blue-green algal blooms, primarily because of their effects on higher trophic levels. The most important atmospheric emissions with respect to crops, forests, and wildlife were found to be the conventional combustion products SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. Of the materials deposited on the soil, arsenic, cadmium, and nickel appear of greatest concern for phytotoxicity. 147 references, 5 figures, 41 tables.

  14. Indirect Signatures of Gravitino Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2008-11-23

    Supersymmetric models provide very interesting scenarios to account for the dark matter of the Universe. In this talk we discuss scenarios with gravitino dark matter in R-parity breaking vacua, which not only reproduce very naturally the observed dark matter relic density, but also lead to a thermal history of the Universe consistent with the observed abundances of primordial elements and the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. In this class of scenarios the dark matter gravitinos are no longer stable, but decay with very long lifetimes into Standard Model particles, thus opening the possibility of their indirect detection. We have computed the expected contribution from gravitino decay to the primary cosmic rays and we have found that a gravitino with a mass of m{sub 2/3}{approx}150 GeV and a lifetime of {tau}{sub 3/2}{approx}10{sup 26} s could simultaneously explain the EGRET anomaly in the extragalactic gamma-ray background and the HEAT excess in the positron fraction.

  15. Establishment of indirect immunofluorescence assay for rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Tao, J; Zhang, J; Liu, X; Jin, H; Jiang, C; Yin, Y

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide and a significant cause of death in infants and young children, following severe diarrhea and dehydration. Rotavirus vaccines are considered the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infections. In the process of developing rotavirus vaccines, it is crucial to establish a reliable and standardized method to determine vaccine titer. In this study, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine the infectious titer of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine grown in MA104 cells. The activating concentration of trypsin was 1 µg/ml for healthy monolayers of MA104 cells at 100% confluence. After incubation for 18 hr, a rabbit anti-SA11 polyclonal antibody, diluted at 1:800 in PBS, was added to all wells, followed by an Alexa-488-conjugated secondary antibody diluted at 1:500 in PBS. Cells were examined with a fluorescence microscope. Our results show that IFA was more reproducible, more sensitive, simpler, and more rapid than the log 50% cell culture infectious dose-ELISA (lgCCID50-ELISA) in measuring the rotavirus vaccines. IFA provided a reliable basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of rotavirus, and the certification of rotavirus vaccine production.

  16. Establishment of indirect immunofluorescence assay for rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Tao, J; Zhang, J; Liu, X; Jin, H; Jiang, C; Yin, Y

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide and a significant cause of death in infants and young children, following severe diarrhea and dehydration. Rotavirus vaccines are considered the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infections. In the process of developing rotavirus vaccines, it is crucial to establish a reliable and standardized method to determine vaccine titer. In this study, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine the infectious titer of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine grown in MA104 cells. The activating concentration of trypsin was 1 µg/ml for healthy monolayers of MA104 cells at 100% confluence. After incubation for 18 hr, a rabbit anti-SA11 polyclonal antibody, diluted at 1:800 in PBS, was added to all wells, followed by an Alexa-488-conjugated secondary antibody diluted at 1:500 in PBS. Cells were examined with a fluorescence microscope. Our results show that IFA was more reproducible, more sensitive, simpler, and more rapid than the log 50% cell culture infectious dose-ELISA (lgCCID50-ELISA) in measuring the rotavirus vaccines. IFA provided a reliable basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of rotavirus, and the certification of rotavirus vaccine production. PMID:26982471

  17. Histone deacetylase 3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Travis; Seiler, Caroline; Wolny, Marcin; Hughes, Ruth; Watson, Peter; Schwabe, John; Grigg, Ronald; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), a member of the Class I subfamily of HDACs, is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Its roles in the nucleus have been well characterized, but its cytoplasmic roles are still not elucidated fully. We found that blocking HDAC3 activity using MI192, a compound specific for HDAC3, modulated tubulin acetylation in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. A brief 1 h treatment of PC3 cells with MI192 significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation and ablated the dynamic behaviour of microtubules in live cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of HDAC3 in PC3 cells, significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation, and overexpression reduced it. However, the active HDAC3–silencing mediator of retinoic and thyroid receptors (SMRT)–deacetylase-activating domain (DAD) complex did not directly deacetylate tubulin in vitro. These data suggest that HDAC3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation. PMID:26450925

  18. Stronger constraints on the anthropogenic indirect aerosol effect.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Lesins, Glen

    2002-11-01

    The anthropogenic indirect aerosol effects of modifying cloud albedo and cloud lifetime cannot be deduced from observations alone but require a modeling component. Here we validate a climate model, with and without indirect aerosol effects, by using satellite observations. The model agrees better with observations when both indirect aerosol effects are included. However, the simulated clouds are more susceptible to aerosols than the observed clouds from the POLDER satellite, thus overestimating the indirect aerosol effect. By taking the difference in susceptibilities into account, the global mean total anthropogenic aerosol effect is reduced from -1.4 to -0.85 watts per square meter.

  19. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  20. Clerkship pathway

    PubMed Central

    MacLellan, Anne-Marie; Brailovsky, Carlos; Miller, François; Leboeuf, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify factors that help predict success for international medical graduates (IMGs) who train in Canadian residency programs and pass the Canadian certification examinations. Design A retrospective analysis of 58 variables in the files of IMGs who applied to the Collège des médecins du Québec between 2000 and 2008. Setting Quebec. Participants Eight hundred ten IMGs who applied to the Collège des médecins du Québec through either the “equivalency pathway” (ie, starting training at a residency level) or the “clerkship pathway” (ie, relearning at the level of a medical student in the last 2 years of the MD diploma). Main outcome measures Success factors in achieving certification. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA (analysis of variance). Results International medical graduates who chose the “clerkship pathway” had greater success on certification examinations than those who started at the residency level did. Conclusion There are several factors that influence IMGs’ success on certification examinations, including integration issues, the acquisition of clinical decision-making skills, and the varied educational backgrounds. These factors perhaps can be better addressed by a regular clerkship pathway, in which IMGs benefit from learner-centred teaching and have more time for reflection on and understanding of the North American approach to medical education. The clerkship pathway is a useful strategy for assuring the integration of IMGs in the North American health care system. A 2-year relearning period in medical school at a clinical clerkship level deserves careful consideration. PMID:22859630

  1. Deep Fusion of Multiple Semantic Cues for Complex Event Recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xishan; Zhang, Hanwang; Zhang, Yongdong; Yang, Yang; Wang, Meng; Luan, Huanbo; Li, Jintao; Chua, Tat-Seng

    2016-03-01

    We present a deep learning strategy to fuse multiple semantic cues for complex event recognition. In particular, we tackle the recognition task by answering how to jointly analyze human actions (who is doing what), objects (what), and scenes (where). First, each type of semantic features (e.g., human action trajectories) is fed into a corresponding multi-layer feature abstraction pathway, followed by a fusion layer connecting all the different pathways. Second, the correlations of how the semantic cues interacting with each other are learned in an unsupervised cross-modality autoencoder fashion. Finally, by fine-tuning a large-margin objective deployed on this deep architecture, we are able to answer the question on how the semantic cues of who, what, and where compose a complex event. As compared with the traditional feature fusion methods (e.g., various early or late strategies), our method jointly learns the essential higher level features that are most effective for fusion and recognition. We perform extensive experiments on two real-world complex event video benchmarks, MED'11 and CCV, and demonstrate that our method outperforms the best published results by 21% and 11%, respectively, on an event recognition task.

  2. Face recognition performance with superresolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuowen; Maschal, Robert; Young, S Susan; Hong, Tsai Hong; Phillips, P Jonathon

    2012-06-20

    With the prevalence of surveillance systems, face recognition is crucial to aiding the law enforcement community and homeland security in identifying suspects and suspicious individuals on watch lists. However, face recognition performance is severely affected by the low face resolution of individuals in typical surveillance footage, oftentimes due to the distance of individuals from the cameras as well as the small pixel count of low-cost surveillance systems. Superresolution image reconstruction has the potential to improve face recognition performance by using a sequence of low-resolution images of an individual's face in the same pose to reconstruct a more detailed high-resolution facial image. This work conducts an extensive performance evaluation of superresolution for a face recognition algorithm using a methodology and experimental setup consistent with real world settings at multiple subject-to-camera distances. Results show that superresolution image reconstruction improves face recognition performance considerably at the examined midrange and close range. PMID:22722306

  3. Face recognition performance with superresolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuowen; Maschal, Robert; Young, S Susan; Hong, Tsai Hong; Phillips, P Jonathon

    2012-06-20

    With the prevalence of surveillance systems, face recognition is crucial to aiding the law enforcement community and homeland security in identifying suspects and suspicious individuals on watch lists. However, face recognition performance is severely affected by the low face resolution of individuals in typical surveillance footage, oftentimes due to the distance of individuals from the cameras as well as the small pixel count of low-cost surveillance systems. Superresolution image reconstruction has the potential to improve face recognition performance by using a sequence of low-resolution images of an individual's face in the same pose to reconstruct a more detailed high-resolution facial image. This work conducts an extensive performance evaluation of superresolution for a face recognition algorithm using a methodology and experimental setup consistent with real world settings at multiple subject-to-camera distances. Results show that superresolution image reconstruction improves face recognition performance considerably at the examined midrange and close range.

  4. Speech Recognition: How Do We Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barksdale, Karl

    2002-01-01

    States that growing use of speech recognition software has made voice writing an essential computer skill. Describes how to present the topic, develop basic speech recognition skills, and teach speech recognition outlining, writing, proofreading, and editing. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  5. Two speed factors of visual recognition independently correlated with fluid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Ryosuke; Namba, Yuri; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a moderate but significant relationship between processing speed in visuo-cognitive tasks and general intelligence. On the other hand, findings from neuroscience proposed that the primate visual system consists of two major pathways, the ventral pathway for objects recognition and the dorsal pathway for spatial processing and attentive analysis. Previous studies seeking for visuo-cognitive factors of human intelligence indicated a significant correlation between fluid intelligence and the inspection time (IT), an index for a speed of object recognition performed in the ventral pathway. We thus presently examined a possibility that neural processing speed in the dorsal pathway also represented a factor of intelligence. Specifically, we used the mental rotation (MR) task, a popular psychometric measure for mental speed of spatial processing in the dorsal pathway. We found that the speed of MR was significantly correlated with intelligence scores, while it had no correlation with one's IT (recognition speed of visual objects). Our results support the new possibility that intelligence could be explained by two types of mental speed, one related to object recognition (IT) and another for manipulation of mental images (MR).

  6. 48 CFR 1542.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Certificate of indirect costs. 1542.703-2 Section 1542.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1542.703-2 Certificate of...

  7. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost Multipliers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers a...

  8. Male and Female University Students' Experiences of Indirect Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Lindsey; Rinaldi, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of sex, gender role orientation, social representations of indirect aggression, and indicators of psychosocial adjustment in indirect aggression and victimization in an emerging adult sample. A total of 42 participants (19 men, 23 women) recruited are required to complete the questionnaires, along with 18 participants…

  9. Advanced use of an esthetic indirect posterior resin system.

    PubMed

    Howard, N Y

    1997-10-01

    With the advent of newer indirect posterior restorative materials, one current resin restorative system still stands out as a proven leader in the dental marketplace. This article focuses on the multiple use of an all-microfill, laboratory-processed, indirect resin restorative system. Three cases are presented and criteria for long-term success are reviewed and discussed.

  10. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall...

  11. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall...

  12. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall...

  13. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall...

  14. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall...

  15. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to…

  16. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  17. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  18. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  19. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  20. Assessing Mediational Models: Testing and Interval Estimation for Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Falk, Carl F.; Savalei, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models specifying indirect or mediated effects are common in the social sciences. An indirect effect exists when an independent variable's influence on the dependent variable is mediated through an intervening variable. Classic approaches to assessing such mediational hypotheses (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Sobel, 1982) have in recent years…

  1. 34 CFR 76.560 - General indirect cost rates; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in the cost principles for— (1) Institutions of higher education, at 34 CFR 74.27; (2) Hospitals, at... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General indirect cost rates; exceptions. 76.560 Section... organizations, at 34 CFR 80.22. (b) A grantee must have a current indirect cost rate agreement to...

  2. 34 CFR 75.561 - Approval of indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of indirect cost rates. 75.561 Section 75.561 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met... Education is the cognizant agency, the Secretary approves an indirect cost rate for a grantee other than...

  3. 34 CFR 76.561 - Approval of indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of indirect cost rates. 76.561 Section 76.561 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must.... (a) If the Department of Education is the cognizant agency, the Secretary approves an indirect...

  4. 10 CFR 602.15 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 602.15 Section 602.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.15 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences...

  5. Indirect measurement of sinoatrial conduction time in patients with sinoatrial disease and in controls.

    PubMed Central

    Crook, B; Kitson, D; McComish, M; Jewitt, D

    1977-01-01

    Clinical recognition of sinoatrial disease currently depends on the presence of transient sinus bradycardia, sinoatrial block, or supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The value of clinical electrophysiological assessment in these patients is not clear. Using intracardiac electrophysiological recordings and programmed stimulation we have examined 14 patients with sinoatrial disease and 11 control patients undergoing investigation for chest pain. Intracardiac conduction times were normal in all patients. There was no significant difference of sinus node recovery times between the sinoatrial disease and control groups. Sinoatrial conduction times were measured by the indirect method and two populations were identified. However, the mean values of 128 +/- 27 ms in patients and 112 +/- 30 ms in controls were not significantly different and major overlap rendered this measurement clinically valueless. It is concluded that no current electrophysiological measurement has diagnostic value in patients with sinoatrial disease. PMID:884027

  6. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  7. An indecent proposal: the dual functions of indirect speech.

    PubMed

    Chakroff, Aleksandr; Thomas, Kyle A; Haque, Omar S; Young, Liane

    2015-01-01

    People often use indirect speech, for example, when trying to bribe a police officer by asking whether there might be "a way to take care of things without all the paperwork." Recent game theoretic accounts suggest that a speaker uses indirect speech to reduce public accountability for socially risky behaviors. The present studies examine a secondary function of indirect speech use: increasing the perceived moral permissibility of an action. Participants report that indirect speech is associated with reduced accountability for unethical behavior, as well as increased moral permissibility and increased likelihood of unethical behavior. Importantly, moral permissibility was a stronger mediator of the effect of indirect speech on likelihood of action, for judgments of one's own versus others' unethical action. In sum, the motorist who bribes the police officer with winks and nudges may not only avoid public punishment but also maintain the sense that his actions are morally permissible. PMID:25079674

  8. Macromolecular recognition: Recognition of polymer side chains by cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashidzume, Akihito; Harada, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of cyclodextrins (CD) with water soluble polymers possessing guest residues has been investigated as model systems in biological molecular recognition. The selectivity of interaction of CD with polymer-carrying guest residues is controlled by polymer chains, i.e., the steric effect of polymer main chain, the conformational effect of polymer main chain, and multi-site interaction. Macroscopic assemblies have been also realized based on molecular recognition using polyacrylamide-based gels possessing CD and guest residues.

  9. Indirect DNA readout on the protein side: coupling between histidine protonation, global structural cooperativity, dynamics, and DNA binding of the human papillomavirus type 16 E2C domain.

    PubMed

    Eliseo, Tommaso; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Nadra, Alejandro D; Dellarole, Mariano; Paci, Maurizio; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo; Cicero, Daniel O

    2009-05-01

    DNA sequence recognition by the homodimeric C-terminal domain of the human papillomavirus type 16 E2 protein (E2C) is known to involve both direct readout and DNA-dependent indirect readout mechanisms, while protein-dependent indirect readout has been deduced but not directly observed. We have investigated coupling between specific DNA binding and the dynamics of the unusual E2C fold, using pH as an external variable. Nuclear magnetic resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry show that pH titration of His318 in the complex interface and His288 in the core of the domain is coupled to both binding and the dynamics of the beta-barrel core of E2C, with a tradeoff between dimer stability and function. Specific DNA binding is, in turn, coupled to the slow dynamics and amide hydrogen exchange in the entire beta-barrel, reaching residues far apart from the DNA recognition elements but not affecting the two helices of each monomer. The changes are largest in the dimerization interface, suggesting that the E2C beta-barrel acts as a hinge that regulates the relative position of the DNA recognition helices. In conclusion, the cooperative dynamics of the human papillomavirus type 16 E2C beta-barrel is coupled to sequence recognition in a protein-dependent indirect readout mechanism. The patterns of residue substitution in genital papillomaviruses support the importance of the protonation states of His288 and His318 and suggest that protein-dependent indirect readout and histidine pH titration may regulate DNA binding in the cell.

  10. Longitudinal relationships of religion with posttreatment depression severity in older psychiatric patients: evidence of direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Hayward, R David; Owen, Amy D; Koenig, Harold G; Steffens, David C; Payne, Martha E

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric patients (age 59+) were assessed before study treatment for major depressive disorder, and again after 3 months. Measures taken before study treatment included facets of religiousness (subjective religiosity, private prayer, worship attendance, and religious media use), social support, and perceived stress. Clinician-rated depression severity was assessed both before and after treatment using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Structural equation modeling was used to test a path model of direct and indirect effects of religious factors via psychosocial pathways. Subjective religiousness was directly related to worse initial MADRS, but indirectly related to better posttreatment MADRS via the pathway of more private prayer. Worship attendance was directly related to better initial MADRS, and indirectly related to better post-treatment MADRS via pathways of lower stress, more social support, and more private prayer. Private prayer was directly related to better post-treatment MADRS. Religious media use was related to more private prayer, but had no direct relationship with MADRS. PMID:22461982

  11. Gesture recognition on smart cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziri, Aziz; Chevobbe, Stephane; Darouich, Mehdi

    2013-02-01

    Gesture recognition is a feature in human-machine interaction that allows more natural interaction without the use of complex devices. For this reason, several methods of gesture recognition have been developed in recent years. However, most real time methods are designed to operate on a Personal Computer with high computing resources and memory. In this paper, we analyze relevant methods found in the literature in order to investigate the ability of smart camera to execute gesture recognition algorithms. We elaborate two hand gesture recognition pipelines. The first method is based on invariant moments extraction and the second on finger tips detection. The hand detection method used for both pipeline is based on skin color segmentation. The results obtained show that the un-optimized versions of invariant moments method and finger tips detection method can reach 10 fps on embedded processor and use about 200 kB of memory.

  12. Face recognition based tensor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, De-qiang; Ye, Zhi-xia; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Li-mei

    2012-01-01

    Face recognition has broad applications, and it is a difficult problem since face image can change with photographic conditions, such as different illumination conditions, pose changes and camera angles. How to obtain some invariable features for a face image is the key issue for a face recognition algorithm. In this paper, a novel tensor structure of face image is proposed to represent image features with eight directions for a pixel value. The invariable feature of the face image is then obtained from gradient decomposition to make up the tensor structure. Then the singular value decomposition (SVD) and principal component analysis (PCA) of this tensor structure are used for face recognition. The experimental results from this study show that many difficultly recognized samples can correctly be recognized, and the recognition rate is increased by 9%-11% in comparison with same type of algorithms.

  13. Processing orientation and emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Martin, Douglas; Slessor, Gillian; Allen, Roy; Phillips, Louise H; Darling, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    There is evidence that some emotional expressions are characterized by diagnostic cues from individual face features. For example, an upturned mouth is indicative of happiness, whereas a furrowed brow is associated with anger. The current investigation explored whether motivating people to perceive stimuli in a local (i.e., feature-based) rather than global (i.e., holistic) processing orientation was advantageous for recognizing emotional facial expressions. Participants classified emotional faces while primed with local and global processing orientations, via a Navon letter task. Contrary to previous findings for identity recognition, the current findings are indicative of a modest advantage for face emotion recognition under conditions of local processing orientation. When primed with a local processing orientation, participants performed both significantly faster and more accurately on an emotion recognition task than when they were primed with a global processing orientation. The impacts of this finding for theories of emotion recognition and face processing are considered. PMID:21842989

  14. Ex vivo expansion of human Tregs specific for alloantigens presented directly or indirectly

    PubMed Central

    Veerapathran, Anandharaman; Pidala, Joseph; Beato, Francisca; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells (Tregs) prevents GVHD in experimental animals. Because antigen activation drives Treg function, we measured the frequency, growth requirements, and function of alloantigen-specific (allospecific) Tregs from human blood. When alloantigen was presented directly, the precursor frequency of allo-specific Tregs in normal individuals was 1.02% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.65-1.59) and non-Tregs 1.56% (95% CI: 0.94-2.55). When alloantigen was presented indirectly, the frequency of specific Tregs was approximately 100-fold less. Purified Tregs were expanded with APCs, rapamycin, IL-2, and IL-15. In 12 days, allo-specific Tregs expanded 793-fold (95% CI: 480-1107), with duplication approximately every 24 hours. Purified allo-specific Tregs suppressed responses to specific alloantigen selectively and were approximately 100-fold more potent than polyspecific Tregs and nonexpanded Tregs. Allo-specific Tregs maintained high expression of Foxp3, Bcl-2, lymphoid homing receptor CD62L, and chemokine receptor CCR7, predicting sustained function and migration to lymphoid tissues in vivo. Allo-specific Tregs produced TGF-β and IL-10 and expressed more cytoplasmic CTLA-4 compared with non-Tregs. These data provide a platform for the selective expansion of Tregs against major and possibly minor histocompatibility antigens and predict the feasibility of adoptive immunotherapy trials using Tregs with indirect allo-recognition for preventing GVHD while sparing GVL effects. PMID:21948174

  15. The neuroecology of competitor recognition.

    PubMed

    Grether, Gregory F

    2011-11-01

    Territorial animals can be expected to distinguish among the types of competitors and noncompetitors that they encounter on a regular basis, including prospective mates and rivals of their own species, but they may not correctly classify individuals of other species. Closely related species often have similar phenotypes and this can cause confusion when formerly allopatric populations first come into contact. Errors in recognizing competitors can have important ecological and evolutionary effects. I review what is known about the mechanisms of competitor recognition in animals generally, focusing on cases in which the targets of recognition include other species. Case studies include damselflies, ants, skinks, salamanders, reef fishes, and birds. In general, recognition systems consist of a phenotypic cue (e.g., chemical, color, song), a neural template against which cues are compared, a motor response (e.g., aggression), and sensory integration circuits for context dependency of the response (if any). Little is known about how competitor recognition systems work at the neural level, but inferences about specificity of cues and about sensory integration can be drawn from the responses of territory residents to simulated intruders. Competitor recognition often involves multiple cues in the same, or different, sensory modalities. The same cues and templates are often, but not always, used for intraspecific and interspecific recognition. Experiments have shown that imprinting on local cues is common, which may enable templates to track evolved changes in cues automatically. The dependence of aggression and tolerance on context is important even in the simplest systems. Species in which mechanisms of competitor recognition are best known offer untapped opportunities to examine how competitor-recognition systems evolve (e.g., by comparing allopatric and sympatric populations). Cues that are gene products (peptides, proteins) may provide insights into rates of evolution

  16. On Tangut Historical Documents Recognition*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changqing

    As the Tangut studies have made progress, a considerable number of Tangut historical documents' copies have been published. It is of great importance to carry out digitalization and domestication of these copies. The paper firstly makes an initial processing of images by global threshold, then dissect the photocopies by scanning. Finally adopts the recognition approach of principal component analysis. The experiment shows that a better recognition can be achieved by calculation without extra time.

  17. A simple unified approach for estimating natural direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Lange, Theis; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Bekaert, Maarten

    2012-08-01

    An important problem within both epidemiology and many social sciences is to break down the effect of a given treatment into different causal pathways and to quantify the importance of each pathway. Formal mediation analysis based on counterfactuals is a key tool when addressing this problem. During the last decade, the theoretical framework for mediation analysis has been greatly extended to enable the use of arbitrary statistical models for outcome and mediator. However, the researcher attempting to use these techniques in practice will often find implementation a daunting task, as it tends to require special statistical programming. In this paper, the authors introduce a simple procedure based on marginal structural models that directly parameterize the natural direct and indirect effects of interest. It tends to produce more parsimonious results than current techniques, greatly simplifies testing for the presence of a direct or an indirect effect, and has the advantage that it can be conducted in standard software. However, its simplicity comes at the price of relying on correct specification of models for the distribution of mediator (and exposure) and accepting some loss of precision compared with more complex methods. Web Appendixes 1 and 2, which are posted on the Journal's Web site (http://aje.oupjournals.org/), contain implementation examples in SAS software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina) and R language (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). PMID:22781427

  18. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    PubMed

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  19. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  20. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-22

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  1. The Minicommunity Design to Assess Indirect Effects of Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Halloran, M. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We propose the minicommunity design to estimate indirect effects of vaccination. Establishing indirect effects of vaccination in unvaccinated subpopulations could have important implications for global vaccine policies. In the minicommunity design, the household or other small transmission unit serves as the cluster in which to estimate indirect effects of vaccination, similar to studies in larger communities to estimate indirect, total, and overall effects. Examples from the literature include studies in small transmission units to estimate indirect effects of pertussis, pneumococcal, influenza, and cholera vaccines. We characterize the minicommunity design by several methodologic considerations, including the assignment mechanism, ascertainment, the role of transmission outside the transmission unit, and the relation of the size of the transmission unit to number of people vaccinated. The minicommunity study for indirect effects is contrasted with studies to estimate vaccine effects on infectiousness and protective effects under conditions of household exposure within small transmission units. The minicommunity design can be easily implemented in individually randomized studies by enrolling and following-up members of households of the randomized individuals. The methodology for the minicommunity design for estimating indirect effects of vaccination deserves much future research. PMID:23599908

  2. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system. PMID:27444774

  3. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system. PMID:27444774

  4. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  5. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  6. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Estes, J.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Forsman, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  7. Method on camouflaged target recognition using the angle of ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuansun, Xiao-bo; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Huang, Yan-hua; Li, Zhao-zhao

    2015-10-01

    Using polarimetric information of the camouflaged target surface to identify camouflage has been a hot research area in camouflage detecting. The main method is to use the difference in the degree of polarization(DOP) between background and target to add the contrast ratio of them. The measurement of the DOP has some requirements on the intensity of reflected radiation. In case of low reflected radiation intensity, the difference in the DOP for different materials is not so distinguishable. In addition, the linear degree of polarization is largely under the effects of detection angle and surface roughness, so it is hard to differentiate the degree of polarization when the targets with similar surface roughness are detected at the same detection angle. By analyzing the elements affecting the reflected electromagnetic radiation amplitudes and phase on the camouflaged target surface, this article makes a research on the polarization character of reflected radiation A method on camouflaged target recognition directly or indirectly by taking the angle of ellipsometry (AOE) imaging under the linear polarized light. The function model of the angle of incidence, complex refractive index and AOE was modeled, then the model was simulated by MATLAB and the results showed it can describe the distribution properties of AOE. A new thought for the approach of identifying camouflaged target recognition by detecting polarimetric information was proposed, and it has a deep theoretical and practical significance in camouflaged target recognition.

  8. Adult Trade Apprentices: Exploring the Significance of Recognition of Prior Learning and Skill Sets for Earlier Completion. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Jo; Blomberg, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    The nature of apprenticeships is changing. Increasing proportions of adult apprentices are prompting demand for various alternative pathways to completion. One option for an alternative pathway to accelerate completion is the use of recognition of prior learning (RPL) to identify existing skills and knowledge in combination with gap training. This…

  9. Binding energies of indirect excitons in double quantum well systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossokhaty, Alex; Schmult, Stefan; Dietsche, Werner; von Klitzing, Klaus; Kukushkin, Igor

    2011-03-01

    A prerequisite towards Bose-Einstein condensation is a cold and dense system of bosons. Indirect excitons in double GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (DQWs) are believed to be suitable candidates. Indirect excitons are formed in asymmetric DQW structures by mass filtering, a method which does not require external electric fields. The exciton density and the electron-hole balance can be tuned optically. Binding energies are measured by a resonant microwave absorption technique. Our results show that screening of the indirect excitons becomes already relevant at densities as low as ~ 5 × 109 cm-2 and results in their destruction.

  10. Document Form and Character Recognition using SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Sung; Shin, Young-Geun; Jung, Won-Kyo; Ahn, Dong-Kyu; Jang, Dong-Sik

    2009-08-01

    Because of development of computer and information communication, EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) has been developing. There is OCR (Optical Character Recognition) of Pattern recognition technology for EDI. OCR contributed to changing many manual in the past into automation. But for the more perfect database of document, much manual is needed for excluding unnecessary recognition. To resolve this problem, we propose document form based character recognition method in this study. Proposed method is divided into document form recognition part and character recognition part. Especially, in character recognition, change character into binarization by using SVM algorithm and extract more correct feature value.

  11. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals.

    PubMed

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets. PMID:25304638

  12. NEW APPROACHES TO ESTIMATING INDIRECT PHOTOLYSIS RATES IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indirect photoreactions in aquatic environments are driven by reactive species, most of which are oxygen centered. Humic substances play an important role in photosensitizing the production of these reactive species, which include singlet molecular oxygen, superoxide ions, hydrog...

  13. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  14. Indirect reciprocity and the evolution of "moral signals"

    PubMed

    Smead, Rory

    2010-01-01

    Signals regarding the behavior of others are an essential element of human moral systems and there are important evolutionary connections between language and large-scale cooperation. In particular, social communication may be required for the reputation tracking needed to stabilize indirect reciprocity. Additionally, scholars have suggested that the benefits of indirect reciprocity may have been important for the evolution of language and that social signals may have coevolved with large-scale cooperation. This paper investigates the possibility of such a coevolution. Using the tools of evolutionary game theory, we present a model that incorporates primitive "moral signaling" into a simple setting of indirect reciprocity. This model reveals some potential difficulties for the evolution of "moral signals." We find that it is possible for "moral signals" to evolve alongside indirect reciprocity, but without some external pressure aiding the evolution of a signaling system, such a coevolution is unlikely.

  15. Three-person game facilitates indirect reciprocity under image scoring.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Akiyama, Eizo

    2007-11-01

    Reputation building plays an important role in the evolution of reciprocal altruism when the same individuals do not interact repeatedly because, by referring to reputation, a reciprocator can know which partners are cooperative and can reciprocate with a cooperator. This reciprocity based on reputation is called indirect reciprocity. Previous studies of indirect reciprocity have focused only on two-person games in which only two individuals participate in a single interaction, and have claimed that indirectly reciprocal cooperation cannot be established under image scoring reputation criterion where the reputation of an individual who has cooperated (defected) becomes good (bad). In this study, we specifically examine three-person games, and reveal that indirectly reciprocal cooperation can be formed and maintained stably, even under image scoring, by a nucleus shield mechanism. In the nucleus shield, reciprocators are a shield that keeps out unconditional defectors, whereas unconditional cooperators are the backbone of cooperation that retains a good reputation among the population.

  16. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals

    PubMed Central

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets. PMID:25304638

  17. Indirect Cost Recovery as an Issue of Science Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    The history of the debate over federal efforts to reduce indirect cost recovery in federal research grants to universities is outlined and discussed by a former university administrator involved in the policy's formation. (MSE)

  18. 3D Shape and Indirect Appearance by Structured Light Transport.

    PubMed

    OToole, Matthew; Mather, John; Kutulakos, Kiriakos N

    2016-07-01

    We consider the problem of deliberately manipulating the direct and indirect light flowing through a time-varying, general scene in order to simplify its visual analysis. Our approach rests on a crucial link between stereo geometry and light transport: while direct light always obeys the epipolar geometry of a projector-camera pair, indirect light overwhelmingly does not. We show that it is possible to turn this observation into an imaging method that analyzes light transport in real time in the optical domain, prior to acquisition. This yields three key abilities that we demonstrate in an experimental camera prototype: (1) producing a live indirect-only video stream for any scene, regardless of geometric or photometric complexity; (2) capturing images that make existing structured-light shape recovery algorithms robust to indirect transport; and (3) turning them into one-shot methods for dynamic 3D shape capture.

  19. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals.

    PubMed

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets.

  20. Indirect impacts in Illinois from a renewable portfolio standard

    SciTech Connect

    Ohler, Adrienne M.; Radusewicz, Kristi

    2010-08-15

    Indirect impacts associated with Illinois' RPS include a change in the laws concerning the planning and zoning for wind development, a market for renewable energy credits, and awareness of problems with the transmission grid. (author)

  1. The interaction of direct and indirect risk selection.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Normann

    2015-07-01

    This paper analyzes the interaction of direct and indirect risk selection in health insurance markets. It is shown that direct risk selection - using measures unrelated to the benefit package like selective advertising or 'losing' applications of high risk individuals - nevertheless has an influence on the distortions of the benefit package caused by indirect risk selection. Direct risk selection (DRS) may either increase or decrease these distortions, depending on the type of equilibrium (pooling or separating), the type of DRS (positive or negative) and the type of cost for DRS (individual-specific or not). Regulators who succeed in reducing DRS by, e.g., banning excessive advertising or implementing fines for 'losing' applications, may therefore (unintendedly) mitigate or exacerbate the distortions of the benefit package caused by indirect risk selection. It is shown that the interaction of direct and indirect risk selection also alters the formula for optimal risk adjustment. PMID:25935738

  2. Indirect coupling between two cavity modes via ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Paul; Bai, Lihui; Harder, Michael; Match, Christophe; Hu, Can-Ming

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally realize an indirect coupling between two cavity modes via strong coupling with ferromagnetic resonance in Yttrium Iron Garnet. We find that some indirectly coupled modes of this system can have a higher microwave transmission than the individual uncoupled modes. Using a coupled harmonic oscillator model, the influence of the oscillation phase difference between the two cavity modes on the nature of the indirect coupling is revealed. The properties of the indirectly coupled modes can be controlled using an external magnetic field or by tuning the cavity height. The relation between cavity transmission and the relative phase difference between cavity modes should be useful for developing tunable optical devices and improved information processing technologies.

  3. Direct and Indirect Phototransformation of Graphene Oxide in Sunlight

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct and indirect (with added H202 that serves as OH precursor) photoreactions of grapheme oxide (GO) were examined under sunlight exposure. The results indicate that GO photoreacts under both conditions, leading to significant alterations in GO's physicochemical properties. In...

  4. Theoretical and testing performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2010-12-15

    An indirect evaporative chiller is a device used to produce chilled water at a temperature between the wet bulb temperature and dew point of the outdoor air, which can be used in building HVAC systems. This article presents a theoretical analysis and practical performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller. First, the process of the indirect evaporative chiller is introduced; then, the matching characteristics of the process are presented and analyzed. It can be shown that the process that produces cold water by using dry air is a nearly-reversible process, so the ideal produced chilled water temperature of the indirect evaporative chiller can be set close to the dew point temperature of the chiller's inlet air. After the indirect evaporative chiller was designed, simulations were done to analyze the output water temperature, the cooling efficiency relative to the inlet dew point temperature, and the COP that the chiller can performance. The first installation of the indirect evaporative chiller of this kind has been run for 5 years in a building in the city of Shihezi. The tested output water temperature of the chiller is around 14-20 C, which is just in between of the outdoor wet bulb temperature and dew point. The tested COP{sub r,s} of the developed indirect evaporative chiller reaches 9.1. Compared with ordinary air conditioning systems, the indirect evaporative chiller can save more than 40% in energy consumption due to the fact that the only energy consumed is from pumps and fans. An added bonus is that the indirect evaporative chiller uses no CFCs that pollute to the aerosphere. The tested internal parameters, such as the water-air flow rate ratio and heat transfer area for each heat transfer process inside the chiller, were analyzed and compared with designed values. The tested indoor air conditions, with a room temperature of 23-27 C and relative humidity of 50-70%, proved that the developed practical indirect evaporative chiller successfully

  5. Bidirectional Modulation of Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonathan W.; Poeta, Devon L.; Jacobson, Tara K.; Zolnik, Timothy A.; Neske, Garrett T.; Connors, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects. For example, animals and humans with perirhinal damage are unable to distinguish familiar from novel objects in recognition memory tasks. In the normal brain, perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by increasing or decreasing firing rates. Recent work also implicates oscillatory activity in the low-beta and low-gamma frequency bands in sensory detection, perception, and recognition. Using optogenetic methods in a spontaneous object exploration (SOR) task, we altered recognition memory performance in rats. In the SOR task, normal rats preferentially explore novel images over familiar ones. We modulated exploratory behavior in this task by optically stimulating channelrhodopsin-expressing perirhinal neurons at various frequencies while rats looked at novel or familiar 2D images. Stimulation at 30–40 Hz during looking caused rats to treat a familiar image as if it were novel by increasing time looking at the image. Stimulation at 30–40 Hz was not effective in increasing exploration of novel images. Stimulation at 10–15 Hz caused animals to treat a novel image as familiar by decreasing time looking at the image, but did not affect looking times for images that were already familiar. We conclude that optical stimulation of PER at different frequencies can alter visual recognition memory bidirectionally. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recognition of novelty and familiarity are important for learning, memory, and decision making. Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects, but how novelty and familiarity are encoded and transmitted in the brain is not known. Perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by changing firing rates, but recent work suggests that brain oscillations may also be important for recognition. In this study, we showed that

  6. Cementation of indirect restorations: an overview of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Stamatacos, Catherine; Simon, James F

    2013-01-01

    The process of ensuring proper retention, marginal seal, and durability of indirect restorations depends heavily on effective cementation. Careful consideration must be made when selecting an adhesive cement for a given application. This article provides information on resin cements that can guide clinicians in determining which type of cement is best suited to their clinical needs regarding cementation of indirect restorations. Emphasis is placed on successful cementation of all-ceramic restorations.

  7. [Indirect immunofluorescence microtest in the determination of antirabies antibodies].

    PubMed

    Buonavoglia, C; Pestalozza, S; Ciuchini, F

    1982-01-01

    The A.A. describe an indirect fluorescent antibody microtest for the rapid detection and titration of antirabies antibodies. Slides containing rabies antigen were prepared by planting 50% infected cells onto multiwelled teflon-coated slides. Following fixation, slides were stored at -20 degrees C until used. The indirect fluorescent antibody microtest was compared to the RFFIT in titration of sera containing rabies antibodies. The test was found to be rapid, easy and reliable.

  8. Hypoxia inducible factor pathway inhibitors as anticancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, Sarah K; Kaluz, Stefan; Wang, Danzhu; Wang, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia is a significant feature of solid tumor cancers. Hypoxia leads to a more malignant phenotype that is resistant to chemotherapy and radiation, is more invasive and has greater metastatic potential. Hypoxia activates the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway, which mediates the biological effects of hypoxia in tissues. The HIF complex acts as a transcription factor for many genes that increase tumor survival and proliferation. To date, many HIF pathway inhibitors indirectly affect HIF but there have been no clinically approved direct HIF inhibitors. This can be attributed to the complexity of the HIF pathway, as well as to the challenges of inhibiting protein–protein interactions. PMID:23573973

  9. Sex recognition and neuronal coding of electric organ discharge waveform in the pulse-type weakly electric fish, Hypopomus occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Shumway, C A; Zelick, R D

    1988-08-01

    1. Hypopomus occidentalis, a weakly electric gymnotiform fish with a pulse-type discharge, has a sexually dimorphic electric organ discharge (Hagedorn 1983). The electric organ discharges (EODs) of males in the breeding season are longer in duration and have a lower peak-power frequency than the EODs of females. We tested reproductively mature fish in the field by presenting electronically generated stimuli in which the only cue for sex recognition was the waveshape of individual EOD-like pulses in a train. We found that gravid females could readily discriminate male-like from female-like EOD waveshapes, and we conclude that this feature of the electric signal is sufficient for sex recognition. 2. To understand the possible neural bases for discrimination of male and female EODs by H . occidentalis, we conducted a neurophysiological examination of both peripheral and central neurons. Our studies show that there are sets of neurons in this species which can discriminate male or female EODs by coding either temporal or spectral features of the EOD. 3. Temporal encoding of stimulus duration was observed in evoked field potential recordings from the magnocellular nucleus of the midbrain torus semicircularis. This nucleus indirectly receives pulse marker electroreceptor information. The field potentials suggest that comparison is possible between pulse marker activity on opposite sides of the body. 4. From standard frequency-threshold curves, spectral encoding of stimulus peak-power frequency was measured in burst duration coder electroreceptor afferents. In both male and female fish, the best frequencies of the narrow-band population of electroreceptors were lower than the peak-power frequency of the EOD. Based on this observation, and the presence of a population of wide-band receptors which can serve as a frequency-independent amplitude reference, a slope-detection model of frequency discrimination is advanced. 5. Spectral discrimination of EOD peak-power frequency

  10. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  11. An audiovisual emotion recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

    2007-12-01

    Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

  12. Multiple Pathways Linking Racism to Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Camara Jules P; Burford, Tanisha I; Cage, Brandi N; Nelson, Travette McNair; Shearon, Sheronda; Thompson, Adrian; Green, Steven

    2011-04-15

    This commentary discusses advances in the conceptual understanding of racism and selected research findings in the social neurosciences. The traditional stress and coping model holds that racism constitutes a source of aversive experiences that, when perceived by the individual, eventually lead to poor health outcomes. Current evidence points to additional psychophysiological pathways linking facets of racist environments with physiological reactions that contribute to disease. The alternative pathways emphasize prenatal experiences, subcortical emotional neural circuits, conscious and preconscious emotion regulation, perseverative cognitions, and negative affective states stemming from racist cognitive schemata. Recognition of these pathways challenges change agents to use an array of cognitive and self-controlling interventions in mitigating racism's impact. Additionally, it charges policy makers to develop strategies that eliminate deep-seated structural aspects of racism in society.

  13. Recognition of apoptotic cells by viable cells is specific, ubiquitous, and species independent: analysis using photonic crystal biosensors.

    PubMed

    Pattabiraman, Goutham; Lidstone, Erich A; Palasiewicz, Karol; Cunningham, Brian T; Ucker, David S

    2014-06-01

    Apoptotic recognition is innate and linked to a profound immune regulation (innate apoptotic immunity [IAI]) involving anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses. Many of the molecular and mechanistic details of this response remain elusive. Although immune outcomes can be quantified readily, the initial specific recognition events have been difficult to assess. We developed a sensitive, real-time method to detect the recognition of apoptotic cells by viable adherent responder cells, using a photonic crystal biosensor approach. The method relies on characteristic spectral shifts resulting from the specific recognition and dose-dependent interaction of adherent responder cells with nonadherent apoptotic targets. Of note, the biosensor provides a readout of early recognition-specific events in responder cells that occur distal to the biosensor surface. We find that innate apoptotic cell recognition occurs in a strikingly species-independent manner, consistent with our previous work and inferences drawn from indirect assays. Our studies indicate obligate cytoskeletal involvement, although apoptotic cell phagocytosis is not involved. Because it is a direct, objective, and quantitative readout of recognition exclusively, this biosensor approach affords a methodology with which to dissect the early recognition events associated with IAI and immunosuppression.

  14. Disentangling direct and indirect fitness effects of microbial dormancy.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, William C; Hoverman, Mitchell; Travisano, Michael; Denison, R Ford

    2013-08-01

    Disentangling individual selection from kin selection is one of the greatest challenges of evolutionary biology. Even solitary organisms that do not interact directly with conspecifics may interact indirectly with them through competition for resources. As a result, traits that appear to affect individual fitness alone can also modify the fitness of relatives nearby and thus may evolve partially through these cryptic indirect fitness effects. Here we develop a method to quantitatively separate direct and indirect fitness consequences when some microbes become dormant, while neighbors of the same genotype remain active. Dormant microbes typically survive stresses that kill metabolically active cells, but dormancy also has a social side effect, sparing resources that may be used by nondormant individuals for growth. In structured populations, spared resources may be preferentially consumed by nondormant clonemates, providing an indirect benefit. Without population structure, however, exploitation by a never-dormant competitor imposes an indirect fitness cost on dormant cells. Cryptic indirect fitness effects may play a significant role in the evolution of many ostensibly asocial traits.

  15. Heard it through the grapevine: indirect networks and employee creativity.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Giles; Van Knippenberg, Daan; Zhou, Jing; Quintane, Eric; Zhu, Cherrie

    2015-03-01

    Social networks can be important sources of information and insights that may spark employee creativity. The cross-fertilization of ideas depends not just on access to information and insights through one's direct network-the people one actually interacts with--but at least as much on access to the indirect network one's direct ties connect one to (i.e., people one does not interact with directly, but with whom one's direct ties interact). We propose that the reach efficiency of this indirect network--its nonredundancy in terms of interconnections--is positively related to individual creativity. To help specify the boundaries of this positive influence of the indirect network, we also explore how many steps removed the indirect network still adds to creativity. In addition, we propose that the efficiency (nonredundancy) of one's direct network is important here, because more efficient direct networks give one access to indirect networks with greater reach efficiency. Our hypotheses were supported in a multilevel analysis of multisource survey data from 223 sales representatives nested within 11 divisions of a Chinese pharmaceutical company. This analysis also showed that the creative benefits of reach efficiency were evident for 3 and 4 degrees of separation but were greatest for indirect ties that depend only on one's direct ties. PMID:25495092

  16. Manifestation of Aerosol Indirect Effects in Arctic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The first aerosol indirect effect has traditionally been conceived as an enhancement of shortwave cloud reflectance in response to decreased effective droplet size at fixed liquid water path, as cloud nucleating aerosol becomes entrained in the cloud. The high Arctic, with its pervasive low-level stratiform cloud cover and frequent episodes of anthropogenic aerosol (Artic "haze"), has in recent years served as a natural laboratory for research on actual manifestations of aerosol indirect effects. This paper will review the surprising set of developments: (1) the detection of the indirect effect as a source of surface warming, rather than cooling, throughout early spring, (2) a transition to a cooling effect in late spring, corresponding to the beginning of the sea ice melt season, and (3) detection of an indirect effect during summer, outside of the "Arctic haze" season. This paper will also discuss measurements of spectral shortwave irradiance (350-2200 nm) made at Barrow, Alaska, during the U.S. Department of Energy's Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), which reveal complications in our conception of the indirect effect related to the ice phase in Arctic stratiform clouds.

  17. Invasive prey indirectly increase predation on their native competitors.

    PubMed

    Castorani, Max C N; Hovel, Kevin A

    2015-07-01

    Ecological theory predicts that invasive prey can interact with native prey directly by competing for shared resources or indirectly by changing the abundance or behavior of shared native predators. However, both the study and management of invasive prey have historically overlooked indirect effects. In southern California estuaries, introduction of the Asian nest mussel Arcuatula senhousia has been linked to profound changes in native bivalve assemblages, but the mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. We performed three field experiments to assess the mechanisms of competition between Arcuatula and native bivalves, and evaluated the potential for Arcuatula to indirectly mediate native predator-prey dynamics. We found that Arcuatula reduces the diversity, abundance, and size of native bivalve recruits by preemptively exploiting space in surface sediments. When paired with native shallow-dwelling clams (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum), Arcuatula reduces adult survival through overgrowth competition. However, Arcuatula also attracts native predators, causing apparent competition by indirectly increasing predation of native clams, especially for poorly defended species. Therefore, invasive prey can indirectly increase predation rates on native competitors by changing the behavior of shared native predators, but the magnitude of apparent competition strongly depends on the vulnerability of natives to predation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the vulnerability of invasive prey to predation can greatly exacerbate impacts on their native competitors. Our findings suggest that consideration of both direct and indirect effects of invasive prey, as well as native predator-prey relationships, should lead to more effective invasive species management.

  18. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  19. Trapping and transport of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuenschell, Jeffrey K.

    Spatially indirect excitons are optically generated composite bosons with a radiative lifetime sufficient to reach thermal equilibrium. This work explores the physics of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells in the GaAs/AlGaAs system, specifically in the low-temperature, high-density regime. Particular attention is paid to a technique whereby a spatially inhomogeneous strain field is used as a trapping potential. In the process of modeling the trapping profile in wide quantum wells, dramatic effects due to intersubband coupling were observed at high strain. Experimentally, this regime coincides with the abrupt appearance of a dark population of indirect excitons at trap center, an effect originally suspected to be related to Bose-Einstein condensation. Here, the role of band mixing due to the strain-induced distortion of the crystal symmetry will be explored in detail in the context of this effect. Experimental studies presented here and in the literature suggest that Bose-Einstein condensation in indirect exciton systems may be difficult to detect with optical means (e.g., coherence measurements, momentum-space narrowing), possibly due to the strong dipole interaction between indirect excitons. Due to similarities between this system and liquid helium, it may be more fruitful to look for transport-related signatures of condensation, such as super fluidity. Here, a method for performing transport measurements on optically generated indirect excitons is also outlined and preliminary results are presented.

  20. Asymmetric Reinstatement Effects in Recognition.

    PubMed

    Shahabuddin, Shaan S; Smith, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Our experiment examined two questions: (1) Does reinstating a studied context affect recognition of an associated word, and (2) Does reinstating a studied word affect recognition of an associated context? After encoding 75 words, each of which was shown superimposed over a different 5-sec video of an environment (e.g., a playground, a traffic scene, or a grocery store), participants were asked to recognize 50 of the words and 50 of the video scenes. On the test, half of the studied words were shown superimposed over the same video contexts that had been present at encoding, and half were shown over new scenes. Similarly, videos were presented with either old or new words. Context reinstatement increased hits and reduced false alarms for words, but word reinstatement did not affect recognition of video contexts. The results suggest that the associations that bind word events with their contexts may not be bidirectional. PMID:27649359

  1. Palmprint Recognition across Different Devices

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei; Hu, Rong-Xiang; Gui, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Ren, Xiao-Ming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of Palmprint Recognition Across Different Devices (PRADD) is investigated, which has not been well studied so far. Since there is no publicly available PRADD image database, we created a non-contact PRADD image database containing 12,000 grayscale captured from 100 subjects using three devices, i.e., one digital camera and two smart-phones. Due to the non-contact image acquisition used, rotation and scale changes between different images captured from a same palm are inevitable. We propose a robust method to calculate the palm width, which can be effectively used for scale normalization of palmprints. On this PRADD image database, we evaluate the recognition performance of three different methods, i.e., subspace learning method, correlation method, and orientation coding based method, respectively. Experiments results show that orientation coding based methods achieved promising recognition performance for PRADD. PMID:22969380

  2. DNA recognition by synthetic constructs.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Elena; Mosquera, Jesús; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2011-09-01

    The interaction of transcription factors with specific DNA sites is key for the regulation of gene expression. Despite the availability of a large body of structural data on protein-DNA complexes, we are still far from fully understanding the molecular and biophysical bases underlying such interactions. Therefore, the development of non-natural agents that can reproduce the DNA-recognition properties of natural transcription factors remains a major and challenging goal in chemical biology. In this review we summarize the basics of double-stranded DNA recognition by transcription factors, and describe recent developments in the design and preparation of synthetic DNA binders. We mainly focus on synthetic peptides that have been designed by following the DNA interaction of natural proteins, and we discuss how the tools of organic synthesis can be used to make artificial constructs equipped with functionalities that introduce additional properties to the recognition process, such as sensing and controllability.

  3. Emotion-independent face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Silva, Liyanage C.; Esther, Kho G. P.

    2000-12-01

    Current face recognition techniques tend to work well when recognizing faces under small variations in lighting, facial expression and pose, but deteriorate under more extreme conditions. In this paper, a face recognition system to recognize faces of known individuals, despite variations in facial expression due to different emotions, is developed. The eigenface approach is used for feature extraction. Classification methods include Euclidean distance, back propagation neural network and generalized regression neural network. These methods yield 100% recognition accuracy when the training database is representative, containing one image representing the peak expression for each emotion of each person apart from the neutral expression. The feature vectors used for comparison in the Euclidean distance method and for training the neural network must be all the feature vectors of the training set. These results are obtained for a face database consisting of only four persons.

  4. Mandarin recognition over the telephone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Yuhung

    1996-06-01

    Mandarin Chinese is the official language in China and Taiwan, it is the native language of a quarter of the world population. As the services enabled by speech recognition technology (e.g. telephone voice dialing, information query) become more popular in English, we would like to extend this capability to other languages. Mandarin is one of the major languages under research in our laboratory. This paper describes how we extend our work in English speech recognition into Mandarin. We will described the corpus: Voice Across Taiwan, the training of a complete set of Mandarin syllable models, preliminary performance results and error analysis. A fast prototyping system was built, where a user can write any context free grammar with no restriction of vocabulary, then the grammar can be compiled into recognition models. It enables user to quickly test the performance of a new vocabulary.

  5. Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

    2010-11-01

    Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

  6. Group collaboration in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Clark, S E; Hori, A; Putnam, A; Martin, T P

    2000-11-01

    Group collaboration was examined in item and associative recognition. The present study distinguishes between group effects versus collaborative processes and defines the latter as interactive information exchange among group members. By that definition, many group effects do not involve collaboration. For example, group performance can exceed individual performance by pooling the increased resources of the group. Specifically, a group advantage can be obtained by deferring to a majority vote or to the group's best member. For both item and associative recognition, a group advantage was obtained that could not be accounted for by resource pooling. Collaborative facilitation was shown reliably in recognizing targets but not for rejecting distractors. PMID:11185784

  7. Emerging principles governing signal transduction by pattern-recognition receptors.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Jonathan C; Barton, Gregory M

    2014-11-13

    The problem of recognizing and disposing of non-self-organisms, whether for nutrients or defense, predates the evolution of multicellularity. Accordingly, the function of the innate immune system is often intimately associated with fundamental aspects of cell biology. Here, we review our current understanding of the links between cell biology and pattern-recognition receptors of the innate immune system. We highlight the importance of receptor localization for the detection of microbes and for the initiation of antimicrobial signaling pathways. We discuss examples that illustrate how pattern-recognition receptors influence, and are influenced by, the general membrane trafficking machinery of mammalian cells. In the future, cell biological analysis likely will rival pure genetic analysis as a tool to uncover fundamental principles that govern host-microbe interactions.

  8. 77 FR 63804 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Indirect Cost Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Indirect Cost Rates AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning Indirect Cost Rates. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this... Information Collection 9000- 0069, Indirect Cost Rates, by any of the following methods:...

  9. A risk assessment of direct and indirect exposure to emissions from a proposed hazardous waste incinerator in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinger, K.; Huggins, A.; Warner, L.

    1995-12-31

    An Indirect Exposure Assessment (IEA) was conducted, under USEPA`s RCRA Combustion Strategy, as part of the Part B permitting process for a proposed hazardous waste incinerator. The IEA involved identification of constituents of concern, emissions estimations, air dispersion and deposition modeling, evaluation of site-specific exposure pathways/scenarios, and food chain modeling in order to evaluate potential human health and environmental risks. The COMPDEP model was used to determine ambient ground level concentrations and dry and wet deposition rates of constituents of concern. The air modeling results were input into 50th percentile (Central) and 95th percentile (High-End) exposure scenarios which evaluated direct exposure via inhalation, dermal contact, and soil ingestion pathways, and indirect exposure through the food chain. The indirect pathway analysis considered the accumulation of constituents in plants and animals used as food sources by local inhabitants. Local food consumption data obtained from the Puerto Rico USDA were combined with realistic present-day and future-use exposure scenarios such as residential use, pineapple farming, and subsistence farming to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of risk, Overall risk was calculated using constituent doses and toxicity factors associated with the various routes of exposure. Risk values for each exposure pathway were summed to determine total carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic hazard to exposed individuals. A population risk assessment was also conducted in order to assess potential risks to the population surrounding the facility. Results of the assessment indicated no acute effects from constituents of concern, and a high-end excess lifetime cancer risk of approximately 6 in a million with dioxins (as 2,3,7,8-TCDD) and arsenic dominating the risk estimate.

  10. The consequences of direct versus indirect species interactions to selection on traits: pollination and nectar robbing in Ipomopsis aggregata.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Rebecca E

    2006-03-01

    Organisms experience a complex suite of species interactions. Although the ecological consequences of direct versus indirect species interactions have received attention, their evolutionary implications are not well understood. I examined selection on floral traits through direct versus indirect pathways of species interactions using the plant Ipomopsis aggregata and its pollinators and nectar robber. Using path analysis and structural equation modeling, I tested competing hypotheses comparing the relative importance of direct (pollinator-mediated) versus indirect (robber-mediated) interactions to trait selection through female plant function in 2 years. The hypothesis that provided the best fit to the observed data included robbing and pollination, suggesting that both interactors are important in driving selection on some traits; however, the direction and intensity of selection through robbing versus pollination varied between years. I then increased my scope of inference by assessing traits and species interactions across more years. I found that the potential for temporal variation in the direction and intensity of selection was pronounced. Taken together, results suggest that assessing the broader context in which organisms evolve, including both direct and indirect interactions and across multiple years, can provide increased mechanistic understanding of the diversity of ways that animals shape floral and plant evolution.

  11. Uptake of HLA Alloantigens via CD89 and CD206 Does Not Enhance Antigen Presentation by Indirect Allorecognition

    PubMed Central

    Breman, Eytan; Ruben, Jurjen M.; Franken, Kees L.; Heemskerk, Mirjam H. M.; Roelen, Dave L.; Claas, Frans H.

    2016-01-01

    In organ transplantation, alloantigens are taken up by antigen presenting cells and presented via the indirect pathway to T-cells which in turn can induce allograft rejection. Monitoring of these T-cells is of major importance; however no reliable assay is available to routinely monitor indirect allorecognition. Recently we showed that HLA monomers can be successfully used to monitor indirect allorecognition. Targeting antigens to endocytic receptors on antigen presenting cells may further enhance the presentation of antigens via HLA class II and improve the efficiency of this assay. In the current study we explored targeting of HLA monomers to either CD89 expressing monocytes or mannose receptor expressing dendritic cells. Monomer-antibody complexes were generated using biotin-labeled monomers and avidin labeling of the antibodies. We demonstrate that targeting the complexes to these receptors resulted in a dose-dependent HLA class II mediated presentation to a T-cell clone. The immune-complexes were efficiently taken up and presented to T-cells. However, the level of T-cell reactivity was similar to that when only exogenous antigen was added. We conclude that HLA-A2 monomers targeted for presentation through CD89 on monocytes or mannose receptor on dendritic cells lead to proper antigen presentation but do not enhance indirect allorecognition via HLA-DR. PMID:27413760

  12. The Role of the Ventral and Dorsal Pathways in Reading Chinese Characters and English Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yafeng; Yang, Yanhui; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Li; Peng, Danling

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature in alphabetic languages suggests that the occipital-temporal region (the ventral pathway) is specialized for automatic parallel word recognition, whereas the parietal region (the dorsal pathway) is specialized for serial letter-by-letter reading (and). However, few studies have directly examined the role of the ventral and…

  13. INDIRECT EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AT THE U.S. EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the early 1980s, exposures and subsequent health impact assessments from contaminants emitted into the air from stationary sources focused on the inhalation pathway. This 'direct' pathway of exposure was thought to be the most critical pathway, as it is for many contaminants. ...

  14. Recognition and Mental Manipulation of Body Parts Dissociate in Locked-In Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conson, Massimiliano; Pistoia, Francesca; Sara, Marco; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that the motor system is involved in motor simulation of actions, but some uncertainty exists about the consequences of lesions of descending motor pathways on mental imagery tasks. Moreover, recent findings suggest that the motor system could also have a role in recognition of body parts. To address these…

  15. Pattern-recognition receptors and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with an increased risk of several human malignancies, a classic example being gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). Development of GC is known to result from infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, which initially induces acute inflammation and, in a subset of patients, progresses over time to chronic inflammation, gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and finally intestinal-type GC. Germ-line encoded receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical for generating mature pro-inflammatory cytokines that are crucial for both Th1 and Th2 responses. Given that H. pylori is initially targeted by PRRs, it is conceivable that dysfunction within genes of this arm of the immune system could modulate the host response against H. pylori infection, and subsequently influence the emergence of GC. Current evidence suggests that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) (NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3), a C-type lectin receptor (DC-SIGN), and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA-5), are involved in both the recognition of H. pylori and gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, polymorphisms in genes involved in the TLR (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD14) and NLR (NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, NLRP12, NLRX1, CASP1, ASC, and CARD8) signaling pathways have been shown to modulate the risk of H. pylori infection, gastric precancerous lesions, and/or GC. Further, the modulation of PRRs has been suggested to suppress H. pylori-induced inflammation and enhance GC cell apoptosis, highlighting their potential relevance in GC therapeutics. In this review, we present current advances in our understanding of the role of the TLR and NLR signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of GC, address the involvement of other recently identified PRRs in GC, and discuss the potential implications of PRRs in GC immunotherapy.

  16. Pattern-Recognition Receptors and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with an increased risk of several human malignancies, a classic example being gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). Development of GC is known to result from infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, which initially induces acute inflammation and, in a subset of patients, progresses over time to chronic inflammation, gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and finally intestinal-type GC. Germ-line encoded receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical for generating mature pro-inflammatory cytokines that are crucial for both Th1 and Th2 responses. Given that H. pylori is initially targeted by PRRs, it is conceivable that dysfunction within genes of this arm of the immune system could modulate the host response against H. pylori infection, and subsequently influence the emergence of GC. Current evidence suggests that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) (NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3), a C-type lectin receptor (DC-SIGN), and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA-5), are involved in both the recognition of H. pylori and gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, polymorphisms in genes involved in the TLR (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD14) and NLR (NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, NLRP12, NLRX1, CASP1, ASC, and CARD8) signaling pathways have been shown to modulate the risk of H. pylori infection, gastric precancerous lesions, and/or GC. Further, the modulation of PRRs has been suggested to suppress H. pylori-induced inflammation and enhance GC cell apoptosis, highlighting their potential relevance in GC therapeutics. In this review, we present current advances in our understanding of the role of the TLR and NLR signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of GC, address the involvement of other recently identified PRRs in GC, and discuss the potential implications of PRRs in GC immunotherapy

  17. Emotion recognition during cocaine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Steenbergen, L; Theunissen, E L; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2015-11-01

    Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2 h after treatment with oral cocaine (300 mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response. PMID:26328908

  18. The Army word recognition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, David R.; Haratz, David

    1977-01-01

    The application of speech recognition technology in the Army command and control area is presented. The problems associated with this program are described as well as as its relevance in terms of the man/machine interactions, voice inflexions, and the amount of training needed to interact with and utilize the automated system.

  19. Low-resolution gait recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junping; Pu, Jian; Chen, Changyou; Fleischer, Rudolf

    2010-08-01

    Unlike other biometric authentication methods, gait recognition is noninvasive and effective from a distance. However, the performance of gait recognition will suffer in the low-resolution (LR) case. Furthermore, when gait sequences are projected onto a nonoptimal low-dimensional subspace to reduce the data complexity, the performance of gait recognition will also decline. To deal with these two issues, we propose a new algorithm called superresolution with manifold sampling and backprojection (SRMS), which learns the high-resolution (HR) counterparts of LR test images from a collection of HR/LR training gait image patch pairs. Then, we incorporate SRMS into a new algorithm called multilinear tensor-based learning without tuning parameters (MTP) for LR gait recognition. Our contributions include the following: 1) With manifold sampling, the redundancy of gait image patches is remarkably decreased; thus, the superresolution procedure is more efficient and reasonable. 2) Backprojection guarantees that the learned HR gait images and the corresponding LR gait images can be more consistent. 3) The optimal subspace dimension for dimension reduction is automatically determined without introducing extra parameters. 4) Theoretical analysis of the algorithm shows that MTP converges. Experiments on the USF human gait database and the CASIA gait database show the increased efficiency of the proposed algorithm, compared with previous algorithms. PMID:20199936

  20. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos' responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species. PMID:26911199

  1. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  2. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen MG; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos’ responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species. PMID:26911199

  3. Emotion recognition during cocaine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Steenbergen, L; Theunissen, E L; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2015-11-01

    Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2 h after treatment with oral cocaine (300 mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response.

  4. Face recognition for uncontrolled environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podilchuk, Christine; Hulbert, William; Flachsbart, Ralph; Barinov, Lev

    2010-04-01

    A new face recognition algorithm has been proposed which is robust to variations in pose, expression, illumination and occlusions such as sunglasses. The algorithm is motivated by the Edit Distance used to determine the similarity between strings of one dimensional data such as DNA and text. The key to this approach is how to extend the concept of an Edit Distance on one-dimensional data to two-dimensional image data. The algorithm is based on mapping one image into another and using the characteristics of the mapping to determine a two-dimensional Pictorial-Edit Distance or P-Edit Distance. We show how the properties of the mapping are similar to insertion, deletion and substitution errors defined in an Edit Distance. This algorithm is particularly well suited for face recognition in uncontrolled environments such as stand-off and other surveillance applications. We will describe an entire system designed for face recognition at a distance including face detection, pose estimation, multi-sample fusion of video frames and identification. Here we describe how the algorithm is used for face recognition at a distance, present some initial results and describe future research directions.(

  5. Indirect reciprocity in three types of social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2014-08-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Previous studies explored indirect reciprocity in the so-called donation game, a special class of Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) with unilateral decision making. A more general class of social dilemmas includes Snowdrift (SG), Stag Hunt (SH), and PD games, where two players perform actions simultaneously. In these simultaneous-move games, moral assessments need to be more complex; for example, how should we evaluate defection against an ill-reputed, but now cooperative, player? We examined indirect reciprocity in the three social dilemmas and identified twelve successful social norms for moral assessments. These successful norms have different principles in different dilemmas for suppressing cheaters. To suppress defectors, any defection against good players is prohibited in SG and PD, whereas defection against good players may be allowed in SH. To suppress unconditional cooperators, who help anyone and thereby indirectly contribute to jeopardizing indirect reciprocity, we found two mechanisms: indiscrimination between actions toward bad players (feasible in SG and PD) or punishment for cooperation with bad players (effective in any social dilemma). Moreover, we discovered that social norms that unfairly favor reciprocators enhance robustness of cooperation in SH, whereby reciprocators never lose their good reputation.

  6. Modified Habitats Influence Kelp Epibiota via Direct and Indirect Effects

    PubMed Central

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.; Underwood, Antony J.; Coleman, Ross A.

    2011-01-01

    Addition of man-made structures alters abiotic and biotic characteristics of natural habitats, which can influence abundances of biota directly and/or indirectly, by altering the ecology of competitors or predators. Marine epibiota in modified habitats were used to test hypotheses to distinguish between direct and indirect processes. In Sydney Harbour, kelps on pier-pilings supported greater covers of bryozoans, particularly of the non-indigenous species Membranipora membranacea, than found on natural reefs. Pilings influenced these patterns and processes directly due to the provision of shade and indirectly by altering abundances of sea-urchins which, in turn, affected covers of bryozoans. Indirect effects were more important than direct effects. This indicates that artificial structures affect organisms living on secondary substrata in complex ways, altering the biodiversity and indirectly affecting abundances of epibiota. Understanding how these components of habitats affect ecological processes is necessary to allow sensible prediction of the effects of modifying habitats on the ecology of organisms. PMID:21755011

  7. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  8. Circumventing resistance: using values to indirectly change attitudes.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2012-10-01

    Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence). PMID:22746672

  9. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    PubMed

    Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Mach, Megan E; Martone, Rebecca G; Singh, Gerald G; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M A

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  10. Tumour-specific CD4 T cells eradicate melanoma via indirect recognition of tumour-derived antigen.

    PubMed

    Shklovskaya, Elena; Terry, Alexandra M; Guy, Thomas V; Buckley, Adrian; Bolton, Holly A; Zhu, Erhua; Holst, Jeff; Fazekas de St. Groth, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    The importance of CD4 T cells in tumour immunity has been increasingly recognised, with recent reports describing robust CD4 T cell-dependent tumour control in mice whose immune-regulatory mechanisms have been disturbed by irradiation, chemotherapy, immunomodulatory therapy and/or constitutive immunodeficiency. Tumour control in such models has been attributed in large part to direct Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II-dependent CD4 T cell killing of tumour cells. To test whether CD4 T cells can eradicate tumours without directly killing tumour cells, we developed an animal model in which tumour-derived antigen could be presented to T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic CD4 T cells by host but not tumour MHC class II molecules. In I-E(+) mice bearing I-E(null) tumours, naive I-E-restricted CD4 T cells proliferated locally in tumour-draining lymph nodes after recognising tumour-derived antigen on migratory dendritic cells. In lymphopaenic but not immunosufficient hosts, CD4 T cells differentiated into polarised T helper type 1 (Th1) cells expressing interferon gamma (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin (IL)-2 but little IL-17, and cleared established tumours. Tumour clearance was enhanced by higher TCR affinity for tumour antigen-MHC class II and was critically dependent on IFNγ, as demonstrated by early tumour escape in animals treated with an IFNγ blocking antibody. Thus, CD4 T cells and IFNγ can control tumour growth without direct T-cell killing of tumour cells, and without requiring additional adaptive immune cells such as CD8 T cells and B cells. Our results support a role for effective CD4 T cell-dependent tumour immunity against MHC class II-negative tumours. PMID:26837456

  11. Method and System for Object Recognition Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor); Stubberud, Allen R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for object recognition using shape and color features of the object to be recognized. An adaptive architecture is used to recognize and adapt the shape and color features for moving objects to enable object recognition.

  12. A simple model for teaching postmortem monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Patrick E

    2009-05-01

    Although the ophthalmoscope was invented by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1851, pathologists until recently have relied almost exclusively on ocular enucleation to identify and describe postmortem fundal abnormalities. An inexpensive but valuable tool for forensic pathologists, the postmortem monocular indirect ophthalmoscope consists of a light source attached to a headband along with a hand-held lens. This permits a wide view of the fundus after death but the technique can be challenging to master for pathology residents and forensic pathology fellows. To facilitate skill acquisition in monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, a simple and inexpensive teaching model can be constructed from hinged, cylindrical plastic containers. An artificial pupil created in the lid and a removable color fundal image placed in the bottom of the opaque container allows the pathologist-in-training to practice the technique of monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and correctly identify, localize, and describe fundal abnormalities such as retinal hemorrhages.

  13. Electric tuning of direct-indirect optical transitions in silicon.

    PubMed

    Noborisaka, J; Nishiguchi, K; Fujiwara, A

    2014-01-01

    Electronic band structures in semiconductors are uniquely determined by the constituent elements of the lattice. For example, bulk silicon has an indirect bandgap and it prohibits efficient light emission. Here we report the electrical tuning of the direct/indirect band optical transition in an ultrathin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) gated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) light-emitting diode. A special Si/SiO2 interface formed by high-temperature annealing that shows stronger valley coupling enables us to observe phononless direct optical transition. Furthermore, by controlling the gate field, its strength can be electrically tuned to 16 times that of the indirect transition, which is nearly 800 times larger than the weak direct transition in bulk silicon. These results will therefore assist the development of both complementary MOS (CMOS)-compatible silicon photonics and the emerging "valleytronics" based on the control of the valley degree of freedom. PMID:25377598

  14. Indirect evaporative cooler with condensation of primary airflow

    SciTech Connect

    Vollebregt, H.J.M.; Jong, T. de

    1994-12-31

    In this paper a new application for indirect evaporative cooling is introduced. This cooling principle may be used to cool and dehumidify closed greenhouses. A prototype indirect evaporative cooler with a crossflow configuration was built and its performance was determined in an experimental facility. During tests under Dutch design conditions of the greenhouse and outside air, the plate temperature was less than the dew point of the greenhouse air, so condensation occurred. The rates of sensible and latent heat transferred from the greenhouse air by the prototype cooler were determined. Also, the influence of greenhouse and outside air conditions and airflow rates in the cooler on the enthalpy efficiency was studied. Although the amount of condensation in the prototype indirect evaporative cooler was large, the resulting climate in a closed greenhouse may be more humid than that in a conventional one.

  15. Indirect aesthetic adhesive restoration with fibre-reinforced composite resin.

    PubMed

    Corona, S A M; Garcia, P P N S; Palma-Dibb, R G; Chimello, D T

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes the restoration of an endodontically treated upper first molar with a fibre-reinforced onlay indirect composite resin restoration. The clinical and radiographic examination confirmed that the tooth had suffered considerable loss of structure. Therefore, an indirect restoration was indicated. First, a core was built with resin-modified glass ionomer cement, followed by onlay preparation, mechanical/chemical gingival retraction and impression with addition-cured silicone. After the laboratory phase, the onlay was tried in, followed by adhesive bonding and occlusal adjustment. It can be concluded that fibre-reinforced aesthetic indirect composite resin restoration represented, in the present clinical case, an aesthetic and conservative treatment option. However, the use of fibres should be more extensively studied to verify the real improvement in physical and mechanical properties.

  16. Control methods and systems for indirect evaporative coolers

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Jason; Kozubal, Erik

    2015-09-22

    A control method for operating an indirect evaporative cooler to control temperature and humidity. The method includes operating an airflow control device to provide supply air at a flow rate to a liquid desiccant dehumidifier. The supply air flows through the dehumidifier and an indirect evaporative cooler prior to exiting an outlet into a space. The method includes operating a pump to provide liquid desiccant to the liquid desiccant dehumidifier and sensing a temperature of an airstream at the outlet of the indirect evaporative cooler. The method includes comparing the temperature of the airstream at the outlet to a setpoint temperature at the outlet and controlling the pump to set the flow rate of the liquid desiccant. The method includes sensing space temperature, comparing the space temperature with a setpoint temperature, and controlling the airflow control device to set the flow rate of the supply air based on the comparison.

  17. The direct/indirect composite resin veneers: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fahl Júnior, N

    1996-09-01

    Veneer restorations are well suited for conservative and aesthetic improvement of the anterior dentition. Laboratory fabricated porcelain and composite resin veneers present optimal aesthetics and durability. Although there are disadvantages associated with direct bonding, it provides control of color and contour for the operator, particularly in the case of a single anterior central incisor. Direct/indirect composite resin veneers utilize the advantages of both direct and indirect techniques in reconstruction of restorations with improved physical properties. The learning objective of this article is to review the available composite resins, opaquers, and tints, and present a step-by-step protocol for predictable restoration of discolored anterior dentition with direct/indirect heat-treated composite resin veneers in a single appointment. Patient evaluation, preoperative aesthetic considerations, selection of the restorative composite resins, and the clinical procedure are discussed.

  18. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Qiu, Tian; Shen, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175079) and the Young Scientist Training Project of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20133BCB23017).

  19. The Optimal Dose of Nicardipine for Enhancement of Indirect Portography

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Yutaka; Nakamura, Hironobu; Akaji, Hideyo

    1998-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the optimal dose of nicardipine (NCR) for enhancement of indirect portography. Methods: Forty-eight patients underwent conventional film indirect portography via the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) first without and then with preinjection of 1/64-2 mg of NCR into the SMA. Results: NCR (1/8-2 mg) shortened the arterial phase to 50% and the portal appearance time to 60% of control without reflux of contrast medium into the aorta. Portal enhancement was excellent at doses of 1/32 mg or more. Blood pressures and pulse rate showed no significant change at 1/4 mg or less. Conclusion: NCR (1/8-1/4 mg) into the SMA is the optimal dose for achieving sufficient contrast enhancement on indirect portography while reducing the transit time of contrast medium and minimizing effects on the systemic circulation.

  20. Measuring indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine in low income countries.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Aisleen; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2016-08-17

    Widespread introduction of rotavirus vaccines has led to major reductions in the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis worldwide. Vaccine effectiveness is diminished, however, in low income countries, that harbour the greatest burden of rotavirus attributed morbidity and mortality. Indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine (herd immunity and herd protection) could increase population level impact and improve vaccine cost effectiveness in such settings. While rotavirus vaccine indirect effects have been demonstrated in high and middle income countries, there are very little data from low income countries where force of infection, population structures and vaccine schedules differ. Targeted efforts to evaluate indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine in low income countries are required to understand the total impact of rotavirus vaccine on the global burden of rotavirus disease. PMID:27443593