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Sample records for indium 97

  1. Indium

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Indium occurs as a trace constituent of other metal deposits, principally zinc, but also lead, tin, tungsten, and iron. It is derived as a byproduct usually from residues generating in the refining of zinc, so its supply is therefore dependent upon demand for and, hence, the production of that metal. It is estimated that 90% of the U.S. requirements for indium are accounted for by imports of highly refined indium metal or indium-rich residues and other materials, mainly from France, Italy, Belgium, and the United Kingdom. Dependence on foreign sources is expected to continue. The principal producers of refined indium metal are the United States, Belgium, Japan, France, and Italy. The major uses of indium are in alloys and instruments, and the metal has applications in a variety of other fields. There are potential substitutes for indium in many of its applications. Domestic indium demand was estimated at 700,000 troy ounces in 1983. Based on a contingency analysis of the major end uses for indium, the range of possible domestic demands for primary indium in the year 2000 is forecast to be from 500,000 to 1,100,000 ounces. A probable demand of 900,000 ounces represents an annual growth rate of 1.5%. The range of demand forecasts for the rest of the world is between 1.0 million and 1.9 million ounces, with a probable demand of 1.7 million ounces, which represents an annual growth rate of 1.6%.

  2. Indium fluoride glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    Fluoride glasses are the only material that transmit light from ultraviolet to mid-infrared and can be drawn into industrial optical fibers. The mechanical and optical properties of new indium fluoride glass fibers have been investigated. Multimode fiber 190 microns, has very high mechanical strength greater than 100 kpsi and optical loss as low as 45 dB/km between 2 and 4 microns. Unlike chalcogenide glass fibers, indium fluoride fiber has a wide transmission window from 0.3 to 5.5 microns without any absorption peak. Indium fluoride glass fibers are the technology of choice for all application requiring transmission up to 5 micron such as infrared contour measure (IRCM) and chemical sensing. Furthermore, Indium fluoride glasses have low phonon energy and can be heavily doped and co-doped whit rare-earth elements. Therefore they are very promising candidates for infrared fiber lasers.

  3. [Indium lung disease].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2014-02-01

    "Indium lung" is a new occupational lung disease. The global demand for indium, the major material used in manufacturing flat-screen display panels, has skyrocketed since the 1990s (Japan comprises 85% of the worldwide demand). The first case was reported in Japan in 2003, followed by seven cases (interstitial pneumonia and emphysema) in Japan. Two pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) cases in the USA followed in 2011. Indium lung has been described as interstitial pneumonia, pneumothorax, emphysema, and PAP. In 2013, The Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare issued an "Ordinance on the Prevention of Hazards Due to Specified Chemical Substances" requiring employers to provide regular health checks for employees and measurements of work environment concentrations of respirable indium dust.

  4. Indium lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kristin J; Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-Long; Harley, Russell A; Roggli, Victor L; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J; Trapnell, Bruce C; Day, Gregory A; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2012-06-01

    Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies.

  5. Indium Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-long; Harley, Russell A.; Roggli, Victor L.; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Day, Gregory A.; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L.; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. Methods: To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Results: Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:22207675

  6. Respirable indium exposures, plasma indium, and respiratory health among indium-tin oxide (ITO) workers.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kristin J; Virji, M Abbas; Park, Ji Young; Stanton, Marcia L; Edwards, Nicole T; Trapnell, Bruce C; Carey, Brenna; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Workers manufacturing indium-tin oxide (ITO) are at risk of elevated indium concentration in blood and indium lung disease, but relationships between respirable indium exposures and biomarkers of exposure and disease are unknown. For 87 (93%) current ITO workers, we determined correlations between respirable and plasma indium and evaluated associations between exposures and health outcomes. Current respirable indium exposure ranged from 0.4 to 108 μg/m(3) and cumulative respirable indium exposure from 0.4 to 923 μg-yr/m(3) . Plasma indium better correlated with cumulative (rs  = 0.77) than current exposure (rs  = 0.54) overall and with tenure ≥1.9 years. Higher cumulative respirable indium exposures were associated with more dyspnea, lower spirometric parameters, and higher serum biomarkers of lung disease (KL-6 and SP-D), with significant effects starting at 22 μg-yr/m(3) , reached by 46% of participants. Plasma indium concentration reflected cumulative respirable indium exposure, which was associated with clinical, functional, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:522-531, 2016. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Respirable Indium Exposures, Plasma Indium, and Respiratory Health Among Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Virji, M. Abbas; Park, Ji Young; Stanton, Marcia L.; Edwards, Nicole T.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Carey, Brenna; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Workers manufacturing indium-tin oxide (ITO) are at risk of elevated indium concentration in blood and indium lung disease, but relationships between respirable indium exposures and biomarkers of exposure and disease are unknown. Methods For 87 (93%) current ITO workers, we determined correlations between respirable and plasma indium and evaluated associations between exposures and health outcomes. Results Current respirable indium exposure ranged from 0.4 to 108 μg/m3 and cumulative respirable indium exposure from 0.4 to 923 μg-yr/m3. Plasma indium better correlated with cumulative (rs = 0.77) than current exposure (rs = 0.54) overall and with tenure ≥1.9 years. Higher cumulative respirable indium exposures were associated with more dyspnea, lower spirometric parameters, and higher serum biomarkers of lung disease (KL-6 and SP-D), with significant effects starting at 22 μg-yr/m3, reached by 46% of participants. Conclusions Plasma indium concentration reflected cumulative respirable indium exposure, which was associated with clinical, functional, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. PMID:27219296

  8. Indium Sorption to Iron Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. J.; Sacco, S. A.; Hemond, H.; Hussain, F. A.; Runkel, R. L.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Kimball, B. A.; Shine, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics, and its use is growing rapidly as a semiconductive coating (as indium tin oxide) for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and flat panel displays. It also has uses in important energy technologies such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic cells. Despite its rapid increase in use, very little is known about the environmental behavior of indium, and concerns are being raised over the potential health effects of this emerging metal contaminant. One source of indium to the environment is acid mine drainage from the mining of lead, zinc, and copper sulfides. In our previous studies of a stream in Colorado influenced by acid mine drainage from lead and zinc mining activities, indium concentrations were found to be 10,000 times those found in uncontaminated rivers. However, the speciation and mobility of indium could not be reliably modeled because sorption constants to environmental sorbents have not been determined. In this study, we generate sorption constants for indium to ferrihydrite in the laboratory over a range of pHs, sorbent to sorbate ratios, and ionic strengths. Ferrihydrite is one of the most important sorbents in natural systems, and sorption to amorphous iron oxides such as ferrihydrite is thought to be one of the main removal mechanisms of metals from the dissolved phase in aqueous environments. Because of its relatively low solubility, we also find that indium hydroxide precipitation can dominate indium's partitioning at micromolar concentrations of indium. This precipitation may be important in describing indium's behavior in our study stream in Colorado, where modeling sorption to iron-oxides does not explain the complete removal of indium from the dissolved phase when the pH of the system is artificially raised to above 8. This study contributes much-needed data about indium's aqueous behavior, in order to better understand its fate, transport, and impacts in the

  9. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  10. Mineral of the month: indium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Micheal W.

    2004-01-01

    Indium was discovered in Germany in 1863. Although it is a lustrous silver-white color, the finders named the new material for the “indigo” spectral lines the mineral created on the spectrograph. Indium ranks 61st in abundance in Earth’s crust and is about three times more abundant than silver or mercury.

  11. Indium oxide based fiber optic SPR sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Sarika; Sharma, Navneet K.

    2016-05-06

    Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic sensor using indium oxide layer is presented and theoretically studied. It has been found that with increase in thickness of indium oxide layer beyond 170 nm, the sensitivity of SPR sensor decreases. 170 nm thick indium oxide layer based SPR sensor holds maximum sensitivity.

  12. Indium Foil Serves As Thermally Conductive Gasket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, G. Yale; Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    Indium foil found useful as gasket to increase thermal conductance between bodies clamped together. Deforms to fill imperfections on mating surfaces. Used where maximum temperature in joint less than melting temperature of indium. Because of low melting temperature of indium, most useful in cryogenic applications.

  13. Indium Foil Serves As Thermally Conductive Gasket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, G. Yale; Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    Indium foil found useful as gasket to increase thermal conductance between bodies clamped together. Deforms to fill imperfections on mating surfaces. Used where maximum temperature in joint less than melting temperature of indium. Because of low melting temperature of indium, most useful in cryogenic applications.

  14. Indium-Mediated Stereoselective Allylation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Vemula, Sandeep R; Balasubramanian, Narayanaganesh; Cook, Gregory R

    2016-10-04

    Stereoselective indium-mediated organic reactions have enjoyed tremendous growth in the last 25 years. This is in part due to the insensitivity of allylindium to moisture, affording facile and practical reaction conditions coupled with outstanding functional group tolerance and minimal side reactions. Despite the plethora of articles about allylindium, there is much yet to be discovered and exploited for efficient and sustainable synthesis. In this Account, we describe indium-mediated synthetic methods for the preparation of chiral amines with the aim to present a balance of practical method development, novel asymmetric chemistry, and mechanistic understanding that impact multiple chemical and materials science disciplines. In 2005, we demonstrated the indium-mediated allylation of chiral hydrazones with complete diastereoselectivity (>99:1) and quantitative yields. Further, we revealed the first example of enantioselective indium-mediated allylation of hydrazones using catalytic (R)-3,3'-bis(trifluoromethyl)-BINOL ligands to afford homoallylic amines with high enantioselectivity. The use of enantiopure perfluoroalkylsulfonate BINOLs greatly improved the indium-mediated allylation of N-acylhydrazones with exquisite enantiocontrol (99% yield, 99% ee). This laboratory has also investigated indium-mediated asymmetric intramolecular cyclization in the presence of amino acid additives to deliver biologically relevant chromanes with excellent diastereoselectivity (dr >99:1). The effect of amino acid additives (N-Boc-glycine) was further investigated during the indium-mediated allylation of isatins with allyl bromide to yield homoallylic alcohols in excellent yields in a short time with a wide range of functional group tolerance. Critical mechanistic insight was gained, and evidence suggests that the additive plays two roles: (1) to increase the rate of formation of allylindium from allyl bromide and In(0) and (2) to increase the nucleophilicity of the allylindium

  15. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  16. 34 CFR 97.104-97.106 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 97.104-97.106 Section 97.104-97.106 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) §§ 97.104-97.106...

  17. 34 CFR 97.104-97.106 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 97.104-97.106 Section 97.104-97.106 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) §§ 97.104-97.106...

  18. 34 CFR 97.104-97.106 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 97.104-97.106 Section 97.104-97.106 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) §§ 97.104-97.106...

  19. 47 CFR 97.515-97.517 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 97.515-97.517 Section 97.515-97.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems §§ 97.515-97.517 ...

  20. 47 CFR 97.515-97.517 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 97.515-97.517 Section 97.515-97.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems §§ 97.515-97.517 ...

  1. 47 CFR 97.515-97.517 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 97.515-97.517 Section 97.515-97.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems §§ 97.515-97.517 ...

  2. 47 CFR 97.515-97.517 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 97.515-97.517 Section 97.515-97.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems §§ 97.515-97.517 ...

  3. 47 CFR 97.515-97.517 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 97.515-97.517 Section 97.515-97.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems §§ 97.515-97.517 ...

  4. 34 CFR 97.104-97.106 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 97.104-97.106 Section 97.104-97.106 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) §§ 97.104-97.106...

  5. 34 CFR 97.104-97.106 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 97.104-97.106 Section 97.104-97.106 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) §§ 97.104-97.106 ...

  6. Indium lung--case reports and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Omae, Kazuyuki; Nakano, Makiko; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Hamaguchi, Tsutahiro; Chonan, Tatsuya

    2011-06-01

    The present review is aimed to introduce an new occupational lung disease, Indium Lung. We searched case reports and epidemiological studies concerning indium-related lung diseases and reviewed. Up to March, 2010, 7 cases of interstitial pneumonia in Japanese indium-exposed workers, two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in US indium-exposed workers, one case of PAP in a Chinese indium-exposed worker, and 4 cross-sectional surveys in Japan had been published. All cases and epidemiological studies in Japan indicate that exposure to hardly soluble indium compounds causes interstitial as well as emphysematous lung damages, which we call "Indium Lung". Based on the epidemiological studies, the Japan Society for Occupational Health proposed 3 μg/l of indium in serum as an occupational exposure limit based on biological monitoring to prevent significant increase of KL-6. Long-term follow-up of currently and formerly indium-exposed workers is essential not only to clarify the natural history of indium lung but also to trace the incidence of lung cancer. It is also necessary to elucidate the mechanism of indium lung and difference in clinical manifestations between Japanese and US cases.

  7. Comparing plasma, serum and whole blood indium concentrations from workers at an indium-tin oxide (ITO) production facility.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R Reid; Virji, M Abbas; Edwards, Nicole T; Cummings, Kristin J

    2016-12-01

    Occupational exposure to indium compounds including indium-tin oxide (ITO) can result in potentially fatal indium lung disease. We compared plasma, serum and whole blood indium concentrations (InP, InS and InB) from workers at a single ITO production facility to assess the comparability of these matrices used for biological monitoring of indium exposure. InP, InS and InB were measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometry from consenting workers at an ITO production facility with specimen collection occurring during June-July 2014. Matched pairs from workers were assessed to determine the matrix relationships using the Pearson correlation, paired t-tests, per cent difference, linear regression and κ statistics. Indium matrices were collected from 80 workers. Mean (SD) InP, InS and InB were 3.48 (3.84), 3.90 (4.15) and 4.66 (5.32) mcg/L, respectively. The InS-InP difference was 14%; InS was higher in all but two workers. InP and InS were highly correlated (r=>0.99). The InB-InS difference was 19%; InB was higher in 85% of workers. The InB-InP difference was 34%; InB was higher in 66% of workers. InB was highly correlated with both InP and InS (r=0.97 and 0.96, respectively). κ Statistics were 0.84, 0.83 and 0.82 for InP, InS and InB, respectively, for individuals with each matrix ≥1 mcg/L (p<0.01). While all matrices were highly correlated, we encourage the use of InP and InS to reliably compare studies across different populations using different matrices. The higher per cent difference and increased variability of InB may limit its utility in comparisons with InP and InS in different populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Influence of Metallic Indium Concentration on the Properties of Indium Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, N.

    2016-10-01

    Current-voltage characteristics of indium-embedded indium oxide thin films (600-850 Å), with Ag electrodes approximately 1000 Å thick, prepared by reactive evaporation of pure metallic indium in partial air pressure have been studied for substrate temperatures between 50 and 125°C. The optical properties of these films have also been investigated as a function of metallic indium concentration and substrate temperature. I-V characteristics of all the samples are non-ohmic, independent of metallic indium concentration. The conductivity of the films increases but the optical transmission decreases with increasing metallic indium concentration. Metallic indium concentration was found to be an important parameter affecting the film properties. Furthermore, two possible conduction mechanisms are proposed.

  9. Process for Patterning Indium for Bump Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denis, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    An innovation was created for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor for integration of low-temperature detector chips with a silicon backshort and a silicon photonic choke through flipchip bonding. Indium bumps are typically patterned using liftoff processes, which require thick resist. In some applications, it is necessary to locate the bumps close to high-aspect-ratio structures such as wafer through-holes. In those cases, liftoff processes are challenging, and require complicated and time-consuming spray coating technology if the high-aspect-ratio structures are delineated prior to the indium bump process. Alternatively, processing the indium bumps first is limited by compatibility of the indium with subsequent processing. The present invention allows for locating bumps arbitrarily close to multiple-level high-aspect-ratio structures, and for indium bumps to be formed without liftoff resist. The process uses the poor step coverage of indium deposited on a silicon wafer that has been previously etched to delineate the location of the indium bumps. The silicon pattern can be processed through standard lithography prior to adding the high-aspect-ratio structures. Typically, high-aspectratio structures require a thick resist layer so this layer can easily cover the silicon topography. For multiple levels of topography, the silicon can be easily conformally coated through standard processes. A blanket layer of indium is then deposited onto the full wafer; bump bonding only occurs at the high points of the topography.

  10. Occupational Exposure to Indium of Indium Smelter Workers.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun Guang; Wang, Huan Qiang; Song, Han Bo; Li, Zhi Hui; Li, Xiao Ping; Ye, Shao Se; Zhang, Fu Gang; Cui, Shi Wei; Yan, Hui Fang; Li, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Case reports of indium-related lung disease in workers have raised public concern to the human toxicity of indium (In) and its compounds. However, studies evaluating the exposure or health of workers in In smelting plants are rare. Therefore, in this study, we focused on four In smelting plants, with the main objective of characterizing In in smelter plants in China and discussing the potential exposure biomarkers of In exposure. We recruited 494 subjectsat four In smelting plants in China. Personal air samples, first morning urine and spot blood samples were collected. In concentrations in samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In concentrations in air samples did not exceed the permissible concentration-time weighed average, but the smelter workers had a higher internal exposure to In. Positive correlations were observed between the air In and urine In concentrations, and between the air In and blood In concentrations. This study provides basic data for the following In exposure and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  12. Recycling of indium from CIGS photovoltaic cells: potential of combining acid-resistant nanofiltration with liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Niewersch, Claudia; Lenz, Markus; Kül, Zöhre Zohra; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Schäffer, Andreas; Wintgens, Thomas

    2014-11-18

    Electronic consumer products such as smartphones, TV, computers, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells crucially depend on metals and metalloids. So-called "urban mining" considers them as secondary resources since they may contain precious elements at concentrations many times higher than their primary ores. Indium is of foremost interest being widely used, expensive, scarce and prone to supply risk. This study first investigated the capability of different nanofiltration membranes of extracting indium from copper-indium-gallium- selenide photovoltaic cell (CIGS) leachates under low pH conditions and low transmembrane pressure differences (<3 bar). Retentates were then subjected to a further selective liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Even at very acidic pH indium was retained to >98% by nanofiltration, separating it from parts of the Ag, Sb, Se, and Zn present. LLE using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) extracted 97% of the indium from the retentates, separating it from all other elements except for Mo, Al, and Sn. Overall, 95% (2.4 g m(-2) CIGS) of the indium could be extracted to the D2EHPA phase. Simultaneously, by nanofiltration the consumption of D2EHPA was reduced by >60% due to the metal concentration in the reduced retentate volume. These results show clearly the potential for efficient scarce metal recovery from secondary resources. Furthermore, since nanofiltration was applicable at very low pH (≥ 0.6), it may be applied in hydrometallurgy typically using acidic conditions.

  13. Therapeutic antibody technology 97.

    PubMed

    Larrick, J W; Gavilondo, J

    1998-01-01

    Almost 200 antibody aficionados attended the Therapeutic Antibody Technology 97 meeting, held September 21-24, 1997 at the Holiday Inn, Union Square in the heart of San Francisco, CA. The meeting was sponsored by the Palo Alto Institute of Molecular Medicine and organized by James W. Larrick (PAIMM) and Dennis R. Burton (Scripps Research Institute). The meeting featured excellent discussions on many interesting talks and a number of poster presentations. It is likely that another meeting will be organized in 2 years, however in the meantime, an effort is underway to organize a 'Virtual Antibody Society' to be set up on the web server at Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA (Questions and comments on this project can be sent to: Jwlarrick@aol.com or Burton@scripps.edu). Richard Lerner (Scripps) gave the keynote address on 'Catalytic Antibodies', describing recent work with Carlos Barbas on so-called reactive immunization to generate a high activity aldolase catalytic antibody. This antibody, soon to be described in an article in Science, is the first commercially available catalytic antibody.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: indium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Geologically, the occurrence of indium minerals is rare. The element most often occurs as a sulfide inclusion or substitutes in other base-metal minerals, including cassiterite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and stannite. Indium’s abundance in the crust is estimated to be 0.05 parts per million, which makes it more abundant than silver, but it is so widely disseminated that it does not occur in high enough concentrations to form mineable deposits. Therefore, indium is most often recovered from byproduct residues produced during the refining of lead and zinc. But only about one-quarter of the indium mined worldwide is refined into metal, as many indium-bearing concentrates are sent to refineries that do not have the capability of recovering the metal.

  15. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J. C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel for endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (≤ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important.

  16. Pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Gurlo, Aleksander; Dzivenko, Dmytro; Andrade, Miria; Riedel, Ralf; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-09-15

    A static pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium that takes place at ambient temperature is reported. The lattice parameter of c-In(OH)(3) decreased upon compression from 7.977(2) to approximately 7.45 A at 34 GPa, corresponding to a decrease in specific volume of approximately 18%. Fitting the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the obtained compression data gave a bulk modulus of 99 +/- 3 GPa for c-In(OH)(3). The c-In(OH)(3) crystals with a size of approximately 100 nm are comminuted upon compression, as indicated by the grain-size reduction reflected in broadening of the diffraction reflections and the appearance of smaller (approximately 5 nm) incoherently oriented domains in TEM. The rapid decompression of compressed c-In(OH)(3) leads to partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium, mainly as a result of localized stress gradients caused by relaxation of the highly disordered indium sublattice in indium hydroxide. This partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium is irreversible, as confirmed by angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy imaging, Raman scattering, and FTIR spectroscopy. Recovered c-In(OH)(3) samples become completely black and nontransparent and show typical features of metals, i.e., a falling absorption in the 100-250 cm(-1) region accompanied by a featureless spectrum in the 250-2500 cm(-1) region in the Raman spectrum and Drude-like absorption of free electrons in the region of 4000-8000 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectrum. These features were not observed in the initial c-In(OH)(3), which is a typical white wide-band-gap semiconductor.

  17. Indium Single-Ion Frequency Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagourney, Warren

    2001-01-01

    A single laser-cooled indium ion is a promising candidate for an ultimate resolution optical time or frequency standard. It can be shown that single ions from group IIIA of the periodic table (indium, thallium, etc.) can have extremely small systematic errors. In addition to being free from Doppler, transit-time and collisional shifts, these ions are also quite insensitive to perturbations from ambient magnetic and electric fields (mainly due to the use of a J=0-0 transition for spectroscopy). Of all group IIIA ions, indium seems to be the most practical, since it is heavy enough to have a tolerable intercombination cooling transition rate and (unlike thallium) has transitions which are easily accessible with frequency multiplied continuous-wave lasers. A single indium ion standard has a potential inaccuracy of one part in 10(exp 18) for integration times of 10(exp 6) seconds. We have made substantial progress during the grant period in constructing a frequency standard based upon a single indium ion. At the beginning of the grant period, single indium ions were being successfully trapped, but the lasers and optical systems were inadequate to achieve the desired goal. We have considerably improved the stability of the dye laser used to cool the ions and locked it to a molecular resonance line, making it possible to observe stable cooling-line fluorescence from a single indium ion for reasonable periods of time, as required by the demands of precision spectroscopy. We have substantially improved the single-ion fluorescence signal with significant benefits for the detection efficiency of forbidden transitions using the 'shelving' technique. Finally, we have constructed a compact, efficient UV 'clock' laser and observed 'clock' transitions in single indium ions using this laser system. We will elaborate on these accomplishments.

  18. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal raw...

  19. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal raw...

  20. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal raw...

  1. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal raw...

  2. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal raw...

  3. Thermal Stability of Chelated Indium Activable Tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysikopoulos, Costas; Kruger, Paul

    1986-01-21

    The thermal stability of indium tracer chelated with organic ligands ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) was measured for reservoir temperatures of 150, 200, and 240 C. Measurements of the soluble indium concentration was made as a function of time by neutron activation analysis. From the data, approximate thermal decomposition rates were estimated. At 150 C, both chelated tracers were stable over the experimental period of 20 days. At 200 C, the InEDTA concentration remained constant for 16 days, after which the thermal decomposition occurred at a measured rate constant of k = 0.09 d{sup -1}. The thermal decomposition of InNTA at 200 C showed a first order reaction with a measured rate constant of k = 0.16 d{sup -1}. At 240 C, both indium chelated tracers showed rapid decomposition with rate constants greater than 1.8 d{sup -1}. The data indicate that for geothermal reservoir with temperatures up to about 200 C, indium chelated tracers can be used effectively for transit times of at least 20 days. These experiments were run without reservoir rock media, and do not account for concomitant loss of indium tracer by adsorption processes.

  4. Indium adhesion provides quantitative measure of surface cleanliness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krieger, G. L.; Wilson, G. J.

    1968-01-01

    Indium tipped probe measures hydrophobic and hydrophilic contaminants on rough and smooth surfaces. The force needed to pull the indium tip, which adheres to a clean surface, away from the surface provides a quantitative measure of cleanliness.

  5. Indium: bringing liquid-crystal displays into focus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Celestine N.

    2015-07-30

    Compared to more abundant industrial metals such as lead and zinc, information about the behavior and toxicity of indium in the environment is limited. However, many indium compounds have been proven to be toxic to animals.

  6. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  7. Assessment of workplace air concentrations of indium dust in an indium-recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Hiroyuki; Minozoe, Aoi; Tanaka, Shigeru; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Nakaza, Masahiro; Arito, Heihachiro; Eitaki, Yoko; Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Suspended indium dust in an indium-recycling plant was quantified, in order to improve the work environment and to reduce workers' exposure to the dust. Assessment of indium dust in the workplace air by multipoint area sampling and personal breathing zone sampling was conducted twice in 2004 and 2008. In 2004, all recycling processes except for purity analysis were classified into control class III according to the 2004 Notification. Two out of 5 workers were exposed to total dust with indium concentrations exceeding the ACGIH's TLV-TWA of 0.1 mg In/m(3). In 2008, the indium-contaminated workplace air was improved by local exhaust ventilation systems installed in some processes, resulting in control class I. According to the 2010 Technical Guideline, however, all the processes were classified into stage II or III, indicating that the first assessment value or Measurement B-based concentrations exceeded the acceptable exposure concentration limit of 0.0003 mg In/m(3) of respirabe dust. Exposure of almost all the workers to indium dust was below the TLV-TWA. The first field survey showed that almost all workplaces were classified into control class III, and that some workers were exposed to dust with indium concentrations exceeding the TLV-TWA. It was found in the second survey that workplace air contamination was improved by the local exhaust ventilation system, but was not reduced sufficiently to a level that meets the new Guideline.

  8. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, L.P.; Scott, A.C.; Bondurant, F.J.; Browner, B.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the specificity of indium-111 leukocyte scans for osteomyelitis when fractures are present. Midshaft tibial osteotomies were performed in 14 New Zealand white rabbits, seven of which were infected postoperatively with Staphylococcus aureus per Norden's protocol. All 14 rabbits were scanned following injection with 75 microCi of indium 111 at 72 h after osteotomy and at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Before the rabbits were killed, the fracture sites were cultured to document the presence or absence of infection. The results of all infected osteotomy sites were positive, whereas no positive scans were found in the noninfected osteotomies. We concluded from this study that uncomplicated fracture healing does not result in a positive indium-111 leukocyte scan.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN P-10...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN P-10...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN P-10...

  12. [Investigation of indium exposure in workers in indium smelting plant].

    PubMed

    Ding, C G; Yan, H F; Wang, H Q; Li, T

    2016-04-20

    To investigate the internal and external exposure levels of indium (In)in workers in an In smelting plant, and to analyze its distribution characteristics. A survey was performed in 63 employed workers with more than one year of experience working in an In smelting plant in 2014. The personal air samples for 31 workers were collected, and the whole blood, serum, and urine samples of all the 63 workers were collected to do the occupational health examination at the same time. In levels in all samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The smelter workers had a higher In exposure level in the air than the office workers (2.26 μg/m(3) vs 0.82 μg/m(3), P>0.05). There was a significant difference in In exposure level in the air between the workers doing different types of jobs (P<0.05). The In exposure levels in the air in the metathesis workers and electrolysis workers were 26.10 μg/m(3) and 20.99 μg/m(3), respectively, which were significantly higher than those in other workers (P<0.05). The smelter workers had significantly higher geometric means of In levels in the whole blood, serum, and urine than the office workers (0.44 μg/L vs 0.09 μg/L, P<0.05; 0.35 μg/L vs 0.09 μg/L, P<0.05; 0.26 μg/L vs 0.12 μg/L, P<0.05). There were significant differences in In levels in the whole blood, serum, and urine between the workers doing different types of jobs (P<0.05). The metathesis workers (13.0 μg/L, 4.02 μg/L, and 2.93 μg/L)and electrolysis workers (5.71 μg/L, 5.14 μg/L, and 4.26 μg/L)had higher In levels in the whole blood, serum, and urine than other workers. The In level in the whole blood was positively correlated with the In levels in the urine and serum (rs=0.601, P<0.05; rs=0.823, P<0.05). The In levels in the whole blood and urine were positively correlated with the In level in the air(rs=0.483, P<0.05; rs=0.428, P<0.05). In the In smelting plant, the In concentrations in the air are lower than the standard value, but the

  13. A biokinetic and dosimetric model for ionic indium in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Martin; Mattsson, Sören; Johansson, Lennart; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews biokinetic data for ionic indium, and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic indium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on human data and indium in the form of ionic indium(III), as indium chloride and indium arsenide. The model presented for systemic indium is defined by five different pools: plasma, bone marrow, liver, kidneys and other soft tissues. The model is based on two subsystems: one corresponding to indium bound to transferrin and one where indium is transported back to the plasma, binds to red blood cell transferrin and is then excreted through the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Absorbed doses to several organs and the effective dose are calculated for 111In- and 113mIn-ions. The proposed biokinetic model is compared with previously published biokinetic indium models published by the ICRP. The absorbed doses are calculated using the ICRP/ICRU adult reference phantoms and the effective dose is estimated according to ICRP Publication 103. The effective doses for 111In and 113mIn are 0.25 mSv MBq-1 and 0.013 mSv MBq-1 respectively. The updated biokinetic and dosimetric models presented in this paper take into account human data and new animal data, which represent more detailed and presumably more accurate dosimetric data than that underlying previous models for indium.

  14. Developmental toxicity of indium: embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Mikio; Usami, Makoto; Nakazawa, Ken; Arishima, Kazuyoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2008-12-01

    Indium, a precious metal classified in group 13 (IIIB) in the periodic table, has been used increasingly in the semiconductor industry. Because indium is a rare metal, technology for indium recycling from transparent conducting films for liquid crystal displays is desired, and its safety evaluation is becoming increasingly necessary. The developmental toxicity of indium in experimental animals was summarized. The intravenous or oral administration of indium to pregnant animals causes growth inhibition and the death of embryos in hamsters, rats, and mice. The intravenous administration of indium to pregnant animals causes embryonic or fetal malformation, mainly involving digit and tail deformities, in hamsters and rats. The oral administration of indium also induces fetal malformation in rats and rabbits, but requires higher doses. No teratogenicity has been observed in mice. Caudal hypoplasia, probably due to excessive cell loss by increased apoptosis in the tailbud, in the early postimplantation stage was considered to account for indium-induced tail malformation as a possible pathogenetic mechanism. Findings from in vitro experiments indicated that the embryotoxicity of indium could have direct effects on the conceptuses. Toxicokinetic studies showed that the embryonic exposure concentration was more critical than the exposure time regarding the embryotoxicity of indium. It is considered from these findings that the risk of the developmental toxicity of indium in humans is low, unless an accidentally high level of exposure or unknown toxic interaction occurs because of possible human exposure routes and levels (i.e. oral, very low-level exposure).

  15. Proteomic analysis of indium embryotoxicity in cultured postimplantation rat embryos.

    PubMed

    Usami, Makoto; Nakajima, Mikio; Mitsunaga, Katsuyoshi; Miyajima, Atsuko; Sunouchi, Momoko; Doi, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Indium embryotoxicity was investigated by proteomic analysis with two-dimensional electrophoresis of rat embryos cultured from day 10.5 of gestation for 24h in the presence of 50 microM indium trichloride. In the embryo proper, indium increased quantity of several protein spots including those identified as serum albumin, phosphorylated cofilin 1, phosphorylated destrin and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. The increased serum albumin, derived from the culture medium composed of rat serum, may decrease the toxicity of indium. The increase of phosphorylated cofilin 1 might be involved in dysmorphogenicity of indium through perturbation of actin functions. In the yolk sac membrane, indium induced quantitative and qualitative changes in the protein spots. Proteins from appeared spots included stress proteins, and those from decreased or disappeared spots included serum proteins, glycolytic pathway enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins, indicating yolk sac dysfunction. Thus, several candidate proteins that might be involved in indium embryotoxicity were identified.

  16. Relationship between indium exposure and oxidative damage in workers in indium tin oxide production plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chen, Chang-Yun; Chen, Gun-Ing; Lee, Lien-Hsiung; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2012-05-01

    The study aimed to assess the relationship between indium exposure and surfactant protein and any oxidative damage in indium tin oxide (ITO)-exposed workers. The study was conducted in two typical ITO-manufacturing plants in Taiwan. One hundred and seventy manufacturing workers and 132 administrators were recruited. The geometric mean serum indium (S-In) level in the workers of the manufacturing department was 1.26 μg/l, which was significantly higher than those in the administrative department (0.72 μg/l). The S-In levels of 49 workers were higher than 3 μg/l (49/302, 16.2%), exceeding an occupational exposure limit suggested by the Japan Society for Occupational Health. Significant positive relationships were found between S-In and surfactant protein A (SP-A), and surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels. SP-A and SP-D levels were elevated significantly in the workers with moderately high indium exposure. The present study indicates a significant elevating trend of SP-A and SP-D levels in ITO-manufacturing workers, which are sensitive markers of interstitial lung disease. Though the indium exposure is not directly linked to all indicators of oxidative DNA damage, the ITO-manufacturing workplace is suggested to be related to oxidative DNA damage for the workers in the current study. Therefore, in addition to the indium exposure, there might be other occupational hazards in the ITO workplace to cause oxidative damage.

  17. Sinterless Formation Of Contacts On Indium Phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1995-01-01

    Improved technique makes it possible to form low-resistivity {nearly equal to 10(Sup-6) ohm cm(Sup2)} electrical contacts on indium phosphide semiconductor devices without damaging devices. Layer of AgP2 40 Angstrom thick deposited on InP before depositing metal contact. AgP2 interlayer sharply reduces contact resistance, without need for sintering.

  18. Sinterless Formation Of Contacts On Indium Phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1995-01-01

    Improved technique makes it possible to form low-resistivity {nearly equal to 10(Sup-6) ohm cm(Sup2)} electrical contacts on indium phosphide semiconductor devices without damaging devices. Layer of AgP2 40 Angstrom thick deposited on InP before depositing metal contact. AgP2 interlayer sharply reduces contact resistance, without need for sintering.

  19. Graduates Summary, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attinasi, Louis C, Jr.; Reece, Dee A.

    Providing data on 1996-97 graduates and program completers from Pima Community College (PCC) in Arizona, this report presents tables showing the number and percentage of associate degrees, technical and advanced certificates, and basic certificates by type; by instructional program; by ethnicity; and by gender. Eight- and 10-year comparative data…

  20. EPDL97: the evaluated photo data library `97 version

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D.E.; Hubbell, J.H.; Kissel, L.

    1997-09-19

    The Evaluated Photon Data Library, 1997 version (EPLD97), is designed for use in photon transport calculations at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This library includes photon interaction data for all elements with atomic number between Z = 1 (hydrogne) and 100 (fermium), including: photoionization, photoexcitation, coherent and incoherent scattering, and pair and triplet porduction cross sections. For use in applications data is provided for all elements over the energy range 1 eV to 100 GeV. This report documents the sources and treatment of the data included inthis library. EPDL97 completely supersedes the earlier 1989 version of EPDL and it is highly recommended that useres only use the most recent version of this library.

  1. Two- and 13-week inhalation toxicities of indium-tin oxide and indium oxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kasuke; Gotoh, Kaoru; Kasai, Tatsuya; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Ikawa, Naoki; Eitaki, Yoko; Yamada, Kenichi; Arito, Heihachiro; Fukushima, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Two- and 13-week inhalation toxicities of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) were characterized for risk assessments of workers exposed to ITO. F344 rats of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to ITO or IO aerosol for 6 h/day, 5 day/wk for 2 wk at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 mg/m(3) or 13 wk at 0, 0.1 or 1 mg/m(3). An aerosol generator and inhalation exposure system was constructed. Blood and lung contents of indium were elevated in a dose-related manner in the ITO- and IO-exposed rats. ITO and IO particles were deposited in the lung, mediastinal lymph node and nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Exposures to ITO and IO induced alveolar proteinosis, infiltrations of alveolar macrophages and inflammatory cells and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia in addition to increased lung weight. ITO affected the lung more severely than IO did. Fibrosis of alveolar wall developed and some of these lesions worsened at the end of the 26-week post-exposure period. Persistent pulmonary lesions including alveolar proteinosis and macrophage infiltration occurred after 2- and 13-week inhalation exposures of rats to ITO and IO. Fibrosis of alveolar wall developed later. These lesions occurred after ITO exposure at the same concentration as the current occupational exposure limit in the USA and at blood indium levels below the biological exposure index in Japan for indium.

  2. Indium and indium tin oxide induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Christen, Verena; Furrer, Gerhard; Fent, Karl

    2014-10-07

    Indium and indium tin oxide (ITO) are extensively used in electronic technologies. They may be introduced into the environment during production, use, and leaching from electronic devices at the end of their life. At present, surprisingly little is known about potential ecotoxicological implications of indium contamination. Here, molecular effects of indium nitrate (In(NO3)3) and ITO nanoparticles were investigated in vitro in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) cells and in zebrafish embryos and novel insights into their molecular effects are provided. In(NO3)3 led to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of transcripts of pro-apoptotic genes and TNF-α in vitro at a concentration of 247 μg/L. In(NO3)3 induced the ER stress key gene BiP at mRNA and protein level, as well as atf6, which ultimately led to induction of the important pro-apoptotic marker gene chop. The activity of In(NO3)3 on ER stress induction was much stronger than that of ITO, which is explained by differences in soluble free indium ion concentrations. The effect was also stronger in ZFL cells than in zebrafish embryos. Our study provides first evidence of ER stress and oxidative stress induction by In(NO3)3 and ITO indicating a critical toxicological profile that needs further investigation.

  3. Sorption of indium (III) onto carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, F J; Lopez, F A; Rodriguez, O; Martinez-Ramirez, S; Garcia-Diaz, I

    2016-08-01

    Indium has numerous applications in different industrial sectors and is not an abundant element. Therefore appropriate technology to recover this element from various process wastes is needed. This research reports high adsorption capacity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for In(III). The effects of pH, kinetics, isotherms and adsorption mechanism of MWCNT on In(III) adsorption were investigated and discussed in detail. The pH increases improves the adsorption capacity for In(III). The Langmuir adsorption model is the best fit with the experimental data. For the kinetic study, the adsorption onto MWCNT could be fitted to pseudo second-order. The adsorption of indium(III) can be described to a mechanism which consists of a film diffusion controlled process. Metal desorption can be achieved with acidic solutions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Oxidation state, aggregation, and heterolytic dissociation of allyl indium reagents.

    PubMed

    Koszinowski, Konrad

    2010-05-05

    Solutions of allyl indium reagents formed in the reactions of indium with allyl bromide and allyl iodide, respectively, in N,N-dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, and water were analyzed by a combination of electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, temperature-dependent (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements. Additional mass spectrometric experiments probed charge-tagged derivatives of the allyl indium reagents. The results obtained indicate the presence of allyl indium(+3) species, which undergo heterolytic dissociation to yield ions such as InR(2)(solv)(+) and InRX(3)(-) with R = allyl and X = Br and I. The extent of dissociation is greatest for N,N-dimethylformamide, whereas aggregation effects are more pronounced for the less polar tetrahydrofuran. The heterolytic dissociation of the allyl indium reagents supposedly enhances their reactivity by simultaneously providing highly Lewis acidic allyl indium cations and nucleophilic allyl indate anions.

  5. Indium Alloy as Cadmium Brush Plating Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-17

    Aged In- Sn Aged Cd In- Sn before Aging Cd before Aging Sn -Zn (12V) before Aging 18 Temperature Cycling Table 6. Temperature Cycling Conditions for Each...selection Key Requirements Candidate Cd Plating Replacement Processing Al Zn Ni Sn Zn-Ni Sn -Ni Sn -Zn Sn -In Meet Environmental Health and Safety (EHS...Corrosion Protection P P F P ? ? P P Whisker Growth (FOR INFO) ? F P F P P ? ? Al = Aluminum; In = Indium; Ni = Nickel; Sn =

  6. Prevention of indium intoxication by ferric dextran

    PubMed Central

    Gabbiani, G.; Selye, H.; Tuchweber, Beatriz

    1962-01-01

    Experiments on the rat indicate that intravenous administration of indium chloride produces severe hepatic necroses with fatal icterus within a few days. These actions can be prevented by the prophylactic administration of ferric dextran. This protective effect of the iron compound must be largely specific since it could not be duplicated by pretreatment with any of a large series of other agents. The possible mechanism of the protective effect is briefly discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:13945982

  7. Indium 111 toxicity in the human lymphocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, E.B.; Watson, S.; Mayfield, G.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Bullock, W.

    1985-05-01

    Indium-labeled lymphocytes were examined for response to a variety of mitogens, ability to synthesize immunoglobulins, mitotic index, and presence of chromosome aberrations at a range of exposures from 0.2 to 500 muCi/10(8) cells. Results of all four tests were found to be abnormal when the lymphocytes were labeled with /sup 111/In activities well within those employed for diagnostic testing.

  8. STS-97 Prelaunch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Bruce Buckingham, NASA Public Affairs, introduces Ron Dittemore, NASA Shuttle Program Manager, Bob Cabana, International Space Station (ISS) Manager, International Operations, NASA, Michael Vachon, Canadian Space Agency, David King, NASA Director of Shuttle Processing, and Lieutenant Ken Ferland, 45th Weather Squadron, US Air Force. They each give a brief statement on the STS-97 Endeavour mission, launch, and weather status and answer questions from the press.

  9. The toxicology of indium tin oxide.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M

    2016-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a technologically important semiconductor. An increasing number of cases of severe lung effects (characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and/or interstitial fibrosis) in ITO-exposed workers warrants a review of the toxicological hazards. Short- and long-term inhalation studies in rats and mice revealed persistent alveolar proteinosis, inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs down to concentrations as low as 0.01mg/m(3). In rats, the incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas were significantly increased at all concentrations. In mice, ITO was not carcinogenic. A few bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas occurring after repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters have to be interpreted as treatment-related. In vitro and in vivo studies on the formation of reactive oxygen species suggest epigenetic effects as cause of the lung tumor development. Repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters slightly affected the male sexual organs, which might be interpreted as a secondary effect of the lung damage. Epidemiological and medical surveillance studies, serum/blood indium levels in workers as well as data on the exposure to airborne indium concentrations indicate a need for measures to reduce exposure at ITO workplaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermoelectric Properties of Indium-Filled Skutterudites

    SciTech Connect

    He, Tao; Chen, Jiazhong; Rosenfeld, H. David; Subramanian, M.A.

    2008-09-18

    Structural, electrical, and thermal transport properties of CoSb{sub 3} partially filled with indium are reported. Polycrystalline samples of In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (0 {le} x {le} 0.3) were prepared by solid-state reaction under a gas mixture of 5% H{sub 2} and 95% Ar. The solubility limit of the indium filling voids in CoSb{sub 3} was found to be close to 0.22. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction refinement of the x = 0.2 sample showed that the indium is located in the classic rattler site and has a substantially larger thermal factor than those of Co and Sb. The electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficients, and thermal conductivity of the In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} samples were measured in the temperature range of 300-600 K. All samples showed metal-like behavior, and the large negative Seebeck coefficients indicated n-type conduction. The thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature for all samples. A thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) {ge} 1 (n-type) has been achieved when x {ge} 0.2 in In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} at 575 K.

  11. InP (Indium Phosphide): Into the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Major industry is beginning to be devoted to indium phosphide and its potential applications. Key to these applications are high speed and radiation tolerance; however the high cost of indium phosphide may be an inhibitor to progress. The broad applicability of indium phosphide to many devices will be discussed with an emphasis on photovoltaics. Major attention is devoted to radiation tolerance and means of reducing cost of devices. Some of the approaches applicable to solar cells may also be relevant to other devices. The intent is to display the impact of visionary leadership in the field and enable the directions and broad applicability of indium phosphide.

  12. Method to Improve Indium Bump Bonding via Indium Oxide Removal Using a Multi-Step Plasma Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, H. Frank (Inventor); Jones, Todd J. (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Dickie, Matthew R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A process for removing indium oxide from indium bumps in a flip-chip structure to reduce contact resistance, by a multi-step plasma treatment. A first plasma treatment of the indium bumps with an argon, methane and hydrogen plasma reduces indium oxide, and a second plasma treatment with an argon and hydrogen plasma removes residual organics. The multi-step plasma process for removing indium oxide from the indium bumps is more effective in reducing the oxide, and yet does not require the use of halogens, does not change the bump morphology, does not attack the bond pad material or under-bump metallization layers, and creates no new mechanisms for open circuits.

  13. The influence of random indium alloy fluctuations in indium gallium nitride quantum wells on the device behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tsung-Jui; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Shivaraman, Ravi; Speck, James S.

    2014-09-21

    In this paper, we describe the influence of the intrinsic indium fluctuation in the InGaN quantum wells on the carrier transport, efficiency droop, and emission spectrum in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). Both real and randomly generated indium fluctuations were used in 3D simulations and compared to quantum wells with a uniform indium distribution. We found that without further hypothesis the simulations of electrical and optical properties in LEDs such as carrier transport, radiative and Auger recombination, and efficiency droop are greatly improved by considering natural nanoscale indium fluctuations.

  14. Evaluating p97 Inhibitor Analogues for Potency against p97-p37 and p97-Npl4-Ufd1 Complexes.

    PubMed

    Gui, Lin; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J; Li, Shan; Wong, Daniel E; Moen, Derek R; Porubsky, Patrick R; Lin, Henry J; Schoenen, Frank J; Chou, Tsui-Fen

    2016-05-06

    We previously found that the p97 cofactor, p47, significantly decreased the potency of some ATP-competitive p97 inhibitors such as ML240 [2-(2-amino-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)-N-benzyl-8-methoxyquinazolin-4-amine] and ML241 [2-(2H-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-4(3H)-yl)-N-benzyl-5,6,7,8 tetrahydroquinazolin-4-amine]. In this study, we aimed to evaluate inhibitor potencies against two additional p97 cofactor complexes, p97-p37 and p97-Npl4-Ufd1. We focused on these two cofactor complexes, because the protein sequence of p37 is 50 % identical to that of p47, and the Npl4-Ufd1 heterodimer (NU) is the most-studied p97 cofactor complex. We screened 200 p97 inhibitor analogues for their ability to inhibit the ATPase activity of p97 alone and of p97-p37 and p97-NU complexes. In contrast to the effect of p47, p37 and NU did not significantly change the potencies of most of the compounds. These results highlight differences among p97 cofactors in influencing p97 conformation and effects of inhibitors on p97 complexes, as compared to p97 alone. Continued efforts are needed to advance the development of complex-specific p97 inhibitors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 34 CFR 97.402 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 97.402 Section 97.402 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.402 Definitions. The definitions in § 97.102 apply to...

  16. 34 CFR 97.402 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 97.402 Section 97.402 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.402 Definitions. The definitions in § 97.102 apply to...

  17. 34 CFR 97.402 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 97.402 Section 97.402 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.402 Definitions. The definitions in § 97.102 apply to...

  18. 34 CFR 97.402 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 97.402 Section 97.402 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.402 Definitions. The definitions in § 97.102 apply to this...

  19. J/{psi} production in indium-indium collisions at SPS energies

    SciTech Connect

    Pillot, P.; Ducroux, L.; Guichard, A.; Tieulent, R.; Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Scomparin, E.; Averbeck, R.; Drees, A.; Banicz, K.; Keil, M.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Force, P.; Manso, F.; Chaurand, B.; Cicalo, C.

    2006-01-12

    The NA60 experiment collected data on dimuon production in indium-indium collisions at 158 GeV/c per incident nucleon, in year 2003, to contribute to the clarification of several questions raised by previous experiments studying high-energy heavy-ion physics at the CERN SPS in search of the quark gluon plasma. Among these previous results stands the observation, by NA50, that the production yield of J/{psi} mesons is suppressed in central Pb-Pb collisions beyond the normal nuclear absorption defined by proton-nucleus data. By comparing the centrality dependence of the suppression pattern between different colliding systems, S-U, Pb-Pb and In-In, we should be able to identify the corresponding scaling variable, and the physics mechanism driving the suppression. In this paper, we will present the ratio of J/{psi} and Drell-Yan production cross-sections in indium-indium collisions, in three centrality bins, and how these values compare to previous measurements. We will also present a study of the transverse momentum distributions of the J/{psi} mesons, in seven centrality bins.

  20. Role of indium-111 chloride imaging in osteoid osteoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Swischuk, L.E.; Schreiber, M.H.

    1986-10-01

    Indium-111 chloride imaging plays an important role in differentiating intracortical osteoid osteoma from chronic cortical abscess. The study also may be useful in the detection of intramedullary osteoid osteoma. Four patients who greatly benefited from indium-111 chloride imaging are presented.

  1. Indium Gallium Nitride Multijunction Solar Cell Simulation Using Silvaco Atlas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    in production from the mid-1960s until the early 1990s. Their efficiency was close to 15%. The next step consisted of single junction gallium ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited INDIUM GALLIUM ...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Indium Gallium Nitride Multijunction Solar Cell Simulation Using Silvaco Atlas 6

  2. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  3. Phonon dispersion of indium along [111

    SciTech Connect

    Bakulin, A. S.; Overhauser, A. W.; Kaiser, H.; Werner, S. A.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.; Smith, H. G.

    2001-02-01

    The phonon spectrum of indium along [111], measured by inelastic neutron scattering, is reported. The two shear modes at the zone-boundary point (1/2, 1/2, 1/2) are split slightly (on account of a 7.5% tetragonal distortion). They have very low frequencies, {approx}0.7 and 1.0 THz, compared to the longitudinal mode, {approx}3.4 THz. These measurements verify the theoretical dispersion predicted by the dynamic pseudopotential theory of phonons for free-electron-like metals.

  4. Rapid solidification of indium: Modeling subcooling

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bot, C. Delaunay, D.

    2008-05-15

    This paper deals with the study of crystallization kinetics. A pure metal - indium - is subjected to different cooling rates by analyzing phenomena with a differential scanning calorimeter. Thanks to the thermal flux obtained by this device and to the temperature determined with a thermocouple inside the metal sample, and according to the modified Avrami theory, the aim was to determine a temperature dependent function K which links thermodynamic properties to a macroscopic model of crystallization kinetics. Experiments highlight the recalescence phenomenon and show that this function has a shape similar to that of the nucleation rate.

  5. Fabrication, structure and mechanical properties of indium nanopillars

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Budiman, Arief Suriadi; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solid and hollow cylindrical indium pillars with nanoscale diameters were prepared using electron beam lithography followed by the electroplating fabrication method. The microstructure of the solid-core indium pillars was characterized by scanning micro-X-ray diffraction, which shows that the indium pillars were annealed at room temperature with very few dislocations remaining in the samples. The mechanical properties of the solid pillars were characterized using a uniaxial microcompression technique, which demonstrated that the engineering yield stress is {approx}9 times greater than bulk and is {approx}1/28 of the indium shear modulus, suggesting that the attained stresses are close to theoretical strength. Microcompression of hollow indium nanopillars showed evidence of brittle fracture. This may suggest that the failure mode for one of the most ductile metals can become brittle when the feature size is sufficiently small.

  6. Subclinical interstitial lung damage in workers exposed to indium compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study was designed to determine whether there is a relationship between indium compound exposure and interstitial lung damage in workers employed at indium tin oxide manufacturing and reclaiming factories in Korea. Methods In 2012, we conducted a study for the prevention of indium induced lung damage in Korea and identified 78 workers who had serum indium or Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) levels that were higher than the reference values set in Japan (3 μg/L and 500 U/mL, respectively). Thirty-four of the 78 workers underwent chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and their data were used for statistical analysis. Results Geometric means (geometric standard deviations) for serum indium, KL-6, and surfactant protein D (SP-D) were 10.9 (6.65) μg/L, 859.0 (1.85) U/mL, and 179.27 (1.81) ng/mL, respectively. HRCT showed intralobular interstitial thickening in 9 workers. A dose–response trend was statistically significant for blood KL-6 levels. All workers who had indium levels ≥50 μg/L had KL-6 levels that exceeded the reference values. However, dose–response trends for blood SP-D levels, KL-6 levels, SP-D levels, and interstitial changes on the HRCT scans were not significantly different. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interstitial lung changes could be present in workers with indium exposure. Further studies are required and health risk information regarding indium exposure should be communicated to workers and employers in industries where indium compounds are used to prevent indium induced lung damage in Korea. PMID:24472147

  7. Fluxless indium and silver-indium bonding processes for photonics and high-temperature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, William Wilson

    A fluxless oxidation-free bonding technology using multilayer composite solders based on indium, or low melting temperature indium. alloys such as Ag-In, In-Sn and Au-In has been developed and studied. This technology eliminates the need of flux and scrubbing motion that are used in conventional soldering processes, and still produces good quality joints. By depositing multilayer composite materials in high vacuum, we eliminate the formation of an oxide layer thus removing the origin of the problem---solder oxidation. To understand the oxidation kinetics in the bonding process, I have modeled the oxidation rate of tin, which follows a parabolic growth law. For completeness of the oxidation model, I incorporated the temperature dependency of Henry's coefficient in the oxidation model. To prevent the solder material from oxidation when exposing to atmosphere, I have developed a technique, which utilizes the in-situ formation of stable intermetallic compound on the outer surface, or a gold layer to protect the bonding materials. The bonding is achieved by means of solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) and in-situ compound formation. The first alloy system that I studied is indium-silver. GaAs and silicon dice have been successfully bonded on silicon or glass substrates. The bonding quality is examined by a Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM). The results confirm that void-free joints are achieved. Cross-sections of the joint are examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results reveal that the joint is composed of AuIn2, AgIn2-intermetallic compound and pure indium. From the Ag-In phase diagram, as indium composition is reduced to 25 wt. %, the solidus temperature jumps from 144 to above 695°C. By modifying the design of the multilayer composite, we developed a 210°C process to produce 700°C joints. All the well-bonded devices, before or after annealing, exceed the shear test force requirement of 2

  8. Highly ordered horizontal indium gallium arsenide/indium phosphide multi-quantum-well in wire structure on (001) silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yu; Li, Qiang; Lau, Kei May

    2016-12-01

    We report the characteristics of indium gallium arsenide stacked quantum structures inside planar indium phosphide nanowires grown on exact (001) silicon substrates. The morphological evolution of the indium phosphide ridge buffers inside sub-micron trenches has been studied, and the role of inter-facet diffusion in this process is discussed. Inside a single indium phosphide nanowire, we are able to stack quantum structures including indium gallium arsenide flat quantum wells, quasi-quantum wires, quantum wires, and ridge quantum wells. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements reveal a broadband emission spectrum centered at 1550 nm. Power dependent photoluminescence analysis indicates the presence of quasi-continuum states. This work thus provides insights into the design and growth process control of multiple quantum wells in wire structures for high performance nanowire lasers on a silicon substrate with 1550 nm band emission.

  9. Indium antimonide large-format detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Mike; Greiner, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Large format infrared imaging sensors are required to achieve simultaneously high resolution and wide field of view image data. Infrared sensors are generally required to be cooled from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures in less than 10 min thousands of times during their lifetime. The challenge is to remove mechanical stress, which is due to different materials with different coefficients of expansion, over a very wide temperature range and at the same time, provide a high sensitivity and high resolution image data. These challenges are met by developing a hybrid where the indium antimonide detector elements (pixels) are unconnected islands that essentially float on a silicon substrate and form a near perfect match to the silicon read-out circuit. Since the pixels are unconnected and isolated from each other, the array is reticulated. This paper shows that the front side illuminated and reticulated element indium antimonide focal plane developed at L-3 Cincinnati Electronics are robust, approach background limited sensitivity limit, and provide the resolution expected of the reticulated pixel array.

  10. Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A relatively rapid, economical process has been devised for patterning a thin film of indium tin oxide (ITO) that has been deposited on a polyester film. ITO is a transparent, electrically conductive substance made from a mixture of indium oxide and tin oxide that is commonly used in touch panels, liquid-crystal and plasma display devices, gas sensors, and solar photovoltaic panels. In a typical application, the ITO film must be patterned to form electrodes, current collectors, and the like. Heretofore it has been common practice to pattern an ITO film by means of either a laser ablation process or a photolithography/etching process. The laser ablation process includes the use of expensive equipment to precisely position and focus a laser. The photolithography/etching process is time-consuming. The present process is a variant of the direct toner process an inexpensive but often highly effective process for patterning conductors for printed circuits. Relative to a conventional photolithography/ etching process, this process is simpler, takes less time, and is less expensive. This process involves equipment that costs less than $500 (at 2005 prices) and enables patterning of an ITO film in a process time of less than about a half hour.

  11. 49 CFR 585.97 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Records. 585.97 Section 585.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 585.97 Records. Each manufacturer must maintain records of the Vehicle Identification Number for...

  12. 49 CFR 585.97 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Records. 585.97 Section 585.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 585.97 Records. Each manufacturer must maintain records of the Vehicle Identification Number for...

  13. 49 CFR 585.97 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Records. 585.97 Section 585.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 585.97 Records. Each manufacturer must maintain records of the Vehicle Identification Number for...

  14. 49 CFR 585.97 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Records. 585.97 Section 585.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 585.97 Records. Each manufacturer must maintain records of the Vehicle Identification Number for...

  15. 48 CFR 1352.217-97 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Title. 1352.217-97 Section... Clauses 1352.217-97 Title. As prescribed in 1317.7001(a), insert the following clause: Title (CAR 1352.217-97 ) (Jan 1987) Unless title to materials and equipment acquired or produced for, or allocated...

  16. 48 CFR 1352.217-97 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1998-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 1998-10-01 1998-10-01 false Title. 1352.217-97 Section... Clauses 1352.217-97 Title. As prescribed in 1317.7001(a), insert the following clause: Title (CAR 1352.217-97) (JAN 1987) Unless title to materials and equipment acquired or produced for, or allocated to,...

  17. 48 CFR 1352.217-97 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2007-10-01 2007-10-01 false Title. 1352.217-97 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1352.217-97 Title. As prescribed in 1317.7001(a), insert the following clause: Title (CAR 1352.217-97) (JAN 1987) Unless title...

  18. 48 CFR 1352.217-97 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Title. 1352.217-97 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1352.217-97 Title. As prescribed in 1317.7001(a), insert the following clause: Title (CAR 1352.217-97) (JAN 1987) Unless title...

  19. 48 CFR 1352.217-97 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2001-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2001-10-01 2001-10-01 false Title. 1352.217-97 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1352.217-97 Title. As prescribed in 1317.7001(a), insert the following clause: Title (CAR 1352.217-97) (JAN 1987) Unless title...

  20. 48 CFR 1352.217-97 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2005-10-01 2005-10-01 false Title. 1352.217-97 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1352.217-97 Title. As prescribed in 1317.7001(a), insert the following clause: Title (CAR 1352.217-97) (JAN 1987) Unless title...

  1. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Communications. 552.97 Section 552.97 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.97...

  2. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  3. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  4. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  5. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  6. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  7. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  8. 40 CFR 97.355 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.355 Section 97.355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... System § 97.355 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in...

  9. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Communications. 552.97 Section 552.97 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.97 Communications...

  10. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Communications. 552.97 Section 552.97 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.97 Communications...

  11. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communications. 552.97 Section 552.97 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.97 Communications...

  12. 32 CFR 9.7 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulations. 9.7 Section 9.7 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.7...

  13. 32 CFR 9.7 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations. 9.7 Section 9.7 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.7...

  14. 32 CFR 9.7 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulations. 9.7 Section 9.7 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.7...

  15. 32 CFR 9.7 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulations. 9.7 Section 9.7 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.7...

  16. 32 CFR 9.7 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulations. 9.7 Section 9.7 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.7...

  17. 29 CFR 97.41 - Financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Financial reporting. 97.41 Section 97.41 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records Retention, and Enforcement § 97.41 Financial reporting. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(2) and (5) of this section, grantees...

  18. 40 CFR 97.706 - Standard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard requirements. 97.706 Section 97.706 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED..., 2014 or the deadline for meeting the unit's monitor certification requirements under § 97.730(b) and...

  19. 40 CFR 97.606 - Standard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard requirements. 97.606 Section 97.606 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED..., 2014 or the deadline for meeting the unit's monitor certification requirements under § 97.630(b) and...

  20. 29 CFR 97.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program income. (d) Governmental revenues. Taxes, special assessments, levies, fines, and other such... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 97.25 Section 97.25 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.25 Program income. (a) General...

  1. 29 CFR 97.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... program income. (d) Governmental revenues. Taxes, special assessments, levies, fines, and other such... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Program income. 97.25 Section 97.25 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.25 Program income. (a) General...

  2. 46 CFR 97.40-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 97.40-1 Section 97.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 97.40-1 Application. (a) The provisions of this subpart shall apply to all vessels...

  3. 46 CFR 97.10-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 97.10-1 Section 97.10-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Persons Allowed in Pilothouse and on Navigation Bridge § 97.10-1 Application. (a) The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 46 CFR 97.37-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 97.37-1 Section 97.37-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-1 Application. (a) The provisions of this subpart, with...

  5. 46 CFR 97.34-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 97.34-1 Section 97.34-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 97.34-1 Application. (a) Provisions of this subpart shall apply to all vessels inspected and...

  6. 46 CFR 97.35-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 97.35-1 Section 97.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 97.35-1 Application. (a) Except as specifically noted, the provisions of this subpart shall...

  7. 46 CFR 97.15-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 97.15-1 Section 97.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-1 Application. (a) Except as specifically noted, the provisions of this...

  8. 29 CFR 97.11 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true State plans. 97.11 Section 97.11 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Pre-Award Requirements § 97.11 State plans. (a) Scope. The statutes for some programs require States to submit plans before receiving grants. Under regulations implementing Executive Order...

  9. 27 CFR 9.97 - Sonoita.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoita. 9.97 Section 9.97 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.97 Sonoita. (a)...

  10. 34 CFR 97.115 - IRB records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB records. 97.115 Section 97.115 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.115 IRB...

  11. 34 CFR 97.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wards. 97.409 Section 97.409 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the State or any other...

  12. 34 CFR 97.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conditions. 97.124 Section 97.124 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.124...

  13. 34 CFR 97.115 - IRB records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false IRB records. 97.115 Section 97.115 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.115 IRB...

  14. 34 CFR 97.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wards. 97.409 Section 97.409 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the State or any other...

  15. 34 CFR 97.403 - IRB duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false IRB duties. 97.403 Section 97.403 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.403 IRB duties. In addition to other responsibilities...

  16. 34 CFR 97.403 - IRB duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false IRB duties. 97.403 Section 97.403 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.403 IRB duties. In addition to other responsibilities...

  17. 34 CFR 97.403 - IRB duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB duties. 97.403 Section 97.403 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.403 IRB duties. In addition to other responsibilities...

  18. 34 CFR 97.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conditions. 97.124 Section 97.124 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.124...

  19. 34 CFR 97.121 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 97.121 Section 97.121 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.121...

  20. 34 CFR 97.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditions. 97.124 Section 97.124 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.124...

  1. 34 CFR 97.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wards. 97.409 Section 97.409 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the State or any other...

  2. 34 CFR 97.115 - IRB records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false IRB records. 97.115 Section 97.115 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.115 IRB...

  3. 34 CFR 97.121 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 97.121 Section 97.121 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.121...

  4. 34 CFR 97.121 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 97.121 Section 97.121 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.121...

  5. 34 CFR 97.121 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 97.121 Section 97.121 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.121...

  6. 34 CFR 97.403 - IRB duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false IRB duties. 97.403 Section 97.403 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.403 IRB duties. In addition to other responsibilities...

  7. 34 CFR 97.115 - IRB records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false IRB records. 97.115 Section 97.115 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.115 IRB...

  8. 34 CFR 97.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conditions. 97.124 Section 97.124 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.124...

  9. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at the...

  10. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at the...

  11. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at the...

  12. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  13. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  14. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  15. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  16. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  17. 7 CFR 97.131 - Conditional assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditional assignments. 97.131 Section 97.131... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Assignments and Recording § 97.131 Conditional assignments. Assignments recorded in the Office are regarded as absolute assignments for Office purposes until canceled in writing...

  18. 40 CFR 230.97 - Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management. 230.97 Section 230.97... Losses of Aquatic Resources § 230.97 Management. (a) Site protection. (1) The aquatic habitats, riparian.... For government property, long-term protection may be provided through federal facility management...

  19. 40 CFR 230.97 - Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Management. 230.97 Section 230.97... Losses of Aquatic Resources § 230.97 Management. (a) Site protection. (1) The aquatic habitats, riparian.... For government property, long-term protection may be provided through federal facility management...

  20. 40 CFR 97.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... generation, except as provided in § 97.205 and § 97.284(h). (i) For a unit that is a CAIR SO2 unit under § 97..., stack gas moisture content, and oxygen or carbon dioxide concentration (as applicable), in a manner... dioxide monitoring system, consisting of a CO2 pollutant concentration monitor (or an oxygen monitor plus...

  1. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  2. 7 CFR 160.97 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Publication. 160.97 Section 160.97 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Proceedings in Case of Violation § 160.97 Publication. Composite data...

  3. 7 CFR 160.97 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Publication. 160.97 Section 160.97 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Proceedings in Case of Violation § 160.97 Publication. Composite data...

  4. 7 CFR 160.97 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication. 160.97 Section 160.97 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Proceedings in Case of Violation § 160.97 Publication. Composite data...

  5. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  6. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  7. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  8. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  9. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  10. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in...

  11. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in...

  12. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in...

  13. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in...

  14. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in...

  15. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to the...

  16. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to the...

  17. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to the...

  18. 9 CFR 201.97 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual reports. 201.97 Section 201.97... § 201.97 Annual reports. Every packer, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer... Administration a report on prescribed forms not later than April 15 following the calendar year end or, if...

  19. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  20. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  1. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  2. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  3. 7 CFR 97.301 - Commissioner's answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commissioner's answer. 97.301 Section 97.301... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Appeal to the Secretary § 97.301 Commissioner's answer. (a) The... Secretary in answer to the appellant's petition, including such explanation of the reasons for the action as...

  4. 49 CFR 585.97 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records. 585.97 Section 585.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 585.97 Records. Each manufacturer must maintain records of the Vehicle Identification Number...

  5. 29 CFR 97.11 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true State plans. 97.11 Section 97.11 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Pre-Award Requirements § 97.11 State plans. (a) Scope. The statutes for some programs require States to submit plans before receiving grants. Under regulations implementing Executive...

  6. 28 CFR 97.12 - Employee training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employee training. 97.12 Section 97.12... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.12 Employee training. Private prisoner transport companies must require the completion of a minimum of 100 hours of employee training before an employee may transport violent prisoners...

  7. 28 CFR 97.12 - Employee training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employee training. 97.12 Section 97.12... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.12 Employee training. Private prisoner transport companies must require the completion of a minimum of 100 hours of employee training before an employee may transport violent prisoners...

  8. 28 CFR 97.12 - Employee training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employee training. 97.12 Section 97.12... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.12 Employee training. Private prisoner transport companies must require the completion of a minimum of 100 hours of employee training before an employee may transport violent prisoners...

  9. 28 CFR 97.12 - Employee training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employee training. 97.12 Section 97.12... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.12 Employee training. Private prisoner transport companies must require the completion of a minimum of 100 hours of employee training before an employee may transport violent prisoners...

  10. 47 CFR 97.25 - License term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false License term. 97.25 Section 97.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.25 License term. An amateur service license is normally granted for a 10...

  11. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one...

  12. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one...

  13. 47 CFR 97.511 - Examinee conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examinee conduct. 97.511 Section 97.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.511 Examinee conduct. Each examinee must comply with the...

  14. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one...

  15. 47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within 50...

  16. 47 CFR 97.511 - Examinee conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examinee conduct. 97.511 Section 97.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.511 Examinee conduct. Each examinee must comply with the...

  17. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least...

  18. 47 CFR 97.511 - Examinee conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinee conduct. 97.511 Section 97.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.511 Examinee conduct. Each examinee must comply with the...

  19. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one...

  20. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one...

  1. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit...

  2. 47 CFR 97.511 - Examinee conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examinee conduct. 97.511 Section 97.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.511 Examinee conduct. Each examinee must comply with the...

  3. 47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within 50...

  4. 47 CFR 97.25 - License term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License term. 97.25 Section 97.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.25 License term. An amateur service license is normally granted for a 10...

  5. 47 CFR 97.25 - License term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false License term. 97.25 Section 97.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.25 License term. An amateur service license is normally granted for a 10...

  6. 47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within 50...

  7. 47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within 50...

  8. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit...

  9. 47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within 50...

  10. 47 CFR 97.511 - Examinee conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examinee conduct. 97.511 Section 97.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.511 Examinee conduct. Each examinee must comply with the...

  11. 47 CFR 97.25 - License term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false License term. 97.25 Section 97.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.25 License term. An amateur service license is normally granted for a 10...

  12. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit...

  13. 47 CFR 97.25 - License term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false License term. 97.25 Section 97.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.25 License term. An amateur service license is normally granted for a 10...

  14. 50 CFR 27.97 - Private operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private operations. 27.97 Section 27.97 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.97 Private...

  15. 40 CFR 97.61 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.61 Section 97.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.61...

  16. 40 CFR 97.361 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.361 Section 97.361 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... § 97.361 EPA recordation. (a) Within 5 business days (except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  17. 40 CFR 97.161 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.161 Section 97.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.161...

  18. 40 CFR 97.61 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.61 Section 97.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.61...

  19. 40 CFR 97.361 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.361 Section 97.361 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... § 97.361 EPA recordation. (a) Within 5 business days (except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  20. 40 CFR 97.361 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.361 Section 97.361 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... § 97.361 EPA recordation. (a) Within 5 business days (except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  1. 40 CFR 97.161 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.161 Section 97.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.161...

  2. 40 CFR 97.261 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.261 Section 97.261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers § 97.261...

  3. 40 CFR 97.261 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.261 Section 97.261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers § 97.261...

  4. 40 CFR 97.261 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.261 Section 97.261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers § 97.261...

  5. 40 CFR 97.161 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.161 Section 97.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.161...

  6. 40 CFR 97.361 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.361 Section 97.361 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... § 97.361 EPA recordation. (a) Within 5 business days (except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  7. 40 CFR 97.61 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.61 Section 97.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.61...

  8. 40 CFR 97.261 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.261 Section 97.261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers § 97.261...

  9. 40 CFR 97.261 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.261 Section 97.261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers § 97.261...

  10. 40 CFR 97.161 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.161 Section 97.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.161...

  11. 40 CFR 97.61 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.61 Section 97.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.61...

  12. 40 CFR 97.361 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.361 Section 97.361 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... § 97.361 EPA recordation. (a) Within 5 business days (except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  13. 40 CFR 97.61 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.61 Section 97.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.61...

  14. 40 CFR 97.161 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.161 Section 97.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.161...

  15. 27 CFR 71.97 - Powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powers. 71.97 Section 71.97 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Judges § 71.97 Powers. Administrative law judges shall have authority to (a) administer oaths...

  16. 21 CFR 808.97 - Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Washington. 808.97 Section 808.97 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.97 Washington. (a) The following Washington medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Revised Code of Washington 18.35.110(2)(e) (i) and...

  17. 21 CFR 808.97 - Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washington. 808.97 Section 808.97 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.97 Washington. (a) The following Washington medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Revised Code of Washington 18.35.110(2)(e) (i) and...

  18. 21 CFR 808.97 - Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Washington. 808.97 Section 808.97 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.97 Washington. (a) The following Washington medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Revised Code of Washington 18.35.110(2)(e) (i) and...

  19. 12 CFR 313.97 - Financial hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial hardship. 313.97 Section 313.97 Banks... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.97 Financial hardship. (a) A debtor whose wages are subject to a wage withholding order under this section, may, at any time, request a review by...

  20. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A holder of a...

  1. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A...

  2. 46 CFR 111.97-7 - Distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distribution. 111.97-7 Section 111.97-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-7 Distribution. (a) Each...

  3. 46 CFR 111.97-7 - Distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distribution. 111.97-7 Section 111.97-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-7 Distribution. (a) Each...

  4. 46 CFR 111.97-7 - Distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distribution. 111.97-7 Section 111.97-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-7 Distribution. (a) Each...

  5. 29 CFR 97.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property. 97.31 Section 97.31 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 97.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real...

  6. 27 CFR 71.97 - Powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powers. 71.97 Section 71.97 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Judges § 71.97 Powers. Administrative law judges shall have authority to (a) administer oaths...

  7. 27 CFR 71.97 - Powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powers. 71.97 Section 71.97 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Judges § 71.97 Powers. Administrative law judges shall have authority to (a) administer oaths...

  8. 27 CFR 71.97 - Powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Powers. 71.97 Section 71.97 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Judges § 71.97 Powers. Administrative law judges shall have authority to (a) administer oaths...

  9. 27 CFR 71.97 - Powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powers. 71.97 Section 71.97 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Judges § 71.97 Powers. Administrative law judges shall have authority to (a) administer oaths...

  10. 40 CFR 282.97 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 282.97 Section 282.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.97 ...

  11. 40 CFR 97.101 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 97.101 Section 97.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Provisions § 97.101 Purpose. This subpart and subparts BB through II set forth the general provisions and...

  12. 40 CFR 97.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 97.1 Section 97.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Provisions § 97.1 Purpose. This part establishes general provisions and the applicability,...

  13. 40 CFR 97.301 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 97.301 Section 97.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... General Provisions § 97.301 Purpose. This subpart and subparts BBBB through IIII set forth the...

  14. 40 CFR 97.201 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 97.201 Section 97.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... § 97.201 Purpose. This subpart and subparts BBB through III set forth the general provisions and...

  15. 47 CFR 97.117 - International communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International communications. 97.117 Section 97.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.117 International communications. Transmissions...

  16. 29 CFR 97.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Copyrights. 97.34 Section 97.34 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 97.34 Copyrights. The... copyright in any work developed under a grant, subgrant, or contract under a grant or subgrant; and (b)...

  17. 29 CFR 97.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Copyrights. 97.34 Section 97.34 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 97.34 Copyrights. The... copyright in any work developed under a grant, subgrant, or contract under a grant or subgrant; and (b)...

  18. 29 CFR 97.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copyrights. 97.34 Section 97.34 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 97.34 Copyrights. The... copyright in any work developed under a grant, subgrant, or contract under a grant or subgrant; and (b)...

  19. 29 CFR 97.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copyrights. 97.34 Section 97.34 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 97.34 Copyrights. The... copyright in any work developed under a grant, subgrant, or contract under a grant or subgrant; and (b)...

  20. 29 CFR 97.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Copyrights. 97.34 Section 97.34 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 97.34 Copyrights. The... copyright in any work developed under a grant, subgrant, or contract under a grant or subgrant; and (b)...

  1. 47 CFR 97.117 - International communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International communications. 97.117 Section 97.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.117 International communications. Transmissions to...

  2. 47 CFR 97.117 - International communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International communications. 97.117 Section 97.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.117 International communications. Transmissions to...

  3. 40 CFR 97.375 - Petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petitions. 97.375 Section 97.375... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Monitoring and Reporting § 97.375 Petitions. The CAIR designated representative of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season unit may submit a petition under § 75.66...

  4. 40 CFR 97.175 - Petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petitions. 97.175 Section 97.175... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Monitoring and Reporting § 97.175 Petitions. The CAIR designated representative of a CAIR NOX unit may submit a petition under § 75.66 of this...

  5. 40 CFR 97.75 - Petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petitions. 97.75 Section 97.75... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Monitoring and Reporting § 97.75 Petitions. (a) The NOX authorized account representative of a NOX Budget unit may submit a petition under § 75...

  6. 40 CFR 97.275 - Petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petitions. 97.275 Section 97.275... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Monitoring and Reporting § 97.275 Petitions. The CAIR designated representative of a CAIR SO2 unit may submit a petition under § 75.66 of this...

  7. 34 CFR 97.121 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 97.121 Section 97.121 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.121 ...

  8. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  9. 34 CFR 97.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wards. 97.409 Section 97.409 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the State or any other agency...

  10. 34 CFR 97.403 - IRB duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false IRB duties. 97.403 Section 97.403 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.403 IRB duties. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  11. 46 CFR 97.34-10 - Use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use. 97.34-10 Section 97.34-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 97.34-10 Use. (a) Approved buoyant work vests are considered to be items of safety apparel and may be carried...

  12. 46 CFR 97.34-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 97.34-1 Section 97.34-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 97.34-1 Application. (a) Provisions of this subpart shall apply to all vessels inspected and...

  13. 46 CFR 97.34-10 - Use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use. 97.34-10 Section 97.34-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 97.34-10 Use. (a) Approved buoyant work vests are considered to be items of safety apparel and may be...

  14. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If...

  15. 12 CFR 313.97 - Financial hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial hardship. 313.97 Section 313.97 Banks... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.97 Financial hardship. (a) A debtor whose..., divorce, or catastrophic illness which result in financial hardship. (b) A debtor requesting a...

  16. 12 CFR 313.97 - Financial hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial hardship. 313.97 Section 313.97 Banks... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.97 Financial hardship. (a) A debtor whose..., divorce, or catastrophic illness which result in financial hardship. (b) A debtor requesting a...

  17. 29 CFR 97.41 - Financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Financial reporting. 97.41 Section 97.41 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records Retention, and Enforcement § 97.41 Financial... other forms as may from time to time be authorized by OMB, for: (i) Submitting financial reports...

  18. 12 CFR 313.97 - Financial hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial hardship. 313.97 Section 313.97 Banks... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.97 Financial hardship. (a) A debtor whose..., divorce, or catastrophic illness which result in financial hardship. (b) A debtor requesting a...

  19. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Communications. 552.97 Section 552.97 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.97...

  20. 28 CFR 97.12 - Employee training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee training. 97.12 Section 97.12... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.12 Employee training. Private prisoner transport companies must require the completion of a minimum of 100 hours of employee training before an employee may transport violent...

  1. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by signing as joint applicants. (b) If an application for certificate is made by two...

  2. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by signing as joint applicants. (b) If an application for certificate is made by two...

  3. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by signing as joint applicants. (b) If an application for certificate is made by two...

  4. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by signing as joint applicants. (b) If an application for certificate is made by two...

  5. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  6. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  7. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  8. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  9. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  10. 14 CFR 97.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability. 97.1 Section 97.1... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES STANDARD INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES General § 97.1 Applicability. (a) This part prescribes standard instrument approach procedures to civil airports in the United States and the...

  11. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit.... (b) No examination credit, except as herein provided, shall be allowed on the basis of holding or...

  12. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to the...

  13. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  14. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  15. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  16. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  17. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  18. Deep-UV plasmonics of indium (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Saito, Yuika; Taguchi, Atsushi; Honda, Mitsuhiro; Kawata, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    Deep-UV (DUV) plasmonics can expand the possibilities of DUV-based techniques (i.e. UV lithography, UV spectroscopy, UV imaging, UV disinfection). Here we present that indium is useful for research of DUV plasmonics. According to dielectric function, indium and aluminum are low-loss, DUV plasmonic metals, of which the imaginary parts are far smaller than those of other metals (i.e. rhodium, platinum) in the DUV range. Additionally, the real parts in the whole DUV range are close to but smaller than -2, allowing efficient generation of surface plasmon polaritons on an indium or aluminum nanosphere. In comparison to aluminum, indium provides a distinctive feature for fabricating DUV-resonant substrates. It is highly apt to form a grainy deposition film on a standard, optically transparent substrate (i.e. fused silica). The surface plasmon resonance wavelength becomes promptly tailored by simply varying the deposition thickness of the films, resulting in different grain sizes. Thus, we fabricated indium-coated substrates having different plasmon resonance wavelengths by varying the deposition thicknesses from 10 to 50 nm. DUV resonance Raman scattering of adenine molecules was best enhanced using the 25 nm deposition thickness substrates by the factor of 2. Furthermore, the FDTD calculation simulated the electromagnetic field enhancement over a grainy, indium-coated fused silica substrate. Both results indicate how indium plays an indispensable role in study of DUV plasmonics.

  19. Factors Affecting the Toxicity of the Element Indium

    PubMed Central

    Castronovo, F. P.; Wagner, H. N.

    1971-01-01

    Hydrated indium oxide is 40 times more toxic than ionic indium, when expressed as lethality per quantity of metal injected. Ionic indium is nephrotoxic, causing damage in the proximal portion of the proximal convoluted tubule. In this respect, it resembles the element mercury. At extremely high doses, ionic indium causes focal necrosis in the liver. Hydrated indium oxide causes damage to those organs which contain phagocytic cells which clear the insoluble particles from the blood after i.v. injection. Actual focal necrosis was found in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Damage was also found in the thymus and lymph nodes. At extremely high doses, damage was observed in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney. Hydrated indium oxide caused extensive haemorrhage and marked thrombocytopenia. Fibrin thrombi were observed in the liver. The increase in toxicity of indium resulting from phagocytosis of insoluble oxides by the reticuloendothelial system may represent a general mechanism by which the toxicity of certain heavy metals is increased. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6Fig. 2 PMID:5125268

  20. Synthesis of indium nanoparticles: digestive ripening under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Cingarapu, Sreeram; Yang, Zhiqiang; Sorensen, Christopher M; Klabunde, Kenneth J

    2011-06-06

    Here we report the synthesis of monodispersed indium nanoparticles by evaporation/condensation of indium shot using the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD) technique, followed by digestive ripening in low boiling point (BP 38 °C) methylene chloride and in a high boiling point (BP 110 °C) toluene solvent. The as-prepared SMAD indium nanoparticles are polydispersed with particle size ranging from 25 to 50 nm, but upon digestive ripening (heating of colloidal material at the boiling point of solvent in presence of excess surface active ligands) in methylene chloride, a remarkable reduction of particle size was achieved. In higher boiling solvent (toluene), where the indium nanoparticles at reflux temperature are probably melted, it does not allow the best result, and less monodispersity is achieved. We employed different surface active ligands (amine, phosphine, and mixed ligands) to passivate these indium nanoparticles. The temporal evolution of the surface plasmon of indium nanoparticles was monitored by in situ UV-vis spectroscopy, and particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The merits of this synthesis procedure are the use of bulk indium as starting material, tuning the particle size in low boiling point solvent, particle size adjustment with the choice of ligand, and a possible scale up. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. High-efficiency indium tin oxide/indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements in the performance of indium tin oxide (ITO)/indium phosphide solar cells have been realized by the dc magnetron sputter deposition of n-ITO onto an epitaxial p/p(+) structure grown on commercial p(+) bulk substrates. The highest efficiency cells were achieved when the surface of the epilayer was exposed to an Ar/H2 plasma before depositing the bulk of the ITO in a more typical Ar/O2 plasma. With H2 processing, global efficiencies of 18.9 percent were achieved. It is suggested that the excellent performance of these solar cells results from the optimization of the doping, thickness, transport, and surface properties of the p-type base, as well as from better control over the ITO deposition procedure.

  2. High-efficiency indium tin oxide/indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements in the performance of indium tin oxide (ITO)/indium phosphide solar cells have been realized by the dc magnetron sputter deposition of n-ITO onto an epitaxial p/p(+) structure grown on commercial p(+) bulk substrates. The highest efficiency cells were achieved when the surface of the epilayer was exposed to an Ar/H2 plasma before depositing the bulk of the ITO in a more typical Ar/O2 plasma. With H2 processing, global efficiencies of 18.9 percent were achieved. It is suggested that the excellent performance of these solar cells results from the optimization of the doping, thickness, transport, and surface properties of the p-type base, as well as from better control over the ITO deposition procedure.

  3. On the origin of photoluminescence in indium oxide octahedron structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Mukesh; Singh, V. N.; Mehta, B. R.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, F.; Lakshmi, K. V.

    2008-04-28

    A sixfold decrease in photoluminescence signal intensity at 590 nm with increase in deposition time from 3 to 12 h has been observed in single crystalline indium oxide octahedron structures grown by vapor-phase evaporation method. Electron paramagnetic resonance and energy dispersive x-ray analysis confirm that the concentration of oxygen vacancies increases with deposition time. These results are contrary to the previous reports where oxygen vacancies were shown to be responsible for photoluminescence in indium oxide structures. Our results indicate that indium interstitials and their associated complex defects other than oxygen vacancies are responsible for the photoluminescence in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures.

  4. Reflectance of metallic indium for solar energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Hasegawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in order to compile quantitative data on the reflective properties of metallic indium. The fabricated samples were of sufficiently high quality that differences from similar second-surface silvered mirrors were not apparent to the human eye. Three second-surface mirror samples were prepared by means of vacuum deposition techniques, yielding indium thicknesses of approximately 1000 A. Both hemispherical and specular measurements were made. It is concluded that metallic indium possesses a sufficiently high specular reflectance to be potentially useful in many solar energy applications.

  5. Reflectance of metallic indium for solar energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Hasegawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in order to compile quantitative data on the reflective properties of metallic indium. The fabricated samples were of sufficiently high quality that differences from similar second-surface silvered mirrors were not apparent to the human eye. Three second-surface mirror samples were prepared by means of vacuum deposition techniques, yielding indium thicknesses of approximately 1000 A. Both hemispherical and specular measurements were made. It is concluded that metallic indium possesses a sufficiently high specular reflectance to be potentially useful in many solar energy applications.

  6. Kinetic investigation of indium-palladium alloy electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, S.N.; Perelygin, Yu.P.; Efimov, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of alloy deposition of ammonium-citrate electrolyte used to produce alloys with indium content were studied. The electrolytes were composed of palladium, indium, ammonium sulfate, monosodium citrate, ammonium chloride, and saccharin at pH 9.5. Stationary and rotating disk electrodes and a potentiostat were used for the investigation. Spectrophotometry determined the mixed formation of citrate-ammonia palladium complexes. It was found that the considerable depolarization of indium ion discharge into the alloy occurred when saccharin was present in the electrolyte, and its direct electroreduction occurs from hydroxide compounds.

  7. Determination of indium in rocks by substoichiometric radioisotope dilution analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L. Paul; Campbell, E.Y.

    1973-01-01

    Rocks containing 10-140 ng of indium per g are decomposed with hydrofluoric and nitric acids in the presence of 114In. Indium is separated from other constituents by sequential extractions of the bromide, cupferronate, and acetylacetonate, and is then reacted with a substoichiometric amont of EDTA. Excess of indium is removed by acetylacetone extraction and the specific activity of the complexed fraction is determined by counting 114In. Analyses of the U.S.G.S. standard rocks are reported. These show good agreement with previous neutron activation analyses. Repetitive rock analyses indicated an analytical precision of ??4-7%. ?? 1973.

  8. Tissue distribution of indium after repeated intratracheal instillations of indium-tin oxide into the lungs of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Matsumura, Nagisa; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the tissue distribution of indium after intratracheally instilling indium-tin oxide (ITO) into the lungs of hamsters. Male Syrian hamsters received an intratracheal dose of 3 mg/kg or 6 mg/kg of ITO particles containing 2.2 mg/kg or 4.5 mg/kg of indium, twice weekly for 8 weeks. In parallel, control hamsters received only an intratracheal dose of distilled water. A subset of hamsters was euthanized periodically throughout the study from 8 up to 78 weeks after the final instillation. The distribution of indium in the lungs, liver, kidneys and spleen, as well as pathological changes in the liver, kidneys, and spleen, was determined. The contents of indium in the lungs in the two ITO groups gradually decreased over the 78-week observation period, with elimination half-lives of approximately 142 weeks for the 3 mg/kg ITO group and 124 weeks for the 6 mg/kg ITO. The indium concentrations in the liver, kidneys, and spleen gradually increased throughout the observation period. Although foci of the lesions were observed histopathologically in the extrapulmonary organs among the two ITO groups, the control group showed similar lesions. The results clearly demonstrate that the clearance of indium from the body is extremely slow after intratracheal instillation in hamsters.

  9. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolomé, Javier Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, Javier

    2015-11-09

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor–solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 10{sup 5} and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10{sup −16} N/Hz{sup 1/2} demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure.

  10. Negative Magnetoresistance in Amorphous Indium Oxide Wires

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sreemanta; Tewari, Girish C; Mahalu, Diana; Shahar, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We study magneto-transport properties of several amorphous Indium oxide nanowires of different widths. The wires show superconducting transition at zero magnetic field, but, there exist a finite resistance at the lowest temperature. The R(T) broadening was explained by available phase slip models. At low field, and far below the superconducting critical temperature, the wires with diameter equal to or less than 100 nm, show negative magnetoresistance (nMR). The magnitude of nMR and the crossover field are found to be dependent on both temperature and the cross-sectional area. We find that this intriguing behavior originates from the interplay between two field dependent contributions. PMID:27876859

  11. Nanoscale guiding and shaping of indium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DÄ browski, Maciej; Dai, Yanan; Hocevar, Moïra; Frolov, Sergey; Petek, Hrvoje

    2016-12-01

    We present time-resolved microscopy of motion and shape transformation of liquid indium (In) sessile droplets on InAs(001) surface. For temperatures up to 800 K, the droplets spontaneously move across the crystal undergoing stick-slip motion that is strongly affected by atomic steps and coalescence events. Above a critical temperature of around 800 K, the droplets stop moving and further increase in temperature causes them to change shape progressively from spherical to rectangular. The process of shape transformation is coherent, reversible and associated with temperature dependent wetting of the surface as well as crystalline anisotropy dependent arsenic solvation and evaporation rates. The etched rectangular substrate depressions formed under the droplets, giving them a rectangular shape, reveal unusual rheology with deeper regions at the corners. Our high spatial resolution measurements link the macroscopic behavior of the metallic droplets with the microscopic topography features and can be used for the metallic liquid droplet nano-manipulation.

  12. Negative Magnetoresistance in Amorphous Indium Oxide Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sreemanta; Tewari, Girish C.; Mahalu, Diana; Shahar, Dan

    2016-11-01

    We study magneto-transport properties of several amorphous Indium oxide nanowires of different widths. The wires show superconducting transition at zero magnetic field, but, there exist a finite resistance at the lowest temperature. The R(T) broadening was explained by available phase slip models. At low field, and far below the superconducting critical temperature, the wires with diameter equal to or less than 100 nm, show negative magnetoresistance (nMR). The magnitude of nMR and the crossover field are found to be dependent on both temperature and the cross-sectional area. We find that this intriguing behavior originates from the interplay between two field dependent contributions.

  13. Doping Profiles for Indium Antimonide Magnetoresistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, D. L.; Heremans, J.; Thrush, C. M.

    1997-03-01

    Indium antimonide is of interest for magnetoresistors in position sensors. These sensors are fabricated as thin film elements in order to increase the device impedance. The InSb is doped n-type to stabilize the electron density against temperature changes. This involves tradeoffs, since ionized donors scatter electrons, reducing their mobility and hence reducing the device sensitivity to a magnetic field. Optimizing the sensitivity involved three steps. The InSb is undoped for the first 10 to 20 percent of the film thickness, forming a buffer from the lattice mismatched substrate. The doping in the middle layer of the film has a doping gradient. Finally, a thin contact layer is more heavily doped to reduce contact resistance.

  14. Indium 111-labeled granulocyte scan in the diagnosis and management of acute inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.L.; Subramanian, K.; Gasparaitis, A.; Abcarian, H.; Pavel, D.G. )

    1990-06-01

    The indium 111 granulocyte scan was used to evaluate 39 individuals known to have or suspected of having inflammatory bowel disease. Twenty-three of these individuals had positive scans and 16 had negative scans. Eighty-seven confirmatory studies, which consisted of barium radiography, endoscopy, operative findings, and histopathology, were performed in 37 of these individuals. The remaining two negative scans corroborated only by clinical course, CBC, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In addition, 10 follow-up scans were performed in six of the 39 patients to monitor therapy or investigate a change in symptoms. As an anatomic indicator of acute granulocytic infiltration of the intestinal lamina propria and crypts, the authors found that this scan had a 97 percent rate of sensitivity and 100 percent specificity. Specific indications for the use of the indium 111-labeled granulocyte scan are described. For the authors, in general, this test has become a vital adjunct to endoscopy and radiography in the diagnosis and management of patients with symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. Lattice dynamics of fct indium and hcp magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.M.; Xuan, Y.; Overhauser, A.W. )

    1991-01-15

    Phonon spectra of fct indium and hcp magnesium are calculated using the dynamic pseudopotential theory developed by Wang and Overhauser. Good agreement with experimental data is achieved with two adjustable pseudopotential parameters.

  16. Indium Ohmic Contacts to n-ZnSe,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTRIC CONTACTS, ANNEALING, AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY , BACKSCATTERING, CHLORINE, DIFFRACTION, ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY , FUNCTIONS, INDIUM... PHOTOELECTRONS , PURITY, RESISTANCE, TEMPERATURE, TEST AND EVALUATION, X RAY DIFFRACTION, MOLECULAR BEAMS, EPITAXIAL GROWTH, ZINC SELENIDES, DOPING.

  17. Method of manufacturing tin-doped indium oxide nanofibers

    DOEpatents

    Ozcan, Soydan; Naskar, Amit K

    2017-06-06

    A method of making indium tin oxide nanofibers includes the step of mixing indium and tin precursor compounds with a binder polymer to form a nanofiber precursor composition. The nanofiber precursor composition is co-formed with a supporting polymer to form a composite nanofiber having a precursor composition nanofiber completely surrounded by the supporting polymer composition. The supporting polymer composition is removed from the composite nanofiber to expose the precursor composition nanofiber. The precursor composition nanofiber is then heated in the presence of oxygen such as O.sub.2 to form indium tin oxide and to remove the binder polymer to form an indium tin oxide nanofiber. A method of making metal oxide nanofibers is also disclosed.

  18. Technological process and optimum design of organic materials vacuum pyrolysis and indium chlorinated separation from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    PubMed

    Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a technology process including vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum chlorinated separation was proposed to convert waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels into useful resources using self-design apparatuses. The suitable pyrolysis temperature and pressure are determined as 300°C and 50 Pa at first. The organic parts of the panels were converted to oil (79.10 wt%) and gas (2.93 wt%). Then the technology of separating indium was optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated the indium recovery ratio was 99.97% when the particle size is less than 0.16 mm, the weight percentage of NH4Cl to glass powder is 50 wt% and temperature is 450°C. The research results show that the organic materials, indium and glass of LCD panel can be recovered during the recovery process efficiently and eco-friendly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Status of indium phosphide solar cell development at Spire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Keavney, C. J.; Vernon, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    On-going development of indium phosphide solar cells for space applications is presented. The development is being carried out with a view towards both high conversion efficiency and simplicity of manufacture. The cell designs comprise the ion-implanted cell, the indium tin oxide top contact cell, and the epitaxial cell grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Modelling data on the limit to the efficiency are presented and comparison is made to measured performance data.

  20. Determination of indium in standard rocks by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansen, O; Steinnes, E

    1966-08-01

    A rapid neutron activation method for the determination of indium in rocks, based on 54 min (116m)In, is described. The method has been applied to a series of geochemical standards including granite G-1 and diabase W-1. The precision is better than +/- 5% for samples containing more than 5 x 10(-10)g indium. Good agreement with previously published values for G-1 and W-1 has been obtained.

  1. Indium and Zinc Alloys as Cadmium Brush Plating Replacements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-10

    Aged In- Sn Aged Cd In- Sn before Aging Cd before Aging Sn -Zn (12V) before Aging ...to assess state-of-the-art technology – Selected and tested initial coating candidates (2009-2010) • Indium-tin (In- Sn ), tin-zinc ( Sn -Zn), and zinc...nickel (Zn-Ni) • In and Sn foils – Selected and currently testing follow-on candidates (2010 – present) • Indium-zinc (In-Zn) and different

  2. Recovery of indium from LCD screens of discarded cell phones.

    PubMed

    Silveira, A V M; Fuchs, M S; Pinheiro, D K; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technological development have resulted in high consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), amongst which are cell phones, which have LCD (liquid crystal display) screens as one of their main components. These multilayer screens are composed of different materials, some with high added value, as in the case of the indium present in the form of indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide). Indium is a precious metal with relatively limited natural reserves (Dodbida et al., 2012), so it can be profitable to recover it from discarded LCD screens. The objective of this study was to develop a complete process for recovering indium from LCD screens. Firstly, the screens were manually removed from cell phones. In the next step, a pretreatment was developed for removal of the polarizing film from the glass of the LCD panels, because the adherence of this film to the glass complicated the comminution process. The choice of mill was based on tests using different equipment (knife mill, hammer mill, and ball mill) to disintegrate the LCD screens, either before or after removal of the polarizing film. In the leaching process, it was possible to extract 96.4 wt.% of the indium under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4, 1:50 solid/liquid ratio, 90°C, 1h, and stirring at 500 rpm. The results showed that the best experimental conditions enabled extraction of 613 mg of indium/kg of LCD powder. Finally, precipitation of the indium with NH4OH was tested at different pH values, and 99.8 wt.% precipitation was achieved at pH 7.4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An advanced case of indium lung disease with progressive emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Makiko; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Kumazoe, Hiroyuki; Wakamatsu, Kentaro; Kamada, Dan; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To report the occurrence of an advanced case of indium lung disease with severely progressive emphysema in an indium-exposed worker. Case report: A healthy 42-year-old male smoker was employed to primarily grind indium-tin oxide (ITO) target plates, exposing him to indium for 9 years (1998-2008). In 2004, an epidemiological study was conducted on indium-exposed workers at the factory in which he worked. The subject's serum indium concentration (In-S) was 99.7 μg/l, while his serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 level was 2,350 U/ml. Pulmonary function tests showed forced vital capacity (FVC) of 4.17 l (91.5% of the JRS predicted value), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 3.19 l (80.8% of predicted), and an FEV1-to-FVC ratio of 76.5%. A high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT) scan showed mild interlobular septal thickening and mild emphysematous changes. In 2008, he was transferred from the ITO grinding workplace to an inspection work section, where indium concentrations in total dusts had a range of 0.001-0.002 mg/m3. In 2009, the subject's In-S had increased to 132.1 μg/l, and pulmonary function tests revealed obstructive changes. In addition, HRCT scan showed clear evidence of progressive lung destruction with accompanying severe centrilobular emphysema and interlobular septal thickening in both lung fields. The subject's condition gradually worsened, and in 2015, he was registered with the Japan Organ Transplant Network for lung transplantation (LTx). Conclusions: Heavy indium exposure is a risk factor for emphysema, which can lead to a severity level that requires LTx as the final therapeutic option. PMID:27488043

  4. Dinuclear indium and thallium diyls: biscarbenoids or metal cluster?

    PubMed

    Desat, Marcella E; Gärtner, Stefanie; Kretschmer, Robert

    2017-01-26

    Using bis(β-diketiminate) ligands we were able to synthesize unprecedented indium and thallium biscarbenoids. For indium, a novel four-membered metallacycle is derived from intra- and intermolecular In-In interactions in the solid state, while for thallium only an intramolecular Tl2-pseudo-dimer is obtained. Computational studies revealed that the solid-state structures benefit significantly from dispersion stabilization.

  5. Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Serial evaluations at an indium-tin oxide production facility.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kristin J; Suarthana, Eva; Edwards, Nicole; Liang, Xiaoming; Stanton, Marcia L; Day, Gregory A; Saito, Rena; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of workplace changes to prevent indium lung disease, using 2002-2010 surveillance data collected by an indium-tin oxide production facility. We assessed pulmonary function using lower limits of normal. Blood indium concentration and personal air sampling data were used to estimate exposure. Abnormalities were uncommon at hire. After hire, prevalence of spirometric restriction was 31% (n = 14/45), about fourfold higher than expected. Excessive decline in FEV1 was elevated at 29% (n = 12/41). Half (n = 21/42) had blood indium ≥5 µg/l. More recent hires had fewer abnormalities. There was a suggestion that abnormalities were more common among workers with blood indium ≥5 µg/l, but otherwise an exposure-response relationship was not evident. Peak dust concentrations were obscured by time averaging. Evolving lung function abnormalities consistent with subclinical indium lung disease appeared common and merit systematic investigation. Traditional measures of exposure and response were not illustrative, suggesting fresh approaches will be needed. Workplace changes seemed to have had a positive though incomplete impact; novel preventive interventions are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 46 CFR 97.12-5 - Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual. 97.12-5 Section 97.12-5 Shipping COAST GUARD...-5 Manual. The manual on the “Stowage of Bulk Cargoes Such as Ore, Ore Concentrates, and Similar... compliance with the requirements of § 97.12-1(a). 1 Copies of this manual are on file at Coast...

  8. 50 CFR 17.97 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Interagency Cooperation (Continued) § 17.97...

  9. DX centers in indium aluminum arsenide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Huseyin

    DX centers are point defects observed in many n-type doped III-V compound semi conductors. They have unique properties, which include large differences between their optical and thermal ionization energies, and a temperature dependence of the capture cross-sections. As a result of these properties DX centers exhibit a reduction in free carrier concentration and a large persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect. DX centers also lead to a shift in the threshold voltage of modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFET) structures, at low temperatures. Most of the studies on this defect have been carried out on the Ga xAl1-xAs material system. However, to date there is significantly less work on DX centers in InxAl1-xAs compounds. This is partly due to difficulties associated with the growth of defect free materials other than lattice matched In0.52Al 0.48As on InP and partly because the energy level of the DX center is in resonance with the conduction band in In0.52Al0.48As. The purpose of this dissertation is to extend the DX center investigation to InAlAs compounds, primarily in the indirect portion of the InAlAs bandgap. In this work the indium composition dependence of the DX centers in In xAl1-xAs/InyGa1-yAs-based heterostructure is studied experimentally. Different InxAl 1-xAs epitaxial layers with x = 0.10, x = 0.15, x = 0.20, and x = 0.34 in a MODFET-like heterostructure were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on (001) GaAs substrates. In order to compensate the lattice mismatch between epitaxial layers and their substrates, step-graded buffer layers with indium composition increments of x = 0.10, every 2000 A, were used. For the samples grown with different indium contents Hall measurements as a function of both temperature and different cooling biases were performed in order to determine their carrier concentrations. A self consistent Poisson-Schrodinger numerical software is used to model the heterostructures. With the help of this numerical model

  10. 36 CFR 9.7 - Assessment work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assessment work. 9.7 Section... MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.7 Assessment work. (a) An access permit and approved plan of operations must be obtained by a claimant prior to the performance of any assessment work required by Revised...

  11. 27 CFR 21.97 - Benzene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Benzene. 21.97 Section 21... TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.97 Benzene. (a..., Standard No. D 836-77; for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of benzene are...

  12. 27 CFR 21.97 - Benzene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Benzene. 21.97 Section 21... TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.97 Benzene. (a..., Standard No. D 836-77; for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of benzene are...

  13. 27 CFR 21.97 - Benzene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Benzene. 21.97 Section 21... TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.97 Benzene. (a..., Standard No. D 836-77; for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of benzene are...

  14. 27 CFR 21.97 - Benzene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benzene. 21.97 Section 21... TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.97 Benzene. (a..., Standard No. D 836-77; for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of benzene are...

  15. 27 CFR 21.97 - Benzene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benzene. 21.97 Section 21... TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.97 Benzene. (a..., Standard No. D 836-77; for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of benzene are...

  16. 14 CFR 97.20 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General. 97.20 Section 97.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND...). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to...

  17. 25 CFR 700.97 - Residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residence. 700.97 Section 700.97 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and... and/or his/her immediate family were legal residents as of December 22, 1974, of the lands partitioned...

  18. 40 CFR 97.155 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.155 Section 97.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Banking. (a) CAIR NOX allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in a compliance account or a...

  19. 40 CFR 97.255 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.255 Section 97.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Banking. (a) CAIR SO2 allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in a compliance account or a...

  20. 40 CFR 97.55 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.55 Section 97.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Banking. NOX allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in a compliance account, an overdraft...

  1. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving...

  2. 40 CFR 97.506 - Standard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard requirements. 97.506 Section 97.506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... starting on the later of May 1, 2014 or the deadline for meeting the unit's monitor certification...

  3. 40 CFR 97.406 - Standard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard requirements. 97.406 Section 97.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...) of this section for the control period starting on the later of January 1, 2014 or the deadline for...

  4. 36 CFR 9.7 - Assessment work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment work. 9.7 Section 9.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS..., 1976. The Secretary expressly reserves, however, the existing right to contest claims for failure to do...

  5. 36 CFR 9.7 - Assessment work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assessment work. 9.7 Section 9.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS..., 1976. The Secretary expressly reserves, however, the existing right to contest claims for failure to do...

  6. 36 CFR 9.7 - Assessment work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assessment work. 9.7 Section 9.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS..., 1976. The Secretary expressly reserves, however, the existing right to contest claims for failure to do...

  7. 32 CFR 97.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 97.5 Section 97.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RELEASE... Responsibilities. (a) The General Counsel, Department of Defense, shall provide general policy and...

  8. 32 CFR 97.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 97.5 Section 97.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RELEASE... Responsibilities. (a) The General Counsel, Department of Defense, shall provide general policy and...

  9. 32 CFR 97.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibilities. 97.5 Section 97.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RELEASE... Responsibilities. (a) The General Counsel, Department of Defense, shall provide general policy and...

  10. 40 CFR 97.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... efficiency of electricity generation or steam production. Combustion turbine means an enclosed fossil or..., including test generation. Except as provided in § 97.4(b), § 97.5, or subpart I of this part, for a unit... dioxide concentration (in percent CO2) or the minimum oxygen concentration (in percent O2). Maximum...

  11. 9 CFR 201.97 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual reports. 201.97 Section 201.97 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND... (except a packer buyer registered to purchase livestock for slaughter only) shall file annually with...

  12. 14 CFR 61.97 - Aeronautical knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aeronautical knowledge. 61.97 Section 61.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN... ground training from an authorized instructor or complete a home-study course on the...

  13. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is regulated...

  14. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is regulated...

  15. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is regulated...

  16. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is regulated...

  17. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... name and mailing address. The mailing address must be in an area where the amateur service is regulated...

  18. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... Unexpired (or within the renewalgrace period) Expired and beyond the renewalgrace period (1) Amateur Extra...

  19. 34 CFR 97.107 - IRB membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false IRB membership. 97.107 Section 97.107 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the... membership. (a) Each IRB shall have at least five members, with varying backgrounds to promote complete...

  20. 34 CFR 97.107 - IRB membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false IRB membership. 97.107 Section 97.107 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the... membership. (a) Each IRB shall have at least five members, with varying backgrounds to promote complete...

  1. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving Gear...

  2. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving Gear...

  3. 36 CFR 251.97 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral presentation. 251.97... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.97 Oral presentation. (a) Purpose. An oral presentation provides an additional opportunity for an appellant, and other...

  4. 40 CFR 97.101 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designated representative, permitting, allowance, monitoring, and opt-in provisions for the Federal Clean Air... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 97.101 Section 97.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL...

  5. 40 CFR 97.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., allowance, excess emissions, monitoring, and opt-in provisions for the federal NOX Budget Trading Program... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 97.1 Section 97.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL...

  6. 40 CFR 97.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., allowance, excess emissions, monitoring, and opt-in provisions for the federal NOX Budget Trading Program... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 97.1 Section 97.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL...

  7. 40 CFR 97.301 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions and the designated representative, permitting, allowance, monitoring, and opt-in provisions for... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 97.301 Section 97.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL...

  8. 40 CFR 97.401 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 97.401 Section 97.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Purpose. This subpart sets forth the general, designated representative, allowance, and...

  9. 40 CFR 97.501 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 97.501 Section 97.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Purpose. This subpart sets forth the general, designated representative, allowance, and...

  10. 40 CFR 97.701 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 97.701 Section 97.701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Purpose. This subpart sets forth the general, designated representative, allowance, and...

  11. 40 CFR 97.601 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 97.601 Section 97.601 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Purpose. This subpart sets forth the general, designated representative, allowance, and...

  12. 34 CFR 97.107 - IRB membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB membership. 97.107 Section 97.107 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the... consideration of race, gender, and cultural backgrounds and sensitivity to such issues as community attitudes...

  13. 27 CFR 6.97 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 6.97 Section 6.97 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §...

  14. 34 CFR 97.402 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.402 Definitions. The definitions in § 97.102 apply to this... have not attained the legal age for consent to treatments or procedures involved in the research, under the applicable law of the jurisdiction in which the research will be conducted. (b) Assent means...

  15. 29 CFR 97.41 - Financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial reporting. 97.41 Section 97.41 Labor Office of... Financial reporting. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(2) and (5) of this section... supplementary or other forms as may from time to time be authorized by OMB, for: (i) Submitting...

  16. 36 CFR 9.7 - Assessment work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assessment work. 9.7 Section... MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.7 Assessment work. (a) An access permit and approved plan of operations must be obtained by a claimant prior to the performance of any assessment work required by Revised...

  17. 29 CFR 97.43 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enforcement. 97.43 Section 97.43 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records Retention, and Enforcement §...

  18. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving Gear...

  19. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving Gear...

  20. DNA adsorption by indium tin oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Biwu; Liu, Juewen

    2015-01-01

    The high conductivity and optical transparency of indium tin oxide (ITO) has made it a popular material in the electronic industry. Recently, its application in biosensors is also explored. To understand its biointerface chemistry, we herein investigate its interaction with fluorescently labeled single-stranded oligonucleotides using ITO nanoparticles (NPs). The fluorescence of DNA is efficiently quenched after adsorption, and the interaction between DNA and ITO NPs is strongly dependent on the surface charge of ITO. At low pH, the ITO surface is positively charged to afford a high DNA adsorption capacity. Adsorption is also influenced by the sequence and length of DNA. For its components, In2O3 adsorbs DNA more strongly while SnO2 repels DNA at neutral pH. The DNA adsorption property of ITO is an averaging result from both components. DNA adsorption is confirmed to be mainly by the phosphate backbone via displacement experiments using free phosphate or DNA bases. Last, DNA-induced DNA desorption by forming duplex DNA is demonstrated on ITO, while the same reaction is more difficult to achieve on other metal oxides including CeO2, TiO2, and Fe3O4 because these particles adsorb DNA more tightly.

  1. Subnanometer Thin β-Indium Sulfide Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Shinjita; Sarkar, Suresh; Pradhan, Narayan

    2012-12-20

    Nanosheets are a peculiar kind of nanomaterials that are grown two-dimensionally over a micrometer in length and a few nanometers in thickness. Wide varieties of inorganic semiconductor nanosheets are already reported, but controlling the crystal growth and tuning their thickness within few atomic layers have not been yet explored. We investigate here the parameters that determine the thickness and the formation mechanism of subnanometer thin (two atomic layers) cubic indium sulfide (In2S3) nanosheets. Using appropriate reaction condition, the growth kinetics is monitored by controlling the decomposition rate of the single source precursor of In2S3 as a function of nucleation temperature. The variation in the thickness of the nanosheets along the polar [111] direction has been correlated with the rate of evolved H2S gas, which in turn depends on the rate of the precursor decomposition. In addition, it has been observed that the thickness of the In2S3 nanosheets is related to the nucleation temperature.

  2. Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis and Properties.

    PubMed

    Shafa, Muhammad; Akbar, Sadaf; Gao, Lei; Fakhar-E-Alam, Muhammad; Wang, Zhiming M

    2016-12-01

    This article summarizes some of the critical features of pure indium antimonide nanowires (InSb NWs) growth and their potential applications in the industry. In the first section, historical studies on the growth of InSb NWs have been presented, while in the second part, a comprehensive overview of the various synthesis techniques is demonstrated briefly. The major emphasis of current review is vapor phase deposition of NWs by manifold techniques. In addition, author review various protocols and methodologies employed to generate NWs from diverse material systems via self-organized fabrication procedures comprising chemical vapor deposition, annealing in reactive atmosphere, evaporation of InSb, molecular/ chemical beam epitaxy, solution-based techniques, and top-down fabrication method. The benefits and ill effects of the gold and self-catalyzed materials for the growth of NWs are explained at length. Afterward, in the next part, four thermodynamic characteristics of NW growth criterion concerning the expansion of NWs, growth velocity, Gibbs-Thomson effect, and growth model were expounded and discussed concisely. Recent progress in device fabrications is explained in the third part, in which the electrical and optical properties of InSb NWs were reviewed by considering the effects of conductivity which are diameter dependent and the applications of NWs in the fabrications of field-effect transistors, quantum devices, thermoelectrics, and detectors.

  3. Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafa, Muhammad; Akbar, Sadaf; Gao, Lei; Fakhar-e-Alam, Muhammad; Wang, Zhiming M.

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes some of the critical features of pure indium antimonide nanowires (InSb NWs) growth and their potential applications in the industry. In the first section, historical studies on the growth of InSb NWs have been presented, while in the second part, a comprehensive overview of the various synthesis techniques is demonstrated briefly. The major emphasis of current review is vapor phase deposition of NWs by manifold techniques. In addition, author review various protocols and methodologies employed to generate NWs from diverse material systems via self-organized fabrication procedures comprising chemical vapor deposition, annealing in reactive atmosphere, evaporation of InSb, molecular/ chemical beam epitaxy, solution-based techniques, and top-down fabrication method. The benefits and ill effects of the gold and self-catalyzed materials for the growth of NWs are explained at length. Afterward, in the next part, four thermodynamic characteristics of NW growth criterion concerning the expansion of NWs, growth velocity, Gibbs-Thomson effect, and growth model were expounded and discussed concisely. Recent progress in device fabrications is explained in the third part, in which the electrical and optical properties of InSb NWs were reviewed by considering the effects of conductivity which are diameter dependent and the applications of NWs in the fabrications of field-effect transistors, quantum devices, thermoelectrics, and detectors.

  4. Alumina as diffusion barrier to intermetallic formation in thermal interface materials made from indium and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Ibrahim Khalifa

    Indium and copper react at wide range of temperatures to form intermetallic compounds that have different physical, mechanical and thermal properties. Liquid Phase Sintered indium-copper composite long-term performance as thermal interface material is adversely affected by the evolution of the intermetallic. In this study, i) the effect of intermetallic formation and growth on the performance of Liquid Phase Sintered copper-indium composite, ii) the effect of alumina as diffusion barrier between indium and copper, (iii) thermal stability and wettability between indium and alumina, iv) the indium and quartz wettability, v) indium and tungsten oxide wettability have been studied. Deleterious effect of the intermetallic formation and growth on the thermal and mechanical properties has been observed. 5nm of alumina deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition on flat copper surface has been optimized to prevent diffusion process between indium and copper at 120°C. 15nm of alumina prevented the reaction at 230°C. Instability of indium thin film thermally deposited on sapphire substrate was observed. Also, decrease in the sintering density of indium-alumina composite with increasing temperature was observed. The dewetting contact angle between liquid indium and sapphire was ˜127°. The wetting experiments between indium and different oxides showed that indium wets tungsten oxide and quartz..

  5. Independent Composition and Size Control for Highly Luminescent Indium-Rich Silver Indium Selenide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Olesya; Yarema, Maksym; Bozyigit, Deniz; Lin, Weyde M M; Wood, Vanessa

    2015-11-24

    Ternary I-III-VI nanocrystals, such as silver indium selenide (AISe), are candidates to replace cadmium- and lead-based chalcogenide nanocrystals as efficient emitters in the visible and near IR, but, due to challenges in controlling the reactivities of the group I and III cations during synthesis, full compositional and size-dependent behavior of I-III-VI nanocrystals is not yet explored. We report an amide-promoted synthesis of AISe nanocrystals that enables independent control over nanocrystal size and composition. By systematically varying reaction time, amide concentration, and Ag- and In-precursor concentrations, we develop a predictive model for the synthesis and show that AISe sizes can be tuned from 2.4 to 6.8 nm across a broad range of indium-rich compositions from AgIn11Se17 to AgInSe2. We perform structural and optical characterization for representative AISe compositions (Ag0.85In1.05Se2, Ag3In5Se9, AgIn3Se5, and AgIn11Se17) and relate the peaks in quantum yield to stoichiometries exhibiting defect ordering in the bulk. We optimize luminescence properties to achieve a record quantum yield of 73%. Finally, time-resolved photoluminescence measurements enable us to better understand the physics of donor-acceptor emission and the role of structure and composition in luminescence.

  6. Personal indium exposure concentration in respirable dusts and serum indium level.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, Satoko; Nakano, Makiko; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Shigeru; Kawasumi, Yaeko; Higashikubo, Ichiro; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-07

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between indium exposure concentration in the respirable dust fraction (In-E) and indium in serum (In-S) in workers. A total of 39 workers were studied. The study subjects were categorized into 3 groups, namely, smelting workers (n=7), ITO workers (n=6) in an ITO grinding plant, and other workers (n=26). In-E and In-S ranged from 0.004-24.0 μg/m(3) and 0.1-8.50 μg/L, respectively. The simple regression equation was log(In-S)=0.322×log(In-E)-0.443. The simple correlation coefficients for the smelting workers, ITO workers and other workers were 0.489, 0.812 and 0.163, respectively. The differences in the relationships among the three groups suggest that In-S may vary with the chemical form to which the workers were exposed. In-E and In-S seem to be positively correlated. The correlation coefficient was higher for both smelting and ITO workers than for other workers.

  7. Personal indium exposure concentration in respirable dusts and serum indium level

    PubMed Central

    IWASAWA, Satoko; NAKANO, Makiko; MIYAUCHI, Hiroyuki; TANAKA, Shigeru; KAWASUMI, Yaeko; HIGASHIKUBO, Ichiro; TANAKA, Akiyo; HIRATA, Miyuki; OMAE, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between indium exposure concentration in the respirable dust fraction (In-E) and indium in serum (In-S) in workers. Methods: A total of 39 workers were studied. The study subjects were categorized into 3 groups, namely, smelting workers (n=7), ITO workers (n=6) in an ITO grinding plant, and other workers (n=26). In-E and In-S ranged from 0.004–24.0 μg/m3 and 0.1–8.50 μg/L, respectively. The simple regression equation was log(In-S)=0.322×log(In-E)−0.443. The simple correlation coefficients for the smelting workers, ITO workers and other workers were 0.489, 0.812 and 0.163, respectively. The differences in the relationships among the three groups suggest that In-S may vary with the chemical form to which the workers were exposed. In-E and In-S seem to be positively correlated. The correlation coefficient was higher for both smelting and ITO workers than for other workers. PMID:27644848

  8. Chronic pulmonary toxicity study of indium-tin oxide and indium oxide following intratracheal instillations into the lungs of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Homma, Toshiaki; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the chronic toxicological effects of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (In(2)O(3)) on laboratory animals. Male Syrian golden hamsters were intratracheally administered 3 mg/kg or 6 mg/kg of ITO particles, or 2.7 mg/kg or 5.4 mg/kg of In(2)O(3) particles, containing 2.2 mg/kg or 4.5 mg/kg of indium, twice a week, for 8 wk. Control hamsters were given vehicle of distilled water only. The hamsters were euthanized serially up to 78 wk after the final instillation and the toxicological effects were determined. Body weight gain was significantly suppressed in the ITO 6 mg/kg-treated hamsters compared with the control group, but not in the ITO 3 mg/kg-treated or In(2)O(3)-treated hamsters. Relative lung weights among all the indium-treated groups were significantly increased compared to that in the control group throughout the observation period. The serum indium concentration among all the indium-treated groups gradually increased up to the end of the observation period. Histopathologically, foci of slight to severe pulmonary inflammatory response with diffuse alveolar or bronchiolar cell hyperplasia, expansion of the alveolar spaces and interstitial fibrotic proliferation were present in all the indium-treated hamsters and the severity of these lesions worsened with the passage of time. Lung benign adenomas were only manifest in 3 out of 15 of the ITO 6 mg/kg-treated hamsters. The present results clearly demonstrate that ITO and In(2)O(3) particles caused chronic pulmonary toxicity when repeated intratracheal instillations were given to hamsters.

  9. Indium-granulocyte scanning in the painful prosthetic joint

    SciTech Connect

    Pring, D.J.; Henderson, R.G.; Keshavarzian, A.; Rivett, A.G.; Krausz, T.; Coombs, R.R.; Lavender, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    The value of indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning to determine the presence of infection was assessed in 50 prosthetic joints (41 of which were painful) in 40 patients. Granulocytes were obtained from the patients' blood and labeled in plasma with indium 111 tropolonate. Abnormal accumulation of indium 111 in the region of the prosthesis was noted. Proven infection occurred in 11 prostheses, and all of the infections were detected by indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning. Nineteen were not infected (including nine asymptomatic controls) and only two produced false-positive scans. This represents a specificity of 89.5%, sensitivity of 100%, and overall accuracy of 93.2%. These results compare favorably with plain radiography. There was no radiologic evidence of infection in three of the infected prostheses, and 10 of the noninfected prostheses had some radiologic features that suggested sepsis. We conclude that indium-granulocyte scanning can reliably detect or exclude infection in painful prosthetic joints and should prove useful in clinical management.

  10. Growth and characterization of indium arsenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, D. L.; Green, L.; Morelli, D. T.; Heremans, J.; Fuller, B. K.; Thrush, C. M.

    1991-12-01

    The growth and characterization of indium arsenide films grown on indium phosphide substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process is reported. Either ethyl dimethyl indium or trimethyl indium were found to be suitable in combination with arsine as source compounds. The highest electron mobilities were observed in films nucleated at reduced growth temperature. Scanning electron microscopy studies show that film nucleation at low temperature prevents thermal etch pits from forming on the InP surface before growth proceeds at an elevated temperature. Electron mobilities as high as 21,000 cm2V-1 sec-1 at 300 K were thus obtained for a film only 3.4 μm thick. This mobility is significantly higher than was previously observed in InAs films grown by MOCVD. From the depth dependence of transport properties, we find that in our films electrons are accumulated near the air interface of the film, presumably by positive ions in the native oxide. The mobility is limited by electrons scattering predominantly from ionized impurities at low temperature and from lattice vibrations and dislocations at high temperature. However, scattering from dislocations is greatly reduced in the surface accumulation layer due to screening by a high density of electrons. These dislocations arise from lattice mismatch and interface disorder at the film-substrate interface, preventing these films from obtaining mobility values of bulk indium arsenide.

  11. Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1984-03-13

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  12. The New Element Berkelium (Atomic Number 97)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G. T.; Thompson, S. G.; Ghiorso, A.

    1950-04-26

    An isotope of the element with atomic number 97 has been discovered as a product of the helium-ion bombardment of americium. The name berkelium, symbol Bk, is proposed for element 97. The chemical separation of element 97 from the target material and other reaction products was made by combinations of precipitation and ion exchange adsorption methods making use of its anticipated (III) and (IV) oxidation states and its position as a member of the actinide transition series. The distinctive chemical properties made use of in its separation and the equally distinctive decay properties of the particular isotope constitute the principal evidence for the new element.

  13. Materials flow of indium in the United States in 2008 and 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Indium is a material that has many applications. It is used by anyone who watches television or views a computer screen. It is found in solar energy arrays and in soldering applications that are required to be lead free. In 2009, about 550 metric tons (t) of indium metal was produced from primary sources world-wide; it was estimated that the United States consumed about 110 t of indium metal (20 percent of world primary production). However, when imports of consumer products that contain indium are considered, the United States consumed about 200 t of indium (36 percent of world primary production). When one considers the recovery from the low-efficiency sputtering process that coats indium-tin oxide onto glass and other surfaces, the recycling rate (within the manufacturing process that uses indium-tin oxide in flat panel displays approaches 36 percent. However, indium recovery from old scrap generated from end-of-life consumer products is not sufficiently economic to add significantly to secondary production. Between 1988 and 2010, indium prices averaged $381 per kilogram (in constant 2000 dollars). However, prices have been quite volatile (deviating from the average of $381 per kilogram by ±$199 per kilogram, a 52 percent difference from the average), reflecting short-term disequilibrium of supply and demand but also responsiveness of supply to demand. The dynamics of zinc smelting govern the primary supply of indium because indium is a byproduct of zinc smelting. Secondary indium supply, which accounts for about one-half of total indium supply, is governed by indium prices and technological advances in recovery. Indium demand is expected to grow because the number and volume of cutting edge technology applications that depend on indium are expected to grow.

  14. TEM EDS analysis of epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Jasmine; Gibson, Ricky; Gehl, Michael; Zandbergen, Sander; Keiffer, Patrick; Nader, Nima; Hendrickson, Joshua; Arnoult, Alexandre; Khitrova, Galina

    2017-05-01

    Epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium nanostructures, or islands, show promise as nanoantennas. The elemental composition and internal structure of indium islands grown on gallium arsenide are explored using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Several sizes of islands are examined, with larger islands exhibiting high (>94%) average indium purity and smaller islands containing inhomogeneous gallium and arsenic contamination. These results enable more accurate predictions of indium nanoantenna behavior as a function of growth parameters.

  15. 97. DAM OPERATING HOUSE WALL SECTION & MISCELLANEOUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. DAM - OPERATING HOUSE - WALL SECTION & MISCELLANEOUS DETAIL (ML-8-41/2-FS) June 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  16. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During the fishing season... management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register; Treaty...

  17. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During the fishing season... management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register; Treaty...

  18. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During the fishing season... management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register; Treaty...

  19. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During the fishing season... management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register; Treaty...

  20. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During the fishing season... management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register; Treaty...

  1. 7 CFR 97.153 - Persons recognized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS... authorized as provided in § 97.151, no person shall be permitted to file or advance applications before...

  2. 7 CFR 97.157 - Professional conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.157 Professional conduct. Attorneys and agents appearing before the Office shall conform to the standards of ethical and professional conduct, generally...

  3. 7 CFR 97.157 - Professional conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.157 Professional conduct. Attorneys and agents appearing before the Office shall conform to the standards of ethical and professional conduct, generally...

  4. 7 CFR 97.157 - Professional conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.157 Professional conduct. Attorneys and agents appearing before the Office shall conform to the standards of ethical and professional conduct, generally...

  5. Andrew Benson honored on birthday № 97.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Bob B; Douce, Roland

    2015-02-01

    We present a brief account of the 97th birthday celebration of Andrew A. Benson, a scientific legend who is known, among other contributions, for his pioneering work on the path of carbon in photosynthesis (the Calvin-Benson cycle).

  6. 46 CFR 111.97-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-1 Applicability. This subpart applies to electric power-operated watertight door systems required under Subpart H of Part 170 of this chapter. ...

  7. 7 CFR 160.97 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Proceedings in Case of Violation § 160.97 Publication. Composite data...

  8. 7 CFR 160.97 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Proceedings in Case of Violation § 160.97 Publication. Composite data...

  9. 27 CFR 25.97 - Continuation certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.97 Continuation certificate. If the... of law and regulations applicable to bonds on Form 5130.22 given under this part, including...

  10. 27 CFR 25.97 - Continuation certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.97 Continuation certificate. If the... of law and regulations applicable to bonds on Form 5130.22 given under this part, including...

  11. 27 CFR 25.97 - Continuation certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.97 Continuation certificate. If the... of law and regulations applicable to bonds on Form 5130.22 given under this part, including...

  12. 27 CFR 25.97 - Continuation certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.97 Continuation certificate. If the... of law and regulations applicable to bonds on Form 5130.22 given under this part, including...

  13. 27 CFR 25.97 - Continuation certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.97 Continuation certificate. If the... of law and regulations applicable to bonds on Form 5130.22 given under this part, including...

  14. 34 CFR 97.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or agency head...

  15. Impact of preferential indium nucleation on electrical conductivity of vapor-liquid-solid grown indium-tin oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Meng, Gang; Yanagida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yoshida, Hideto; Kanai, Masaki; Klamchuen, Annop; Zhuge, Fuwei; He, Yong; Rahong, Sakon; Fang, Xiaodong; Takeda, Seiji; Kawai, Tomoji

    2013-05-08

    Highly conductive and transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO) single-crystalline nanowires, formed by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method, hold great promise for various nanoscale device applications. However, increasing an electrical conductivity of VLS grown ITO nanowires is still a challenging issue due to the intrinsic difficulty in controlling complex material transports of the VLS process. Here, we demonstrate a crucial role of preferential indium nucleation on the electrical conductivity of VLS grown ITO nanowires using gold catalysts. In spite of the fact that the vapor pressure of tin is lower than that of indium, we found that the indium concentration within the nanowires was always higher than the nominal composition. The VLS growth of ITO through gold catalysts significantly differs from ITO film formations due to the emergence of preferential indium nucleation only at a liquid-solid interface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the averaged resistivity of ITO nanowires can be decreased down to 2.1 × 10(-4) Ω cm, which is the lowest compared with values previously reported, via intentionally increasing the tin concentration within the nanowires.

  16. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Rajesh; Maldonado, Arturo; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; Olvera, María De La Luz

    2014-01-01

    The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10−3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%–70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002) to (101) planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered. PMID:28788118

  17. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Rajesh; Maldonado, Arturo; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; De La Luz Olvera, María

    2014-07-04

    The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10(-3) Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%-70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002) to (101) planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered.

  18. Mobility of indium on the ZnO(0001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinhold, R.; Reeves, R. J.; Williams, G. T.; Evans, D. A.; Allen, M. W.

    2015-02-01

    The mobility of indium on the Zn-polar (0001) surface of single crystal ZnO wafers was investigated using real-time x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A sudden transition in the wettability of the ZnO(0001) surface was observed at ˜520 °C, with indium migrating from the ( 000 1 ¯ ) underside of the wafer, around the non-polar ( 1 1 ¯ 00 ) and ( 11 2 ¯ 0 ) sidewalls, to form a uniform self-organized (˜20 Å) adlayer. The In adlayer was oxidized, in agreement with the first principles calculations of Northrup and Neugebauer that In2O3 precipitation can only be avoided under a combination of In-rich and Zn-rich conditions. These findings suggest that unintentional In adlayers may form during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on indium-bonded substrates.

  19. Synthesis and conductivity of indium-doped tin pyrophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, Fernando H; Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L

    2008-01-01

    We have synthesized indium-doped tin pyrophosphates as high-temperature anhydrous proton conductors. The ratio of tin to indium was varied using two different synthetic methods. The first is a high-temperature reaction in which a paste containing the reactants in excess phosphoric acid was heated for various amounts of time at various temperatures. The second method is a solution precipitation procedure followed by calcination, which offers several advantages over traditional synthetic techniques. These advantages inc 1 ude better stoichiometric control, lower temperature requirements, and chemically uniform products. Several phosphate sources were investigated, including phosphoric acid, pyrophosphoric acid, and potassium pyrophosphate. The resulting indium-doped tin pyrophosphates had good proton conductivity over a wide temperature range with no humidification.

  20. Indium antimonide doped with manganese grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, D. L.; Heremans, J.; Thrush, C. M.

    1997-05-01

    Indium antimonide is of interest for infrared detecting and emitting devices and for magnetic field sensors. In this study, indium antimonide doped with manganese and grown by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to show that the incorporation of managenese is near unity over a wide range of manganese concentrations. Manganese is observed to be an acceptor with a dopant efficiency which follows a power law in which the hole density is proportional to the manganese concentration raised to the power α. The power α depends on the growth temperature; at 300°C, α = 0.86 and at 360°C, α = 0.78. Lightly manganese doped samples have transport dominated by electrons at low temperatures due to hole freeze out, followed by holes at intermediate temperatures and finally by intrinsic electrons at high temperatures. Additional SIMS studies showed that manganese diffuses relatively slowly in indium antimonide.

  1. Temperature dependence of the internal friction of polycrystalline indium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, K. V.; Golyandin, S. N.; Kustov, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    The temperature dependences of the internal friction and the elastic modulus of polycrystalline indium have been investigated in the temperature range 7-320 K at oscillatory loading frequencies of approximately 100 kHz. The effect of temperature on the amplitude dependence and the effect of high-amplitude loading at 7 K on the temperature and amplitude dependences of the internal friction of indium have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the thermocycling leads to microplastic deformation of indium due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion and the appearance of a "recrystallization" maximum in the spectrum of the amplitude-dependent internal friction. The conclusion has been drawn that the bulk diffusion of vacancies and impurities begins at temperatures of approximately 90 K and that, at lower temperatures, the diffusion occurs in the vicinity of dislocations. It has been revealed that the high-temperature internal friction background becomes noticeable after the dissolution of Cottrell atmospheres.

  2. Mobility of indium on the ZnO(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Heinhold, R.; Reeves, R. J.; Allen, M. W.; Williams, G. T.; Evans, D. A.

    2015-02-02

    The mobility of indium on the Zn-polar (0001) surface of single crystal ZnO wafers was investigated using real-time x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A sudden transition in the wettability of the ZnO(0001) surface was observed at ∼520 °C, with indium migrating from the (0001{sup ¯}) underside of the wafer, around the non-polar (11{sup ¯}00) and (112{sup ¯}0) sidewalls, to form a uniform self-organized (∼20 Å) adlayer. The In adlayer was oxidized, in agreement with the first principles calculations of Northrup and Neugebauer that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitation can only be avoided under a combination of In-rich and Zn-rich conditions. These findings suggest that unintentional In adlayers may form during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on indium-bonded substrates.

  3. Occult Purulent Pericarditis Detected by Indium-111 Leukocyte Imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Mark L.; Niebulski, Harvey I. J; Uretsky, Barry F.; Salerni, Rosemarie; Klein, Herbert A.; Forstate, William J.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Leukocyte imaging with indium-111 is-a relatively new technique which, to this point in time, has been discussed almost exclusively in the radiologic literature. Although this procedure has been used mainly to detect intra-abdominal infection, the thorax is routinely imaged along with the abdomen, and therefore detection of cardiac disease may be feasible. This case report is of a young woman after liver transplantation who developed occult purulent pericarditis initially detected by a leukocyte scan with indium-111. This case demonstrates that striking pericardial uptake on a whole-body indium-111 leukocyte scan can occur with purulent pericarditis, and it reemphasizes how insidiously purulent pericarditis may present in an immunosuppressed patient. PMID:6370622

  4. Indium oxide inverse opal films synthesized by structure replication method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrehn, Sabrina; Berghoff, Daniel; Nikitin, Andreas; Reichelt, Matthias; Wu, Xia; Meier, Torsten; Wagner, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    We present the synthesis of indium oxide (In2O3) inverse opal films with photonic stop bands in the visible range by a structure replication method. Artificial opal films made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) spheres are utilized as template. The opal films are deposited via sedimentation facilitated by ultrasonication, and then impregnated by indium nitrate solution, which is thermally converted to In2O3 after drying. The quality of the resulting inverse opal film depends on many parameters; in this study the water content of the indium nitrate/PMMA composite after drying is investigated. Comparison of the reflectance spectra recorded by vis-spectroscopy with simulated data shows a good agreement between the peak position and calculated stop band positions for the inverse opals. This synthesis is less complex and highly efficient compared to most other techniques and is suitable for use in many applications.

  5. Graphs for Isotopes of 97-Bk (Berkelium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 97-Bk (Berkelium, atomic number Z = 97).

  6. STS-97 Pilot Bloomfield DEPARTs for Houston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    After a night's rest and a brief press conference at KSC, STS-97 Pilot Michael Bloomfield heads for the plane at the Shuttle Landing Facility. With him are his wife (right) and daughter (left). They and other crew members and their families are returning to Houston. Mission STS-97 ended on Dec. 11, 2000, with a landing at KSC at 6:04 p.m. EST.

  7. Electroluminescence Studies on Longwavelength Indium Arsenide Quantum Dot Microcavities Grown on Gallium Arsenide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONG WAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE THESIS John C...11-46 ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONGWAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE THESIS...58 1 ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONGWAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE I

  8. The Availability of Indium: The Present, Medium Term, and Long Term

    SciTech Connect

    Lokanc, Martin; Eggert, Roderick; Redlinger, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Demand for indium is likely to increase if the growth in deployment of the copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and III-V thin-film photovoltaic technologies accelerates. There are concerns about indium supply constraints since it is relatively rare element in the earth's crust and because it is produced exclusively as a byproduct.

  9. Diffusion parameters of indium for silicon process modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilyalli, I. C.; Rich, T. L.; Stevie, F. A.; Rafferty, C. S.

    1996-11-01

    The diffusion parameters of indium in silicon are investigated. Systematic diffusion experiments in dry oxidizing ambients at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1050 °C are conducted using silicon wafers implanted with indium. Secondary-ion-mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to analyze the dopant distribution before and after heat treatment. The oxidation-enhanced diffusion parameter [R. B. Fair, in Semiconductor Materials and Process Technology Handbook, edited by G. E. McGuire (Noyes, Park Ridge, NJ, 1988); A. M. R. Lin, D. A. Antoniadis, and R. W. Dutton, J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid-State Sci. Technol. 128, 1131 (1981); D. A. Antoniadis and I. Moskowitz, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 9214 (1982)] and the segregation coefficient at the Si/SiO2 interface [R. B. Fair and J. C. C. Tsai, J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid-State Sci. Technol. 125, 2050 (1978)] (ratio of indium concentration in silicon to that in silicon dioxide) are extracted as a function of temperature using SIMS depth profiles and the silicon process simulator PROPHET [M. Pinto, D. M. Boulin, C. S. Rafferty, R. K. Smith, W. M. Coughran, I. C. Kizilyalli, and M. J. Thoma, in IEDM Technical Digest, 1992, p. 923]. It is observed that the segregation coefficient of indium at the Si/SiO2 interface is mIn≪1, similar to boron; however, unlike boron, the segregation coefficient of indium at the Si/SiO2 interface decreases with increasing temperature. Extraction results are summarized in analytical forms suitable for incorporation into other silicon process simulators. Finally, the validity of the extracted parameters is verified by comparing the simulated and measured SIMS profiles for an indium implanted buried-channel p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor [I. C. Kizilyalli, F. A. Stevie, and J. D. Bude, IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1996)] process that involves a gate oxidation and various other thermal processes.

  10. Uptake of indium-111-labeled leukocytes by brain metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, S.; Husain, M.M.; Adametz, J.R.; Pallin, J.S.; Angtuaco, T.L.; Boyd, C.M.

    1987-04-01

    Uptake of indium-labeled leukocytes was seen in two cases of histologically proven brain metastasis. In one, this led to misdiagnosis of the lesion as an abscess. On histological evaluation, a large number of white blood cells or macrophages was seen at the neoplastic sites. Reasons for leukocyte accumulation around metastatic brain neoplasms are discussed. In contrast to the current reports that indium-labeled leukocyte scans can differentiate intracranial infection from tumor, these cases demonstrate their lack of specificity in the detection of brain abscess.

  11. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huaming E-mail: mo.li@gatech.edu; Li, Mo E-mail: mo.li@gatech.edu; Sun, Yongli

    2015-09-15

    We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  12. Method for labelling leucocytes with indium In-111 oxine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, D.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes an improved method for radio-labelling leucocytes with Indium In-111 oxine. It comprises separating the leucocytes from whole blood for obtaining separated leucocytes mixed with residual red blood cells; and then labelling the separated leucocytes with Indium In-111 oxine; wherein the improvement comprises the following further step: depleting residual red blood cells from the separated leucocytes by resuspending the leucocytes in an isotonic saline solution, then rocking the resuspended leucocytes for causing the leucocytes to preferentially settle out, and then removing residual red blood cells which remain suspended within the supernatant isotonic saline solution.

  13. Study of electrical resistivity of lithium-indium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Gyanesh; Katyal, O. P.

    1984-12-01

    Experimental results are presented on the electrical resistivity of lithium-indium films. The resistivity has been studied as a function of temperature (150-300 K), thickness of the films (570-3300 Å) and concentration of Li (11.0-58.7 at. %). The resistivity is observed to be minimum for samples having a Li concentration of 25 and 50 at. %. In general, resistivity varies linearly with temperature but resistivity versus temperature plot shows two distinct regions which have different slopes, i.e., dρ/dT. The role of lithium in indium-lithium films is discussed.

  14. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in Workers at an Indium Processing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Donat, Walter E.; Ettensohn, David B.; Roggli, Victor L.; Ingram, Peter; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, including one death, occurred in workers at a facility producing indium-tin oxide (ITO), a compound used in recent years to make flat panel displays. Both workers were exposed to airborne ITO dust and had indium in lung tissue specimens. One worker was tested for autoantibodies to granulocytemacrophage–colonystimulating factor (GM-CSF) and found to have an elevated level. These cases suggest that inhalational exposure to ITO causes pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, which may occur via an autoimmune mechanism. PMID:20019344

  15. Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide heterojunction nanowire array solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Masatoshi Nakai, Eiji; Fukui, Takashi; Tomioka, Katsuhiro

    2013-12-09

    Heterojunction solar cells were formed with a position-controlled InP nanowire array sputtered with indium tin oxide (ITO). The ITO not only acted as a transparent electrode but also as forming a photovoltaic junction. The devices exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.436 V, short-circuit current of 24.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 0.682, giving a power conversion efficiency of 7.37% under AM1.5 G illumination. The internal quantum efficiency of the device was higher than that of the world-record InP cell in the short wavelength range.

  16. Deep Subgap Feature in Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide. Evidence Against Reduced Indium

    SciTech Connect

    Sallis, Shawn; Quackenbush, Nicholas F.; Williams, Deborah S.; Senger, Mikell; Woicik, Joseph C.; White, Bruce E.; Piper, Louis F.

    2015-01-14

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) is the archetypal transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor. In spite of the gains made with a-IGZO over amorphous silicon in the last decade, the presence of deep subgap states in a-IGZO active layers facilitate instabilities in thin film transistor properties under negative bias illumination stress. Several candidates could contribute to the formation of states within the band gap. We present evidence against In+ lone pair active electrons as the origin of the deep subgap features. No In+ species are observed, only In0 nano-crystallites under certain oxygen deficient growth conditions. Our results further support under coordinated oxygen as the source of the deep subgap states.

  17. Oxygen solubility in liquid indium and oxygen diffusivity in liquid indium and tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Shinya; Kozuka, Zensaku; Chang, Y. Austin

    1984-06-01

    The solubility of oxygen in liquid indium, Co, at 973 and 1073 K in equilibrium with its oxide was determined by an isopiestic equilibration technique in order to resolve discrepancies reported in the literature. The present results, Co = 0.0092 at. pet at 973 K and 0.0377 at. pet at 1073 K, agree with those obtained by Otsuka, Sano, and Kozuka using a modified coulometric titration method. Oxygen diffusivity in liquid indium from 873 to 1073 K and in liquid tin from 973 to 1273 K was measured utilizing a combined potentiostatic and emf method using the following double electrochemical cells: Fe,FeO/ZrO2(+CaO)/O in Me(I)/ZrO2(+CaO)/O in Me(II). The present results are DO(In) = 6.6 ({-1.6/+2.0}) x 10-3 exp[(-3-600 ± 5600)/RT]873 K ≤ T ≤ 1073 K and DO(Sn), = 8.7({-5.7/+13.5}) x 10-4 exp[(-18800 ± 6700)/RT]973 K ≤ T ≤ 1273 K. The present results are of the same order of magnitude with the self-diffusivity of the liquid metals, and are about two orders of magnitude greater than the oxygen diffusivity reported by Stevenson and co-workers. The ratio of oxygen diffusivity to self-diffusivity of the solvent was found to be correlated to the enthalpy of formation per mole of oxygen of the respective oxide at 298 K.

  18. Platelet labelling with indium-hydroxypyridinone and indium-hydroxypyranone complexes.

    PubMed

    Abeysinghe, R D; Ellis, B L; Porter, J B

    1994-10-01

    In order to identify new compounds which label platelets without affecting their function, three classes of metal chelating agents have been compared with oxine for their efficiency of indium-113m platelet labelling and for their short- and long-term effects on platelet function. The 3-hydroxypyridinones (both 2-ones and 4-ones) and 3-hydroxypyranones are bidentate chelators of trivalent metal ions that are neutrally charged in the metal-complexed form and hence gain access to cells readily. The hydroxypyranone ethylmaltol has been compared with the 3-hydroxypyridin-4-one CP94 and to its structurally related lipophilic analogue CP25 as well as with the 3-hydroxypyridin-2-one, CP02. The platelet labelling efficiencies with these ligands were between 75% and 95% of that obtained with oxine, following a 12-min incubation in saline. The optimal concentration for the hydroxypyridin-2-ones and hydroxypyridin-4-ones was approximately 10 microM compared with 100 microM for the hydroxypyranone ethylmaltol and 60 microM for oxine. Oxine and tropolone were found to produce significant inhibition of platelet aggregation to collagen in short-term experiments (10 min) or in longer term (18 and 42 h) ex vivo platelet cultures respectively. By contrast, ethylmaltol had no such inhibitory effects at either time interval. The relatively hydrophilic hydroxypyridin-4-one CP94 showed no inhibitory effects on collagen-induced aggregation in short-term studies, unlike the more lipid-soluble derivative CP25. These results suggest that ethylmaltol and related pyranones may have advantages over oxine and tropolone as indium platelet labelling agents where it is important not to damage platelets by the labelling process itself.

  19. High levels of indium exposure relate to progressive emphysematous changes: a 9-year longitudinal surveillance of indium workers.

    PubMed

    Amata, Atsuko; Chonan, Tatsuya; Omae, Kazuyuki; Nodera, Hiroshi; Terada, Jiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2015-11-01

    During the last decade it has been clarified that the inhalation of indium compounds can evoke alveolar proteinosis, cholesterol granuloma, pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the characteristics and time course of pulmonary disorders among indium workers using comprehensive pulmonary examinations at an indium-processing factory. Data for 84 male workers who underwent the examinations for nine consecutive years from 2002 to 2010 were analysed regarding their symptoms, serum indium concentration (sIn), serum markers of interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary function test parameters and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of the lungs. In association with improvements in the work environment and work practice, the sIn levels decreased with significant reductions in the KL-6 and surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels. Regarding the HRCT findings, the interstitial lesions regressed partially, whereas emphysematous lesions increased progressively in the workers with high sIn values. FEV1/FVC decreased with the years and the rate of decrease was significantly greater in those with high sIn. The biological half-life of sIn was estimated to be 8.09 years. The present findings suggest that the sIn, SP-D, KL-6 levels and radiological interstitial changes can be reduced in indium workers by alleviating exposure to indium, whereas emphysematous lesions can progress among those with a history of heavy exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Effect of Indium on the Superconducting Transition Temperature of Tin Telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Tranquada, John; Gu, Genda

    2013-03-01

    Indium-doped tin telluride is one of the most appealing topological superconductors. We have grown a series of Sn1-xInxTe crystals with different indium concentrations (0.1 <=x <=1.0). The results show indium doping improves the superconducting transition temperature significantly and is highly related to the indium concentration. The maximum Tc of indium-doped tin telluride polycrystalline is 4.5K for x =0.4. Single crystals of Sn1-xInxTe were also grown by the floating zone method, and their magnetic properties were characterized.

  1. Electrochemical synthesis of indium(0) nanoparticles in haloindate(III) ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Estager, Julien; Nockemann, Peter; Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2012-01-09

    A synthetic route to indium(0) nanoparticles via an electrochemical reduction of haloindate(III) ionic liquids to indium(I), and its subsequent disproportionation to indium(0) and indium(III) in the bulk electrolyte, is described. In this sustainable method, the ionic liquid acts simultaneously as metal source, templating agent, and stabilising agent, with the electron as the only reducing agent. The nature of the ionic liquid cation is demonstrated to strongly affect the morphology and size distribution of the indium(0) nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Use of indium-111-labeled cells in measurement of cellular dynamics of experimental cardiac allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Oluwole, S.; Wang, T.; Fawwaz, R.; Satake, K.; Nowygrod, R.; Reemtsma, K.; Hardy, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    This study evaluates the kinetics and utility of infused indium-111-labeled cells in detecting rejection in ACI to Lewis rat heart allografts. Syngeneic leukocytes, lymph node lymphocytes, and platelets were isolated and labeled with indium-111 (/sup 111/In) oxine, respectively, and were infused i.v. into Lewis rats carrying beating ACI or syngeneic hearts from post-transplant days 0 to 6. Recipients were imaged serially at 24 hr after infusion of labeled cells followed by excision of both native and transplanted hearts for direct isotope count. Labeled leukocytes accumulative progressively in the allograft with the scan becoming positive by post-transplant day 4. The ratio of allograft to native heart isotope counts rose from 1.25 on day 1 to 10.07 (P less than 0.0001) on day 7. The Lewis recipients infused with labeled lymphocytes showed a positive scan on days 6 and 7 whereas the allograft to native heart isotope count ratio rose from 0.97 on day 1 to 5.33 (P less than 0.001) on day 7. Recipients infused with /sup 111/In-labeled platelets showed a positive scan on days 5 to 7 and the allograft to native heart isotope count ratio rose sharply from 2.56 on day 4 to 16.98 (P less than 0.005) on day 7. Syngeneic heart grafts failed to demonstrate significant accumulation of any of the labeled cell population. These studies confirm the importance of nonlymphocytic cells in cellular rejection, evaluate the kinetics of graft invasion by the various cell types, and suggest that the techniques used afford a method for a safe and an early detection of allograft rejection.

  3. Indium segregation measured in InGaN quantum well layer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhen; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Wenxin; Cheng, Liwen; Li, Wei; Lu, Wei; Jia, Haiqiang; Liu, Wuming; Zhou, Junming; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The indium segregation in InGaN well layer is confirmed by a nondestructive combined method of experiment and numerical simulation, which is beyond the traditional method. The pre-deposited indium atoms before InGaN well layer growth are first carried out to prevent indium atoms exchange between the subsurface layer and the surface layer, which results from the indium segregation. The uniform spatial distribution of indium content is achieved in each InGaN well layer, as long as indium pre-deposition is sufficient. According to the consistency of the experiment and numerical simulation, the indium content increases from 16% along the growth direction and saturates at 19% in the upper interface, which cannot be determined precisely by the traditional method. PMID:25339386

  4. Platinum-, rhenium-, indium-containing catalysts for conversion of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Antos, G.J.; Wang, L.

    1986-12-16

    A process is described for the catalytic reforming of naphtha-boiling range charge stock at reforming conditions with a catalytic composite comprising: (a) a refractory inorganic oxide; (b) a first uniform dispersion of a platinum component and a rhenium component; (c) a second dispersion of an indium component thereover; (d) a halogen component; and (e) a sulfur component.

  5. p-type conduction in sputtered indium oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Alcala, Rafael; Villuendas, Francisco

    2010-05-10

    We report p-type conductivity in intrinsic indium oxide (IO) films deposited by magnetron sputtering on fused quartz substrates under oxygen-rich ambient. Highly oriented (111) films were studied by x-ray diffraction, optical absorption, and Hall effect measurements. We fabricated p-n homojunctions on these films.

  6. A New Technique for Wirebonding Using Indium Spheres

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A new technique has been developed for wirebonding mercury ...the MCT material under gold wirebonding pads due to force and ultrasonic power needed in wirebonding. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Wirebonding indium, Mercury ... mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) devices has been developed. Gold ball wirebonding to MCT devices is challenging. The act of applying force and

  7. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  8. Visible light electroluminescent diodes of indium-gallium phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, R.; Richman, D.; Tietjen, J.

    1970-01-01

    Vapor deposition and acceptor impurity diffusion techniques are used to prepare indium-gallium phosphide junctions. Certain problems in preparation are overcome by altering gas flow conditions and by increasing the concentration of phosphine in the gas. A general formula is given for the alloy's composition.

  9. [The clinical features of indium-related lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Guo, Kongrong; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Daoyuan

    2015-08-01

    To discuss the clinical features of Indium-related lung diseases. We searched database of Chinese and Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science to collect research data of indium-related lung diseases from Jan. 1998 to Aprl. 2014. Case reports, exposure histories and lab results were analysed and summarized. 1998 to Mar 2010, ten cases of indium-related lung diseases were published. Seven cases of interstitial pneumonia were reported in Japan, two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) were reported in the USA and one case of PAP reported in China. Chest computer tomography (CT) showed diffuse or local ground glass appearance (GGA) in 8 cases, 3 of which also showed centrilobular nodules; Pulmonary function test were normal only in one out of 8 cases. Cholesterol clefts were found in 4 cases of interstitial pneumonia. 3 cases died among 6 cases who were followed-up. Occupational exposure to indium compounds are contributory to different pulmonary diseases, which are composed of interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. The relationships between In-C, In-S and these pulmonary diseases are unclear.

  10. Sub-micronewton thrust measurements of indium field emission thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of three indium field emission thrusters (In-FETs) developed by the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf (ARCS) have been measured up to 200 muN, 2 mA, and 20 W using a submicronewton resolution thrust stand.

  11. Sub-micronewton thrust measurements of indium field emission thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of three indium field emission thrusters (In-FETs) developed by the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf (ARCS) have been measured up to 200 muN, 2 mA, and 20 W using a submicronewton resolution thrust stand.

  12. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  13. Inhibitors of the AAA+ Chaperone p97

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Eli; Maksim, Nick; de la Cruz, Fabian; La Clair, James J.

    2015-01-01

    It is remarkable that a pathway as ubiquitous as protein quality control can be targeted to treat cancer. Bortezomib, an inhibitor of the proteasome, was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) more than 10 years ago to treat refractory myeloma and later extended to lymphoma. Its use has increased the survival rate of myeloma patients by as much as three years. This success was followed with the recent accelerated approval of the natural product derived proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (Kyprolis®), which is used to treat patients with bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma. The success of these two drugs has validated protein quality control as a viable target to fight select cancers, but begs the question why are proteasome inhibitors limited to lymphoma and myeloma? More recently, these limitations have encouraged the search for additional targets within the protein quality control system that might offer heightened cancer cell specificity, enhanced clinical utility, a lower rate of resistance, reduced toxicity, and mitigated side effects. One promising target is p97, an ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) chaperone. p97 figures prominently in protein quality control as well as serving a variety of other cellular functions associated with cancer. More than a decade ago, it was determined that up-regulation of p97 in many forms of cancer correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Since these initial discoveries, a mechanistic explanation for this observation has been partially illuminated, but details are lacking. Understandably, given this clinical correlation, myriad roles within the cell, and its importance in protein quality control, p97 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. This review provides an overview of efforts towards the discovery of small molecule inhibitors of p97, offering a synopsis of efforts that parallel the excellent reviews that currently exist on p97 structure, function, and physiology. PMID

  14. Inhibitors of the AAA+ chaperone p97.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Eli; Maksim, Nick; de la Cruz, Fabian; La Clair, James J

    2015-02-12

    It is remarkable that a pathway as ubiquitous as protein quality control can be targeted to treat cancer. Bortezomib, an inhibitor of the proteasome, was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) more than 10 years ago to treat refractory myeloma and later extended to lymphoma. Its use has increased the survival rate of myeloma patients by as much as three years. This success was followed with the recent accelerated approval of the natural product derived proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (Kyprolis®), which is used to treat patients with bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma. The success of these two drugs has validated protein quality control as a viable target to fight select cancers, but begs the question why are proteasome inhibitors limited to lymphoma and myeloma? More recently, these limitations have encouraged the search for additional targets within the protein quality control system that might offer heightened cancer cell specificity, enhanced clinical utility, a lower rate of resistance, reduced toxicity, and mitigated side effects. One promising target is p97, an ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) chaperone. p97 figures prominently in protein quality control as well as serving a variety of other cellular functions associated with cancer. More than a decade ago, it was determined that up-regulation of p97 in many forms of cancer correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Since these initial discoveries, a mechanistic explanation for this observation has been partially illuminated, but details are lacking. Understandably, given this clinical correlation, myriad roles within the cell, and its importance in protein quality control, p97 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. This review provides an overview of efforts towards the discovery of small molecule inhibitors of p97, offering a synopsis of efforts that parallel the excellent reviews that currently exist on p97 structure, function, and physiology.

  15. STS-97 ascent team in WFCR

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-20

    JSC2000-07294 (20 November 2000) --- The 40-odd flight controllers assigned to the STS-97 ascent team and some special guests pose for a group portrait in the shuttle flight control room in Houston's Mission Control Center (JSC). The five guests attired in the blue and white shirts are the flight crew members for the STS-97 crew, scheduled to be launched from Florida on the last day of this month. The astronauts are, from the left, Joseph R. Tanner, Carlos I. Noriega, Brent W. Jett, Jr., Michael J. Bloomfield and Marc Garneau, who represents the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). Ascent shift flight director Wayne Hale stands next to Tanner.

  16. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels.

    PubMed

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana; Ubaldini, Stefano; De Michelis, Ida; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2M sulfuric acid at 80°C for 10min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85-90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50-55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO2 (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90kg CO2-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium. This new strategy represents a useful approach for secondary production of indium from waste LCD panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of and occupational exposure to indium in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hines, Cynthia J; Roberts, Jennifer L; Andrews, Ronnee N; Jackson, Matthew V; Deddens, James A

    2013-01-01

    Indium use has increased greatly in the past decade in parallel with the growth of flat-panel displays, touchscreens, optoelectronic devices, and photovoltaic cells. Much of this growth has been in the use of indium tin oxide (ITO). This increased use has resulted in more frequent and intense exposure of workers to indium. Starting with case reports and followed by epidemiological studies, exposure to ITO has been linked to serious and sometimes fatal lung disease in workers. Much of this research was conducted in facilities that process sintered ITO, including manufacture, grinding, and indium reclamation from waste material. Little has been known about indium exposure to workers in downstream applications. In 2009-2011, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) contacted 89 potential indium-using companies; 65 (73%) responded, and 43 of the 65 responders used an indium material. Our objective was to identify current workplace applications of indium materials, tasks with potential indium exposure, and exposure controls being used. Air sampling for indium was either conducted by NIOSH or companies provided their data for a total of 63 air samples (41 personal, 22 area) across 10 companies. Indium exposure exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m(3) for certain methods of resurfacing ITO sputter targets, cleaning sputter chamber interiors, and in manufacturing some inorganic indium compounds. Indium air concentrations were low in sputter target bonding with indium solder, backside thinning and polishing of fabricated indium phosphide-based semiconductor devices, metal alloy production, and in making indium-based solder pastes. Exposure controls such as containment, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and tool-mounted LEV can be effective at reducing exposure. In conclusion, occupational hygienists should be aware that the manufacture and use of indium materials can result in indium air concentrations that exceed the NIOSH

  18. Use of and Occupational Exposure to Indium in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Cynthia J.; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Andrews, Ronnee N.; Jackson, Matthew V.; Deddens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Indium use has increased greatly in the past decade in parallel with the growth of flat-panel displays, touchscreens, optoelectronic devices, and photovoltaic cells. Much of this growth has been in the use of indium tin oxide (ITO). This increased use has resulted in more frequent and intense exposure of workers to indium. Starting with case reports and followed by epidemiological studies, exposure to ITO has been linked to serious and sometimes fatal lung disease in workers. Much of this research was conducted in facilities that process sintered ITO, including manufacture, grinding, and indium reclamation from waste material. Little has been known about indium exposure to workers in downstream applications. In 2009–2011, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) contacted 89 potential indium-using companies; 65 (73%) responded, and 43 of the 65 responders used an indium material. Our objective was to identify current workplace applications of indium materials, tasks with potential indium exposure, and exposure controls being used. Air sampling for indium was either conducted by NIOSH or companies provided their data for a total of 63 air samples (41 personal, 22 area) across 10 companies. Indium exposure exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m3 for certain methods of resurfacing ITO sputter targets, cleaning sputter chamber interiors, and in manufacturing some inorganic indium compounds. Indium air concentrations were low in sputter target bonding with indium solder, backside thinning and polishing of fabricated indium phosphide-based semiconductor devices, metal alloy production, and in making indium-based solder pastes. Exposure controls such as containment, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and tool-mounted LEV can be effective at reducing exposure. In conclusion, occupational hygienists should be aware that the manufacture and use of indium materials can result in indium air concentrations that exceed the NIOSH

  19. Optimization of Indium Bump Morphology for Improved Flip Chip Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Todd J.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Blazejewski, Edward; Dickie, Matthew R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Greer, Harold F.

    2011-01-01

    Flip-chip hybridization, also known as bump bonding, is a packaging technique for microelectronic devices that directly connects an active element or detector to a substrate readout face-to-face, eliminating the need for wire bonding. In order to make conductive links between the two parts, a solder material is used between the bond pads on each side. Solder bumps, composed of indium metal, are typically deposited by thermal evaporation onto the active regions of the device and substrate. While indium bump technology has been a part of the electronic interconnect process field for many years and has been extensively employed in the infrared imager industry, obtaining a reliable, high-yield process for high-density patterns of bumps can be quite difficult. Under the right conditions, a moderate hydrogen plasma exposure can raise the temperature of the indium bump to the point where it can flow. This flow can result in a desirable shape where indium will efficiently wet the metal contact pad to provide good electrical contact to the underlying readout or imager circuit. However, it is extremely important to carefully control this process as the intensity of the hydrogen plasma treatment dramatically affects the indium bump morphology. To ensure the fine-tuning of this reflow process, it is necessary to have realtime feedback on the status of the bumps. With an appropriately placed viewport in a plasma chamber, one can image a small field (a square of approximately 5 millimeters on each side) of the bumps (10-20 microns in size) during the hydrogen plasma reflow process. By monitoring the shape of the bumps in real time using a video camera mounted to a telescoping 12 magnifying zoom lens and associated optical elements, an engineer can precisely determine when the reflow of the bumps has occurred, and can shut off the plasma before evaporation or de-wetting takes place.

  20. Plasmonic and Superconducting Self-Assembled MBE Grown Indium Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Ricky Dean, Jr.

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown metal has been a renewed area of interest recently in order to achieve high quality metal films or nanostructures for plasmonics. Recently MBE grown silver films have been shown to possess optical constants closer to that of intrinsic silver leading to lower losses and thus allowing for higher quality plasmonics. MBE has also been used to grow silver nanocrystals and indium droplets, or islands, for plasmonics. These self-assembled nanostructures can be grown in close proximity to quantum confined structures such as InAs/GaAs quantum dots or InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells in a single process, without post-processing and fabrication, allowing for increased plasmonic enhancement due to the improved interface between the semiconductor and plasmonic structures. In this dissertation, widely tunable plasmonic resonances of indium islands will be discussed and plasmonic enhancement results will be presented and compared to those of nanoantennas constructed from standard fabrication processes. The coupling between near-surface quantum confined structures, both fabricated and self-assembled, will be compared to the coupling in typical dielectric cavities, such as photonic crystal nanobeams. Beyond the plasmonic possibilities of indium islands, indium becomes superconducting at 3.4 K. With the proximity effect allowing for electrons in materials in contact with a superconductor to occupy a superconducting like state, allowing for the possibility for a hybrid superconductor/semiconductor optical source. The observation of superconductivity in indium islands will be presented and considerations for a superconductor/semiconductor source will be discussed.

  1. Plasma Treatment to Remove Carbon from Indium UV Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Harold F.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Beasley, Matthew; Gantner, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    The sounding rocket experiment FIRE (Far-ultraviolet Imaging Rocket Experiment) will improve the science community fs ability to image a spectral region hitherto unexplored astronomically. The imaging band of FIRE (.900 to 1,100 Angstroms) will help fill the current wavelength imaging observation hole existing from approximately equal to 620 Angstroms to the GALEX band near 1,350 Angstroms. FIRE is a single-optic prime focus telescope with a 1.75-m focal length. The bandpass of 900 to 1100 Angstroms is set by a combination of the mirror coating, the indium filter in front of the detector, and the salt coating on the front of the detector fs microchannel plates. Critical to this is the indium filter that must reduce the flux from Lymanalpha at 1,216 Angstroms by a minimum factor of 10(exp -4). The cost of this Lyman-alpha removal is that the filter is not fully transparent at the desired wavelengths of 900 to 1,100 Angstroms. Recently, in a project to improve the performance of optical and solar blind detectors, JPL developed a plasma process capable of removing carbon contamination from indium metal. In this work, a low-power, low-temperature hydrogen plasma reacts with the carbon contaminants in the indium to form methane, but leaves the indium metal surface undisturbed. This process was recently tested in a proof-of-concept experiment with a filter provided by the University of Colorado. This initial test on a test filter showed improvement in transmission from 7 to 9 percent near 900 with no process optimization applied. Further improvements in this performance were readily achieved to bring the total transmission to 12% with optimization to JPL's existing process.

  2. Pulmonary toxicity in mice by 2- and 13-week inhalation exposures to indium-tin oxide and indium oxide aerosols.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kasuke; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Eitaki, Yoko; Ohnishi, Makoto; Noguchi, Tadashi; Arito, Heihachiro; Fukushima, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation toxicities of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) in mice were characterized in comparison with those previously reported in rats. B6C3F(1) mice of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to ITO or IO aerosol for 6 h/day, 5 day/wk for 2 wk at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 mg/m(3) or 13 wk at 0, 0.1or 1 mg/m(3). ITO and IO particles were deposited in the lung, mediastinal lymph node (MLN) and nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Alveolar proteinosis, infiltrations of alveolar macrophages and inflammatory cells and increased lung weight were induced by 2- and 13-week exposures to ITO and IO, while alveolar epithelial hyperplasia occurred only in the 2-week exposures. Thickened pleural wall, hyperplastic MLN, extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and increased levels of erythrocyte parameters were induced by 13-week exposure to ITO. The ITO- and IO-induced pulmonary lesions were milder in mice than those previously reported in rats, and the fibrotic lesions were different between these two species. Indium levels in the lung and pooled blood were analyzed in the mice exposed to ITO and IO for 13 wk. In the 13-week inhalation exposure of mice to ITO, alveolar proteinosis and significantly increased lung weight were induced at the same exposure concentration as the current threshold limit value for indium and its compounds.

  3. 40 CFR 97.170 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... owner or operator shall record, report, and quality-assure the data from the monitoring systems under... 97.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Monitoring and Reporting §...

  4. 40 CFR 97.270 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section; and (3) Record, report, and quality-assure the data from the monitoring systems under paragraph... record, report, and quality-assure the data from the monitoring systems under paragraph (a)(1) of this... 97.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  5. 19 CFR 4.97 - Salvage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... United States and Great Britain ‘concerning reciprocal rights for United States and Canada in the... Great Britain signed on May 18, 1908, 134 or by section 725, title 46, United States Code. 135 If any... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.97 Salvage vessels. (a) Only a vessel of the United...

  6. 34 CFR 97.409 - Wards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.409 Wards. (a) Children who are wards of the State or any other agency..., or similar settings in which the majority of children involved as subjects are not wards. (b)...

  7. 50 CFR 648.97 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.97 Closed areas. (a) Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area. No fishing vessel or person on a fishing vessel may enter, fish, or be in the area known as Oceanographer Canyon... monkfish DAS: Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area Point N. Lat. W. Long. (1) OC1 40°10′ 68°12′ (2) OC2 40°24...

  8. 50 CFR 648.97 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.97 Closed areas. (a) Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area. No fishing vessel or person on a fishing vessel may enter, fish, or be in the area known as Oceanographer Canyon... monkfish DAS: Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area Point N. Lat. W. Long. (1) OC1 40°10′ 68°12′ (2) OC2 40°24...

  9. 50 CFR 648.97 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.97 Closed areas. (a) Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area. No fishing vessel or person on a fishing vessel may enter, fish, or be in the area known as Oceanographer Canyon... monkfish DAS: Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area Point N. Lat. W. Long. (1) OC1 40°10′ 68°12′ (2) OC2 40°24...

  10. 40 CFR 97.273 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... unit that commences commercial operation before July 1, 2008, the calendar quarter covering January 1, 2009 through March 31, 2009; (ii) For a unit that commences commercial operation on or after July 1... applicable deadline for initial certification under § 97.270(b), unless that quarter is the third or fourth...

  11. 40 CFR 97.273 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... unit that commences commercial operation before July 1, 2008, the calendar quarter covering January 1, 2009 through March 31, 2009; (ii) For a unit that commences commercial operation on or after July 1... applicable deadline for initial certification under § 97.270(b), unless that quarter is the third or fourth...

  12. 46 CFR 111.97-7 - Distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-7 Distribution. (a) Each distribution... locking. (b) Each feeder supplying a watertight door operating system must be above the uppermost continuous deck. (c) Each watertight door operating system must have a separate branch circuit. ...

  13. 46 CFR 111.97-7 - Distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-7 Distribution. (a) Each distribution... locking. (b) Each feeder supplying a watertight door operating system must be above the uppermost continuous deck. (c) Each watertight door operating system must have a separate branch circuit. ...

  14. 50 CFR 648.97 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.97 Closed areas. (a) Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area. No fishing vessel or person on a fishing vessel may enter, fish, or be in the area known as Oceanographer Canyon... monkfish DAS: Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area Point N. Lat. W. Long. (1) OC1 40°10′ 68°12′ (2) OC2 40°24...

  15. 50 CFR 648.97 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.97 Closed areas. (a) Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area. No fishing vessel or person on a fishing vessel may enter, fish, or be in the area known as Oceanographer Canyon... monkfish DAS: Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area Point N. Lat. W. Long. (1) OC1 40°10′ 68°12′ (2) OC2 40°24...

  16. 7 CFR 97.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plants. Each certificate of plant variety protection certifies that the breeder has the right, during the..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Scope § 97.1 General. Certificates of protection are issued by the Plant Variety...

  17. 21 CFR 808.97 - Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.97 Washington. (a) The following Washington medical device requirement...

  18. 21 CFR 808.97 - Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.97 Washington. (a) The following Washington medical device requirement...

  19. 29 CFR 97.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General § 97.3 Definitions. As used in this part: Accrued expenditures mean the... through the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Government means a State or local government or a federally... government means a county, municipality, city, town, township, local public authority (including any public...

  20. 29 CFR 97.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General § 97.3 Definitions. As used in this part: Accrued expenditures mean the... through the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Government means a State or local government or a federally... government means a county, municipality, city, town, township, local public authority (including any public...

  1. 29 CFR 97.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General § 97.3 Definitions. As used in this part: Accrued expenditures mean the... through the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Government means a State or local government or a federally... government means a county, municipality, city, town, township, local public authority (including any public...

  2. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary...

  3. 47 CFR 97.121 - Restricted operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.121 Restricted operation. (a) If the operation of an amateur... characteristics, are used to receive such transmissions, and this fact is made known to the amateur station...

  4. 47 CFR 97.121 - Restricted operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.121 Restricted operation. (a) If the operation of an amateur... characteristics, are used to receive such transmissions, and this fact is made known to the amateur station...

  5. 47 CFR 97.121 - Restricted operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.121 Restricted operation. (a) If the operation of an amateur... characteristics, are used to receive such transmissions, and this fact is made known to the amateur station...

  6. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A holder...

  7. 47 CFR 97.121 - Restricted operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.121 Restricted operation. (a) If the operation of an amateur... characteristics, are used to receive such transmissions, and this fact is made known to the amateur station...

  8. 47 CFR 97.121 - Restricted operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.121 Restricted operation. (a) If the operation of an amateur... characteristics, are used to receive such transmissions, and this fact is made known to the amateur station...

  9. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A holder...

  10. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A holder...

  11. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A holder...

  12. WTCS Transfer Information, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    This document presents the annual headcount statistics on students transferring from the University of Wisconsin (UW) to the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) during the academic year 1996-97. It includes a summary narrative description of data, technical colleges accepting UW credits, demographic characteristics of transfer students, and…

  13. 46 CFR 111.97-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-1 Applicability. This subpart applies to electric power-operated watertight door systems required under Subpart H of Part 170 of this chapter....

  14. 46 CFR 111.97-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-1 Applicability. This subpart applies to electric power-operated watertight door systems required under Subpart H of Part 170 of this chapter....

  15. 46 CFR 111.97-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-1 Applicability. This subpart applies to electric power-operated watertight door systems required under Subpart H of Part 170 of this chapter....

  16. 46 CFR 111.97-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-1 Applicability. This subpart applies to electric power-operated watertight door systems required under Subpart H of Part 170 of this chapter....

  17. 29 CFR 97.30 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... written approval of the awarding agency. (b) Relation to cost principles. The applicable cost principles.... (3) Changes in key persons in cases where specified in an application or a grant award. In research... revision. (2) A request for a prior approval under the applicable Federal cost principles (see § 97.22)...

  18. 40 CFR 97.206 - Standard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emissions limitation under paragraph (c) of this section. (c) Sulfur dioxide emission requirements. (1) As... in accordance with § 97.254(a) and (b), not less than the tons of total sulfur dioxide emissions for... of this part. (5) A CAIR SO2 allowance is a limited authorization to emit sulfur dioxide in...

  19. 40 CFR 97.206 - Standard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emissions limitation under paragraph (c) of this section. (c) Sulfur dioxide emission requirements. (1) As... in accordance with § 97.254(a) and (b), not less than the tons of total sulfur dioxide emissions for... of this part. (5) A CAIR SO2 allowance is a limited authorization to emit sulfur dioxide in...

  20. 40 CFR 97.206 - Standard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions limitation under paragraph (c) of this section. (c) Sulfur dioxide emission requirements. (1) As... in accordance with § 97.254(a) and (b), not less than the tons of total sulfur dioxide emissions for... of this part. (5) A CAIR SO2 allowance is a limited authorization to emit sulfur dioxide in...