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Sample records for indium borides

  1. Indium

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Indium occurs as a trace constituent of other metal deposits, principally zinc, but also lead, tin, tungsten, and iron. It is derived as a byproduct usually from residues generating in the refining of zinc, so its supply is therefore dependent upon demand for and, hence, the production of that metal. It is estimated that 90% of the U.S. requirements for indium are accounted for by imports of highly refined indium metal or indium-rich residues and other materials, mainly from France, Italy, Belgium, and the United Kingdom. Dependence on foreign sources is expected to continue. The principal producers of refined indium metal are the United States, Belgium, Japan, France, and Italy. The major uses of indium are in alloys and instruments, and the metal has applications in a variety of other fields. There are potential substitutes for indium in many of its applications. Domestic indium demand was estimated at 700,000 troy ounces in 1983. Based on a contingency analysis of the major end uses for indium, the range of possible domestic demands for primary indium in the year 2000 is forecast to be from 500,000 to 1,100,000 ounces. A probable demand of 900,000 ounces represents an annual growth rate of 1.5%. The range of demand forecasts for the rest of the world is between 1.0 million and 1.9 million ounces, with a probable demand of 1.7 million ounces, which represents an annual growth rate of 1.6%.

  2. In{sub 3}Ir{sub 3}B, In{sub 3}Rh{sub 3}B and In{sub 5}Ir{sub 9}B{sub 4}, the first indium platinum metal borides

    SciTech Connect

    Kluenter, Wilhelm; Jung, Walter . E-mail: walter.jung@uni-koeln.de

    2006-09-15

    The first indium platinum metal borides have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction data. In{sub 3}Ir{sub 3}B and In{sub 3}Rh{sub 3}B are isotypic. They crystallize with the hexagonal space group P6-bar 2m and Z=1. The lattice constants are a=685.78(1)pm, c=287.30(1)pm for In{sub 3}Ir{sub 3}B and a=678.47(3)pm, c=288.61(6)pm for In{sub 3}Rh{sub 3}B. The structure which is derived from the Fe{sub 2}P type is characterized by columns of boron centered triangular platinum metal prisms inserted in a three-dimensional indium matrix. The indium atoms are on split positions. In{sub 5}Ir{sub 9}B{sub 4} (hexagonal, space group P6-bar 2m, a=559.0(2)pm, c=1032.6(3)pm, Z=1) crystallizes with a structure derived from the CeCo{sub 3}B{sub 2} type. The structure can be interpreted as a layer as well as a channel structure. In part the indium atoms are arranged at the vertices of a honeycomb net (Schlaefli symbol 6{sup 3}) separating slabs consisting of double layers of triangular Ir{sub 6}B prisms, and in part they form a linear chain in a hexagonal channel formed by iridium prisms and indium atoms of the honeycomb lattice.

  3. Gradient boride layers formed by diffusion carburizing and laser boriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulka, M.; Makuch, N.; Dziarski, P.; Mikołajczak, D.; Przestacki, D.

    2015-04-01

    Laser boriding, instead of diffusion boriding, was proposed to formation of gradient borocarburized layers. The microstructure and properties of these layers were compared to those-obtained after typical diffusion borocarburizing. First method of treatment consists in diffusion carburizing and laser boriding only. In microstructure three zones are present: laser borided zone, hardened carburized zone and carburized layer without heat treatment. However, the violent decrease in the microhardness was observed below the laser borided zone. Additionally, these layers were characterized by a changeable value of mass wear intensity factor thus by a changeable abrasive wear resistance. Although at the beginning of friction the very low values of mass wear intensity factor Imw were obtained, these values increased during the next stages of friction. It can be caused by the fluctuations in the microhardness of the hardened carburized zone (HAZ). The use of through hardening after carburizing and laser boriding eliminated these fluctuations. Two zones characterized the microstructure of this layer: laser borided zone and hardened carburized zone. Mass wear intensity factor obtained a constant value for this layer and was comparable to that-obtained in case of diffusion borocarburizing and through hardening. Therefore, the diffusion boriding could be replaced by the laser boriding, when the high abrasive wear resistance is required. However, the possibilities of application of laser boriding instead of diffusion process were limited. In case of elements, which needed high fatigue strength, the substitution of diffusion boriding by laser boriding was not advisable. The surface cracks formed during laser re-melting were the reason for relatively quickly first fatigue crack. The preheating of the laser treated surface before laser beam action would prevent the surface cracks and cause the improved fatigue strength. Although the cohesion of laser borided carburized layer was

  4. Method for ultra-fast boriding

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sista, Vivekanand; Kahvecioglu, Ozgenur; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent

    2017-01-31

    An article of manufacture and method of forming a borided material. An electrochemical cell is used to process a substrate to deposit a plurality of borided layers on the substrate. The plurality of layers are co-deposited such that a refractory metal boride layer is disposed on a substrate and a rare earth metal boride conforming layer is disposed on the refractory metal boride layer.

  5. Rediscovering the Crystal Chemistry of Borides.

    PubMed

    Akopov, Georgiy; Yeung, Michael T; Kaner, Richard B

    2017-03-21

    For decades, borides have been primarily studied as crystallographic oddities. With such a wide variety of structures (a quick survey of the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database counts 1253 entries for binary boron compounds!), it is surprising that the applications of borides have been quite limited despite a great deal of fundamental research. If anything, the rich crystal chemistry found in borides could well provide the right tool for almost any application. The interplay between metals and the boron results in even more varied material's properties, many of which can be tuned via chemistry. Thus, the aim of this review is to reintroduce to the scientific community the developments in boride crystal chemistry over the past 60 years. We tie structures to material properties, and furthermore, elaborate on convenient synthetic routes toward preparing borides.

  6. Field free, directly heated lanthanum boride cathode

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Moussa, D.; Wilde, S.B.

    1987-02-02

    A directly heated cylindrical lanthanum boride cathode assembly is disclosed which minimizes generation of magnetic field which would interfere with electron emission from the cathode. The cathode assembly comprises a lanthanum boride cylinder in electrical contact at one end with a central support shaft which functions as one electrode to carry current to the lanthanum boride cylinder and in electrical contact, at its opposite end with a second electrode which is coaxially position around the central support shaft so that magnetic fields generated by heater current flowing in one direction through the central support shaft are cancelled by an opposite magnetic field generated by current flowing through the lanthanum boride cylinder and the coaxial electrode in a direction opposite to the current flow in the central shaft.

  7. Field free, directly heated lanthanum boride cathode

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Moussa, David; Wilde, Stephen B.

    1991-01-01

    A directly heated cylindrical lanthanum boride cathode assembly is disclosed which minimizes generation of magnetic fields which would interfere with electron emission from the cathode. The cathode assembly comprises a lanthanum boride cylinder in electrical contact at one end with a central support shaft which functions as one electrode to carry current to the lanthanum boride cylinder and in electrical contact, at its opposite end with a second electrode which is coaxially position around the central support shaft so that magnetic fields generated by heater current flowing in one direction through the central support shaft are cancelled by an opposite magnetic field generated by current flowing through the lanthanum boride cylinder and the coaxial electrode in a direction opposite to the current flow in the central shaft.

  8. Characterization of AISI 4140 borided steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Silva, I.; Ortiz-Domínguez, M.; López-Perrusquia, N.; Meneses-Amador, A.; Escobar-Galindo, R.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.

    2010-02-01

    The present study characterizes the surface of AISI 4140 steels exposed to the paste-boriding process. The formation of Fe 2B hard coatings was obtained in the temperature range 1123-1273 K with different exposure times, using a 4 mm thick layer of boron carbide paste over the material surface. First, the growth kinetics of boride layers at the surface of AISI 4140 steels was evaluated. Second, the presence and distribution of alloying elements on the Fe 2B phase was measured using the Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry (GDOES) technique. Further, thermal residual stresses produced on the borided phase were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The fracture toughness of the iron boride layer of the AISI 4140 borided steels was estimated using a Vickers microindentation induced-fracture testing at a constant distance of 25 μm from the surface. The force criterion of fracture toughness was determined from the extent of brittle cracks, both parallel and perpendicular to the surface, originating at the tips of an indenter impression. The fracture toughness values obtained by the Palmqvist crack model are expressed in the form KC( π/2) > KC > KC(0) for the different applied loads and experimental parameters of the boriding process.

  9. A kinetic model for the borided layers by the paste-boriding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddam, M.

    2004-09-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of the growth kinetics of the borided layers obtained by the paste-boriding process. A diffusion model based on Fick's laws and coupled with a thermodynamic description of the Fe-B binary system was suggested to simulate the growth kinetics of the borided layers consisting only of Fe 2B phase and containing 8.83 wt.% B onto the iron substrate within the temperature range of 1223-1323 K. The validation of the diffusion model was achieved by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data taken from the literature and a good agreement was observed. Furthermore, the model was able to predict the boron-depth-concentration profile for Fe 2B phase as well as the thickness of the borided layers depending on the boriding parameters.

  10. Ultra-fast boriding of metal surfaces for improved properties

    SciTech Connect

    Timur, Servet; Kartal, Guldem; Eryilmaz, Osman L.; Erdemir, Ali

    2015-02-10

    A method of ultra-fast boriding of a metal surface. The method includes the step of providing a metal component, providing a molten electrolyte having boron components therein, providing an electrochemical boriding system including an induction furnace, operating the induction furnace to establish a high temperature for the molten electrolyte, and boriding the metal surface to achieve a boride layer on the metal surface.

  11. Kinetics of electrochemical boriding of low carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartal, G.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Krumdick, G.; Erdemir, A.; Timur, S.

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the growth kinetics of the boride layers forming on low carbon steel substrates was investigated during electrochemical boriding which was performed at a constant current density of 200 mA/cm 2 in a borax based electrolyte at temperatures ranging from 1123 K to 1273 K for periods of 5-120 min. After boriding, the presence of both FeB and Fe 2B phases were confirmed by the X-ray diffraction method. Cross-sectional microscopy revealed a very dense and thick morphology for both boride phases. Micro hardness testing of the borided steel samples showed a significant increase in the hardness of the borided surfaces (i.e., up to (1700 ± 200) HV), while the hardness of un-borided steel samples was approximately (200 ± 20) HV. Systematic studies over a wide range of boriding time and temperature confirmed that the rate of the boride layer formation is strongly dependent on boriding duration and has a parabolic character. The activation energy of boride layer growth for electrochemical boriding was determined as (172.75 ± 8.6) kJ/mol.

  12. Magnesium Aluminum Borides as Explosive Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-20

    Analog to MgB2,” Phys. Rev. B, 73[18] 180501-4 (2006). 29. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 63rd Edition ( CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1982). 30. R. Naslain...Engineering Properties of Borides,” Engineered Materials Handbook , Ceramics and Glasses, Vol. 4 (ASM, Metals Park, PA. 1991). 2. G. V. Samsonov and...I. M. Vinitskii, Handbook of Refractory Compounds (Plenum Press, 1980). 3. T. Lundstrom, “Transition Metal Borides,” pp. 351-376 in Boron and

  13. Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Aselage, Terrence L.; Emin, David

    2002-01-01

    A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15boride compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

  14. The fracture toughness of borides formed on boronized cold work tool steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Ugur; Sen, Saduman

    2003-06-15

    In this study, the fracture toughness of boride layers of two borided cold work tool steels have been investigated. Boriding was carried out in a salt bath consisting of borax, boric acid, ferro-silicon and aluminum. Boriding was performed at 850 and 950 deg. C for 2 to 7 h. The presence of boride phases were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness and fracture toughness of borides were measured via Vickers indenter. Increasing of boriding time and temperature leads to reduction of fracture toughness of borides. Metallographic examination showed that boride layer formed on cold work tool steels was compact and smooth.

  15. Simulation of the growth kinetics of boride layers formed on Fe during gas boriding in H2-BCl3 atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulka, M.; Makuch, N.; Pertek, A.; Małdziński, L.

    2013-03-01

    The modeling of the boriding kinetics is considered as a necessary tool to select the suitable process parameters for obtaining boride layer of an adequate thickness. Therefore, the simulation of the growth kinetics of boride layers has gained much attention for last years. The majority of the published works described the kinetics of the pack-boriding or paste-boriding. In this study, the model of growth kinetics of two-phase boride layer (FeB+Fe2B) on pure Fe was proposed for gas boriding. Displacements of the two interfaces (FeB/Fe2B and Fe2B/substrate) resulted from a difference of the arrival flux of interstitial boron atoms to one phase and the departure flux of the boron atoms from this phase to the second phase. The mass balance equations were formulated. The measurements of thickness of both zones (FeB and Fe2B), for different temperature of boriding, were used for calculations. Based on the experimental data, the parabolic growth constants AFeB and B versus the temperature of boriding were determined. The linear relationships were accepted. As a consequence, the activation energies (QFeB and Q) were calculated. The calculated values were comparable to other data derived from gas boriding. The presented model can predict the thicknesses of the FeB and Fe2B zones (XFeB and Y, respectively) formed on pure Fe during gas boriding. Additionally, the diffusion annealing after boriding was analyzed. This process was carried out in order to obtain a single-phase boride layer (Fe2B). The relationship between the reduction in FeB zone (dXFeB) and the growth in Fe2B phase (dY) was determined. The time tXFeB=0, needed for the total elimination of FeB phase in the boride layer was calculated and compared to the experimental data.

  16. Investigation of the fracture mechanics of boride composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, L.; Clougherty, E. V.; Nesor, H.

    1971-01-01

    Fracture energies of WC-6Co, Boride 5 (ZrB2+SiC), Boride 8(ZrB2+SiC+C) and Boride 8-M2(ZrB2+SiC+C) were measured by slow bend and impact tests of notched charpy bars. Cobalt bonded tungsten carbide exhibited impact energies of 0.76 ft-lb or 73.9 in-lb/square inch. Boride 5 and the Boride 8 exhibit impact energies one third and one quarter of that observed for WC-6Co comparing favorably with measurements for SiC and Si3N4. Slow bend-notched bar-fracture energies for WC-6Co were near 2.6 in-lb/square inch or 1/20 the impact energies. Slow bend energies for Boride 8-M2, Boride 8 and Boride 5 were 58%, 42% and 25% of the value observed for WC-6Co. Fractograph showed differences for WC-6Co where slow bend testing resulted in smooth transgranular cleavage while samples broken by impact exhibited intergranular failures. By contrast the boride fractures showed no distinction based on testing method. Fabrication studies were conducted to effect alteration of the boride composites by alloying and introduction of graphite cloth.

  17. Mechanism of boriding from pastes in a glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Isakov, S.A.; Al'tshuler, S.A.

    1987-09-01

    The authors investigate the boridation of steel 45 from the standpoint of the glow-discharge dissociation of a borax paste and the plasma arc spraying of the resulting boron into the steel. The effects of process parameters on the impregnation of boron into the steel and its phase behavior in the boridation process are discussed.

  18. Carbide and boride laser modification of steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Boguslaw; Ebner, Reinhold

    1997-10-01

    Microstructure modification by laser remelting or laser alloying was studied on carbon Ck45 and high speed steels. Laser remelting of Ck45 by overlapping laser tracks led to a great refinement of martensitic structure, especially in the heat affected zone of subsequent laser track. High speed steel (HSS) M2 after laser remelting showed, beside the tetragonal martensite, the diffraction lines of cubic carbides of the M6C and M12C types. Laser alloying of M2 HSS using vanadium carbide (VC) additions caused increasing of eutectic in the interdendritic space, which was accompanied with reduction of the M6C and rising of the MC. M2 HSS laser alloyed with molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) showed formation of the M6C for the hipereutectic compositions while at the highest concentrations of molybdenum, primary dendrites of the M2C and stabilized ferrite were stated. High additions of borides: CrB or VB2; developed formation of the primary borides of blocky type containing a high amount of W, Cr or W, V, respectively. Laser alloying of Ck45 by means of: CrB, VB2 and B4C showed: in the case of CrB an eutectic (alpha) '/M3(C,B)/M2B as well as primary precipitates of the M2B phase for hipereutectic compositions; by adding VB2, the M3B2 and M2B phases were identified experimentally for hipereutectic concentrations; for alloying using B4C, the cellular dendritic structure together with primary borides of the (tau) -M23(C,B)6 phase were stated for hipereutectic compositions. The phase diagrams of M2 HSS + (VC or Mo2C) as well as Ck45 + B4C systems were calculated to predict changes of the constitutions due to laser alloying. Comparison of the solidification structures established experimentally with the calculated phase diagrams revealed a good correlation for the carbides, especially.

  19. Microstructure and properties of laser-borided 41Cr4 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulka, M.; Makuch, N.; Pertek, A.

    2013-02-01

    Laser-boriding, instead of diffusion-boriding, was applied to formation of boride layers on 41Cr4 steel. The microstructure and properties of these layers were compared to those obtained after typical diffusion-boriding. Three zones characterized the microstructure of laser-borided layer: laser-borided zone, hardened medium-carbon zone (heat affected zone) and medium-carbon substrate without heat treatment. The through-hardened laser-borided steel was also analyzed. In this case two zones characterized the microstructure: laser-borided zone and hardened medium-carbon substrate. The microstructure of laser-borided zone consisted of eutectic mixture of borides and martensite. This phase composition (especially martensite presence) was the reason for microhardness decrease at the surface in comparison with diffusion-borided steel. However, the use of laser-boriding causes the decrease in microhardness gradient between the surface and the substrate in comparison with typical diffusion-boriding process. The value of mass wear intensity factor of the hardened laser-borided layer was comparable to that obtained in case of diffusion-boriding and through-hardening. The use of laser-borided layers instead of typical diffusion-borided layers may be advantageous under conditions of high abrasive wear of mating parts. For the experimental condition used, the laser-boriding process presented worst results concerning the fatigue strength. The cracks formed on the surface during laser re-melting were the reason for relatively quick first fatigue crack. In case of elements, which require high fatigue strength, the use of modified laser processing parameters would be necessary. The better results should be obtained by increasing of tracks overlapping. Although the cohesion of laser-borided layer was sufficient, the diffusion-borided layer showed a better cohesion.

  20. Boriding of high carbon high chromium cold work tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, W.

    2014-06-01

    High-carbon high-chromium cold work tool steels are widely used for blanking and cold forming of punches and dies. It is always advantageous to obtain an increased wear resistant surface to improve life and performance of these steels. In this connection boriding of a high-carbon high-chromium cold work die steel, D3, was conducted in a mixture of 30% B4C, 70% borax at 950 °C for two, four and six hours. Case depth of the borided layer obtained was between 40 to 80 μm. After boriding, the surface hardness achieved was between 1430 to 1544 HV depending upon the process time. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of a duplex compound layer consisting of FeB and Fe2B. It is generally considered that FeB is undesirable because of its inherent brittleness. Post boriding treatment (homogenization) transformed the compound layer into single-phase layer of Fe2B, while surface hardness decreased to 1345-1430 HV. Pin-on-disc wer test showed that wear resistance of the borided samples was superior as compared to non-borided material and increased with boriding time.

  1. Boron diffusion in silicon from metal boride sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Thin films of titanium and lanthanum borides were investigated as potential boron diffusion sources. TiB{sub x} and LaB{sub 6} films exhibited room-temperature film stresses and resistivity values similar to refractory-metal silicides, and acted as boron diffusion sources, producing diffusions with high surface concentrations. The source of boron from TiB{sub x} films appears to be the excess boron present in the metal boride or at the metal boride-silicon substrate interface. Boron surface concentration increases with increasing mole fraction of boron in the metal boride source. Boron surface concentration peaks at 1000{degree}C for furnace-annealed TiB{sub 2.2}, but rises until a plateau is reached at 1050{degree}C for rapid-annealed samples of the same composition. The concentration of electrically active boron was consistently lower than the chemical concentration in these studies. The stability of the boride films on silicon substrates was found to be dependent on boride source composition. LaB{sub 6} and TiB films reacted with the silicon substrate. Although the TiB{sub 2.1}, TiB{sub 2.2}, and TiB{sub 2.9} films did not decompose or allow Si to diffuse into them, a silicon boride surface layer was formed in the silicon substrate caused by boron out-diffusing from these sources during furnace annealing.

  2. Synthesis and properties of nanoscale titanium boride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimova, K. A.; Galevskiy, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the scientific and technological grounds for plasma synthesis of titanium diboride, including thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of boride formation when titanium and titanium dioxide are interacting with products resulting from boron gasification in the nitrogen - hydrogen plasma flow, and two variations of its behavior using the powder mixtures: titanium - boron and titanium dioxide - boron. To study these technology variations, the mathematical models were derived, describing the relation between element contents in the synthesized products of titanium and free boron and basic parameters. The probable mechanism proposed for forming titanium diboride according to a "vapour - melt - crystal" pattern was examined, covering condensation of titanium vapour in the form of aerosol, boriding of nanoscale melt droplets by boron hydrides and crystallization of titanium - boron melt. The comprehensive physical - chemical certification of titanium diboride was carried out, including the study of its crystal structure, phase and chemical composition, dispersion, morphology and particle oxidation. Technological application prospects for use of titanium diboride nanoscale powder as constituent element in the wettable coating for carbon cathodes having excellent physical and mechanical performance and protective properties.

  3. Method of making an icosahedral boride structure

    DOEpatents

    Hersee, Stephen D.; Wang, Ronghua; Zubia, David; Aselage, Terrance L.; Emin, David

    2005-01-11

    A method for fabricating thin films of an icosahedral boride on a silicon carbide (SiC) substrate is provided. Preferably the icosahedral boride layer is comprised of either boron phosphide (B.sub.12 P.sub.2) or boron arsenide (B.sub.12 As.sub.2). The provided method achieves improved film crystallinity and lowered impurity concentrations. In one aspect, an epitaxially grown layer of B.sub.12 P.sub.2 with a base layer or substrate of SiC is provided. In another aspect, an epitaxially grown layer of B.sub.12 As.sub.2 with a base layer or substrate of SiC is provided. In yet another aspect, thin films of B.sub.12 P.sub.2 or B.sub.12 As.sub.2 are formed on SiC using CVD or other vapor deposition means. If CVD techniques are employed, preferably the deposition temperature is above 1050.degree. C., more preferably in the range of 1100.degree. C. to 1400.degree. C., and still more preferably approximately 1150.degree. C.

  4. Plasma metallurgical production of nanocrystalline borides and carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galevsky, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Cherepanov, A. N.; Galevsky, S. G.; Efimova, K. A.

    2016-09-01

    he experience in production and study of properties of nanocrystalline borides and chromium carbides, titanium, silicon was summarized. The design and features of the vertical three-jet once-through reactor with power 150 kW, used in the plasma metallurgical production, was described. The technological, thermotechnical and resource characteristics of the reactor were identified. The parameters of borides and carbides synthesis, their main characteristics in the nanodispersed state and equipment-technological scheme of production were provided. Evaluation of engineering-and-economical performance of the laboratory and industrial levels of borides and carbides production and the state corresponding to the segment of the world market was carried out.

  5. Pack-boriding of Fe-Mn binary alloys: Characterization and kinetics of the boride layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bektes, M.; Calik, A.; Ucar, N.; Keddam, M.

    2010-02-15

    In this work, the boronizing of Fe-Mn binary alloys at 0.42, 0.76 and 0.94 wt.% Mn was carried out in a solid medium using the powder pack method. In this method, commercial Ekabor-II boron source and activator (ferro-silicon) were thoroughly mixed to form the boriding medium. The samples were boronized in an electrical resistance furnace for exposure times of 2, 4, 6 and 8 h at 1173 K under atmospheric pressure and a series of boronized samples in the temperature range 1073-1373 K for 3 h. After the furnace process, boronized samples were removed from the furnace and cooled in air. Afterwards, the boride layers generated by the pack-boronizing process were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis, Vickers microhardness and tensile testing. The generated boride layers, showing a saw-tooth morphology, had a surface microhardness in the range 1400-1270 HV0.1. It was shown that the values of yield stresses and ultimate tensile stresses were increased as the Mn content increases in the boronized Fe-Mn binary alloys. In contrast, the values of elongations determined from the stress-strain curves were decreased. Furthermore, it was found that the calculated mean value of the activation energy of boron diffusion was close to 119 J/mol.

  6. Certain physical properties of cobalt and nickel borides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostetskiy, I. I.; Lvov, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity, the thermal conductivity, and the thermal emf of cobalt and nickel borides were studied. In the case of the nickel borides the magnetic susceptibility and the Hall coefficient were determined at room temperature. The results are discussed with allowance for the current carrier concentration, the effect of various mechanisms of current-carrier scattering and the location of the Fermi level in relation to the 3d band.

  7. Microstructure, Growth Kinetics and Some Mechanical Properties of Boride Layers Produced on Pure Titanium by Molten-Salt Boriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L. S.; Duan, Y. H.; Li, P.

    2017-08-01

    To modify the surface properties of pure titanium, boride layers had been fabricated by the boron molten-salt diffusion on pure titanium surfaces in the temperature range of 900-1100 °C for 5- to 30-h treatments. The results demonstrated that the boride layers were mainly composed of TiB whiskers and TiB2 layers without the rutile titanium oxide TiO2. Two diffusion models were introduced to model the growth kinetics of boride layers. The parabolic growth constants and the boron diffusion coefficients were obtained. The boron activation energies for TiB2 and TiB were 225.617 and 165.266 kJ mol-1, respectively. The surface microhardness of the borided titanium decreased with the increase in distance from the surface. The results of wear tests indicated that the wear properties had been improved significantly compared to the pure titanium under dry sliding conditions.

  8. Microstructure and properties of laser-borided Inconel 600-alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulka, M.; Dziarski, P.; Makuch, N.; Piasecki, A.; Miklaszewski, A.

    2013-11-01

    Nickel-based superalloys are used extensively for a variety of industrial applications involving high temperatures and aggressive environments. However, under conditions of appreciable mechanical wear (adhesive or abrasive), these materials have to be distinguished by suitable wear protection. The diffusion boronizing is the thermo-chemical treatment, which improves the tribological properties of nickel and its alloys. Nevertheless, the long duration of this process is necessary in order to obtain the layers of the thickness up to about 100 μm. Instead of the diffusion process, in this study the laser boriding is used for producing boride layer on Inconel 600-alloy. During the laser alloying, the external cylindrical surface of base material is coated by paste, including amorphous boron. Then the surface is re-melted by a laser beam. The high overlapping of multiple laser tracks (86%) causes the formation of uniform laser-alloyed layer in respect of the thickness. Laser re-melted zone, heat-affected zone and the substrate characterize the microstructure. In the re-melted zone, the three areas are observed: compact borides zone consisting of nickel, chromium and iron borides (close to the surface), zone of increased percentage of Ni-Cr-Fe-matrix (appearing in the greater distance from the surface) and zone of dominant Ni-Cr-Fe-matrix percentage (at the end of the layer). The hardness obtained is comparable to that-obtained in case of diffusion boriding. Simultaneously, the laser-borided layers are significantly thicker (about 346 or 467 μm depending on the laser power used). The significant increase in their abrasive wear resistance is observed. The wear intensity factors, as well as the relative mass loss of the laser-borided samples, are ten times smaller in comparison with untreated Inconel 600-alloy.

  9. Mechanochemically Driven Syntheses of Boride Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Richard G.

    Solid state metathesis reactions have proven to be a viable route to the production of unfunctionalized nanomaterials. However, current implementations of this approach are limited to self-propagating reactions. We have been investigating mechanically driven metathesis reactions. The use of high-energy ball mills allows control of crystallite sizes without the use of a capping group. Reinforcement materials with crystallite sizes on the order of 5-30 nm can be produced in such a manner. Borides are of particular interest due to their strength, high melting point, and electrical conductivity. The ultimate goal of this work is to prepare oxide and capping group-free nanoparticles suitable for incorporation in thermoelectric, polymer, and ceramic composites. Ultimately this work will facilitate the production of improved thermoelectric materials that will provide robust, deployable, power generation modules to supplement or replace fuel cell, Stirling, and battery-derived power sources. It will also result in scalable, bulk syntheses of tough, refractory, conductive nanomaterials for polymer composites with improved electrical properties, ceramic composites with enhanced fracture toughness, and composites with enhanced neutron reflectance and/or absorbance.

  10. Novel magnesium borides and their superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Davari Esfahani, M Mahdi; Zhu, Qiang; Dong, Huafeng; Oganov, Artem R; Wang, Shengnan; Rakitin, Maksim S; Zhou, Xiang-Feng

    2017-06-07

    With the motivation of searching for new superconductors in the Mg-B system, we performed ab initio evolutionary searches for all the stable compounds in this binary system in the pressure range of 0-200 GPa. We found previously unknown, yet thermodynamically stable, compositions MgB3 and Mg3B10. Experimentally known MgB2 is stable in the entire pressure range 0-200 GPa, while MgB7 and MgB12 are stable at pressures below 90 GPa and 35 GPa, respectively. We predict a reentrant behavior for MgB4, which becomes unstable against decomposition into MgB2 and MgB7 at 4 GPa and then becomes stable above 61 GPa. We find ubiquity of phases with boron sandwich structures analogous to the AlB2-type structure. However, with the exception of MgB2, all other magnesium borides have low electron-phonon coupling constants λ of 0.32-0.39 and are predicted to have Tc below 3 K.

  11. Laser borided composite layer produced on austenitic 316L steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikołajczak, Daria; Kulka, Michał; Makuch, Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Abstract Austenitic 316L steel is well-known for its good resistance to corrosion and oxidation. Therefore, this material is often used wherever corrosive media or high temperatures are to be expected. The main drawback of this material is very low hardness and low resistance to mechanical wear. In this study, the laser boriding was used in order to improve the wear behavior of this material. As a consequence, a composite surface layer was produced. The microstructure of laser-borided steel was characterized by only two zones: re-melted zone and base material. In the re-melted zone, a composite microstructure, consisting of hard ceramic phases (borides) and a soft austenitic matrix, was observed. A significant increase in hardness and wear resistance of such a layer was obtained.

  12. Molecular Modeling of High-Temperature Oxidation of Refractory Borides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    04-Feb 08 Final Technical 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER MOLECULAR MODELING OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY BORIDES 5b. GRANT...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 MOLECULAR MODELING OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY BORIDES FA9550-05-1-0026 Final Report (11/15/2004-02/14...deficient centers, instead of molecular 02 as in the Deal-Grove model . These network defects will lead to sub-linear dependence of the oxidation rate with

  13. Development and application of high strength ternary boride base cermets

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Ken-ichi . E-mail: u4381@toyokohan.co.jp

    2006-09-15

    Reaction boronizing sintering is a novel strategy to form a ternary boride coexisting with a metal matrix in a cermet during liquid phase sintering. This new sintering technique has successfully developed world first ternary boride base cermets with excellent mechanical properties such as Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}, Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2} and WCoB base ones. In these cermets Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} and Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2} base ones consist of a tetragonal M {sub 3}B{sub 2} (M: metal)-type complex boride as a hard phase and a transition metal base matrix. The cermets have already been applied to wear resistant applications such as injection molding machine parts, can making tools, and hot copper extruding dies, etc. This paper focuses on the characteristics, effects of the additional elements on the mechanical properties and structure, and practical applications of the ternary boride base cermets. - Graphical abstract: TRS and hardness of Ni-5B-51Mo-17.5Cr and Ni-5B-51Mo-12.5Cr-5V-xMn mass% cermets as functions of Mn content (Fig. 17)

  14. Subminiature eddy current transducers for studying boride coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Ishkov, A. V.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Strengthening of parts and units of machines, increased reliability and longer service life is an important task of modern mechanical engineering. The main objects of study in the work were selected steel 65G and 50HGA, wear-resistant boride coatings ternary system Fe-B-Fe n B which were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and eddy-current nondestructive methods.

  15. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Borided CoCrMo Alloy Immersed in Hanks' Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Becerra, G.; Mejía-Caballero, I.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Romero-Romo, M.; Pérez-Pasten-Borja, R.; Campos-Silva, I.

    2017-02-01

    New results about the corrosion resistance of borided CoCrMo alloy exposed to the Hanks' solution during different days were estimated by means of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The CoB-Co2B coating was developed on the surface of the borided alloy using the powder-pack boriding process at 1223 K during 6 h of exposure. The corrosion resistance of the borided cobalt alloy was evaluated by the fitting of suitable equivalent electrical circuits using Nyquist and Bode plots to obtain the electrochemical parameters; the results were compared with the CoCrMo (non-borided) alloy. The samples (borided and non-borided) were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy and by the energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry techniques to determine the elemental chemical composition developed on the surface of the materials. In addition, the reaction products formed on the surface of the borided CoCrMo alloy exposed to the Hanks' solution after the tenth day of immersion were analyzed by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of the borided cobalt alloy was affected (or reduced) by the presence of B2S3 and CrPO4 clusters formed on the material's surface. Finally, the electrochemical reactions developed during the immersion of the borided cobalt alloy on the tenth day of exposure were proposed according to the XPS results.

  16. Super-hard coating creation by laser boriding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monisha, K.; Kumar, S. Arun; Gunaseelan, M.; Senthilselvan, J.

    2017-05-01

    Laser surface boriding was carried out using boropak and TiB+amorphous boron coated Cp-Ti alloy with high power diode laser (HPDL). The effect of boron agents and laser processing parameters on the microstructure, crystallographic phase formations and hardness are investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, XRD and hardness testing. Super-hard coating with hardness in the range of 1000 to 3000 HV0.2 was created by laser alloying the boropak and TiB+amorphous boron coated Cp-Ti. It is due to the formation of TiB2, TiB and Ti3B4 composite layers. Laser boriding has resulted in 2500 µm thick coating.

  17. An unusual variation of stability and hardness in molybdenum borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yongcheng; Yuan, Xun; Fu, Zhao; Li, Yuan; Zhong, Zheng

    2012-10-01

    Molybdenum borides are currently raising great expectations for superhard materials, but their crystal structures and mechanical behaviors are still under discussion. Here, we report an unexpected reduction of stability and hardness from porous hP16-MoB3 and hR18-MoB2 to dense hP20-MoB4 and hR21-Mo2B5, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this anomalous variation has its electronic origin. These findings not only manifest that the long-recognized hP20-MoB4 (hP3-MoB2) and hR21-Mo2B5 should be hP16-MoB3 and hR18-MoB2, respectively, but also challenge the general design principle for ultrahard materials only pursuing the dense transition-metal borides with high boron content.

  18. Prediction of new crystal structure phases in metal borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmogorov, Aleksey

    2006-03-01

    Identification of novel crystal structures is an important step for predicting new stable compounds in alloys, since most theoretical search algorithms are restricted to a given prototype library or a lattice type. Performing ab initio data mining [1] of intermetallic compounds we have discovered that even in such a well-studied class of systems as metal borides there are previously unknown phases comparable in energy to the existing ones [2]. We demonstrate that even though the new structures are relatively simple, their identification is not straightforward. We systematically investigate the stability and electronic properties of the new metal boride phases. Our calculations show that some phases exhibit electronic features similar to those in the famous MgB2 and could be good superconductors. The new phases are likely to have random stacking faults, so they might not be detected with standard x-ray methods. Our results could thus be used as an important guide in the search for new superconducting metal borides. [1] S. Curtarolo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 135503 (2003). [2] A.N. Kolmogorov et al., submitted (2005).

  19. An Evaluation of a Borided Layer Formed on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Means of SMAT and Low-Temperature Boriding

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Quantong; Sun, Jian; Fu, Yuzhu; Tong, Weiping; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a nanocrystalline surface layer without impurities was fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V alloy by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The grain size in the nanocrystalline layer is about 10 nm and grain morphology displays a random crystallographic orientation distribution. Subsequently, the low-temperature boriding behaviors (at 600 °C) of the SMAT sample, including the phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness, and brittleness, were investigated in comparison with those of coarse-grained sample borided at 1100 °C. The results showed that the boriding kinetics could be significantly enhanced by SMAT, resulting in the formation of a nano-structured boride layers on Ti-6Al-4V alloy at lower temperature. Compared to the coarse-grained boriding sample, the SMAT boriding sample exhibits a similar hardness value, but improved surface toughness. The satisfactory surface toughness may be attributed to the boriding treatment that was carried out at lower temperature. PMID:28774115

  20. Indium fluoride glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    Fluoride glasses are the only material that transmit light from ultraviolet to mid-infrared and can be drawn into industrial optical fibers. The mechanical and optical properties of new indium fluoride glass fibers have been investigated. Multimode fiber 190 microns, has very high mechanical strength greater than 100 kpsi and optical loss as low as 45 dB/km between 2 and 4 microns. Unlike chalcogenide glass fibers, indium fluoride fiber has a wide transmission window from 0.3 to 5.5 microns without any absorption peak. Indium fluoride glass fibers are the technology of choice for all application requiring transmission up to 5 micron such as infrared contour measure (IRCM) and chemical sensing. Furthermore, Indium fluoride glasses have low phonon energy and can be heavily doped and co-doped whit rare-earth elements. Therefore they are very promising candidates for infrared fiber lasers.

  1. [Indium lung disease].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2014-02-01

    "Indium lung" is a new occupational lung disease. The global demand for indium, the major material used in manufacturing flat-screen display panels, has skyrocketed since the 1990s (Japan comprises 85% of the worldwide demand). The first case was reported in Japan in 2003, followed by seven cases (interstitial pneumonia and emphysema) in Japan. Two pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) cases in the USA followed in 2011. Indium lung has been described as interstitial pneumonia, pneumothorax, emphysema, and PAP. In 2013, The Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare issued an "Ordinance on the Prevention of Hazards Due to Specified Chemical Substances" requiring employers to provide regular health checks for employees and measurements of work environment concentrations of respirable indium dust.

  2. Indium lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kristin J; Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-Long; Harley, Russell A; Roggli, Victor L; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J; Trapnell, Bruce C; Day, Gregory A; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2012-06-01

    Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies.

  3. Characterization and diffusion model for the titanium boride layers formed on the Ti6Al4V alloy by plasma paste boriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddam, Mourad; Taktak, Sukru

    2017-03-01

    The present study is focused on the estimation of activation energy of boron in the plasma paste borided Ti6Al4V alloy, which is extensively used in technological applications, using an analytical diffusion model. Titanium boride layers were successfully produced by plasma paste boriding method on the Ti6Al4V alloy in the temperature range of 973-1073 K for a treatment time ranging from 3 to 7 h. The presence of both TiB2 top-layer and TiB whiskers sub-layer was confirmed by the XRD analysis and SEM observations. The surface hardness of the borided alloy was evaluated using Micro-Knoop indenter. The formation rates of the TiB2 and TiB layers were found to have a parabolic character at all applied process temperatures. A diffusion model was suggested to estimate the boron diffusivities in TiB2 and TiB layers under certain assumptions, by considering the effect of boride incubation times. Basing on own experimental data on boriding kinetics, the activation energies of boron in TiB2 and TiB phases were estimated as 136.24 ± 0.5 and 63.76 ± 0.5 kJ mol-1, respectively. Finally, the obtained values of boron activation energies for Ti6Al4V alloy were compared with the data available in the literature.

  4. Characterisation of titanium-titanium boride composites processed by powder metallurgy techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Selva Kumar, M.; Chandrasekar, P.; Chandramohan, P.; Mohanraj, M.

    2012-11-15

    In this work, a detailed characterisation of titanium-titanium boride composites processed by three powder metallurgy techniques, namely, hot isostatic pressing, spark plasma sintering and vacuum sintering, was conducted. Two composites with different volume percents of titanium boride reinforcement were used for the investigation. One was titanium with 20% titanium boride, and the other was titanium with 40% titanium boride (by volume). Characterisation was performed using X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro analysis - energy dispersive spectroscopy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, image analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The characterisation results confirm the completion of the titanium boride reaction. The results reveal the presence of titanium boride reinforcement in different morphologies such as needle-shaped whiskers, short agglomerated whiskers and fine plates. The paper also discusses how mechanical properties such as microhardness, elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio are influenced by the processing techniques as well as the volume fraction of the titanium boride reinforcement. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-TiB composites were processed by HIP, SPS and vacuum sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The completion of Ti-TiB{sub 2} reaction was confirmed by XRD, SEM and EPMA studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness and elastic properties of Ti-TiB composites were discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Processing techniques were compared with respect to their microstructure.

  5. Microstructural characterization and some mechanical properties of gas-borided Inconel 600-alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, N.; Kulka, M.

    2014-09-01

    The excellent resistance of Ni-based alloys to corrosion and oxidation is well-known. Boriding can be applied to these alloys in order to obtain suitable wear protection. In this paper, two-stage gas boronizing in N2-H2-BCl3 atmosphere is proposed for the producing the boride layer on Inconel®600-alloy. This process consists in two stages alternately repeated: saturation by boron and diffusion annealing. Such a gas boriding is applied in order to accelerate the saturation by boron and its diffusion. It turns out to be more effective because of eliminating the excess of boron, diffusing into the substrate, during the second stage. Microstructure and some mechanical properties of the produced layer are presented. Microstructural characterization is studied with using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and x-ray diffraction. The diffusion zone consists of the mixture of nickel and chromium borides, occurring in the compact boride zone and in the area located beneath, at grain boundaries. The improved hardness and wear resistance characterize the layer. The formed boride layer is significantly thicker than those-obtained by the pack-boronizing or paste process at comparable temperature and time. Simultaneously, the measured depth of layer is slightly smaller than that-reported for electrolytic boriding.

  6. Reactive Boride Brazing on Low-Alloy Automotive Grade Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, B.; Upadhyaya, A.

    2011-11-01

    Brazing is a widely used process to improve the performance of steels used in automotive applications. The substrate material is often exposed to harsh conditions in these applications and may affect the service life of the component. Reactive boride brazing aims to improve the mechanical properties of the substrate material by forming a ceramic-metal composite coating in a single-step process in situ. In this study, sintered Ancor 4300 low-alloy steel is used as the substrate with chromium-rich braze and chromium-lean braze materials. The mechanical properties of the brazed samples were studied in detail using microindentation hardness measurements and the transverse rupture test. The results indicate that the brazed superlayer has a 10 times higher hardness. There was a significant improvement in the transverse rupture strength of the steel brazed with the chromium-rich boride as compared to the pure substrate material. In an effort to reduce processing time, green compacts of the substrate were also directly brazed and yielded favorable results.

  7. Metal borohydride formation from aluminium boride and metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Møller, Kasper T; Fogh, Alexander S; Paskevicius, Mark; Skibsted, Jørgen; Jensen, Torben R

    2016-10-05

    Metal borides are often decomposition products from metal borohydrides and thus play a role in the reverse reaction where hydrogen is absorbed. In this work, aluminium boride, AlB2, has been investigated as a boron source for the formation of borohydrides under hydrogen pressures of p(H2) = 100 or 600 bar at elevated temperatures (350 or 400 °C). The systems AlB2-MHx (M = Li, Na, Mg, Ca) have been investigated, producing LiBH4, NaBH4 and Ca(BH4)2, whereas the formation of Mg(BH4)2 was not observed at T = 400 °C and p(H2) = 600 bar. The formation of the metal borohydrides is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy and the fraction of boron in AlB2 and M(BH4)x is determined quantitatively by (11)B MAS NMR. Hydrogenation for 12 h at T = 350-400 °C and p(H2) = 600 bar leads to the formation of substantial amounts of LiBH4 (38.6 mol%), NaBH4 (83.0 mol%) and Ca(BH4)2 (43.6 mol%).

  8. Electron momentum distribution and electronic response of ceramic borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heda, N. L.; Meena, B. S.; Mund, H. S.; Sahariya, Jagrati; Kumar, Kishor; Ahuja, B. L.

    2017-03-01

    Isotropic Compton profiles of transition metal based ceramics TaB and VB have been measured using 137Cs (661.65 keV) γ-ray Compton spectrometer. The experimental momentum densities are compared with those deduced using linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) with Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT) with Wu-Cohen generalized gradient approximation (WCGGA) and also the hybridization of HF and DFT (namely B3PW and PBE0) schemes. It is found that LCAO-DFT-WCGGA scheme based profiles give an overall better agreement with the experimental data, for both the borides. In addition, we have computed the Mulliken's population (MP) charge transfer data, energy bands, density of states and Fermi surface topology of both the borides using full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) and LCAO methods with DFT-WCGGA scheme. Cross-overs of Fermi level by the energy bands corresponding to B-2p and valence d-states of transition metals lead to metallic character in both the compounds. Equal-valence-electron-density profiles and MP analysis suggest more ionic character of VB than that of TaB.

  9. First Principles Search for New Superconducting Layered Borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtarolo, Stefano

    2007-11-01

    The identification of novel crystal structures is a fundamental step for predicting new stable compounds in alloys. While performing ab initio data mining of intermetallic compounds [1], we discover a new family of layered metal borides [2], of which MgB2 is one particular element (the new phases are called Metal Sandwich (MS)). Thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of these MS phases are investigated in details, leading to the prediction of a hypothetical novel superconductor MS-LiB [2,3]. Calculations show that the MS phases in the Li-B system exhibit electronic features similar to those of MgB2 [2,3] and CaC6 [4]. Although the predicted critical temperature of LiB is lower than that of MgB2 (references [4] and [5] for MS2-LiB and MS1-LiB, respectively), the peculiarities of MS-LiB in terms of electronic structure, layer arrangements and doping capabilities allow a lot of freedom in the search for higher Tc systems [5,6]. We acknowledge the Teragrid-Partnership for computational resources. Research supported by ONR and NSF. [1] Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 135503 (2003). [2] Phys. Rev. B 73, 180501(R) (2006). [3] Phys. Rev. B 74, 224507 (2006). [4] Phys. Rev. B 75, 064510 (2007). [5] Phys. Rev. B 75, 144506 (2007). [6] A. N. Kolmogorov, M. Calandra, and S. Curtarolo, Engineering superconductors with ab initio methods: ternary metal borides, (2007).

  10. Discovery of elusive structures of multifunctional transition-metal borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yongcheng; Wu, Zhaobing; Yuan, Xun; Zhang, Wenqing; Zhang, Peihong

    2015-12-01

    A definitive determination of crystal structures is an important prerequisite for designing and exploiting new functional materials. Even though tungsten and molybdenum borides (TMBx) are the prototype for transition-metal light-element compounds with multiple functionalities, their elusive crystal structures have puzzled scientists for decades. Here, we discover that the long-assumed TMB2 phases with the simple hP3 structure (hP3-TMB2) are in fact a family of complex TMB3 polytypes with a nanoscale ordering along the axial direction. Compared with the energetically unfavorable and dynamically unstable hP3-TMB2 phase, the energetically more favorable and dynamically stable TMB3 polytypes explain the experimental structural parameters, mechanical properties, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns better. We demonstrate that such a structural and compositional modification from the hP3-TMB2 phases to the TMB3 polytypes originates from the relief of the strong antibonding interaction between d electrons by removing one third of metal atoms systematically. These results resolve the longstanding structural mystery of this class of metal borides and uncover a hidden family of polytypic structures. Moreover, these polytypic structures provide an additional hardening mechanism by forming nanoscale interlocks that may strongly hinder the interlayer sliding movements, which promises to open a new avenue towards designing novel superhard nanocomposite materials by exploiting the coexistence of various polytypes.

  11. Indium Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-long; Harley, Russell A.; Roggli, Victor L.; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Day, Gregory A.; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L.; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. Methods: To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Results: Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:22207675

  12. Respirable indium exposures, plasma indium, and respiratory health among indium-tin oxide (ITO) workers.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kristin J; Virji, M Abbas; Park, Ji Young; Stanton, Marcia L; Edwards, Nicole T; Trapnell, Bruce C; Carey, Brenna; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Workers manufacturing indium-tin oxide (ITO) are at risk of elevated indium concentration in blood and indium lung disease, but relationships between respirable indium exposures and biomarkers of exposure and disease are unknown. For 87 (93%) current ITO workers, we determined correlations between respirable and plasma indium and evaluated associations between exposures and health outcomes. Current respirable indium exposure ranged from 0.4 to 108 μg/m(3) and cumulative respirable indium exposure from 0.4 to 923 μg-yr/m(3) . Plasma indium better correlated with cumulative (rs  = 0.77) than current exposure (rs  = 0.54) overall and with tenure ≥1.9 years. Higher cumulative respirable indium exposures were associated with more dyspnea, lower spirometric parameters, and higher serum biomarkers of lung disease (KL-6 and SP-D), with significant effects starting at 22 μg-yr/m(3) , reached by 46% of participants. Plasma indium concentration reflected cumulative respirable indium exposure, which was associated with clinical, functional, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:522-531, 2016. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Respirable Indium Exposures, Plasma Indium, and Respiratory Health Among Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Virji, M. Abbas; Park, Ji Young; Stanton, Marcia L.; Edwards, Nicole T.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Carey, Brenna; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Workers manufacturing indium-tin oxide (ITO) are at risk of elevated indium concentration in blood and indium lung disease, but relationships between respirable indium exposures and biomarkers of exposure and disease are unknown. Methods For 87 (93%) current ITO workers, we determined correlations between respirable and plasma indium and evaluated associations between exposures and health outcomes. Results Current respirable indium exposure ranged from 0.4 to 108 μg/m3 and cumulative respirable indium exposure from 0.4 to 923 μg-yr/m3. Plasma indium better correlated with cumulative (rs = 0.77) than current exposure (rs = 0.54) overall and with tenure ≥1.9 years. Higher cumulative respirable indium exposures were associated with more dyspnea, lower spirometric parameters, and higher serum biomarkers of lung disease (KL-6 and SP-D), with significant effects starting at 22 μg-yr/m3, reached by 46% of participants. Conclusions Plasma indium concentration reflected cumulative respirable indium exposure, which was associated with clinical, functional, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. PMID:27219296

  14. Microstructure and properties of laser-borided composite layers formed on commercially pure titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulka, M.; Makuch, N.; Dziarski, P.; Piasecki, A.; Miklaszewski, A.

    2014-03-01

    Laser-boriding was proposed in order to produce composite boride layers on commercially pure titanium. Three zones were observed in the microstructure: laser-borided re-melted zone (TiB, TiB2 and Tiα'-phase), heat affected zone (Tiα'-phase) and the substrate without heat treatment (Tiα-phase). The stick-like titanium borides occurred in the re-melted zone. In some areas, the tubular nature of titanium borides was visible. Among the sticks of titanium borides the needles of Tiα'-phase appeared. The high overlapping of multiple laser tracks (86%) caused the formation of uniform laser-alloyed layer in respect of the thickness. The microcracks and pores were not detected in the laser-borided composite layer. The high hardness of the re-melted zone (1250-1650 HV) was obtained. The hardness gradually decreased up to 250-300 HV in heat affected zone and up to about 200 HV in the substrate. In case of higher laser beam power used (1.95 kW), the re-melted zone was thicker and more homogeneous in respect of the microstructure and hardness. The craters obtained at the surface after the Rockwell C indentation test evidently revealed ideal cohesion of the laser-borided layer (HF1 standard). The significant increase in wear resistance of laser-borided composite layers was observed in comparison with commercially pure titanium. The lower mass wear intensity factors were obtained for laser-alloyed layers. The measurements of relative mass loss were also used in order to evaluate wear behavior of the investigated materials. The tests of laser-borided layers showed the catastrophic wear of the counter-specimens. The separated particles of counter-sample caused the accelerated wear of the laser-alloyed specimen. The longer duration of the tests, carried out without the change in a counter-specimen, caused the adhesion of counter-sample particles on the laser-borided specimen. The increased contact surface was the reason for the higher temperature and created the favourable

  15. Nanosized Borides and Carbides for Electroplating. Metal-Matrix Coatings: Specifications, Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galevskiy, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Galevskiy, S. G.; Il'yashchenko, D. P.; Kartsev, D. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper summarizes experience of application of nano-sized carbides and borides of titanium and chromium, silicon carbide as components of electro-depositable coating compositions based on nickel, zinc, and chromium. Basic physical and mechanical properties of the coatings are determined. Technological and economic evaluation is completed; practicability of high-cost nano-diamonds substitution for nano-sized borides and carbides is justified.

  16. An alternative method of gas boriding applied to the formation of borocarburized layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kulka, M. Makuch, N.; Pertek, A.; Piasecki, A.

    2012-10-15

    The borocarburized layers were produced by tandem diffusion processes: carburizing followed by boriding. An alternative method of gas boriding was proposed. Two-stage gas boronizing in N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}-BCl{sub 3} atmosphere was applied to the formation of iron borides on a carburized substrate. This process consisted in two stages, which were alternately repeated: saturation by boron and diffusion annealing. The microstructure and microhardness of produced layer were compared to those-obtained in case of continuous gas boriding in H{sub 2}-BCl{sub 3} atmosphere, earlier used. The first objective of two-stage boronizing, consisting in acceleration of boron diffusion, has been efficiently implemented. Despite the lower temperature and shorter duration of boronizing, about 1.5 times larger iron borides' zone has been formed on carburized steel. Second objective, the absolute elimination of brittle FeB phase, has failed. However, the amount of FeB phase has been considerably limited. Longer diffusion annealing should provide the boride layer with single-phase microstructure, without FeB phase. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alternative method of gas boriding in H{sub 2}-N{sub 2}-BCl{sub 3} atmosphere was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process consisted in two stages: saturation by boron and diffusion annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These stages of short duration were alternately repeated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acceleration of boron diffusion was efficiently implemented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of FeB phase in the boride zone was limited.

  17. Deposition and characterization of aluminum magnesium boride thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yun

    Boron-rich borides are a special group of materials possessing complex structures typically comprised of B12 icosahedra. All of the boron-rich borides sharing this common structural unit exhibit a variety of exceptional physical and electrical properties. In this work, a new ternary boride compound AlMgB14, which has been extensively studied in bulk form due to its novel mechanical properties, was fabricated into thin film coatings by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technology. The effect of processing conditions (laser operating modes, vacuum level, substrate temperature, and postannealing, etc.) on the composition, microstructure evolution, chemical bonding, and surface morphology of AlMgB14 thin film coatings has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry; the mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of AlMgB14 thin films have been characterized by nanoindentation, four-point probe, van der Pauw Hall measurement, activation energy measurement, and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. Experimental results show that AlMgB14 films deposited in the temperature range of 300 K - 873 K are amorphous. Depositions under a low vacuum level (5 x 10-5 Torr) can introduce a significant amount of C and O impurities into AlMgB14 films and lead to a complex oxide glass structure. Orthorhombic AlMgB14 phase cannot be obtained by subsequent high temperature annealing. By contrast, the orthorhombic AlMgB 14 crystal structure can be attained via high temperature-annealing of AlMgB14 films deposited under a high vacuum level (< 3 x 10-6 Torr), accompanied by strong texture formation. Low vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films have low hardness (10 GPa), but high vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films exhibit an extremely high hardness (45 GPa - 51 GPa), and the higher deposition temperature results in still higher hardness

  18. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Vajo, John J.

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  19. Indium Sorption to Iron Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. J.; Sacco, S. A.; Hemond, H.; Hussain, F. A.; Runkel, R. L.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Kimball, B. A.; Shine, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics, and its use is growing rapidly as a semiconductive coating (as indium tin oxide) for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and flat panel displays. It also has uses in important energy technologies such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic cells. Despite its rapid increase in use, very little is known about the environmental behavior of indium, and concerns are being raised over the potential health effects of this emerging metal contaminant. One source of indium to the environment is acid mine drainage from the mining of lead, zinc, and copper sulfides. In our previous studies of a stream in Colorado influenced by acid mine drainage from lead and zinc mining activities, indium concentrations were found to be 10,000 times those found in uncontaminated rivers. However, the speciation and mobility of indium could not be reliably modeled because sorption constants to environmental sorbents have not been determined. In this study, we generate sorption constants for indium to ferrihydrite in the laboratory over a range of pHs, sorbent to sorbate ratios, and ionic strengths. Ferrihydrite is one of the most important sorbents in natural systems, and sorption to amorphous iron oxides such as ferrihydrite is thought to be one of the main removal mechanisms of metals from the dissolved phase in aqueous environments. Because of its relatively low solubility, we also find that indium hydroxide precipitation can dominate indium's partitioning at micromolar concentrations of indium. This precipitation may be important in describing indium's behavior in our study stream in Colorado, where modeling sorption to iron-oxides does not explain the complete removal of indium from the dissolved phase when the pH of the system is artificially raised to above 8. This study contributes much-needed data about indium's aqueous behavior, in order to better understand its fate, transport, and impacts in the

  20. Two-level systems and negative thermal expansion of lutetium borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, V. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kornev, B. I.; Matovnikov, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    The heat capacity Cv(T) and unit cell volume V(T) temperature dependencies of lutetium borides LuB2 and LuB4 in the region of 2-300 K were analysed in the Debye-Einstein approximation. The characteristic temperatures of the Debye and Einstein components of boride heat capacity and thermal expansion were found. The anomalous contribution to the borides' thermal characteristics was revealed. This contribution was attributed to the influence of two-level systems (TLS), formed in the subsystem of lutetium ions due to asymmetry in the way they are surrounded by the boron atoms in the boride crystal structure. The TLS influence is revealed on heat capacity temperature dependencies by the Schottky-type maxima at Tmax LuB2 =13.8 K, Tmax LuB4 =22.7 K, as well as by the negative contribution to the borides' thermal expansion. The borides' Grüneisen parameters corresponding to the heat capacity and thermal expansion TLS anomalies are negative, and amount to several 10 s of units.

  1. Plasma boriding of a cobalt-chromium alloy as an interlayer for nanostructured diamond growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Jubinsky, Matthew; Catledge, Shane A.

    2015-02-01

    Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond coatings can potentially improve the wear resistance of cobalt-chromium medical implant surfaces, but the high cobalt content in these alloys acts as a catalyst to form graphitic carbon. Boriding by high temperature liquid baths and powder packing has been shown to improve CVD diamond compatibility with cobalt alloys. We use the microwave plasma-enhanced (PE) CVD process to deposit interlayers composed primarily of the borides of cobalt and chromium. The use of diborane (B2H6) in the plasma feedgas allows for the formation of a robust boride interlayer for suppressing graphitic carbon during subsequent CVD of nano-structured diamond (NSD). This metal-boride interlayer is shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt for improving nucleation and adhesion of NSD coatings on a CoCrMo alloy. Migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer is significantly reduced and undetectable on the surface of the subsequently-grown NSD coating. The effects of PECVD boriding are compared for a range of substrate temperatures and deposition times and are evaluated using glancing-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Boriding of CoCrMo results in adhered nanostructured diamond coatings with low surface roughness.

  2. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  3. Morphology and structure of borides in as-cast titanium and gamma-titanium aluminide-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitkamthorn, Usanee

    In this study, the morphology and structure of the borides in boron-modified Ti- and gamma-TiAl-based alloys have been investigated using SEM, TEM, and HRTEM. A variety of different boride morphologies was observed including plates, needles, and ribbons. For the plate and needle borides, the major boride phase is B27 TiB. The needle borides have their major axis parallel to [010], and are bounded by (100) and {101} type-facets. The plate borides develop the same types of facets as the needles and have habit planes parallel to the (100). There are high densities of intrinsic stacking faults on (100) in these borides and these correspond to thin embedded layers of the Bf structure. The plate borides do not exhibit well-defined ORs with respect to the surrounding phases, suggesting that they develop in the liquid melt and were then trapped by the growing solid. Needle borides are observed mostly at boundaries between lamellar colonies: these needles tend to occur in groups lying nearly parallel to one another and, in some cases, to adopt well-defined ORs with respect to the surrounding phases. Cored borides with metallic phases such as beta, alpha, o and alpha 2+gamma in the center are frequently observed, especially in the Ti-based alloy. These core phases usually adopt well-defined ORs with respect to the surrounding boride which enable low-energy coherent interfaces to form between the phases. The ribbon borides are comprised of thin boride flakes interspersed with thin metallic layers. The major boride phase in these flakes is Bf TiB. The habit plane of the flakes is (010) and there are high densities of faults on this plane corresponding to intergrowths of the Ti3B 4 and TiB2 phases, together with thin layers or occluded pockets of metallic B2 phase. Occasional faults are observed on {110} corresponding to embedded slabs of B27 TiB. There is a well-defined OR between the boride flakes and the B2 phase within the ribbons, but not with the surrounding matrix. The

  4. Mineral of the month: indium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Micheal W.

    2004-01-01

    Indium was discovered in Germany in 1863. Although it is a lustrous silver-white color, the finders named the new material for the “indigo” spectral lines the mineral created on the spectrograph. Indium ranks 61st in abundance in Earth’s crust and is about three times more abundant than silver or mercury.

  5. The Growth Behavior of Titanium Boride Layers in α and β Phase Fields of Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xiaojun; Hu, Lingyun; Shuang, Yajing; Liu, Jianhua; Lai, Yanqing; Jiang, Liangxing; Li, Jie

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the commercially pure titanium was successfully electrochemical borided in a borax-based electrolyte. The process was carried out at a constant cathodic current density of 300 mA cm-2 and at temperatures of 1123 K and 1223 K (850 °C and 950 °C) for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 hours. The growth behavior of titanium boride layers in the α phase field of titanium was compared with that in the β phase field. After boriding, the presence of both the TiB2 top layer and TiB whisker sub-layer was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope. The relationship between the thickness of boride layers and boriding time was found to have a parabolic character in both α and β phase fields of titanium. The TiB whiskers showed ultra-fast growth rate in the β phase field. Its growth rate constant was found to be as high as 3.2002 × 10-13 m2 s-1. Besides, the chemical resistance of the TiB2 layer on the surface of titanium substrate was characterized by immersion tests in molten aluminum.

  6. Kinetics of borided 31CrMoV9 and 34CrAlNi7 steels

    SciTech Connect

    Efe, Goezde Celebi; Ipek, Mediha; Ozbek, Ibrahim; Bindal, Cuma

    2008-01-15

    In this study, kinetics of borides formed on the surface of 31CrMoV9 and 34CrAlNi7 steels borided in solid medium consisting of Ekabor II at 850-900-950 deg. C for 2, 4, 6 and 8 h were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy examinations showed that borides formed on the surface of borided steels have columnar morphology. The borides formed in the coating layer confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis are FeB, Fe{sub 2}B, CrB, and Cr{sub 2}B. The hardnesses of boride layers are much higher than that of matrix. It was found that depending on process temperature and time the fracture toughness of boride layers ranged from 3.93 to 4.48 MPa m{sup 1/2} for 31CrMoV9 and from 3.87 to 4.40 MPa m{sup 1/2} for 34CrAlNi7 steel. Activation energy, growth rate and growth acceleration of boride layer calculated according to these kinetic studies revealed that lower activation energy results in the fast growth rate and high growth acceleration.

  7. The effect of boriding on wear resistance of cold work tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzawa, Y.; Koyama, S.; Shohji, I.

    2017-05-01

    Recently, boriding has attracted extensive attention as surface stiffening processing of plain steel. In this research, the influence of processing time on the formation layer of cold work tool steel (KD11MAX) by Al added fused salt bath was examined. In addition, in order to improve the abrasion resistance of KD11MAX, the effect of the treatment of boronization on the formation layer has been investigated. Boriding were performed in molten borax which contained about 10 mass% Al at processing time of 1.8 ~ 7.2 ks (processing temperature of 1303 K). As a result of the examination, the hardness of the boriding layer becomes about 1900 HV when the processing time of 3.6 ks. Also the abrasion resistance has improved remarkably. Furthermore, it was revealed that the formation layer was boronized iron from the Vickers hardness and analysis of the X-ray diffraction measurement.

  8. Nano-Disperse Borides and Carbides: Plasma Technology Production, Specific Properties, Economic Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galevskii, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Galevskii, S. G.; Tomas, K. I.; Zubkov, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    The experience of production and study on properties of nano-disperse chromium and titanium borides and carbides, and silicon carbide has been generalized. The structure and special service aspects of utilized plasma-metallurgical complex equipped with a three-jet direct-flow reactor with a capacity of 150 kW have been outlined. Processing, heat engineering and service life characteristics of the reactor are specified. The synthesis parameters of borides and carbides, as well as their basic characteristics in nano-disperse condition and their production flow diagram are outlined. Engineering and economic performance of synthesizing borides in laboratory and industrial conditions is assessed, and the respective segment of the international market as well. The work is performed at State Siberian Industrial University as a project part of the State Order of Ministry of Science and Education of the Russian Federation No. 11.1531/2014/K.

  9. Kinetics and Tribological Characterization of Pack-Borided AISI 1025 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Vargas, O. A.; Keddam, M.; Ortiz-Domínguez, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this present study, the AISI 1025 steel was pack-borided in the temperature range of 1,123-1,273 K for different treatment times ranging from 2 to 8 h. A diffusion model was suggested to estimate the boron diffusion coefficients in the Fe2B layers. As a result, the boron activation energy for the AISI 1025 steel was estimated as 174.36 kJ/mol. This value of energy was compared with the literature data. To extend the validity of the present model, other additional boriding conditions were considered. The boride layers formed on the AISI 1025 steel were characterized by the following experimental techniques: scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and the Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C indentation technique. Finally, the scratch and pin-on-disc tests for wear resistance were achieved using an LG Motion Ltd and a CSM tribometer, respectively, under dry sliding conditions.

  10. Characterization of novel borides in Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta + 2B metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, Soumya; Samuel, Sonia; Puthucode, Anantha; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2009-02-15

    Metal-matrix composites consisting of a complex quaternary Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta alloy reinforced by borides have been successfully deposited from a powder feedstock consisting of a blend of elemental titanium, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, and, titanium diboride (TiB{sub 2}) powders, using the laser engineered net-shaping (LENS{sup TM}) process. The microstructures of the as-deposited composites have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, orientation microscopy, and, transmission electron microscopy. Both primary and eutectic boride precipitates, exhibiting the orthorhombic B27 structure, are observed in these as-deposited composites. The complex primary borides exhibit an unusual compositional variation within the same precipitate, which has been investigated in detail using site-specific characterization with a transmission electron microscope. The ability to form near-net shape components using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping process makes these laser-deposited composites promising candidates for wear-resistant applications in biomedical implants.

  11. Modeling of the electron-beam boriding in the system Fe-B-C-O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasheev, D. E.; Smirnyagina, N. N.

    2017-05-01

    This paper reviews the conditions of iron borides formation and simulation of surface layers saturation depending on the stoichiometry of original components. Temperature fields have been investigated as well, which form certain phases in accordance with the pressure in the chamber and the power of the electron beam. A thermodynamic study of phase equilibria in Fe-B-C-O systems has been performed. This was done in order to optimize conditions for forming functional layers on the surface of iron-carbon alloys as a result of electron beam boriding in vacuum. Furthermore, strength characteristics of iron boride layers have been determined. Then these layers obtained by different methods and using various source components have been thoroughly compared with each other during the analysis.

  12. Boride-based nano-laminates with MAX-phase-like behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Telle, Rainer . E-mail: telle@ghi.rwth-aachen.de; Momozawa, Ai; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-09-15

    MAX-phases being usually composed of transition metals, group A elements and carbon/nitrogen are considered interesting materials for many applications because of their tremendous bulk modulus, 'reversible' plasticity, and machinability. This is mainly due to their unique kind of bonding comprising covalent, ionic as well as metallic bonds providing 'easy' planes of rupture and deformability due to the layered crystal structures. In transition metal boride systems, similar types of bonding are available. In particular the W{sub 2}B{sub 5}-structure type and its stacking variations allow the synthesis of strongly layered crystal structures exhibiting unique delamination phenomena. The paper presents ab initio calculations showing the similarities of bonding between the ternary carbides and the corresponding ternary or quaternary borides. Formation of boride-based nano-laminates from auxiliary liquid phases, from the melt as well as during sintering and precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions will be discussed by means of SEM and TEM studies. The role of impurities weakening the interlayer bonding will be addressed in particular. The pronounced cleavage parallel to the basal plane gives rise for crack deflection and pull-out mechanisms if the laminates are dispersed in brittle matrices such as boron carbide, silicon carbide or other transition metal borides. - Graphical abstract: Some transition metal borides crystallise in a layered structure of alternating stacks of metal and boron atoms giving rise for strongly anisotropic properties. Their preferred cleavage parallel and the deformability perpendicular to the basal plan are similar to the peculiar mechanical behaviour recently described for MAX-phases. Ab initio calculations of the crystal structure prove the weak bonds between the layers for a variety of borides which can be used to reinforce ceramic materials on a nano-scale level.

  13. Surface hardening of steel by boriding in a cold rf plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finberg, I.; Avni, R.; Grill, A.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Scanning electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, and microhardness measurements, are used to study the surfaces of 4340-steel samples that have been borided in a cold RF plasma which had been initiated in a gas mixture of 2.7 percent diborane in Ar. As a result of the dislocation of the diborane in the plasma, boron is deposited on the surface of the steel substrate and two crystalline phases, tetragonal Fe2B and orthorhombic FeB, are formed. The formation of boride phases then increases the surface microhardness from 2650 MPa to a maximum value of 7740 MPa.

  14. Surface hardening of steel by boriding in a cold rf plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finberg, I.; Avni, R.; Grill, A.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Scanning electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, and microhardness measurements, are used to study the surfaces of 4340-steel samples that have been borided in a cold RF plasma which had been initiated in a gas mixture of 2.7 percent diborane in Ar. As a result of the dislocation of the diborane in the plasma, boron is deposited on the surface of the steel substrate and two crystalline phases, tetragonal Fe2B and orthorhombic FeB, are formed. The formation of boride phases then increases the surface microhardness from 2650 MPa to a maximum value of 7740 MPa.

  15. Surface hardening of St41 low carbon steel by using the hot-pressing powder-pack boriding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutrisno, Soegijono, Bambang

    2014-03-01

    This research describes a powder-pack boriding process by using hot-pressing technic for St41 low carbon steel which will improve the hardness on the substrate by forming boride layer solid solution. Those method can reduce the operational cost of the research if it is compared by the conventional method with the asmospheric condition both vacuum system and gas inert condition. The concept of boriding by hot-pressing technic was verified in a laboratory scale. Welldefined and reusedable technic was achieved by using the stainless steel 304 as the container and sealed with a 5 ton pressure. This container was filled boronizing powder consisting of 5%B4C, 90%SiC, and 5%KBF4 to close the St41 low carbon steel specimen inside the container. The St41 boriding specimen was treated at the temperature of 900°C for 8 hours. The boride layer on the substrate was found as FeB and Fe2B phase with the hardness about 1800 HV. This value was more than ten times if compared with the untreated specimen that only had the hardness of 123 HV. Depend on heat treatment temperature, heat treatment time, and powder-pack boriding pressure, the depth of boride layer range from 127 to 165 μm, leading to a diffusion controlled process.

  16. Metal-boride phase formation on tungsten carbide (WC-Co) during microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Catledge, Shane A.

    2016-02-01

    Strengthening of cemented tungsten carbide by boriding is used to improve the wear resistance and lifetime of carbide tools; however, many conventional boriding techniques render the bulk carbide too brittle for extreme conditions, such as hard rock drilling. This research explored the variation in metal-boride phase formation during the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at surface temperatures from 700 to 1100 °C. We showed several well-adhered metal-boride surface layers consisting of WCoB, CoB and/or W2CoB2 with average hardness from 23 to 27 GPa and average elastic modulus of 600-730 GPa. The metal-boride interlayer was shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt; migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer was significantly reduced. A combination of glancing angle X-ray diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, nanoindentation and scratch testing was used to evaluate the surface composition and material properties. An evaluation of the material properties shows that plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited borides formed at substrate temperatures of 800 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C strengthen the material by increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of cemented tungsten carbide. Additionally, these boride surface layers may offer potential for adhesion of ultra-hard carbon coatings.

  17. Niobium boride layers deposition on the surface AISI D2 steel by a duplex treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kon, O.; Pazarlioglu, S.

    2015-03-30

    In this paper, we investigated the possibility of deposition of niobium boride layers on the surface of AISI D2 steel by a duplex treatment. At the first step of duplex treatment, boronizing was performed on AISI D2 steel samples at 1000{sup o}C for 2h and then pre-boronized samples niobized at 850°C, 900°C and 950°C using thermo-reactive deposition method for 1–4 h. The presence of the niobium boride layers such as NbB, NbB{sub 2} and Nb{sub 3}B{sub 4} and also iron boride phases such as FeB, Fe{sub 2}B were examined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro-hardness measurements were realized. Experimental studies showed that the depth of the coating layers increased with increasing temperature and times and also ranged from 0.42 µm to 2.43 µm, depending on treatment time and temperature. The hardness of the niobium boride layer was 2620±180 HV{sub 0.005}.

  18. Superabrasive boride and a method of preparing the same by mechanical alloying and hot pressing

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Bruce A.; Harringa, Joel L.; Russell, Alan M.

    2002-08-13

    A ceramic material which is an orthorhombic boride of the general formula: AlMgB.sub.14 :X, with X being a doping agent. The ceramic is a superabrasive, and in most instances provides a hardness of 40 GPa or greater.

  19. Structures and stability of novel transition-metal (M =Co ,Rh ,Co and Ir ) borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yachun; Wu, Lailei; Lin, Yangzheng; Hu, Qingyang; Li, Zhiping; Liu, Hanyu; Zhang, Yunkun; Gou, Huiyang; Yao, Yansun; Zhang, Jingwu; Gao, Faming; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2015-11-01

    Recent progress of high-pressure technology enables the synthesis of novel metal borides with diverse compositions and interesting properties. A precise characterization of these borides, however, is sometimes hindered by multiphase intergrowth and grain-size limitation in the synthesis process. Here, we theoretically explored new transition-metal borides (M =Co , Rh, and Ir) using a global structure searching method and discovered a series of stable compounds in this family. The predicted phases display a rich variety of stoichiometries and distinct boron networks resulting from the electron-deficient environments. Significantly, we identified a new Ir B1.25 structure as the long-sought structure of the first synthesized Ir-B compound. The simulated x-ray diffraction pattern of the proposed Ir B1.25 structure matches well with the experiment, and the convex hull calculation establishes its thermodynamic stability. Results of the present paper should advance the understanding of transition-metal borides and stimulate experimental explorations of these new and promising materials.

  20. Ultra-Fast Boriding in High-Temperature Materials Processing Industries

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is to further develop, optimize, scale-up, and commercialize an ultra-fast boriding (also referred to as “boronizing”) process that can provide much higher energy efficiency, productivity, and near-zero emissions in many of the high-temperature materials processing industries.

  1. Additive-assisted synthesis of boride, carbide, and nitride micro/nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bo; Yang, Lishan; Heng, Hua; Chen, Jingzhong; Zhang, Linfei; Xu, Liqiang; Qian, Yitai; Yang, Jian

    2012-10-15

    General and simple methods for the syntheses of borides, carbides and nitrides are highly desirable, since those materials have unique physical properties and promising applications. Here, a series of boride (TiB{sub 2}, ZrB{sub 2}, NbB{sub 2}, CeB{sub 6}, PrB{sub 6}, SmB{sub 6}, EuB{sub 6}, LaB{sub 6}), carbide (SiC, TiC, NbC, WC) and nitride (TiN, BN, AlN, MgSiN{sub 2}, VN) micro/nanocrystals were prepared from related oxides and amorphous boron/active carbon/NaN{sub 3} with the assistance of metallic Na and elemental S. In-situ temperature monitoring showed that the reaction temperature could increase quickly to {approx}850 Degree-Sign C, once the autoclave was heated to 100 Degree-Sign C. Such a rapid temperature increase was attributed to the intense exothermic reaction between Na and S, which assisted the formation of borides, carbides and nitrides. The as-obtained products were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and HRTEM techniques. Results in this report will greatly benefit the future extension of this approach to other compounds. - Graphical abstract: An additive-assisted approach is successfully developed for the syntheses of borides, carbides and nitrides micro/nanocrystals with the assistance of the exothermic reaction between Na and S. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An additive-assisted synthesis strategy is developed for a number of borides, carbides and nitrides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction mechanism is demonstrated by the case of SiC nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of SiC nanowires is initiated by the exothermic reaction of Na and S.

  2. Potential and limitations of microanalysis SEM techniques to characterize borides in brazed Ni-based superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Vargas, J.; Siredey-Schwaller, N.; Noyrez, P.; Mathieu, S.; Bocher, P.; and others

    2014-08-15

    Brazed Ni-based superalloys containing complex phases of different Boron contents remain difficult to characterize at the micrometer scale. Indeed Boron is a light element difficult to measure precisely. The state-of-the-art microanalysis systems have been tested on a single crystal MC2 based metal brazed with BNi-2 alloy to identify boride precipitates. Effort has been made to evaluate the accuracy in Boron quantitation. Energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy attached to a Scanning Electron Microscope have first been used to determine the elemental composition of Boron-free phases, and then applied to various types of borides. Results have been compared to the ones obtained using a dedicated electron probe microanalysis, considered here as the reference technique. The most accurate method to quantify Boron using EDS is definitely by composition difference. A precision of 5 at.% could be achieved with optimized data acquisition and post-processing schemes. Attempts that aimed at directly quantifying Boron with various standards using EDS or coupled EDS/WDS gave less accurate results. Ultimately, Electron Backscatter Diffraction combined with localized EDS analysis has proved invaluable in conclusively identifying micrometer sized boride precipitates; thus further improving the characterization of brazed Ni-based superalloys. - Highlights: • We attempt to accurately identify Boron-rich phases in Ni-based superalloys. • EDS, WDS, EBSD systems are tested for accurate identification of these borides. • Results are compared with those obtained by electron probe microanalysis. • Boron was measured with EDS by composition difference with a precision of 5 at. %. • Additional EBSD in phase identification mode conclusively identifies the borides.

  3. Evaluation of the tool life and fracture toughness of cutting tools boronized by the paste boriding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, I.; Farah, M.; López, N.; Bermúdez, G.; Rodríguez, G.; VillaVelázquez, C.

    2008-03-01

    The present study evaluates the tool life and the fracture toughness of AISI M2 steel cutting tools boronized by the paste boriding process. The treatment was done in selective form on the tool tips of the steels. The temperatures were set at 1173 and 1273 K with 4 h of exposure time and modifying the boron carbide paste thicknesses in 3 and 4 mm. Microindentation fracture toughness method was used on the borided tool at the temperature of 1273 K and a 4 mm paste thickness, with a 100 g load at different distances from the surface. Also, the borided cutting tools were worn by the turning process that implied the machining of AISI 1018 steel increasing the nominal cutting speed, of 55 m/min, in 10 and 25% and maintaining the feed and the depth cut constants. The tool life was evaluated by the Taylor's equation that shows the dependence of the experimental parameters of the boriding process.

  4. A kinetic model for estimating the boron activation energies in the FeB and Fe2B layers during the gas-boriding of Armco iron: Effect of boride incubation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddam, M.; Kulka, M.; Makuch, N.; Pertek, A.; Małdziński, L.

    2014-04-01

    The present work deals with a simulation of the growth kinetics of boride layers grown on Armco iron substrate. The formed boride layers (FeB + Fe2B) are obtained by the gas-boriding in the temperature range of 1073-1273 K during a time duration ranging from 80 to 240 min. The used approach solves the mass balance equations at the two growing fronts: (FeB/Fe2B) and (Fe2B/Fe) under certain assumptions. To consider the effect of the incubation times for the borides formation, the temperature-dependent function Φ(T) was incorporated in the model. The following input data: (the boriding temperature, the treatment time, the upper and lower values of boron concentrations in FeB and Fe2B and the experimental parabolic growth constants) are needed to determine the boron activation energies in the FeB and Fe2B layers. The obtained values of boron activation energies were then compared with the values available in the literature. Finally, a good agreement was obtained between the simulated values of boride layers thicknesses and the experimental ones in the temperature range of 1073-1273 K.

  5. Indium oxide based fiber optic SPR sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Sarika; Sharma, Navneet K.

    2016-05-06

    Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic sensor using indium oxide layer is presented and theoretically studied. It has been found that with increase in thickness of indium oxide layer beyond 170 nm, the sensitivity of SPR sensor decreases. 170 nm thick indium oxide layer based SPR sensor holds maximum sensitivity.

  6. Indium Foil Serves As Thermally Conductive Gasket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, G. Yale; Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    Indium foil found useful as gasket to increase thermal conductance between bodies clamped together. Deforms to fill imperfections on mating surfaces. Used where maximum temperature in joint less than melting temperature of indium. Because of low melting temperature of indium, most useful in cryogenic applications.

  7. Indium Foil Serves As Thermally Conductive Gasket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, G. Yale; Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    Indium foil found useful as gasket to increase thermal conductance between bodies clamped together. Deforms to fill imperfections on mating surfaces. Used where maximum temperature in joint less than melting temperature of indium. Because of low melting temperature of indium, most useful in cryogenic applications.

  8. Indium-Mediated Stereoselective Allylation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Vemula, Sandeep R; Balasubramanian, Narayanaganesh; Cook, Gregory R

    2016-10-04

    Stereoselective indium-mediated organic reactions have enjoyed tremendous growth in the last 25 years. This is in part due to the insensitivity of allylindium to moisture, affording facile and practical reaction conditions coupled with outstanding functional group tolerance and minimal side reactions. Despite the plethora of articles about allylindium, there is much yet to be discovered and exploited for efficient and sustainable synthesis. In this Account, we describe indium-mediated synthetic methods for the preparation of chiral amines with the aim to present a balance of practical method development, novel asymmetric chemistry, and mechanistic understanding that impact multiple chemical and materials science disciplines. In 2005, we demonstrated the indium-mediated allylation of chiral hydrazones with complete diastereoselectivity (>99:1) and quantitative yields. Further, we revealed the first example of enantioselective indium-mediated allylation of hydrazones using catalytic (R)-3,3'-bis(trifluoromethyl)-BINOL ligands to afford homoallylic amines with high enantioselectivity. The use of enantiopure perfluoroalkylsulfonate BINOLs greatly improved the indium-mediated allylation of N-acylhydrazones with exquisite enantiocontrol (99% yield, 99% ee). This laboratory has also investigated indium-mediated asymmetric intramolecular cyclization in the presence of amino acid additives to deliver biologically relevant chromanes with excellent diastereoselectivity (dr >99:1). The effect of amino acid additives (N-Boc-glycine) was further investigated during the indium-mediated allylation of isatins with allyl bromide to yield homoallylic alcohols in excellent yields in a short time with a wide range of functional group tolerance. Critical mechanistic insight was gained, and evidence suggests that the additive plays two roles: (1) to increase the rate of formation of allylindium from allyl bromide and In(0) and (2) to increase the nucleophilicity of the allylindium

  9. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  10. Improving the Adhesion Resistance of the Boride Coatings to AISI 316L Steel Substrate by Diffusion Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Silva, I.; Bernabé-Molina, S.; Bravo-Bárcenas, D.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.; Rodríguez-Castro, G.; Meneses-Amador, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, new results about the practical adhesion resistance of boride coating/substrate system formed at the surface of AISI 316 L steel and improved by means of a diffusion annealing process are presented. First, the boriding of AISI 316 L steel was performed by the powder-pack method at 1173 K with different exposure times (4-8 h). The diffusion annealing process was conducted on the borided steels at 1273 K with 2 h of exposure using a diluent atmosphere of boron powder mixture. The mechanical behavior of the boride coating/substrate system developed by both treatments was established using Vickers and Berkovich tests along the depth of the boride coatings, respectively. Finally, for the entire set of experimental conditions, the scratch tests were performed with a continuously increasing normal force, in which the practical adhesion resistance of the boride coating/substrate system was represented by the critical load. The failure mechanisms developed over the surface of the scratch tracks were analyzed; the FeB-Fe2B/substrate system exhibited an adhesive mode, while the Fe2B/substrate system obtained by the diffusion annealing process showed predominantly a cohesive failure mode.

  11. Selection of peptides binding to metallic borides by screening M13 phage display libraries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metal borides are a class of inorganic solids that is much less known and investigated than for example metal oxides or intermetallics. At the same time it is a highly versatile and interesting class of compounds in terms of physical and chemical properties, like semiconductivity, ferromagnetism, or catalytic activity. This makes these substances attractive for the generation of new materials. Very little is known about the interaction between organic materials and borides. To generate nanostructured and composite materials which consist of metal borides and organic modifiers it is necessary to develop new synthetic strategies. Phage peptide display libraries are commonly used to select peptides that bind specifically to metals, metal oxides, and semiconductors. Further, these binding peptides can serve as templates to control the nucleation and growth of inorganic nanoparticles. Additionally, the combination of two different binding motifs into a single bifunctional phage could be useful for the generation of new composite materials. Results In this study, we have identified a unique set of sequences that bind to amorphous and crystalline nickel boride (Ni3B) nanoparticles, from a random peptide library using the phage display technique. Using this technique, strong binders were identified that are selective for nickel boride. Sequence analysis of the peptides revealed that the sequences exhibit similar, yet subtle different patterns of amino acid usage. Although a predominant binding motif was not observed, certain charged amino acids emerged as essential in specific binding to both substrates. The 7-mer peptide sequence LGFREKE, isolated on amorphous Ni3B emerged as the best binder for both substrates. Fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy confirmed the specific binding affinity of LGFREKE expressing phage to amorphous and crystalline Ni3B nanoparticles. Conclusions This study is, to our knowledge, the first to identify peptides that

  12. Indium lung--case reports and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Omae, Kazuyuki; Nakano, Makiko; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Hamaguchi, Tsutahiro; Chonan, Tatsuya

    2011-06-01

    The present review is aimed to introduce an new occupational lung disease, Indium Lung. We searched case reports and epidemiological studies concerning indium-related lung diseases and reviewed. Up to March, 2010, 7 cases of interstitial pneumonia in Japanese indium-exposed workers, two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in US indium-exposed workers, one case of PAP in a Chinese indium-exposed worker, and 4 cross-sectional surveys in Japan had been published. All cases and epidemiological studies in Japan indicate that exposure to hardly soluble indium compounds causes interstitial as well as emphysematous lung damages, which we call "Indium Lung". Based on the epidemiological studies, the Japan Society for Occupational Health proposed 3 μg/l of indium in serum as an occupational exposure limit based on biological monitoring to prevent significant increase of KL-6. Long-term follow-up of currently and formerly indium-exposed workers is essential not only to clarify the natural history of indium lung but also to trace the incidence of lung cancer. It is also necessary to elucidate the mechanism of indium lung and difference in clinical manifestations between Japanese and US cases.

  13. A Crossover from High Stiffness to High Hardness: The Case of Osmium and Its Borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yongming; Liu, Xiaomei; Li, Anhu; Liang, Yongcheng

    2016-09-01

    Transition-metal light-element compounds are currently raising great expectations for hard and superhard materials. Using the widely attracting osmium (Os) and its borides (OsB, Os2B3 and OsB2) as prototypes, we demonstrate by first-principles calculations that heavy transition metals, which possess high stiffness but low hardness, can be converted into highly hard materials by incorporating of light elements to form compounds. Such a crossover is a manifestation that the underlying sources of high stiffness and high hardness are fundamentally different. The stiffness is related to elastic deformation that is closely associated with valence electron density, whereas the hardness depends strongly on plastic deformation that is determined by bonding nature. Therefore, the incorporation of light atoms into transition metal should be a valid pathway of designing hard and superhard materials. This strategy is in principle also applicable to other transition-metal borides, carbides, and nitrides.

  14. Adsorption of micelle-forming surfactants from aqueous solutions on disperse titanium boride

    SciTech Connect

    Grodskii, A.S.; Komleva, E.A.; Frolov, Yu.G.

    1988-08-10

    Adsorption studies showed that nonionogenic and cationic surfactants are adsorbed on the surface of disperse titanium boride. Anionic surfactants are virtually not adsorbed due to the negative charge of the particles. It was found that in the region of low concentrations of surfactants in the solution, adsorption of Sintanols takes place in lyophobic regions and the surface of the particles becomes hydrophilic. The Sintamid molecules are adsorbed on the entire interface, including both hydrophobic and hydrophilic sections, with subsequent formation of bimolecular layers by adsorption on hydrophobic sections. Catamine-AB is adsorbed on hydrophilic sections of the surface also with the formation of bimolecular layers. Developed polymolecular layers up to 10-15 nm thick are formed on titanium boride particles from micellar solutions of nonionigenic and cationic surfactants.

  15. Boriding 5khNM hot-working dies in coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Luk'yanov, V.P.; Mitrokhovich, N.N.; Polovnikov, V.M.

    1983-03-01

    The life of the forging die determines the effectiveness of close died forging methods. Boron impregnation expands the life of the die. Tests were run on boriding pastes where boron carbide is the supplier of active boron and cryolite the binder and activator. High cryolite results in the highest boron impregnation activity but must be kept in ratio to the boron. The establishment of the chemical mechanism of the paste discovers 3-5 sodium flouride along with cryolite and boron, from which an optimum composition at 860 C for 4h. is determined. The optimum thickness of the layer should be 3-5mm, less not being thick enough, more causing runoff and oxidation. Steel impregnated with boron paste was then tested for erosion, with good results. Boriding in the coating of forging dies, now in use at the Lepse South Kama Plant, is recommended.

  16. Friction and wear of radiofrequency-sputtered borides, silicides, and carbides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The friction and wear properties of several refractory compound coatings were examined. These compounds were applied to 440 C bearing steel surfaces by radiofrequency (RF) sputtering. The refractory compounds were the titanium and molybdenum borides, the titanium and molybdenum silicides, and the titanium, molybdenum, and boron carbides. Friction testing was done with a pin-on-disk wear apparatus at loads from 0.1 to 5.0 newtons. Generally, the best wear properties were obtained when the coatings were bias sputtered onto 440 C disks that had been preoxidized. Adherence was improved because of the better bonding of the coatings to the iron oxide formed during preoxidation. As a class the carbides provided wear protection to the highest loads. Titanium boride coatings provided low friction and good wear properties to moderate loads.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of an Alumina Forming Nanolaminated Boride: MoAlB

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sankalp; Zapata-Solvas, Eugenio; Ly, Alexander; Lu, Jun; Elkassabany, Omar; Huon, Amanda; Lee, William E.; Hultman, Lars; May, Steve J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-01-01

    The ‘MAlB’ phases are nanolaminated, ternary transition metal borides that consist of a transition metal boride sublattice interleaved by monolayers or bilayers of pure aluminum. However, their synthesis and properties remain largely unexplored. Herein, we synthesized dense, predominantly single-phase samples of one such compound, MoAlB, using a reactive hot pressing method. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of two Al layers in between a Mo-B sublattice. Unique among the transition metal borides, MoAlB forms a dense, mostly amorphous, alumina scale when heated in air. Like other alumina formers, the oxidation kinetics follow a cubic time-dependence. At room temperature, its resistivity is low (0.36–0.49 μΩm) and – like a metal – drops linearly with decreasing temperatures. It is also a good thermal conductor (35 Wm−1K−1 at 26 °C). In the 25–1300 °C temperature range, its thermal expansion coefficient is 9.5 × 10−6 K−1. Preliminary results suggest the compound is stable to at least 1400 °C in inert atmospheres. Moderately low Vickers hardness values of 10.6 ± 0.3 GPa, compared to other transition metal borides, and ultimate compressive strengths up to 1940 ± 103 MPa were measured at room temperature. These results are encouraging and warrant further study of this compound for potential use at high temperatures. PMID:27220751

  18. Heat capacity and thermal expansion of icosahedral lutetium boride LuB66

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, V V; Avdashchenko, D V; Matovnikov, A V; Mitroshenkov, N V; Bud’ko, S L

    2014-01-07

    The experimental values of heat capacity and thermal expansion for lutetium boride LuB66 in the temperature range of 2-300 K were analysed in the Debye-Einstein approximation. It was found that the vibration of the boron sub-lattice can be considered within the Debye model with high characteristic temperatures; low-frequency vibration of weakly connected metal atoms is described by the Einstein model.

  19. Influence of Re Concentration on the Mechanical Properties of Tungsten Borides from First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yong; Lin, Yuanhua

    2017-10-01

    Tungsten borides are promising high-temperature materials. However, the structure and hardening mechanisms of tungsten boride are still great challenges. To solve the problems, we apply the first-principles method to study the structure of WB3 and explore the influence of alloying element Re on the mechanical properties of WB3. The calculated Vickers hardness of WB3 is 39.1 GPa. We further find that a low concentration of Re can improve the hardness of WB3, which is in good agreement with the experimental result. However, the hardness and elastic properties of WB3 decrease gradually with increasing Re concentration. The calculated results show that the structure and hardness of WB3 are attributed to the B-B hexagonal prism. A high concentration of Re weakens the charge interaction between the B-B atoms, and reduces the mechanical properties of WB3. Therefore, we can adjust the alloy concentration to improve the Vickers hardness of transition metal borides.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of noble metal borides: RuB{sub x}(x > 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhifang; Zheng, Dafang; Ding, Zhanhui; Li, Yongfeng; Yao, Bin; Li, Yongsheng; Zhao, Xudong; Yu, Guichuan; Tang, Yang; Zheng, Weitao; Liu, Xiaoyang

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Hexagonal RuB{sub 1.1} were synthesized using ruthenium and boron powders as raw materials during ball milling process. • Orthorhombic RuB{sub 2} were synthesized under high pressure (5 GPa) and high temperature (1000 °C) conditions. • Hexagonal Ru{sub 2}B{sub 3} have been synthesized under 5 GPa and 1200 °C. - Abstract: Noble metal borides RuB{sub 1.1}, RuB{sub 2} and Ru{sub 2}B{sub 3} have been synthesized by mechanical alloying and high pressure sintering methods using ruthenium (Ru) and boron (B) powders as raw materials. The crystal structures of borides were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results shown that only RuB{sub 1.1} with hexagonal crystal structure was synthesized during the ball milling process, the orthorhombic RuB{sub 2} was synthesized under high pressure (5 GPa) and high temperature (1000 °C) conditions, while the hexagonal Ru{sub 2}B{sub 3} can be synthesized under 5 GPa and 1200 °C. The mechanism of synthesis for the ruthenium borides (RuB{sub x}) are discussed in details.

  1. Structure of superhard tungsten tetraboride: a missing link between MB2 and MB12 higher borides.

    PubMed

    Lech, Andrew T; Turner, Christopher L; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H; Kaner, Richard B

    2015-03-17

    Superhard metals are of interest as possible replacements with enhanced properties over the metal carbides commonly used in cutting, drilling, and wear-resistant tooling. Of the superhard metals, the highest boride of tungsten--often referred to as WB4 and sometimes as W(1-x)B3--is one of the most promising candidates. The structure of this boride, however, has never been fully resolved, despite the fact that it was discovered in 1961--a fact that severely limits our understanding of its structure-property relationships and has generated increasing controversy in the literature. Here, we present a new crystallographic model of this compound based on refinement against time-of-flight neutron diffraction data. Contrary to previous X-ray-only structural refinements, there is strong evidence for the presence of interstitial arrangements of boron atoms and polyhedral bonding. The formation of these polyhedral--slightly distorted boron cuboctahedra--appears to be dependent upon the defective nature of the tungsten-deficient metal sublattice. This previously unidentified structure type has an intermediary relationship between MB2 and MB12 type boride polymorphs. Manipulation of the fractionally occupied metal and boron sites may provide insight for the rational design of new superhard metals.

  2. Influence of Re Concentration on the Mechanical Properties of Tungsten Borides from First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yong; Lin, Yuanhua

    2017-08-01

    Tungsten borides are promising high-temperature materials. However, the structure and hardening mechanisms of tungsten boride are still great challenges. To solve the problems, we apply the first-principles method to study the structure of WB3 and explore the influence of alloying element Re on the mechanical properties of WB3. The calculated Vickers hardness of WB3 is 39.1 GPa. We further find that a low concentration of Re can improve the hardness of WB3, which is in good agreement with the experimental result. However, the hardness and elastic properties of WB3 decrease gradually with increasing Re concentration. The calculated results show that the structure and hardness of WB3 are attributed to the B-B hexagonal prism. A high concentration of Re weakens the charge interaction between the B-B atoms, and reduces the mechanical properties of WB3. Therefore, we can adjust the alloy concentration to improve the Vickers hardness of transition metal borides.

  3. Structure of superhard tungsten tetraboride: A missing link between MB2 and MB12 higher borides

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Andrew T.; Turner, Christopher L.; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Superhard metals are of interest as possible replacements with enhanced properties over the metal carbides commonly used in cutting, drilling, and wear-resistant tooling. Of the superhard metals, the highest boride of tungsten—often referred to as WB4 and sometimes as W1–xB3—is one of the most promising candidates. The structure of this boride, however, has never been fully resolved, despite the fact that it was discovered in 1961—a fact that severely limits our understanding of its structure–property relationships and has generated increasing controversy in the literature. Here, we present a new crystallographic model of this compound based on refinement against time-of-flight neutron diffraction data. Contrary to previous X-ray–only structural refinements, there is strong evidence for the presence of interstitial arrangements of boron atoms and polyhedral bonding. The formation of these polyhedra—slightly distorted boron cuboctahedra—appears to be dependent upon the defective nature of the tungsten-deficient metal sublattice. This previously unidentified structure type has an intermediary relationship between MB2 and MB12 type boride polymorphs. Manipulation of the fractionally occupied metal and boron sites may provide insight for the rational design of new superhard metals. PMID:25733870

  4. Low temperature route for the synthesis of rare earth transition metal borides and their hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Kramp, S.; Febri, M.; Joubert, J.C.

    1997-10-01

    Synthesis of rare earth-based alloys by the ORD technique consists in the reduction of rare earth oxides in a melt of calcium under argon, and simultaneous diffusion-reaction of the just formed rare earth metal with the other elements. This method has been applied with success to numerous ternary borides containing transition metals such as the magnetic alloys Y{sub 2}Co{sub 14}B, LnCo{sub 4}B, and YCo{sub 3}B{sub 2}. By using a small excess of Ca, boride particles grow in a viscous slurry media containing unreacted (melted) Ca and nanosize CaO particles. Single phase boride alloys can be obtained at 1000{degrees}C as loose micrometer-size particles of very high crystal quality as confirmed by the sharp diffraction peaks on the corresponding X-ray diagrams. Particles can be easily recovered by gentle wishing in diluted weak acid solution, and dried under vacuum at room temperature. This rather low temperature technique is particularly adapted to the synthesis of incongruent melting phases, as well as for the alloys containing volatile rare earth elements (Sm, Yb, Tb,...).

  5. A Low Temperature Route for the Synthesis of Rare Earth Transition Metal Borides and Their Hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramp, S.; Febri, M.; Joubert, J. C.

    1997-10-01

    Synthesis of rare earth-based alloys by the ORD technique consists in the reduction of rare earth oxides in a melt of calcium under argon, and simultaneous diffusion-reaction of the just formed rare earth metal with the other elements. This method has been applied with success to numerous ternary borides containing transition metals such as the magnetic alloys Y2Co14B, LnCo4B, and YCo3B2. By using a small excess of Ca, boride particles grow in a viscous slurry media containing unreacted (melted) Ca and nanosize CaO particles. Single phase boride alloys can be obtained at 1000°C as loose micrometer-size particles of very high crystal quality as confirmed by the sharp diffraction peaks on the corresponding X-ray diagrams. Particles can be easily recovered by gentle washing in diluted weak acid solution, and dried under vacuum at room temperature. This rather low temperature technique is particularly adapted to the synthesis of incongruent melting phases, as well as for the alloys containing volatile rare earth elements (Sm, Yb, Tb,…).

  6. Distinct surface hydration behaviors of boron-rich boride thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinhong; Liu, Wei; Ouyang, Jun; Tian, Yun

    2014-08-01

    In this work, the surface boron chemical states and surface hydration behaviors of the as-deposited and annealed boron-rich boride thin film coatings, including AlMgB14, TiB2 and AlMgB14-TiB2, were systematically studied by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The XPS results indicate that boron at annealed AlMgB14 film surface can be oxidized; surprisingly, such oxidation does not lead to the formation of boric acid in ambient air. Instead, boric acid can be produced at the surface of annealed TiB2 film and AlMgB14-TiB2 film. It is shown, via the water contact angle measurements, that these boride films exhibit distinct surface wettability characteristics, which are believed to result in the observed surface hydration processes. Furthermore, we found anatase TiO2 formation plays a major role in the surface wetting behaviors for these boride films.

  7. The Effects of Borides on the Mechanical Properties of TLPB Repaired Inconel 738 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J.; Ye, Y.; Sun, Z.; Zou, G.; Bai, H.; Wu, A.; Liu, L.

    2017-10-01

    The transient liquid phase diffusion bonding (TLPB) method was used to repair an artificial crack in Inconel 738, which was notched by a femtosecond laser. Mixed ratios of BNi-1a:DF-4B were investigated at the bonding temperature of 1373 K (1100 °C) for 2 to 36 hours. The effect of borides on the mechanical properties of TLPB repaired joints was studied through analysis of the microstructure, fracture path, and morphology observations. The borides formation, morphology, distribution, and joints strength were studied in detail. The results showed that the diffusion of B can either increase or decrease the joint strength, depending on its distribution and morphology. The amount of large blocky Ni-B compounds in the precipitate zone were reduced with increasing holding time, which resulted in an increase in joint strength. Nevertheless, further increasing the holding time led to a decrease in joint strength because of the formation of continuous acicular borides in the diffusion-affected zone. The fracture modes of TLPB joints were also discussed on the basis of the microstructure and fractography.

  8. Corrosion behavior of titanium boride composite coating fabricated on commercially pure titanium in Ringer's solution for bioimplant applications.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Bose; Singh, Raghuvir; Pathak, Lokesh Chandra

    2015-03-01

    The boriding of commercially pure titanium was performed at 850°C, 910°C, and 1050°C for varied soaking periods (1, 3 and 5h) to enhance the surface properties desirable for bioimplant applications. The coating developed was characterized for the evolution of phases, microstructure and morphology, microhardness, and consequent corrosion behavior in the Ringer's solution. Formation of the TiB2 layer at the outermost surface followed by the TiB whiskers across the borided CpTi is unveiled. Total thickness of the composite layer on the substrates borided at 850, 910, and 1050°C for 5h was found to be 19.1, 26.4, and 18.2μm respectively which includes <3μm thick TiB2 layer. The presence of TiB2 phase was attributed to the high hardness ~2968Hv15gf of the composite coating. The anodic polarization studies in the simulated body fluid unveiled a reduction in the pitting corrosion resistance after boriding the CpTi specimens. However, this value is >0.55VSCE (electrochemical potential in in-vivo physiological environment) and hence remains within the safe region. Both the untreated and borided CpTi specimens show two passive zones associated with different passivation current densities. Among the CpTi borided at various times and temperatures, a 3h treated shows better corrosion resistance. The corrosion of borided CpTi occurred through the dissolution of TiB2. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Mechanistic considerations of the pyrolytic formation of metal boride thin films by chemical vapor deposition from borane precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Kher, S.S.; Spencer, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    The formation of metal boride thin films by CVD is an area of potentially significant technological consequence. Interest in these materials is primarily due to their breadth of unique physical properties and to their wide structural diversity. Recently, we have explored the use of a number of boron-containing CVC precursors to prepare a wide variety of both pure metal and metal boride thin film materials. The highly efficient formation of polycrystalline transition metal and lanthanide metal boride thin films from borane precursors has now been well demonstrated through this CVD chemistry. The fundamentally important chemical processes and reactions in the CVD of boranes in forming metal boride films has, however, remained mostly a mystery. In order to rationally design new precursors and tailor the deposited solid state materials, an understanding of these fundamental processes is critical. In our recent work, which will be reported here, we have begun detailed mechanistic studies into the CVD of metal borides. These reactions have been found to occur both in the gas phase and on the surface of the reactor. A variety of studies have provided valuable insights into these complexes chemical reactions including labeling, thermal, product distribution, surface analysis, kinetic and other investigations.

  10. Effect of High Configuration Entropy and Rare Earth Addition on Boride Precipitation and Mechanical Properties of Multi-principal-Element Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Zhong, X. C.; He, Y. Z.; Li, W. H.; Wu, W. F.; Chen, G.; Guo, S.

    2017-08-01

    A series of multi-principal-element (MPE) alloys have been prepared by adding Ni, Mn, Al, Cu and Y into the reference CoCrFe-B alloy. The microstructure and mechanical properties of these MPE alloys have been investigated thoroughly. It is found that the addition of the elements can inhibit boride precipitation in the designed alloys and the solid solution strengthening effect induced by interstitial boron atoms is more significant than that by boride precipitation. The MPE alloys with the fcc phase as the main solid solution phase have a higher boron solubility and hence less boride precipitation, than those with the bcc phase as the main solid solution phase. The addition of yttrium can improve the boron solubility, decrease boride precipitation, control the boride morphology and, importantly, simultaneously improve the compressive strength and ductility of boron-containing MPE alloys.

  11. Influence of Metallic Indium Concentration on the Properties of Indium Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, N.

    2016-10-01

    Current-voltage characteristics of indium-embedded indium oxide thin films (600-850 Å), with Ag electrodes approximately 1000 Å thick, prepared by reactive evaporation of pure metallic indium in partial air pressure have been studied for substrate temperatures between 50 and 125°C. The optical properties of these films have also been investigated as a function of metallic indium concentration and substrate temperature. I-V characteristics of all the samples are non-ohmic, independent of metallic indium concentration. The conductivity of the films increases but the optical transmission decreases with increasing metallic indium concentration. Metallic indium concentration was found to be an important parameter affecting the film properties. Furthermore, two possible conduction mechanisms are proposed.

  12. Infiltration processing of boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal cermets

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    A chemical pretreatment method is used to produce boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal composites by an infiltration process. The boron carbide or other starting constituents, in powder form, are immersed in various alcohols, or other chemical agents, to change the surface chemistry of the starting constituents. The chemically treated starting constituents are consolidated into a porous ceramic precursor which is then infiltrated by molten aluminum or other metal by heating to wetting conditions. Chemical treatment of the starting constituents allows infiltration to full density. The infiltrated precursor is further heat treated to produce a tailorable microstructure. The process at low cost produces composites with improved characteristics, including increased toughness, strength.

  13. Process for Patterning Indium for Bump Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denis, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    An innovation was created for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor for integration of low-temperature detector chips with a silicon backshort and a silicon photonic choke through flipchip bonding. Indium bumps are typically patterned using liftoff processes, which require thick resist. In some applications, it is necessary to locate the bumps close to high-aspect-ratio structures such as wafer through-holes. In those cases, liftoff processes are challenging, and require complicated and time-consuming spray coating technology if the high-aspect-ratio structures are delineated prior to the indium bump process. Alternatively, processing the indium bumps first is limited by compatibility of the indium with subsequent processing. The present invention allows for locating bumps arbitrarily close to multiple-level high-aspect-ratio structures, and for indium bumps to be formed without liftoff resist. The process uses the poor step coverage of indium deposited on a silicon wafer that has been previously etched to delineate the location of the indium bumps. The silicon pattern can be processed through standard lithography prior to adding the high-aspect-ratio structures. Typically, high-aspectratio structures require a thick resist layer so this layer can easily cover the silicon topography. For multiple levels of topography, the silicon can be easily conformally coated through standard processes. A blanket layer of indium is then deposited onto the full wafer; bump bonding only occurs at the high points of the topography.

  14. Occupational Exposure to Indium of Indium Smelter Workers.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun Guang; Wang, Huan Qiang; Song, Han Bo; Li, Zhi Hui; Li, Xiao Ping; Ye, Shao Se; Zhang, Fu Gang; Cui, Shi Wei; Yan, Hui Fang; Li, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Case reports of indium-related lung disease in workers have raised public concern to the human toxicity of indium (In) and its compounds. However, studies evaluating the exposure or health of workers in In smelting plants are rare. Therefore, in this study, we focused on four In smelting plants, with the main objective of characterizing In in smelter plants in China and discussing the potential exposure biomarkers of In exposure. We recruited 494 subjectsat four In smelting plants in China. Personal air samples, first morning urine and spot blood samples were collected. In concentrations in samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In concentrations in air samples did not exceed the permissible concentration-time weighed average, but the smelter workers had a higher internal exposure to In. Positive correlations were observed between the air In and urine In concentrations, and between the air In and blood In concentrations. This study provides basic data for the following In exposure and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel borothermal process for the synthesis of nanocrystalline oxides and borides of niobium.

    PubMed

    Jha, Menaka; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V; Lofland, Samuel E; Gupta, Govind; Ganguli, Ashok K

    2011-08-21

    A new process has been developed for the synthesis of nanocrystalline niobium oxide and niobium diboride using an amorphous niobium precursor obtained via the solvothermal route. On varying the ratio of niobium precursor to boron and the reaction conditions, pure phases of nanostructured niobium oxides (Nb(2)O(5), NbO(2)), niobium diboride (NbB(2)) and core-shell nanostructures of NbB(2)@Nb(2)O(5) could be obtained at normal pressure and low temperature of 1300 °C compared to a temperature of 1650 °C normally used. The above borothermal process involves the in situ generation of B(2)O(2) to yield either oxide or diboride. The niobium oxides and borides have been characterized in detail by XRD, HRTEM and EDX studies. The core-shell structure has been investigated by XPS depth profiling, EFTEM and EELS (especially to characterize the presence of boron and the shell thickness). The niobium diboride nanorods (with high aspect ratio) show a superconducting transition with the T(c) of 6.4 K. In the core-shell of NbB(2)@Nb(2)O(5), the superconductivity of NbB(2) is masked by the niobium oxide shell and hence no superconductivity was observed. The above methodology has the benefits of realizing both oxides and borides of niobium in nanocrystalline form, in high purity and at much lower temperatures.

  16. Amorphous nickel boride membrane on a platinum-nickel alloy surface for enhanced oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Daping; Zhang, Libo; He, Dongsheng; Zhou, Gang; Lin, Yue; Deng, Zhaoxiang; Hong, Xun; Wu, Yuen; Chen, Chen; Li, Yadong

    2016-08-01

    The low activity of the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is a major barrier for electrocatalysis, and hence needs to be optimized. Tuning the surface electronic structure of platinum-based bimetallic alloys, a promising oxygen reduction reaction catalyst, plays a key role in controlling its interaction with reactants, and thus affects the efficiency. Here we report that a dealloying process can be utilized to experimentally fabricate the interface between dealloyed platinum-nickel alloy and amorphous nickel boride membrane. The coating membrane works as an electron acceptor to tune the surface electronic structure of the platinum-nickel catalyst, and this composite catalyst composed of crystalline platinum-nickel covered by amorphous nickel boride achieves a 27-times enhancement in mass activity relative to commercial platinum/carbon at 0.9 V for the oxygen reduction reaction performance. Moreover, this interactional effect between a crystalline surface and amorphous membrane can be readily generalized to facilitate the 3-times higher catalytic activity of commercial platinum/carbon.

  17. Phase stability and elastic properties of chromium borides with various stoichiometries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Wang, De Yu; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Wang, Yuan Xu

    2013-04-15

    Phase stability is important to the application of materials. By first-principles calculations, we establish the phase stability of chromium borides with various stoichiometries. Moreover, the phases of CrB3 and CrB4 have been predicted by using a newly developed particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Formation enthalpy-pressure diagrams reveal that the MoB-type structure is more energetically favorable than the TiI-type structure for CrB. For CrB2, the WB2-type structure is preferred at zero pressure. The predicted new phase of CrB3 belongs to the hexagonal P-6m2 space group and it transforms into an orthorhombic phase as the pressure exceeds 93 GPa. The predicted CrB4 (space group: Pnnm) phase is more energetically favorable than the previously proposed Immm structure. The mechanical and thermodynamic stabilities of predicted CrB3 and CrB4 are verified by the calculated elastic constants and formation enthalpies. The full phonon dispersion calculations confirm the dynamic stability of WB2 -type CrB2 and predicted CrB3. The large shear moduli, large Young's moduli, low Poisson ratios, and low bulk and shear modulus ratios of CrB4-PSC and CrB4-PSD indicate that they are potential hard materials. Analyses of Debye temperature, electronic localization function, and electronic structure provide further understanding of the chemical and physical properties of these borides.

  18. Amorphous nickel boride membrane on a platinum–nickel alloy surface for enhanced oxygen reduction reaction

    PubMed Central

    He, Daping; Zhang, Libo; He, Dongsheng; Zhou, Gang; Lin, Yue; Deng, Zhaoxiang; Hong, Xun; Wu, Yuen; Chen, Chen; Li, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    The low activity of the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is a major barrier for electrocatalysis, and hence needs to be optimized. Tuning the surface electronic structure of platinum-based bimetallic alloys, a promising oxygen reduction reaction catalyst, plays a key role in controlling its interaction with reactants, and thus affects the efficiency. Here we report that a dealloying process can be utilized to experimentally fabricate the interface between dealloyed platinum–nickel alloy and amorphous nickel boride membrane. The coating membrane works as an electron acceptor to tune the surface electronic structure of the platinum–nickel catalyst, and this composite catalyst composed of crystalline platinum–nickel covered by amorphous nickel boride achieves a 27-times enhancement in mass activity relative to commercial platinum/carbon at 0.9 V for the oxygen reduction reaction performance. Moreover, this interactional effect between a crystalline surface and amorphous membrane can be readily generalized to facilitate the 3-times higher catalytic activity of commercial platinum/carbon. PMID:27503412

  19. Phase Evolution in Boride-Based Cermets and Reaction Bonding onto Plain Low Carbon Steel Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, B.; Upadhyaya, A.

    2012-04-01

    Reaction sinter bonding is a process that aims to bond two materials for improvement in properties through reactive sintering technique. The process has been effectively used to sinter hard materials like borides in situ which not only possess excellent oxidation resistance, good corrosion resistance but also resistant to abrasive wear. Sinter bonding is a unique surface modification process achieved through powder metallurgy and is competent with other techniques like boronizing sintering and sinter-brazing since it eliminates the additional operations of heat treatment and assembly and removes the inherent setbacks with these processes. This study focuses on identifying the phase evolution mechanism using characterization tools like x-ray diffractometry and energy dispersive spectroscopy and study of sinter bonding of the boron containing precursors (Mo-Cr-Fe-Ni-FeB-MoB) onto plain carbon steel. A microstructure containing Fe-based matrix dispersed with complex borides develops with temperature in the tape cast sheets. A fivefold increase in hardness between plain carbon steel in wrought condition and sinter bonded steel was observed. The multilayer consisted of a reaction zone adjacent to the interface and was investigated with the composition profile and hardness measurements. A model of sinter bonding between the cermet and the steel has also been proposed.

  20. Formation and Characterization of Hydrogen Boride Sheets Derived from MgB2 by Cation Exchange.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Hiroaki; Fujita, Takeshi; Cuong, Nguyen Thanh; Tominaka, Satoshi; Miyauchi, Masahiro; Iimura, Soshi; Hirata, Akihiko; Umezawa, Naoto; Okada, Susumu; Nishibori, Eiji; Fujino, Asahi; Fujimori, Tomohiro; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Junji; Hosono, Hideo; Kondo, Takahiro

    2017-10-04

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are promising for applications in a wide range of fields because of their unique properties. Hydrogen boride sheets, a new 2D material recently predicted from theory, exhibit intriguing electronic and mechanical properties as well as hydrogen storage capacity. Here, we report the experimental realization of 2D hydrogen boride sheets with an empirical formula of H1B1, produced by exfoliation and complete ion-exchange between protons and magnesium cations in magnesium diboride (MgB2) with an average yield of 42.3% at room temperature. The sheets feature an sp(2)-bonded boron planar structure without any long-range order. A hexagonal boron network with bridge hydrogens is suggested as the possible local structure, where the absence of long-range order was ascribed to the presence of three different anisotropic domains originating from the 2-fold symmetry of the hydrogen positions against the 6-fold symmetry of the boron networks, based on X-ray diffraction, X-ray atomic pair distribution functions, electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, photo absorption, core-level binding energy data, infrared absorption, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. The established cation-exchange method for metal diboride opens new avenues for the mass production of several types of boron-based 2D materials by countercation selection and functionalization.

  1. A diffusion model for describing the bilayer growth (FeB/Fe 2B) during the iron powder-pack boriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddam, M.; Chentouf, S. M.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, a diffusion model is proposed for studying the bilayer growth kinetics (FeB/Fe 2B) on pure iron substrate during the powder-pack boriding in the temperature range of 1023-1273 K. This model based on Fick's laws was solved, under certain assumptions, considering a parabolic growth of iron borides. For this purpose, a computer simulation program was created for predicting the boride layer thickness as a function of process parameters (temperature, time and surface boron content). A fairly good agreement was observed between the simulation calculations and experimental data derived from the literature.

  2. Simulation of the growth kinetics of the (FeB/Fe 2B) bilayer obtained on a borided stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddam, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to simulate the growth kinetics of the (FeB/Fe 2B) bilayer grown on a substrate made of AISI 316 stainless steel by the application of the powder-pack boriding process, and using four different temperatures (1123, 1173, 1223 and 1273 K) and five exposure times (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h). The adopted diffusion model solves the mass balance equation at each growth front: (FeB/Fe 2B or FeB/substrate) under certain assumptions and without considering the diffusion zone. To consider the effect of the incubation times for the borides formation, the temperature-dependent function ϕ( T) was incorporated in the model. To validate this model, a computer code written in Matlab (version 6.5), was developed with the purpose of simulating the kinetics of the boride layers. This computer code uses the following parameters as input data: (the boriding temperature, the treatment time, the upper and lower limits of boron concentration in each iron boride, the diffusion coefficients of boron in the FeB and Fe 2B phases as well as the ϕ( T) parameter). The outputs of the computer code are the parabolic growth constant at each growth front and the thicknesses of the FeB and Fe 2B layers. A good agreement was obtained between the experimental parabolic growth constants taken from a reference work [I. Campos-Silva et al., Formation and kinetics of FeB/Fe 2B layers and diffusion zone at the surface of AISI 316 borided steels, Surf. Coat Technol., 205 (2010) 403-412] and the simulated values of the parabolic growth constants ( kFeB and k1). The present model was also able to predict the thicknesses of the FeB and Fe 2B layers at a temperature of 1243 K during 3 and 5 h. In addition, the mass gain at the material surface was also estimated as a function of the time and the upper boron content in each iron boride phase. It was shown that the simulated values of the generated mass gain are very sensitive to the increase of both temperature and the upper boron

  3. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  4. Mineral resource of the month: indium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Geologically, the occurrence of indium minerals is rare. The element most often occurs as a sulfide inclusion or substitutes in other base-metal minerals, including cassiterite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and stannite. Indium’s abundance in the crust is estimated to be 0.05 parts per million, which makes it more abundant than silver, but it is so widely disseminated that it does not occur in high enough concentrations to form mineable deposits. Therefore, indium is most often recovered from byproduct residues produced during the refining of lead and zinc. But only about one-quarter of the indium mined worldwide is refined into metal, as many indium-bearing concentrates are sent to refineries that do not have the capability of recovering the metal.

  5. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J. C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel for endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (≤ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important.

  6. Pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Gurlo, Aleksander; Dzivenko, Dmytro; Andrade, Miria; Riedel, Ralf; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-09-15

    A static pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium that takes place at ambient temperature is reported. The lattice parameter of c-In(OH)(3) decreased upon compression from 7.977(2) to approximately 7.45 A at 34 GPa, corresponding to a decrease in specific volume of approximately 18%. Fitting the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the obtained compression data gave a bulk modulus of 99 +/- 3 GPa for c-In(OH)(3). The c-In(OH)(3) crystals with a size of approximately 100 nm are comminuted upon compression, as indicated by the grain-size reduction reflected in broadening of the diffraction reflections and the appearance of smaller (approximately 5 nm) incoherently oriented domains in TEM. The rapid decompression of compressed c-In(OH)(3) leads to partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium, mainly as a result of localized stress gradients caused by relaxation of the highly disordered indium sublattice in indium hydroxide. This partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium is irreversible, as confirmed by angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy imaging, Raman scattering, and FTIR spectroscopy. Recovered c-In(OH)(3) samples become completely black and nontransparent and show typical features of metals, i.e., a falling absorption in the 100-250 cm(-1) region accompanied by a featureless spectrum in the 250-2500 cm(-1) region in the Raman spectrum and Drude-like absorption of free electrons in the region of 4000-8000 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectrum. These features were not observed in the initial c-In(OH)(3), which is a typical white wide-band-gap semiconductor.

  7. Indium Single-Ion Frequency Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagourney, Warren

    2001-01-01

    A single laser-cooled indium ion is a promising candidate for an ultimate resolution optical time or frequency standard. It can be shown that single ions from group IIIA of the periodic table (indium, thallium, etc.) can have extremely small systematic errors. In addition to being free from Doppler, transit-time and collisional shifts, these ions are also quite insensitive to perturbations from ambient magnetic and electric fields (mainly due to the use of a J=0-0 transition for spectroscopy). Of all group IIIA ions, indium seems to be the most practical, since it is heavy enough to have a tolerable intercombination cooling transition rate and (unlike thallium) has transitions which are easily accessible with frequency multiplied continuous-wave lasers. A single indium ion standard has a potential inaccuracy of one part in 10(exp 18) for integration times of 10(exp 6) seconds. We have made substantial progress during the grant period in constructing a frequency standard based upon a single indium ion. At the beginning of the grant period, single indium ions were being successfully trapped, but the lasers and optical systems were inadequate to achieve the desired goal. We have considerably improved the stability of the dye laser used to cool the ions and locked it to a molecular resonance line, making it possible to observe stable cooling-line fluorescence from a single indium ion for reasonable periods of time, as required by the demands of precision spectroscopy. We have substantially improved the single-ion fluorescence signal with significant benefits for the detection efficiency of forbidden transitions using the 'shelving' technique. Finally, we have constructed a compact, efficient UV 'clock' laser and observed 'clock' transitions in single indium ions using this laser system. We will elaborate on these accomplishments.

  8. Identification of delamination failure of boride layer on common Cr-based steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taktak, Sukru; Tasgetiren, Suleyman

    2006-10-01

    Adhesion is an important aspect in the reliability of coated components. With low-adhesion of interfaces, different crack paths may develop depending on the local stress field at the interface and the fracture toughness of the coating, substrate, and interface. In the current study, an attempt has been made to identify the delamination failure of coated Cr-based steels by boronizing. For this reason, two commonly used steels (AISI H13, AISI 304) are considered. The steels contain 5.3 and 18.3 wt.% Cr, respectively. Boriding treatment is carried out in a slurry salt bath consisting of borax, boric acid, and ferrosilicon at a temperature range of 800 950 °C for 3, 5, and 7 h. The general properties of the boron coating are obtained by mechanical and metallographic characterization tests. For identification of coating layer failure, some fracture toughness tests and the Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test are used.

  9. Titanium boride equation of state determined by in-situ X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shigeaki; Kikegawa, Takumi

    2016-12-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of titanium boride, TiB2, was investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell and multianvil high-pressure apparatus. The pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) data were collected at up to 111 GPa and room temperature for the diamond-anvil cell experiments and at up to 15 GPa and 1300 K for the multianvil experiments. No phase transition was observed through the entire range of experimental conditions. The pressure-volume data at room temperature were fitted using a Vinet EOS to obtain the isothermal bulk modulus, BT0 = 256.7 GPa, and its pressure derivative, B' T0 = 3.83. When fitting a thermal EOS using the P-V-T data for the multianvil experiments, we find that [Formula: see text] = 0.095 (GPa/K) and α 0 = 2.49 × 10(-5) K(-1).

  10. Accelerated kinetics and mechanism of growth of boride layers on titanium under isothermal and cyclic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Biplab

    2011-12-01

    The tendency of titanium (Ti) and its alloys to wear, gall and seize during high contact stresses between sliding surfaces severely limits their applications in bearings, gears etc. One way to mitigate these problems is to modify their surfaces by applying hard and wear resistant surface coatings. Boriding, which involves solid state diffusion of boron (B) into Ti, thereby forming hard surface layers consisting of TiB2 and TiB compounds has been shown to produce extremely high wear resistant surfaces in Ti and its alloys. The growth kinetics of these layers are, however, limited by the low diffusivities of B in the high melting TiB2 and TiB compounds. On the basis of the fact that HCP metals such as Ti show enhanced (anomalous) self-diffusion near the phase transition temperature, the first hypothesis of this work has been that the diffusivity enhancement should cause rapid ingress of B atoms, thereby accelerating the growth of the hard boride layers. Isothermal boriding experiments were performed close to phase transition temperature (890, 910, and 915°C) for time periods ranging from 3 to 24 hours. It was found that indeed a much deeper growth of TiB into the Ti substrate (˜75 mum) occurred at temperatures very close to the transition temperature (910°C), compared to that obtained at 1050°C. A diffusion model based on error-function solutions of Fick's second law was developed to quantitatively illustrate the combined effects of the normal B diffusion in the TiB phase and the anomalous B diffusion in Ti phase in accelerating TiB layer growth. Furthermore, isothermal boriding experiments close to transition temperature (900°C) for a period of 71 hours resulted in coating thickness well above 100 mum, while at 1050°C, the layer growth saturated after about 24 hours of treatment time. In the second part of this work, a novel approach named "cyclic-phase-changediffusion, (CPCD)," to create deeper TiB2 and TiB coating layers on CP-Ti by cyclic thermal processing

  11. New YMo{sub 3}B{sub 7} boride and its structure

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhalenko, S.I.; Kuz`ma, Yu.B.; Babizhetskii, V.S.

    1995-05-01

    The crystal structure of YMo{sub 3}B{sub 7} boride is determined (a CAD-4 diffractometer, MoK{sub {alpha}} radiation, R = 0.019 for 668 reflections). The crystals are orthorhombic: a = 11.012(1) {Angstrom}, b = 3.1013(3) {Angstrom}, c = 12.864(1) {Angstrom}; Z = 4; {rho}{sub calc} = 6.839(2) g/cm{sup 3}; and sp. gr. Pnma. The structure belongs to a new type: metal atoms form trigonal prisms, within which boron atoms occur. Four columns of alternating empty orthorhombic [EMo{sub 4}Y] pyramids and [EMo{sub 2}Y{sub 2}] tetrahedra run in the b direction. The boron atoms form ribbons of six-membered rings. The ribbons are tilted to the ab plane. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  12. The microstructure and superplastic behavior of clean mechanically alloyed titanium - titanium boride alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.P.; Brydson, R.; Hammond, C.; Wisbey, A.; Godfrey, T.M.T.

    2000-07-01

    The superplastic forming (SPF) of titanium alloys is an established technology. A reduction in grain size from that of the typical sheet materials would lead to enhanced SPF properties and hence a reduction in production cycle times. This study describes the microstructural development and superplastic behavior of fine-grained Ti-6%Al-4%V alloys. Ball-milling Ti-6%Al-4%V powder produces a nanocrystalline material; however on consolidation by hot isostatic pressing rapid grain growth occurs. Addition of boron powder during milling leads to boride precipitates in the matrix of the consolidated alloy. The precipitates are dispersed inhomogeneously, resulting in localized grain refinement. Superplastic testing revealed cavitation formation but in comparison to conventional sheet material, large elongations were achieved at relatively high strain rates.

  13. Superconductivity in the Metal Rich Li-Pd-B Ternary Boride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togano, K.; Badica, P.; Nakamori, Y.; Orimo, S.; Takeya, H.; Hirata, K.

    2004-12-01

    Superconductivity at about 8K was observed in the metal-rich Li-Pd-B ternary system. Structural, microstructural, electrical, and magnetic investigations for various compositions proved that the Li2Pd3B compound, which has an antiperovskite cubic structure composed of distorted Pd6B octahedrons, is responsible for the superconductivity. This is the first observation of superconductivity in metal-rich ternary borides containing alkaline metal and Pd as a late transition metal. The compound prepared by arc melting has a high density and is relatively stable in the air. The upper critical fields Hc2(0) estimated by linear extrapolation and the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg theory are 6.2 and 4.8T, respectively.

  14. PREFACE: The 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takaho

    2009-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains invited and contributed peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008), which was held on 7-12 September 2008, at Kunibiki Messe, Matsue, Japan. This triennial symposium has a half-century long history starting from the 1st meeting in 1959 at Asbury Park, New Jersey. We were very pleased to organize ISBB 2008, which gathered chemists, physicists, materials scientists as well as diamond and high-pressure researchers. This meeting had a strong background in the boron-related Japanese research history, which includes the discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 and development of Nd-Fe-B hard magnets and of YB66 soft X-ray monochromator. The scope of ISBB 2008 spans both basic and applied interdisciplinary research that is centered on boron, borides and related materials, and the collection of articles defines the state of the art in research on these materials. The topics are centered on: 1. Preparation of new materials (single crystals, thin films, nanostructures, ceramics, etc) under normal or extreme conditions. 2. Crystal structure and chemical bonding (new crystal structures, nonstoichiometry, defects, clusters, quantum-chemical calculations). 3. Physical and chemical properties (band structure, phonon spectra, superconductivity; optical, electrical, magnetic, emissive, mechanical properties; phase diagrams, thermodynamics, catalytic activity, etc) in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. 4. Applications and prospects (thermoelectric converters, composites, ceramics, coatings, etc) There were a few discoveries of new materials, such as nanomaterials, and developments in applications. Many contributions were related to 4f heavy Fermion systems of rare-earth borides. Exotic mechanisms of magnetism and Kondo effects have been discussed, which may indicate another direction of development of boride. Two special sessions

  15. Interlayer utilization (including metal borides) for subsequent deposition of NSD films via microwave plasma CVD on 316 and 440C stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballinger, Jared

    Diamond thin films have promising applications in numerous fields due to the extreme properties of diamonds in conjunction with the surface enhancement of thin films. Biomedical applications are numerous including temporary implants and various dental and surgical instruments. The unique combination of properties offered by nanostructured diamond films that make it such an attractive surface coating include extreme hardness, low obtainable surface roughness, excellent thermal conductivity, and chemical inertness. Regrettably, numerous problems exist when attempting to coat stainless steel with diamond generating a readily delaminated film: outward diffusion of iron to the surface, inward diffusion of carbon limiting necessary surface carbon precursor, and the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion yielding substantial residual stress. While some exotic methods have been attempted to overcome these hindrances, the most common approach is the use of an intermediate layer between the stainless steel substrate and the diamond thin film. In this research, both 316 stainless steel disks and 440C stainless steel ball bearings were tested with interlayers including discrete coatings and graded, diffusion-based surface enhancements. Titanium nitride and thermochemical diffusion boride interlayers were both examined for their effectiveness at allowing for the growth of continuous and adherent diamond films. Titanium nitride interlayers were deposited by cathodic arc vacuum deposition on 440C bearings. Lower temperature diamond processing resulted in improved surface coverage after cooling, but ultimately, both continuity and adhesion of the nanostructured diamond films were unacceptable. The ability to grow quality diamond films on TiN interlayers is in agreement with previous work on iron and low alloy steel substrates, and the similarly seen inadequate adhesion strength is partially a consequence of the lacking establishment of an interfacial carbide phase

  16. Pt-B System Revisited: Pt2B, a New Structure Type of Binary Borides. Ternary WAl12-Type Derivative Borides.

    PubMed

    Sologub, Oksana; Salamakha, Leonid; Rogl, Peter; Stöger, Berthold; Bauer, Ernst; Bernardi, Johannes; Giester, Gerald; Waas, Monika; Svagera, Robert

    2015-11-16

    On the basis of a detailed study applying X-ray single-crystal and powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy analysis, it was possible to resolve existing uncertainties in the Pt-rich section (≥65 atom % Pt) of the binary Pt-B phase diagram above 600 °C. The formation of a unique structure has been observed for Pt2B [X-ray single-crystal data: space group C2/m, a = 1.62717(11) nm, b = 0.32788(2) nm, c = 0.44200(3) nm, β = 104.401(4)°, RF2 = 0.030]. Within the homogeneity range of "Pt3B", X-ray powder diffraction phase analysis prompted two structural modifications as a function of temperature. The crystal structure of "hT-Pt3B" complies with the hitherto reported structure of anti-MoS2 [space group P63/mmc, a = 0.279377(2) nm, c = 1.04895(1) nm, RF = 0.075, RI = 0.090]. The structure of the new "[Formula: see text]T-Pt3B" is still unknown. The formation of previously reported Pt∼4B has not been confirmed from binary samples. Exploration of the Pt-rich section of the Pt-Cu-B system at 600 °C revealed a new ternary compound, Pt12CuB6-y [X-ray single-crystal data: space group Im3̅, a = 0.75790(2) nm, y = 3, RF2 = 0.0129], which exhibits the filled WAl12-type structure accommodating boron in the interstitial trigonal-prismatic site 12e. The isotypic platinum-aluminum-boride was synthesized and studied. The solubility of copper in binary platinum borides has been found to attain ∼7 atom % Cu for Pt2B but to be insignificant for "[Formula: see text]T-Pt3B". The architecture of the new Pt2B structure combines puckered layers of boron-filled and empty [Pt6] octahedra (anti-CaCl2-type fragment) alternating along the x axis with a double layer of boron-semifilled [Pt6] trigonal prisms interbedded with a layer of empty tetrahedra and tetragonal pyramids (B-deficient α-T[Formula: see text]I fragment). Assuming boron vacancies ordering (space group R3), the Pt12CuB6-y structure exhibits serpentine-like columns of edge

  17. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal raw...

  18. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal raw...

  19. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal raw...

  20. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal raw...

  1. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal raw...

  2. Corrosion Resistance of Nanopowders of Borides and Carbides of IV-VIB Group Metals in the Nickeling Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhnin, Dmytro; Malyshev, Viktor; Kuschevskaya, Nina; Gab, Angelina

    2017-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of nanopowders of borides and carbides of metals of IV-VIB groups, as well as of silicon carbide, was studied in the standard nickeling electrolytes. As objects of study, nanopowders with the content of the main phase 91.8-97.6% and with the average particle size 32-78 nm were used. Their corrosion resistance was evaluated depending on the acidity of the electrolyte, temperature, and duration of the interaction. It was found that, by the corrosion resistance in the electrolytes solutions, nanopowders of borides and carbides within each group of compounds are similar and characterized by unlimited period of induction in alkaline media. An exception is the nanopowder of silicon carbide which is resistant to the solution of any acidity.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of nitrogen-phosphorus-based fire retardants modified by boride/propanetriol flyeidyl ether complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Haijiao; Ma, Linrong; Zhang, Shifeng; Li, Jianzhang

    2015-07-01

    A Boride/propanetriol glyeidyl ether (B/PTGE) complex was employed to intensify the fire resistance capabilities of nitrogen-phosphorus (NP) fire retardants by reacting with phosphoric acid and urea to yield nitrogen-phosphorus-boron-PTGE fire retardants. The effects of NPB-PTGE fire retardants on wooden properties were characterized by limit oxygen index (LOI), cone calorimetry, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results depict that the fire resistance of the B/PTGE complex modified by NP-based fire retardants was improved significantly. The PTGE was at 10% boride at 2%, and the treated wood has the LOI of 52%, which is 11.46% higher compared with woods treated with NP fire retardant.

  4. Structural and mechanical properties of transition metal borides Nb2MB2 (M=Tc, Ru, and Os) under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Yan, Haiyan; Wei, Qun

    2016-10-01

    First-principle total energy calculations are employed to provide a fundamental understanding of the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of transition metal borides Nb2MB2 (M=Tc, Ru, and Os) within the tetragonal superstructure P4/mnc structure. The mechanically and dynamically stabilities of three borides have been demonstrated by the elastic constants and phonons calculations under pressure. Among these three compounds, Nb2TcB2 exhibits the biggest bulk and Young's modulus, smallest Poission's ratio, and highest harness. Density of states of them revealed that the strong B-B, Nb-B and M-B covalent bonds are major driving forces for their high bulk and shear moduli as well as small Poisson's ratio.

  5. Pre-irradiation spatial distribution and stability of boride particles in rapidly solidified boron-doped stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kanani, N.; Arnberg, L.; Harling, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    The time temperature behavior of boride particles has been studied in rapidly solidified ultra low carbon and nitrogen modified 316 stainless steel with 0.088% boron and 0.45% zirconium. The results show that the as-splat-cooled specimens exhibit precipitates at the grain boundaries and triple junctions. For temperatures up to about 750/sup 0/C no significant microstructural changes occur for short heat treatment times. In the temperature range of 750 to 950/sup 0/C, however, particles typically 100 to 500 A in diameter containing Zr and B are formed within the grains. Higher temperatures enhance the formation of such particles and give rise to particle networks. The results show that a fine and uniform distribution of the boride particles almost exclusively within the grains can be achieved if proper annealing conditions are chosen. This type of distribution is an important requirement for the homogeneous production of helium during neutron irradiation in fast reactors.

  6. Thermal Stability of Chelated Indium Activable Tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysikopoulos, Costas; Kruger, Paul

    1986-01-21

    The thermal stability of indium tracer chelated with organic ligands ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) was measured for reservoir temperatures of 150, 200, and 240 C. Measurements of the soluble indium concentration was made as a function of time by neutron activation analysis. From the data, approximate thermal decomposition rates were estimated. At 150 C, both chelated tracers were stable over the experimental period of 20 days. At 200 C, the InEDTA concentration remained constant for 16 days, after which the thermal decomposition occurred at a measured rate constant of k = 0.09 d{sup -1}. The thermal decomposition of InNTA at 200 C showed a first order reaction with a measured rate constant of k = 0.16 d{sup -1}. At 240 C, both indium chelated tracers showed rapid decomposition with rate constants greater than 1.8 d{sup -1}. The data indicate that for geothermal reservoir with temperatures up to about 200 C, indium chelated tracers can be used effectively for transit times of at least 20 days. These experiments were run without reservoir rock media, and do not account for concomitant loss of indium tracer by adsorption processes.

  7. Indium adhesion provides quantitative measure of surface cleanliness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krieger, G. L.; Wilson, G. J.

    1968-01-01

    Indium tipped probe measures hydrophobic and hydrophilic contaminants on rough and smooth surfaces. The force needed to pull the indium tip, which adheres to a clean surface, away from the surface provides a quantitative measure of cleanliness.

  8. Indium: bringing liquid-crystal displays into focus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Celestine N.

    2015-07-30

    Compared to more abundant industrial metals such as lead and zinc, information about the behavior and toxicity of indium in the environment is limited. However, many indium compounds have been proven to be toxic to animals.

  9. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  10. Assessment of workplace air concentrations of indium dust in an indium-recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Hiroyuki; Minozoe, Aoi; Tanaka, Shigeru; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Nakaza, Masahiro; Arito, Heihachiro; Eitaki, Yoko; Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Suspended indium dust in an indium-recycling plant was quantified, in order to improve the work environment and to reduce workers' exposure to the dust. Assessment of indium dust in the workplace air by multipoint area sampling and personal breathing zone sampling was conducted twice in 2004 and 2008. In 2004, all recycling processes except for purity analysis were classified into control class III according to the 2004 Notification. Two out of 5 workers were exposed to total dust with indium concentrations exceeding the ACGIH's TLV-TWA of 0.1 mg In/m(3). In 2008, the indium-contaminated workplace air was improved by local exhaust ventilation systems installed in some processes, resulting in control class I. According to the 2010 Technical Guideline, however, all the processes were classified into stage II or III, indicating that the first assessment value or Measurement B-based concentrations exceeded the acceptable exposure concentration limit of 0.0003 mg In/m(3) of respirabe dust. Exposure of almost all the workers to indium dust was below the TLV-TWA. The first field survey showed that almost all workplaces were classified into control class III, and that some workers were exposed to dust with indium concentrations exceeding the TLV-TWA. It was found in the second survey that workplace air contamination was improved by the local exhaust ventilation system, but was not reduced sufficiently to a level that meets the new Guideline.

  11. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, L.P.; Scott, A.C.; Bondurant, F.J.; Browner, B.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the specificity of indium-111 leukocyte scans for osteomyelitis when fractures are present. Midshaft tibial osteotomies were performed in 14 New Zealand white rabbits, seven of which were infected postoperatively with Staphylococcus aureus per Norden's protocol. All 14 rabbits were scanned following injection with 75 microCi of indium 111 at 72 h after osteotomy and at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Before the rabbits were killed, the fracture sites were cultured to document the presence or absence of infection. The results of all infected osteotomy sites were positive, whereas no positive scans were found in the noninfected osteotomies. We concluded from this study that uncomplicated fracture healing does not result in a positive indium-111 leukocyte scan.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN P-10...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN P-10...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN P-10...

  15. Superconductivity of various borides and the role of carbon in their high performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awana, V. P. S.; Vajpayee, Arpita; Mudgel, Monika; Kishan, H.

    2009-03-01

    The superconductivity of MgB2, Mg1-xAlxB2 and NbB2+x is compared. The stretched c-lattice parameter (c = 3.52 Å) of MgB2 in comparison to NbB2.8 (c = 3.32 Å) and AlB2 (c = 3.25 Å) decides empirically the population of their π and σ bands and, as a result, their Tc values at 39 and 11 K, respectively, for the first two and no superconductivity for the latter. Besides stretching of the c-lattice parameter not only the density of the carriers but also their signs change in these isostructural di-borides. The thermoelectric power of these compounds clearly demonstrates their changing π and σ band contributions and the ensuing appearance/disappearance of superconductivity. An increased c parameter increases the boron plane constructed hole type σ band population and decreases the contribution from the Mg or Al plane electron type π band. This turns the hole type (mainly σ band conduction) MgB2 superconductor (39 K) into the electron type (mainly π band conduction) non-superconducting AlB2. The importance of hole type σ band conduction dominating the superconductivity of the various borides is further established by the high performance of intrinsically pinned MgB2-xCx. Our results on MgB2 added with nano-diamond, nano-SiC and various organics such as glucose, PVA and adipic acid, when compared with MgB2-xCx, clearly demonstrate that the main role is played by C substitution at the B site in the host MgB2 and the ensuing σ plane disorder and vortex pinning. The best strategy could be to add (<10 nm) nanoparticles to MgB1.8C0.2 to ensure both extrinsic pinning by the former and intrinsic pinning by the latter.

  16. A model for studying the kinetics of the formation of Fe 2B boride layers at the surface of a gray cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddam, M.; Chegroune, R.

    2010-06-01

    The present work estimates, using a kinetic model, the growth kinetics of Fe 2B boride layers generated at the surface of a gray cast iron via the powder-pack boriding considering three different temperatures (1173, 1223 and 1273 K) and four treatment times (2, 4, 6 and 8 h). By the use of the mass balance equation at the (Fe 2B/substrate) interface under certain assumptions and considering the effect of the boride incubation time, it was possible to estimate the corresponding parabolic growth constant in terms of two parameters αCupFeB and β( T) depending on the boron content in the Fe 2B phase and on the process temperature, respectively. The mass gain at the material surface and the instantaneous velocity of the (Fe 2B/substrate) interface were also estimated. A fairly good agreement was observed between the experimental parabolic growth constants taken from a reference work (Campos-Silva et al., Characterization of boride layers formed at the surface of gray cast irons, Kovove Mater. 47 (2009) 1-7.) and the simulated values of the parabolic growth constants. Furthermore, the boride layer thicknesses were predicted and experimentally verified for three process temperatures and four treatment times.

  17. [Investigation of indium exposure in workers in indium smelting plant].

    PubMed

    Ding, C G; Yan, H F; Wang, H Q; Li, T

    2016-04-20

    To investigate the internal and external exposure levels of indium (In)in workers in an In smelting plant, and to analyze its distribution characteristics. A survey was performed in 63 employed workers with more than one year of experience working in an In smelting plant in 2014. The personal air samples for 31 workers were collected, and the whole blood, serum, and urine samples of all the 63 workers were collected to do the occupational health examination at the same time. In levels in all samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The smelter workers had a higher In exposure level in the air than the office workers (2.26 μg/m(3) vs 0.82 μg/m(3), P>0.05). There was a significant difference in In exposure level in the air between the workers doing different types of jobs (P<0.05). The In exposure levels in the air in the metathesis workers and electrolysis workers were 26.10 μg/m(3) and 20.99 μg/m(3), respectively, which were significantly higher than those in other workers (P<0.05). The smelter workers had significantly higher geometric means of In levels in the whole blood, serum, and urine than the office workers (0.44 μg/L vs 0.09 μg/L, P<0.05; 0.35 μg/L vs 0.09 μg/L, P<0.05; 0.26 μg/L vs 0.12 μg/L, P<0.05). There were significant differences in In levels in the whole blood, serum, and urine between the workers doing different types of jobs (P<0.05). The metathesis workers (13.0 μg/L, 4.02 μg/L, and 2.93 μg/L)and electrolysis workers (5.71 μg/L, 5.14 μg/L, and 4.26 μg/L)had higher In levels in the whole blood, serum, and urine than other workers. The In level in the whole blood was positively correlated with the In levels in the urine and serum (rs=0.601, P<0.05; rs=0.823, P<0.05). The In levels in the whole blood and urine were positively correlated with the In level in the air(rs=0.483, P<0.05; rs=0.428, P<0.05). In the In smelting plant, the In concentrations in the air are lower than the standard value, but the

  18. Phase stability and mechanical properties of tungsten borides from first principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Erjun; Meng, Jian; Ma, Yanming; Wu, Zhijian

    2010-10-28

    The phase stability and mechanical properties of tungsten borides W(2)B, WB, WB(2), W(2)B(5) and WB(4) were extensively studied by first-principles calculations within density functional theory. The thermodynamic and mechanical stabilities were examined. Our calculations on the enthalpy-pressure relationship and convex hulls have demonstrated that at zero pressure, the experimentally observed W(2)B-W(2)B (W(2)B-W(2)B represents W(2)B in W(2)B structure type, the same hereinafter) and WB-WB, and assumed WB(2)-ReB(2) phases are stable against decomposition into other components. The estimated hardness of WB(2)-ReB(2) is 39.4 GPa, suggesting that it is a potentially hard compound. At 60 GPa, the most stable phases are WB-WB and WB(2)-WB(2). WB-WB, WB(2)-AlB(2) and WB(4) are the ground state phases at 100 GPa. The phase transition mechanism for WB(2) was discussed. The synthesis of WB(2)-AlB(2) could be conducted at high pressures.

  19. Preliminary investigation of zirconium boride ceramals for gas-turbine blade applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Charles A

    1953-01-01

    Zirconium boride ZrB2 ceramals were investigated for possible gas-turbine-blade application. Included in the study were thermal shock evaluations of disks, preliminary turbine-blade operation, and observations of oxidation resistance. Thermal shock disks of the following three compositions were studied: (a) 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent B by weight; (b) 92.5 percent ZrB2 plus 7.5 percent B by weight; and (c) 100 percent ZrB2. Thermal shock disks were quenched from temperatures of 1800 degrees, 2000 degrees, 2200 degrees, and 2400 degrees F. The life of turbine blades containing 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B by weight was determined in gas-turbine tests. The blades were run at approximately 1600 degrees F and 15,000 to 26,000 rpm. The thermal shock resistance of the 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent boron ceramals compares favorably with that of TiC plus Co and TiC plus Ni ceramals. Oxidation of the disks during the thermal shock evaluation was slight for the comparatively short time (8.3 hr) up through 2000 degrees F. Oxidation of a specimen was severe, however, after 100 hours at 2000 degrees F. The turbine blade performance evaluation of the 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B composition was preliminary in scope ; no conclusions can be drawn.

  20. The structural stabilities, mechanical properties and hardness of chromium tetraboride: Compared with low-B borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ming-Min; Huang, Cheng; Tian, Chun-Ling

    2016-10-01

    Using the first-principles calculations, we provide a systemic understanding of the structural features and phase stability, mechanical and electronic properties, as well as the roles of boron (B) atom arrangement in the hardness for chromium borides. The structural and relative energy searches together with formation enthalpy confirm the most stable Cr2B with an orthorhombic Fddd symmetry, CrB with an orthorhombic Cmcm symmetry, CrB2 with a hexagonal P63/mmc symmetry and chromium tetraboride (CrB4) with an orthorhombic Pnnm symmetry. The shear modulus, Young’s modulus and C44 increase with the boron content, while the Poisson’s ratio and B/G ratio have an opposite tendency. Moreover, due to higher B content, strong three-dimensional (3D) covalent B networks and lower metallic contribution, CrB4 with Pnnm symmetry has the largest hardness value (46.8 GPa), exceeding the superhard limit, indicating its superhard nature.

  1. High borides: determining the features and details of lattice dynamics from neutron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, P. A.

    2015-04-01

    We review wide-ranging research that combines inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy with phenomenological and ab initio calculations to study the lattice dynamics and specifics of the electron-phonon interaction in three-dimensional boron cluster network systems M B_6 and M B12 ( M= {La}, {Sm}, and {Yb}, {Lu}, {Zr}). A close similarity is found between the atomic vibration spectra of these systems, which is fundamentally due to a strong hierarchy of interatomic interaction in these systems and which manifests itself both in the shape of the low-energy phonon dispersion and in the position of the high-energy edge of the spectrum. Manifestations of strong electron-phonon interactions in the lattice vibration spectra of borides are studied in detail and their relation to the nature and features of the valence-unstable state of rare-earth ions is examined. Resonance nonadiabaticity and magnetovibration interaction effects in spin- and valence-fluctuating systems are given special attention.

  2. Joining of zirconium boride based refractory ceramics to Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muolo, Maria Luigia; Ferrera, Elena; Morbelli, Luisa; Zanotti, Claudio; Passerone, Alberto

    2003-09-01

    The exploitation of the peculiar characteristics of ceramic refractory materials in extreme conditions (as for Thermal Protection Systems - TPS) often depends to a great extent on the ability to join different ceramics one to the other and to special metallic alloys. Joints may be achieved in a number of ways, but principally are made by either solid phase or liquid phase transformations (brazing). Brazed joints are difficult to realise in the presence of ceramic materials, due to the fact that they are not wet, in general, by liquid metals. This paper presents experimental results on the wettability characteristics of zirconium boride based materials (with Si3N4, Ni etc.) by an AgZr alloy, the microstructures and thermal tests of brazed joints with the special alloy Ti6Al4V. The wetting data will be examined in terms of interfacial characteristics and in terms of the kinetics of spreading. Thermal tests and models will be devoted to evaluate and measure the thermal insulation capacity of the ceramic layers in order to determine the optimal thickness as a function of the foreseen outer surface temperature.

  3. Preparation of iron boride-silica core-shell nanoparticles with soft ferromagnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Saiyasombat, C; Petchsang, N; Tang, I M; Hodak, J H

    2008-02-27

    A one-pot aqueous chemical synthesis for silica-passivated ferromagnetic nanoparticles is presented. The average size of these particles is 84 ± 20 nm. The x-ray and electron diffraction experiments revealed that the nanoparticles are mainly composed of polycrystalline iron boride. The broad x-ray diffraction peak leads to an average crystallite size of 1.8 nm, which is much smaller than the overall size of the particles, and is consistent with the polycrystalline nature of the samples. Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization experiments were used to establish the room temperature magnetic properties as well as the chemical nature of the particles. Fe(2)B dominates the composition of the nanoparticles, having a hyperfine field broadly distributed in the 10-33 T range. Alpha iron, the second ferromagnetic material identified in the particles, amounts to 4.6% of the composition. Finally, a paramagnetic phase accounting for approximately 14.6% of the material of the particles was also detected. These nanoparticles contain a core with soft ferromagnetic properties surrounded by a passivating silica layer, and are suitable for magnetically targeted drug delivery and electromagnetic induction heating applications.

  4. Study on the formation of rhenium borides by density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agundez, R. R.; Soto, G.; Moreno, M. G.; Reyes-Serrato, A.

    2009-03-01

    The searching of hard and superhard materials is a hot topic in material science. Two known factors are fundamental to get high hardness: (1) high valence-electron density; and (2) high number of electron in covalent bonds. The 5d-transition metals comply with requirement (1); so, the task is to fulfill condition (2) without expanding its native structure. Supposedly this is possible by developing interstitial alloys with elements of moderate electronegativity, like boron and/or carbon. This idea materializes in the very hard ReB2, which scratches the surface of diamond. This work is a study in the formation of rhenium borides by density functional calculations. Here, we want to reveal the changes that would occur in the hexagonal close packed lattice of Re as B is inserted into its interstitial sites. We cover compositions in ReBx from x = 0 to x = 3 in x steps of 0.125. B is positioned in octahedral and tetrahedral interstices of Re, and for each arrangements we have calculated cell volume, cohesive energy, bulk modulus, valence electron concentration, and energy density. Supported by FONDOS CONACYT I0013, SNI-ESTUDIANTES 2008-01, SOLICITUD: 103909

  5. A biokinetic and dosimetric model for ionic indium in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Martin; Mattsson, Sören; Johansson, Lennart; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews biokinetic data for ionic indium, and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic indium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on human data and indium in the form of ionic indium(III), as indium chloride and indium arsenide. The model presented for systemic indium is defined by five different pools: plasma, bone marrow, liver, kidneys and other soft tissues. The model is based on two subsystems: one corresponding to indium bound to transferrin and one where indium is transported back to the plasma, binds to red blood cell transferrin and is then excreted through the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Absorbed doses to several organs and the effective dose are calculated for 111In- and 113mIn-ions. The proposed biokinetic model is compared with previously published biokinetic indium models published by the ICRP. The absorbed doses are calculated using the ICRP/ICRU adult reference phantoms and the effective dose is estimated according to ICRP Publication 103. The effective doses for 111In and 113mIn are 0.25 mSv MBq-1 and 0.013 mSv MBq-1 respectively. The updated biokinetic and dosimetric models presented in this paper take into account human data and new animal data, which represent more detailed and presumably more accurate dosimetric data than that underlying previous models for indium.

  6. Developmental toxicity of indium: embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Mikio; Usami, Makoto; Nakazawa, Ken; Arishima, Kazuyoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2008-12-01

    Indium, a precious metal classified in group 13 (IIIB) in the periodic table, has been used increasingly in the semiconductor industry. Because indium is a rare metal, technology for indium recycling from transparent conducting films for liquid crystal displays is desired, and its safety evaluation is becoming increasingly necessary. The developmental toxicity of indium in experimental animals was summarized. The intravenous or oral administration of indium to pregnant animals causes growth inhibition and the death of embryos in hamsters, rats, and mice. The intravenous administration of indium to pregnant animals causes embryonic or fetal malformation, mainly involving digit and tail deformities, in hamsters and rats. The oral administration of indium also induces fetal malformation in rats and rabbits, but requires higher doses. No teratogenicity has been observed in mice. Caudal hypoplasia, probably due to excessive cell loss by increased apoptosis in the tailbud, in the early postimplantation stage was considered to account for indium-induced tail malformation as a possible pathogenetic mechanism. Findings from in vitro experiments indicated that the embryotoxicity of indium could have direct effects on the conceptuses. Toxicokinetic studies showed that the embryonic exposure concentration was more critical than the exposure time regarding the embryotoxicity of indium. It is considered from these findings that the risk of the developmental toxicity of indium in humans is low, unless an accidentally high level of exposure or unknown toxic interaction occurs because of possible human exposure routes and levels (i.e. oral, very low-level exposure).

  7. Proteomic analysis of indium embryotoxicity in cultured postimplantation rat embryos.

    PubMed

    Usami, Makoto; Nakajima, Mikio; Mitsunaga, Katsuyoshi; Miyajima, Atsuko; Sunouchi, Momoko; Doi, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Indium embryotoxicity was investigated by proteomic analysis with two-dimensional electrophoresis of rat embryos cultured from day 10.5 of gestation for 24h in the presence of 50 microM indium trichloride. In the embryo proper, indium increased quantity of several protein spots including those identified as serum albumin, phosphorylated cofilin 1, phosphorylated destrin and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. The increased serum albumin, derived from the culture medium composed of rat serum, may decrease the toxicity of indium. The increase of phosphorylated cofilin 1 might be involved in dysmorphogenicity of indium through perturbation of actin functions. In the yolk sac membrane, indium induced quantitative and qualitative changes in the protein spots. Proteins from appeared spots included stress proteins, and those from decreased or disappeared spots included serum proteins, glycolytic pathway enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins, indicating yolk sac dysfunction. Thus, several candidate proteins that might be involved in indium embryotoxicity were identified.

  8. Relationship between indium exposure and oxidative damage in workers in indium tin oxide production plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chen, Chang-Yun; Chen, Gun-Ing; Lee, Lien-Hsiung; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2012-05-01

    The study aimed to assess the relationship between indium exposure and surfactant protein and any oxidative damage in indium tin oxide (ITO)-exposed workers. The study was conducted in two typical ITO-manufacturing plants in Taiwan. One hundred and seventy manufacturing workers and 132 administrators were recruited. The geometric mean serum indium (S-In) level in the workers of the manufacturing department was 1.26 μg/l, which was significantly higher than those in the administrative department (0.72 μg/l). The S-In levels of 49 workers were higher than 3 μg/l (49/302, 16.2%), exceeding an occupational exposure limit suggested by the Japan Society for Occupational Health. Significant positive relationships were found between S-In and surfactant protein A (SP-A), and surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels. SP-A and SP-D levels were elevated significantly in the workers with moderately high indium exposure. The present study indicates a significant elevating trend of SP-A and SP-D levels in ITO-manufacturing workers, which are sensitive markers of interstitial lung disease. Though the indium exposure is not directly linked to all indicators of oxidative DNA damage, the ITO-manufacturing workplace is suggested to be related to oxidative DNA damage for the workers in the current study. Therefore, in addition to the indium exposure, there might be other occupational hazards in the ITO workplace to cause oxidative damage.

  9. Sinterless Formation Of Contacts On Indium Phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1995-01-01

    Improved technique makes it possible to form low-resistivity {nearly equal to 10(Sup-6) ohm cm(Sup2)} electrical contacts on indium phosphide semiconductor devices without damaging devices. Layer of AgP2 40 Angstrom thick deposited on InP before depositing metal contact. AgP2 interlayer sharply reduces contact resistance, without need for sintering.

  10. Sinterless Formation Of Contacts On Indium Phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1995-01-01

    Improved technique makes it possible to form low-resistivity {nearly equal to 10(Sup-6) ohm cm(Sup2)} electrical contacts on indium phosphide semiconductor devices without damaging devices. Layer of AgP2 40 Angstrom thick deposited on InP before depositing metal contact. AgP2 interlayer sharply reduces contact resistance, without need for sintering.

  11. Computer simulation of monolayer growth kinetics of Fe 2B phase during the paste-boriding process: Influence of the paste thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddam, M.

    2006-11-01

    This paper deals with the effect of boron paste thickness on the study of the monolayer growth kinetics of Fe2B phase forming on AISI 1045 steel by the paste-boriding process. A mathematical diffusion model based on the Fick's phenomenological equations was applied in order to estimate the growth rate constant at (Fe2B/γ-Fe) interface, the layer thickness of iron boride as well as the associated mass gain depending on the boriding parameters such as time, temperature and surface boron concentration related to the boron paste thickness. The simulation results are found to be in a fairly good agreement with the experimental data derived from the literature.

  12. Synthesis of Binary Transition Metal Nitrides, Carbides and Borides from the Elements in the Laser-Heated Diamond Anvil Cell and Their Structure-Property Relations

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Alexandra; Winkler, Björn; Juarez-Arellano, Erick A.; Bayarjargal, Lkhamsuren

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal nitrides, carbides and borides have a high potential for industrial applications as they not only have a high melting point but are generally harder and less compressible than the pure metals. Here we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of binary transition metal nitrides, carbides and borides focusing on the reaction of the elements at extreme conditions generated within the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The current knowledge of their structures and high-pressure properties like high-(p,T) stability, compressibility and hardness is described as obtained from experiments. PMID:28824101

  13. Effect of the boride-nitride hardening on the structure and properties of chromium steel deposited with a flux-cored wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, E. N.; Losev, A. S.; Borodikhin, S. A.; Ivlev, K. Ye.

    2017-08-01

    Reliability and durability of pipeline valves are largely determined by the resistance of weld sealing surfaces of its shut-off valve, which in its turn depends on the weld metal properties. To improve the durability of valves a new composition of a high chromium flux-cored wire with a boride compounds complex (BN, TiB2, ZrB2) producing weld composite metal is developed. It is stated that the formation of the martensitic matrix with a reduced structural fragments average size due to appearance of dispersed boride-nitride phases in this metal has resulted in high coating hardness and wear resistance.

  14. Scaffolding, ladders, chains, and rare ferrimagnetism in intermetallic borides: synthesis, crystal chemistry and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Goerens, Christian; Brgoch, Jakoah; Miller, Gordon J; Fokwa, Boniface P T

    2011-07-04

    Single-phase polycrystalline samples and single crystals of the complex boride phases Ti(8)Fe(3)Ru(18)B(8) and Ti(7)Fe(4)Ru(18)B(8) have been synthesized by arc melting the elements. The phases were characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. They are new substitutional variants of the Zn(11)Rh(18)B(8) structure type, space group P4/mbm (no. 127). The particularity of their crystal structure lies in the simultaneous presence of dumbbells which form ladders of magnetically active iron atoms along the [001] direction and two additional mixed iron/titanium chains occupying Wyckoff sites 4h and 2b. The ladder substructure is ca. 3.0 Å from the two chains at the 4h, which creates the sequence chain-ladder-chain, establishing a new structural and magnetic motif, the scaffold. The other chain (at 2b) is separated by at least 6.5 Å from this scaffold. According to magnetization measurements, Ti(8)Fe(3)Ru(18)B(8) and Ti(7)Fe(4)Ru(18)B(8) order ferrimagnetically below 210 and 220 K, respectively, with the latter having much higher magnetic moments than the former. However, the magnetic moment observed for Ti(8)Fe(3)Ru(18)B(8) is unexpectedly smaller than the recently reported Ti(9)Fe(2)Ru(18)B(8) ferromagnet. The variation of the magnetic moments observed in these new phases can be adequately understood by assuming a ferrimagnetic ordering involving the three different iron sites. Furthermore, the recorded hysteresis loops indicate a semihard magnetic behavior for the two phases. The highest H(c) value (28.6 kA/m), measured for Ti(7)Fe(4)Ru(18)B(8), lies just at the border of those of hard magnetic materials.

  15. Two- and 13-week inhalation toxicities of indium-tin oxide and indium oxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kasuke; Gotoh, Kaoru; Kasai, Tatsuya; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Ikawa, Naoki; Eitaki, Yoko; Yamada, Kenichi; Arito, Heihachiro; Fukushima, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Two- and 13-week inhalation toxicities of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) were characterized for risk assessments of workers exposed to ITO. F344 rats of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to ITO or IO aerosol for 6 h/day, 5 day/wk for 2 wk at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 mg/m(3) or 13 wk at 0, 0.1 or 1 mg/m(3). An aerosol generator and inhalation exposure system was constructed. Blood and lung contents of indium were elevated in a dose-related manner in the ITO- and IO-exposed rats. ITO and IO particles were deposited in the lung, mediastinal lymph node and nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Exposures to ITO and IO induced alveolar proteinosis, infiltrations of alveolar macrophages and inflammatory cells and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia in addition to increased lung weight. ITO affected the lung more severely than IO did. Fibrosis of alveolar wall developed and some of these lesions worsened at the end of the 26-week post-exposure period. Persistent pulmonary lesions including alveolar proteinosis and macrophage infiltration occurred after 2- and 13-week inhalation exposures of rats to ITO and IO. Fibrosis of alveolar wall developed later. These lesions occurred after ITO exposure at the same concentration as the current occupational exposure limit in the USA and at blood indium levels below the biological exposure index in Japan for indium.

  16. Indium and indium tin oxide induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Christen, Verena; Furrer, Gerhard; Fent, Karl

    2014-10-07

    Indium and indium tin oxide (ITO) are extensively used in electronic technologies. They may be introduced into the environment during production, use, and leaching from electronic devices at the end of their life. At present, surprisingly little is known about potential ecotoxicological implications of indium contamination. Here, molecular effects of indium nitrate (In(NO3)3) and ITO nanoparticles were investigated in vitro in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) cells and in zebrafish embryos and novel insights into their molecular effects are provided. In(NO3)3 led to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of transcripts of pro-apoptotic genes and TNF-α in vitro at a concentration of 247 μg/L. In(NO3)3 induced the ER stress key gene BiP at mRNA and protein level, as well as atf6, which ultimately led to induction of the important pro-apoptotic marker gene chop. The activity of In(NO3)3 on ER stress induction was much stronger than that of ITO, which is explained by differences in soluble free indium ion concentrations. The effect was also stronger in ZFL cells than in zebrafish embryos. Our study provides first evidence of ER stress and oxidative stress induction by In(NO3)3 and ITO indicating a critical toxicological profile that needs further investigation.

  17. Sorption of indium (III) onto carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, F J; Lopez, F A; Rodriguez, O; Martinez-Ramirez, S; Garcia-Diaz, I

    2016-08-01

    Indium has numerous applications in different industrial sectors and is not an abundant element. Therefore appropriate technology to recover this element from various process wastes is needed. This research reports high adsorption capacity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for In(III). The effects of pH, kinetics, isotherms and adsorption mechanism of MWCNT on In(III) adsorption were investigated and discussed in detail. The pH increases improves the adsorption capacity for In(III). The Langmuir adsorption model is the best fit with the experimental data. For the kinetic study, the adsorption onto MWCNT could be fitted to pseudo second-order. The adsorption of indium(III) can be described to a mechanism which consists of a film diffusion controlled process. Metal desorption can be achieved with acidic solutions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Oxidation state, aggregation, and heterolytic dissociation of allyl indium reagents.

    PubMed

    Koszinowski, Konrad

    2010-05-05

    Solutions of allyl indium reagents formed in the reactions of indium with allyl bromide and allyl iodide, respectively, in N,N-dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, and water were analyzed by a combination of electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, temperature-dependent (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements. Additional mass spectrometric experiments probed charge-tagged derivatives of the allyl indium reagents. The results obtained indicate the presence of allyl indium(+3) species, which undergo heterolytic dissociation to yield ions such as InR(2)(solv)(+) and InRX(3)(-) with R = allyl and X = Br and I. The extent of dissociation is greatest for N,N-dimethylformamide, whereas aggregation effects are more pronounced for the less polar tetrahydrofuran. The heterolytic dissociation of the allyl indium reagents supposedly enhances their reactivity by simultaneously providing highly Lewis acidic allyl indium cations and nucleophilic allyl indate anions.

  19. Indium Alloy as Cadmium Brush Plating Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-17

    Aged In- Sn Aged Cd In- Sn before Aging Cd before Aging Sn -Zn (12V) before Aging 18 Temperature Cycling Table 6. Temperature Cycling Conditions for Each...selection Key Requirements Candidate Cd Plating Replacement Processing Al Zn Ni Sn Zn-Ni Sn -Ni Sn -Zn Sn -In Meet Environmental Health and Safety (EHS...Corrosion Protection P P F P ? ? P P Whisker Growth (FOR INFO) ? F P F P P ? ? Al = Aluminum; In = Indium; Ni = Nickel; Sn =

  20. Prevention of indium intoxication by ferric dextran

    PubMed Central

    Gabbiani, G.; Selye, H.; Tuchweber, Beatriz

    1962-01-01

    Experiments on the rat indicate that intravenous administration of indium chloride produces severe hepatic necroses with fatal icterus within a few days. These actions can be prevented by the prophylactic administration of ferric dextran. This protective effect of the iron compound must be largely specific since it could not be duplicated by pretreatment with any of a large series of other agents. The possible mechanism of the protective effect is briefly discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:13945982

  1. Indium 111 toxicity in the human lymphocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, E.B.; Watson, S.; Mayfield, G.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Bullock, W.

    1985-05-01

    Indium-labeled lymphocytes were examined for response to a variety of mitogens, ability to synthesize immunoglobulins, mitotic index, and presence of chromosome aberrations at a range of exposures from 0.2 to 500 muCi/10(8) cells. Results of all four tests were found to be abnormal when the lymphocytes were labeled with /sup 111/In activities well within those employed for diagnostic testing.

  2. The toxicology of indium tin oxide.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M

    2016-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a technologically important semiconductor. An increasing number of cases of severe lung effects (characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and/or interstitial fibrosis) in ITO-exposed workers warrants a review of the toxicological hazards. Short- and long-term inhalation studies in rats and mice revealed persistent alveolar proteinosis, inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs down to concentrations as low as 0.01mg/m(3). In rats, the incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas were significantly increased at all concentrations. In mice, ITO was not carcinogenic. A few bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas occurring after repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters have to be interpreted as treatment-related. In vitro and in vivo studies on the formation of reactive oxygen species suggest epigenetic effects as cause of the lung tumor development. Repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters slightly affected the male sexual organs, which might be interpreted as a secondary effect of the lung damage. Epidemiological and medical surveillance studies, serum/blood indium levels in workers as well as data on the exposure to airborne indium concentrations indicate a need for measures to reduce exposure at ITO workplaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermoelectric Properties of Indium-Filled Skutterudites

    SciTech Connect

    He, Tao; Chen, Jiazhong; Rosenfeld, H. David; Subramanian, M.A.

    2008-09-18

    Structural, electrical, and thermal transport properties of CoSb{sub 3} partially filled with indium are reported. Polycrystalline samples of In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (0 {le} x {le} 0.3) were prepared by solid-state reaction under a gas mixture of 5% H{sub 2} and 95% Ar. The solubility limit of the indium filling voids in CoSb{sub 3} was found to be close to 0.22. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction refinement of the x = 0.2 sample showed that the indium is located in the classic rattler site and has a substantially larger thermal factor than those of Co and Sb. The electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficients, and thermal conductivity of the In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} samples were measured in the temperature range of 300-600 K. All samples showed metal-like behavior, and the large negative Seebeck coefficients indicated n-type conduction. The thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature for all samples. A thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) {ge} 1 (n-type) has been achieved when x {ge} 0.2 in In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} at 575 K.

  4. InP (Indium Phosphide): Into the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Major industry is beginning to be devoted to indium phosphide and its potential applications. Key to these applications are high speed and radiation tolerance; however the high cost of indium phosphide may be an inhibitor to progress. The broad applicability of indium phosphide to many devices will be discussed with an emphasis on photovoltaics. Major attention is devoted to radiation tolerance and means of reducing cost of devices. Some of the approaches applicable to solar cells may also be relevant to other devices. The intent is to display the impact of visionary leadership in the field and enable the directions and broad applicability of indium phosphide.

  5. Method to Improve Indium Bump Bonding via Indium Oxide Removal Using a Multi-Step Plasma Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, H. Frank (Inventor); Jones, Todd J. (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Dickie, Matthew R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A process for removing indium oxide from indium bumps in a flip-chip structure to reduce contact resistance, by a multi-step plasma treatment. A first plasma treatment of the indium bumps with an argon, methane and hydrogen plasma reduces indium oxide, and a second plasma treatment with an argon and hydrogen plasma removes residual organics. The multi-step plasma process for removing indium oxide from the indium bumps is more effective in reducing the oxide, and yet does not require the use of halogens, does not change the bump morphology, does not attack the bond pad material or under-bump metallization layers, and creates no new mechanisms for open circuits.

  6. Nano-Borides and Silicide Dispersed Composite Coating on AISI 304 Stainless Steel by Laser-Assisted HVOF Spray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2014-10-01

    The study concerned a detailed microstructural investigation of nano-borides (Cr2B and Ni3B) and nano-silicide (Ni2Si) dispersed γ-nickel composite coating on AISI 304 stainless steel by HVOF spray deposition of the NiCrBSi precursor powder and subsequent laser surface melting. A continuous wave diode laser with an applied power of 3 kW and scan speed of 20 mm/s in argon shroud was employed. The characterization of the surface in terms of microstructure, microtexture, phases, and composition were carried out and compared with the as-coated (high-velocity oxy-fuel sprayed) surface. Laser surface melting led to homogenization and refinement of microstructures with the formation of few nano-silicides of nickel along with nano-borides of nickel and chromium (Ni3B, Cr2B, and Cr2B3). A detailed microtexture analysis showed the presence of no specific texture in the as-sprayed and laser-melted surface of Cr2B and Ni3B phases. The average microhardness was improved to 750-900 VHN as compared to 250 VHN of the as-received substrate. Laser surface melting improved the microhardness further to as high as 1400 VHN due to refinement of microstructure and the presence of silicides.

  7. The Wyckoff positional order and polyhedral intergrowth in the M3B2- and M5B3-type boride precipitated in the Ni-based superalloys

    PubMed Central

    Hu, X. B.; Zhu, Y. L.; Sheng, N. C.; Ma, X. L.

    2014-01-01

    Ni-based single superalloys play a crucial role in the hottest parts of jet engines. However, due to the complex geometry and macro-segregation during the solidification process, the cast defect such as stray grains is inevitable. Therefore, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding which can join several small single crystalline castings together is gradually believed to be an effective method for improving the yields of production of the complex components. The melting point depressant element B is always added into the interlayer filler material. Consequently, borides including the M3B2 and M5B3 phase usually precipitate during the TLP bonding process. So a comprehensive knowledge of the fine structural characteristics of the borides is very critical for an accurate evaluation of the TLP bonding process. In this work, by means of the aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, we show, at an atomic scale, the Wyckoff positional order phenomenon of the metal atoms in the unit cell of M3B2- and M5B3-type boride. Meanwhile, the defect along the (001) plane of the above two types of boride are determined to be the polyhedral intergrowth with complex configurations. PMID:25482386

  8. The Wyckoff positional order and polyhedral intergrowth in the M3B2- and M5B3-type boride precipitated in the Ni-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X. B.; Zhu, Y. L.; Sheng, N. C.; Ma, X. L.

    2014-12-01

    Ni-based single superalloys play a crucial role in the hottest parts of jet engines. However, due to the complex geometry and macro-segregation during the solidification process, the cast defect such as stray grains is inevitable. Therefore, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding which can join several small single crystalline castings together is gradually believed to be an effective method for improving the yields of production of the complex components. The melting point depressant element B is always added into the interlayer filler material. Consequently, borides including the M3B2 and M5B3 phase usually precipitate during the TLP bonding process. So a comprehensive knowledge of the fine structural characteristics of the borides is very critical for an accurate evaluation of the TLP bonding process. In this work, by means of the aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, we show, at an atomic scale, the Wyckoff positional order phenomenon of the metal atoms in the unit cell of M3B2- and M5B3-type boride. Meanwhile, the defect along the (001) plane of the above two types of boride are determined to be the polyhedral intergrowth with complex configurations.

  9. Surface decoration through electrostatic interaction leading to enhanced reactivity: Low temperature synthesis of nanostructured chromium borides (CrB and CrB{sub 2})

    SciTech Connect

    Menaka,; Kumar, Bharat; Kumar, Sandeep; Ganguli, A.K.

    2013-04-15

    The present study describes a novel low temperature route at ambient pressure for the synthesis of nanocrystalline chromium borides (CrB and CrB{sub 2}) without using any flux or additives. The favorable and intimate mixing of nanoparticles of chromium acetate (Cr source) and boron forms an active chromium–boron precursor which decomposes at much lower temperature (400 °C) to form CrB (which is ∼1000 °C less than the known ambient pressure synthesis). The chromium acetate nanoparticles (∼5 nm) decorate the larger boron particles (150–200 nm) due to electrostatic interactions resulting from opposing surface charges of boron (zeta potential:+48.101 mV) and chromium acetate (zeta potential:−4.021 mV) in ethanolic medium and is evident in the TEM micrographs. The above method leads to the formation of pure CrB film like structure at 400 °C and nanospheres (40–60 nm) at 600 °C. Also, chromium diboride (CrB{sub 2}) nanoparticles (25 nm) could be obtained at 1000 °C. - Graphical abstract: Variation of surface charge of reactants, precursor and the products, chromium borides (CrB and CrB{sub 2}). Highlights: ► Novel borothermal reduction process for synthesis of chromium boride. ► Significant lowering of reaction temperature to obtain nanocrystalline chromium boride. ► Enhanced reactivity due to appropriate surface interactions.

  10. The influence of random indium alloy fluctuations in indium gallium nitride quantum wells on the device behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tsung-Jui; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Shivaraman, Ravi; Speck, James S.

    2014-09-21

    In this paper, we describe the influence of the intrinsic indium fluctuation in the InGaN quantum wells on the carrier transport, efficiency droop, and emission spectrum in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). Both real and randomly generated indium fluctuations were used in 3D simulations and compared to quantum wells with a uniform indium distribution. We found that without further hypothesis the simulations of electrical and optical properties in LEDs such as carrier transport, radiative and Auger recombination, and efficiency droop are greatly improved by considering natural nanoscale indium fluctuations.

  11. Structural and Physical Properties Diversity of New CaCu5-Type Related Europium Platinum Borides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Three novel europium platinum borides have been synthesized by arc melting of constituent elements and subsequent annealing. They were characterized by X-ray powder and single-crystal diffraction: EuPt4B, CeCo4B type, P6/mmm, a = 0.56167(2) nm, c = 0.74399(3) nm; Eu3Pt7B2, Ca3Al7Cu2 type as an ordered variant of PuNi3, R3̅m, a = 0.55477(2) nm, c = 2.2896(1) nm; and Eu5Pt18B6–x, a new unique structure type, Fmmm, a = 0.55813(3) nm, b = 0.95476(5) nm, c = 3.51578(2) nm. These compounds belong to the CaCu5 family of structures, revealing a stacking sequence of CaCu5-type slabs with different structural units: CaCu5 and CeCo3B2 type in EuPt4B; CeCo3B2 and Laves MgCu2 type in Eu3Pt7B2; and CaCu5-, CeCo3B2-, and site-exchange ThCr2Si2-type slabs in Eu5Pt18B6–x. The striking motif in the Eu5Pt18B6–x structure is the boron-centered Pt tetrahedron [BPt4], which build chains running along the a axis and plays a decisive role in the structure arrangement by linking the terminal fragments of repeating blocks of fused Eu polyhedra. Physical properties of two compounds, EuPt4B and Eu3Pt7B2, were studied. Both compounds were found to order magnetically at 36 and 57 K, respectively. For EuPt4B a mixed-valence state of the Eu atom was confirmed via magnetic and specific heat measurements. Moreover, the Sommerfeld value of the specific heat of Eu3Pt7B2 was found to be extraordinarily large, on the order of 0.2 J/mol K2. PMID:23540751

  12. High-temperature thermochemistry of transition metal borides, silicides and related compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klemppa, Ole J.

    2000-10-01

    Earlier this year in collaboration with Dr. Susan V. Meschel we prepared a major review paper which gives a comprehensive summary of what our laboratory has accomplished with support from DOE. This paper is No.43 in the List of Publications provided. It was presented to TMS at its National Meeting in Nashville, TN last March. A copy of the manuscript of this paper was recently mailed to DOE. It has been submitted for publication in Journal of Alloys and Compounds. This review paper summarizes our observed trends in the enthalpies of formation of TR-X and RE-X compounds (where X is a IIIB or IVB element) in their dependence of the atomic number of the transition metal (TR) and the lanthanide metal (RE). In this paper our measured enthalpies of formation for each alloy family are compared for the 3d, 4d and 5d transition metal elements. We also compare our experimental results with predicted values based on Miedema's semi-empirical model. Data are presented for the carbides, silicides, germanides and stannides in Group IVB, and for the borides and aluminides in Group IIIB. During the past year (1999-2000) we have extended our work to compounds of the 3d, 4d and 5d elements with gallium (see papers No.40, No.41, and No.45 in the List of Publications). Fig. 1 (taken from No.45) presents a systematic picture of our experimental values for the most exothermic gallide compounds formed with the transition elements. This figure is characteristic of the other systematic pictures which we have found for the two other IIIB elements which we have studied and for the four IVB elements. These figures are all presented in Ref. No.43. This paper also illustrates how the enthalpy of formation of compounds of the IIIB and IVB elements with the lanthanide elements (with the exception of Pm, Eu and Yb) depend on the atomic number of RE. Finally our results for the RE-X compounds are compared with the predictions of Gschneidner (K.A. Gschneidner, Jr., J. Less Common Metals 17, 1

  13. J/{psi} production in indium-indium collisions at SPS energies

    SciTech Connect

    Pillot, P.; Ducroux, L.; Guichard, A.; Tieulent, R.; Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Scomparin, E.; Averbeck, R.; Drees, A.; Banicz, K.; Keil, M.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Force, P.; Manso, F.; Chaurand, B.; Cicalo, C.

    2006-01-12

    The NA60 experiment collected data on dimuon production in indium-indium collisions at 158 GeV/c per incident nucleon, in year 2003, to contribute to the clarification of several questions raised by previous experiments studying high-energy heavy-ion physics at the CERN SPS in search of the quark gluon plasma. Among these previous results stands the observation, by NA50, that the production yield of J/{psi} mesons is suppressed in central Pb-Pb collisions beyond the normal nuclear absorption defined by proton-nucleus data. By comparing the centrality dependence of the suppression pattern between different colliding systems, S-U, Pb-Pb and In-In, we should be able to identify the corresponding scaling variable, and the physics mechanism driving the suppression. In this paper, we will present the ratio of J/{psi} and Drell-Yan production cross-sections in indium-indium collisions, in three centrality bins, and how these values compare to previous measurements. We will also present a study of the transverse momentum distributions of the J/{psi} mesons, in seven centrality bins.

  14. Role of indium-111 chloride imaging in osteoid osteoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Swischuk, L.E.; Schreiber, M.H.

    1986-10-01

    Indium-111 chloride imaging plays an important role in differentiating intracortical osteoid osteoma from chronic cortical abscess. The study also may be useful in the detection of intramedullary osteoid osteoma. Four patients who greatly benefited from indium-111 chloride imaging are presented.

  15. Indium Gallium Nitride Multijunction Solar Cell Simulation Using Silvaco Atlas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    in production from the mid-1960s until the early 1990s. Their efficiency was close to 15%. The next step consisted of single junction gallium ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited INDIUM GALLIUM ...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Indium Gallium Nitride Multijunction Solar Cell Simulation Using Silvaco Atlas 6

  16. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  17. Phonon dispersion of indium along [111

    SciTech Connect

    Bakulin, A. S.; Overhauser, A. W.; Kaiser, H.; Werner, S. A.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.; Smith, H. G.

    2001-02-01

    The phonon spectrum of indium along [111], measured by inelastic neutron scattering, is reported. The two shear modes at the zone-boundary point (1/2, 1/2, 1/2) are split slightly (on account of a 7.5% tetragonal distortion). They have very low frequencies, {approx}0.7 and 1.0 THz, compared to the longitudinal mode, {approx}3.4 THz. These measurements verify the theoretical dispersion predicted by the dynamic pseudopotential theory of phonons for free-electron-like metals.

  18. Rapid solidification of indium: Modeling subcooling

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bot, C. Delaunay, D.

    2008-05-15

    This paper deals with the study of crystallization kinetics. A pure metal - indium - is subjected to different cooling rates by analyzing phenomena with a differential scanning calorimeter. Thanks to the thermal flux obtained by this device and to the temperature determined with a thermocouple inside the metal sample, and according to the modified Avrami theory, the aim was to determine a temperature dependent function K which links thermodynamic properties to a macroscopic model of crystallization kinetics. Experiments highlight the recalescence phenomenon and show that this function has a shape similar to that of the nucleation rate.

  19. Fabrication, structure and mechanical properties of indium nanopillars

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Budiman, Arief Suriadi; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solid and hollow cylindrical indium pillars with nanoscale diameters were prepared using electron beam lithography followed by the electroplating fabrication method. The microstructure of the solid-core indium pillars was characterized by scanning micro-X-ray diffraction, which shows that the indium pillars were annealed at room temperature with very few dislocations remaining in the samples. The mechanical properties of the solid pillars were characterized using a uniaxial microcompression technique, which demonstrated that the engineering yield stress is {approx}9 times greater than bulk and is {approx}1/28 of the indium shear modulus, suggesting that the attained stresses are close to theoretical strength. Microcompression of hollow indium nanopillars showed evidence of brittle fracture. This may suggest that the failure mode for one of the most ductile metals can become brittle when the feature size is sufficiently small.

  20. Subclinical interstitial lung damage in workers exposed to indium compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study was designed to determine whether there is a relationship between indium compound exposure and interstitial lung damage in workers employed at indium tin oxide manufacturing and reclaiming factories in Korea. Methods In 2012, we conducted a study for the prevention of indium induced lung damage in Korea and identified 78 workers who had serum indium or Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) levels that were higher than the reference values set in Japan (3 μg/L and 500 U/mL, respectively). Thirty-four of the 78 workers underwent chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and their data were used for statistical analysis. Results Geometric means (geometric standard deviations) for serum indium, KL-6, and surfactant protein D (SP-D) were 10.9 (6.65) μg/L, 859.0 (1.85) U/mL, and 179.27 (1.81) ng/mL, respectively. HRCT showed intralobular interstitial thickening in 9 workers. A dose–response trend was statistically significant for blood KL-6 levels. All workers who had indium levels ≥50 μg/L had KL-6 levels that exceeded the reference values. However, dose–response trends for blood SP-D levels, KL-6 levels, SP-D levels, and interstitial changes on the HRCT scans were not significantly different. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interstitial lung changes could be present in workers with indium exposure. Further studies are required and health risk information regarding indium exposure should be communicated to workers and employers in industries where indium compounds are used to prevent indium induced lung damage in Korea. PMID:24472147

  1. Fluxless indium and silver-indium bonding processes for photonics and high-temperature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, William Wilson

    A fluxless oxidation-free bonding technology using multilayer composite solders based on indium, or low melting temperature indium. alloys such as Ag-In, In-Sn and Au-In has been developed and studied. This technology eliminates the need of flux and scrubbing motion that are used in conventional soldering processes, and still produces good quality joints. By depositing multilayer composite materials in high vacuum, we eliminate the formation of an oxide layer thus removing the origin of the problem---solder oxidation. To understand the oxidation kinetics in the bonding process, I have modeled the oxidation rate of tin, which follows a parabolic growth law. For completeness of the oxidation model, I incorporated the temperature dependency of Henry's coefficient in the oxidation model. To prevent the solder material from oxidation when exposing to atmosphere, I have developed a technique, which utilizes the in-situ formation of stable intermetallic compound on the outer surface, or a gold layer to protect the bonding materials. The bonding is achieved by means of solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) and in-situ compound formation. The first alloy system that I studied is indium-silver. GaAs and silicon dice have been successfully bonded on silicon or glass substrates. The bonding quality is examined by a Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM). The results confirm that void-free joints are achieved. Cross-sections of the joint are examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results reveal that the joint is composed of AuIn2, AgIn2-intermetallic compound and pure indium. From the Ag-In phase diagram, as indium composition is reduced to 25 wt. %, the solidus temperature jumps from 144 to above 695°C. By modifying the design of the multilayer composite, we developed a 210°C process to produce 700°C joints. All the well-bonded devices, before or after annealing, exceed the shear test force requirement of 2

  2. Highly ordered horizontal indium gallium arsenide/indium phosphide multi-quantum-well in wire structure on (001) silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yu; Li, Qiang; Lau, Kei May

    2016-12-01

    We report the characteristics of indium gallium arsenide stacked quantum structures inside planar indium phosphide nanowires grown on exact (001) silicon substrates. The morphological evolution of the indium phosphide ridge buffers inside sub-micron trenches has been studied, and the role of inter-facet diffusion in this process is discussed. Inside a single indium phosphide nanowire, we are able to stack quantum structures including indium gallium arsenide flat quantum wells, quasi-quantum wires, quantum wires, and ridge quantum wells. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements reveal a broadband emission spectrum centered at 1550 nm. Power dependent photoluminescence analysis indicates the presence of quasi-continuum states. This work thus provides insights into the design and growth process control of multiple quantum wells in wire structures for high performance nanowire lasers on a silicon substrate with 1550 nm band emission.

  3. Thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibrium in system Ti-B-Si-C, synthesis and phases composition of borides and carbides layers on titanic alloyVT-1 at electron beam treatment in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnyagina, N. N.; Khaltanova, V. M.; Lapina, A. E.; Dasheev, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    Composite layers on the basis of carbides and borides the titan and silicon on titanic alloy VT-1 are generated at diffused saturation in vacuum. Formation in a composite of MAX phase Ti3SiC2 is shown. Thermodynamic research of phase equilibrium in systems Ti-Si-C and Ti-B-C in the conditions of high vacuum is executed. The thermodynamics, formation mechanisms of superfirm layers borides and carbides of the titan and silicon are investigated.

  4. Computational-Experimental Processing of Boride/Carbide Composites by Reactive Infusion of Hf Alloy Melts into B4C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-16

    infiltration, reactions between the alloy melt and B4C will form an HfB2-HfC/Hf-Y-Ti composite, which will eventually develop an HfO2-Y2O3- TiO2 scale, as...of the pyrochlore phase (or Y2Ti2O7) within an HfO2-Y2O3- TiO2 scale may form as layers of Y2Ti2O7, HfTiO4, cubic-HfO2, or tetragonal-HfO2 as the...processing, a better understanding of the infusion of Figure 1 -- Oxide Scale developed from the ZrO2- Y2O3- TiO2 System to protect a boride/carbide

  5. Prediction of different crystal structure phases in metal borides: A lithium monoboride analog to MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2006-05-01

    Modern compound prediction methods can efficiently screen large numbers of crystal structure phases and direct the experimental search for new materials. One of the most challenging problems in alloy theory is the identification of stable phases with a never seen prototype; such predictions do not always follow rational strategies. While performing ab initio data mining of intermetallic compounds we made an unexpected discovery: even in such a well-studied class of systems as metal borides there are previously unknown layered phases comparable in energy to the existing ones. With ab initio calculations we show that the new metal-sandwich (MS) lithium monoboride phases are marginally stable under ambient conditions but become favored over the known stoichiometric compounds under moderate pressures. The MS lithium monoboride exhibits electronic features similar to those in magnesium diboride and is expected to be a good superconductor.

  6. Indium antimonide large-format detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Mike; Greiner, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Large format infrared imaging sensors are required to achieve simultaneously high resolution and wide field of view image data. Infrared sensors are generally required to be cooled from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures in less than 10 min thousands of times during their lifetime. The challenge is to remove mechanical stress, which is due to different materials with different coefficients of expansion, over a very wide temperature range and at the same time, provide a high sensitivity and high resolution image data. These challenges are met by developing a hybrid where the indium antimonide detector elements (pixels) are unconnected islands that essentially float on a silicon substrate and form a near perfect match to the silicon read-out circuit. Since the pixels are unconnected and isolated from each other, the array is reticulated. This paper shows that the front side illuminated and reticulated element indium antimonide focal plane developed at L-3 Cincinnati Electronics are robust, approach background limited sensitivity limit, and provide the resolution expected of the reticulated pixel array.

  7. Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A relatively rapid, economical process has been devised for patterning a thin film of indium tin oxide (ITO) that has been deposited on a polyester film. ITO is a transparent, electrically conductive substance made from a mixture of indium oxide and tin oxide that is commonly used in touch panels, liquid-crystal and plasma display devices, gas sensors, and solar photovoltaic panels. In a typical application, the ITO film must be patterned to form electrodes, current collectors, and the like. Heretofore it has been common practice to pattern an ITO film by means of either a laser ablation process or a photolithography/etching process. The laser ablation process includes the use of expensive equipment to precisely position and focus a laser. The photolithography/etching process is time-consuming. The present process is a variant of the direct toner process an inexpensive but often highly effective process for patterning conductors for printed circuits. Relative to a conventional photolithography/ etching process, this process is simpler, takes less time, and is less expensive. This process involves equipment that costs less than $500 (at 2005 prices) and enables patterning of an ITO film in a process time of less than about a half hour.

  8. The effect of thermocycling liquid boronizing on the thickness of the boride layer and the transition zone

    SciTech Connect

    Oezsoy, A.; Yaman, Y.M. )

    1993-07-15

    Boronizing is a thermo-diffusion surface treatment, which is defined as enrichment of the surface of a workpiece with boron by means of thermo-chemical treatment. The processes are based on chemical or electrochemical reactions between the boron source and the respective base metal. Boron sources or boronizing compounds are solid, liquid or gas. Boride coatings, or the formation of boride compounds near the surface have been achieved by: (a) chemical methods; using gas boronizing agents, by immersion in molten salts, electrolysis and by pack cementation with powders; (b) physical methods; such as boron ion implantation, physical vacuum deposition, sputtering and ion plating. The methods of thermocycling treatment are used for intensification of the diffusion processes and forming more uniform microstructures and grain refinement. Krishtal and Kenis reported that the diffusion processes are accelerated with increasing grain boundary length, vacancy concentration, dislocation density inside the grains, and stress gradients in the thermocycling treatment. In practice, the type of structure favoring the intensification of diffusion processes is obtained using thermocycling treatment (TCT), either as a preliminary treatment before thermo-chemical treatment (TChT) or as a combined process before and during the thermochemical treatment. The steel is usually heated to 30-50 C above Ac[sub 1] and cooled to 50-100 C below Ar[sub 1]. Such treatment achieves an increase in the diffusion layer thickness, grain refinement and formation of a polygonal structure in the bulk of the metal. The combined use of TCT and TChT was studied during carburization of steel with a solid carburizer. It was demonstrated that, at the same duration of isothermal treatment (15 h), 5 cycles of 880-750 C, TCT produce grain size No. 5-6 in the bulk and grain size No. 9-10 in the diffusion layer, while the thickness of that layer increases 1.5 times. Improved fatigue resistance was also recorded.

  9. Deep-UV plasmonics of indium (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Saito, Yuika; Taguchi, Atsushi; Honda, Mitsuhiro; Kawata, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    Deep-UV (DUV) plasmonics can expand the possibilities of DUV-based techniques (i.e. UV lithography, UV spectroscopy, UV imaging, UV disinfection). Here we present that indium is useful for research of DUV plasmonics. According to dielectric function, indium and aluminum are low-loss, DUV plasmonic metals, of which the imaginary parts are far smaller than those of other metals (i.e. rhodium, platinum) in the DUV range. Additionally, the real parts in the whole DUV range are close to but smaller than -2, allowing efficient generation of surface plasmon polaritons on an indium or aluminum nanosphere. In comparison to aluminum, indium provides a distinctive feature for fabricating DUV-resonant substrates. It is highly apt to form a grainy deposition film on a standard, optically transparent substrate (i.e. fused silica). The surface plasmon resonance wavelength becomes promptly tailored by simply varying the deposition thickness of the films, resulting in different grain sizes. Thus, we fabricated indium-coated substrates having different plasmon resonance wavelengths by varying the deposition thicknesses from 10 to 50 nm. DUV resonance Raman scattering of adenine molecules was best enhanced using the 25 nm deposition thickness substrates by the factor of 2. Furthermore, the FDTD calculation simulated the electromagnetic field enhancement over a grainy, indium-coated fused silica substrate. Both results indicate how indium plays an indispensable role in study of DUV plasmonics.

  10. Factors Affecting the Toxicity of the Element Indium

    PubMed Central

    Castronovo, F. P.; Wagner, H. N.

    1971-01-01

    Hydrated indium oxide is 40 times more toxic than ionic indium, when expressed as lethality per quantity of metal injected. Ionic indium is nephrotoxic, causing damage in the proximal portion of the proximal convoluted tubule. In this respect, it resembles the element mercury. At extremely high doses, ionic indium causes focal necrosis in the liver. Hydrated indium oxide causes damage to those organs which contain phagocytic cells which clear the insoluble particles from the blood after i.v. injection. Actual focal necrosis was found in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Damage was also found in the thymus and lymph nodes. At extremely high doses, damage was observed in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney. Hydrated indium oxide caused extensive haemorrhage and marked thrombocytopenia. Fibrin thrombi were observed in the liver. The increase in toxicity of indium resulting from phagocytosis of insoluble oxides by the reticuloendothelial system may represent a general mechanism by which the toxicity of certain heavy metals is increased. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6Fig. 2 PMID:5125268

  11. Synthesis of indium nanoparticles: digestive ripening under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Cingarapu, Sreeram; Yang, Zhiqiang; Sorensen, Christopher M; Klabunde, Kenneth J

    2011-06-06

    Here we report the synthesis of monodispersed indium nanoparticles by evaporation/condensation of indium shot using the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD) technique, followed by digestive ripening in low boiling point (BP 38 °C) methylene chloride and in a high boiling point (BP 110 °C) toluene solvent. The as-prepared SMAD indium nanoparticles are polydispersed with particle size ranging from 25 to 50 nm, but upon digestive ripening (heating of colloidal material at the boiling point of solvent in presence of excess surface active ligands) in methylene chloride, a remarkable reduction of particle size was achieved. In higher boiling solvent (toluene), where the indium nanoparticles at reflux temperature are probably melted, it does not allow the best result, and less monodispersity is achieved. We employed different surface active ligands (amine, phosphine, and mixed ligands) to passivate these indium nanoparticles. The temporal evolution of the surface plasmon of indium nanoparticles was monitored by in situ UV-vis spectroscopy, and particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The merits of this synthesis procedure are the use of bulk indium as starting material, tuning the particle size in low boiling point solvent, particle size adjustment with the choice of ligand, and a possible scale up. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. High-efficiency indium tin oxide/indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements in the performance of indium tin oxide (ITO)/indium phosphide solar cells have been realized by the dc magnetron sputter deposition of n-ITO onto an epitaxial p/p(+) structure grown on commercial p(+) bulk substrates. The highest efficiency cells were achieved when the surface of the epilayer was exposed to an Ar/H2 plasma before depositing the bulk of the ITO in a more typical Ar/O2 plasma. With H2 processing, global efficiencies of 18.9 percent were achieved. It is suggested that the excellent performance of these solar cells results from the optimization of the doping, thickness, transport, and surface properties of the p-type base, as well as from better control over the ITO deposition procedure.

  13. High-efficiency indium tin oxide/indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements in the performance of indium tin oxide (ITO)/indium phosphide solar cells have been realized by the dc magnetron sputter deposition of n-ITO onto an epitaxial p/p(+) structure grown on commercial p(+) bulk substrates. The highest efficiency cells were achieved when the surface of the epilayer was exposed to an Ar/H2 plasma before depositing the bulk of the ITO in a more typical Ar/O2 plasma. With H2 processing, global efficiencies of 18.9 percent were achieved. It is suggested that the excellent performance of these solar cells results from the optimization of the doping, thickness, transport, and surface properties of the p-type base, as well as from better control over the ITO deposition procedure.

  14. On the origin of photoluminescence in indium oxide octahedron structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Mukesh; Singh, V. N.; Mehta, B. R.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, F.; Lakshmi, K. V.

    2008-04-28

    A sixfold decrease in photoluminescence signal intensity at 590 nm with increase in deposition time from 3 to 12 h has been observed in single crystalline indium oxide octahedron structures grown by vapor-phase evaporation method. Electron paramagnetic resonance and energy dispersive x-ray analysis confirm that the concentration of oxygen vacancies increases with deposition time. These results are contrary to the previous reports where oxygen vacancies were shown to be responsible for photoluminescence in indium oxide structures. Our results indicate that indium interstitials and their associated complex defects other than oxygen vacancies are responsible for the photoluminescence in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures.

  15. Reflectance of metallic indium for solar energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Hasegawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in order to compile quantitative data on the reflective properties of metallic indium. The fabricated samples were of sufficiently high quality that differences from similar second-surface silvered mirrors were not apparent to the human eye. Three second-surface mirror samples were prepared by means of vacuum deposition techniques, yielding indium thicknesses of approximately 1000 A. Both hemispherical and specular measurements were made. It is concluded that metallic indium possesses a sufficiently high specular reflectance to be potentially useful in many solar energy applications.

  16. Reflectance of metallic indium for solar energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Hasegawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in order to compile quantitative data on the reflective properties of metallic indium. The fabricated samples were of sufficiently high quality that differences from similar second-surface silvered mirrors were not apparent to the human eye. Three second-surface mirror samples were prepared by means of vacuum deposition techniques, yielding indium thicknesses of approximately 1000 A. Both hemispherical and specular measurements were made. It is concluded that metallic indium possesses a sufficiently high specular reflectance to be potentially useful in many solar energy applications.

  17. Kinetic investigation of indium-palladium alloy electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, S.N.; Perelygin, Yu.P.; Efimov, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of alloy deposition of ammonium-citrate electrolyte used to produce alloys with indium content were studied. The electrolytes were composed of palladium, indium, ammonium sulfate, monosodium citrate, ammonium chloride, and saccharin at pH 9.5. Stationary and rotating disk electrodes and a potentiostat were used for the investigation. Spectrophotometry determined the mixed formation of citrate-ammonia palladium complexes. It was found that the considerable depolarization of indium ion discharge into the alloy occurred when saccharin was present in the electrolyte, and its direct electroreduction occurs from hydroxide compounds.

  18. Determination of indium in rocks by substoichiometric radioisotope dilution analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L. Paul; Campbell, E.Y.

    1973-01-01

    Rocks containing 10-140 ng of indium per g are decomposed with hydrofluoric and nitric acids in the presence of 114In. Indium is separated from other constituents by sequential extractions of the bromide, cupferronate, and acetylacetonate, and is then reacted with a substoichiometric amont of EDTA. Excess of indium is removed by acetylacetone extraction and the specific activity of the complexed fraction is determined by counting 114In. Analyses of the U.S.G.S. standard rocks are reported. These show good agreement with previous neutron activation analyses. Repetitive rock analyses indicated an analytical precision of ??4-7%. ?? 1973.

  19. Tissue distribution of indium after repeated intratracheal instillations of indium-tin oxide into the lungs of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Matsumura, Nagisa; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the tissue distribution of indium after intratracheally instilling indium-tin oxide (ITO) into the lungs of hamsters. Male Syrian hamsters received an intratracheal dose of 3 mg/kg or 6 mg/kg of ITO particles containing 2.2 mg/kg or 4.5 mg/kg of indium, twice weekly for 8 weeks. In parallel, control hamsters received only an intratracheal dose of distilled water. A subset of hamsters was euthanized periodically throughout the study from 8 up to 78 weeks after the final instillation. The distribution of indium in the lungs, liver, kidneys and spleen, as well as pathological changes in the liver, kidneys, and spleen, was determined. The contents of indium in the lungs in the two ITO groups gradually decreased over the 78-week observation period, with elimination half-lives of approximately 142 weeks for the 3 mg/kg ITO group and 124 weeks for the 6 mg/kg ITO. The indium concentrations in the liver, kidneys, and spleen gradually increased throughout the observation period. Although foci of the lesions were observed histopathologically in the extrapulmonary organs among the two ITO groups, the control group showed similar lesions. The results clearly demonstrate that the clearance of indium from the body is extremely slow after intratracheal instillation in hamsters.

  20. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolomé, Javier Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, Javier

    2015-11-09

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor–solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 10{sup 5} and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10{sup −16} N/Hz{sup 1/2} demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure.

  1. Negative Magnetoresistance in Amorphous Indium Oxide Wires

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sreemanta; Tewari, Girish C; Mahalu, Diana; Shahar, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We study magneto-transport properties of several amorphous Indium oxide nanowires of different widths. The wires show superconducting transition at zero magnetic field, but, there exist a finite resistance at the lowest temperature. The R(T) broadening was explained by available phase slip models. At low field, and far below the superconducting critical temperature, the wires with diameter equal to or less than 100 nm, show negative magnetoresistance (nMR). The magnitude of nMR and the crossover field are found to be dependent on both temperature and the cross-sectional area. We find that this intriguing behavior originates from the interplay between two field dependent contributions. PMID:27876859

  2. Nanoscale guiding and shaping of indium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DÄ browski, Maciej; Dai, Yanan; Hocevar, Moïra; Frolov, Sergey; Petek, Hrvoje

    2016-12-01

    We present time-resolved microscopy of motion and shape transformation of liquid indium (In) sessile droplets on InAs(001) surface. For temperatures up to 800 K, the droplets spontaneously move across the crystal undergoing stick-slip motion that is strongly affected by atomic steps and coalescence events. Above a critical temperature of around 800 K, the droplets stop moving and further increase in temperature causes them to change shape progressively from spherical to rectangular. The process of shape transformation is coherent, reversible and associated with temperature dependent wetting of the surface as well as crystalline anisotropy dependent arsenic solvation and evaporation rates. The etched rectangular substrate depressions formed under the droplets, giving them a rectangular shape, reveal unusual rheology with deeper regions at the corners. Our high spatial resolution measurements link the macroscopic behavior of the metallic droplets with the microscopic topography features and can be used for the metallic liquid droplet nano-manipulation.

  3. Negative Magnetoresistance in Amorphous Indium Oxide Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sreemanta; Tewari, Girish C.; Mahalu, Diana; Shahar, Dan

    2016-11-01

    We study magneto-transport properties of several amorphous Indium oxide nanowires of different widths. The wires show superconducting transition at zero magnetic field, but, there exist a finite resistance at the lowest temperature. The R(T) broadening was explained by available phase slip models. At low field, and far below the superconducting critical temperature, the wires with diameter equal to or less than 100 nm, show negative magnetoresistance (nMR). The magnitude of nMR and the crossover field are found to be dependent on both temperature and the cross-sectional area. We find that this intriguing behavior originates from the interplay between two field dependent contributions.

  4. Doping Profiles for Indium Antimonide Magnetoresistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, D. L.; Heremans, J.; Thrush, C. M.

    1997-03-01

    Indium antimonide is of interest for magnetoresistors in position sensors. These sensors are fabricated as thin film elements in order to increase the device impedance. The InSb is doped n-type to stabilize the electron density against temperature changes. This involves tradeoffs, since ionized donors scatter electrons, reducing their mobility and hence reducing the device sensitivity to a magnetic field. Optimizing the sensitivity involved three steps. The InSb is undoped for the first 10 to 20 percent of the film thickness, forming a buffer from the lattice mismatched substrate. The doping in the middle layer of the film has a doping gradient. Finally, a thin contact layer is more heavily doped to reduce contact resistance.

  5. Lattice dynamics of fct indium and hcp magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.M.; Xuan, Y.; Overhauser, A.W. )

    1991-01-15

    Phonon spectra of fct indium and hcp magnesium are calculated using the dynamic pseudopotential theory developed by Wang and Overhauser. Good agreement with experimental data is achieved with two adjustable pseudopotential parameters.

  6. Indium Ohmic Contacts to n-ZnSe,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTRIC CONTACTS, ANNEALING, AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY , BACKSCATTERING, CHLORINE, DIFFRACTION, ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY , FUNCTIONS, INDIUM... PHOTOELECTRONS , PURITY, RESISTANCE, TEMPERATURE, TEST AND EVALUATION, X RAY DIFFRACTION, MOLECULAR BEAMS, EPITAXIAL GROWTH, ZINC SELENIDES, DOPING.

  7. Method of manufacturing tin-doped indium oxide nanofibers

    DOEpatents

    Ozcan, Soydan; Naskar, Amit K

    2017-06-06

    A method of making indium tin oxide nanofibers includes the step of mixing indium and tin precursor compounds with a binder polymer to form a nanofiber precursor composition. The nanofiber precursor composition is co-formed with a supporting polymer to form a composite nanofiber having a precursor composition nanofiber completely surrounded by the supporting polymer composition. The supporting polymer composition is removed from the composite nanofiber to expose the precursor composition nanofiber. The precursor composition nanofiber is then heated in the presence of oxygen such as O.sub.2 to form indium tin oxide and to remove the binder polymer to form an indium tin oxide nanofiber. A method of making metal oxide nanofibers is also disclosed.

  8. Status of indium phosphide solar cell development at Spire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Keavney, C. J.; Vernon, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    On-going development of indium phosphide solar cells for space applications is presented. The development is being carried out with a view towards both high conversion efficiency and simplicity of manufacture. The cell designs comprise the ion-implanted cell, the indium tin oxide top contact cell, and the epitaxial cell grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Modelling data on the limit to the efficiency are presented and comparison is made to measured performance data.

  9. Determination of indium in standard rocks by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansen, O; Steinnes, E

    1966-08-01

    A rapid neutron activation method for the determination of indium in rocks, based on 54 min (116m)In, is described. The method has been applied to a series of geochemical standards including granite G-1 and diabase W-1. The precision is better than +/- 5% for samples containing more than 5 x 10(-10)g indium. Good agreement with previously published values for G-1 and W-1 has been obtained.

  10. Indium and Zinc Alloys as Cadmium Brush Plating Replacements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-10

    Aged In- Sn Aged Cd In- Sn before Aging Cd before Aging Sn -Zn (12V) before Aging ...to assess state-of-the-art technology – Selected and tested initial coating candidates (2009-2010) • Indium-tin (In- Sn ), tin-zinc ( Sn -Zn), and zinc...nickel (Zn-Ni) • In and Sn foils – Selected and currently testing follow-on candidates (2010 – present) • Indium-zinc (In-Zn) and different

  11. Recovery of indium from LCD screens of discarded cell phones.

    PubMed

    Silveira, A V M; Fuchs, M S; Pinheiro, D K; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technological development have resulted in high consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), amongst which are cell phones, which have LCD (liquid crystal display) screens as one of their main components. These multilayer screens are composed of different materials, some with high added value, as in the case of the indium present in the form of indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide). Indium is a precious metal with relatively limited natural reserves (Dodbida et al., 2012), so it can be profitable to recover it from discarded LCD screens. The objective of this study was to develop a complete process for recovering indium from LCD screens. Firstly, the screens were manually removed from cell phones. In the next step, a pretreatment was developed for removal of the polarizing film from the glass of the LCD panels, because the adherence of this film to the glass complicated the comminution process. The choice of mill was based on tests using different equipment (knife mill, hammer mill, and ball mill) to disintegrate the LCD screens, either before or after removal of the polarizing film. In the leaching process, it was possible to extract 96.4 wt.% of the indium under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4, 1:50 solid/liquid ratio, 90°C, 1h, and stirring at 500 rpm. The results showed that the best experimental conditions enabled extraction of 613 mg of indium/kg of LCD powder. Finally, precipitation of the indium with NH4OH was tested at different pH values, and 99.8 wt.% precipitation was achieved at pH 7.4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An advanced case of indium lung disease with progressive emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Makiko; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Kumazoe, Hiroyuki; Wakamatsu, Kentaro; Kamada, Dan; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To report the occurrence of an advanced case of indium lung disease with severely progressive emphysema in an indium-exposed worker. Case report: A healthy 42-year-old male smoker was employed to primarily grind indium-tin oxide (ITO) target plates, exposing him to indium for 9 years (1998-2008). In 2004, an epidemiological study was conducted on indium-exposed workers at the factory in which he worked. The subject's serum indium concentration (In-S) was 99.7 μg/l, while his serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 level was 2,350 U/ml. Pulmonary function tests showed forced vital capacity (FVC) of 4.17 l (91.5% of the JRS predicted value), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 3.19 l (80.8% of predicted), and an FEV1-to-FVC ratio of 76.5%. A high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT) scan showed mild interlobular septal thickening and mild emphysematous changes. In 2008, he was transferred from the ITO grinding workplace to an inspection work section, where indium concentrations in total dusts had a range of 0.001-0.002 mg/m3. In 2009, the subject's In-S had increased to 132.1 μg/l, and pulmonary function tests revealed obstructive changes. In addition, HRCT scan showed clear evidence of progressive lung destruction with accompanying severe centrilobular emphysema and interlobular septal thickening in both lung fields. The subject's condition gradually worsened, and in 2015, he was registered with the Japan Organ Transplant Network for lung transplantation (LTx). Conclusions: Heavy indium exposure is a risk factor for emphysema, which can lead to a severity level that requires LTx as the final therapeutic option. PMID:27488043

  13. Dinuclear indium and thallium diyls: biscarbenoids or metal cluster?

    PubMed

    Desat, Marcella E; Gärtner, Stefanie; Kretschmer, Robert

    2017-01-26

    Using bis(β-diketiminate) ligands we were able to synthesize unprecedented indium and thallium biscarbenoids. For indium, a novel four-membered metallacycle is derived from intra- and intermolecular In-In interactions in the solid state, while for thallium only an intramolecular Tl2-pseudo-dimer is obtained. Computational studies revealed that the solid-state structures benefit significantly from dispersion stabilization.

  14. Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Serial evaluations at an indium-tin oxide production facility.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kristin J; Suarthana, Eva; Edwards, Nicole; Liang, Xiaoming; Stanton, Marcia L; Day, Gregory A; Saito, Rena; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of workplace changes to prevent indium lung disease, using 2002-2010 surveillance data collected by an indium-tin oxide production facility. We assessed pulmonary function using lower limits of normal. Blood indium concentration and personal air sampling data were used to estimate exposure. Abnormalities were uncommon at hire. After hire, prevalence of spirometric restriction was 31% (n = 14/45), about fourfold higher than expected. Excessive decline in FEV1 was elevated at 29% (n = 12/41). Half (n = 21/42) had blood indium ≥5 µg/l. More recent hires had fewer abnormalities. There was a suggestion that abnormalities were more common among workers with blood indium ≥5 µg/l, but otherwise an exposure-response relationship was not evident. Peak dust concentrations were obscured by time averaging. Evolving lung function abnormalities consistent with subclinical indium lung disease appeared common and merit systematic investigation. Traditional measures of exposure and response were not illustrative, suggesting fresh approaches will be needed. Workplace changes seemed to have had a positive though incomplete impact; novel preventive interventions are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Processing development of 4 tantalum carbide-hafnium carbide and related carbides and borides for extreme environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballa, Osama Gaballa Bahig

    Carbides, nitrides, and borides ceramics are of interest for many applications because of their high melting temperatures and good mechanical properties. Wear-resistant coatings are among the most important applications for these materials. Materials with high wear resistance and high melting temperatures have the potential to produce coatings that resist degradation when subjected to high temperatures and high contact stresses. Among the carbides, Al4SiC4 is a low density (3.03 g/cm3), high melting temperature (>2000°C) compound, characterized by superior oxidation resistance, and high compressive strength. These desirable properties motivated this investigation to (1) obtain high-density Al4SiC4 at lower sintering temperatures by hot pressing, and (2) to enhance its mechanical properties by adding WC and TiC to the Al4SiC4. Also among the carbides, tantalum carbide and hafnium carbide have outstanding hardness; high melting points (3880°C and 3890°C respectively); good resistance to chemical attack, thermal shock, and oxidation; and excellent electronic conductivity. Tantalum hafnium carbide (Ta4HfC 5) is a 4-to-1 ratio of TaC to HfC with an extremely high melting point of 4215 K (3942°C), which is the highest melting point of all currently known compounds. Due to the properties of these carbides, they are considered candidates for extremely high-temperature applications such as rocket nozzles and scramjet components, where the operating temperatures can exceed 3000°C. Sintering bulk components comprised of these carbides is difficult, since sintering typically occurs above 50% of the melting point. Thus, Ta4 HfC5 is difficult to sinter in conventional furnaces or hot presses; furnaces designed for very high temperatures are expensive to purchase and operate. Our research attempted to sinter Ta4HfC5 in a hot press at relatively low temperature by reducing powder particle size and optimizing the powder-handling atmosphere, milling conditions, sintering

  17. DX centers in indium aluminum arsenide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Huseyin

    DX centers are point defects observed in many n-type doped III-V compound semi conductors. They have unique properties, which include large differences between their optical and thermal ionization energies, and a temperature dependence of the capture cross-sections. As a result of these properties DX centers exhibit a reduction in free carrier concentration and a large persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect. DX centers also lead to a shift in the threshold voltage of modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFET) structures, at low temperatures. Most of the studies on this defect have been carried out on the Ga xAl1-xAs material system. However, to date there is significantly less work on DX centers in InxAl1-xAs compounds. This is partly due to difficulties associated with the growth of defect free materials other than lattice matched In0.52Al 0.48As on InP and partly because the energy level of the DX center is in resonance with the conduction band in In0.52Al0.48As. The purpose of this dissertation is to extend the DX center investigation to InAlAs compounds, primarily in the indirect portion of the InAlAs bandgap. In this work the indium composition dependence of the DX centers in In xAl1-xAs/InyGa1-yAs-based heterostructure is studied experimentally. Different InxAl 1-xAs epitaxial layers with x = 0.10, x = 0.15, x = 0.20, and x = 0.34 in a MODFET-like heterostructure were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on (001) GaAs substrates. In order to compensate the lattice mismatch between epitaxial layers and their substrates, step-graded buffer layers with indium composition increments of x = 0.10, every 2000 A, were used. For the samples grown with different indium contents Hall measurements as a function of both temperature and different cooling biases were performed in order to determine their carrier concentrations. A self consistent Poisson-Schrodinger numerical software is used to model the heterostructures. With the help of this numerical model

  18. DNA adsorption by indium tin oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Biwu; Liu, Juewen

    2015-01-01

    The high conductivity and optical transparency of indium tin oxide (ITO) has made it a popular material in the electronic industry. Recently, its application in biosensors is also explored. To understand its biointerface chemistry, we herein investigate its interaction with fluorescently labeled single-stranded oligonucleotides using ITO nanoparticles (NPs). The fluorescence of DNA is efficiently quenched after adsorption, and the interaction between DNA and ITO NPs is strongly dependent on the surface charge of ITO. At low pH, the ITO surface is positively charged to afford a high DNA adsorption capacity. Adsorption is also influenced by the sequence and length of DNA. For its components, In2O3 adsorbs DNA more strongly while SnO2 repels DNA at neutral pH. The DNA adsorption property of ITO is an averaging result from both components. DNA adsorption is confirmed to be mainly by the phosphate backbone via displacement experiments using free phosphate or DNA bases. Last, DNA-induced DNA desorption by forming duplex DNA is demonstrated on ITO, while the same reaction is more difficult to achieve on other metal oxides including CeO2, TiO2, and Fe3O4 because these particles adsorb DNA more tightly.

  19. Subnanometer Thin β-Indium Sulfide Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Shinjita; Sarkar, Suresh; Pradhan, Narayan

    2012-12-20

    Nanosheets are a peculiar kind of nanomaterials that are grown two-dimensionally over a micrometer in length and a few nanometers in thickness. Wide varieties of inorganic semiconductor nanosheets are already reported, but controlling the crystal growth and tuning their thickness within few atomic layers have not been yet explored. We investigate here the parameters that determine the thickness and the formation mechanism of subnanometer thin (two atomic layers) cubic indium sulfide (In2S3) nanosheets. Using appropriate reaction condition, the growth kinetics is monitored by controlling the decomposition rate of the single source precursor of In2S3 as a function of nucleation temperature. The variation in the thickness of the nanosheets along the polar [111] direction has been correlated with the rate of evolved H2S gas, which in turn depends on the rate of the precursor decomposition. In addition, it has been observed that the thickness of the In2S3 nanosheets is related to the nucleation temperature.

  20. Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis and Properties.

    PubMed

    Shafa, Muhammad; Akbar, Sadaf; Gao, Lei; Fakhar-E-Alam, Muhammad; Wang, Zhiming M

    2016-12-01

    This article summarizes some of the critical features of pure indium antimonide nanowires (InSb NWs) growth and their potential applications in the industry. In the first section, historical studies on the growth of InSb NWs have been presented, while in the second part, a comprehensive overview of the various synthesis techniques is demonstrated briefly. The major emphasis of current review is vapor phase deposition of NWs by manifold techniques. In addition, author review various protocols and methodologies employed to generate NWs from diverse material systems via self-organized fabrication procedures comprising chemical vapor deposition, annealing in reactive atmosphere, evaporation of InSb, molecular/ chemical beam epitaxy, solution-based techniques, and top-down fabrication method. The benefits and ill effects of the gold and self-catalyzed materials for the growth of NWs are explained at length. Afterward, in the next part, four thermodynamic characteristics of NW growth criterion concerning the expansion of NWs, growth velocity, Gibbs-Thomson effect, and growth model were expounded and discussed concisely. Recent progress in device fabrications is explained in the third part, in which the electrical and optical properties of InSb NWs were reviewed by considering the effects of conductivity which are diameter dependent and the applications of NWs in the fabrications of field-effect transistors, quantum devices, thermoelectrics, and detectors.

  1. Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafa, Muhammad; Akbar, Sadaf; Gao, Lei; Fakhar-e-Alam, Muhammad; Wang, Zhiming M.

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes some of the critical features of pure indium antimonide nanowires (InSb NWs) growth and their potential applications in the industry. In the first section, historical studies on the growth of InSb NWs have been presented, while in the second part, a comprehensive overview of the various synthesis techniques is demonstrated briefly. The major emphasis of current review is vapor phase deposition of NWs by manifold techniques. In addition, author review various protocols and methodologies employed to generate NWs from diverse material systems via self-organized fabrication procedures comprising chemical vapor deposition, annealing in reactive atmosphere, evaporation of InSb, molecular/ chemical beam epitaxy, solution-based techniques, and top-down fabrication method. The benefits and ill effects of the gold and self-catalyzed materials for the growth of NWs are explained at length. Afterward, in the next part, four thermodynamic characteristics of NW growth criterion concerning the expansion of NWs, growth velocity, Gibbs-Thomson effect, and growth model were expounded and discussed concisely. Recent progress in device fabrications is explained in the third part, in which the electrical and optical properties of InSb NWs were reviewed by considering the effects of conductivity which are diameter dependent and the applications of NWs in the fabrications of field-effect transistors, quantum devices, thermoelectrics, and detectors.

  2. Precipitation of Niobium Boride Phases at the Base Metal/Weld Metal Interface in Dissimilar Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Výrostková, Anna; Kepič, Ján; Homolová, Viera; Falat, Ladislav

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the analysis of failure mechanism in the heat affected zone is described in dissimilar weld joints between advanced martensitic steel T92 and Ni-base weld metal. The joints were treated with two different post-weld heat treatments and tested. For the creep, tensile, and Charpy impact tests, the samples with interfacially located notch were used. Moreover long term aging at 625 °C was applied before the tensile and notch toughness tests. Decohesion fractures ran along carbides at the T92 BM/WM interfaces in case of the modified PWHT, whereas type IV cracking was the prevailing failure mechanism after the classical PWHT in the creep test. In the notch tensile and Charpy impact tests, with the notch at T92 base metal/weld metal interface, fractures ran along the interface with a hard phase on the fracture surface along with the ductile dimple and brittle quasi-cleavage fracture. The phase identified as niobium boride (either NbB and/or Nb3B2) was produced during welding at the end of the solidification process. It was found in the welds regardless of the post-weld heat treatment and long-term aging.

  3. Phase stability and incompressibility of tungsten boride (WB) researched by in-situ high pressure x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Cong; Liu, Chenji; Peng, Fang; Tan, Ning; Tang, Mingjun; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Qiming; Li, Fengjiao; Wang, Jianghua; Chen, Ying; Liang, Hao; Guan, Shixue; Yang, Ke; Liu, Jing

    2017-09-01

    The binary tungsten boride, WB, has potential industrial applications as it not only has a high melting point but is generally harder and less compressible than the pure metals. Here, the physical and mechanical properties (phase stability, bulk modulus and compressibility) of WB were investigated by in situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction and theoretical calculations. Its crystal structure still remains stable even at the highest pressure of 63.7 GPa and room temperature for the diamond-anvil cell experiments. The pressure-volume (P-V) data were fitted using the Birch-Murnaghan EOS and the Vinet EOS to obtain the isothermal bulk modulus, K0 = 452 (4) GPa and 451(3) GPa and its pressure derivative, K0‧ = 4 (fixed) in the two sets of experiments with two different pressure transmitting mediums (PTMs), respectively. The excellent bulk modulus (K0) is attributed to the high valence electron density of W atom, the layered and chain-like crystal structure of WB and the strong chemical bonds formed by W and B atoms. Besides, anisotropic compression behavior of the unit-cell axes (a- and c-axes) of WB is manifested by experimental observations and theoretical calculations. This remarkably elastic property is closely related to the strongly directional bonding between W and B atoms.

  4. Transition metal carbides, nitrides and borides, and their oxygen containing analogs useful as water gas shift catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Levi T.; Patt, Jeremy; Moon, Dong Ju; Phillips, Cory

    2003-09-23

    Mono- and bimetallic transition metal carbides, nitrides and borides, and their oxygen containing analogs (e.g. oxycarbides) for use as water gas shift catalysts are described. In a preferred embodiment, the catalysts have the general formula of M1.sub.A M2.sub.B Z.sub.C O.sub.D, wherein M1 is selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, and combinations thereof; M2 is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Ni, Cu, Co, and combinations thereof; Z is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, boron, and combinations thereof; A is an integer; B is 0 or an integer greater than 0; C is an integer; O is oxygen; and D is 0 or an integer greater than 0. The catalysts exhibit good reactivity, stability, and sulfur tolerance, as compared to conventional water shift gas catalysts. These catalysts hold promise for use in conjunction with proton exchange membrane fuel cell powered systems.

  5. Alumina as diffusion barrier to intermetallic formation in thermal interface materials made from indium and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Ibrahim Khalifa

    Indium and copper react at wide range of temperatures to form intermetallic compounds that have different physical, mechanical and thermal properties. Liquid Phase Sintered indium-copper composite long-term performance as thermal interface material is adversely affected by the evolution of the intermetallic. In this study, i) the effect of intermetallic formation and growth on the performance of Liquid Phase Sintered copper-indium composite, ii) the effect of alumina as diffusion barrier between indium and copper, (iii) thermal stability and wettability between indium and alumina, iv) the indium and quartz wettability, v) indium and tungsten oxide wettability have been studied. Deleterious effect of the intermetallic formation and growth on the thermal and mechanical properties has been observed. 5nm of alumina deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition on flat copper surface has been optimized to prevent diffusion process between indium and copper at 120°C. 15nm of alumina prevented the reaction at 230°C. Instability of indium thin film thermally deposited on sapphire substrate was observed. Also, decrease in the sintering density of indium-alumina composite with increasing temperature was observed. The dewetting contact angle between liquid indium and sapphire was ˜127°. The wetting experiments between indium and different oxides showed that indium wets tungsten oxide and quartz..

  6. Independent Composition and Size Control for Highly Luminescent Indium-Rich Silver Indium Selenide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Olesya; Yarema, Maksym; Bozyigit, Deniz; Lin, Weyde M M; Wood, Vanessa

    2015-11-24

    Ternary I-III-VI nanocrystals, such as silver indium selenide (AISe), are candidates to replace cadmium- and lead-based chalcogenide nanocrystals as efficient emitters in the visible and near IR, but, due to challenges in controlling the reactivities of the group I and III cations during synthesis, full compositional and size-dependent behavior of I-III-VI nanocrystals is not yet explored. We report an amide-promoted synthesis of AISe nanocrystals that enables independent control over nanocrystal size and composition. By systematically varying reaction time, amide concentration, and Ag- and In-precursor concentrations, we develop a predictive model for the synthesis and show that AISe sizes can be tuned from 2.4 to 6.8 nm across a broad range of indium-rich compositions from AgIn11Se17 to AgInSe2. We perform structural and optical characterization for representative AISe compositions (Ag0.85In1.05Se2, Ag3In5Se9, AgIn3Se5, and AgIn11Se17) and relate the peaks in quantum yield to stoichiometries exhibiting defect ordering in the bulk. We optimize luminescence properties to achieve a record quantum yield of 73%. Finally, time-resolved photoluminescence measurements enable us to better understand the physics of donor-acceptor emission and the role of structure and composition in luminescence.

  7. Personal indium exposure concentration in respirable dusts and serum indium level.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, Satoko; Nakano, Makiko; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Shigeru; Kawasumi, Yaeko; Higashikubo, Ichiro; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-07

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between indium exposure concentration in the respirable dust fraction (In-E) and indium in serum (In-S) in workers. A total of 39 workers were studied. The study subjects were categorized into 3 groups, namely, smelting workers (n=7), ITO workers (n=6) in an ITO grinding plant, and other workers (n=26). In-E and In-S ranged from 0.004-24.0 μg/m(3) and 0.1-8.50 μg/L, respectively. The simple regression equation was log(In-S)=0.322×log(In-E)-0.443. The simple correlation coefficients for the smelting workers, ITO workers and other workers were 0.489, 0.812 and 0.163, respectively. The differences in the relationships among the three groups suggest that In-S may vary with the chemical form to which the workers were exposed. In-E and In-S seem to be positively correlated. The correlation coefficient was higher for both smelting and ITO workers than for other workers.

  8. Personal indium exposure concentration in respirable dusts and serum indium level

    PubMed Central

    IWASAWA, Satoko; NAKANO, Makiko; MIYAUCHI, Hiroyuki; TANAKA, Shigeru; KAWASUMI, Yaeko; HIGASHIKUBO, Ichiro; TANAKA, Akiyo; HIRATA, Miyuki; OMAE, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between indium exposure concentration in the respirable dust fraction (In-E) and indium in serum (In-S) in workers. Methods: A total of 39 workers were studied. The study subjects were categorized into 3 groups, namely, smelting workers (n=7), ITO workers (n=6) in an ITO grinding plant, and other workers (n=26). In-E and In-S ranged from 0.004–24.0 μg/m3 and 0.1–8.50 μg/L, respectively. The simple regression equation was log(In-S)=0.322×log(In-E)−0.443. The simple correlation coefficients for the smelting workers, ITO workers and other workers were 0.489, 0.812 and 0.163, respectively. The differences in the relationships among the three groups suggest that In-S may vary with the chemical form to which the workers were exposed. In-E and In-S seem to be positively correlated. The correlation coefficient was higher for both smelting and ITO workers than for other workers. PMID:27644848

  9. Chronic pulmonary toxicity study of indium-tin oxide and indium oxide following intratracheal instillations into the lungs of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Homma, Toshiaki; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the chronic toxicological effects of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (In(2)O(3)) on laboratory animals. Male Syrian golden hamsters were intratracheally administered 3 mg/kg or 6 mg/kg of ITO particles, or 2.7 mg/kg or 5.4 mg/kg of In(2)O(3) particles, containing 2.2 mg/kg or 4.5 mg/kg of indium, twice a week, for 8 wk. Control hamsters were given vehicle of distilled water only. The hamsters were euthanized serially up to 78 wk after the final instillation and the toxicological effects were determined. Body weight gain was significantly suppressed in the ITO 6 mg/kg-treated hamsters compared with the control group, but not in the ITO 3 mg/kg-treated or In(2)O(3)-treated hamsters. Relative lung weights among all the indium-treated groups were significantly increased compared to that in the control group throughout the observation period. The serum indium concentration among all the indium-treated groups gradually increased up to the end of the observation period. Histopathologically, foci of slight to severe pulmonary inflammatory response with diffuse alveolar or bronchiolar cell hyperplasia, expansion of the alveolar spaces and interstitial fibrotic proliferation were present in all the indium-treated hamsters and the severity of these lesions worsened with the passage of time. Lung benign adenomas were only manifest in 3 out of 15 of the ITO 6 mg/kg-treated hamsters. The present results clearly demonstrate that ITO and In(2)O(3) particles caused chronic pulmonary toxicity when repeated intratracheal instillations were given to hamsters.

  10. Indium-granulocyte scanning in the painful prosthetic joint

    SciTech Connect

    Pring, D.J.; Henderson, R.G.; Keshavarzian, A.; Rivett, A.G.; Krausz, T.; Coombs, R.R.; Lavender, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    The value of indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning to determine the presence of infection was assessed in 50 prosthetic joints (41 of which were painful) in 40 patients. Granulocytes were obtained from the patients' blood and labeled in plasma with indium 111 tropolonate. Abnormal accumulation of indium 111 in the region of the prosthesis was noted. Proven infection occurred in 11 prostheses, and all of the infections were detected by indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning. Nineteen were not infected (including nine asymptomatic controls) and only two produced false-positive scans. This represents a specificity of 89.5%, sensitivity of 100%, and overall accuracy of 93.2%. These results compare favorably with plain radiography. There was no radiologic evidence of infection in three of the infected prostheses, and 10 of the noninfected prostheses had some radiologic features that suggested sepsis. We conclude that indium-granulocyte scanning can reliably detect or exclude infection in painful prosthetic joints and should prove useful in clinical management.

  11. Growth and characterization of indium arsenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, D. L.; Green, L.; Morelli, D. T.; Heremans, J.; Fuller, B. K.; Thrush, C. M.

    1991-12-01

    The growth and characterization of indium arsenide films grown on indium phosphide substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process is reported. Either ethyl dimethyl indium or trimethyl indium were found to be suitable in combination with arsine as source compounds. The highest electron mobilities were observed in films nucleated at reduced growth temperature. Scanning electron microscopy studies show that film nucleation at low temperature prevents thermal etch pits from forming on the InP surface before growth proceeds at an elevated temperature. Electron mobilities as high as 21,000 cm2V-1 sec-1 at 300 K were thus obtained for a film only 3.4 μm thick. This mobility is significantly higher than was previously observed in InAs films grown by MOCVD. From the depth dependence of transport properties, we find that in our films electrons are accumulated near the air interface of the film, presumably by positive ions in the native oxide. The mobility is limited by electrons scattering predominantly from ionized impurities at low temperature and from lattice vibrations and dislocations at high temperature. However, scattering from dislocations is greatly reduced in the surface accumulation layer due to screening by a high density of electrons. These dislocations arise from lattice mismatch and interface disorder at the film-substrate interface, preventing these films from obtaining mobility values of bulk indium arsenide.

  12. Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1984-03-13

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  13. Materials flow of indium in the United States in 2008 and 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Indium is a material that has many applications. It is used by anyone who watches television or views a computer screen. It is found in solar energy arrays and in soldering applications that are required to be lead free. In 2009, about 550 metric tons (t) of indium metal was produced from primary sources world-wide; it was estimated that the United States consumed about 110 t of indium metal (20 percent of world primary production). However, when imports of consumer products that contain indium are considered, the United States consumed about 200 t of indium (36 percent of world primary production). When one considers the recovery from the low-efficiency sputtering process that coats indium-tin oxide onto glass and other surfaces, the recycling rate (within the manufacturing process that uses indium-tin oxide in flat panel displays approaches 36 percent. However, indium recovery from old scrap generated from end-of-life consumer products is not sufficiently economic to add significantly to secondary production. Between 1988 and 2010, indium prices averaged $381 per kilogram (in constant 2000 dollars). However, prices have been quite volatile (deviating from the average of $381 per kilogram by ±$199 per kilogram, a 52 percent difference from the average), reflecting short-term disequilibrium of supply and demand but also responsiveness of supply to demand. The dynamics of zinc smelting govern the primary supply of indium because indium is a byproduct of zinc smelting. Secondary indium supply, which accounts for about one-half of total indium supply, is governed by indium prices and technological advances in recovery. Indium demand is expected to grow because the number and volume of cutting edge technology applications that depend on indium are expected to grow.

  14. TEM EDS analysis of epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Jasmine; Gibson, Ricky; Gehl, Michael; Zandbergen, Sander; Keiffer, Patrick; Nader, Nima; Hendrickson, Joshua; Arnoult, Alexandre; Khitrova, Galina

    2017-05-01

    Epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium nanostructures, or islands, show promise as nanoantennas. The elemental composition and internal structure of indium islands grown on gallium arsenide are explored using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Several sizes of islands are examined, with larger islands exhibiting high (>94%) average indium purity and smaller islands containing inhomogeneous gallium and arsenic contamination. These results enable more accurate predictions of indium nanoantenna behavior as a function of growth parameters.

  15. Impact of preferential indium nucleation on electrical conductivity of vapor-liquid-solid grown indium-tin oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Meng, Gang; Yanagida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yoshida, Hideto; Kanai, Masaki; Klamchuen, Annop; Zhuge, Fuwei; He, Yong; Rahong, Sakon; Fang, Xiaodong; Takeda, Seiji; Kawai, Tomoji

    2013-05-08

    Highly conductive and transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO) single-crystalline nanowires, formed by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method, hold great promise for various nanoscale device applications. However, increasing an electrical conductivity of VLS grown ITO nanowires is still a challenging issue due to the intrinsic difficulty in controlling complex material transports of the VLS process. Here, we demonstrate a crucial role of preferential indium nucleation on the electrical conductivity of VLS grown ITO nanowires using gold catalysts. In spite of the fact that the vapor pressure of tin is lower than that of indium, we found that the indium concentration within the nanowires was always higher than the nominal composition. The VLS growth of ITO through gold catalysts significantly differs from ITO film formations due to the emergence of preferential indium nucleation only at a liquid-solid interface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the averaged resistivity of ITO nanowires can be decreased down to 2.1 × 10(-4) Ω cm, which is the lowest compared with values previously reported, via intentionally increasing the tin concentration within the nanowires.

  16. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Rajesh; Maldonado, Arturo; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; Olvera, María De La Luz

    2014-01-01

    The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10−3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%–70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002) to (101) planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered. PMID:28788118

  17. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Rajesh; Maldonado, Arturo; Vega-Pérez, Jaime; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; De La Luz Olvera, María

    2014-07-04

    The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10(-3) Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%-70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002) to (101) planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered.

  18. Mobility of indium on the ZnO(0001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinhold, R.; Reeves, R. J.; Williams, G. T.; Evans, D. A.; Allen, M. W.

    2015-02-01

    The mobility of indium on the Zn-polar (0001) surface of single crystal ZnO wafers was investigated using real-time x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A sudden transition in the wettability of the ZnO(0001) surface was observed at ˜520 °C, with indium migrating from the ( 000 1 ¯ ) underside of the wafer, around the non-polar ( 1 1 ¯ 00 ) and ( 11 2 ¯ 0 ) sidewalls, to form a uniform self-organized (˜20 Å) adlayer. The In adlayer was oxidized, in agreement with the first principles calculations of Northrup and Neugebauer that In2O3 precipitation can only be avoided under a combination of In-rich and Zn-rich conditions. These findings suggest that unintentional In adlayers may form during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on indium-bonded substrates.

  19. Synthesis and conductivity of indium-doped tin pyrophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, Fernando H; Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L

    2008-01-01

    We have synthesized indium-doped tin pyrophosphates as high-temperature anhydrous proton conductors. The ratio of tin to indium was varied using two different synthetic methods. The first is a high-temperature reaction in which a paste containing the reactants in excess phosphoric acid was heated for various amounts of time at various temperatures. The second method is a solution precipitation procedure followed by calcination, which offers several advantages over traditional synthetic techniques. These advantages inc 1 ude better stoichiometric control, lower temperature requirements, and chemically uniform products. Several phosphate sources were investigated, including phosphoric acid, pyrophosphoric acid, and potassium pyrophosphate. The resulting indium-doped tin pyrophosphates had good proton conductivity over a wide temperature range with no humidification.

  20. Indium antimonide doped with manganese grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, D. L.; Heremans, J.; Thrush, C. M.

    1997-05-01

    Indium antimonide is of interest for infrared detecting and emitting devices and for magnetic field sensors. In this study, indium antimonide doped with manganese and grown by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to show that the incorporation of managenese is near unity over a wide range of manganese concentrations. Manganese is observed to be an acceptor with a dopant efficiency which follows a power law in which the hole density is proportional to the manganese concentration raised to the power α. The power α depends on the growth temperature; at 300°C, α = 0.86 and at 360°C, α = 0.78. Lightly manganese doped samples have transport dominated by electrons at low temperatures due to hole freeze out, followed by holes at intermediate temperatures and finally by intrinsic electrons at high temperatures. Additional SIMS studies showed that manganese diffuses relatively slowly in indium antimonide.

  1. Temperature dependence of the internal friction of polycrystalline indium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, K. V.; Golyandin, S. N.; Kustov, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    The temperature dependences of the internal friction and the elastic modulus of polycrystalline indium have been investigated in the temperature range 7-320 K at oscillatory loading frequencies of approximately 100 kHz. The effect of temperature on the amplitude dependence and the effect of high-amplitude loading at 7 K on the temperature and amplitude dependences of the internal friction of indium have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the thermocycling leads to microplastic deformation of indium due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion and the appearance of a "recrystallization" maximum in the spectrum of the amplitude-dependent internal friction. The conclusion has been drawn that the bulk diffusion of vacancies and impurities begins at temperatures of approximately 90 K and that, at lower temperatures, the diffusion occurs in the vicinity of dislocations. It has been revealed that the high-temperature internal friction background becomes noticeable after the dissolution of Cottrell atmospheres.

  2. Mobility of indium on the ZnO(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Heinhold, R.; Reeves, R. J.; Allen, M. W.; Williams, G. T.; Evans, D. A.

    2015-02-02

    The mobility of indium on the Zn-polar (0001) surface of single crystal ZnO wafers was investigated using real-time x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A sudden transition in the wettability of the ZnO(0001) surface was observed at ∼520 °C, with indium migrating from the (0001{sup ¯}) underside of the wafer, around the non-polar (11{sup ¯}00) and (112{sup ¯}0) sidewalls, to form a uniform self-organized (∼20 Å) adlayer. The In adlayer was oxidized, in agreement with the first principles calculations of Northrup and Neugebauer that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitation can only be avoided under a combination of In-rich and Zn-rich conditions. These findings suggest that unintentional In adlayers may form during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on indium-bonded substrates.

  3. Occult Purulent Pericarditis Detected by Indium-111 Leukocyte Imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Mark L.; Niebulski, Harvey I. J; Uretsky, Barry F.; Salerni, Rosemarie; Klein, Herbert A.; Forstate, William J.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Leukocyte imaging with indium-111 is-a relatively new technique which, to this point in time, has been discussed almost exclusively in the radiologic literature. Although this procedure has been used mainly to detect intra-abdominal infection, the thorax is routinely imaged along with the abdomen, and therefore detection of cardiac disease may be feasible. This case report is of a young woman after liver transplantation who developed occult purulent pericarditis initially detected by a leukocyte scan with indium-111. This case demonstrates that striking pericardial uptake on a whole-body indium-111 leukocyte scan can occur with purulent pericarditis, and it reemphasizes how insidiously purulent pericarditis may present in an immunosuppressed patient. PMID:6370622

  4. Indium oxide inverse opal films synthesized by structure replication method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrehn, Sabrina; Berghoff, Daniel; Nikitin, Andreas; Reichelt, Matthias; Wu, Xia; Meier, Torsten; Wagner, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    We present the synthesis of indium oxide (In2O3) inverse opal films with photonic stop bands in the visible range by a structure replication method. Artificial opal films made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) spheres are utilized as template. The opal films are deposited via sedimentation facilitated by ultrasonication, and then impregnated by indium nitrate solution, which is thermally converted to In2O3 after drying. The quality of the resulting inverse opal film depends on many parameters; in this study the water content of the indium nitrate/PMMA composite after drying is investigated. Comparison of the reflectance spectra recorded by vis-spectroscopy with simulated data shows a good agreement between the peak position and calculated stop band positions for the inverse opals. This synthesis is less complex and highly efficient compared to most other techniques and is suitable for use in many applications.

  5. Electroluminescence Studies on Longwavelength Indium Arsenide Quantum Dot Microcavities Grown on Gallium Arsenide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONG WAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE THESIS John C...11-46 ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONGWAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE THESIS...58 1 ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONGWAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE I

  6. The Availability of Indium: The Present, Medium Term, and Long Term

    SciTech Connect

    Lokanc, Martin; Eggert, Roderick; Redlinger, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Demand for indium is likely to increase if the growth in deployment of the copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and III-V thin-film photovoltaic technologies accelerates. There are concerns about indium supply constraints since it is relatively rare element in the earth's crust and because it is produced exclusively as a byproduct.

  7. Diffusion parameters of indium for silicon process modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilyalli, I. C.; Rich, T. L.; Stevie, F. A.; Rafferty, C. S.

    1996-11-01

    The diffusion parameters of indium in silicon are investigated. Systematic diffusion experiments in dry oxidizing ambients at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1050 °C are conducted using silicon wafers implanted with indium. Secondary-ion-mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to analyze the dopant distribution before and after heat treatment. The oxidation-enhanced diffusion parameter [R. B. Fair, in Semiconductor Materials and Process Technology Handbook, edited by G. E. McGuire (Noyes, Park Ridge, NJ, 1988); A. M. R. Lin, D. A. Antoniadis, and R. W. Dutton, J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid-State Sci. Technol. 128, 1131 (1981); D. A. Antoniadis and I. Moskowitz, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 9214 (1982)] and the segregation coefficient at the Si/SiO2 interface [R. B. Fair and J. C. C. Tsai, J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid-State Sci. Technol. 125, 2050 (1978)] (ratio of indium concentration in silicon to that in silicon dioxide) are extracted as a function of temperature using SIMS depth profiles and the silicon process simulator PROPHET [M. Pinto, D. M. Boulin, C. S. Rafferty, R. K. Smith, W. M. Coughran, I. C. Kizilyalli, and M. J. Thoma, in IEDM Technical Digest, 1992, p. 923]. It is observed that the segregation coefficient of indium at the Si/SiO2 interface is mIn≪1, similar to boron; however, unlike boron, the segregation coefficient of indium at the Si/SiO2 interface decreases with increasing temperature. Extraction results are summarized in analytical forms suitable for incorporation into other silicon process simulators. Finally, the validity of the extracted parameters is verified by comparing the simulated and measured SIMS profiles for an indium implanted buried-channel p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor [I. C. Kizilyalli, F. A. Stevie, and J. D. Bude, IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1996)] process that involves a gate oxidation and various other thermal processes.

  8. Uptake of indium-111-labeled leukocytes by brain metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, S.; Husain, M.M.; Adametz, J.R.; Pallin, J.S.; Angtuaco, T.L.; Boyd, C.M.

    1987-04-01

    Uptake of indium-labeled leukocytes was seen in two cases of histologically proven brain metastasis. In one, this led to misdiagnosis of the lesion as an abscess. On histological evaluation, a large number of white blood cells or macrophages was seen at the neoplastic sites. Reasons for leukocyte accumulation around metastatic brain neoplasms are discussed. In contrast to the current reports that indium-labeled leukocyte scans can differentiate intracranial infection from tumor, these cases demonstrate their lack of specificity in the detection of brain abscess.

  9. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huaming E-mail: mo.li@gatech.edu; Li, Mo E-mail: mo.li@gatech.edu; Sun, Yongli

    2015-09-15

    We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  10. Method for labelling leucocytes with indium In-111 oxine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, D.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes an improved method for radio-labelling leucocytes with Indium In-111 oxine. It comprises separating the leucocytes from whole blood for obtaining separated leucocytes mixed with residual red blood cells; and then labelling the separated leucocytes with Indium In-111 oxine; wherein the improvement comprises the following further step: depleting residual red blood cells from the separated leucocytes by resuspending the leucocytes in an isotonic saline solution, then rocking the resuspended leucocytes for causing the leucocytes to preferentially settle out, and then removing residual red blood cells which remain suspended within the supernatant isotonic saline solution.

  11. Study of electrical resistivity of lithium-indium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Gyanesh; Katyal, O. P.

    1984-12-01

    Experimental results are presented on the electrical resistivity of lithium-indium films. The resistivity has been studied as a function of temperature (150-300 K), thickness of the films (570-3300 Å) and concentration of Li (11.0-58.7 at. %). The resistivity is observed to be minimum for samples having a Li concentration of 25 and 50 at. %. In general, resistivity varies linearly with temperature but resistivity versus temperature plot shows two distinct regions which have different slopes, i.e., dρ/dT. The role of lithium in indium-lithium films is discussed.

  12. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in Workers at an Indium Processing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Donat, Walter E.; Ettensohn, David B.; Roggli, Victor L.; Ingram, Peter; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, including one death, occurred in workers at a facility producing indium-tin oxide (ITO), a compound used in recent years to make flat panel displays. Both workers were exposed to airborne ITO dust and had indium in lung tissue specimens. One worker was tested for autoantibodies to granulocytemacrophage–colonystimulating factor (GM-CSF) and found to have an elevated level. These cases suggest that inhalational exposure to ITO causes pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, which may occur via an autoimmune mechanism. PMID:20019344

  13. Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide heterojunction nanowire array solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Masatoshi Nakai, Eiji; Fukui, Takashi; Tomioka, Katsuhiro

    2013-12-09

    Heterojunction solar cells were formed with a position-controlled InP nanowire array sputtered with indium tin oxide (ITO). The ITO not only acted as a transparent electrode but also as forming a photovoltaic junction. The devices exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.436 V, short-circuit current of 24.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 0.682, giving a power conversion efficiency of 7.37% under AM1.5 G illumination. The internal quantum efficiency of the device was higher than that of the world-record InP cell in the short wavelength range.

  14. Deep Subgap Feature in Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide. Evidence Against Reduced Indium

    SciTech Connect

    Sallis, Shawn; Quackenbush, Nicholas F.; Williams, Deborah S.; Senger, Mikell; Woicik, Joseph C.; White, Bruce E.; Piper, Louis F.

    2015-01-14

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) is the archetypal transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor. In spite of the gains made with a-IGZO over amorphous silicon in the last decade, the presence of deep subgap states in a-IGZO active layers facilitate instabilities in thin film transistor properties under negative bias illumination stress. Several candidates could contribute to the formation of states within the band gap. We present evidence against In+ lone pair active electrons as the origin of the deep subgap features. No In+ species are observed, only In0 nano-crystallites under certain oxygen deficient growth conditions. Our results further support under coordinated oxygen as the source of the deep subgap states.

  15. Oxygen solubility in liquid indium and oxygen diffusivity in liquid indium and tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Shinya; Kozuka, Zensaku; Chang, Y. Austin

    1984-06-01

    The solubility of oxygen in liquid indium, Co, at 973 and 1073 K in equilibrium with its oxide was determined by an isopiestic equilibration technique in order to resolve discrepancies reported in the literature. The present results, Co = 0.0092 at. pet at 973 K and 0.0377 at. pet at 1073 K, agree with those obtained by Otsuka, Sano, and Kozuka using a modified coulometric titration method. Oxygen diffusivity in liquid indium from 873 to 1073 K and in liquid tin from 973 to 1273 K was measured utilizing a combined potentiostatic and emf method using the following double electrochemical cells: Fe,FeO/ZrO2(+CaO)/O in Me(I)/ZrO2(+CaO)/O in Me(II). The present results are DO(In) = 6.6 ({-1.6/+2.0}) x 10-3 exp[(-3-600 ± 5600)/RT]873 K ≤ T ≤ 1073 K and DO(Sn), = 8.7({-5.7/+13.5}) x 10-4 exp[(-18800 ± 6700)/RT]973 K ≤ T ≤ 1273 K. The present results are of the same order of magnitude with the self-diffusivity of the liquid metals, and are about two orders of magnitude greater than the oxygen diffusivity reported by Stevenson and co-workers. The ratio of oxygen diffusivity to self-diffusivity of the solvent was found to be correlated to the enthalpy of formation per mole of oxygen of the respective oxide at 298 K.

  16. Platelet labelling with indium-hydroxypyridinone and indium-hydroxypyranone complexes.

    PubMed

    Abeysinghe, R D; Ellis, B L; Porter, J B

    1994-10-01

    In order to identify new compounds which label platelets without affecting their function, three classes of metal chelating agents have been compared with oxine for their efficiency of indium-113m platelet labelling and for their short- and long-term effects on platelet function. The 3-hydroxypyridinones (both 2-ones and 4-ones) and 3-hydroxypyranones are bidentate chelators of trivalent metal ions that are neutrally charged in the metal-complexed form and hence gain access to cells readily. The hydroxypyranone ethylmaltol has been compared with the 3-hydroxypyridin-4-one CP94 and to its structurally related lipophilic analogue CP25 as well as with the 3-hydroxypyridin-2-one, CP02. The platelet labelling efficiencies with these ligands were between 75% and 95% of that obtained with oxine, following a 12-min incubation in saline. The optimal concentration for the hydroxypyridin-2-ones and hydroxypyridin-4-ones was approximately 10 microM compared with 100 microM for the hydroxypyranone ethylmaltol and 60 microM for oxine. Oxine and tropolone were found to produce significant inhibition of platelet aggregation to collagen in short-term experiments (10 min) or in longer term (18 and 42 h) ex vivo platelet cultures respectively. By contrast, ethylmaltol had no such inhibitory effects at either time interval. The relatively hydrophilic hydroxypyridin-4-one CP94 showed no inhibitory effects on collagen-induced aggregation in short-term studies, unlike the more lipid-soluble derivative CP25. These results suggest that ethylmaltol and related pyranones may have advantages over oxine and tropolone as indium platelet labelling agents where it is important not to damage platelets by the labelling process itself.

  17. Anomalous effect of vanadium boride seeding on thermoelectric properties of YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N

    SciTech Connect

    Prytuliak, A.; Maruyama, S.; Mori, T.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We doped YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N; the long awaited n-type counterpart to p-type boron carbide. ► VB{sub 2} seeding of YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N showed striking results. ► Thermal treatment effects led to VB{sub 2} being intrinsically doped. ► Large increase of both Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity was obtained. - Abstract: Vanadium boride seeded YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N were synthesized and the thermoelectric properties investigated. YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N is representative of the series of rare earth borocarbonitrides which is the potential long awaited n-type counterpart to p-type boron carbide. VB{sub 2} seeded samples of YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N were prepared using VB{sub 2} directly as an initial additive and V{sub 2}O{sub 3} which also results in formation of vanadium diboride in the final product. The resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of samples were measured in the temperature range of 323 K to 1073 K. A dramatic effect of thermal treatment on the Seebeck coefficient of VB{sub 2} seeded samples was observed, and it is indicated that there is possible partial intrinsic doping of vanadium into YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N. VB{sub 2} is revealed to be a promising additive to improve the thermoelectric properties of YB{sub 22}C{sub 2}N. An enhancement of more than 220% of the maximum absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient was obtained while the resistivity was also reduced considerably.

  18. High levels of indium exposure relate to progressive emphysematous changes: a 9-year longitudinal surveillance of indium workers.

    PubMed

    Amata, Atsuko; Chonan, Tatsuya; Omae, Kazuyuki; Nodera, Hiroshi; Terada, Jiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2015-11-01

    During the last decade it has been clarified that the inhalation of indium compounds can evoke alveolar proteinosis, cholesterol granuloma, pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the characteristics and time course of pulmonary disorders among indium workers using comprehensive pulmonary examinations at an indium-processing factory. Data for 84 male workers who underwent the examinations for nine consecutive years from 2002 to 2010 were analysed regarding their symptoms, serum indium concentration (sIn), serum markers of interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary function test parameters and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of the lungs. In association with improvements in the work environment and work practice, the sIn levels decreased with significant reductions in the KL-6 and surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels. Regarding the HRCT findings, the interstitial lesions regressed partially, whereas emphysematous lesions increased progressively in the workers with high sIn values. FEV1/FVC decreased with the years and the rate of decrease was significantly greater in those with high sIn. The biological half-life of sIn was estimated to be 8.09 years. The present findings suggest that the sIn, SP-D, KL-6 levels and radiological interstitial changes can be reduced in indium workers by alleviating exposure to indium, whereas emphysematous lesions can progress among those with a history of heavy exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Effect of Indium on the Superconducting Transition Temperature of Tin Telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Tranquada, John; Gu, Genda

    2013-03-01

    Indium-doped tin telluride is one of the most appealing topological superconductors. We have grown a series of Sn1-xInxTe crystals with different indium concentrations (0.1 <=x <=1.0). The results show indium doping improves the superconducting transition temperature significantly and is highly related to the indium concentration. The maximum Tc of indium-doped tin telluride polycrystalline is 4.5K for x =0.4. Single crystals of Sn1-xInxTe were also grown by the floating zone method, and their magnetic properties were characterized.

  20. Electrochemical synthesis of indium(0) nanoparticles in haloindate(III) ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Estager, Julien; Nockemann, Peter; Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2012-01-09

    A synthetic route to indium(0) nanoparticles via an electrochemical reduction of haloindate(III) ionic liquids to indium(I), and its subsequent disproportionation to indium(0) and indium(III) in the bulk electrolyte, is described. In this sustainable method, the ionic liquid acts simultaneously as metal source, templating agent, and stabilising agent, with the electron as the only reducing agent. The nature of the ionic liquid cation is demonstrated to strongly affect the morphology and size distribution of the indium(0) nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Indium segregation measured in InGaN quantum well layer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhen; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Wenxin; Cheng, Liwen; Li, Wei; Lu, Wei; Jia, Haiqiang; Liu, Wuming; Zhou, Junming; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The indium segregation in InGaN well layer is confirmed by a nondestructive combined method of experiment and numerical simulation, which is beyond the traditional method. The pre-deposited indium atoms before InGaN well layer growth are first carried out to prevent indium atoms exchange between the subsurface layer and the surface layer, which results from the indium segregation. The uniform spatial distribution of indium content is achieved in each InGaN well layer, as long as indium pre-deposition is sufficient. According to the consistency of the experiment and numerical simulation, the indium content increases from 16% along the growth direction and saturates at 19% in the upper interface, which cannot be determined precisely by the traditional method. PMID:25339386

  2. Platinum-, rhenium-, indium-containing catalysts for conversion of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Antos, G.J.; Wang, L.

    1986-12-16

    A process is described for the catalytic reforming of naphtha-boiling range charge stock at reforming conditions with a catalytic composite comprising: (a) a refractory inorganic oxide; (b) a first uniform dispersion of a platinum component and a rhenium component; (c) a second dispersion of an indium component thereover; (d) a halogen component; and (e) a sulfur component.

  3. p-type conduction in sputtered indium oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Alcala, Rafael; Villuendas, Francisco

    2010-05-10

    We report p-type conductivity in intrinsic indium oxide (IO) films deposited by magnetron sputtering on fused quartz substrates under oxygen-rich ambient. Highly oriented (111) films were studied by x-ray diffraction, optical absorption, and Hall effect measurements. We fabricated p-n homojunctions on these films.

  4. A New Technique for Wirebonding Using Indium Spheres

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A new technique has been developed for wirebonding mercury ...the MCT material under gold wirebonding pads due to force and ultrasonic power needed in wirebonding. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Wirebonding indium, Mercury ... mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) devices has been developed. Gold ball wirebonding to MCT devices is challenging. The act of applying force and

  5. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  6. Visible light electroluminescent diodes of indium-gallium phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, R.; Richman, D.; Tietjen, J.

    1970-01-01

    Vapor deposition and acceptor impurity diffusion techniques are used to prepare indium-gallium phosphide junctions. Certain problems in preparation are overcome by altering gas flow conditions and by increasing the concentration of phosphine in the gas. A general formula is given for the alloy's composition.

  7. [The clinical features of indium-related lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Guo, Kongrong; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Daoyuan

    2015-08-01

    To discuss the clinical features of Indium-related lung diseases. We searched database of Chinese and Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science to collect research data of indium-related lung diseases from Jan. 1998 to Aprl. 2014. Case reports, exposure histories and lab results were analysed and summarized. 1998 to Mar 2010, ten cases of indium-related lung diseases were published. Seven cases of interstitial pneumonia were reported in Japan, two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) were reported in the USA and one case of PAP reported in China. Chest computer tomography (CT) showed diffuse or local ground glass appearance (GGA) in 8 cases, 3 of which also showed centrilobular nodules; Pulmonary function test were normal only in one out of 8 cases. Cholesterol clefts were found in 4 cases of interstitial pneumonia. 3 cases died among 6 cases who were followed-up. Occupational exposure to indium compounds are contributory to different pulmonary diseases, which are composed of interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. The relationships between In-C, In-S and these pulmonary diseases are unclear.

  8. Sub-micronewton thrust measurements of indium field emission thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of three indium field emission thrusters (In-FETs) developed by the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf (ARCS) have been measured up to 200 muN, 2 mA, and 20 W using a submicronewton resolution thrust stand.

  9. Sub-micronewton thrust measurements of indium field emission thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of three indium field emission thrusters (In-FETs) developed by the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf (ARCS) have been measured up to 200 muN, 2 mA, and 20 W using a submicronewton resolution thrust stand.

  10. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  11. Crystal structures and compressibility of novel iron borides Fe2B7 and FexB50 synthesized at high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykova, E.; Gou, H.; Bykov, M.; Hanfland, M.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Dubrovinskaia, N.

    2015-10-01

    We present here a detailed description of the crystal structures of novel iron borides, Fe2B7 and FexB50 with various iron content (x=1.01(1), 1.04(1), 1.32(1)), synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures. As revealed by high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction, the structure of Fe2B7 possesses short incompressible B-B bonds, which make it as stiff as diamond in one crystallographic direction. The volume compressibility of Fe2B7 (the bulk modulus K0= 259(1.8) GPa, K0‧= 4 (fixed)) is even lower than that of FeB4 and comparable with that of MnB4, known for high bulk moduli among 3d metal borides. FexB50 adopts the structure of the tetragonal δ-B, in which Fe atoms occupy an interstitial position. FexB50 does not show considerable anisotropy in the elastic behavior.

  12. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels.

    PubMed

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana; Ubaldini, Stefano; De Michelis, Ida; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2M sulfuric acid at 80°C for 10min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85-90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50-55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO2 (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90kg CO2-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium. This new strategy represents a useful approach for secondary production of indium from waste LCD panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of and occupational exposure to indium in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hines, Cynthia J; Roberts, Jennifer L; Andrews, Ronnee N; Jackson, Matthew V; Deddens, James A

    2013-01-01

    Indium use has increased greatly in the past decade in parallel with the growth of flat-panel displays, touchscreens, optoelectronic devices, and photovoltaic cells. Much of this growth has been in the use of indium tin oxide (ITO). This increased use has resulted in more frequent and intense exposure of workers to indium. Starting with case reports and followed by epidemiological studies, exposure to ITO has been linked to serious and sometimes fatal lung disease in workers. Much of this research was conducted in facilities that process sintered ITO, including manufacture, grinding, and indium reclamation from waste material. Little has been known about indium exposure to workers in downstream applications. In 2009-2011, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) contacted 89 potential indium-using companies; 65 (73%) responded, and 43 of the 65 responders used an indium material. Our objective was to identify current workplace applications of indium materials, tasks with potential indium exposure, and exposure controls being used. Air sampling for indium was either conducted by NIOSH or companies provided their data for a total of 63 air samples (41 personal, 22 area) across 10 companies. Indium exposure exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m(3) for certain methods of resurfacing ITO sputter targets, cleaning sputter chamber interiors, and in manufacturing some inorganic indium compounds. Indium air concentrations were low in sputter target bonding with indium solder, backside thinning and polishing of fabricated indium phosphide-based semiconductor devices, metal alloy production, and in making indium-based solder pastes. Exposure controls such as containment, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and tool-mounted LEV can be effective at reducing exposure. In conclusion, occupational hygienists should be aware that the manufacture and use of indium materials can result in indium air concentrations that exceed the NIOSH

  14. Use of and Occupational Exposure to Indium in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Cynthia J.; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Andrews, Ronnee N.; Jackson, Matthew V.; Deddens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Indium use has increased greatly in the past decade in parallel with the growth of flat-panel displays, touchscreens, optoelectronic devices, and photovoltaic cells. Much of this growth has been in the use of indium tin oxide (ITO). This increased use has resulted in more frequent and intense exposure of workers to indium. Starting with case reports and followed by epidemiological studies, exposure to ITO has been linked to serious and sometimes fatal lung disease in workers. Much of this research was conducted in facilities that process sintered ITO, including manufacture, grinding, and indium reclamation from waste material. Little has been known about indium exposure to workers in downstream applications. In 2009–2011, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) contacted 89 potential indium-using companies; 65 (73%) responded, and 43 of the 65 responders used an indium material. Our objective was to identify current workplace applications of indium materials, tasks with potential indium exposure, and exposure controls being used. Air sampling for indium was either conducted by NIOSH or companies provided their data for a total of 63 air samples (41 personal, 22 area) across 10 companies. Indium exposure exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m3 for certain methods of resurfacing ITO sputter targets, cleaning sputter chamber interiors, and in manufacturing some inorganic indium compounds. Indium air concentrations were low in sputter target bonding with indium solder, backside thinning and polishing of fabricated indium phosphide-based semiconductor devices, metal alloy production, and in making indium-based solder pastes. Exposure controls such as containment, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and tool-mounted LEV can be effective at reducing exposure. In conclusion, occupational hygienists should be aware that the manufacture and use of indium materials can result in indium air concentrations that exceed the NIOSH

  15. Optimization of Indium Bump Morphology for Improved Flip Chip Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Todd J.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Blazejewski, Edward; Dickie, Matthew R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Greer, Harold F.

    2011-01-01

    Flip-chip hybridization, also known as bump bonding, is a packaging technique for microelectronic devices that directly connects an active element or detector to a substrate readout face-to-face, eliminating the need for wire bonding. In order to make conductive links between the two parts, a solder material is used between the bond pads on each side. Solder bumps, composed of indium metal, are typically deposited by thermal evaporation onto the active regions of the device and substrate. While indium bump technology has been a part of the electronic interconnect process field for many years and has been extensively employed in the infrared imager industry, obtaining a reliable, high-yield process for high-density patterns of bumps can be quite difficult. Under the right conditions, a moderate hydrogen plasma exposure can raise the temperature of the indium bump to the point where it can flow. This flow can result in a desirable shape where indium will efficiently wet the metal contact pad to provide good electrical contact to the underlying readout or imager circuit. However, it is extremely important to carefully control this process as the intensity of the hydrogen plasma treatment dramatically affects the indium bump morphology. To ensure the fine-tuning of this reflow process, it is necessary to have realtime feedback on the status of the bumps. With an appropriately placed viewport in a plasma chamber, one can image a small field (a square of approximately 5 millimeters on each side) of the bumps (10-20 microns in size) during the hydrogen plasma reflow process. By monitoring the shape of the bumps in real time using a video camera mounted to a telescoping 12 magnifying zoom lens and associated optical elements, an engineer can precisely determine when the reflow of the bumps has occurred, and can shut off the plasma before evaporation or de-wetting takes place.

  16. Plasmonic and Superconducting Self-Assembled MBE Grown Indium Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Ricky Dean, Jr.

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown metal has been a renewed area of interest recently in order to achieve high quality metal films or nanostructures for plasmonics. Recently MBE grown silver films have been shown to possess optical constants closer to that of intrinsic silver leading to lower losses and thus allowing for higher quality plasmonics. MBE has also been used to grow silver nanocrystals and indium droplets, or islands, for plasmonics. These self-assembled nanostructures can be grown in close proximity to quantum confined structures such as InAs/GaAs quantum dots or InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells in a single process, without post-processing and fabrication, allowing for increased plasmonic enhancement due to the improved interface between the semiconductor and plasmonic structures. In this dissertation, widely tunable plasmonic resonances of indium islands will be discussed and plasmonic enhancement results will be presented and compared to those of nanoantennas constructed from standard fabrication processes. The coupling between near-surface quantum confined structures, both fabricated and self-assembled, will be compared to the coupling in typical dielectric cavities, such as photonic crystal nanobeams. Beyond the plasmonic possibilities of indium islands, indium becomes superconducting at 3.4 K. With the proximity effect allowing for electrons in materials in contact with a superconductor to occupy a superconducting like state, allowing for the possibility for a hybrid superconductor/semiconductor optical source. The observation of superconductivity in indium islands will be presented and considerations for a superconductor/semiconductor source will be discussed.

  17. Plasma Treatment to Remove Carbon from Indium UV Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Harold F.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Beasley, Matthew; Gantner, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    The sounding rocket experiment FIRE (Far-ultraviolet Imaging Rocket Experiment) will improve the science community fs ability to image a spectral region hitherto unexplored astronomically. The imaging band of FIRE (.900 to 1,100 Angstroms) will help fill the current wavelength imaging observation hole existing from approximately equal to 620 Angstroms to the GALEX band near 1,350 Angstroms. FIRE is a single-optic prime focus telescope with a 1.75-m focal length. The bandpass of 900 to 1100 Angstroms is set by a combination of the mirror coating, the indium filter in front of the detector, and the salt coating on the front of the detector fs microchannel plates. Critical to this is the indium filter that must reduce the flux from Lymanalpha at 1,216 Angstroms by a minimum factor of 10(exp -4). The cost of this Lyman-alpha removal is that the filter is not fully transparent at the desired wavelengths of 900 to 1,100 Angstroms. Recently, in a project to improve the performance of optical and solar blind detectors, JPL developed a plasma process capable of removing carbon contamination from indium metal. In this work, a low-power, low-temperature hydrogen plasma reacts with the carbon contaminants in the indium to form methane, but leaves the indium metal surface undisturbed. This process was recently tested in a proof-of-concept experiment with a filter provided by the University of Colorado. This initial test on a test filter showed improvement in transmission from 7 to 9 percent near 900 with no process optimization applied. Further improvements in this performance were readily achieved to bring the total transmission to 12% with optimization to JPL's existing process.

  18. Pulmonary toxicity in mice by 2- and 13-week inhalation exposures to indium-tin oxide and indium oxide aerosols.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kasuke; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Eitaki, Yoko; Ohnishi, Makoto; Noguchi, Tadashi; Arito, Heihachiro; Fukushima, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation toxicities of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) in mice were characterized in comparison with those previously reported in rats. B6C3F(1) mice of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to ITO or IO aerosol for 6 h/day, 5 day/wk for 2 wk at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 mg/m(3) or 13 wk at 0, 0.1or 1 mg/m(3). ITO and IO particles were deposited in the lung, mediastinal lymph node (MLN) and nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Alveolar proteinosis, infiltrations of alveolar macrophages and inflammatory cells and increased lung weight were induced by 2- and 13-week exposures to ITO and IO, while alveolar epithelial hyperplasia occurred only in the 2-week exposures. Thickened pleural wall, hyperplastic MLN, extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and increased levels of erythrocyte parameters were induced by 13-week exposure to ITO. The ITO- and IO-induced pulmonary lesions were milder in mice than those previously reported in rats, and the fibrotic lesions were different between these two species. Indium levels in the lung and pooled blood were analyzed in the mice exposed to ITO and IO for 13 wk. In the 13-week inhalation exposure of mice to ITO, alveolar proteinosis and significantly increased lung weight were induced at the same exposure concentration as the current threshold limit value for indium and its compounds.

  19. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels

    SciTech Connect

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana; Ubaldini, Stefano; De Michelis, Ida; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • End-of-life LCD panels represent a source of indium. • Several experimental conditions for indium leaching have been assessed. • Indium is completely extracted with 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min. • Cross-current leaching improves indium extraction and operating costs are lowered. • Benefits to the environment come from reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and reagents use. - Abstract: Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100 ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85–90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50–55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35 mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90 kg CO{sub 2}-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium

  20. Palladium-indium catalyzed reduction of N-nitrosodimethylamine: indium as a promoter metal.

    PubMed

    Davie, Matthew G; Shih, Kaimin; Pacheco, Federico A; Leckie, James O; Reinhard, Martin

    2008-04-15

    An emerging technology for the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from drinking and groundwater is reductive destruction using noble metal catalysts and hydrogen gas as a reducing agent. Bimetallic palladium-indium (Pd-In) supported on alumina combines the ability of Into activate NDMA with the hydrogen activating properties of Pd. This study examined the effect of In addition to a commercial 5% Pd by weight on gamma-Al2O3 catalyst on the efficacy of NDMA reduction. The pseudo-first-order rate constant increased proportionately to In loading from 0.057 h(-1) for 0% In to a maximum of 0.25 h(-1) for 1% In and then decreased with additional in loading. Data suggest that hydrogen activation occurred only on Pd surfaces and In activated NDMA 20 times more effectively than Pd on a mass basis. The rate-limiting factor was NDMA activation for In loadings below 1%. The decrease at higher loadings is interpreted as In blocking pore spaces and limiting access to Pd sites, suggesting monatomic hydrogen limitation. The only products detected were dimethylamine and ammonium with carbon and nitrogen balances in excess of 92%, consistent with a mechanism involving reductive N-N bond cleavage. Results from this study serve as a basis for optimizing bimetallic catalysts for treating NDMA contaminated waters.

  1. Synthesis and photophysical characterization of stable indium bacteriochlorins.

    PubMed

    Krayer, Michael; Yang, Eunkyung; Kim, Han-Je; Kee, Hooi Ling; Deans, Richard M; Sluder, Camille E; Diers, James R; Kirmaier, Christine; Bocian, David F; Holten, Dewey; Lindsey, Jonathan S

    2011-05-16

    Bacteriochlorins have wide potential in photochemistry because of their strong absorption of near-infrared light, yet metallobacteriochlorins traditionally have been accessed with difficulty. Established acid-catalysis conditions [BF(3)·OEt(2) in CH(3)CN or TMSOTf/2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine in CH(2)Cl(2)] for the self-condensation of dihydrodipyrrin-acetals (bearing a geminal dimethyl group in the pyrroline ring) afford stable free base bacteriochlorins. Here, InBr(3) in CH(3)CN at room temperature was found to give directly the corresponding indium bacteriochlorin. Application of the new acid catalysis conditions has afforded four indium bacteriochlorins bearing aryl, alkyl/ester, or no substituents at the β-pyrrolic positions. The indium bacteriochlorins exhibit (i) a long-wavelength absorption band in the 741-782 nm range, which is shifted bathochromically by 22-32 nm versus the analogous free base species, (ii) fluorescence quantum yields (0.011-0.026) and average singlet lifetime (270 ps) diminished by an order of magnitude versus that (0.13-0.25; 4.0 ns) for the free base analogues, and (iii) higher average yield (0.9 versus 0.5) yet shorter average lifetime (30 vs 105 μs) of the lowest triplet excited state compared to the free base compounds. The differences in the excited-state properties of the indium chelates versus free base bacteriochlorins derive primarily from a 30-fold greater rate constant for S(1) → T(1) intersystem crossing, which stems from the heavy-atom effect on spin-orbit coupling. The trends in optical properties of the indium bacteriochlorins versus free base analogues, and the effects of 5-OMe versus 5-H substituents, correlate well with frontier molecular-orbital energies and energy gaps derived from density functional theory calculations. Collectively the synthesis, photophysical properties, and electronic characteristics of the indium bacteriochlorins and free base analogues reported herein should aid in the further design of such

  2. Comparing plasma, serum and whole blood indium concentrations from workers at an indium-tin oxide (ITO) production facility.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R Reid; Virji, M Abbas; Edwards, Nicole T; Cummings, Kristin J

    2016-12-01

    Occupational exposure to indium compounds including indium-tin oxide (ITO) can result in potentially fatal indium lung disease. We compared plasma, serum and whole blood indium concentrations (InP, InS and InB) from workers at a single ITO production facility to assess the comparability of these matrices used for biological monitoring of indium exposure. InP, InS and InB were measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometry from consenting workers at an ITO production facility with specimen collection occurring during June-July 2014. Matched pairs from workers were assessed to determine the matrix relationships using the Pearson correlation, paired t-tests, per cent difference, linear regression and κ statistics. Indium matrices were collected from 80 workers. Mean (SD) InP, InS and InB were 3.48 (3.84), 3.90 (4.15) and 4.66 (5.32) mcg/L, respectively. The InS-InP difference was 14%; InS was higher in all but two workers. InP and InS were highly correlated (r=>0.99). The InB-InS difference was 19%; InB was higher in 85% of workers. The InB-InP difference was 34%; InB was higher in 66% of workers. InB was highly correlated with both InP and InS (r=0.97 and 0.96, respectively). κ Statistics were 0.84, 0.83 and 0.82 for InP, InS and InB, respectively, for individuals with each matrix ≥1 mcg/L (p<0.01). While all matrices were highly correlated, we encourage the use of InP and InS to reliably compare studies across different populations using different matrices. The higher per cent difference and increased variability of InB may limit its utility in comparisons with InP and InS in different populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Enhanced superconducting pairing interaction in indium-doped tin telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, A.S.

    2010-05-03

    The ferroelectric degenerate semiconductor Sn{sub 1-{delta}}Te exhibits superconductivity with critical temperatures, T{sub c}, of up to 0.3 K for hole densities of order 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. When doped on the tin site with greater than x{sub c} = 1.7(3)% indium atoms, however, superconductivity is observed up to 2 K, though the carrier density does not change significantly. We present specific heat data showing that a stronger pairing interaction is present for x > x{sub c} than for x < x{sub c}. By examining the effect of In dopant atoms on both T{sub c} and the temperature of the ferroelectric structural phase transition, T{sub SPT}, we show that phonon modes related to this transition are not responsible for this T{sub c} enhancement, and discuss a plausible candidate based on the unique properties of the indium impurities.

  4. Enhanced superconducting pairing interaction in indium-doped tin telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, A.S.; Chu, J.-H.; Toney, M.F.; Geballe, T.H.; Fisher, I.R.; /SLAC, SSRL /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    The ferroelectric degenerate semiconductor Sn{sub 1-{delta}}Te exhibits superconductivity with critical temperatures, T{sub c}, of up to 0.3 K for hole densities of order 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. When doped on the tin site with greater than x{sub c} = 1.7(3)% indium atoms, however, superconductivity is observed up to 2 K, though the carrier density does not change significantly. We present specific heat data showing that a stronger pairing interaction is present for x > x{sub c} than for x < x{sub c}. By examining the effect of In dopant atoms on both T{sub c} and the temperature of the ferroelectric structural phase transition, T{sub SPT}, we show that phonon modes related to this transition are not responsible for this T{sub c} enhancement, and discuss a plausible candidate based on the unique properties of the indium impurities.

  5. Determination of series resistance of indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    The series resistance of a solar cell is an important parameter, which must be minimized to achieve high cell efficiencies. The cell series resistance is affected by the starting material, its design, and processing. The theoretical approach proposed by Jia, et. al., is used to calculate the series resistance of indium phosphide solar cells. It is observed that the theoretical approach does not predict the series resistance correctly in all cases. The analysis was modified to include the use of effective junction ideality factor. The calculated results were compared with the available experimental results on indium phosphide solar cells processed by different techniques. It is found that the use of process dependent junction ideality factor leads to better estimation of series resistance. An accurate comprehensive series resistance model is warranted to give proper feedback for modifying the cell processing from the design state.

  6. Preparation and photoluminescence study of mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changyu; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shouxin; Kang, Zhenhui

    2010-02-15

    Mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods were successfully synthesized by a mild one-step one-pot method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption, ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that there were some pores in the samples, which were mainly composed of rod-like shapes with length of 300 nm and diameter of 90 nm. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements confirmed that the prepared powder was mesoporous with average pore diameter of 3.1 nm. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the band gap energy of the samples was 5.15 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum showed that there were two strong emissions under ultraviolet light irradiation. The growth mechanism of indium hydroxide nanorods and the role of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide were also discussed.

  7. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Alex B.; Hock, Adam S.; McCarthy, Robert; Weimer, Matthew S.

    2016-07-05

    A method for synthesizing an In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor including cooling a mixture comprised of diisopropylcarbodiimide and diethyl ether to approximately -30.degree. C., adding methyllithium drop-wise into the mixture, allowing the mixture to warm to room temperature, adding indium(III) chloride as a solid to the mixture to produce a white solid, dissolving the white solid in pentane to form a clear and colorless solution, filtering the mixture over a celite plug, and evaporating the solution under reduced pressure to obtain a solid In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor. This precursor has been further used to develop a novel atomic layer deposition technique for indium sulfide by dosing a reactor with the precursor, purging with nitrogen, dosing with dilute hydrogen sulfide, purging again with nitrogen, and repeating these steps to increase growth.

  8. Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Keane, James; Tennant, Andrew L. , Tuttle, John R.; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1998-08-08

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  9. Highly selective indium mediated allylation of unprotected pentosylamines.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jean-Bernard; Hottin, Audrey; Ndoye, Alpha

    2012-03-16

    A straightforward functionalization of D-pentoses is reported, which affords homoallylaminopolyols in two steps and uses ion exchange chromatography as the only purification operation. The key indium-mediated allylation is effected on unprotected glycosylamines and occurs with good to excellent syn stereoselection. Validation of the synthetic utility of the method was exemplified by a 3-step synthesis of an optically active 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine from D-xylose.

  10. Stopping characteristics of boron and indium ions in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Veselov, D. S. Voronov, Yu. A.

    2016-12-15

    The mean range and its standard deviation are calculated for boron ions implanted into silicon with energies below 10 keV. Similar characteristics are calculated for indium ions with energies below 200 keV. The obtained results are presented in tabular and graphical forms. These results may help in the assessment of conditions of production of integrated circuits with nanometer-sized elements.

  11. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  12. Immune stimulation following dermal exposure to unsintered indium tin oxide

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Kristie; Anderson, Stacey E.; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie; Anderson, Katie; Marshall, Nikki; Meade, B. Jean

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several types of pulmonary pathology, including alveolar proteinosis, fibrosis, and emphysema, have been reported in workers in the indium industry. To date, there remains no clear understanding of the underlying mechanism(s). Pulmonary toxicity studies in rats and mice have demonstrated the development of mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia and granulomas of mediastinal lymph nodes and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues following exposure to indium tin oxide. Given the association between exposure to other metals and the development of immune-mediated diseases, these studies were undertaken to begin to investigate the immuno-modulatory potential of unsintered indium tin oxide (uITO) in a mouse model. Using modifications of the local lymph node assay, BALB/c mice (five animals/group) were exposed topically via intact or breached skin or injected intradermally at the base of the ear pinnae with either vehicle or increasing concentrations 2.5–10% uITO (90:10 indium oxide/tin oxide, particle size <50 nm). Dose-responsive increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed with a calculated EC3 of 4.7% for the intact skin study. Phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node cells following intradermal injection with 5% uITO yielded a profile consistent with a T-cell-mediated response. These studies demonstrate the potential for uITO to induce sensitization and using lymphocyte proliferation as a biomarker of exposure, and demonstrate the potential for uITO to penetrate both intact and breached skin. PMID:24164313

  13. Indium Helps Strengthen Al/Cu/Li Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments on Al/Cu/Li alloys focus specifically on strengthening effects of minor additions of In and Cd. Indium-bearing alloy combines low density with ability to achieve high strength through heat treatment alone. Tensile tests on peak-aged specimens indicated that alloy achieved yield strength approximately 15 percent higher than baseline alloy. Alloy highly suitable for processing to produce parts of nearly net shape, with particular applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles.

  14. Immune stimulation following dermal exposure to unsintered indium tin oxide.

    PubMed

    Brock, Kristie; Anderson, Stacey E; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie; Anderson, Katie; Marshall, Nikki; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several types of pulmonary pathology, including alveolar proteinosis, fibrosis, and emphysema, have been reported in workers in the indium industry. To date, there remains no clear understanding of the underlying mechanism(s). Pulmonary toxicity studies in rats and mice have demonstrated the development of mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia and granulomas of mediastinal lymph nodes and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues following exposure to indium tin oxide. Given the association between exposure to other metals and the development of immune-mediated diseases, these studies were undertaken to begin to investigate the immuno-modulatory potential of unsintered indium tin oxide (uITO) in a mouse model. Using modifications of the local lymph node assay, BALB/c mice (five animals/group) were exposed topically via intact or breached skin or injected intradermally at the base of the ear pinnae with either vehicle or increasing concentrations 2.5-10% uITO (90:10 indium oxide/tin oxide, particle size <50 nm). Dose-responsive increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed with a calculated EC3 of 4.7% for the intact skin study. Phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node cells following intradermal injection with 5% uITO yielded a profile consistent with a T-cell-mediated response. These studies demonstrate the potential for uITO to induce sensitization and using lymphocyte proliferation as a biomarker of exposure, and demonstrate the potential for uITO to penetrate both intact and breached skin.

  15. Indium Helps Strengthen Al/Cu/Li Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments on Al/Cu/Li alloys focus specifically on strengthening effects of minor additions of In and Cd. Indium-bearing alloy combines low density with ability to achieve high strength through heat treatment alone. Tensile tests on peak-aged specimens indicated that alloy achieved yield strength approximately 15 percent higher than baseline alloy. Alloy highly suitable for processing to produce parts of nearly net shape, with particular applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles.

  16. Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethyl Indium and Ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, Anil U.; Allen, Amy J.; Kanjolia, Ravi K; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2016-05-12

    We investigated the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium oxide (In2O3) thin films using alternating exposures of trimethylindium (TMIn) and a variety of oxygen sources: ozone (O-3), O-2, deionized H2O, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We used in situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements to evaluate the effectiveness of the different oxygen sources and found that only O-3 yielded viable and sustained 111203 growth with TMIn. These measurements also provided details about the In2O3 growth mechanism and enabled us to verify that both the TMIn and O-3 surface reactions were self-limiting. In2O3 thin films were prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry, spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical transport properties of these layers were studied by Hall probe measurements. We found that, at deposition temperatures within the range of 100-200 degrees C, the In2O3 growth per cycle was nearly constant at 0.46 angstrom/cycle and the films were dense and pure. The film thickness was highly uniform (<0.3% variation) along the 45 cm length of our tubular ALD reactor. At higher growth temperatures the In2O3 growth per cycle increased due to thermal decomposition of the TMIn. The ALD In2O3 films showed resistivities as low as 3.2 x 10(-3) Omega cm, and carrier concentrations as large as 7.0 x 10(19) cm(-3). This TMIn/O-3 process for In2O3 ALD should be suitable for eventual scale-up in photovoltaics.

  17. Polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon by indium assisted growth in hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Sun, Yan-Ting Lourdudoss, Sebastian; Pietralunga, Silvia M.; Zani, Maurizio; Tagliaferri, Alberto

    2014-07-21

    Polycrystalline InP was grown on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by using indium (In) metal as a starting material in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) reactor. In metal was deposited on silicon substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The deposited In resulted in islands of different size and was found to be polycrystalline in nature. Different growth experiments of growing InP were performed, and the growth mechanism was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, Scanning Auger microscopy for surface and compositional analyses, powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity, and micro photoluminescence for optical quality assessment were conducted. It is shown that the growth starts first by phosphidisation of the In islands to InP followed by subsequent selective deposition of InP in HVPE regardless of the Si substrate orientation. Polycrystalline InP of large grain size is achieved and the growth rate as high as 21 μm/h is obtained on both substrates. Sulfur doping of the polycrystalline InP was investigated by growing alternating layers of sulfur doped and unintentionally doped InP for equal interval of time. These layers could be delineated by stain etching showing that enough amount of sulfur can be incorporated. Grains of large lateral dimension up to 3 μm polycrystalline InP on Si with good morphological and optical quality is obtained. The process is generic and it can also be applied for the growth of other polycrystalline III–V semiconductor layers on low cost and flexible substrates for solar cell applications.

  18. Ultraviolet-reduced reduction and crystallization of indium oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Atsushi; Hirashima, Hiroshi; Toki, Motoyuki; Asakuma, Naoko

    1999-01-01

    Structural changes stimulated by ultraviolet (UV) irradiations of sol-gel-derived indium oxide thin films were investigated. Illumination of incoherent UV photons (4.9 eV) from a low-pressure mercury lamp resulted in formation of crystalline indium metal. Irradiation of coherent UV beams from an ArF excimer laser (6.4 eV) and from the fourth harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (4.7 eV) was found to be effective in the crystallization of indium oxide, accompanied by a decrease in the sheet resistance. The lowest resistance without a reduction of transmission in the visible region was achieved with a 6.4 eV laser beam at a fluence over 10-20 mJ cm-2 shot-1. The results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that charge transfer from O2- to In3+ was induced by the incoherent and the coherent UV photons. The partial reduction with the incoherent illumination and the crystallization with the laser irradiation are tentatively assumed to be due to electronic excitations in the amorphous network.

  19. Crystalline Indium Sulphide thin film by photo accelerated deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanya, A. C.; Preetha, K. C.; Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T. L.

    2015-02-01

    Indium sulfide thin films deserve special attention because of its potential application as buffer layers in CIGS based solar cells. Highly transparent indium sulfide (InS) thin films were prepared using a novel method called photo accelerated chemical deposition (PCD). Ultraviolet source of 150 W was used to irradiate the solution. Compared to all other chemical methods, PCD scores its advantage for its low cost, flexible substrate and capable of large area of deposition. Reports on deposition of high quality InS thin films at room temperature are very rare in literature. The precursor solution was initially heated to 90°C for ten minutes and then deposition was carried out at room temperature for two hours. The appearance of the film changed from lemon yellow to bright yellow as the deposition time increased. The sample was characterized for its structural and optical properties. XRD profile showed the polycrystalline behavior of the film with mixed phases having crystallite size of 17 nm. The surface morphology of the films exhibited uniformly distributed honey comb like structures. The film appeared to be smooth and the value of extinction coefficient was negligible. Optical measurements showed that the film has more than 80% transmission in the visible region. The direct band gap energy was 2.47eV. This method is highly suitable for the synthesis of crystalline and transparent indium sulfide thin films and can be used for various photo voltaic applications.

  20. Toxicity of indium arsenide, gallium arsenide, and aluminium gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyo

    2004-08-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium arsenide (InAs), and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) are semiconductor applications. Although the increased use of these materials has raised concerns about occupational exposure to them, there is little information regarding the adverse health effects to workers arising from exposure to these particles. However, available data indicate these semiconductor materials can be toxic in animals. Although acute and chronic toxicity of the lung, reproductive organs, and kidney are associated with exposure to these semiconductor materials, in particular, chronic toxicity should pay much attention owing to low solubility of these materials. Between InAs, GaAs, and AlGaAs, InAs was the most toxic material to the lung followed by GaAs and AlGaAs when given intratracheally. This was probably due to difference in the toxicity of the counter-element of arsenic in semiconductor materials, such as indium, gallium, or aluminium, and not arsenic itself. It appeared that indium, gallium, or aluminium was toxic when released from the particles, though the physical character of the particles also contributes to toxic effect. Although there is no evidence of the carcinogenicity of InAs or AlGaAs, GaAs and InP, which are semiconductor materials, showed the clear evidence of carcinogenic potential. It is necessary to pay much greater attention to the human exposure of semiconductor materials.

  1. Complete combustion of methane over indium tin oxides catalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Fu, Huijing; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2006-10-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) catalysts with different In/Sn ratios have been prepared by the co-precipitation method. The catalysts were evaluated for methane combustion at different temperatures (673-873 K) with a space velocity of 30 000 h(-1). The results showed that methane could be completely oxidized at 873 K with ITO catalysts. Doping an appropriate amount of tin into In2O3 could greatly improve its activity, while the performances of Indium-doped tin oxides were worse than that of SnO2. A significant improvement of the activity was obtained on the catalyst In8Sn2, which contains 80 wt. % of indium oxide and 20 wt. % of tin oxide. Crystal defection and the amount of oxygen vacancy caused by doping were the main factors that would affect catalytic activity of ITO catalysts. The catalytic activity is strongly inhibited by the presence of a large amount of water vapor at the entire temperature range, while only the activity at low temperature (under 823 K) decreased in the presence of sulfur dioxide. By doping Sn into In2O3, its tolerance to SO2 could be enhanced due to the higher resistance of SnO2.

  2. Effect of preparation conditions on physic-chemical properties of tin-doped nanocrystalline indium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zhek, V. V.; Nefedov, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation of phase formation and change of concentration of free electrons (Ne) in indium tin oxide system during heat treatment of coprecipitated hydroxides of indium and tin from nitric and hydrochloric solutions and also, for comparison melts of salts nitrates by an alkaline reactant (NH4OH) are considered.The performed investigation allowed to set the optimal condition of preparation of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide with maximal electron concentration.

  3. Synthesis of single source molecular precursors for copper indium diselenide and copper indium disulfide production via confined plume chemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jason D.

    A one-step process for preparing coatings of known photovoltaic materials on either inorganic or organic substrates is reported. IR laser (2.94 microm wavelength) and femtosecond visible laser (800 nm wavelength) irradiation of single-source molecular precursors layered between transparent supports under temporal and spatial confinement at a laser wavelength (2.94 microm or 800 nm) resonant with a precursor vibrational band gives one-step deposition of copper indium diselenide (CISe) or copper indium disulfide (CIS) without incurring noticeable collateral thermal damage to the substrate material. Reaction plume formation at the precursor/laser beam interface initiates confined plume, chemical deposition (CPCD) of nano CIS product. Continuous coatings are produced by rastering the laser beam over a sample specimen. CPCD processing of precursors 1-6 on confined substrates, ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/glass, and glass/sapphire gives CISe, CIS respectively.

  4. Low-cost industrially available molybdenum boride and carbide as "platinum-like" catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction in biphasic liquid systems.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Micheál D; Bian, Xiaojun; Vrubel, Heron; Amstutz, Véronique; Schenk, Kurt; Hu, Xile; Liu, BaoHong; Girault, Hubert H

    2013-02-28

    Rarely reported low-cost molybdenum boride and carbide microparticles, both of which are available in abundant quantities due to their widespread use in industry, adsorb at aqueous acid-1,2-dichloroethane interfaces and efficiently catalyse the hydrogen evolution reaction in the presence of the organic electron donor - decamethylferrocene. Kinetic studies monitoring biphasic reactions by UV/vis spectroscopy, and further evidence provided by gas chromatography, highlight (a) their superior rates of catalysis relative to other industrially significant transition metal carbides and silicides, as well as a main group refractory compound, and (b) their highly comparable rates of catalysis to Pt microparticles of similar dimensions. Insight into the catalytic processes occurring for each adsorbed microparticle was obtained by voltammetry at the liquid-liquid interface.

  5. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of radiofrequency-sputtered titanium, carbide, molybdenum carbide, and titanium boride coatings and their friction properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Radiofrequency sputtered coatings of titanium carbide, molybdenum carbide and titanium boride were tested as wear resistant coatings on stainless steel in a pin on disk apparatus. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the sputtered films with regard to both bulk and interface composition in order to obtain maximum film performance. Significant improvements in friction behavior were obtained when properly biased films were deposited on deliberately preoxidized substrates. XPS depth profile data showed thick graded interfaces for bias deposited films even when adherence was poor. The addition of 10 percent hydrogen to the sputtering gas produced coatings with thin poorly adherent interfaces. Results suggest that some of the common practices in the field of sputtering may be detrimental to achieving maximum adherence and optimum composition for these refractory compounds.

  6. Method for enhancing the solubility of boron and indium in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadigh, Babak; Lenosky, Thomas J.; Diaz de la Rubia, Tomas; Giles, Martin; Caturla, Maria-Jose; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Theiss, Silva; Foad, Majeed; Quong, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A method for enhancing the equilibrium solubility of boron and indium in silicon. The method involves first-principles quantum mechanical calculations to determine the temperature dependence of the equilibrium solubility of two important p-type dopants in silicon, namely boron and indium, under various strain conditions. The equilibrium thermodynamic solubility of size-mismatched impurities, such as boron and indium in silicon, can be raised significantly if the silicon substrate is strained appropriately. For example, for boron, a 1% compressive strain raises the equilibrium solubility by 100% at 1100.degree. C.; and for indium, a 1% tensile strain at 1100.degree. C., corresponds to an enhancement of the solubility by 200%.

  7. Thermodynamics of Indium Dissolution Behavior in FeO-Bearing Metallurgical Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yun Soon; Park, Joo Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Indium solubility in the FeO-SiO2-Al2O3-5CaO-MgOsat slag system was measured at 1573 K (1300 °C) to confirm the thermodynamic dissolution behavior of indium at atm. The indium solubility in FeO-bearing slags increased with increasing oxygen partial pressure and decreased with increasing basicity which is in proportion to the activity of FeO. The dissolution of indium in FeO-bearing slags was confirmed to progress according to the following reaction: The enthalpy change for the dissolution of indium in FeO-bearing slag was about -181 kJ/mol, indicating that indium dissolution is exothermic. The indium solubility in the FeO-SiO2-Al2O3-5CaO-MgOsat slag system was minimized as a function of alumina content at a given FeO/SiO2 ratio, which can be explained by the amphoteric behavior of Al2O3 in the slag system. To improve indium recovery by lowering indium loss to the slag phase during the pyro-recycling of In-containing materials using FeO-bearing metallurgical slags, a lower oxygen potential and lower silica content are highly favorable.

  8. THE INDIUM-GALLIUM RADIATION LOOP OF THE IRT NUCLEAR REACTOR,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    NUCLEAR REACTORS, *ISOTOPES), (*INDIUM, *GALLIUM), GAMMA RAYS, NEUTRONS, INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, ALUMINUM, SHIELDING, GENERATORS, EUTECTICS, ARGON, OXALIC ACID , ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMPS, HALF LIFE, HEAT TRANSFER

  9. Combustion front dynamics in the combustion synthesis of refractory metal carbides and di-borides using time-resolved X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joe; Larson, E M; Waide, P A; Frahm, R

    2006-07-01

    A compact diffraction-reaction chamber, using a 2-inch photodiode array detector, has been employed to investigate the chemical dynamics at the combustion front of a selected series of refractory metal carbides and di-borides from their constituent element reactants as well as binary products from B4C as a reactant. These systems are denoted as (i) M + C --> MC; (ii) M + 2B --> MB2; and (iii) 3M + B4C --> 2MB2 + MC, where M = Ti, Zr, Nb, Hf or Ta. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction using intense synchrotron radiation at frame rates up to 10 frames s(-1) (or 100 ms frame(-1)) was employed. The combustion reactions were found to complete within 200-400 ms. In contrast to the Ta + C --> TaC combustion system studied earlier, in which a discernible intermediate sub-carbide phase was first formed, reacted further and disappeared to yield the final TaC product, no intermediate sub-carbide or sub-boride was detected in the current systems. Combustion for the Ti, Zr and Hf systems involved a liquid phase, in which the adiabatic temperatures Tad are well above the melting points of the respective reactant metals and have a typical combustion front velocity of 5-6 mm s(-1). The Nb and Ta systems have lower Tad, involving no liquid phase. These are truly solid combustion systems and have a lower combustion front velocity of 1-2 mm s(-1). The current study opens up a new avenue to chemical dynamics and macrokinetic investigations of high-temperature solid-state reactions.

  10. Metallic Borides, La 2 Re 3 B 7 and La 3 Re 2 B 5 , Featuring Extensive Boron–Boron Bonding

    DOE PAGES

    Bugaris, Daniel E.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Chung, Duck Young; ...

    2016-01-26

    We synthesized La2Re3B7 and La3Re2B5 in single-crystalline form from a molten La/Ni eutectic at 1000°C, in the first example of the flux crystal growth of ternary rare-earth rhenium borides. Both compounds crystallize in their own orthorhombic structure types, with La2Re3B7 (space group Pcca) having lattice parameters a = 7.657(2) Å, b = 6.755(1) Å, and c = 11.617(2) Å, and La3Re2B5 (space group Pmma) having lattice parameters a = 10.809(2) Å, b = 5.287(1) Å, and c = 5.747(1) Å. Furthermore, the compounds possess three-dimensional framework structures that are built up from rhenium boride polyhedra and boron-boron bonding. La3Re2B5 featuresmore » fairly common B2 dumbbells, whereas La2Re3B7 has unique one-dimensional subunits composed of alternating triangular B3 and trans-B4 zigzag chain fragments. Also observed in La3Re2B5 is an unusual coordination of B by an octahedron of La atoms. Electronic band structure calculations predict that La2Re3B7 is a semimetal, which is observed in the electrical resistivity data as measured on single crystals, with behavior obeying the Bloch-Grüneisen model and a room-temperature resistivity ρ300K of ~ 375 μΩ cm. The electronic band structure calculations also suggest that La3Re2B5 is a regular metal.« less

  11. Metallic Borides, La2Re3B7 and La3Re2B5, Featuring Extensive Boron-Boron Bonding.

    PubMed

    Bugaris, Daniel E; Malliakas, Christos D; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-02-15

    La2Re3B7 and La3Re2B5 have been synthesized in single-crystalline form from a molten La/Ni eutectic at 1000 °C in the first example of the flux crystal growth of ternary rare-earth rhenium borides. Both compounds crystallize in their own orthorhombic structure types, with La2Re3B7 (space group Pcca) having lattice parameters a = 7.657(2) Å, b = 6.755(1) Å, and c = 11.617(2) Å, and La3Re2B5 (space group Pmma) having lattice parameters a = 10.809(2) Å, b = 5.287(1) Å, and c = 5.747(1) Å. The compounds possess three-dimensional framework structures that are built up from rhenium boride polyhedra and boron-boron bonding. La3Re2B5 features fairly common B2 dumbbells, whereas La2Re3B7 has unique one-dimensional subunits composed of alternating triangular B3 and trans-B4 zigzag chain fragments. Also observed in La3Re2B5 is an unusual coordination of B by an octahedron of La atoms. Electronic band structure calculations predict that La2Re3B7 is a semimetal, which is observed in the electrical resistivity data as measured on single crystals, with behavior obeying the Bloch-Grüneisen model and a room-temperature resistivity ρ300 K of ∼375 μΩ cm. The electronic band structure calculations also suggest that La3Re2B5 is a regular metal.

  12. Pressed boride cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolski, W.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental studies of emission cathodes made from lanthanum, yttrium, and gadolinium hexaborides are presented. Maximum thermal emission was obtained from lanthanum hexaboride electrodes. The hexaboride cathodes operated stably under conditions of large current density power draw, at high voltages and poor vacuum. A microtron electron gun with a lanthanum hexaboride cathode is described.

  13. Intracellular accumulation of indium ions released from nanoparticles induces oxidative stress, proinflammatory response and DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Tabei, Yosuke; Sonoda, Akinari; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Makita, Yoji; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Horie, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of indium tin oxide (ITO), it is important to investigate its effect on human health. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of ITO nanoparticles (NPs), indium chloride (InCl3) and tin chloride (SnCl3) using human lung epithelial A549 cells. Transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were employed to study cellular ITO NP uptake. Interestingly, greater uptake of ITO NPs was observed, as compared with soluble salts. ITO NP species released could be divided into two types: ‘indium release ITO’ or ‘tin release ITO’. We incubated A549 cells with indium release ITO, tin release ITO, InCl3 or SnCl2 and investigated oxidative stress, proinflammatory response, cytotoxicity and DNA damage. We found that intracellular reactive oxygen species were increased in cells incubated with indium release ITO, but not tin release ITO, InCl3 or SnCl2. Messenger RNA and protein levels of the inflammatory marker, interleukin-8, also increased following exposure to indium release ITO. Furthermore, the alkaline comet assay revealed that intracellular accumulation of indium ions induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that the accumulation of ionic indium, but not ionic tin, from ITO NPs in the intracellular matrix has extensive cellular effects. PMID:26378248

  14. Indium phosphide space solar cell research: Where we are and where we are going

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1995-01-01

    Indium phosphide is considered to be a strong contender for many photovoltaic space applications because of its radiation resistance and its potential for high efficiency. An overview of recent progress is presented, and possible future research directions for indium phosphide space solar cells are discussed. The topics considered include radiation damage studies and space flight experiments.

  15. Enantioselective and Regioselective Indium(III)-Catalyzed Addition of Pyrroles to Isatins

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Elisa G.; Wong, Casey J.; Sahin, Aziza H.

    2011-01-01

    The indium(III)-catalyzed enantioselective and regioselective addition of pyrroles to isatins is described. The effects of metal and solvent on the reactivity and selectivity are compared and discussed, demonstrating that the indium(III)-indapybox complex provides the most effective catalyst. A case of divergent reactivity between pyrroles and indoles is presented. PMID:21992567

  16. Materials recovery from waste liquid crystal displays: A focus on indium.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Danilo; Forte, Federica; De Carolis, Roberta; Grosso, Mario

    2015-11-01

    In the present work the recovery of indium and of the polarizing film from waste liquid crystal displays was experimentally investigated in the laboratory. First of all, the polarizing film was removed by employing a number of different techniques, including thermal and chemical treatments. Leaching of indium was then performed with HCl 6N, which allowed solubilisation of approximately 90% In (i.e. 260 mg In per kg of glass) at room temperature, without shredding. Indium recovery from the aqueous phase was then investigated through solvent extraction with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems. Indium extraction tests through the PEG-ammonium sulphate-water system were conducted as a function of PEG concentration, salt concentration and molecular weight of PEG, using 1,10 phenanthroline as a ligand. The experimental results demonstrated that indium partitioning between the bottom (salt-rich) and the top (PEG-rich) phase is quite independent on the composition of the system, since 80-95% indium is extracted in the bottom phase and 5-20% in the top phase; it was also found that when PEG concentration is increased, the ratio between the bottom and the upper phase volumes decreases, resulting in an increase of indium concentration in the bottom phase (at [PEG]=25% w/w, indium concentration in the bottom phase is ∼30% higher than the initial concentration before the extraction). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intracellular accumulation of indium ions released from nanoparticles induces oxidative stress, proinflammatory response and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Yosuke; Sonoda, Akinari; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Makita, Yoji; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Horie, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    Due to the widespread use of indium tin oxide (ITO), it is important to investigate its effect on human health. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of ITO nanoparticles (NPs), indium chloride (InCl3) and tin chloride (SnCl3) using human lung epithelial A549 cells. Transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were employed to study cellular ITO NP uptake. Interestingly, greater uptake of ITO NPs was observed, as compared with soluble salts. ITO NP species released could be divided into two types: 'indium release ITO' or 'tin release ITO'. We incubated A549 cells with indium release ITO, tin release ITO, InCl3 or SnCl2 and investigated oxidative stress, proinflammatory response, cytotoxicity and DNA damage. We found that intracellular reactive oxygen species were increased in cells incubated with indium release ITO, but not tin release ITO, InCl3 or SnCl2. Messenger RNA and protein levels of the inflammatory marker, interleukin-8, also increased following exposure to indium release ITO. Furthermore, the alkaline comet assay revealed that intracellular accumulation of indium ions induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that the accumulation of ionic indium, but not ionic tin, from ITO NPs in the intracellular matrix has extensive cellular effects. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Indium phosphide space solar cell research: Where we are and where we are going

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1995-01-01

    Indium phosphide is considered to be a strong contender for many photovoltaic space applications because of its radiation resistance and its potential for high efficiency. An overview of recent progress is presented, and possible future research directions for indium phosphide space solar cells are discussed. The topics considered include radiation damage studies and space flight experiments.

  19. Synthesis and use of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium and indium

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2000-01-01

    Salts of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are described. The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions have the formula [ER'R"R'"F].sup..crclbar. wherein E is aluminum, gallium, or indium, wherein F is fluorine, and wherein R', R", and R'" is each a fluorinated phenyl, fluorinated biphenyl, or fluorinated polycyclic group.

  20. Recovery of indium ions by nanoscale zero-valent iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Su, Yiming; Wen, Zhipan; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei; Dai, Chaomeng

    2017-03-01

    Indium and its compounds have plenty of industrial applications and high demand. Therefore, indium recovery from various industrial effluents is necessary. It was sequestered by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) whose size mainly ranged from 50 to 70 nm. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm, influence of pH, and ionic strength were thoroughly investigated. The reaction process was well fitted to a pseudo second-order model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of In(III) was 390 mg In(III)/g nZVI similar to 385 mg In(III)/g nZVI at 298 K calculated by Langmuir model. The mole ratio of Fe(II) released to In(III) immobilized was 3:2, which implied a special chemical process of co-precipitation combined Fe(OH)2 with In(OH)3. Transmission electron microscopy with an energy-disperse X-ray (TEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize surface morphology, corrosion products, and valence state of indium precipitate formed on nanoparticles. The structural evolution changed from core-shell structure of iron oxide to sheet structure of co-precipitation, to sphere structure that hydroxide gradually dissolved as the pH decreased, and to cavity structures for the pH continually decreased. Furthermore, below pH 4.7, the In(III) enrichment was inhibited for the limited capacity of co-precipitation. Also, it was found that Ca2+ and HPO4 2- have more negative influence on In(III) recovery compared with Na+, NO3 -, HCO3 -, and SO4 2-. Therefore, the In(III) recovery can be described by a mechanism which consists of adsorption, co-precipitation, and reduction and was over 78% even after 3 cycles. The results confirmed that it was applicable to employ nZVI for In(III) immobilization.

  1. The electronic structure, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of Mo{sub 2}XB{sub 2} and MoX{sub 2}B{sub 4} (X = Fe, Co, Ni) ternary borides

    SciTech Connect

    He, TianWei; Jiang, YeHua E-mail: jfeng@seas.harvard.edu; Zhou, Rong; Feng, Jing E-mail: jfeng@seas.harvard.edu

    2015-08-21

    The mechanical properties, electronic structure and thermodynamic properties of the Mo{sub 2}XB{sub 2} and MoX{sub 2}B{sub 4} (X = Fe, Co, Ni) ternary borides were calculated by first-principles methods. The elastic constants show that these ternary borides are mechanically stable. Formation enthalpy of Mo{sub 2}XB{sub 2} and MoX{sub 2}B{sub 4} (X = Fe, Co, Ni) ternary borides are at the range of −118.09 kJ/mol to −40.14 kJ/mol. The electronic structures and chemical bonding characteristics are analyzed by the density of states. Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} has the largest shear and Young's modulus because of its strong chemical bonding, and the values are 204.3 GPa and 500.3 GPa, respectively. MoCo{sub 2}B{sub 4} shows the lowest degree of anisotropy due to the lack of strong direction in the bonding. The Debye temperature of MoFe{sub 2}B{sub 4} is the largest among the six phases, which means that MoFe{sub 2}B{sub 4} possesses the best thermal conductivity. Enthalpy shows an approximately linear function of the temperature above 300 K. The entropy of these compounds increase rapidly when the temperature is below 450 K. The Gibbs free energy decreases with the increase in temperature. MoCo{sub 2}B{sub 4} has the lowest Gibbs free energy, which indicates the strongest formation ability in Mo{sub 2}XB{sub 2} and MoX{sub 2}B{sub 4} (X = Fe, Co, Ni) ternary borides.

  2. Low-oxidation state indium-catalyzed C-C bond formation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Uwe; Kobayashi, Shu

    2012-08-21

    The development of innovative metal catalysis for selective bond formation is an important task in organic chemistry. The group 13 metal indium is appealing for catalysis because indium-based reagents are minimally toxic, selective, and tolerant toward various functional groups. Among elements in this group, the most stable oxidation state is typically +3, but in molecules with larger group 13 atoms, the chemistry of the +1 oxidation state is also important. The use of indium(III) compounds in organic synthesis has been well-established as Lewis acid catalysts including asymmetric versions thereof. In contrast, only sporadic examples of the use of indium(I) as a stoichiometric reagent have been reported: to the best of our knowledge, our investigations represent the first synthetic method that uses a catalytic amount of indium(I). Depending on the nature of the ligand or the counteranion to which it is coordinated, indium(I) can act as both a Lewis acid and a Lewis base because it has both vacant p orbitals and a lone pair of electrons. This potential ambiphilicity may offer unique reactivity and unusual selectivity in synthesis and may have significant implications for catalysis, particularly for dual catalytic processes. We envisioned that indium(I) could be employed as a metallic Lewis base catalyst to activate Lewis acidic boron-based pronucleophiles for selective bond formation with suitable electrophiles. Alternatively, indium(I) could serve as an ambiphilic catalyst that activates both reagents at a single center. In this Account, we describe the development of low-oxidation state indium catalysts for carbon-carbon bond formation between boron-based pronucleophiles and various electrophiles. We discovered that indium(I) iodide was an excellent catalyst for α-selective allylations of C(sp(2)) electrophiles such as ketones and hydrazones. Using a combination of this low-oxidation state indium compound and a chiral semicorrin ligand, we developed catalytic

  3. Radiation damage in proton irradiated indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    1986-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells exposed to 10 MeV proton irradiations were found to have significantly greater radiation resistance than either GaAs or Si. Performance predictions were obtained for two proton dominated orbits and one in which both protons and electrons were significant cell degradation factors. Array specific power was calculated using lightweight blanket technology, a SEP array structure, and projected cell efficiencies. Results indicate that arrays using fully developed InP cells should out-perform those using GaAs or Si in orbits where radiation is a significant cell degradation factor.

  4. Liquid phase synthesis of copper indium diselenide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jakhmola, Priyanka; Agarwal, Garima; Jha, Prafulla K.; Bhatnagar, S. P.

    2014-04-24

    Nanoparticles of Copper Indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}), belongs to I-III-VI{sub 2} family has been synthesized via liquid phase route using ethylenediamine as a solvent. Characterization of as-grown particles is done by XRD, HRTEM, DLS, optical microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed that the CuInSe2 nanoparticles obtained reveals chalcopyrite structure. Particle size evaluated from dynamic light scattering of as grown particle possessing radius of 90 nm. The bandgap of 1.05eV is obtained from UV-Vis spectrum which will applicable to the solar cell devices.

  5. Radiation damage in proton irradiated indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    1986-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells exposed to 10 MeV proton irradiations were found to have significantly greater radiation resistance than either GaAs or Si. Performance predictions were obtained for two proton dominated orbits and one in which both protons and electrons were significant cell degradation factors. Array specific power was calculated using lightweight blanket technology, a SEP array structure, and projected cell efficiencies. Results indicate that arrays using fully developed InP cells should out-perform those using GaAs or Si in orbits where radiation is a significant cell degradation factor.

  6. Indium phosphide solar cells for laser power beaming applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Lasers can be used to transmit power to photovoltaic cells. Solar cell efficiencies are enhanced significantly under monochromatic light, and therefore a laser beam of proper wavelength could be a very effective source of illumination for a solar array operating at very high efficiencies. This work reviews the modeling studies made on indium phosphide solar cells for such an application. These cells are known to be very radiation resistant and have a potential for high efficiency. Effects of cell series resistance, laser intensity, and temperature on cell performance have been discussed.

  7. Study of indium tin oxide films exposed to atomic axygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Paul G.; De, Bhola N.; Woollam, John A.; Coutts, T. J.; Li, X.

    1989-01-01

    A qualitative simulation of the effects of atomic oxygen has been conducted on indium tin oxide (ITO) films prepared by dc sputtering onto room-temperature substrates, by exposing them to an RF-excited oxygen plasma and characterizing the resulting changes in optical, electrical, and structural properties as functions of exposure time with ellipsometry, spectrophotometry, resistivity, and X-ray measurements. While the films thus exposed exhibit reduced resistivity and optical transmission; both of these effects, as well as partial crystallization of the films, may be due to sample heating by the plasma. Film resistivity is found to stabilize after a period of exposure.

  8. Indium phosphide solar cells for laser power beaming applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Lasers can be used to transmit power to photovoltaic cells. Solar cell efficiencies are enhanced significantly under monochromatic light, and therefore a laser beam of proper wavelength could be a very effective source of illumination for a solar array operating at very high efficiencies. This work reviews the modeling studies made on indium phosphide solar cells for such an application. These cells are known to be very radiation resistant and have a potential for high efficiency. Effects of cell series resistance, laser intensity, and temperature on cell performance have been discussed.

  9. Study of indium tin oxide films exposed to atomic axygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Paul G.; De, Bhola N.; Woollam, John A.; Coutts, T. J.; Li, X.

    1989-01-01

    A qualitative simulation of the effects of atomic oxygen has been conducted on indium tin oxide (ITO) films prepared by dc sputtering onto room-temperature substrates, by exposing them to an RF-excited oxygen plasma and characterizing the resulting changes in optical, electrical, and structural properties as functions of exposure time with ellipsometry, spectrophotometry, resistivity, and X-ray measurements. While the films thus exposed exhibit reduced resistivity and optical transmission; both of these effects, as well as partial crystallization of the films, may be due to sample heating by the plasma. Film resistivity is found to stabilize after a period of exposure.

  10. Anti-reflective conducting indium oxide layer on nanostructured substrate as a function of aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Ji, Seungmuk; Lim, Hyuneui; Choi, Dong-won; Park, Jin-Seong; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2016-09-01

    Antireflective conducting indium oxide layers were deposited using atomic layer deposition on a transparent nanostructured substrate grown using colloidal lithography. In order to explain the changes in the electrical resistivity and the optical transmittance of conducting indium oxide layers depending on various aspect ratios of the nanostructured substrates, we investigated the surface area and refractive index of the indium oxide layers in the film depth direction as a function of aspect ratio. The conformal indium oxide layer on a transparent nanostructured substrate with optimized geometry exhibited transmittance of 88% and resistivity of 7.32 × 10-4 Ω cm. The enhancement of electrical resistivity is strongly correlated with the surface area of the indium oxide layer depending on the aspect ratio of the nanostructured substrates. In addition, the improvement in transparency was explained by the gradual changes of the refractive index in the film depth direction according to the aspect ratio of the nanostructures.

  11. Indium incorporation into InGaN: The role of the adlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossow, U.; Horenburg, P.; Ketzer, F.; Bremers, H.; Hangleiter, A.

    2017-04-01

    We study the incorporation processes of indium into group-III nitride layers under pulsed and continuous growth conditions by in-situ reflection measurements. We want to clarify which processes limit the incorporation of indium and lead to a degrading layer structure. The data are discussed in the context of the adlayer model proposed by theory [1], which is a liquid-like layer of group-III atoms on the surface. The adlayer is built-up by the incoming flux but the high vapor pressure of indium leads to a high desorption rate and therefore it is apparent in the data only for low growth temperatures. The data suggests that segregated indium on the surface and the environment also contribute to the indium incorporation process likely also via the adlayer.

  12. Tuning growth direction of catalyst-free InAs(Sb) nanowires with indium droplets.

    PubMed

    Potts, Heidi; Morgan, Nicholas P; Tütüncüoglu, Gözde; Friedl, Martin; Morral, Anna Fontcuberta I

    2017-02-03

    The need for indium droplets to initiate self-catalyzed growth of InAs nanowires has been highly debated in the last few years. Here, we report on the use of indium droplets to tune the growth direction of self-catalyzed InAs nanowires. The indium droplets are formed in situ on InAs(Sb) stems. Their position is modified to promote growth in the 〈11-2〉 or equivalent directions. We also show that indium droplets can be used for the fabrication of InSb insertions in InAsSb nanowires. Our results demonstrate that indium droplets can initiate growth of InAs nanostructures as well as provide added flexibility to nanowire growth, enabling the formation of kinks and heterostructures, and offer a new approach in the growth of defect-free crystals.

  13. Limitations of indium leukocyte imaging for the diagnosis of spine infections

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, J.L.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr. )

    1991-02-01

    The usefulness of indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy in the detection of spine sepsis was studied in 22 patients who had open or percutaneous biopsies for microbiologic diagnosis. The indium images in 18 patients with vertebral infection were falsely negative in 15 (83%) and truly positive in 3 (17%). All four patients with negative cultures and histology had true-negative scans. The indium-111 WBC imaging results yielded a sensitivity of 17%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy rate of 31%. Prior antibiotic therapy was correlated with a high incidence of false-negative scans and photon-deficient indium-111 WBC uptake. The usefulness of indium-111 WBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of vertebral infection may be limited to those patients who have not been treated with antibiotics previously.

  14. Tuning growth direction of catalyst-free InAs(Sb) nanowires with indium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Heidi; Morgan, Nicholas P.; Tütüncüoglu, Gözde; Friedl, Martin; Morral, Anna Fontcuberta i.

    2017-02-01

    The need for indium droplets to initiate self-catalyzed growth of InAs nanowires has been highly debated in the last few years. Here, we report on the use of indium droplets to tune the growth direction of self-catalyzed InAs nanowires. The indium droplets are formed in situ on InAs(Sb) stems. Their position is modified to promote growth in the <11-2> or equivalent directions. We also show that indium droplets can be used for the fabrication of InSb insertions in InAsSb nanowires. Our results demonstrate that indium droplets can initiate growth of InAs nanostructures as well as provide added flexibility to nanowire growth, enabling the formation of kinks and heterostructures, and offer a new approach in the growth of defect-free crystals.

  15. Effect of doping of tin on optoelectronic properties of indium oxide: DFT study

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Madhvendra Nath

    2015-06-24

    Indium tin oxide is widely used transparent conductor. Experimentally observed that 6% tin doping in indium oxide is suitable for optoelectronic applications and more doping beyond this limit degrades the optoelectronic property. The stoichiometry (In{sub 32-x}Sn{sub x}O{sub 48+x/2}; x=0-6) is taken to understand the change in lattice parameter, electronic structure, and optical property of ITO. It is observed that lattice parameter increases and becomes constant after 6% tin doping that is in good agreement of the experimental observation. The electronic structure calculation shows that the high tin doping in indium oxide adversely affects the dispersive nature of the bottom of conduction band of pure indium oxide and decreases the carrier mobility. Optical calculations show that transmittance goes down upto 60% for the tin concentration more than 6%. The present paper shows that how more than 6% tin doping in indium oxide adversely affects the optoelectronic property of ITO.

  16. A study on the reliability of indium solder die bonding of high power semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingsheng; Davis, Ronald W.; Hughes, Lawrence C.; Rasmussen, Michael H.; Bhat, Rajaram; Zah, Chung-En; Stradling, Jim

    2006-07-01

    High power semiconductor lasers have found increased applications. Indium solder is one of the most widely used solders in high power laser die bonding. Indium solder has some advantages in laser die bonding. It also has some concerns, however, especially in terms of reliability. In this paper, the reliability of indium solder die bonding of high power broad area semiconductor lasers was studied. It was found that indium solder bonded lasers have much shorter lifetime than AuSn solder bonded devices. Catastrophic degradation was observed in indium solder bonded lasers. Nondestructive optical and acoustic microscopy was conducted during the lifetime testing to monitor the failure process and destructive failure analysis was performed after the lasers failed. It was found that the sudden failure was caused by electromigration of indium solder at the high testing current of up to 7A. It was shown that voids were created and gradually enlarged by indium solder electromigration, which caused local heating near the facets of the laser. The local heating induced catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) of the lasers. It was discussed that current crowding, localized high temperature, and large temperature gradient contributed to the fast indium solder electromigration. It was observed that some bright pattern structures appeared on the front facet of the indium solder bonded lasers after the devices failed and the bright patterns grew and spread upon further testing. Failure analysis showed that the bright pattern structure apparent on the front facet was due to crystallization of the TiOx material of the front facet coating as a result of overheating during lifetime testing. It was concluded that indium solder is not suitable for high power laser applications due to electromigration at high current densities and high temperatures.

  17. Theoretical Study of Indium Compounds of Interest for Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, B. H.; Moore, C. E.; Cardelino, C. A.; Frazier, D. O.; Backmann, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    The structural. electronic and therinochemical properties of indium compounds which are of interest in halide transport and organometallic chemical vapor deposition processes have been studied by ab initio and statistical mechanics methods. The compounds reported include: indium halides and hydrides (InF, InCl, InCl3, InH, InH2, InH3); indium clusters (In2, In3); methylindium, dimethylindium, and their hydrogen derivatives [In(CH3), In(CH3)H, In(CH3)H2, In(CH3)2, In(CH3)2H]; dimethyl-indium dimer [In2(CH3)4], trimethyl-indium [In(CH3)3]; dehydrogenated methyl, dimethyl and trimethylindium [In(CH3)2CH2, In(CH3)CH2, In(CH2)], trimethylindium adducts with ammonia, trimethylamine and hydrazine [(CH3)3In:NH3, (CH3)3In:N(CH3)3, (CH3)3In:N(H2)N(H2)]; dimethylamino-indium and methylimino-indium [In(CH3)2(NH2), In(CH3)(NH)]; indium nitride and indium nitride dimer (InN, In2N2), indium phosphide, arsenide and antimonide ([InP, InAs, InSb). The predicted electronic properties are based on density functional theory calculations; the calculated thermodynamic properties are reported following the format of the JANAF (Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force) Tables. Equilibrium compositions at two temperatures (298 and 1000 K) have been analyzed for groups of competing simultaneous reactions.

  18. Early Changes in Clinical, Functional, and Laboratory Biomarkers in Workers at Risk of Indium Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Virji, M. Abbas; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Carey, Brenna; Healey, Terrance; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Occupational exposure to indium compounds, including indium–tin oxide, can result in potentially fatal indium lung disease. However, the early effects of exposure on the lungs are not well understood. Objectives: To determine the relationship between short-term occupational exposures to indium compounds and the development of early lung abnormalities. Methods: Among indium–tin oxide production and reclamation facility workers, we measured plasma indium, respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, chest computed tomography, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. Relationships between plasma indium concentration and health outcome variables were evaluated using restricted cubic spline and linear regression models. Measurements and Main Results: Eighty-seven (93%) of 94 indium–tin oxide facility workers (median tenure, 2 yr; median plasma indium, 1.0 μg/l) participated in the study. Spirometric abnormalities were not increased compared with the general population, and few subjects had radiographic evidence of alveolar proteinosis (n = 0), fibrosis (n = 2), or emphysema (n = 4). However, in internal comparisons, participants with plasma indium concentrations ≥ 1.0 μg/l had more dyspnea, lower mean FEV1 and FVC, and higher median serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 and surfactant protein-D levels. Spline regression demonstrated nonlinear exposure response, with significant differences occurring at plasma indium concentrations as low as 1.0 μg/l compared with the reference. Associations between health outcomes and the natural log of plasma indium concentration were evident in linear regression models. Associations were not explained by age, smoking status, facility tenure, or prior occupational exposures. Conclusions: In indium–tin oxide facility workers with short-term, low-level exposure, plasma indium concentrations lower than previously reported were associated with lung symptoms, decreased spirometric parameters, and increased serum

  19. Theoretical Study of Indium Compounds of Interest for Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, B. H.; Moore, C. E.; Cardelino, C. A.; Frazier, D. O.; Backmann, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    The structural. electronic and therinochemical properties of indium compounds which are of interest in halide transport and organometallic chemical vapor deposition processes have been studied by ab initio and statistical mechanics methods. The compounds reported include: indium halides and hydrides (InF, InCl, InCl3, InH, InH2, InH3); indium clusters (In2, In3); methylindium, dimethylindium, and their hydrogen derivatives [In(CH3), In(CH3)H, In(CH3)H2, In(CH3)2, In(CH3)2H]; dimethyl-indium dimer [In2(CH3)4], trimethyl-indium [In(CH3)3]; dehydrogenated methyl, dimethyl and trimethylindium [In(CH3)2CH2, In(CH3)CH2, In(CH2)], trimethylindium adducts with ammonia, trimethylamine and hydrazine [(CH3)3In:NH3, (CH3)3In:N(CH3)3, (CH3)3In:N(H2)N(H2)]; dimethylamino-indium and methylimino-indium [In(CH3)2(NH2), In(CH3)(NH)]; indium nitride and indium nitride dimer (InN, In2N2), indium phosphide, arsenide and antimonide ([InP, InAs, InSb). The predicted electronic properties are based on density functional theory calculations; the calculated thermodynamic properties are reported following the format of the JANAF (Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force) Tables. Equilibrium compositions at two temperatures (298 and 1000 K) have been analyzed for groups of competing simultaneous reactions.

  20. Effects of a powered air-purifying respirator intervention on indium exposure reduction and indium related biomarkers among ITO sputter target manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chen, Chang-Yuh; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) worn by the workers, and to investigate the effect of this application on exposure and preclinical effects in terms of workplace measuring and biomarker monitoring in ITO sputter target manufacturing plants and workers, respectively. Fifty-four workers were recruited and investigated from 2010-2012, during which PAPRs were provided to on-site workers in September 2011. Each worker completed questionnaires and provided blood and urine samples for analysis of biomarkers of indium exposure and preclinical effects. Area and personal indium air samples were randomly collected from selected worksites and from participants. The penetration percentage of the respirator (concentration inside respirator divided by concentration outside respirator) was 6.6%. Some biomarkers, such as S-In, SOD, GPx, GST, MDA, and TMOM, reflected the decrease in exposure and showed lower levels, after implementation of PAPRs. This study is the first to investigate the efficacy of PAPRs for reducing indium exposure. The measurement results clearly showed that the implementation of PAPRs reduces levels of indium-related biomarkers. These findings have practical applications for minimizing occupational exposure to indium and for managing the health of workers exposed to indium.

  1. Catalytic property of an indium-deposited powder-type material containing silicon and its dependence on the dose of indium nano-particles irradiated by a pulse arc plasma process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Kiuchi, Masato; Agawa, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    Indium nano-particle irradiations onto zeolite powders were carried out using a pulse arc plasma source system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies of an indium irradiated zeolite sample revealed that indium nano-particles were successfully deposited on the sample. Besides, the sample was found to be capable of catalyzing an organic chemical reaction (i.e., Friedel-Crafts alkylation). Then, we examined whether or not the catalytic ability depends on the irradiated indium dose, having established the optimal indium dose for inducing the catalytic effect.

  2. Dissolution of indium by liquid mercury with turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellows, J. F. R.; Sullivan, T. S.; Liu, Y.; Ecke, R. E.

    1996-03-01

    When a solid is dissolved by an overlying fluid that is more dense, the rate of dissolution is likely to be controlled by bouyancy-induced, turbulent convective flow. We have measured the rate at which solid indium is dissolved by liquid solutions of indium in mercury of concentrations ranging from pure Hg to the saturated concentration of In in Hg. We compare our results to measurements we have made on the dissolution rate of salts dissolving in aqueous solutions of the salts (T.S. Sullivan, W.J. Brown, M.D. Kerkel, and R.E. Ecke, Phys. Letters) A 206, 49 (1995). and to a marginally stable, boundary layer model. (L. Howard, in Proc. 11th Int. Congr. of Applied Mechanics), Munich, ed. H. Gortler (Springer, Berlin, 1966). In addition, we will present images of the surface of the In after the dissolution is stopped and compare the length scales evident in the resulting patterns to estimates of the boundary layer thickness.

  3. Macro- and microscopic properties of strontium doped indium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaenko, Y. M.; Kuzovlev, Y. E.; Medvedev, Y. V.; Mezin, N. I.; Fasel, C.; Gurlo, A.; Schlicker, L.; Bayer, T. J. M.; Genenko, Y. A.

    2014-07-01

    Solid state synthesis and physical mechanisms of electrical conductivity variation in polycrystalline, strontium doped indium oxide In2O3:(SrO)x were investigated for materials with different doping levels at different temperatures (T = 20-300 °C) and ambient atmosphere content including humidity and low pressure. Gas sensing ability of these compounds as well as the sample resistance appeared to increase by 4 and 8 orders of the magnitude, respectively, with the doping level increase from zero up to x = 10%. The conductance variation due to doping is explained by two mechanisms: acceptor-like electrical activity of Sr as a point defect and appearance of an additional phase of SrIn2O4. An unusual property of high level (x = 10%) doped samples is a possibility of extraordinarily large and fast oxygen exchange with ambient atmosphere at not very high temperatures (100-200 °C). This peculiarity is explained by friable structure of crystallite surface. Friable structure provides relatively fast transition of samples from high to low resistive state at the expense of high conductance of the near surface layer of the grains. Microscopic study of the electro-diffusion process at the surface of oxygen deficient samples allowed estimation of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen vacancies in the friable surface layer at room temperature as 3 × 10-13 cm2/s, which is by one order of the magnitude smaller than that known for amorphous indium oxide films.

  4. Recent developments in indium phosphide space solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments and progress in indium phosphide solar cell research for space application are reviewed. Indium phosphide homojunction cells were fabricated in both the n + p and p + n configurations with total area efficiencies of 17.9 and 15.9 percent (air mass 0 and 25 C) respectively. Organometallic chemical vapor deposition, liquid phase epitaxy, ion implantation and diffusion techniques were employed in InP cell fabrication. A theoretical model of a radiation tolerant, high efficiency homojunction cell was developed. A realistically attainable AM0 efficiency of 20.5 percent was calculated using this model with emitter and base doping of 6 x 10 to the 17th power and 5 x 10 to the 16th power/cu cm, respectively. Cells of both configurations were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and 37 MeV protons. For both proton and electron irradiation, the n + p cells are more radiation resistant at higher fluences than the p + n cells. The first flight module of four InP cells was assembled for the Living Plume Shield III satellite.

  5. Recent developments in indium phosphide space solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments and progress in indium phosphide solar cell research for space application are reviewed. Indium phosphide homojunction cells were fabricated in both the n+p and p+n configurations with total area efficiencies of 17.9 and 15.9% (air mass 0 and 25 C) respectively. Organometallic chemical vapor deposition, liquid phase epitaxy, ion implantation and diffusion techniques were employed in InP cell fabrication. A theoretical model of a radiation tolerant, high efficiency homojunction cell was developed. A realistically attainable AMO efficiency of 20.5% was calculated using this model with emitter and base doping of 6 x 10 to the 17th power and 5 x 10 the the 16th power/cu cm respectively. Cells of both configurations were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and 37 MeV protons. For both proton and electron irradiation, the n+p cells are more radiation resistant at higher fluences than the p+n cells. The first flight module of four InP cells was assembled for the Living Plume Shield III satellite.

  6. Oxygen-Free Atomic Layer Deposition of Indium Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Robert F.; Weimer, Matthew S.; Emery, Jonathan D.; Hock, Adam S.; Martinson, Alex B. F.

    2014-08-13

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium sulfide (In2S3) films was achieved using a newly synthesized indium precursor and hydrogen sulfide. We obtain dense and adherent thin films free from halide and oxygen impurities. Self-limiting half-reactions are demonstrated at temperatures up to 200°C, where oriented crystalline thin films are obtained without further annealing. Low temperature growth of 0.89 Å/cycle is observed at 150°C while higher growth temperatures gradually reduce the per-cycle growth rate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) together with depth-profiling Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveal a S/In ratio of 1.5 with no detectable carbon, nitrogen, halogen, or oxygen impurities. The resistivity of thin films prior to air exposure decreases with increasing deposition temperature, reaching <1 ohm-cm for films deposited at 225°C. Hall measurements reveal n-type conductivity due to free electron concentrations up to 1018 cm-3 and mobilities of order 1 cm2/(V*s). The digital synthesis of In2S3 via ALD at temperatures up to 225°C may allow high quality thin films to be leveraged in optoelectronic devices including photovoltaic absorbers, buffer layers, and intermediate band materials.

  7. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Robert F; Weimer, Matthew S; Emery, Jonathan D; Hock, Adam S; Martinson, Alex B F

    2014-08-13

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium sulfide (In2S3) films was achieved using a newly synthesized indium precursor and hydrogen sulfide. We obtain dense and adherent thin films free from halide and oxygen impurities. Self-limiting half-reactions are demonstrated at temperatures up to 225 °C, where oriented crystalline thin films are obtained without further annealing. Low-temperature growth of 0.89 Å/cycle is observed at 150 °C, while higher growth temperatures gradually reduce the per-cycle growth rate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) together with depth-profiling Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveal a S/In ratio of 1.5 with no detectable carbon, nitrogen, halogen, or oxygen impurities. The resistivity of thin films prior to air exposure decreases with increasing deposition temperature, reaching <1 Ω·cm for films deposited at 225 °C. Hall measurements reveal n-type conductivity due to free electron concentrations up to 10(18) cm(-3) and mobilities of order 1 cm(2)/(V·s). The digital synthesis of In2S3 via ALD at temperatures up to 225 °C may allow high quality thin films to be leveraged in optoelectronic devices including photovoltaic absorbers, buffer layers, and intermediate band materials.

  8. Conductance through a helical state in an Indium antimonide nanowire.

    PubMed

    Kammhuber, J; Cassidy, M C; Pei, F; Nowak, M P; Vuik, A; Gül, Ö; Car, D; Plissard, S R; Bakkers, E P A M; Wimmer, M; Kouwenhoven, L P

    2017-09-07

    The motion of an electron and its spin are generally not coupled. However in a one-dimensional material with strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) a helical state may emerge at finite magnetic fields, where electrons of opposite spin will have opposite momentum. The existence of this helical state has applications for spin filtering and cooper pair splitter devices and is an essential ingredient for realizing topologically protected quantum computing using Majorana zero modes. Here, we report measurements of a quantum point contact in an indium antimonide nanowire. At magnetic fields exceeding 3 T, the 2 e (2)/h conductance plateau shows a re-entrant feature toward 1 e (2)/h which increases linearly in width with magnetic field. Rotating the magnetic field clearly attributes this experimental signature to SOI and by comparing our observations with a numerical model we extract a spin-orbit energy of approximately 6.5 meV, which is stronger than the spin-orbit energy obtained by other methods.Indium antimonide nanowires have large spin-orbit coupling, which can give rise to helical states that are an important part of proposals for topological quantum computing. Here the authors measure conductance through the helical states and extract a larger spin-orbit energy than obtained before.

  9. Measurement of the Electron Affinities of Indium and Thallium

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J. S.; Carpenter, D. L.; Covington, A. M.; Williams, W. W.; Kvale, T. J.; Seely, D. G.

    1999-03-20

    The electron affinities of indium and thallium were measured in separate experiments using the laser-photodetachment electron spectroscopy technique. The measurements were performed at the University of Nevada, Reno. Negative ion beams of both indium and thallium were extracted from a cesium-sputter negative ion source, and mass analyzed using a 90{sup o} bending magnet. The negative ion beam of interest was then crossed at 90{sup o} with a photon beam from a cw 25-Watt Ar{sup +} laser. The resulting photoelectrons were energy analyzed with a 160{sup o} spherical-sector spectrometer. The electron affinity of In({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) was determined to be 0.404 {+-} 0.009 eV and the electron affinity of thallium was determined to be 0.377 {+-} 0.013 eV. The fine-structure splittings in the ground states of the negative ions were also determined. The experimental measurements will be compared to several recent theoretical predictions.

  10. Photoluminescence of monovalent indium centres in phosphate glass

    PubMed Central

    Masai, Hirokazu; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Okumura, Shun; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Ina, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Valence control of polyvalent cations is important for functionalization of various kinds of materials. Indium oxides have been used in various applications, such as indium tin oxide in transparent electrical conduction films. However, although metastable In+ (5 s2 configuration) species exhibit photoluminescence (PL), they have attracted little attention. Valence control of In+ cations in these materials will be important for further functionalization. Here, we describe In+ species using PL and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. Three absorption bands in the UV region are attributed to the In+ centre: two weak forbidden bands (1S0 → 3P1, 1S0 → 3P2) and a strong allowed band (1S0 → 1P1). The strongest PL excitation band cannot be attributed to the conventional allowed transition to the singlet excited state. Emission decay of the order of microseconds suggests that radiative relaxation occurs from the triplet excitation state. The XAFS analysis suggests that these In+ species have shorter In–O distances with lower coordination numbers than in In2O3. These results clearly demonstrate that In+ exists in a metastable amorphous network, which is the origin of the observed luminescent properties.

  11. Absorption of ac fields in amorphous indium-oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Ovadyahu, Z.

    2014-08-20

    Absorption data from applied ac fields in Anderson-localized amorphous indium-oxide (In{sub x}O) films are shown to be frequency and disorder dependent. The absorption shows a roll-off at a frequency which is much lower than the electron-electron scattering rate of the material when it is in the diffusive regime. This is interpreted as evidence for discreteness of the energy spectrum of the deeply localized regime. This is consistent with recent many-body localization scenarios. As the metal-insulator transition is approached, the absorption shifts to higher frequencies. Comparing with the previously obtained results on the crystalline version of indium-oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3−x}) implies a considerably higher inelastic electron-phonon scattering rate in the amorphous material. The range over which the absorption versus frequency decreases may indicate that a wide distribution of localization length is a common feature in these systems.

  12. Anomalous behavior of silver doped indium sulfide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Meril; Jayakrishnan, R.; Ratheesh Kumar, P. M.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Vijayakumar, K. P.; Kashiwaba, Y.; Abe, T.

    2006-08-01

    The effect of doping spray pyrolyzed thin films of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} with silver is discussed. It was observed that silver diffused into In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films in as deposited condition itself. Depth profile using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy clearly showed diffusion of silver into In{sub 2}S{sub 3} layer without any annealing. X-ray analysis revealed significant enhancement in crystallinity and grain size up to an optimum percentage of doping concentration. This optimum value showed dependence on thickness and atomic ratio of indium and sulfur in the film. Band gap decreased up to the optimum value of doping and thereafter it increased. Electrical studies showed a drastic decrease in resistivity from 1.2x10{sup 3} to 0.06 {omega} cm due to doping. A sample having optimum doping was found to be more photosensitive and low resistive when compared with a pristine sample. Improvement in crystallinity, conductivity, and photosensitivity due to doping of spray pyrolyzed In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films with Ag helped to attain efficiency of 9.5% for Ag/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CuInS{sub 2}/ITO (indium tin oxide) solar cell.

  13. Synthetic, characterization and decomposition studies of indium sulfide precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Schluter, R.D.; Luten, H.A.; Rees, W.S. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The synthesis, characterization and decomposition of several indium thiolates containing the bulky substituted aryl ligand 2,4,6-i-Pr{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 2} (Ar{prime}) or the internally chelating ligands 2-CH{sub 3}O, 5-CH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 3} (Ar{double_prime}) and o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ar{prime}{double_prime}) are described. Two synthetic methods have been utilized: metathesis reactions between lithium thiolates and the appropriate metal halides and the addition of elemental metal to diaryl disulfides. The thermal decomposition of each indium precursor results in the formation of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, based on thermogravimetric data. The homoleptic compound In(SAr{prime}){sub 3} can be isolated as a yellow oil. This liquid precursor has been derivatized by the reversible formation of acetonitrile and tetrahydroduran adducts. Although, the molecule exists as a monomer in both adducts, the coordination number of the metal and the orientation of the ligands are markedly different. The internally chelating In(SAr{double_prime}){sub 3} and In(SAr{prime}{double_prime}){sub 3} adopt contrasting dimeric and monomeric structures respectively.

  14. Novel double-layer titanium boride coating on CP-titanium and titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy: Kinetics of boron diffusion and coating morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikekar, Nishant M.

    2007-12-01

    Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and its alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, have found widespread use in aerospace, mechanical and biomedical industries due to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness, excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Although these materials provide significant engineering performance, problems such as galling, seizing and poor wear resistance have limited their use. One way of achieving increased wear performance is by modifying their surface properties by deposition of a suitable coating via solid-state diffusion. Hence, this research has been undertaken with the objective of developing a powder-based process for depositing a thick double-layer boride (TiB2 + TiB) coating on Ti-6Al-4V and CP-Ti and a simple solid-state diffusion model to predict the growth kinetics of TiB2 and TiB layers of the coating, based on processing parameters. The powder composition that resulted in maximum double-layer thickness with clean surface finish was found to be: Composition A (where, A = powder mixture of boron source, transport medium and scavenger). Boriding experiments were conducted in the temperature range 950-1200°C on Ti-6Al-4V and 850-1050°C on CP-Ti samples for time periods studied ranging from 3 to 24 hours at different temperatures. The growth kinetics of TiB2 and total (TiB2 + TiB) layers seem to be parabolic. The layer growth kinetics of TiB was found to be nonparabolic. TiB whiskers had different morphologies at temperatures above and below the beta-transus temperatures of Ti-6Al-4V and CP-Ti. For both materials, typically, TiB whiskers were thin below the beta-transus temperature and thicker above it. The theoretical model seems to show good agreement with the experimental data of TiB2 thicknesses on CP-Ti at all the temperatures studied. For total (TiB2 + TiB) coating thicknesses, the model showed good agreement with experimental data at all temperatures, except 1050°C. In case of Ti-6Al-4V, the model showed good agreement

  15. Synthesis of Indium-Containing Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspension Using Plasmas in Water for Evaluating Their Kinetics in Living Body.

    PubMed

    Amano, Takaaki; Sarinont, Thapanut; Koga, Kazunori; Hirata, Miyuki; Tanaka, Akiyo; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles have great potential for medical applications such as cancer therapy, whereas their toxic effects on human body are pointed out. To study kinetics and toxicity of nanoparticles in living body, we synthesized indium-containing nanoparticles in aqueous suspension using pulsed electrical discharge plasmas in water, because no indium compounds exist in the living body in the normal situation and hence indium-containing nanoparticles are useful tracer materials for analyzing kinetics of nanoparticles in living body. The mean size of synthesized primary nanoparticles is 7 nm, whereas the mean size of secondary nanoparticles is 315 nm. EDX and XRD analysis reveal that nanoparticles are indium crystalline and indium hydroxide crystalline with the mass ratio of 8:2. Preliminary subcutaneous administration of nanoparticles to mice shows that indium is transported from subcutaneous to blood. These results show that synthesized indium-containing nanoparticles are useful for analyzing kinetics of nanoparticles in living body.

  16. Regularly arranged indium islands on glass/molybdenum substrates upon femtosecond laser and physical vapor deposition processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ringleb, F.; Eylers, K.; Teubner, Th.; Boeck, T.; Symietz, C.; Bonse, J.; Andree, S.; Krüger, J.; Heidmann, B.; Schmid, M.; Lux-Steiner, M.

    2016-03-14

    A bottom-up approach is presented for the production of arrays of indium islands on a molybdenum layer on glass, which can serve as micro-sized precursors for indium compounds such as copper-indium-gallium-diselenide used in photovoltaics. Femtosecond laser ablation of glass and a subsequent deposition of a molybdenum film or direct laser processing of the molybdenum film both allow the preferential nucleation and growth of indium islands at the predefined locations in a following indium-based physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. A proper choice of laser and deposition parameters ensures the controlled growth of indium islands exclusively at the laser ablated spots. Based on a statistical analysis, these results are compared to the non-structured molybdenum surface, leading to randomly grown indium islands after PVD.

  17. Formation of Flexible and Transparent Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide/Ag/Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Multilayer Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Da-Som; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Yoo, Young-Zo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Sang-Woo; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the electrical, optical, and bending characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)/Ag/IGZO (39 nm/19 nm/39 nm) multilayer films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate at room temperature were investigated and compared with those of Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) (100 nm thick) films. At 500 nm the ITO film transmitted 91.3% and the IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film transmitted 88.8%. The calculated transmittance spectrum of the multilayer film was similar to the experimental result. The ITO film and IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film, respectively, showed carrier concentrations of 1.79 × 1020 and 7.68 × 1021 cm-3 and mobilities of 27.18 cm2/V s and 18.17 cm2/V s. The ITO film had a sheet resistance of 134.9 Ω/sq and the IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film one of 5.09 Ω/sq. Haacke's figure of merit (FOM) was calculated to be 1.94 × 10-3 for the ITO film and 45.02 × 10-3 Ω-1 for the IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film. The resistance change of 100 nm-thick ITO film was unstable even after five cycles, while that of the IGZO/Ag/IGZO film was constant up to 1000 cycles.

  18. Indium 111-labeled white blood cell scans after vascular prosthetic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Sedwitz, M.M.; Davies, R.J.; Pretorius, H.T.; Vasquez, T.E.

    1987-11-01

    The clinical value of indium 111-labeled white blood cell (WBC) scanning done after vascular graft procedures was investigated to differentiate noninfectious postoperative inflammation associated with graft incorporation from early prosthetic graft infection. Indium 111-labeled WBC scans were initially obtained in 30 patients before discharge from the hospital and during the subsequent follow-up period (334 days). Fourteen of 30 patients (47%) had normal predischarge scans that included all 10 patients who had grafts confined to the abdomen and 4 of 20 patients (20%) who had grafts arising or terminating at the femoral arteries (p less than 0.05). Sixteen of 30 patients (53%) discharged with abnormal initial indium 111 WBC scans underwent serial scanning until the scan normalized or a graft complication developed. All of the 16 patients had grafts involving the groin region. Abnormal indium 111 uptake in the femoral region continued for a mean 114 days without the development of prosthetic graft infections. The sensitivity of indium 111-labeled WBC scans for detecting wound complications was 100%, whereas the specificity was 50%. Thus, the accuracy of the test was only 53%. We conclude that (1) abnormal indium 111 WBC scans are common after graft operations involving the groin region but are unusual after vascular procedures confined to the abdomen, and (2) in the absence of clinical suspicion, the indium 111-labeled WBC scan does not reliably predict prosthetic graft infection because of the low specificity of the test in the early postoperative period.

  19. Indium nanodeposits: A substrate for metal-enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragan, Anatoliy I.; Geddes, Chris D.

    2010-11-01

    We have studied a metallic substrate, composed of indium nanodeposits, for metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Indium coated slides were prepared using the thermal vapor deposition technique. Theoretical finite difference time domain simulations and experimental studies show that plasmon enhanced absorption and coupled radiation through the scattering component of the extinction spectra of indium nanoparticles, lie in UV region, and are sensitive to the size and density of the nanoparticles, the thickness of the indium film, and polarity of the medium. The MEF effect, measured for intrinsic protein tryptophan and tyrosine residues, loaded onto indium films of different thickness, changes in a wavelike fashion, reflecting changes in the metal film landscape and, consequently, the chromophores coupling with surface plasmons. Indium films also significantly enhance intrinsic fluorescence of proteins themselves [bovine serum albumin]. In this case the wavelength dependence of MEF shows different emission enhancements of protein Tyr and Trp residues. Subsequently, indium-enhanced intrinsic protein fluorescence in the UV spectral region can be of great potential importance for quantitation assays as well as for the labeless detection of biomolecules in the biosciences.

  20. Amorphous Indium Selenide Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering: Thickness-Induced Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Han, Myoung Yoo; Park, Yong Seob; Kim, Nam-Hoon

    2016-05-01

    The influence of indium composition, controlled by changing the film thickness, on the optical and electrical properties of amorphous indium selenide thin films was studied for the application of these materials as Cd-free buffer layers in CI(G)S solar cells. Indium selenide thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering method. The indium composition of the amorphous indium selenide thin films was varied from 94.56 to 49.72 at% by increasing the film thickness from 30 to 70 nm. With a decrease in film thickness, the optical transmittance increased from 87.63% to 96.03% and Eg decreased from 3.048 to 2.875 eV. Carrier concentration and resistivity showed excellent values of ≥1015 cm(-3) and ≤ 10(4) Ω x cm, respectively. The conductivity type of the amorphous indium selenide thin films could be controlled by changing the film-thickness-induced amount of In. These results indicate the possibility of tuning the properties of amorphous indium selenide thin films by changing their composition for use as an alternate buffer layer material in CI(G)S solar cells.

  1. Beneficiation and recovery of indium from liquid-crystal-display glass by hydrometallurgy.

    PubMed

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo

    2016-11-01

    Considering indium scarcity, the end-of-life (EOL) LCD, which accounts for up to 90% of market share can be a feasible secondary resource upon successful recycling. In the preferred hydrometallurgical process of such critical metals, leaching is the essential primary and essential phase has been investigated. In this process, LCD was mechanically separated along with other parts from EOL TVs through a smartly engineered process developed at our institute, Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), the Republic of Korea. After removing plastics and metals from the LCD, it was mechanically shredded for size reduction. The mechanically shredded LCD waste was leached with HCl for recovery of indium. Possible leaching parameters such as; effect of acid concentration, pulp density, temperature and effect of oxidant H2O2 concentration were investigated to identify the best conditions for indium extraction. Indium (76.16×10(-3)g/L) and tin (10.24×10(-3)g/L) leaching was achieved at their optimum condition, i.e. lixiviant of 5M HCl, a pulp density of 500g/L, temperature 75°C, agitation speed of 400rpm and time for 120min. At optimum condition the glass, plastic and the valuable metal indium have completely been separated. From indium enriched leach liquor, indium can be purified and recovered through hydrometallurgy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Five-year cohort study: emphysematous progression of indium-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Uchida, Kazuhiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yoshioka, Noriyuki; Hirata, Miyuki; Tanaka, Akiyo

    2014-11-01

    Dose-dependent adverse lung effects due to indium exposure have been reported in a cross-sectional study. This is a 5-year longitudinal cohort study of indium-exposed and unexposed workers, assessing indium exposure levels and its clinical lung effects. From 2008 to 2011, a 5-year follow-up study was conducted on 40 unexposed and 240 workers formerly or currently exposed to indium at 11 factories. Indium exposure was assessed by serum indium (In-S) (μg/L). Lung effects were assessed by subjective symptoms, serum biomarkers, spirometry, and chest high-resolution CT scan. Effect biomarkers used were Krebs von den Lungen and surfactant protein D. Mean values of In-S, Krebs von den Lungen, and surfactant protein D among the workers exposed to indium at baseline declined during the 5-year follow-up by 29.8%, 27.2%, and 27.5%, respectively. Of the exposed subjects with In-S levels > 20 μg/L, 26.3% experienced emphysematous progression on high-resolution CT scan. Ninety percent (18 of 20) of workers with emphysematous progression during follow-up were current smokers at baseline, and a trend of increasing incidence of emphysematous progression at higher In-S levels was observed among the smokers (P = .005). Emphysematous changes among subjects with In-S levels > 20 μg/L were likely to progress, after adjusting for age, mean duration since initial indium exposure, and smoking history (OR = 10.49, 95% CI = 1.54-71.36). Long-term adverse effects on emphysematous changes were observed. The results suggest workers exposed to indium with In-S levels > 20 μg/L should be immediately removed from exposure.

  3. The Rise of III-V Semiconductors and Their Impact on Environmental Indium Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. O.; Hemond, H.

    2008-12-01

    New semiconductor manufacturing processes are critical to emerging energy technologies. While these technologies will inevitably employ the use of novel materials, potentially in large quantities, little is known about the environmental behavior or toxicology of many of the materials that will be employed. This work investigates the potential environmental impact of novel metals on hydrologic systems, using indium as a case study. Indium production has been predicted to increase as much as 1000-fold in the next two decades, driven by its use in new high-efficiency photovoltaic cells, LEDs, and in indium tin oxide (ITO) electrical coatings for photovoltaics and displays (e.g. flat panel and liquid crystal displays). We propose the comparison of anthropogenic fluxes to natural fluxes of a metal as a useful early approach for flagging elements for priority study if it appears that projected anthropogenic fluxes may rival or exceed their natural fluxes. Analyses of sediment core data provide an historical record of metal concentrations in overlying waters, revealing information about natural, background concentrations and the importance of present-day anthropogenic and natural inputs to the system. Data from an industrial watershed in Massachusetts supports published data from a Swedish lake that suggests that indium concentrations have been increasing for the past 150 years, much before indium was used widely, and are now 1.5-10 times higher than background levels. These cores also show that while indium use has been increasing since the mid-1970s, concentrations in sediments have been decreasing. Initial calculations suggest that the mining/smelting of zinc ores are the largest contribution of indium to local watersheds, but that use by the semiconductor industry may drive a demand for indium that enhances its recovery from zinc ores (of which indium is a byproduct) and actually decreases local watershed releases.

  4. Phase equilibria in metal-indium-arsenic, nickel-gallium-antimony, nickel-indium systems and interfacial reactions between nickel and indium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Sutopo

    1993-12-31

    Phase equilibrium studies were carried out in the Rh-In-As, Ir-In-As, Co-In-As, Ni-Ga-Sb, and Ni-In-Sb systems at various temperatures. The experimental techniques used to establish the phase equilibria were X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy. An isothermal section of the Rh-In-As phase diagram was determined at 600{degrees}C. One ternary phase was identified and the composition of ternary phase was Rh{sub 3}In{sub 5}As{sub 2}. Three binary phases and one ternary phase were confirmed to be in equilibrium with InAs; RhIn{sub 3}, RhAs{sub 2}, RhAs{sub 3} and Rh{sub 3}In{sub 5}As{sub 2}. Phase equilibria were established in the Ir-In-As system at 600{degrees}C. No ternary phases were detected in the system and the ternary solubilities of the binary phases were found to be negligible. InAs was shown to be in thermodynamic equilibrium with liquid indium metal, IrAs{sub 2}, and IrAs{sub 3}. Solid state phase equilibria at 475{degrees}C in the system Co-In-As were determined. InAs formed equilibria with liquid indium, CoAs{sub 2} and CoAs. The presence of ternary phase with the composition CO{sub 19}In{sub 15}As{sub 6} was identified. From the Ni-Ga-Sb and Ni-In-Sb ternary phase diagrams were found that NiSb phase exhibited an extensive ternary solubilities deep into the Ga-Ni and In-Ni binaries respectively. There were no true ternary phases to be existence, but rather represented a specific composition of extensive solid solutions of constituent binary phases. NiSb{sub 2}, NiSb and Ni{sub 2}Ga{sub 3} were in thermodynamic equilibrium with GaSb and NiSb{sub 2}, NiSb and Ni{sub 2}In{sub 3} were also in thermodynamic stable with InSb. The Kinetics of bulk Ni/InAs diffusion couples were investigated using electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. Intrinsic diffusivities and interdiffusion coefficients of the Ni{sub 3}InAs phase in Ni/InAs were determined using ternary multi-phase models.

  5. Local structure of indium oxynitride from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    T-Thienprasert, J.; Onkaw, D.; Rujirawat, S.; Limpijumnong, S.; Nukeaw, J.; Sungthong, A.; Porntheeraphat, S.; Singkarat, S.

    2008-08-04

    Synchrotron x-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) measurements of In L{sub 3} edge is used in conjunction with first principles calculations to characterize rf magnetron sputtered indium oxynitride at different O contents. Good agreement between the measured and the independently calculated spectra are obtained. Calculations show that the XANES spectra of this alloy are sensitive to the coordination numbers of the In atoms, i.e., fourfold for indium nitride-like structures and sixfold for indium oxide-like structures, but not to the substitution of nearest neighbor N by O or vice versa.

  6. Improved Routes Towards Solution Deposition of Indium Sulfide Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications:

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    deposited films were found to crystallise as tetragonal P- In2S3 , no evidence for incorporation of hydroxy-indium species was found by XPS measurements...INTRODUCTION The III-VI semiconductor indium sulfide ( In2S3 ) has been the focus of much attention during the past two decades, primarily due to its...sensitized solar cells [2]. Indium sulfide is an n-type semiconductor that exists in three forms, viz. a defect cubic structure (x- In2S3 under ambient

  7. Method for restoring the resistance of indium oxide semiconductors after heating while in sealed structures

    DOEpatents

    Seager, C.H.; Evans, J.T. Jr.

    1998-11-24

    A method is described for counteracting increases in resistivity encountered when Indium Oxide resistive layers are subjected to high temperature annealing steps during semiconductor device fabrication. The method utilizes a recovery annealing step which returns the Indium Oxide layer to its original resistivity after a high temperature annealing step has caused the resistivity to increase. The recovery anneal comprises heating the resistive layer to a temperature between 100 C and 300 C for a period of time that depends on the annealing temperature. The recovery is observed even when the Indium Oxide layer is sealed under a dielectric layer. 1 fig.

  8. Indium phosphide solar cells - Recent developments and estimated performance in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Brinker, David J.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of indium phosphide solar cell research is reviewed. In the NASA research program, efficiencies of 18.8 percent were achieved for standard n/p homojunction InP cells while 17 percent was achieved for ITO/InP cells processed by sputtering n-type indium tin oxide onto p-type indium phosphide. The latter represents a cheaper, simpler processing alternative. Computer modeling calculations indicate that efficiencies of over 21 percent are feasible. Relatively large area cells are produced in Japan with a maximum efficiency of 16.6 percent.

  9. Highly conductive indium nanowires deposited on silicon by dip-pen nanolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhukhov, Anton; Volodin, Vladimir; Klimenko, Anatoliy; Shcheglov, Dmitriy; Karnaeva, Natalya; Latyshev, Alexander

    2015-04-14

    In this paper, we developed a new dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) method. Using this method, we fabricated conductive nanowires with diameters of 30–50 nm on silicon substrates. To accomplish this, indium was transferred from an atomic force microscopy tip to the surface by applying a potential difference between the tip and substrate. The fabricated indium nanowires were several micrometers in length. Unlike thermal DPN, our DPN method hardly oxidized the indium, producing nanowires with conductivities from 5.7 × 10{sup −3} to 4 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm.

  10. A Experimental Study of Indium-Doped Mercury Cadmium Telluride Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sou, Iam-Keong

    Indium doping of HgCdTe has been successfully carried out during growth by MBE. According to Hall Effect measurements, indium acts as n-type dopant for HgCdTe as expected. The absence of carrier freeze-out indicates that the donor energy level of indium is probably merged with the conduction band. By the combination of the Hall effect and SIMS the incorporation mechanisms of indium are found to be different between the (111)B and (100) growth orientations. In the (111)B case, part of the indium is incorporated in the metal sites and the rest of its precipitates in the form of In_2Te _3. In the (100) case, most of the indium atoms are believed to be incorporated interstitially in the lattice, and the other indium might occupy the metal sites (this is true at least for indium atomic concentration less than 10^{17}cm ^{-3}). This study indicates that the diffusion of indium is also dependent upon growth orientation. Two different diffusion components were observed in both the (111)B and (100) epilayers, but their characteristics are distinguishable. In the (111)B materials, the slow component is believed to be contributed by the In_2Te _3 neutral complexes. The fast component diffuses along the high-diffusivity paths via dislocation and/or grain boundaries. In the (100) materials, the results seem to imply that for heavily doped region (~ 10^{19}cm ^{-3}) part of the indium content is incorporated interstitially and the rest of it forms neutral complexes. During diffusion annealing, these interstitial indium ions gradually move to the metal sites via interstitialcy mechanism. The fast component is related to the diffusion of In_2Te_3 neutral complexes. The diffusion mechanism of the slow component has not yet been established. Indium doping during MBE growth has been used to fabricate HgCdTe:InCdTe-HgCdTe:In single barrier structures. Negative differential resistance was observed in these structures at low temperature. The valence band offset Delta E_{v} in the Hg

  11. Indium phosphide solar cells - Recent developments and estimated performance in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Brinker, David J.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of indium phosphide solar cell research is reviewed. In the NASA research program, efficiencies of 18.8 percent were achieved for standard n/p homojunction InP cells while 17 percent was achieved for ITO/InP cells processed by sputtering n-type indium tin oxide onto p-type indium phosphide. The latter represents a cheaper, simpler processing alternative. Computer modeling calculations indicate that efficiencies of over 21 percent are feasible. Relatively large area cells are produced in Japan with a maximum efficiency of 16.6 percent.

  12. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte localization in hematomas: a pitfall in abscess detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, V.W.; vanSonnenberg, E.; Kipper, S.; Bieberstein, M.P.

    1984-07-01

    Indium-111-labeled white-blood-cell scanning is a useful modality in abscess detection and has replaced gallium scanning in many institutions. Sensitivities of 72% to 90% and specificities of 90% to 100% have been reported. In searching for abscesses seven cases of indium-111-labeled leukocyte uptake were encountered in collections subsequently proved to be noninfected hematomas. Abundant red blood cells with few or no white blood cells, no bacteria, and a benign clinical course identified these noninfected hematomas. Five of the patients were being treated with hemodialysis and three were recent allograft recipients. The results indicate some limitation and nonspecificity in indium-111 scanning, despite its many benefits.

  13. Some studies on successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) grown indium sulphide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Pathan, H.M.; Lokhande, C.D. . E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com; Kulkarni, S.S.; Amalnerkar, D.P.; Seth, T.; Han, Sung-Hwan . E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr

    2005-06-15

    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were grown on amorphous glass substrate by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS) were applied to study the structural, optical, surface morphological and compositional properties of the indium sulphide thin films. Utilization of triethanolamine and hydrazine hydrate complexed indium sulphate and sodium sulphide as precursors resulted in nanocrystalline In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film. The optical band gap was found to be 2.7 eV. The film appeared to be smooth and homogeneous from SEM study.

  14. Method for restoring the resistance of indium oxide semiconductors after heating while in sealed structures

    DOEpatents

    Seager, Carleton H.; Evans, Jr., Joseph Tate

    1998-01-01

    A method for counteracting increases in resistivity encountered when Indium Oxide resistive layers are subjected to high temperature annealing steps during semiconductor device fabrication. The method utilizes a recovery annealing step which returns the Indium Oxide layer to its original resistivity after a high temperature annealing step has caused the resistivity to increase. The recovery anneal comprises heating the resistive layer to a temperature between 100.degree. C. and 300.degree. C. for a period of time that depends on the annealing temperature. The recovery is observed even when the Indium Oxide layer is sealed under a dielectric layer.

  15. Stability and crystal chemistry of the ternary borides M2(Ni21-xMx)B6 (M tbnd Ti, Zr, Hf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artini, C.; Provino, A.; Valenza, F.; Pani, M.; Cacciamani, G.

    2016-01-01

    A crystallochemical study was undertaken to investigate the structural stability and the compositional extent of the ternary borides M2(Ni21-xMx)B6 (M tbnd Ti, Zr, Hf). This phase often occurs during the production of MB2 joints by means of Ni-B brazing alloys. Samples with the nominal compositions M2Ni21B6 and M3Ni20B6 were synthesized by arc melting and characterized by optical and electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Crystal structure refinements were performed by the Rietveld method. The compositional boundaries of the ternary phases were experimentally determined and found strictly related to the M/Ni size ratio. The stability of this structure is mainly determined by the capability of the structure to expand under the effect of the Ni substitution by the M atom. The CALPHAD modeling of the three M-Ni-B ternary systems in the Ni-rich corner of the phase diagram, performed on the basis of the obtained structural data, shows a good agreement with experimental results.

  16. Microstructural Characterization and Wear Behavior of Nano-Boride Dispersed Coating on AISI 304 Stainless Steel by Hybrid High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spraying Laser Surface Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2015-07-01

    The current study concerns the detailed microstructural characterization and investigation of wear behavior of nano-boride dispersed coating developed on AISI 304 stainless steel by high velocity oxy-fuel spray deposition of nickel-based alloy and subsequent laser melting. There is a significant refinement and homogenization of microstructure with improvement in microhardness due to laser surface melting (1200 VHN as compared to 945 VHN of as-sprayed and 250 VHN of as-received substrate). The high temperature phase stability of the as-coated and laser melted surface has been studied by differential scanning calorimeter followed by detailed phase analysis at room and elevated temperature. There is a significant improvement in wear resistance of laser melted surface as compared to as-sprayed and the as-received one due to increased hardness and reduced coefficient of friction. The mechanism of wear has been investigated in details. Corrosion resistance of the coating in a 3.56 wt pct NaCl solution is significantly improved (4.43 E-2 mm/year as compared to 5 E-1 mm/year of as-sprayed and 1.66 mm/year of as-received substrate) due to laser surface melting as compared to as-sprayed surface.

  17. An XPS study of the adherence of refractory carbide, silicide, and boride RF-sputtered wear-resistant coatings. [X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of steel surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Radio frequency sputtering was used to deposit refractory carbide, silicide, and boride coatings on 440-C steel substrates. Both sputter etched and pre-oxidized substrates were used and the films were deposited with and without a substrate bias. The composition of the coatings was determined as a function of depth by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with argon ion etching. Friction and wear tests were conducted to evaluate coating adherence. In the interfacial region there was evidence that bias may produce a graded interface for some compounds. Biasing, while generally improving bulk film stoichiometry, can adversely affect adherence by removing interfacial oxide layers. Oxides of all film constituents except carbon and iron were present in all cases but the iron oxide coverage was only complete on the preoxidized substrates. The film and iron oxides were mixed in the MoSi2 and Mo2C films but layered in the Mo2B5 films. In the case of mixed oxides, preoxidation enhanced film adherence. In the layered case it did not.

  18. Efficient photovoltaic heterojunctions of indium tin oxides on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubow, J. B.; Sites, J. R.; Burk, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Heterojunction diodes of indium tin oxide films sputtered on to p-silicon using ion-beam techniques display significant photovoltaic effects when exposed to sunlight. Galvanomagnetic and optical measurements confirm that the oxide films are highly degenerate transparent semiconductors. At a tin oxide concentration of 10%, an open-circuit voltage of 0.51 V was observed along with a short-circuit current of 32 mA/sq cm, a fill factor of 0.70, and a conversion efficiency of 12%. As the concentration was raised to 70%, the voltage remained steady, the current fell to 27 mA/sq cm, and the fill factor fell to 0.60

  19. Optoelectric biosensor using indium-tin-oxide electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chang Kyoung; Kihm, Kenneth D.; English, Anthony E.

    2007-06-01

    The use of an optically thin indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode is presented for an optoelectric biosensor simultaneously recording optical images and microimpedance to examine time-dependent cellular growth. The transmittance of a 100nm thick ITO electrode layer is approximately the same as the transmittance of a clean glass substrate, whereas the industry-standard Au(47.5nm)/Ti(2.5nm) electrode layer drops the transmittance to less than 10% of that of the glass substrate. The simultaneous optoelectric measurements permit determining the correlation of the cell-covered area increase with the microimpedance increase, and the example results obtained for live porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cells delineate the quantitative and comprehensive nature of cellular attachment and spreading to the substrate, which has not been clearly perceived before.

  20. Tunable morphologies of indium tin oxide nanostructures using nanocellulose templates

    DOE PAGES

    Aytug, Tolga; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Ozcan, Soydan; ...

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide nanostructures have emerged as an important family of materials for various device applications. The performance is highly dependent on the morphology of the metal oxide nanostructures. Here we report a completely green approach to prepare indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles using only water and cellulose nanofibril (CNF) in addition to the ITO precursor. Surface hydroxyl groups of the CNFs allow for efficient conjugation of ITO precursors (e.g., metal ions) in aqueous solution. The resulting CNF film allows for controllable spatial arrangement of metal oxide precursors, which results in tunable particle morphology (e.g., nanowires, nanospheres, and octahedral nanoparticles). Thesemore » ITO nanoparticles can also form conductive and transparent ITO films. This study opens a new perspective on developing metal oxide nanostructures.« less

  1. Tunable morphologies of indium tin oxide nanostructures using nanocellulose templates

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Ozcan, Soydan; Lu, Yuan; Poole, II, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide nanostructures have emerged as an important family of materials for various device applications. The performance is highly dependent on the morphology of the metal oxide nanostructures. Here we report a completely green approach to prepare indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles using only water and cellulose nanofibril (CNF) in addition to the ITO precursor. Surface hydroxyl groups of the CNFs allow for efficient conjugation of ITO precursors (e.g., metal ions) in aqueous solution. The resulting CNF film allows for controllable spatial arrangement of metal oxide precursors, which results in tunable particle morphology (e.g., nanowires, nanospheres, and octahedral nanoparticles). These ITO nanoparticles can also form conductive and transparent ITO films. This study opens a new perspective on developing metal oxide nanostructures.

  2. Rapid thermal annealing of indium phosphide compound semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedenbender, Michael D.; Kapoor, Vik J.; Williams, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of indium phosphide (InP) substrates using a proximity contact method and silicon nitride encapsulation is investigated. The surface conditions of the InP substrates following cleaning with procedures A and B are analyzed. Procedure A involves using an iodic acid solution to remove work-damage InP surface layers and B is a degasssing process and hydrofluoric acid solution for native oxide removal. AES, XPS, and SIMS data of the proximity contact and silicon nitride encapsulated annealed samples are examined. The data reveal that RTA using proximity contact with silicon wafers does not provide adequate protection; however, the InP sample is successfully annealed when protected by a silicon nitride encapsulant.

  3. Synthesis of indium sulphide quantum dots in perfluoronated ionomer membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Sumi, R.; Warrier, Anita R.; Vijayan, C.

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for synthesis of β-indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) nanoparticles embedded in an ionomer matrix (nafion membrane). The influence of reaction temperature on structural, compositional and optical properties of these films were analysed using X-Ray Diffraction, EDAX, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence studies. Average particle diameter was estimated using modified effective mass approximation method. Absorption spectra of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles show blue shift compared to bulk In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, indicating strong quantum size confinement effects. PL emission in the wavelength range 530–600 nm was recorded using a 488 nm line from an Ar{sup +} laser as the excitation source.

  4. Chemical synthesis of hexagonal indium nitride nanocrystallines at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangbiao; Shen, Qianli; Zhao, Dejian; Lu, Juanjuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Junhao; Bao, Keyan; Zhou, Quanfa

    2017-08-01

    In this study, hexagonal indium nitride nanocystallines with high crystallinity have been prepared by the reaction of InCl3·4H2O, sulfur and NaNH2 in an autoclave at 160 °C. The crystal structures and morphologies of the obtained InN sample are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. As InCl3·4H2O is substituted by In(NO3)3·4.5H2O, InN nanocrystallines could also be obtained by using the similar method. The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the InN emits a broad peak positioned at 2.3 eV.

  5. Diagnosis of brain abscesses with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rehncrona, S.; Brismar, J.; Holtas, S.

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen patients with intracerebral mass lesions where computed tomography (CT) was not fully conclusive with respect to the differential diagnosis between brain tumor and abscess were examined with leukocyte brain scintigraphy (LBS). Autologous leukocytes were labeled with indium-111 oxinate and were reinjected intravenously; registration with a gamma camera was performed after 24 and 48 hours. In 10 of 11 patients with the final diagnosis of a brain tumor, no accumulation of radiolabeled leukocytes could be detected in the brain. In 4 of 5 patients with the final diagnosis of brain abscess, scintigraphy showed a pronounced increase of focal activity corresponding to the lesion demonstrated with CT. The reasons for the one false-positive and the one false-negative result are discussed, and it is concluded that LBS (a) can be used to detect intracranial infection and (b) may be a useful diagnostic tool for distinguishing between brain abscess and brain tumor.

  6. Synthesis of indium sulphide quantum dots in perfluoronated ionomer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, R.; Warrier, Anita R.; Vijayan, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for synthesis of β-indium sulphide (In2S3) nanoparticles embedded in an ionomer matrix (nafion membrane). The influence of reaction temperature on structural, compositional and optical properties of these films were analysed using X-Ray Diffraction, EDAX, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence studies. Average particle diameter was estimated using modified effective mass approximation method. Absorption spectra of In2S3 nanoparticles show blue shift compared to bulk In2S3, indicating strong quantum size confinement effects. PL emission in the wavelength range 530-600 nm was recorded using a 488 nm line from an Ar+ laser as the excitation source.

  7. Multicomponental fluorimetric determination of aluminium, gallium and indium.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Simon; Jancár, Ludek; Sommer, Lumír

    2008-03-01

    For the fast characteristics of mixtures of Aluminium, Gallium and Indium the fluorimetric evaluation in the form of complexes with 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid is described at selected pH. The highly collinear correlated fluorescent spectra and their first derivation were evaluated under various experimental conditions with the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Partial Least Squares (PLS) methods and Kalman filtering. When comparing the results, the PLS gives the least relative prediction errors under optimal conditions, 5.6-15.9% for the concentration range of Al 0.025-0.2 microg cm(-3), Ga 0.1-0.8 microgcm(-3) and In 0.1-0.8 microg cm(-3) in the mixture.

  8. Indium phosphide nanowires integrated directly on carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Longson, Timothy J.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.

    2011-10-01

    We have demonstrated the growth of a group III-V semiconductor binary alloy, indium phosphide (InP), directly on carbon fibers thereby enabling a union of semiconductor and structural materials. Carbon fibers were prepared by electrospinning solutions of polyacrilonitrile (PAN) and dimethylformamide (DMF) followed by carbonization at 750 °C in inert atmosphere. Gold nanoparticles dispersed on the fibers catalyzed nanowire growth by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. X-ray diffraction suggests that the nanowires appear to be epitaxially grown along the (110) direction. Geometrical parameters have been determined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and elemental analysis has been carried out using energy dispersive spectroscopy. The nanowires grown from carbon fibers are composed of an amorphous shell and crystalline core which alternates at high spatial frequency.mountai

  9. Single-point diamond turning of lead indium phosphate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cunningham, Joseph P.; Rajic, Slobodan; Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1996-11-01

    The development of the ability to routinely 'machine' glass materials to optical tolerances is highly desirable and, in particular, could provide new degrees of control over the precise shape of complex and unusual optical surfaces. Of particular interest in this regard is the formation of non- spherical shapes where there is a need to fabricate both inexpensive, low-precision optics as well as specialized high-precision aspheric components. This work describes the initial feasibility tests of the machining of a new type of glass, lead indium phosphate (LIP), a material which transmits from the visible to 2.8 micrometer (for thin samples). Glossy surfaces were produced with a root-mean- square surface roughness of less than 100 nm (with 200 micrometer filter). The results indicate that this approach offers the potential for producing high-quality aspheric optical shapes based on the use of LIP glass.

  10. Infrared plasmonics with indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi Qiang; Guo, Peijun; Zhang, Lingxiao; Zhou, Wei; Odom, Teri W; Seideman, Tamar; Ketterson, John B; Chang, Robert P H

    2011-11-22

    This article reports the study of infrared plasmonics with both random and periodic arrays of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanorods (NR). A description is given on the synthesis, patterning, and characterization of physical properties of the ITO NR arrays. A classical scattering model, along with a 3-D finite-element-method and a 3-D finite-difference-time-domain numerical simulation method has been used to interpret the unique light scattering phenomena. It is also shown that the intrinsic plasma frequency can be varied through careful postsynthesis processing of the ITO NRs. Examples are given on how coupled plasmon resonances can be tuned through patterning of the ITO NR arrays. In addition, environment dielectric sensing has been demonstrated through the shift of the resonances as a result of index change surrounding the NRs. These initial results suggest potential for further improvement and opportunities to develop a good understanding of infrared plasmonics using ITO and other transparent conducting oxide semiconducting materials.

  11. Efficient photovoltaic heterojunctions of indium tin oxides on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubow, J. B.; Sites, J. R.; Burk, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Heterojunction diodes of indium tin oxide films sputtered on to p-silicon using ion-beam techniques display significant photovoltaic effects when exposed to sunlight. Galvanomagnetic and optical measurements confirm that the oxide films are highly degenerate transparent semiconductors. At a tin oxide concentration of 10%, an open-circuit voltage of 0.51 V was observed along with a short-circuit current of 32 mA/sq cm, a fill factor of 0.70, and a conversion efficiency of 12%. As the concentration was raised to 70%, the voltage remained steady, the current fell to 27 mA/sq cm, and the fill factor fell to 0.60

  12. Attempts at doping indium in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grivel, J.-C.

    2016-12-01

    Indium (In) doped MgB2 polycrystalline samples were prepared by solid-liquid phase reaction in Ar. After reaction at 800 °C, less than 1 at.% Mg was replaced by In in the MgB2 phase, without significant influence on its lattice parameters and only a slight decrease of its superconducting transition temperature. For all studied In concentrations in the nominal composition, the formation of InMg was evidenced by X-ray diffraction. The critical current density and accommodation field of the wires are decreased in the samples containing In. The flux pinning mechanism can be described by surface pinning in both the doped and undoped samples.

  13. Genotoxicity of indium tin oxide by Allium and Comet tests.

    PubMed

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Liman, Recep; Özgül, Emre; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic effects of indium tin oxide (ITO) were investigated on root cells of Allium cepa by employing both Allium and Comet assays. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm) for 4 h. Exposure of ITO significantly increased mitotic index, and total chromosomal aberrations by the Allium test. While chromosome laggards, stickiness, disturbed anaphase-telophase and anaphase bridges were observed in anaphase-telophase cells, c-metaphase and binuclear cells were observed in other cells. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of ITO by the Comet assay. These results indicate that ITO exhibits genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  14. Characterization of reliability of printed indium tin oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Jei; Kim, Jong-Woong; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2013-11-01

    Recently, decreasing the amount of indium (In) element in the indium tin oxide (ITO) used for transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin film has become necessary for cost reduction. One possible approach to this problem is using printed ITO thin film instead of sputtered. Previous studies showed potential for printed ITO thin films as the TCO layer. However, nothing has been reported on the reliability of printed ITO thin films. Therefore, in this study, the reliability of printed ITO thin films was characterized. ITO nanoparticle ink was fabricated and printed onto a glass substrate followed by heating at 400 degrees C. After measurement of the initial values of sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the printed ITO thin films, their reliabilities were characterized with an isothermal-isohumidity test for 500 hours at 85 degrees C and 85% RH, a thermal shock test for 1,000 cycles between 125 degrees C and -40 degrees C, and a high temperature storage test for 500 hours at 125 degrees C. The same properties were investigated after the tests. Printed ITO thin films showed stable properties despite extremely thermal and humid conditions. Sheet resistances of the printed ITO thin films changed slightly from 435 omega/square to 735 omega/square 507 omega/square and 442 omega/square after the tests, respectively. Optical transmittances of the printed ITO thin films were slightly changed from 84.74% to 81.86%, 88.03% and 88.26% after the tests, respectively. These test results suggest the stability of printed ITO thin film despite extreme environments.

  15. Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Urmila, K. S. Asokan, T. Namitha Pradeep, B.; Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena

    2014-01-28

    Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10{sup −5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (α) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup −1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

  16. Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urmila, K. S.; Asokan, T. Namitha; Pradeep, B.; Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena

    2014-01-01

    Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe2 with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10-5 mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe2 films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (α) of 106 cm-1 at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe2 thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

  17. Macro- and microscopic properties of strontium doped indium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaenko, Y. M.; Kuzovlev, Y. E.; Medvedev, Y. V.; Mezin, N. I.; Fasel, C.; Gurlo, A.; Schlicker, L.; Bayer, T. J. M.; Genenko, Y. A.

    2014-07-28

    Solid state synthesis and physical mechanisms of electrical conductivity variation in polycrystalline, strontium doped indium oxide In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:(SrO){sub x} were investigated for materials with different doping levels at different temperatures (T = 20–300 °C) and ambient atmosphere content including humidity and low pressure. Gas sensing ability of these compounds as well as the sample resistance appeared to increase by 4 and 8 orders of the magnitude, respectively, with the doping level increase from zero up to x = 10%. The conductance variation due to doping is explained by two mechanisms: acceptor-like electrical activity of Sr as a point defect and appearance of an additional phase of SrIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. An unusual property of high level (x = 10%) doped samples is a possibility of extraordinarily large and fast oxygen exchange with ambient atmosphere at not very high temperatures (100–200 °C). This peculiarity is explained by friable structure of crystallite surface. Friable structure provides relatively fast transition of samples from high to low resistive state at the expense of high conductance of the near surface layer of the grains. Microscopic study of the electro-diffusion process at the surface of oxygen deficient samples allowed estimation of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen vacancies in the friable surface layer at room temperature as 3 × 10{sup −13} cm{sup 2}/s, which is by one order of the magnitude smaller than that known for amorphous indium oxide films.

  18. An evaluation of the potential yield of indium recycled from end-of-life LCDs: A case study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hengguang; Gu, Yifan; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Wang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    With the advances in electronics and information technology, China has gradually become the largest consumer of household appliances (HAs). Increasingly, end-of-life (EOL) HAs are generated in China. EOL recycling is a promising strategy to reduce dependence on virgin production, and indium is one of the recycled substances. The potential yield of indium recycling has not been systematically evaluated in China thus far. This paper estimates the potential yield of recycled indium from waste liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in China during the period from 2015 to 2030. The quantities of indium that will be used to produce LCDs are also predicted. The estimates focus on the following three key LCD waste sources: LCD TVs, desktop computers and portable computers. The results show that the demand for indium will be increasing in the near future. It is expected that 350 tonnes of indium will be needed to produce LCDs in China in 2035. The indium recycled from EOL LCDs, however, is much less than the demand and only accounts for approximately 48% of the indium demand. The sustainable index of indium is always less than 0.5. Therefore, future indium recycling efforts should focus on the development of recycling technology and the improvement of the relevant policy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus.

  20. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, T.; O'Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A.; Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (∼50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  1. Optimal design study of high efficiency indium phosphide space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently indium phosphide solar cells have achieved beginning of life AMO efficiencies in excess of 19 pct. at 25 C. The high efficiency prospects along with superb radiation tolerance make indium phosphide a leading material for space power requirements. To achieve cost effectiveness, practical cell efficiencies have to be raised to near theoretical limits and thin film indium phosphide cells need to be developed. The optimal design study is described of high efficiency indium phosphide solar cells for space power applications using the PC-1D computer program. It is shown that cells with efficiencies over 22 pct. AMO at 25 C could be fabricated by achieving proper material and process parameters. It is observed that further improvements in cell material and process parameters could lead to experimental cell efficiencies near theoretical limits. The effect of various emitter and base parameters on cell performance was studied.

  2. Structural and electrical properties of sol-gel spin coated indium doped cadmium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Rajammal, R.; Savarimuthu, E. Arumugam, S.

    2014-04-24

    The indium doped CdO thin films have been prepared by the sol-gel spin coating technique and the influence of indium doping concentration on the structural and electrical properties of the deposited films has been investigated. The indium doping concentration in the solution has been varied from 0-10 wt% insteps of 2wt%. A indium doping concentration of 6wt% has been found to be optimum for preparing the films and at this stage a minimum resistivity of 5.92×10{sup −4}Ω cm and a maximum carrier concentration of 1.20×10{sup 20}cm{sup −3} have been realized.

  3. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  4. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Indium from Flat-Panel Displays of Spent Liquid Crystal Televisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

    2015-02-01

    A recovery process for indium from waste liquid crystal display panels was developed on the basis of hydrometallurgical technology. The powdered sample was leached with 3 M HCl to extract its various metal constituents (indium, aluminum, tin, etc.). The mutual separation and subsequent recovery of the dissolved metals was achieved using two column adsorption tests: The first column was packed with a porous resin impregnated with Aliquat 336, a commercially available solvent extraction reagent based on a quaternary ammonium compound, and the resin contained in the second column was impregnated with Cyanex 923, also a commercially available solvent extraction reagent based on trialkylphosphine oxide. In the first column, tin, iron, and zinc were removed from the leach liquor. In the second column, only indium was selectively recovered. The metal ions trapped in these columns were eluted with 0.1 M H2SO4, yielding a solution purified indium solution with a concentration 10 times that of the feed solution.

  5. Investigation of buried homojunctions in p-InP formed during sputter deposition of both indium tin oxide and indium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessert, T. A.; Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Coutts, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    While dc magnetron sputter deposition of indium tin oxide leads to the formation of a buried homojunction in single crystal p-type InP, the mechanism of type conversion of the InP surface is not apparent. In view of the recent achievement of nearly 17-percent global efficiencies for cells fabricated solely by sputter deposition of In2O3, it is presently surmised that tin may not be an essential element in type conversion. A variety of electrical and optical techniques are presently used to evaluate the changes at both indium tin oxide/InP and indium oxide/InP interfaces. Such mechanisms as the passivation of acceptors by hydrogen, and sputter damage, are found to occur simultaneously.

  6. Investigation of buried homojunctions in p-InP formed during sputter deposition of both indium tin oxide and indium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessert, T. A.; Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Coutts, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    While dc magnetron sputter deposition of indium tin oxide leads to the formation of a buried homojunction in single crystal p-type InP, the mechanism of type conversion of the InP surface is not apparent. In view of the recent achievement of nearly 17-percent global efficiencies for cells fabricated solely by sputter deposition of In2O3, it is presently surmised that tin may not be an essential element in type conversion. A variety of electrical and optical techniques are presently used to evaluate the changes at both indium tin oxide/InP and indium oxide/InP interfaces. Such mechanisms as the passivation of acceptors by hydrogen, and sputter damage, are found to occur simultaneously.

  7. Growth of copper indium sulphide films by thermal evaporation of mixtures of copper sulphide and indium sulphide powders

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Pritty; Kumar, Sanjiv Sahoo, N.K.

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CuInS{sub 2} films are prepared by resistively heating mixtures of CuS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. • As deposited films consist of Cu{sub 7}S{sub 4}, InS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. • These species react during vacuum annealing to produce CuInS{sub 2} films. • The films bear stoichiometric or Cu-rich composition. • Their electrical and optical features are conducive for photovoltaic applications. - Abstract: The physical evaporation of a 1:1 mixture of copper sulphide (CuS) and indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) powders by resistive heating followed by the vacuum annealing of the resulting films at 723 K produces copper indium sulphide (CuInS{sub 2}) films with about 95% phase purity. Composed of sub-micron sized grains, the films bear stoichiometric or Cu-rich composition and are endowed with p-type conductivity, a band gap of about 1.5 eV and an absorption coefficient of about 4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −1} in visible region. Mechanistically, the formation of CuInS{sub 2} films takes place as a result of solid state reaction among Cu{sub 7}S{sub 4}, InS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} in the condensed phase. These intermediate species are produced from the decomposition of CuInS{sub 2} formed in the evaporating mixture due to the reaction between CuS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, and excess CuS. Process simplicity and the absence of a sulphurisation step make this approach attractive for synthesising CuInS{sub 2} absorber layers for photovoltaic applications.

  8. Cytotoxicity and terminal differentiation of human oral keratinocyte by indium ions from a silver-palladium-gold-indium dental alloy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Seo, Sang-Hee; Lee, Sang-Bae; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2015-02-01

    Dental alloys containing indium (In) have been used in dental restoration for two decades; however, no study has investigated the biological effects of In ions, which may be released in the oral cavity, on human oral keratinocytes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the biological effects of In ions on human oral keratinocyte after confirming their release from a silver-palladium-gold-indium (Ag-Pd-Au-In) dental alloy. As a corrosion assay, a static immersion tests were performed by detecting the released ions in the corrosion solution from the Ag-Pd-Au-In dental alloy using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity and biological effects of In ions were then studied with In compounds in three human oral keratinocyte cell lines: immortalized human oral keratinocyte (IHOK), HSC-2, and SCC-15. Higher concentrations of In and Cu ions were detected in Ag-Pd-Au-In (P<0.05) than in Ag-Pd-Au, and AgCl deposition occurred on the surface of Ag-Pd-Au-In after a 7-day corrosion test due to its low corrosion resistance. At high concentrations, In ions induced cytotoxicity; however, at low concentrations (∼0.8In(3+)mM), terminal differentiation was observed in human oral keratinocytes. Intracellular ROS was revealed to be a key component of In-induced terminal differentiation. In ions were released from dental alloys containing In, and high concentrations of In ions resulted in cytotoxicity, whereas low concentrations induced the terminal differentiation of human oral keratinocytes via increased intracellular ROS. Therefore, dental alloys containing In must be biologically evaluated for their safe use. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual-energy subtraction imaging utilizing indium as a contrast agent

    SciTech Connect

    Le Duc, G.; Zhong, Z.; Warkentien, L.; Laster, B.; Thomlinson, W.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of our current work is to establish the minimum detection, of indium contrast agent using dual-energy subtraction imaging above and below indium K-edge. Experiments were performed on the X12 and X17B2 beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source using the same method but with two different set-ups. Experiments were first carried out on InCl{sub 3} solutions, then on V79 Chinese hamster cells and on BALB/c mice excised tumors, labeled with indium. For each experiment, several layers of Lucite were placed in front of the phantom to ensure a 43 mm thickness, dose to that of a mammography examination. Results were the same on X12 and X17B2. As expected, indium-free materials disappeared on subtracted images (water, steel reference and screw). Indium samples were easily distinguishable for the following concentrations: 10-5-2-1 mg/cm{sup 2}. Smaller concentrations were not clearly distinguishable and we were unable to see cell samples and tumors. To conclude, the lowest concentration we can image is around 1 mg/cm{sup 2}. These results agree with theoretical results. Such results also suggest that indium concentration in both cells and tumors is lower than 0.5 mg/cm{sup 2}. Since the current detection is dose to optimum, we conclude that dual energy subtraction imaging using indium to label tumors cells and tumors is not possible unless the indium uptake is increased by more than an order of magnitude.

  10. Role of TBATB in nano indium oxide catalyzed C-S bond formation.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Prasanta; Hazarika, Sukanya; Barman, Pranjit

    2015-09-29

    Nano sized indium oxide is found to be an efficient catalyst for the conversion of thiols to sulfides using Na2CO3 as base and TBATB as reagent in DMSO at 110 °C. Here in situ generation of bromo intermediate by TBATB takes place through indium surface. A variety of aryl sulfides can be synthesized in excellent yields from less reactive chlorides, boronic acids and thiols.

  11. Role of TBATB in nano indium oxide catalyzed C-S bond formation

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Prasanta; Hazarika, Sukanya; Barman, Pranjit

    2015-01-01

    Nano sized indium oxide is found to be an efficient catalyst for the conversion of thiols to sulfides using Na2CO3 as base and TBATB as reagent in DMSO at 110 °C. Here in situ generation of bromo intermediate by TBATB takes place through indium surface. A variety of aryl sulfides can be synthesized in excellent yields from less reactive chlorides, boronic acids and thiols. PMID:26415729

  12. Role of TBATB in nano indium oxide catalyzed C-S bond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Prasanta; Hazarika, Sukanya; Barman, Pranjit

    2015-09-01

    Nano sized indium oxide is found to be an efficient catalyst for the conversion of thiols to sulfides using Na2CO3 as base and TBATB as reagent in DMSO at 110 °C. Here in situ generation of bromo intermediate by TBATB takes place through indium surface. A variety of aryl sulfides can be synthesized in excellent yields from less reactive chlorides, boronic acids and thiols.

  13. The structure of nickel and indium oxide thin films from EXAFS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bets, V.; Zamozdiks, T.; Lusis, A.; Purans, J.; Bausk, N.; Sheromov, M.

    1987-11-01

    The structure of nickel oxide and indium oxide doped by tin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering has been studied by the EXAFS method. It has been found that the nickel oxide thin film has a microcrystalline structure with significant disorder proved by the increase of the Debye-Waller factor and the sharp decrease of peak amplitudes. The indium oxide thin film has a noticeable structural disorder due to 8% tin dopping.

  14. Macrophage Solubilization and Cytotoxicity of Indium-Containing Particles In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Indium-containing particles (ICPs) are used extensively in the microelectronics industry. Pulmonary toxicity is observed after inhalation exposure to ICPs; however, the mechanism(s) of pathogenesis is unclear. ICPs are insoluble at physiological pH and are initially engulfed by alveolar macrophages (and likely airway epithelial cells). We hypothesized that uptake of ICPs by macrophages followed by phagolysosomal acidification results in the solubilization of ICPs into cytotoxic indium ions. To address this, we characterized the in vitro cytotoxicity of indium phosphide (InP) or indium tin oxide (ITO) particles with macrophages (RAW cells) and lung-derived epithelial (LA-4) cells at 24h using metabolic (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase) assays. InP and ITO were readily phagocytosed by RAW and LA-4 cells; however, the particles were much more cytotoxic to RAW cells and cytotoxicity was dose dependent. Treatment of RAW cells with cytochalasin D (CytoD) blocked particle phagocytosis and reduced cytotoxicity. Treatment of RAW cells with bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of phagolysosomal acidification, also reduced cytotoxicity but did not block particle uptake. Based on direct indium measurements, the concentration of ionic indium was increased in culture medium from RAW but not LA-4 cells following 24-h treatment with particles. Ionic indium derived from RAW cells was significantly reduced by treatment with CytoD. These data implicate macrophage uptake and solubilization of InP and ITO via phagolysosomal acidification as requisite for particle-induced cytotoxicity and the release of indium ions. This may apply to other ICPs and strongly supports the notion that ICPs require solubilization in order to be toxic. PMID:23872580

  15. Macrophage solubilization and cytotoxicity of indium-containing particles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gwinn, William M; Qu, Wei; Shines, Cassandra J; Bousquet, Ronald W; Taylor, Genie J; Waalkes, Michael P; Morgan, Daniel L

    2013-10-01

    Indium-containing particles (ICPs) are used extensively in the microelectronics industry. Pulmonary toxicity is observed after inhalation exposure to ICPs; however, the mechanism(s) of pathogenesis is unclear. ICPs are insoluble at physiological pH and are initially engulfed by alveolar macrophages (and likely airway epithelial cells). We hypothesized that uptake of ICPs by macrophages followed by phagolysosomal acidification results in the solubilization of ICPs into cytotoxic indium ions. To address this, we characterized the in vitro cytotoxicity of indium phosphide (InP) or indium tin oxide (ITO) particles with macrophages (RAW cells) and lung-derived epithelial (LA-4) cells at 24h using metabolic (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase) assays. InP and ITO were readily phagocytosed by RAW and LA-4 cells; however, the particles were much more cytotoxic to RAW cells and cytotoxicity was dose dependent. Treatment of RAW cells with cytochalasin D (CytoD) blocked particle phagocytosis and reduced cytotoxicity. Treatment of RAW cells with bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of phagolysosomal acidification, also reduced cytotoxicity but did not block particle uptake. Based on direct indium measurements, the concentration of ionic indium was increased in culture medium from RAW but not LA-4 cells following 24-h treatment with particles. Ionic indium derived from RAW cells was significantly reduced by treatment with CytoD. These data implicate macrophage uptake and solubilization of InP and ITO via phagolysosomal acidification as requisite for particle-induced cytotoxicity and the release of indium ions. This may apply to other ICPs and strongly supports the notion that ICPs require solubilization in order to be toxic.

  16. Determination of the sign of the electric field gradient in indium by nuclear resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, L.; Smith, E.N.; Richardson, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have studied the temperature dependence of two of the four magnetic-field perturbed NQR lines in indium. Their results indicate that the sign of the internal electric field gradient (EFG) is positive, in accord with the recent heat capacity measurements of the ISSP group and one recent theoretical prediction. They also discuss the implications of the sign of the EFG on the use of indium as an absolute thermometer below 1 mK.

  17. Optical spectroscopy using mass-separated beams: Nuclear properties of unstable indium and tin isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehl, T.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Marx, D.; Dinger, U.; Eberz, J.; Huber, G.; Lochmann, H.; Menges, R.; Ulm, G.

    1987-05-01

    Collinear fast-beam laser-spectroscopy has been used to measure the hyperfine structure and isotope shift of several indium and tin isotopes. The related experimental techniques are described, including the preparation of mass-separated beams of neutron-deficient indium and tin isotopes at the GSI on-line mass separator following fusion-evaporation reactions. The deviation of the observed dependence of the charge radii upon the neutron number from the expected behaviour is briefly discussed.

  18. The Potential of Indium as a Soft Metal Lubricant Replacement for Lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardzinski, Ben; Buttery, Michael; Roberts, Emyr

    2013-09-01

    A review was carried out comparing the properties of several soft metals to identify the most suitable lubricant alternative to lead. Indium emerged as the most promising candidate.A method for producing thin-film indium coatings via physical vapour deposition was developed. Coatings were deposited onto 52100-steel discs and bearing balls and assessed for their adhesion, purity and morphology. The friction and lifetime were then assessed in vacuum through spiral orbit tribometry (SOT) and the tribological performance compared with that of lead and MoS2.The indium coatings displayed a microstructure consisting of evenly distributed nodules of pure indium. Coatings on bearing-steel discs exhibited both good adhesion and high chemical purity. However on bearing-steel balls, adhesion was weaker.During SOT testing indium transferred readily from the coated ball to the uncoated SOT plates. The coatings displayed low friction (lower than for lead and comparable to that of MoS2). Whilst indium coating lifetimes exceeded those of MoS2, they were appreciably shorter than those observed with lead coatings of similar thickness.

  19. Copper-assisted shape control in colloidal synthesis of indium oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selishcheva, Elena; Parisi, Jürgen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna

    2012-02-01

    Indium oxide is an important n-type transparent semiconductor, finding application in solar cells, sensors, and optoelectronic devices. We present here a novel non-injection synthesis route for the preparation of colloidal indium oxide nanocrystals by using oleylamine (OLA) as ligand and as solvent. Indium oxide with cubic crystallographic structure is formed in a reaction between indium acetate and OLA, the latter is converted to oleylamide during the synthesis. The shape of the nanocrystals can be influenced by the addition of copper ions. When only indium (III) acetate is used as precursor flower-shaped indium oxide nanoparticles are obtained. Addition of copper salts such as copper (I) acetate, copper (II) acetate, copper (II) acetylacetonate, or copper (I) chloride, under otherwise identical reaction conditions changes the shape of nanoparticles to quasi-spherical or elongated. The anions, except for chloride, do not influence the shape of the resulting nanocrystals. This finding suggests that adsorption of copper ions on the In2O3 surface during the nanoparticles growth is responsible for shape control, whereas changes in the reactivity of the In cations caused by the presence of different anions play a secondary role. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and UV-Vis-absorption spectroscopy are used to characterize the samples.

  20. Growth and characterization of indium doped silicon single crystals at industrial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haringer, Stephan; Giannattasio, Armando; Alt, Hans Christian; Scala, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Indium is becoming one of the most important dopant species for silicon crystals used in photovoltaics. In this work we have investigated the behavior of indium in silicon crystals grown by the Czochralski pulling process. The experiments were performed by growing 200 mm crystals, which is a standard diameter for large volume production, thus the data reported here are of technological interest for the large scale production of indium doped p-type silicon. The indium segregation coefficient and the evaporation rate from the silicon melt have been calculated to be 5 × 10-4 ± 3% and 1.6 × 10-4 cm·s-1, respectively. In contrast to previous works the indium was introduced in liquid phase and the efficiency was compared with that deduced by other authors, using different methods. In addition, the percentage of electrically active indium at different dopant concentrations is calculated and compared with the carrier concentration at room temperature, measured by four-point bulk method.

  1. Separation and recovery of glass, plastic and indium from spent LCD panels.

    PubMed

    Ferella, Francesco; Belardi, Girolamo; Marsilii, Antonella; De Michelis, Ida; Vegliò, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    The present paper deals with physico-mechanical pre-treatments for dismantling of spent liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and further recovery of valuable fractions like plastic, glass and indium. After a wide experimental campaign, two processes were designed, tested and optimized. In the wet process, 20%, 15% and 40% by weight of the feeding panels are recovered as plastic, glass and indium concentrate, respectively. Instead, in the dry process, only two fractions were separated: around 11% and 85% by weight are recovered as plastic and glass/indium mixture. Indium, that concentrated in the -212μm fraction, was completely dissolved by sulphuric acid leaching (0.75molL(-1) H2SO4 solution, 80°C, 10%vol H2O2, pulp density 10%wt/vol, leaching time 3h). 100% of indium can be extracted from the pregnant solution with 5%wt/vol Amberlite™ resin, at room temperature and pH 3 in 24h. Indium was thus re-extracted from the resin by means of a 2molL(-1) H2SO4 solution, at room temperature and S/L of 40%wt/vol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced optical properties due to indium incorporation in zinc oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Sarkar, K.; Mazouchi, M.; Stroscio, M. A.; Dutta, M.

    2016-01-11

    Indium-doped zinc oxide nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid technique with 1.6 at. % indium content show intense room temperature photoluminescence (PL) that is red shifted to 20 meV from band edge. We report on a combination of nanowires and nanobelts-like structures with enhanced optical properties after indium doping. The near band edge emission shift gives an estimate for the carrier density as high as 5.5 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} for doped nanowires according to Mott's critical density theory. Quenching of the visible green peak is seen for doped nanostructures indicating lesser oxygen vacancies and improved quality. PL and transmission electron microscopy measurements confirm indium doping into the ZnO lattice, whereas temperature dependent PL data give an estimation of the donor and acceptor binding energies that agrees well with indium doped nanowires. This provides a non-destructive technique to estimate doping for 1D structures as compared to the traditional FET approach. Furthermore, these indium doped nanowires can be a potential candidate for transparent conducting oxides applications and spintronic devices with controlled growth mechanism.

  3. Exposure Potential and Health Impacts of Indium and Gallium, Metals Critical to Emerging Electronics and Energy Technologies.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah Jane O; Shine, James P

    2016-12-01

    The rapid growth of new electronics and energy technologies requires the use of rare elements of the periodic table. For many of these elements, little is known about their environmental behavior or human health impacts. This is true for indium and gallium, two technology critical elements. Increased environmental concentrations of both indium and gallium create the potential for increased environmental exposure, though little is known about the extent of this exposure. Evidence is mounting that indium and gallium can have substantial toxicity, including in occupational settings where indium lung disease has been recognized as a potentially fatal disease caused by the inhalation of indium particles. This paper aims to review the basic chemistry, changing environmental concentrations, potential for human exposure, and known health effects of indium and gallium.

  4. Crystal structures and compressibility of novel iron borides Fe{sub 2}B{sub 7} and Fe{sub x}B{sub 50} synthesized at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bykova, E.; Gou, H.; Bykov, M.; Hanfland, M.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Dubrovinskaia, N.

    2015-10-15

    We present here a detailed description of the crystal structures of novel iron borides, Fe{sub 2}B{sub 7} and Fe{sub x}B{sub 50} with various iron content (x=1.01(1), 1.04(1), 1.32(1)), synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures. As revealed by high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction, the structure of Fe{sub 2}B{sub 7} possesses short incompressible B–B bonds, which make it as stiff as diamond in one crystallographic direction. The volume compressibility of Fe{sub 2}B{sub 7} (the bulk modulus K{sub 0}= 259(1.8) GPa, K{sub 0}′= 4 (fixed)) is even lower than that of FeB{sub 4} and comparable with that of MnB{sub 4}, known for high bulk moduli among 3d metal borides. Fe{sub x}B{sub 50} adopts the structure of the tetragonal δ-B, in which Fe atoms occupy an interstitial position. Fe{sub x}B{sub 50} does not show considerable anisotropy in the elastic behavior. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structures of novel iron borides, Fe{sub 2}B{sub 7} and Fe{sub x}B{sub 50} (x=1.01(1), 1.04(1), 1.32(1)). - Highlights: • Novel iron borides, Fe{sub 2}B{sub 7} and Fe{sub x}B{sub 50}, were synthesized under HPHT conditions. • Fe{sub 2}B{sub 7} has a unique orthorhombic structure (space group Pbam). • Fe{sub 2}B{sub 7} possesses short incompressible B–B bonds that results in high bulk modulus. • Fe{sub x}B{sub 50} adopts the structure of the tetragonal δ-B composed of B{sub 12} icosahedra. • In Fe{sub x}B{sub 50} intraicosahedral bonds are stiffer than intericosahedral ones.

  5. History of ``NANO''-Scale VERY EARLY Solid-State (and Liquid-State) Physics/Chemistry/Metallurgy/ Ceramics; Interstitial-Alloys Carbides/Nitrides/Borides/...Powders and Cermets, Rock Shocks, ...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiden, Colin; Siegel, Edward

    History of ``NANO'': Siegel-Matsubara-Vest-Gregson[Mtls. Sci. and Eng. 8, 6, 323(`71); Physica Status Solidi (a)11,45(`72)] VERY EARLY carbides/nitrides/borides powders/cermets solid-state physics/chemistry/metallurgy/ ceramics FIRST-EVER EXPERIMENTAL NANO-physics/chemistry[1968 ->Physica Status Solidi (a)11,45(`72); and EARLY NANO-``physics''/NANO-``chemistry'' THEORY(after: Kubo(`62)-Matsubara(`60s-`70s)-Fulde (`65) [ref.: Sugano[Microcluster-Physics, Springer('82 `98)

  6. Occupational exposure to indium: what does biomonitoring tell us?

    PubMed

    Hoet, Perrine; De Graef, Emmy; Swennen, Bert; Seminck, Théo; Yakoub, Yousof; Deumer, Gladys; Haufroid, Vincent; Lison, Dominique

    2012-08-13

    The industrial uses of indium, a rare metal with no known physiological role in humans, have increased dramatically over the past 15 years. The results of animal toxicity studies showing pulmonary and systemic effects as well as some reports in workers have created a growing concern about the possible occurrence of toxic effects in exposed workers. Validated biomarkers to assess exposure to indium are not available. This work aimed at investigating the kinetics of indium in urine (In-U) and plasma (In-Pl) in workers manufacturing In ingots and mainly exposed to hardly water-soluble In compounds. All nine workers from the In department of a large metallurgical concern participated in the study as well as 5 retired workers and 20 controls. Personal breathing zone air was collected throughout the work shift on Monday and Friday. Blood and urine samples were collected, before and after the shift, on the same day as the air sampling and on preshift the next Monday after a non-working week-end. Moreover, rats were given either InCl(3) by intraperitoneal injection or In(2)O(3) by pharyngeal aspiration, In was followed in plasma during 120 days and measured in tissues 120 days after exposure. Higher In-Pl and In-U concentrations were found in both current (range 0.32-12.61 μg/L plasma; 0.22-3.50 μg/g creat) and former (0.03-4.38 μg/L plasma; 0.02-0.69 μg/g creat) workers compared with controls (<0.03 μg/L plasma; <0.02 μg/g creat). Both biological parameters were highly correlated but no correlation was found between In-air (10-1030 μg/m(3)) and In-Pl or In-U. Normalizing In-U by the urinary creatinine concentration reduced the inter- (from 90% to 70%) and intra-individual variability (from 54% to 35%). In-Pl remained remarkably stable along the working week (inter- and intra-individual variability: 89% and 10%, respectively). Neither In-U nor In-Pl significantly increased during the day or the week. A week-end without occupational exposure was not sufficient to

  7. New ternary tantalum borides containing boron dumbbells: Experimental and theoretical studies of Ta2OsB2 and TaRuB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbarki, Mohammed; Touzani, Rachid St.; Rehorn, Christian W. G.; Gladisch, Fabian C.; Fokwa, Boniface P. T.

    2016-10-01

    The new ternary transition metal-rich borides Ta2OsB2 and TaRuB have been successfully synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled crucible under an argon atmosphere. The crystal structures of both compounds were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and their metal compositions were confirmed by EDX analysis. It was found that Ta2OsB2 and TaRuB crystallize in the tetragonal Nb2OsB2 (space group P4/mnc, no. 128) and the orthorhombic NbRuB (space group Pmma, no. 51) structure types with lattice parameters a=5.878(2) Å, c=6.857(2) Å and a=10.806(2) Å, b=3.196(1) Å, c=6.312(2) Å, respectively. Furthermore, crystallographic, electronic and bonding characteristics have been studied by density functional theory (DFT). Electronic structure relaxation has confirmed the crystallographic parameters while COHP bonding analysis indicates that B2-dummbells are the strongest bonds in both compounds. Moreover, the formation of osmium dumbbells in Ta2OsB2 through a Peierls distortion along the c-axis, is found to be the origin of superstructure formation. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that the two phases are Pauli paramagnets, thus confirming the theoretical DOS prediction of metallic character. Also hints of superconductivity are found in the two phases, however lack of single phase samples has prevented confirmation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic stability of the two modifications of AMB (A=Nb, Ta; M =Ru, Os) are studied using DFT, as new possible phases containing either B4- or B2-units are predicted, the former being the most thermodynamically stable modification.

  8. Ternary borides Nb7Fe3B8 and Ta7Fe3B8 with Kagome-type iron framework.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Gumeniuk, Roman; Borrmann, Horst; Schnelle, Walter; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Rosner, Helge; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Reissner, Michael; Grin, Yuri; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas

    2016-06-21

    Two new ternary borides TM7Fe3B8 (TM = Nb, Ta) were synthesized by high-temperature thermal treatment of samples obtained by arc-melting. This new type of structure with space group P6/mmm, comprises TM slabs containing isolated planar hexagonal [B6] rings and iron centered TM columns in a Kagome type of arrangement. Chemical bonding analysis in Nb7Fe3B8 by means of the electron localizability approach reveals two-center interactions forming the Kagome net of Fe and embedded B, while weaker multicenter bonding present between this net and Nb atoms. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal antiferromagnetic order below TN = 240 K for Nb7Fe3B8 and TN = 265 K for Ta7Fe3B8. Small remnant magnetization below 0.01μB per f.u. is observed in the antiferromagnetic state. The bulk nature of the magnetic transistions was confirmed by the hyperfine splitting of the Mössbauer spectra, the sizable anomalies in the specific heat capacity, and the kinks in the resistivity curves. The high-field paramagnetic susceptibilities fitted by the Curie-Weiss law show effective paramagnetic moments μeff≈ 3.1μB/Fe in both compounds. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity also reveals metallic character of both compounds. Density functional calculations corroborate the metallic behaviour of both compounds and demonstrate the formation of a sizable local magnetic moment on the Fe-sites. They indicate the presence of both antiferro- and ferrromagnetic interactions.

  9. Indium: Understanding its Behavior in Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems Today to Meet Tomorrow's Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccoli, P. M.; Kayser, S.; Candela, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Indium is integral to modern electronic devices, and is an essential component in indium-tin oxide (ITO), an electrically conductive, and optically transparent material that forms the basis for touch screens and high-end LCDs. World-wide production of indium has increased almost seven-fold from 1990 to 2012. Continued increases in production can be aided by better models for the formation of indium-bearing ores, yet little is known about the behavior of indium in magmatic-hydrothermal systems. As a first step toward solving this problem, we performed experiments to evaluate the partitioning of indium between pyrrhotite (po) and silicate melt (m). Experiments were performed at 800 °C, 100 MPa, and fO2 ≈ NNO in a po-saturated, vapor-brine-rhyolite melt system for durations of 5 to15 days. Three separate series of experiments were conducted in which each series differed by the aqueous solution added. The first series of experiments were prepared with pure water, the second series of experiments with a 1.01 M chloride solution and the third series with a 0.35 M CuCl2-bearing starting aqueous solution. These changes in starting material produced changes in the composition of the run product po and glass. The partition coefficient D(po/m) for the pure-water series experiments is on the order of ≈ 10. The addition of chloride-bearing aqueous solution leads to a decrease in the partition coefficient to ≈ 1.5. The copper-bearing experiments yield a D ≈ 3. The lower values for D in the chloride-bearing experiments may be explained by indium-chloride interactions in the melt phase. Although the D does vary depending upon the composition of the starting aqueous solution, an order of magnitude estimate for D, for general modeling purposes, can be made by assuming a value of 4. By using reasonable estimates of the mass fraction of po that crystallizes in crustal magmatic systems, the proportion of indium sequestered by po, during fractional crystallization, can be

  10. Apparatus for Precise Indium-Bump Bonding of Microchips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, Larry; Mulder, Jerry; Alvarado, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus has been designed and built for use in precise positioning and pressing of a microchip onto a substrate (which could, optionally, be another microchip) for the purpose of indium-bump bonding. The apparatus (see figure) includes the following: A stereomicroscope, A stage for precise positioning of the microchip in rotation angle (theta) about the nominally vertical pressing axis and in translation along two nominally horizontal coordinate axes (x and y), and An actuator system that causes a bonding tip to press the microchip against the substrate with a precisely controlled force. In operation, the microscope and the stage are used to position the microchip under the bonding tip and to align the indium bumps on the chip and the substrate, then the actuator system is used to apply a prescribed bonding force for a prescribed time. The improved apparatus supplants a partly similar prior apparatus that operated with less precision and repeatability, producing inconsistent and unreliable bonds. Results of the use of the prior apparatus included broken microchips, uneven bonds, and bonds characterized, variously, by overcompression or undercompression. In that apparatus, the bonding force was generated and controlled by use of a micrometer head positioned over the center of a spring-loaded scale, and the force was applied to the microchip via the scale, which was equipped for digital readout of the force. The inconsistency of results was attributed to the following causes: It was not possible to control the bonding force with sufficient precision or repeatability. Particularly troublesome was the inability to control the force at levels less than the weight of 150 g. Excessive compliance in the spring-loaded scale, combined with deviations from parallelarity of the substrate and bonding-tip surfaces, gave rise to nonuniformity in the pressure applied to the microchip, thereby generating excessive stresses and deformations in the microchip. In the

  11. [Health effects of solar cell component material. Toxicity of indium compounds to laboratory animals determined by intratracheal instillations].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the increasing interest being paid to the issue of the global environment, the production of solar cells has increased rapidly in recent years. Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is a new efficient thin film used in some types of solar cell. Indium is a constitutive element of CIGS thin-film solar cells. It was thought that indium compounds were not harmful until the beginning of the 1990s because there was little information regarding the adverse health effects on humans or animals arising from exposure to indium compounds. After the mid-1990s, data became available indicating that indium compounds can be toxic to animals. In animal studies, it has been clearly demonstrated that indium compounds cause pulmonary toxicity and that the dissolution of indium compounds in the lungs is considerably slow, as shown by repeated intratracheal instillations in experimental animals. Thus, it is necessary to pay much greater attention to human exposure to indium compounds, and precautions against possible exposure to indium compounds are paramount with regard to health management.

  12. Investigation of an Electrochemical Method for Separation of Copper, Indium, and Gallium from Pretreated CIGS Solar Cell Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Anna M K; Björefors, Fredrik; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of the semiconductor material copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is important to ensure a future supply of indium and gallium, which are relatively rare and therefore expensive elements. As a continuation of our previous work, where we recycled high purity selenium from CIGS waste materials, we now show that copper and indium can be recycled by electrodeposition from hydrochloric acid solutions of dissolved selenium-depleted material. Suitable potentials for the reduction of copper and indium were determined to be -0.5 V and -0.9 V (versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode), respectively, using cyclic voltammetry. Electrodeposition of first copper and then indium from a solution containing the dissolved residue from the selenium separation and ammonium chloride in 1 M HCl gave a copper yield of 100.1 ± 0.5% and an indium yield of 98.1 ± 2.5%. The separated copper and indium fractions contained no significant contamination of the other elements. Gallium remained in solution together with a small amount of indium after the separation of copper and indium and has to be recovered by an alternative method since electrowinning from the chloride-rich acid solution was not effective.

  13. Non-destructive method for the analysis of gold(I) cyanide plating baths Complexometric determination of nickel and indium.

    PubMed

    Pribil, R; Veselý, V

    1972-12-01

    A method is described for rapid determination of nickel and indium in gold(I) cyanide baths containing large amounts of citric acid and/or sodium citrate, without previous destruction of organic matter. Gold is removed by extraction with ethyl acetate. In one aliquot of the solution indium is masked with thioglycollic acid and nickel is precipitated with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into chloroform, stripped into water and determined complexometrically. In a second aliquot indium and nickel are precipitated together with the same reagent and stripped into water, then nickel is masked with 1,10-phenanthroline, and indium is determined by direct titration with EDTA.

  14. Interstitial lung disorders in the indium workers of Korea: an update study for the relationship with biological exposure indices.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungyeul; Won, Yong Lim; Kim, Dohyung; Lee, Mi-Young; Choi, Yoon Jung; Park, Jai-Soung; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Jung, Jung Im; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Korea is one of the highest indium-consuming countries worldwide. The present study aims to determine the relationship between interstitial lung disorders and indium exposure in Korea. In 50 indium workers from seven plants, the effect of serum indium on the lungs was determined using laboratory tests, spirometry, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Higher serum indium and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) levels were associated with HRCT-detected interstitial lung changes. Workers with high serum indium levels (≥3 µg/L) had longer exposure durations and a higher prevalence of HRCT-detected interstitial lung changes. KL-6 and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) levels were significantly higher in the highest serum indium quartile than the lowest quartile. Significant dose-effect relationships existed between serum indium levels and KL-6, SP-D levels and the prevalence of HRCT-detected interstitial lung changes. Workforce medical surveillance should be established to prevent indium-induced interstitial lung disease in Korea. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Investigation of an Electrochemical Method for Separation of Copper, Indium, and Gallium from Pretreated CIGS Solar Cell Waste Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Anna M. K.; Björefors, Fredrik; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of the semiconductor material copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is important to ensure a future supply of indium and gallium, which are relatively rare and therefore expensive elements. As a continuation of our previous work, where we recycled high purity selenium from CIGS waste materials, we now show that copper and indium can be recycled by electrodeposition from hydrochloric acid solutions of dissolved selenium-depleted material. Suitable potentials for the reduction of copper and indium were determined to be −0.5 V and −0.9 V (versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode), respectively, using cyclic voltammetry. Electrodeposition of first copper and then indium from a solution containing the dissolved residue from the selenium separation and ammonium chloride in 1 M HCl gave a copper yield of 100.1 ± 0.5% and an indium yield of 98.1 ± 2.5%. The separated copper and indium fractions contained no significant contamination of the other elements. Gallium remained in solution together with a small amount of indium after the separation of copper and indium and has to be recovered by an alternative method since electrowinning from the chloride-rich acid solution was not effective. PMID:26347901

  16. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott C 4; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of /sup 111/In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% (11 of 25) if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% (14 of 14)); there were no false negative results.

  17. Stability and electronic properties of two-dimensional indium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jizhang; Dong, Baojuan; Guo, Huaihong; Yang, Teng; Zhu, Zhen; Hu, Gan; Saito, Riichiro; Zhang, Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    Based on ab initio density functional calculations, we studied the stability and electronic properties of two-dimensional indium iodide (InI). The calculated results show that monolayer and few-layer InI can be as stable as its bulk counterpart. The stability of the monolayer structure is further supported by examining the electronic and dynamic stability. The interlayer interaction is found to be fairly weak (˜160 meV/atom) and mechanical exfoliation to obtain monolayer and few-layer structures will be applicable. A direct band gap of 1.88 eV of the bulk structure is obtained from the hybrid functional method, and is comparable to the experimental one (˜2.00 eV). The electronic structure can be tuned by layer stacking and external strain. The size of the gap is a linear function of an inverse number of layers, suggesting that we can design few-layer structures for optoelectronic applications in the visible optical range. In-plane tensile or hydrostatic compressive stress is found to be useful not only in varying the gap size to cover the whole visible optical range, but also in inducing a semiconductor-metal transition with an experimentally accessible stress. The present result strongly supports the strategy of broadening the scope of group-V semiconductors by looking for isoelectronic III-VII atomic-layered materials.

  18. Experiments with the low melting indium-bismuth alloy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krepski, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to create an interest in and to further understanding of materials science. The primary audience for this material is the junior high school or middle school science student having no previous familiarity with the material, other than some knowledge of temperature and the concepts of atoms, elements, compounds, and chemical reactions. The objective of the experiment is to investigate the indium-bismuth alloy system. Near the eutectic composition, the liquidus is well below the boiling point of water, allowing simple, minimal hazard casting experiments. Such phenomena as metal oxidation, formation of intermetallic compound crystals, and an unusual volume increase during solidification could all be directly observed. A key concept for students to absorb is that properties of an alloy (melting point, mechanical behavior) may not correlate with simple interpolation of properties of the pure components. Discussion of other low melting metals and alloys leads to consideration of environmental and toxicity issues, as well as providing some historical context. Wetting behavior can also be explored.

  19. Patterning cells on optically transparent indium tin oxide electrodes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sunny; Revzin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The ability to exercise precise spatial and temporal control over cell-surface interactions is an important prerequisite to the assembly of multi-cellular constructs serving as in vitro mimics of native tissues. In this study, photolithography and wet etching techniques were used to fabricate individually addressable indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes on glass substrates. The glass substrates containing ITO microelectrodes were modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) silane to make them protein and cell resistive. Presence of insulating PEG molecules on the electrode surface was verified by cyclic voltammetry employing potassium ferricyanide as a redox reporter molecule. Importantly, the application of reductive potential caused desorption of the PEG layer, resulting in regeneration of the conductive electrode surface and appearance of typical ferricyanide redox peaks. Application of reductive potential also corresponded to switching of ITO electrode properties from cell non-adhesive to cell-adhesive. Electrochemical stripping of PEG-silane layer from ITO microelectrodes allowed for cell adhesion to take place in a spatially defined fashion, with cellular patterns corresponding closely to electrode patterns. Micropatterning of several cell types was demonstrated on these substrates. In the future, the control of the biointerfacial properties afforded by this method will allow to engineer cellular microenvironments through the assembly of three or more cell types into a precise geometric configuration on an optically transparent substrate.

  20. Crumpled indium-tin-oxide electrodes for transparency tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hui-Yng; Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih Keong

    2016-04-01

    Optical transparency of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film depends on its topography. Wrinkling of ITO thin film can reduce normal transmittance or visibility by scattering the incident light away. In this paper, we study topography change of ITO thin film and its effect on normal transmittance of light. Coating of ITO thin film on adhesive poly-acrylate elastomer forms wrinkles and folds when subjected to mechanical compression and surface buckling. At excessive compression, such as 25% equi-biaxial, folds of the ITO thin film are so deep and convoluted like crumpling of a piece of paper. This crumpled form of ITO thin film can well obscure the light passing even though a flat ITO thin film is transparent. Surprisingly, the crumpled ITO thin film remains continuous and conductive even with 25% equi-biaxial compression despite the fact that ITO is known to be brittle. These crumpled ITO thin films were subsequently used to make compliant electrodes for Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). These crumpled ITO thin film can be reversibly unfolded through the DEA's areal expansion. This DEA with 14.2% equi-biaxially crumpled ITO thin films can produce 37% areal expansion and demonstrate an optical transmittance change from 39.14% to 52.08% at 550nm wavelength.

  1. Multifunctional Indium Tin Oxide Electrode Generated by Unusual Surface Modification

    PubMed Central

    Bouden, Sarra; Dahi, Antoine; Hauquier, Fanny; Randriamahazaka, Hyacinthe; Ghilane, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The indium tin oxide (ITO) material has been widely used in various scientific fields and has been successfully implemented in several devices. Herein, the electrochemical reduction of ITO electrode in an organic electrolytic solution containing alkali metal, NaI, or redox molecule, N-(ferrocenylmethyl) imidazolium iodide, was investigated. The reduced ITO surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and grazing incident XRD demonstrating the presence of the electrolyte cation inside the material. Reversibility of this process after re-oxidation was evidenced by XPS. Using a redox molecule based ionic liquid as supporting electrolyte leads to fellow electrochemically the intercalation process. As a result, modified ITO containing ferrocenyl imidazolium was easily generated. This reduction process occurs at mild reducing potential around −1.8 V and causes for higher reducing potential a drastic morphological change accompanied with a decrease of the electrode conductivity at the macroscopic scale. Finally, the self-reducing power of the reduced ITO phase was used to initiate the spontaneous reduction of silver ions leading to the growth of Ag nanoparticles. As a result, transparent and multifunctional active ITO surfaces were generated bearing redox active molecules inside the material and Ag nanoparticles onto the surface. PMID:27857192

  2. Excited state lifetime measurements of ytterbium in indium phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrocher, David

    1989-12-01

    The AFIT Time Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL) lab was disassembled, relocated and rebuilt with improvements to layout and performance. Excited state lifetime measurements of ytterbium implanted in indium phosphide were conducted using the new lab. Effects of sample temperature, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) time and RTA temperature on the lifetimes of the 1.002 microns Yb3+ line were examined. Lifetime measurements of Er, Pr and Tm in GaAs were also attempted. Ytterbium concentrations were 3 x 10(exp 13) ions/sq cm, implanted at an ion energy of 1 MeV in semi-insulating InP substrate. Sample temperatures ranged from 4.2 to 90K. Annealing times ranged from 1 to 25 seconds on samples annealed at 850 C. Annealing temperatures ranged from 400 to 850 C, with RTA times of 15 seconds. The excitation source was a nitrogen-pumped dye laser with primary wavelength at 580 nm. A germanium photodiode detector was selected to eliminate the long time constant associated with available S1 power supplies and to enable detection at the near infrared wavelengths of the other rare earths. Data acquisition was accomplished with a boxcar averager and a microcomputer equipped with acquisition hardware and software. Thermal quenching was clearly observed in lifetimes at increasing sample temperatures, most dramatically at above 50 C. The results would be very helpful in device fabrication/operation considerations, and some of the sample preparation parameters may be equally applicable for other RE doped III-V semiconductors.

  3. Multifunctional Indium Tin Oxide Electrode Generated by Unusual Surface Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouden, Sarra; Dahi, Antoine; Hauquier, Fanny; Randriamahazaka, Hyacinthe; Ghilane, Jalal

    2016-11-01

    The indium tin oxide (ITO) material has been widely used in various scientific fields and has been successfully implemented in several devices. Herein, the electrochemical reduction of ITO electrode in an organic electrolytic solution containing alkali metal, NaI, or redox molecule, N-(ferrocenylmethyl) imidazolium iodide, was investigated. The reduced ITO surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and grazing incident XRD demonstrating the presence of the electrolyte cation inside the material. Reversibility of this process after re-oxidation was evidenced by XPS. Using a redox molecule based ionic liquid as supporting electrolyte leads to fellow electrochemically the intercalation process. As a result, modified ITO containing ferrocenyl imidazolium was easily generated. This reduction process occurs at mild reducing potential around ‑1.8 V and causes for higher reducing potential a drastic morphological change accompanied with a decrease of the electrode conductivity at the macroscopic scale. Finally, the self-reducing power of the reduced ITO phase was used to initiate the spontaneous reduction of silver ions leading to the growth of Ag nanoparticles. As a result, transparent and multifunctional active ITO surfaces were generated bearing redox active molecules inside the material and Ag nanoparticles onto the surface.

  4. Early and delayed indium 111 leukocyte imaging in Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Navab, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Diner, W.C.; Subramani, R.; Chan, C.

    1987-10-01

    Twenty-seven patients with Crohn's disease were studied for the presence and location of activity by both early (4 h) and delayed (18-24 h) indium 111 leukocyte imaging. The results were compared with other parameters of disease activity including Crohn's disease activity index, barium studies, and endoscopy. There was a correlation between early images and Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.78) and between delayed images and index (r = 0.82). Based upon the corresponding Crohn's disease activity index, the sensitivity of early and delayed imaging was 81.0% and 95.2%, respectively. Specificity of early and delayed imaging was 75.0% and 87.0%, respectively. Presence of activity on the early and delayed imaging agreed with activity on barium studies and colonoscopy in approximately 80% of cases. Correlation of location of disease by leukocyte imaging and x-ray was observed in 58.9% of early scans and 55.0% of delayed scans. Correlation of the location of disease by imaging and endoscopy was observed in 71.4% of early and 75.0% of delayed studies. Because of the possibility of occurrence of false-negative results in early images, delayed imaging should always be included in evaluation of disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease who are suspected of having mild activity. Delayed imaging is not required if the early imaging study clearly shows activity.

  5. Defects and transport properties of molybdenum doped indium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yuki; Gessert, Timothy; Wood, David; Coutts, Timothy

    2004-03-01

    Mo-doped indium oxide (IMO) films were deposited using an r.f. magnetron sputtering system under various oxygen concentrations. Using the `method of four coefficients', the conductivity, Hall, Nernst, and Seebeck coefficients were measured for IMO. These coefficients can be used with solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the carrier density-of-states effective mass, the Fermi level relative to the conduction-band minimum, and an energy-dependent scattering parameter related to the scattering mechanism. We find the conduction band is parabolic with a band effective mass of ˜ 0.32 me over a carrier concentration range from 4×10^19 to 5× 10^20 cm-3, indicating that relaxation time controls mobility in IMO. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements show that phonon and ionized-impurity scattering dominate at high mobility and high carrier concentration, respectively. We will also discuss possible defects in the film using XPS and electrical property data.

  6. Broadband resonances in indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shi-Qiang E-mail: r-chang@northwestern.edu; Sakoda, Kazuaki; Ketterson, John B.; Chang, Robert P. H. E-mail: r-chang@northwestern.edu

    2015-07-20

    There is currently much discussion within the nanophotonics community regarding the origin of wavelength selective absorption/scattering of light by the resonances in nanorod arrays. Here, we report a study of resonances in ordered indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays resulting from waveguide-like modes. We find that with only a 2.4% geometrical coverage, micron-length nanorod arrays interact strongly with light across a surprisingly wide band from the visible to the mid-infrared, resulting in less than 10% transmission. Simulations show excellent agreement with our experimental observations. The field profile in the vicinity of the rods obtained from simulations shows that the electric field is mainly localized on the surfaces of the nanorods for all resonances. Based on our analysis, the resonances in the visible are different in character from those in the infrared. When light is incident on the array, part of it propagates in the space between the rods and part of it is guided within the rods. The phase difference (interference) at the ends of the rods forms the basis for the resonances in the visible region. The resonances in the infrared are Fabry-Perot-like resonances involving standing surface waves between the opposing ends of the rods. Simple analytical formulae predict the spectral positions of these resonances. It is suggested that these phenomena can be utilized for wavelength-selective photodetectors, modulators, and nanorod-based solar cells.

  7. Comparative performance of diffused junction indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.; Parat, K. K.

    1987-01-01

    A comparison is made between indium phosphide solar cells whose p-n junctions were processed by open tube capped diffusion, and closed tube uncapped diffusion, of sulfur into Czochralski grown p-type substrates. Air mass zero, total area, efficiencies ranged from 10 to 14.2 percent, the latter value attributed to cells processed by capped diffusion. The radiation resistance of these latter cells was slightly better, under 1 MeV electron irradiation. However, rather than being process dependent, the difference in radiation resistance could be attributed to the effects of increased base dopant concentration. In agreement with previous results, both cells exhibited radiation resistance superior to that of gallium arsenide. The lowest temperature dependency of maximum power was exhibited by the cells prepared by open tube capped diffusion. Contrary to previous results, no correlation was found between open circuit voltage and the temperature dependency of Pmax. It was concluded that additional process optimization was necessary before concluding that one process was better than another.

  8. Tunable Magnetism and Extraordinary Sunlight Absorbance in Indium Triphosphide Monolayer.

    PubMed

    Miao, Naihua; Xu, Bin; Bristowe, Nicholas C; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Zhimei

    2017-08-16

    Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials have received considerable research interest due to their extraordinary properties and promising applications. Here we predict the monolayered indium triphosphide (InP3) as a new semiconducting 2D material with a range of favorable functional properties by means of ab initio calculations. The 2D InP3 crystal shows high stability and promise of experimental synthesis. It possesses an indirect band gap of 1.14 eV and a high electron mobility of 1919 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which can be strongly manipulated with applied strain. Remarkably, the InP3 monolayer suggests tunable magnetism and half-metallicity under hole doping or defect engineering, which is attributed to the novel Mexican-hat-like bands and van Hove singularities in its electronic structure. A semiconductor-metal transition is also revealed by doping 2D InP3 with electrons. Furthermore, monolayered InP3 exhibits extraordinary optical absorption with significant excitonic effects in the entire range of the visible light spectrum. All these desired properties render 2D InP3 a promising candidate for future applications in a wide variety of technologies, in particular for electronic, spintronic, and photovoltaic devices.

  9. Broadband resonances in indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-Qiang; Sakoda, Kazuaki; Ketterson, John B.; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2015-07-01

    There is currently much discussion within the nanophotonics community regarding the origin of wavelength selective absorption/scattering of light by the resonances in nanorod arrays. Here, we report a study of resonances in ordered indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays resulting from waveguide-like modes. We find that with only a 2.4% geometrical coverage, micron-length nanorod arrays interact strongly with light across a surprisingly wide band from the visible to the mid-infrared, resulting in less than 10% transmission. Simulations show excellent agreement with our experimental observations. The field profile in the vicinity of the rods obtained from simulations shows that the electric field is mainly localized on the surfaces of the nanorods for all resonances. Based on our analysis, the resonances in the visible are different in character from those in the infrared. When light is incident on the array, part of it propagates in the space between the rods and part of it is guided within the rods. The phase difference (interference) at the ends of the rods forms the basis for the resonances in the visible region. The resonances in the infrared are Fabry-Perot-like resonances involving standing surface waves between the opposing ends of the rods. Simple analytical formulae predict the spectral positions of these resonances. It is suggested that these phenomena can be utilized for wavelength-selective photodetectors, modulators, and nanorod-based solar cells.

  10. Finite-size effects in amorphous indium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sreemanta; Tewari, Girish C.; Mahalu, Diana; Shahar, Dan

    2016-04-01

    We study the low-temperature magnetotransport properties of several highly disordered amorphous indium oxide (a:InO) samples. Simultaneously fabricated devices comprising a two-dimensional (2D) film and 10 -μ m -long wires of different widths were measured to investigate the effect of size as we approach the 1D limit, which is around 4 times the correlation length, and happens to be around 100 nm for a:InO. The film and the wires showed magnetic field (B )-induced superconductor to insulator transition (SIT). In the superconducting side, the resistance increased with decrease in wire width, whereas an opposite trend is observed in the insulating side. We find that this effect can be explained in light of charge-vortex duality picture of the SIT. Resistance of the 2D film follows an activated behavior over the temperature (T ), whereas, the wires show a crossover from the high-T -activated to a T -independent behavior. At high-temperature regime the wires' resistance follow the film's until they deviate and became independent of T . We find that the temperature at which this deviation occurs evolves with the magnetic field and the width of the wire, which show the effect of finite size on the transport.

  11. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning.

    PubMed

    Brunner, M C; Mitchell, R S; Baldwin, J C; James, D R; Olcott, C; Mehigan, J T; McDougall, I R; Miller, D C

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Indium phosphide nanowires and their applications in optoelectronic devices

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Fateen

    2016-01-01

    Group IIIA phosphide nanocrystalline semiconductors are of great interest among the important inorganic materials because of their large direct band gaps and fundamental physical properties. Their physical properties are exploited for various potential applications in high-speed digital circuits, microwave and optoelectronic devices. Compared to II–VI and I–VII semiconductors, the IIIA phosphides have a high degree of covalent bonding, a less ionic character and larger exciton diameters. In the present review, the work done on synthesis of III–V indium phosphide (InP) nanowires (NWs) using vapour- and solution-phase approaches has been discussed. Doping and core–shell structure formation of InP NWs and their sensitization using higher band gap semiconductor quantum dots is also reported. In the later section of this review, InP NW-polymer hybrid material is highlighted in view of its application as photodiodes. Lastly, a summary and several different perspectives on the use of InP NWs are discussed. PMID:27118920

  13. Indium-111-labeled platelet scintigraphy in carotid atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Minar, E.; Ehringer, H.; Dudczak, R.; Schoefl, R.J.; Jung, M.; Koppensteiner, R.; Ahmadi, R.; Kretschmer, G.

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated platelet accumulation in carotid arteries by means of a dual-radiotracer method, using indium-111-labeled platelets and technetium-99m-labeled human serum albumin, in 123 patients (92 men, 31 women; median age 60 years). Sixty patients had symptoms of transient ischemic carotid artery disease, and 63 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease served as controls. Antiplatelet treatment with acetylsalicylic acid was taken by 53 of the 123 patients. In 36 of the 60 symptomatic patients, platelet scintigraphy was repeated 3-4 days after carotid endarterectomy. Comparison of different scintigraphic parameters (platelet accumulation index and percent of the injected dose of labeled platelets at the carotid bifurcation) showed no significant differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, and the severity of stenosis and the presence of plaque ulceration also had no influence on the parameters. There was no difference between patients with a short (less than 4 weeks) or long (greater than 4 weeks) interval from the last transient ischemic attack to scintigraphy and no difference between patients with or without antiplatelet treatment. Classifying the patients according to plaque morphology judged by high-resolution real-time ultrasonography also demonstrated no differences. No significant correlation was found between any scintigraphic parameter and other platelet function parameters such as platelet survival time, platelet turnover rate, and concentration of platelet-specific proteins. Quantification of platelet deposition after carotid endarterectomy in 36 patients demonstrated a significant increase of the median platelet accumulation index and the percent injected dose index.

  14. Enthalpies of formation of liquid and solid (palladium + indium) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, D.E.; Gaune-Escard, M.; Bros, J.P.; Hayer, E.

    1995-08-01

    Enthalpies of formation of (Pd + In) alloys have been obtained by direct reaction calorimetry using a very high temperature calorimeter between 1,425 and 1,679 K in the concentration range 0 < x{sub Pd} < 0.66. They are very negative with a minimum {Delta}{sub mix}H{sub m}{degree} = {minus}59.6 {+-} 2.5 kJ mol at x{sub PD} = 0.59 and independent of temperature within the experimental error. The integral molar enthalpy of mixing is given by {Delta}{sub mix}H{sub m}{degree}/{l_brace}kJ/mol{r_brace} = x(1 {minus} x) ({minus}126.94 {minus} 92.653x {minus} 83.231x{sup 2} {minus} 734.49x{sup 3} + 949.07x{sup 4}), where x = x{sub PD}. The limiting partial molar enthalpy of palladium in indium was calculated as {Delta}h{sub m} (Pd liquid in {infinity} liquid In) = {minus}127 {+-} 5 kJ/mol. The results are discussed and compared with the enthalpies of formation of solid alloys. The anomalous behavior of the partial enthalpy of Pd is assumed to be due to the charge transfer of, at most, two electrons of In to Pd.

  15. Using Indium Tin Oxide To Mitigate Dust on Viewing Ports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA plans to use a number of onboard viewing ports to measure lunar regolith in situ and to monitor robotic and human activities on the lunar or Martian surface. Because of the size and abundance of dust particles on these bodies, the potential for dust to occlude viewing ports and windows is high enough to threaten system lifetime and reliability, especially when activities rely on relaying video to either a habitat module or controllers on Earth. This project uses a technology being developed by KSC's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory to remove dust from windowlike surfaces. The technology applies an alternating electric potential to interlaced electrodes. In this application, we use indium tin oxide (ITO) to create various electrode patterns in order to determine the most reliable pattern for dust removal. This technology has application to systems where optical clarity is important. Specifically, this project considers the in situ resource utilization (ISRU) application of a viewing port for Raman spectroscopy, where the electrode pattern on glass would be coated with a scratch-resistant sapphire film (Al2O3).

  16. A Conductometric Indium Oxide Semiconducting Nanoparticle Enzymatic Biosensor Array

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongjin; Ondrake, Janet; Cui, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP) are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of the resistors using layer-by-layer self-assembly. To demonstrate enzymatic biosensing capability, glucose oxidase is immobilized on the SNP layer for glucose detection. The packaged sensor chip onto a ceramic pin grid array is tested using syringe pump driven feed and multi-channel I–V measurement system. It is successfully demonstrated that glucose is detected in many different sensing sites within a chip, leading to concentration dependent currents. The sensitivity has been found to be dependent on the channel length of the resistor, 4–12 nA/mM for channel lengths of 5–20 μm, while the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is 20 mM. By using sensor array, analytical data could be obtained with a single step of sample solution feeding. This work sheds light on the applicability of the developed nanoparticle microsensor array to multi-analyte sensors, novel bioassay platforms, and sensing components in a lab-on-a-chip. PMID:22163696

  17. The electrorefinement of indium through an aluminum Alkyl complex electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Su, M.S.; Bachmann, K.J.; Boss, C.B.; Gentry, J.S.; Moreland, C.G.

    1985-04-01

    High purity indium metal has been prepared by electrolysis at constant potential from a mixed Al + In complex electrolyte that contains typically 2 mol Al(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/ and 0.06 mol In(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/ per mol C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CH/sub 2/N(CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/F. Based on the results of cyclic voltammetry applied to the pure Al complex electrolyte and to the mixed electrolyte, a mechanism for the cathodic and anodic steps in the electrorefinement process is proposed. It is the opinion of the authors that the (Al/sub 2/F(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 6/) and (Al/sub 3/F(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 9/) ions that are shown by NMR studies to exist in equilibrium with uncomplexed Al(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/ and Al/sub 2/(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 6/, respectively, serve merely as supporting electrolyte. The inalium metal obtained by electrorefinement in a mixed Al + In alkyl electrolyte is suitable for the synthesis and bulk crystal growth of In containing compound semiconductors. However, a further reduction of the about2 ppm Al contamination level is required for making the electrorefined In a useful source material for epitaxial growth processes.

  18. Physical properties of vapour grown indium monotelluride platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunjomana, A. G.; Chandrasekharan, K. A.; Teena, M.

    2015-02-01

    Indium monotelluride (InTe) crystals were grown from vapour phase under different temperature gradients by employing physical vapour deposition (PVD) method. The morphology of these crystals such as whiskers, needles, platelets etc., strongly depends on the temperature distribution in the horizontal dual zone furnace. InTe platelets were deposited by setting the temperature of the charge (TC) and growth (TS) zones at 1073 K and 773 K (ΔT=300 K), respectively, for different growth periods (24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). The surface growth features have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopes, which indicate layer growth mechanism for all the crystals. Various crystals grown under ΔT=200 K and 300 K (retaining TS invariant) were examined by X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. InTe samples exhibited consistent lattice parameters, density and atomic percentage, establishing stoichiometry and chemical homogeneity. The results obtained for Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, power factor, dislocation density and microhardness are found to be reproducible as well. The vapour deposited InTe platelets are mechanically stable and possess high value of TEP, which ensure their practical application in thermoelectric power generation.

  19. The precipitation of indium at elevated pH in a stream influenced by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah Jane O; Hussain, Fatima A; Hemond, Harold F; Sacco, Sarah A; Shine, James P; Runkel, Robert L; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A

    2017-01-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics and has uses in important energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One significant flux of indium to the environment is from lead, zinc, copper, and tin mining and smelting, but little is known about its aqueous behavior after it is mobilized. In this study, we use Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in southwestern Colorado severely affected by heavy metal contamination as a result of acid mine drainage, as a natural laboratory to study the aqueous behavior of indium. At the existing pH of ~3, indium concentrations are 6-29μg/L (10,000× those found in natural rivers), and are completely filterable through a 0.45μm filter. During a pH modification experiment, the pH of the system was raised to >8, and >99% of the indium became associated with the suspended solid phase (i.e. does not pass through a 0.45μm filter). To determine the mechanism of removal of indium from the filterable and likely primarily dissolved phase, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine an upper bound for a sorption constant to iron oxides, and used this, along with other published thermodynamic constants, to model the partitioning of indium in Mineral Creek. Modeling results suggest that the removal of indium from the filterable phase is consistent with precipitation of indium hydroxide from a dissolved phase. This work demonstrates that nonferrous mining processes can be a significant source of indium to the environment, and provides critical information about the aqueous behavior of indium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The precipitation of indium at elevated pH in a stream influenced by acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Sarah Jane O.; Hussain, Fatima A.; Hemond, Harold F.; Sacco, Sarah A.; Shine, James P.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.

    2017-01-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics and has uses in important energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One significant flux of indium to the environment is from lead, zinc, copper, and tin mining and smelting, but little is known about its aqueous behavior after it is mobilized. In this study, we use Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in southwestern Colorado severely affected by heavy metal contamination as a result of acid mine drainage, as a natural laboratory to study the aqueous behavior of indium. At the existing pH of ~ 3, indium concentrations are 6–29 μg/L (10,000 × those found in natural rivers), and are completely filterable through a 0.45 μm filter. During a pH modification experiment, the pH of the system was raised to > 8, and > 99% of the indium became associated with the suspended solid phase (i.e. does not pass through a 0.45 μm filter). To determine the mechanism of removal of indium from the filterable and likely primarily dissolved phase, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine an upper bound for a sorption constant to iron oxides, and used this, along with other published thermodynamic constants, to model the partitioning of indium in Mineral Creek. Modeling results suggest that the removal of indium from the filterable phase is consistent with precipitation of indium hydroxide from a dissolved phase. This work demonstrates that nonferrous mining processes can be a significant source of indium to the environment, and provides critical information about the aqueous behavior of indium.

  1. Characterization of Gallium Indium Phosphide and Progress of Aluminum Gallium Indium Phosphide System Quantum-Well Laser Diode

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    Highly ordered gallium indium phosphide layers with the low bandgap have been successfully grown on the (100) GaAs substrates, the misorientation toward [01−1] direction, using the low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition method. It is found that the optical properties of the layers are same as those of the disordered ones, essentially different from the ordered ones having two orientations towards [1−11] and [11−1] directions grown on (100) gallium arsenide substrates, which were previously reported. The bandgap at 300 K is 1.791 eV. The value is the smallest ever reported, to our knowledge. The high performance transverse stabilized AlGaInP laser diodes with strain compensated quantum well structure, which is developed in 1992, have been successfully obtained by controlling the misorientation angle and directions of GaAs substrates. The structure is applied to quantum dots laser diodes. This paper also describes the development history of the quantum well and the quantum dots laser diodes, and their future prospects. PMID:28773227

  2. Indium-substitution and indium-less case effects on structural and magnetic properties of yttrium-iron garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazlan, Rodziah; Hashim, Mansor; Ibrahim, Idza Riati; Idris, Fadzidah Mohd; Ismail, Ismayadi; Ab Rahman, Wan Norailiana Wan; Abdullah, Nor Hapishah; Zulkimi, Muhammad Misbah Muhammad; Mustaffa, Muhammad Syazwan

    2015-10-01

    The effect of indium (In) substitution in the dynamics of structure and ferrimagnetism of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) employing sintering temperature as a temporary agent of composition and structural changes was reported in this study. The nanoparticles of YIG powder samples with various In content (x=0.0-0.4) were prepared via the mechanical alloying (MA) technique. A brief, yet revealing characterization of the samples was carried out via transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, B-H Hysteresisgraph, and LCR-metre. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the samples prepared via the MA indicates the formation of single phase YIG structure at much lower sintering temperature than that in the conventional ceramic technique. The lattice constant increases as In content increases which obeys Vegard's Law due to the larger In3+ ions replacing the smaller Fe3+ ions. The saturation induction increased reaching about 699.1 G for x=0.3 and decreased with further In substitution. Three stages of ordered magnetism formation were identified which attributed to development of crystallinity and larger grains for magnetic domain accommodation. The Curie temperature shows a decrement in their values with In content due to weakening of superexchange interactions. Raman shifts from 268.1 to 272.2 cm-1 with increasing In content were observed due to stress developed in the YIG crystal structure.

  3. Cytotoxicity and characterization of particles collected from an indium-tin oxide production facility.

    PubMed

    Badding, Melissa A; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Fix, Natalie R; Cummings, Kristin J; Leonard, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Occupational exposure to indium compound particles has recently been associated with lung disease among workers in the indium-tin oxide (ITO) industry. Previous studies suggested that excessive alveolar surfactant and reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a role in the development of pulmonary lesions following exposure to indium compounds. However, toxicity at the cellular level has not been comprehensively evaluated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess which, if any, compounds encountered during ITO production are toxic to cultured cells and ultimately contribute to the pathogenesis of indium lung disease. The compounds used in this study were collected from eight different processing stages at an ITO production facility. Enhanced dark field imaging showed 5 of the compounds significantly associated with cells within 1 h, suggesting that cellular reactions to the compound particles may be occurring rapidly. To examine the potential cytotoxic effects of these associations, ROS generation, cell viability, and apoptosis were evaluated following exposures in RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte macrophage and BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cell lines. Both exhibited reduced viability with exposures, while apoptosis only occurred in RAW 264.7 cells. Our results suggested that excessive ROS production is likely not the predominant mechanism underlying indium-induced lung disease. However, the effects on cell viability reveal that several of the compounds are cytotoxic, and therefore, exposures need to be carefully monitored in the industrial setting.

  4. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2001-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  5. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2002-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  6. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-12-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan.

  7. Synthesis and decomposition of a novel carboxylate precursor to indium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Andras, Maria T.; Duraj, Stan A.; Clark, Eric B.; Hehemann, David G.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Fanwick, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    Reaction of metallic indium with benzoyl peroxide in 4-1 methylpyridine (4-Mepy) at 25 C produces an eight-coordinate mononuclear indium(III) benzoate, In(eta(sup 2)-O2CC6H5)3(4-Mepy)2 4H2O (I), in yields of up to 60 percent. The indium(III) benzoate was fully characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography; (I) exists in the crystalline state as discrete eight-coordinate molecules; the coordination sphere around the central indium atom is best described as pseudo-square pyramidal. Thermogravimetric analysis of (I) and X-ray diffraction powder studies on the resulting pyrolysate demonstrate that this new benzoate is an inorganic precursor to indium oxide. Decomposition of (I) occurs first by loss of 4-methylpyridine ligands (100 deg-200 deg C), then loss of benzoates with formation of In2O3 at 450 C. We discuss both use of carboxylates as precursors and our approach to their preparation.

  8. Equilibrium properties of indium and iodine in LWIR HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berding, M. A.

    2000-06-01

    The equilibrium properties of indium and iodine HgCdTe are calculated from ab initio methods and compared with experimental results. Indium, a group III element, is found to substitute exclusively on the group II sublattice, behaving as a singly ionizable donor throughout the existence region. Indium forms a neutral bound complex with a cation vacancy, and although this complex accounts for less than 1% of the indium incorporation at the temperatures considered >250°C, it will be important in the diffusion of the indium. Iodine, a group VII element, is found to substitute on the group VI sublattice, also behaving as a singly ionizable donor throughout the existence region. Iodine is found to bind strongly to the cation vacancy, and this neutral complex dominates the incorporation under mercury-deficient conditions. Even under near mercury-saturated conditions, at low temperature the complex is still present in significant concentrations. Although iodine incorporation on the cation sublattice is predicted, it never represents a significant source of inactive incorporation.

  9. Influences of indium doping and annealing on microstructure and optical properties of cadmium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuankun; Lei, Pei; Zhu, Jiaqi; Han, Jiecai

    2016-04-01

    The influences of indium doping and subsequent annealing in nitrogen and air atmospheres on the microstructure and optical properties of cadmium oxide films were studied in detail with the aid of various characterizations. X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy analysis shows that indium atom forms chemically oxidized bonds in Cd-O matrix. X-ray diffraction results demonstrate that CdO structure remains FCC structure with indium doping, whereas the preferential orientation transforms from (222) into (200) orientation. Indium doping prevents the large crystalline growth, and this role still works under both nitrogen and air annealing processes. Similarly, CdO films show rough surface under annealing conditions, but the force has been greatly weakened at high doping level. It is clear that refractive index and extinction coefficient are closely correlated with crystalline size for undoped films, whereas it turns to the doping level for doped films, which can be performed by the mechanism of indium atom substitution. This work provides a very useful guild for design and application of optical-electronic devices.

  10. Gallium hydride and monovalent indium compounds that feature tris(pyrazolyl)hydroborate ligands.

    PubMed

    Yurkerwich, Kevin; Rong, Yi; Parkin, Gerard

    2013-09-01

    The tris(pyrazolyl)hydroborate compounds [tris(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))hydroborato]indium(I), [In(C15H22BN6)], abbreviated as [Tp(Me2)]In, and [tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))hydroborato]indium(I), [In(C24H40BN6)], abbreviated as [Tp(Bu(t),Me)]In, represent well defined examples of three-coordinate monovalent indium. In both compounds, the geometry at indium is pyramidal and natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations indicate that the indium lone pair occupies an orbital that is primarily 5s in character. The trivalent gallium hydride compound hydrido[tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))hydroborato]gallium(III) tetrachloridogallium(III), [Ga(C24H40BN6)H][GaCl4], abbreviated as {[Tp(Bu(t),Me)]GaH}[GaCl4], is obtained via reaction of [Tp(Bu(t),Me)]Tl with [HGaCl2]2, and the Ga-H bond length of 1.49 (6) Å compares favorably with the mean value of 1.50 Å for structurally characterized gallium hydride compounds that are listed in the Cambridge Structural Database.

  11. Histological and ultrastructural study of the intracellular behavior of indium in the testicular tissues.

    PubMed

    Samira, Maghraoui; Ahlem, Ayadi; Aouatef, Ben Ammar; Habib, Jaafoura Mohamed; Leila, Tekaya

    2011-06-01

    Indium, a IIIA group element of the periodic chart, has many medical uses for diagnostic and clinical investigations in humans. This element is also used in industry and in nuclear fields where released streams can contaminate environment. Consequently, indium can reach humans mainly by natural ways. In this work, we attempted to study the incidence of this element on the food intake and body and testicle weights of rat, as well as the histological and the ultrastructural consequences of its presence in testicles using conventional transmission electron microscopy. Our study showed that this element induced a significant decrease in the food intake and body and testicles weights and caused necrosis and vacuolization in germinal cells. The ultrastructural observations showed the presence of electron-dense deposits characteristic of indium in the lysosomes of Leydig and Sertoli cells as well as sufferance in mitochondria of indium-treated rats. Despite the role of lysosome in the protection of living cells, by sequestration and concentration of indium in testicle cells under insoluble form, it is probable that this element has noxious effects on food intake and body and testicles weight and induces necrosis on seminal tissues of treated rats. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. On the impact of indium distribution on the electronic properties in InGaN nanodisks

    SciTech Connect

    Benaissa, M. E-mail: benaissa@fsr.ac.ma; Sigle, W.; Aken, P. A. van; Ng, T. K.; Ooi, B. S.; El Bouayadi, R.; Jahangir, S.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2015-03-09

    We analyze an epitaxially grown heterostructure composed of InGaN nanodisks inserted in GaN nanowires in order to relate indium concentration to the electronic properties. This study was achieved with spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy using monochromated electrons to probe optical excitations—plasmons—at nanometer scale. Our findings show that each nanowire has its own indium fluctuation and therefore its own average composition. Due to this indium distribution, a scatter is obtained in plasmon energies, and therefore in the optical dielectric function, of the nanowire ensemble. We suppose that these inhomogeneous electronic properties significantly alter band-to-band transitions and consequently induce emission broadening. In addition, the observation of tailing indium composition into the GaN barrier suggests a graded well-barrier interface leading to further inhomogeneous broadening of the electro-optical properties. An improvement in the indium incorporation during growth is therefore needed to narrow the emission linewidth of the presently studied heterostructures.

  13. Adsorption of indium(III) ions from aqueous solution using chitosan-coated bentonite beads.

    PubMed

    Calagui, Mary Jane C; Senoro, Delia B; Kan, Chi-Chuan; Salvacion, Jonathan W L; Futalan, Cybelle Morales; Wan, Meng-Wei

    2014-07-30

    Batch adsorption study was utilized in evaluating the potential suitability of chitosan-coated bentonite (CCB) as an adsorbent in the removal of indium ions from aqueous solution. The percentage (%) removal and adsorption capacity of indium(III) were examined as a function of solution pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature. The experimental data were fitted with several isotherm models, where the equilibrium data was best described by Langmuir isotherm. The mean energy (E) value was found in the range of 1-8kJ/mol, indicating that the governing type of adsorption of indium(III) onto CCB is essentially physical. Thermodynamic parameters, including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy indicated that the indium(III) ions adsorption onto CCB was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 278-318K. The kinetics was evaluated utilizing the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model. The adsorption kinetics of indium(III) best fits the pseudo-second order (R(2)>0.99), which implies that chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of cadmium using a "mercury free" indium film electrode.

    PubMed

    Anandhakumar, Sukeri; Mathiyarasu, Jayaraman; Phani, Kanala Lakshimi Narasimha

    2013-10-07

    In this work, the determination of cadmium has been attempted using an indium film electrode in the presence of bromide ions as an additive, for the first time. The electrode was prepared in situ on a glassy carbon substrate and employed in combination with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The purpose of having bromide ions is to enhance the analytical value of cadmium detection. In the absence of bromide ions, cadmium stripping peaks coalesce with indium and it is difficult to resolve for analytical purposes. The addition of bromide ions strongly influences the peak separation, thanks to the complex-forming characteristics of cadmium with bromide ions. Several key operational parameters influencing the electroanalytical response of indium modified electrodes were examined and optimized, such as deposition potential, pH, bromide ion and indium concentration. The indium modified electrode exhibited well-defined, separated stripping signals and revealed good linear behavior in the examined concentration range from 1 to 25 ng ml(-1). The present method shows a low detection limit value of 0.36 ng ml(-1). These results suggest that the proposed electrode contributes to the wider applicability of electrochemical stripping techniques in connection with "mercury-free" electrodes.

  15. Effect of impurity on high pressure behavior of nano indium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Chitnis, Abhishek Garg, Nandini; Mishra, A. K.; Pandey, K. K.; Sharma, Surinder M.; Singhal, Anshu

    2015-06-24

    Angle dispersive x-ray diffraction studies were carried out on a mixture of nano particles of indium titanate, indium oxide, and disordered TiO{sub 2} upto pressures of ∼ 45 GPa. Our studies show that indium titanate undergoes a partial decomposition to its constituent high pressure oxides. However, concomitantly a very small fraction of indium titanate transforms to a denser phase at ∼ 27.5 GPa. This transformation to new phase was found to be irreversible. At this pressure even cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3} transformed to the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (II) (iso-structural to Rh{sub 2}O{sub 3} (II)) phase, without any signature of the intermediate corundum phase. The high pressure In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (II) phase transforms to the corundum structure on release of pressure. These studies indicate that the presence of a large fraction of seed impurities could have facilitated the decomposition of indium titanate into its constituent oxides at the cost of its incomplete transformation to the high pressure denser phase.

  16. Recycling indium from waste liquid crystal display panel by vacuum carbon-reduction.

    PubMed

    He, Yunxia; Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-03-15

    This study investigated the recovery of indium from waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panel using vacuum carbon-reduction. First of all, high purity In2O3 was investigated. The results indicated that indium can be reclaimed from In2O3 using vacuum carbon-reduction in thermodynamics and dynamics. The conditions of 1223K, 50wt% carbon addition, 30min, and 1Pa were confirmed as the optimal conditions for pure In2O3 and high purity indium could be selectively recovered on condensing zone. Based on this, the experiment of the recovery of indium from waste LCD power was performed. The best parameters were confirmed as 1223K and 1Pa with 30wt% carbon addition for 30min. The recovery rate of indium from LCD powder could reach to 90wt%. No hazardous materials produced in this process. Therefore, this technique provides the possibility of reutilization of LCD in an environmentally friendly way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adsorption of collagen to indium oxide nanoparticles and infrared emissivity study thereon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yuming Shan Yun; Sun Yanqing; Ju Huangxian

    2008-08-04

    Adsorption of collagen to indium oxide nanoparticles was carried out in water-acetone solution at volumetric ratio of 1:1 with pH value varying from 3.2 to 9.3. As indicated by TGA, maximum collagen adsorption to indium oxide nanoparticles occurred at pH of 3.2. It was proposed that noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophilic and electrostatic interactions made main contributions to collagen adsorption. The IR emissivity values (8-14 {mu}m) of collagen-adsorbed indium oxide nanoparticles decreased significantly compared to either pure collagen or indium oxide nanoparticles possibly due to the interfacial interactions between collagen and indium oxide nanoparticles. And the lowest infrared emissivity value of 0.587 was obtained at collagen adsorption of 1.94 g/100 g In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. On the chance of improved compatibility with organic adhesives, the chemical activity of adsorbed collagen was further confirmed by grafting copolymerization with methyl methacrylate by formation of polymer shell outside, as evidenced by IR spectrum and transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Frequency of myocardial indium-111 antimyosin uptake after uncomplicated coronary artery bypass grafting

    SciTech Connect

    van Vlies, B.; van Royen, E.A.; Visser, C.A.; Meyne, N.G.; van Buul, M.M.; Peters, R.J.; Dunning, A.J. )

    1990-11-15

    The reported incidence of myocardial damage after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is highly related to the methods used. Since indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin antibody scintigraphy has been shown to be highly specific and sensitive for myocardial necrosis, even in small lesions, uptake of this radiotracer was evaluated after CABG. In 23 consecutive patients without previous myocardial infarction who underwent CABG for stable angina, 80 MBq indium-111 antimyosin was injected on the third postoperative day. Planar images were obtained 48 hours later and analyzed for myocardial uptake of indium-111 antimyosin. Scintigraphic results were related to creatine kinase MB levels, duration of both aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass, and electrocardiographic changes. In all patients surgical procedure and postoperative course was uncomplicated. Indium-111 antimyosin uptake was present in 19 of 23 patients (82%). It was diffused in 7 patients and localized in 12. No pathologic Q waves occurred postoperatively. Fourteen patients exhibited ST-segment changes. No good relation was found among indium-111 antimyosin uptake and creatine kinase MB levels, duration of cross-clamping or bypass, and ST-T changes. It is concluded that some degree of myocardial damage, though silent, is common after CABG.

  19. Indium donor complexes with cation vacancies in CdTe and ZnSe

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, J.W.; Lundquist, R.; Platzer, R.; Gardner, J.A.; Karczewski, G.; Furdyna, J.K.

    1993-11-01

    Very dilute (10{sub 12} cm{sup {minus}3}) indium donors in CdTe and ZnSe powders and in CdTe single crystals were investigated using {sup 111}In Perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy. Most indium atoms are in uncomplexed sites but can form weakly-bound complexes with native defects in very defective material. The only complex observed in CdTe is an indium-Cd vacancy pair. The CdTe in which these pairs occur is apparently n-type, most Cd vacancies are free and doubly-charged, and the binding energy with indium is 0.15 eV. In ZnSe, indium can pair with a Zn vacancy or with some other presently unidentified defect. These complexes form in ZnSe containing large concentrations of both free Zn vacancies and complexes of Zn vacancies with other defects. In CdTe, the pair formation equilibration time constant is two days at 15C,an implication that Cd vacancies are mobile at room temperature. Lattice relaxation around a Cd vacancy in CdTe was probed by single crystal PAC experiments.

  20. Ultracompact Electro-Absorption Modulators Based on Novel Materials (I): Epsilon-Near-Zero Material and Electro-Absorption Modulation Based on Indium-Tin-Oxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-21

    Indium-Tin-Oxide” 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is widely used as transparent electrode in solar cells and...Modulation Based on Indium-Tin-Oxide” Report Title ABSTRACT Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is widely used as transparent electrode in solar cells and displays...oxide (ITO) is widely used as transparent electrode in solar cells and displays. Recent work showed that ITO and other transparent conducting oxides