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  1. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott C 4; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of /sup 111/In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% (11 of 25) if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% (14 of 14)); there were no false negative results.

  2. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning.

    PubMed

    Brunner, M C; Mitchell, R S; Baldwin, J C; James, D R; Olcott, C; Mehigan, J T; McDougall, I R; Miller, D C

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-12-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan.

  4. Indium 111-labeled white blood cell scans after vascular prosthetic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Sedwitz, M.M.; Davies, R.J.; Pretorius, H.T.; Vasquez, T.E.

    1987-11-01

    The clinical value of indium 111-labeled white blood cell (WBC) scanning done after vascular graft procedures was investigated to differentiate noninfectious postoperative inflammation associated with graft incorporation from early prosthetic graft infection. Indium 111-labeled WBC scans were initially obtained in 30 patients before discharge from the hospital and during the subsequent follow-up period (334 days). Fourteen of 30 patients (47%) had normal predischarge scans that included all 10 patients who had grafts confined to the abdomen and 4 of 20 patients (20%) who had grafts arising or terminating at the femoral arteries (p less than 0.05). Sixteen of 30 patients (53%) discharged with abnormal initial indium 111 WBC scans underwent serial scanning until the scan normalized or a graft complication developed. All of the 16 patients had grafts involving the groin region. Abnormal indium 111 uptake in the femoral region continued for a mean 114 days without the development of prosthetic graft infections. The sensitivity of indium 111-labeled WBC scans for detecting wound complications was 100%, whereas the specificity was 50%. Thus, the accuracy of the test was only 53%. We conclude that (1) abnormal indium 111 WBC scans are common after graft operations involving the groin region but are unusual after vascular procedures confined to the abdomen, and (2) in the absence of clinical suspicion, the indium 111-labeled WBC scan does not reliably predict prosthetic graft infection because of the low specificity of the test in the early postoperative period.

  5. Evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis with indium-111 white blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ouzounian, T.J.; Thompson, L.; Grogan, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1987-08-01

    The detection of musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following joint replacement, continues to be a challenging problem. Often, even with invasive diagnostic evaluation, the diagnosis of infection remains uncertain. This is a report on the first 55 Indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) images performed in 39 patients for the evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis. There were 40 negative and 15 positive Indium-111 WBC images. These were correlated with operative culture and tissue pathology, aspiration culture, and clinical findings. Thirty-eight images were performed for the evaluation of possible total joint sepsis (8 positive and 30 negative images); 17 for the evaluation of nonarthroplasty-related musculoskeletal sepsis (7 positive and 10 negative images). Overall, there were 13 true-positive, 39 true-negative, two false-positive, and one false-negative images. Indium-111 WBC imaging is a sensitive and specific means of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following total joint replacement.

  6. Rapid and simple methods for labeling white blood cells and platelets with indium-111-oxine

    SciTech Connect

    Steffel, F.G.; Rao, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    Simple procedures in a kit form for labeling white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets with commercially available indium-111 (/sup 111/In)-oxine have been developed for the convenience of small community hospitals. The time required for the labeling procedure is less than 2 hr. The resulting scintigrams from the clinical studies in both WBCs and platelets showed that the /sup 111/In-labeled cells have a high degree of viability.

  7. Ultrasonography and indium 111 white blood cell scanning for the detection of intraabdominal abscesses

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, B.; Silverman, P.M.; Goodwin, D.A.; McDougall, I.R.

    1981-07-01

    Ultrasound and indium 111 white blood cell scanning were performed on 163 patients with suspected intraabdominal abscesses. In all but one case, intraabdominal abscesses were correctly identified by one or both tests; conversely, no patient was falsely diagnosed by both tests to have an abscess. Sonography was useful in those patients with focal symptoms, and frequently identified nonabscess causes for fever. White cell scanning was valuable when focal signs were absent, and frequently identified extraabdominal sources of sepsis. The two imaging modalities are complementary and provide a highly accurate and sensitive means of intraabdominal abscess detection.

  8. Skeletal photopenic appearance of Paget's disease with indium-111 white blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Borin, B.F.; Abghari, R.; Sarkissian, A.

    1987-10-01

    A case of focal decreased skeletal uptake with In-111 labeled white blood cells representing Paget's disease is reported. Although uncommon, other causes for skeletal photon deficient areas using In-111 white blood cells have been described. To the authors' knowledge, this finding representing Paget's disease has not been previously described.

  9. Edwardsiella tarda Endocarditis Confirmed by Indium-111 White Blood Cell Scan: An Unusual Pathogen and Diagnostic Modality.

    PubMed

    Litton, Kayleigh M; Rogers, Bret A

    2016-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a freshwater marine member of the family Enterobacteriaceae which often colonizes fish, lizards, snakes, and turtles but is an infrequent human pathogen. Indium-111- ((111)In-) labeled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is an imaging modality which has a wide range of reported sensitivity and specificity (from 60 to 100% and from 68 to 92%, resp.) for diagnosing acute and chronic infection. We describe a case of suspected E. tarda prosthetic aortic valve and mitral valve endocarditis with probable vegetations and new mitral regurgitation on transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms which was supported with the use of (111)In-labeled WBC scintigraphy.

  10. Postoperative osteomyelitis following implant arthroplasty of the foot: diagnosis with indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Bakst, R.H.; Kanat, I.O.

    1987-11-01

    Many complications can occur following insertion of silicone elastomer implants into the foot. Postoperative infection may be difficult to distinguish from other conditions such as dislodgment, fracture, ectopic and heterotopic new bone formation, synovitis, and bursitis. White blood cell scintigraphy, in conjunction with the clinical scenario, may prove to be an invaluable tool in the diagnosis of postoperative osteomyelitis, subsequent to implant arthroplasties. 32 references.

  11. Postoperative osteomyelitis following implant arthroplasty of the foot: diagnosis with indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Bakst, R.H.; Kanat, I.O.

    1987-11-01

    Many complications can occur following insertion of silicone elastomer implants into the foot. Postoperative infection may be difficult to distinguish from other conditions such as dislodgment, fracture, ectopic and heterotopic new bone formation, synovitis, and bursitis. White blood cell scintigraphy, in conjunction with the clinical scenario, may prove to be an invaluable tool in the diagnosis of postoperative osteomyelitis, subsequent to implant arthroplasties. 32 references.

  12. Role of indium-111 white blood cells in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, J.W.; Field, S.A.

    1988-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease in patients may be difficult to diagnose because of the complex problems associated with this disease. Radionuclides are able to provide a rapid and effective method of imaging the bowel in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. In the past, clinical work-ups have included barium x-ray studies and endoscopy. Scarring and fistula formation have made it difficult to determine between the active disease and abscesses that may occur. Gallium-67 (67Ga) has been very useful in imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease, but the multiple-day imaging procedure has been a limitation for the clinicians when achieving a diagnosis. Recent results with Indium-111 (111In)--labeled WBCs have provided excellent correlation between clinical symptoms and colonoscopy findings in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. This technique has also allowed the differentiation between reoccurring inflammatory bowel disease and abscesses that accompany the disease within a 24-hour time period. The use of intravenous (IV) glucagon has increased the clarity of the images in the small bowel. Technetium 99m (99mTc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been used in patients with inflammatory bowel disease demonstrating promising results. Investigators feel labelling 99mTc with WBCs will be improved, therefore yielding a greater efficiency, which will have a major impact on imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease using radionuclides has yielded promising results. This is a significant advancement over barium radiography and endoscopy exams.24 references.

  13. Detection of abdominal aortic graft infection: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and indium-labeled white blood cell scanning.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Saeid; Eskil, Anni; Lundof, Erik; Klaerke, Anette; Jensen, Bent Skov

    2007-09-01

    Infected abdominal aortic grafts rank as one of the most severe complications of vascular surgery, with high mortality and morbidity. The incidence of infection after prosthetic aortic reconstruction is 1-3%. Diagnosis of vascular graft infection can be occasionally difficult. Clinical manifestations and assessment of the extent of graft infection are usually nonspecific, and their detection by radiographic methods, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and leukocyte -imaging, can be difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value (PV) of indium-111-labeled white blood cell scanning (WBCS) and MRI in patients who were suspected of having intracavitary vascular graft infection (IGF). The study was done as a cross-control retrospective, single-center study. Fifty-eight In-111-labeled WBC scans and 59 MRIs were performed in suspected patients between January 1995 and January 2005. Among the 40 suspected patients, 35 cases of aorta graft infection were identified intraoperatively. The diagnosis of IGF was based on clinical signs, microbiological and histological examination, MRI and leukocyte imaging, and lack of graft incorporation with surrounding fluid observed intraoperatively. The positive PV (PPV) of MRI was 95% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84-105%) compared to In-111-labeled WBCS, which was 80% (95% CI 62-96%). The negative PV (NPV) of MRI was 80% (95% CI 68-92%) compared to 82% (95% CI 69-94%) for In-111-labeled WBCS. MRI showed a nonsignificant but better PPV for detecting IGF compared to In-111 leukocyte imaging. The NPVs for MRI and In-111-labeled WBCS were very near each other, with a very small advantage for In-111-WBCS. This comparison study suggested MRI as a primary diagnostic modality to investigate patients suspected of having aortic graft infections before In-111-labeled WBCS.

  14. Detection of acute osteomyelitis with indium-111 labeled white blood cells in a patient with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; Vasavada, P.J.; Black, R.R.

    1989-02-01

    A young patient with sickle cell disease (SCD) and multiple hospitalizations for crisis was admitted because of suspected osteomyelitis. Initial laboratory work, radiographs, and bone images were not contributory. An In-111 white blood cell (WBC) study demonstrated two areas of increased radionuclide uptake consistent with osteomyelitis. One of these had associated soft tissue infection. No other areas of active osteomyelitis were visualized, in spite of the presence of several additional infection sites. Imaging with In-111 WBC is probably not justified for routine diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in areas free of previous disease, where conventional bone images are highly efficient. In-111 WBC imaging, however, may be helpful in detecting osteomyelitis in selected patients with SCD in whom Tc-99m bone images and radiographs are usually abnormal and difficult to interpret due to previous bone infarcts. Localization of the infection focus is very important in choosing the aspiration site for bacteriologic studies. A negative study, however, should be interpreted cautiously.

  15. Sequential technetium-99m sulfur colloid/indium-111 white blood cell imaging in macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Balon, H.R.; Irwin, R. )

    1990-06-01

    Technetium-99m sulfur colloid (SC) and indium-111 labeled leukocyte (In-111 WBC) scintigraphy was performed on a 77-year-old female patient to rule out a left periprosthetic infection. Anterior Tc-99m SC and In-111 WBC images of the pelvis and femurs revealed no abnormal deposition of radiotracer about the Austin-Moore prosthesis. Absent radiotracer uptake, however, was demonstrated within the left hemipelvis. A left iliac bone marrow aspirate and biopsy revealed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate consistent with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.

  16. The acetabulum: A prospective study of three-phase bone and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous-coated hip arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Anderson, J.H.; Callaghan, J.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Although few studies address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and indium-111-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy ({sup 111}In-WBC) in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous-coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen with the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous-coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and {sup 111I}n-WBC at approximately 7 days, and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the acetabulum. All 25 prostheses (144 of 144 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone-phase images. Although this activity decreased with time, 76% had persistent uptake at 24 mo. Twenty-three of 25 prostheses (126 of 140 scans) showed increased uptake on {sup 111}In-WBC scintigraphy, invariably decreasing with time, but with 37% having significant uptake at 24 mo. Scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated porous-coated hip arthroplasty patient appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses.

  17. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  18. Use of indium 111-labeled white blood cell scan in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant recipient with a normal chest roentgenogram

    SciTech Connect

    Chinsky, K.; Goodenberger, D.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Opportunistic infections are common in patients after renal transplantation. This report describes a case of cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant recipient with a normal chest roentgenogram and normal arterial oxygenation. An abnormal 111In-white blood cell scan led to the discovery of a pulmonary source of his recurrent fevers.

  19. Three-phase bone scan and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous coated hip arthroplasty: A prospective study of the prosthetic tip

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Callaghan, J.J. )

    1989-08-01

    Although few reports address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and {sup 111}In-labeled white blood cell (In-WBC) scintigraphy in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen in the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and In-WBC at approximately 7 days, and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the prosthetic tip. Only one of 136 flow studies were abnormal and only two of 136 blood-pool images demonstrated focally increased activity. All 25 prostheses (120 of 143 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone phase images. The area about the tip was divided into three segments; increased uptake at 24 mo was noted in the medial, distal, and lateral segments in 16%, 72%, and 56% of prostheses, respectively. Twenty of 25 prostheses (82 of 142 scans) showed uptake on In-WBC scintigraphy, being noted in 48% of prostheses at 24 mo. We conclude that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient with a porous coated prosthesis appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses.

  20. Low White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  1. Indium

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Indium occurs as a trace constituent of other metal deposits, principally zinc, but also lead, tin, tungsten, and iron. It is derived as a byproduct usually from residues generating in the refining of zinc, so its supply is therefore dependent upon demand for and, hence, the production of that metal. It is estimated that 90% of the U.S. requirements for indium are accounted for by imports of highly refined indium metal or indium-rich residues and other materials, mainly from France, Italy, Belgium, and the United Kingdom. Dependence on foreign sources is expected to continue. The principal producers of refined indium metal are the United States, Belgium, Japan, France, and Italy. The major uses of indium are in alloys and instruments, and the metal has applications in a variety of other fields. There are potential substitutes for indium in many of its applications. Domestic indium demand was estimated at 700,000 troy ounces in 1983. Based on a contingency analysis of the major end uses for indium, the range of possible domestic demands for primary indium in the year 2000 is forecast to be from 500,000 to 1,100,000 ounces. A probable demand of 900,000 ounces represents an annual growth rate of 1.5%. The range of demand forecasts for the rest of the world is between 1.0 million and 1.9 million ounces, with a probable demand of 1.7 million ounces, which represents an annual growth rate of 1.6%.

  2. White Blood Cell Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examination (Video) Blood Clots: Plugging the Breaks (News) Drone Sets New Record for Transporting Blood Samples (News) ... cells Am I Correct? More Videos News HealthDay Drone Sets New Record for Transporting Blood Samples TUESDAY, ...

  3. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  4. Comparing plasma, serum and whole blood indium concentrations from workers at an indium-tin oxide (ITO) production facility.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R Reid; Virji, M Abbas; Edwards, Nicole T; Cummings, Kristin J

    2016-12-01

    Occupational exposure to indium compounds including indium-tin oxide (ITO) can result in potentially fatal indium lung disease. We compared plasma, serum and whole blood indium concentrations (InP, InS and InB) from workers at a single ITO production facility to assess the comparability of these matrices used for biological monitoring of indium exposure. InP, InS and InB were measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometry from consenting workers at an ITO production facility with specimen collection occurring during June-July 2014. Matched pairs from workers were assessed to determine the matrix relationships using the Pearson correlation, paired t-tests, per cent difference, linear regression and κ statistics. Indium matrices were collected from 80 workers. Mean (SD) InP, InS and InB were 3.48 (3.84), 3.90 (4.15) and 4.66 (5.32) mcg/L, respectively. The InS-InP difference was 14%; InS was higher in all but two workers. InP and InS were highly correlated (r=>0.99). The InB-InS difference was 19%; InB was higher in 85% of workers. The InB-InP difference was 34%; InB was higher in 66% of workers. InB was highly correlated with both InP and InS (r=0.97 and 0.96, respectively). κ Statistics were 0.84, 0.83 and 0.82 for InP, InS and InB, respectively, for individuals with each matrix ≥1 mcg/L (p<0.01). While all matrices were highly correlated, we encourage the use of InP and InS to reliably compare studies across different populations using different matrices. The higher per cent difference and increased variability of InB may limit its utility in comparisons with InP and InS in different populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. [Determination of indium in whole blood by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry].

    PubMed

    He, Juntao; Liu, Fen; Xiang, Yingping; Li, Zhimin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the sensitization effect of different chemical modifiers in the determination of indium in whole blood by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and to develop a new method for the determination of indium in whole blood. A mixture of 0.3% HNO3 (V/V) + 0.1% Triton X-100 (V/V) was used as a diluent, and a solution of 1 000 µg/ml Pd (NO3)2 + 3 000 µg/ml Mg (NO3)2 was used as modifier. After being diluted five times, the concentration of indium of the blood was directly determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The detection limit of the method was 0.33 µg/L, the linear range was 0.33~100.00 µg/L, the relative standard deviation was 1.43%~2.65%, and the recovery rate was 98.3%~105.3%. The method is simple and fast and has high recovery and precision, and it is suitable for the determination of indium in whole blood.

  6. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  7. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  8. [Effects of indium exposure on relative content of mitochondrial ND1 gene in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianpeng; Yang, Xiangli; Zhang, Yanfang; Tang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhimin; Li, Zhimin; Hui, Changye; Yi, Juan; Zhang, Wen

    2015-08-01

    To study the effects of indium exposure on the relative content of mitochondrial ND1 gene in lymphocytes. Venous blood was obtained from 14 healthy workers and anticoagulated with heparin. Blood lymphocytes were separated and divided into three tube cultures. For two tubes in the exposed group, indium chloride was added to final concentrations of 0.2 mmol/L and 0.8 mmol/L, respectively. For one tube in the control group, an equal volume of normal saline solution was added. After incubation for 72 h, the relative content of mitochondrial gene in each group was determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Lymphocytes exposed to 0.8 mmol/L indium chloride had a significantly higher relative content of mitochondrial gene than those exposed to 0.2 mmol/L indium chloride and those in the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Lymphocytes exposed to a high concentration of indium and its compounds have an elevated relative content of mitochondrial ND1 gene, indicating increased oxidative DNA damage induced by exposure to a high concentration of indium and its compounds.

  9. White blood cell counts: reference methodology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

    2015-03-01

    Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index.

  10. Oxidative stress in blood and testicle of rat following intraperitoneal administration of aluminum and indium.

    PubMed

    Maghraoui, S; Clichici, Simona; Ayadi, A; Login, C; Moldovan, R; Daicoviciu, D; Decea, N; Mureşan, A; Tekaya, L

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) and indium (In) have embryotoxic, neurotoxic and genotoxic effects, oxidative stress being one of the possible mechanisms involved in their cytotoxicity. We have recently demonstrated that indium intraperitoneal (ip) administration induced histological disorganization of testicular tissue. In the present research we aimed at investigating the effect of Al and In ip administration on systemic and testicular oxidative stress status. Studies were performed on Wistar rats ip injected with Al, In or physiological solution for two weeks. Our results showed that In significantly decreased the absolute weight of testicles. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and paraoxonase (PON) activities showed that In induced a significant augmentation in the first parameter but no changes were observed in the second. Both Al and In caused oxidative stress in testicles by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) production. Concomitantly, thiol group (-SH) and glutathione (GSH) level were enhanced in the testicles. In the blood, while concentrations of MDA was not changed, those of GSH was significantly decreased in the Al and In groups. Our results indicated that Al and In cause oxidative stress both in blood and testicles but In has cytotoxic effect as well as negative impact on testicle weights. These findings could explain the testicular histological alterations previously described after In ip administration.

  11. [Effects of indium on micronucleus formation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Hui, Changye; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Wang, Lili; Wang, Dianpeng; Yang, Xueqin; Yang, Xinyue; Li, Zhimin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of indium chloride (InCl₃) and its effects on micro-nucleus formation in primary human lymphocytes cultured in vitro. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of 24 h exposure to different concentrations of InCl₃(4, 40, 80, 200, 500, and 1 000 µmol/L) in lymphocytes cultured in vitro. The cytokinesis-block method was used to determine the micronucleus level in lymphocytes exposed to different concentrations of InCl₃and the effects of anti-oxidant vitamin C on micronucleus frequency. Lymphocytes exposed to InCl₃of no less than 500 µmol/L had significantly lower survival rates than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Lymphocytes exposed to 80 µmol/L InCl₃had a significantly higher micronucleus frequency than those in the control group (P < 0.05). However, there was no further increase in micronucleus frequency of lymphocytes exposed to 200 µmol/L InCl₃. Lymphocytes cultured in whole blood and exposed to 500 or 1000 µmol/L InCl₃had a significantly increased micronucleus frequency than those in the control group (P < 0.001). The increase in micronucleus frequency of lymphocytes induced by indium could be partially antagonized by 20 or 100 µmol/L vitamin C. InCl₃can induce an increase in micronucleus frequency of primary human lymphocytes cultured in vitro, which might be associated with DNA damage induced by oxidative stress.

  12. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte localization in hematomas: a pitfall in abscess detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, V.W.; vanSonnenberg, E.; Kipper, S.; Bieberstein, M.P.

    1984-07-01

    Indium-111-labeled white-blood-cell scanning is a useful modality in abscess detection and has replaced gallium scanning in many institutions. Sensitivities of 72% to 90% and specificities of 90% to 100% have been reported. In searching for abscesses seven cases of indium-111-labeled leukocyte uptake were encountered in collections subsequently proved to be noninfected hematomas. Abundant red blood cells with few or no white blood cells, no bacteria, and a benign clinical course identified these noninfected hematomas. Five of the patients were being treated with hemodialysis and three were recent allograft recipients. The results indicate some limitation and nonspecificity in indium-111 scanning, despite its many benefits.

  13. Deterministic Migration-Based Separation of White Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeongyeon; Choi, Young Joon; Seo, Hyekyung; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Choi, Sungyoung

    2016-10-01

    Functional and phenotypic analyses of peripheral white blood cells provide useful clinical information. However, separation of white blood cells from peripheral blood requires a time-consuming, inconvenient process and thus analyses of separated white blood cells are limited in clinical settings. To overcome this limitation, a microfluidic separation platform is developed to enable deterministic migration of white blood cells, directing the cells into designated positions according to a ridge pattern. The platform uses slant ridge structures on the channel top to induce the deterministic migration, which allows efficient and high-throughput separation of white blood cells from unprocessed whole blood. The extent of the deterministic migration under various rheological conditions is explored, enabling highly efficient migration of white blood cells in whole blood and achieving high-throughput separation of the cells (processing 1 mL of whole blood less than 7 min). In the separated cell population, the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations is well preserved, and T cells secrete cytokines without any functional impairment. On the basis of the results, this microfluidic platform is a promising tool for the rapid enrichment of white blood cells, and it is useful for functional and phenotypic analyses of peripheral white blood cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lympho

  15. Efficient phase matching algorithm for measurements of ultrathin indium tin oxide film thickness in white light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Lei, Feng; Itoh, Masahide

    2017-02-01

    A novel method is proposed to measure the thickness of the indium tin oxide (ITO) film, which is less than 20 nm, using valid Fourier's phase information of white light correlogram and curve matching algorithm. Based on the Fourier transform amplitude information, the valid phase distribution function that contains the thin transparent electrode ITO film thickness information has been successfully extracted. A curve matching algorithm based on standard deviation is employed to accurately calculate the thickness of such thin ITO films. The experimental results show that the thickness values were consistent with that determined using the stylus instruments, indicating that this method can be applied to measure the ITO film thickness ranging from 5 to 100 nm.

  16. Efficient phase matching algorithm for measurements of ultrathin indium tin oxide film thickness in white light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Lei, Feng; Itoh, Masahide

    2017-04-01

    A novel method is proposed to measure the thickness of the indium tin oxide (ITO) film, which is less than 20 nm, using valid Fourier's phase information of white light correlogram and curve matching algorithm. Based on the Fourier transform amplitude information, the valid phase distribution function that contains the thin transparent electrode ITO film thickness information has been successfully extracted. A curve matching algorithm based on standard deviation is employed to accurately calculate the thickness of such thin ITO films. The experimental results show that the thickness values were consistent with that determined using the stylus instruments, indicating that this method can be applied to measure the ITO film thickness ranging from 5 to 100 nm.

  17. Sorting white blood cells in microfabricated arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelino, Judith Andrea Rose

    Fractionating white cells in microfabricated arrays presents the potential for detecting cells with abnormal adhesive or deformation properties. A possible application is separating nucleated fetal red blood cells from maternal blood. Since fetal cells are nucleated, it is possible to extract genetic information about the fetus from them. Separating fetal cells from maternal blood would provide a low cost noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic defects, which is not currently available. We present results showing that fetal cells penetrate further into our microfabricated arrays than adult cells, and that it is possible to enrich the fetal cell fraction using the arrays. We discuss modifications to the array which would result in further enrichment. Fetal cells are less adhesive and more deformable than adult white cells. To determine which properties limit penetration, we compared the penetration of granulocytes and lymphocytes in arrays with different etch depths, constriction size, constriction frequency, and with different amounts of metabolic activity. The penetration of lymphocytes and granulocytes into constrained and unconstrained arrays differed qualitatively. In constrained arrays, the cells were activated by repeated shearing, and the number of cells stuck as a function of distance fell superexponentially. In unconstrained arrays the number of cells stuck fell slower than an exponential. We attribute this result to different subpopulations of cells with different sticking parameters. We determined that penetration in unconstrained arrays was limited by metabolic processes, and that when metabolic activity was reduced penetration was limited by deformability. Fetal cells also contain a different form of hemoglobin with a higher oxygen affinity than adult hemoglobin. Deoxygenated cells are paramagnetic and are attracted to high magnetic field gradients. We describe a device which can separate cells using 10 μm magnetic wires to deflect the paramagnetic

  18. DNA methylation in white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Wu, Hui Chen; Santella, Regina M

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation patterns, both at specific loci and overall in the genome, have been associated with many different health outcomes. In cancer and other diseases, most of these changes have been observed at the tissue level. Data on whether DNA methylation changes in white blood cells (WBC) can serve as a useful biomarker for different health outcomes are much more limited, but rapidly emerging. Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between global WBC methylation and several different cancers including cancers of the colon, bladder, stomach, breast, and head and neck, as well as schizophrenia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Evidence for WBC methylation at specific loci and disease risk is more limited, but increasing. Differences in WBC DNA methylation by selected risk factors including demographic (age, gender, race), environmental exposures (benzene, persistent organic pollutants, lead, arsenic and air pollution), and other risk factors (cigarette smoke, alcohol drinking, body size, physical activity and diet) have been observed in epidemiologic studies though the patterns are far from consistent. Challenges in inferences from the existing data are primarily due to the cross-sectional fashion and small size of most studies performed to date, as well as to the differences in results across assay type and source of DNA. Large, prospective studies will be needed to understand whether changes in risk factors are associated with changes in DNA methylation patterns, and if changes in DNA methylation patterns are associated with changes in disease endpoints. PMID:21636973

  19. Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    2000-04-01

    We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct application of the original algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. The modified algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive estimation algorithm to each initial component. Applying the algorithm to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the modified algorithm on six classes of cells--myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band, and PolyMorphoNuclear--are very close to the human expert's numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is similar to the deviation of counts produced by human experts. The important technical contributions are that the modified algorithm uses prior statistics for each shape class in place or prior knowledge of the total number of objects in an image, and it allows for more than one primitive from each class.

  20. Discordant gallium-67 and indium-111 leukocyte images in a suspected pelvic abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Intenzo, C.; Thakur, M.L.; Park, C.

    1984-11-01

    An Indium-111 labeled white blood cell scan suggested the presence of a pelvic abscess in a woman at four weeks postpartum. This was not identified on a subsequent gallium scan. This discrepancy can be attributed to the normal accumulation of white blood cells within the uterus at one month postpartum.

  1. Left ventricular platelet deposition after acute myocardial infarction. An attempt at quantification using blood pool subtracted indium-111 platelet scintigraphy.

    PubMed Central

    Verheugt, F W; Lindenfeld, J; Kirch, D L; Steele, P P

    1984-01-01

    Since indium-111 platelet scintigraphy for the detection of left ventricular thrombosis often shows considerable non-specific blood pool activity a subtraction method using simultaneous technetium-99m blood pool scintigraphy was undertaken in 11 subjects with well documented remote myocardial infarction, who served as positive or negative controls, and in 18 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. The results were compared with those of cross sectional echocardiography. Thirteen patients had transmural myocardial infarction and the calculated count per pixel in the left ventricle of the subtracted indium-111 platelet scintigram was (mean (SD)) 0.28(0.35), but five patients with subendocardial myocardial infarction had a mean count of 0.04(0.06). In seven patients with transmural myocardial infarction (two anterior and five inferior) left ventricular thrombosis was detected by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy but in only one of these by cross sectional echocardiography. None of the patients with subendocardial myocardial infarction had left ventricular thrombosis. Subtracted left ventricular counts correlated well with the visual results. It is concluded that left ventricular platelet sequestration after acute myocardial infarction may be quantified and precisely located and that quantitative longitudinal studies of the natural history and drug intervention are now possible. Images PMID:6437421

  2. Results of Blood Pressure Screening in White College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, William K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This report presents blood pressure norms for 18- to 24-year-old White college students, as well as data on the prevalence of high blood pressure for this group. Results were obtained from voluntary blood pressure screening of 1,660 men and 953 women. (IAH)

  3. Results of Blood Pressure Screening in White College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, William K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This report presents blood pressure norms for 18- to 24-year-old White college students, as well as data on the prevalence of high blood pressure for this group. Results were obtained from voluntary blood pressure screening of 1,660 men and 953 women. (IAH)

  4. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Smear , Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy , Immunophenotyping , Chromosome Analysis All content on Lab Tests Online has ... such as a blood smear , bone marrow biopsy , chromosome analysis , or immunophenotyping (e.g., flow cytometry). These ...

  5. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    How the test is performed: Adult or child: Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and a tourniquet ( ...

  6. Human white blood cells contain cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer photolyase

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Bennett, P.V.

    1995-10-10

    Although enzymatic photoreactivation of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in DNA is present in almost all organisms, its presence in placental mammals is controversial. We tested human white blood cells for photolyase by using three defined DNAs (suprecoiled pET-2, nonsupercoiled bacteriphage {lambda}, and a defined-sequence 287-bp oligonucleotide), two dimer-specific endonucleases (T4 endonuclease V and UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus), and three assay methods. We show that human white blood cells contain photolyase that can photorepair pyrimidine dimers in defined supercoiled and linear DNAs and in a 287-bp oligonucleotide and that human photolyase is active on genomic DNA in intact human cells. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  8. Mineral of the month: indium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Micheal W.

    2004-01-01

    Indium was discovered in Germany in 1863. Although it is a lustrous silver-white color, the finders named the new material for the “indigo” spectral lines the mineral created on the spectrograph. Indium ranks 61st in abundance in Earth’s crust and is about three times more abundant than silver or mercury.

  9. A spectral and morphologic method for white blood cell classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Chang, Li; Zhou, Mei; Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Guo, Fangmin

    2016-10-01

    The identification of white blood cells is important as it provides an assay for diagnosis of various diseases. To overcome the complexity and inaccuracy of traditional methods based on light microscopy, we proposed a spectral and morphologic method based on hyperspectral blood images. We applied mathematical morphology-based methods to extract spatial information and supervised method is employed for spectral analysis. Experimental results show that white blood cells could be segmented and classified into five types with an overall accuracy of more than 90%. Moreover, the experiments including spectral features reached higher accuracy than the spatial-only cases, with a maximum improvement of nearly 20%. By combing both spatial and spectral features, the proposed method provides higher classification accuracy than traditional methods.

  10. Peripheral markers of Alzheimer's disease: surveillance of white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Shad, Kaneez Fatima; Aghazadeh, Yashar; Ahmad, Sagheer; Kress, Bodo

    2013-08-01

    Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. This is a mechanism of innate immunity, which may cause an increase in the number of monocytes and neutrophils circulating in the blood. Literature indicated that chronic inflammation might be a factor in developing neurological problems, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other similar illnesses. Our main objective is to identify peripheral markers of Alzheimer's disease and for that purpose; we are looking at the profile of white blood cells focusing on monocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes and basophils. Twenty-seven patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD), diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests were observed for their blood profile. Key observations during this study were that the levels of monocytes in the blood of the diagnosed AD patients were high irrespective of their age and sex. For those patients whose monocytes were in normal range their neutrophil levels were significantly high. Whereas blood levels of lymphocytes and basophils were found to be constantly low. Escalated levels of monocytes and neutrophils are hallmarks of chronic inflammation and may be precursor to Alzheimer's disease. A low lymphocyte count specifies that the body's resistance to fight infection is substantially reduced, whereas low basophil levels indicates their over utilization due to chronic allergic inflammatory condition. Future studies involved closer look at the cytokines produced by these white blood cells especially TNF IL-1, and IL-12, which are products of monocytes. Likewise, blood glucose and creatinine levels were high whereas calcium ions were low. Our studies indicated that white blood cells along with other inflammatory byproducts may act as peripheral markers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Limitations of indium leukocyte imaging for the diagnosis of spine infections

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, J.L.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr. )

    1991-02-01

    The usefulness of indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy in the detection of spine sepsis was studied in 22 patients who had open or percutaneous biopsies for microbiologic diagnosis. The indium images in 18 patients with vertebral infection were falsely negative in 15 (83%) and truly positive in 3 (17%). All four patients with negative cultures and histology had true-negative scans. The indium-111 WBC imaging results yielded a sensitivity of 17%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy rate of 31%. Prior antibiotic therapy was correlated with a high incidence of false-negative scans and photon-deficient indium-111 WBC uptake. The usefulness of indium-111 WBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of vertebral infection may be limited to those patients who have not been treated with antibiotics previously.

  12. Nutritional status, metabolic changes and white blood cells in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Franceschini, Sylvia C.C.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the peripheral blood white cells, metabolic changes, and nutritional status of adolescents with and without excess weight and body fat. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) in 362 adolescents from 15 to 19 years of age, of both sexes. White blood cell count, platelet count, uric acid, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. The inclusion criteria were agreement to participate in the study and signature of the informed consent. Exclusion criteria were: presence of chronic or infectious disease; use of medications that could cause changes in biochemical tests; pregnancy; participation in weight reduction and weight control programs; use of diuretics and laxatives; or the presence of a pacemaker. The following statistical tests were applied: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t or Mann-Whitney test, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests, and chi-squared test, considering p<0.05. RESULTS: Overweight was observed in 20.7% of adolescents. The total cholesterol (TC) had a higher percentage of inadequacy (52.2%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (38.4%). There was a positive correlation between white cells and serum lipids, insulin, body fat, and BMI. Monocytes were negatively correlated with BMI, and rods with BMI, body fat, and insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional status is related to an inflammatory process, and adolescents with excess weight or body fat presented higher amounts of white blood cells. PMID:25510999

  13. Uptake of indium-111-labeled leukocytes by brain metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, S.; Husain, M.M.; Adametz, J.R.; Pallin, J.S.; Angtuaco, T.L.; Boyd, C.M.

    1987-04-01

    Uptake of indium-labeled leukocytes was seen in two cases of histologically proven brain metastasis. In one, this led to misdiagnosis of the lesion as an abscess. On histological evaluation, a large number of white blood cells or macrophages was seen at the neoplastic sites. Reasons for leukocyte accumulation around metastatic brain neoplasms are discussed. In contrast to the current reports that indium-labeled leukocyte scans can differentiate intracranial infection from tumor, these cases demonstrate their lack of specificity in the detection of brain abscess.

  14. Respirable indium exposures, plasma indium, and respiratory health among indium-tin oxide (ITO) workers.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kristin J; Virji, M Abbas; Park, Ji Young; Stanton, Marcia L; Edwards, Nicole T; Trapnell, Bruce C; Carey, Brenna; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Workers manufacturing indium-tin oxide (ITO) are at risk of elevated indium concentration in blood and indium lung disease, but relationships between respirable indium exposures and biomarkers of exposure and disease are unknown. For 87 (93%) current ITO workers, we determined correlations between respirable and plasma indium and evaluated associations between exposures and health outcomes. Current respirable indium exposure ranged from 0.4 to 108 μg/m(3) and cumulative respirable indium exposure from 0.4 to 923 μg-yr/m(3) . Plasma indium better correlated with cumulative (rs  = 0.77) than current exposure (rs  = 0.54) overall and with tenure ≥1.9 years. Higher cumulative respirable indium exposures were associated with more dyspnea, lower spirometric parameters, and higher serum biomarkers of lung disease (KL-6 and SP-D), with significant effects starting at 22 μg-yr/m(3) , reached by 46% of participants. Plasma indium concentration reflected cumulative respirable indium exposure, which was associated with clinical, functional, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:522-531, 2016. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Respirable Indium Exposures, Plasma Indium, and Respiratory Health Among Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Virji, M. Abbas; Park, Ji Young; Stanton, Marcia L.; Edwards, Nicole T.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Carey, Brenna; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Workers manufacturing indium-tin oxide (ITO) are at risk of elevated indium concentration in blood and indium lung disease, but relationships between respirable indium exposures and biomarkers of exposure and disease are unknown. Methods For 87 (93%) current ITO workers, we determined correlations between respirable and plasma indium and evaluated associations between exposures and health outcomes. Results Current respirable indium exposure ranged from 0.4 to 108 μg/m3 and cumulative respirable indium exposure from 0.4 to 923 μg-yr/m3. Plasma indium better correlated with cumulative (rs = 0.77) than current exposure (rs = 0.54) overall and with tenure ≥1.9 years. Higher cumulative respirable indium exposures were associated with more dyspnea, lower spirometric parameters, and higher serum biomarkers of lung disease (KL-6 and SP-D), with significant effects starting at 22 μg-yr/m3, reached by 46% of participants. Conclusions Plasma indium concentration reflected cumulative respirable indium exposure, which was associated with clinical, functional, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. PMID:27219296

  16. Margination of White Blood Cells in Microcapillary Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Fornleitner, Julia; Gompper, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Margination of white blood cells (WBCs) towards vessel walls is an essential precondition for their efficient adhesion to the vascular endothelium. We perform numerical simulations with a two-dimensional blood flow model to investigate the dependence of WBC margination on hydrodynamic interactions of blood cells with the vessel walls, as well as on their collective behavior and deformability. We find WBC margination to be optimal in intermediate ranges of red blood cell (RBC) volume fractions and flow rates, while, beyond these ranges, it is substantially attenuated. RBC aggregation enhances WBC margination, while WBC deformability reduces it. These results are combined in state diagrams, which identify WBC margination for a wide range of flow and cell suspension conditions.

  17. Lanthanides post-functionalized indium metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for luminescence tuning, polymer film preparation and near-UV white LED assembly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Xing; Yan, Bing

    2016-11-22

    A class of hybrid materials based on indium 2,2'-bipyridine-5,5'-dicarboxylate metal-organic frameworks, In(OH)bpydc, was synthesized by postsynthetic introduction with lanthanide ions (Eu(3+), Tb(3+) and Sm(3+)). The structure, thermal stability, morphology and more detailed information about these materials were characterized by XRD, DSC, BET, FTIR, SEM and so forth. The further study of luminescent properties in detail showed that these compounds possess characteristic emission, and the In-MOF-Eu maintains different colors of light from blue-green to red under different excitation wavelengths (excited at 400 nm to 320 nm), which includes the near-white light region (the color coordinates are X = 0.34, Y = 0.36). It is a remarkable fact that the trend of ligand-central emission is opposite to that of the characteristic emission of Eu(3+). Moreover, a kind of thin film and assembled white light near-UV LED based on the optically lanthanide-functionalized MOFs was prepared in order to extend their potential applications; both of them lead to desirable white light (X = 0.34, Y = 0.36; X = 0.35, Y = 0.37). In addition, the matrix does not affect the white luminescence.

  18. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  19. [Nutritional status, metabolic changes and white blood cells in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-12-01

    To analyze the relationship between the peripheral blood white cells, metabolic changes, and nutritional status of adolescents with and without excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) in 362 adolescents from 15 to 19 years of age, of both sexes. White blood cell count, platelet count, uric acid, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. The inclusion criteria were agreement to participate in the study and signature of the informed consent. Exclusion criteria were: presence of chronic or infectious disease; use of medications that could cause changes in biochemical tests; pregnancy; participation in weight reduction and weight control programs; use of diuretics and laxatives; or the presence of a pacemaker. The following statistical tests were applied: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t or Mann-Whitney test, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests, and chi-squared test, considering p<0.05. Overweight was observed in 20.7% of adolescents. The total cholesterol (TC) had a higher percentage of inadequacy (52.2%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (38.4%). There was a positive correlation between white cells and serum lipids, insulin, body fat, and BMI. Monocytes were negatively correlated with BMI, and rods with BMI, body fat, and insulin. Nutritional status is related to an inflammatory process, and adolescents with excess weight or body fat presented higher amounts of white blood cells. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Phosphor-Free Apple-White LEDs with Embedded Indium-Rich Nanostructures Grown on Strain Relaxed Nano-epitaxy GaN

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Phosphor-free apple-white light emitting diodes have been fabricated using a dual stacked InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells comprising of a lower set of long wavelength emitting indium-rich nanostructures incorporated in multiple quantum wells with an upper set of cyan-green emitting multiple quantum wells. The light-emitting diodes were grown on nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN template formed by regrowth of GaN over SiO2 film patterned with an anodic aluminum oxide mask with holes of 125 nm diameter and a period of 250 nm. The growth of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on these stress relaxed low defect density templates improves the internal quantum efficiency by 15% for the cyan-green multiple quantum wells. Higher emission intensity with redshift in the PL peak emission wavelength is obtained for the indium-rich nanostructures incorporated in multiple quantum wells. The quantum wells grown on the nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN has a weaker piezoelectric field and hence shows a minimal peak shift with application of higher injection current. An enhancement of external quantum efficiency is achieved for the apple-white light emitting diodes grown on the nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN template based on the light -output power measurement. The improvement in light extraction efficiency, ηextraction, was found to be 34% for the cyan-green emission peak and 15% from the broad long wavelength emission with optimized lattice period. PMID:21124627

  1. Phosphor-Free Apple-White LEDs with Embedded Indium-Rich Nanostructures Grown on Strain Relaxed Nano-epitaxy GaN.

    PubMed

    Soh, C B; Liu, W; Yong, A M; Chua, S J; Chow, S Y; Tripathy, S; Tan, R J N

    2010-08-01

    Phosphor-free apple-white light emitting diodes have been fabricated using a dual stacked InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells comprising of a lower set of long wavelength emitting indium-rich nanostructures incorporated in multiple quantum wells with an upper set of cyan-green emitting multiple quantum wells. The light-emitting diodes were grown on nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN template formed by regrowth of GaN over SiO(2) film patterned with an anodic aluminum oxide mask with holes of 125 nm diameter and a period of 250 nm. The growth of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on these stress relaxed low defect density templates improves the internal quantum efficiency by 15% for the cyan-green multiple quantum wells. Higher emission intensity with redshift in the PL peak emission wavelength is obtained for the indium-rich nanostructures incorporated in multiple quantum wells. The quantum wells grown on the nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN has a weaker piezoelectric field and hence shows a minimal peak shift with application of higher injection current. An enhancement of external quantum efficiency is achieved for the apple-white light emitting diodes grown on the nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN template based on the light -output power measurement. The improvement in light extraction efficiency, η(extraction,) was found to be 34% for the cyan-green emission peak and 15% from the broad long wavelength emission with optimized lattice period.

  2. Indium-111 white blood cell scan for infectious complications of polycystic renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, B.R.; Cerqueira, M.D.; Eary, J.F.; Simmons, M.C.; Nabi, H.A.; Nelp, W.B.

    1985-11-01

    This case report describes the localization of a unilateral renal abscess with ( In)oxine-labeled autologous leukocyte scanning in a febrile patient with polycystic renal disease, after other noninvasive imaging procedures failed to identify a source of infection. In polycystic renal disease, leukocyte scans have advantages over standard diagnostic modalities and are very helpful in planning appropriate therapy.

  3. Value of blood-pool subtraction in cardiac indium-111-labeled platelet imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Machac, J.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Goldman, M.E.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Palestro, C.; Strashun, A.; Vaquer, R.; Phillips, R.A.; Fuster, V. )

    1989-09-01

    Blood-pool subtraction has been proposed to enhance {sup 111}In-labeled platelet imaging of intracardiac thrombi. We tested the accuracy of labeled platelet imaging, with and without blood-pool subtraction, in ten subjects with cardiac thrombi of varying age, eight with endocarditis being treated with antimicrobial therapy and ten normal controls. Imaging was performed early after labeled platelet injection (24 hr or less) and late (48 hr or more). Blood-pool subtraction was carried out. All images were graded subjectively by four experienced, blinded readers. Detection accuracy was measured by the sensitivity at three fixed levels of specificity estimated from receiver operator characteristic curve analysis and tested by three-way analysis of variance. Detection accuracy was generally improved on delayed images. Blood-pool subtraction did not improve accuracy. Although blood-pool subtraction increased detection sensitivity, this was offset by decreased specificity. For this population studied, blood-pool subtraction did not improve subjective detection of abnormal platelet deposition by 111In platelet imaging.

  4. Analysis of white blood cell dynamics in nailfold capillaries.

    PubMed

    Bourquard, Aurelien; Butterworth, Ian; Sanchez-Ferro, Alvaro; Giancardo, Luca; Soenksen, Luis; Cerrato, Carolina; Flores, Rafael; Castro-Gonzalez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Based on video data acquired with low-cost, portable microscopy equipment, we introduce a semi-automatic method to count visual gaps in the blood flow as a proxy for white blood cells (WBC) passing through nailfold capillaries. Following minimal user interaction and a pre-processing stage, our method consists in the spatio-temporal segmentation and analysis of capillary profiles. Besides the mere count information, it also estimates the speed associated with every WBC event. The accuracy of our algorithm is validated through the analysis of two capillaries acquired from one healthy subject. Results are compared with manual counts from four human raters and confronted with related physiological data reported in literature.

  5. Analysis of White Blood Cell Dynamics in Nailfold Capillaries

    PubMed Central

    Bourquard, Aurélien; Butterworth, Ian; Sánchez-Ferro, Alvaro; Giancardo, Luca; Soenksen, Luis; Cerrato, Carolina; Flores, Rafael; Castro-González, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Based on video data acquired with low-cost, portable microscopy equipment, we introduce a semi-automatic method to count visual gaps in the blood flow as a proxy for white blood cells (WBC) passing through nailfold capillaries. Following minimal user interaction and a pre-processing stage, our method consists in the spatio-temporal segmentation and analysis of capillary profiles. Besides the mere count information, it also estimates the speed associated with every WBC event. The accuracy of our algorithm is validated through the analysis of two capillaries acquired from one healthy subject. Results are compared with manual counts from four human raters and confronted with related physiological data reported in literature. PMID:26738019

  6. An Improved Computer Vision Method for White Blood Cells Detection

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Erik; Díaz, Margarita; Manzanares, Miguel; Zaldivar, Daniel; Perez-Cisneros, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The automatic detection of white blood cells (WBCs) still remains as an unsolved issue in medical imaging. The analysis of WBC images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBC can be approximated by an ellipsoid form, an ellipse detector algorithm may be successfully applied in order to recognize such elements. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of WBC embedded in complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a multiellipse detection problem. The approach, which is based on the differential evolution (DE) algorithm, transforms the detection task into an optimization problem whose individuals represent candidate ellipses. An objective function evaluates if such candidate ellipses are actually present in the edge map of the smear image. Guided by the values of such function, the set of encoded candidate ellipses (individuals) are evolved using the DE algorithm so that they can fit into the WBCs which are enclosed within the edge map of the smear image. Experimental results from white blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique in terms of its accuracy and robustness. PMID:23762178

  7. An improved computer vision method for white blood cells detection.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Díaz, Margarita; Manzanares, Miguel; Zaldivar, Daniel; Perez-Cisneros, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The automatic detection of white blood cells (WBCs) still remains as an unsolved issue in medical imaging. The analysis of WBC images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBC can be approximated by an ellipsoid form, an ellipse detector algorithm may be successfully applied in order to recognize such elements. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of WBC embedded in complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a multiellipse detection problem. The approach, which is based on the differential evolution (DE) algorithm, transforms the detection task into an optimization problem whose individuals represent candidate ellipses. An objective function evaluates if such candidate ellipses are actually present in the edge map of the smear image. Guided by the values of such function, the set of encoded candidate ellipses (individuals) are evolved using the DE algorithm so that they can fit into the WBCs which are enclosed within the edge map of the smear image. Experimental results from white blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique in terms of its accuracy and robustness.

  8. Blood changes in mallards exposed to white phosphorus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Vann, S.; Grove, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    White phosphorus (P4) has been extensively used by the military for various purposes including marking artillery impacts and as an obscurant. Target practice in an Alaskan tidal marsh during the last four decades has deposited large amounts of P4 particles in sediments and water which have resulted in die-offs of several waterfowl species. Because the toxicity of P4 in birds has not been well documented and because it is quickly excreted or metabolized in living animals, we sought to determine the effects of experimental dosing on blood characteristics in game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). In two experiments, one employing single doses of 5.4 mg P4/kg body weight in corn oil and the other using daily repeated doses of pelletized P4 at either 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, there were significant changes in AST, ALT, LDH, inorganic P, hematocrit and hemoglobin. Other indications of exposure included changes in uric acid, creatinine, and total protein which were consistent with reported liver and kidney damage due to this contaminant. Changes in white blood cells included a greater frequency of thrombocytes and fewer lymphocytes in dosed birds compared to controls. A biomarker of exposure based on LDH activity and hemoglobin is proposed.

  9. A microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping of white blood cells from whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Di; Yuan, Tao; Xie, Yao; Chen, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Blood analysis plays a major role in medical and science applications and white blood cells (WBCs) are an important target of analysis. We proposed an integrated microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping WBCs from whole blood. The microfluidic chip consists of two basic functional units: a winding channel to mix and arrays of two-layer trapping structures to trap WBCs. Red blood cells (RBCs) were eliminated through moving the winding channel and then WBCs were trapped by the arrays of trapping structures. We fabricated the PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) chip using soft lithography and determined the critical flow velocities of tartrazine and brilliant blue water mixing and whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer mixing in the winding channel. They are 0.25 μl/min and 0.05 μl/min, respectively. The critical flow velocity of the whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer is lower due to larger volume of the RBCs and higher kinematic viscosity of the whole blood. The time taken for complete lysis of whole blood was about 85 s under the flow velocity 0.05 μl/min. The RBCs were lysed completely by mixing and the WBCs were trapped by the trapping structures. The chip trapped about 2.0 × 103 from 3.3 × 103 WBCs. PMID:24404026

  10. A microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping of white blood cells from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Di; Yuan, Tao; Xie, Yao; Chen, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Blood analysis plays a major role in medical and science applications and white blood cells (WBCs) are an important target of analysis. We proposed an integrated microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping WBCs from whole blood. The microfluidic chip consists of two basic functional units: a winding channel to mix and arrays of two-layer trapping structures to trap WBCs. Red blood cells (RBCs) were eliminated through moving the winding channel and then WBCs were trapped by the arrays of trapping structures. We fabricated the PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) chip using soft lithography and determined the critical flow velocities of tartrazine and brilliant blue water mixing and whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer mixing in the winding channel. They are 0.25 μl/min and 0.05 μl/min, respectively. The critical flow velocity of the whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer is lower due to larger volume of the RBCs and higher kinematic viscosity of the whole blood. The time taken for complete lysis of whole blood was about 85 s under the flow velocity 0.05 μl/min. The RBCs were lysed completely by mixing and the WBCs were trapped by the trapping structures. The chip trapped about 2.0 × 10(3) from 3.3 × 10(3) WBCs.

  11. In vivo red blood cell compatibility testing using indium-113m tropolone-labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, G.J.; Gravelle, D.; Dietz, G.; Driedger, A.A.; King, M.; Cradduck, T.D.

    1988-05-01

    In vivo radionuclide crossmatch is a method for identifying compatible blood for transfusion when allo- or autoantibodies preclude the use of conventional crossmatching techniques. A technique for labeling small volumes of donor red blood cells with (/sup 113m/In)tropolone is reported. The use of /sup 113m/In minimizes the accumulation of background radioactivity and the radiation dose especially so when multiple crossmatches are performed. Labeling red cells with (/sup 113m/In)tropolone is faster and easier to perform than with other radionuclides. Consistently high labeling efficiencies are obtained and minimal /sup 113m/In activity elutes from the labeled red blood cells. A case study involving 22 crossmatches is presented to demonstrate the technique. The radiation dose equivalent from /sup 113m/In is significantly less than with other radionuclides that may be used to label red cells.

  12. Automatic recognition of five types of white blood cells in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Rezatofighi, Seyed Hamid; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes image processing algorithms to recognize five types of white blood cells in peripheral blood automatically. First, a method based on Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is proposed along with a snake algorithm to segment nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells. Then, a variety of features are extracted from the segmented regions. Next, most discriminative features are selected using a Sequential Forward Selection (SFS) algorithm and performances of two classifiers, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), are compared. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are accurate and sufficiently fast to be used in hematological laboratories.

  13. High-Throughput Separation of White Blood Cells From Whole Blood Using Inertial Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Yuan, Dan; Sluyter, Ronald; Yan, Sheng; Zhao, Qianbin; Xia, Huanming; Tan, Say Hwa; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Li, Weihua

    2017-08-29

    White blood cells (WBCs) constitute only about 0.1% of human blood cells, yet contain rich information about the immune status of the body; thus, separation of WBCs from the whole blood is an indispensable and critical sample preparation step in many scientific, clinical, and diagnostic applications. In this paper, we developed a continuous and high-throughput microfluidic WBC separation platform utilizing the differential inertial focusing of particles in serpentine microchannels. First, separation performance of the proposed method is characterized and evaluated using polystyrene beads in the serpentine channel. The purity of 10-μm polystyrene beads is increased from 0.1% to 80.3% after two cascaded processes, with an average enrichment ratio of 28 times. Next, we investigated focusing and separation properties of Jurkat cells spiked in the blood to mimic the presence of WBCs in whole blood. Finally, separation of WBCs from human whole blood was conducted and separation purity of WBCs was measured by the flow cytometry. The results show that the purity of WBCs can be increased to 48% after two consecutive processes, with an average enrichment ratio of ten times. Meanwhile, a parallelized inertial microfluidic device was designed to provide a high processing flow rate of 288 ml/h for the diluted (×1/20) whole blood. The proposed microfluidic device can potentially work as an upstream component for blood sample preparation and analysis in the integrated microfluidic systems.

  14. Relationship between white blood cell count and incident hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Anoop; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald

    2004-03-01

    Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively associated with cardiovascular disease. However, its relationship to hypertension, independent of smoking and other established cardiovascular risk factors, is not clear, especially among women. We used data from a large population-based study in Wisconsin (Beaver Dam Eye study) to examine the prospective association between elevated WBC count and incident hypertension among 2459 hypertension-free women (48.6%) and men (51.4%) after adjusting for, and stratifying by smoking and several other potential confounding factors. In multivariable proportional hazards models, increasing tertiles of WBC count was associated with increased risk ratios (RR) of hypertension in the whole cohort (WBC count tertiles 1-3; RR 1, 1.2, 1.7; P <.01), and separately among women (WBC count tertiles 1-3; RR 1, 1.1, 1.4; P <.05) and men (WBC count tertiles 1-3; RR 1, 1.3, 1.9; P <.01). Results from subsequent analyses stratified by smoking and several other related factors were consistent with this finding. Elevated WBC count is associated with incident hypertension among women and men independent of smoking and most traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this predominantly white cohort. Further research is required to determine whether this association is true among racial minorities (eg, African Americans), and independent of C-reactive protein, a more specific marker of inflammation.

  15. A color and shape based algorithm for segmentation of white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Salim; Ozyurek, Emel; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2014-06-01

    Computer-based imaging systems are becoming important tools for quantitative assessment of peripheral blood and bone marrow samples to help experts diagnose blood disorders such as acute leukemia. These systems generally initiate a segmentation stage where white blood cells are separated from the background and other nonsalient objects. As the success of such imaging systems mainly depends on the accuracy of this stage, studies attach great importance for developing accurate segmentation algorithms. Although previous studies give promising results for segmentation of sparsely distributed normal white blood cells, only a few of them focus on segmenting touching and overlapping cell clusters, which is usually the case when leukemic cells are present. In this article, we present a new algorithm for segmentation of both normal and leukemic cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images. In this algorithm, we propose to model color and shape characteristics of white blood cells by defining two transformations and introduce an efficient use of these transformations in a marker-controlled watershed algorithm. Particularly, these domain specific characteristics are used to identify markers and define the marking function of the watershed algorithm as well as to eliminate false white blood cells in a postprocessing step. Working on 650 white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images, our experiments reveal that the proposed algorithm improves the segmentation performance compared with its counterparts, leading to high accuracies for both sparsely distributed normal white blood cells and dense leukemic cell clusters. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  16. Life span and tissue distribution of 111indium-labeled blood platelets in hypomagnesemic lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.; Miller, J.K.; White, P.K.; Ramsey, N.

    1983-05-01

    Circulating platelets may be activated by exposed triple-helical collagen in atherosclerotic lesions in Mg-deficient ruminants. Autologous platelets, labeled in vitro with 111In and determined to be active, were injected into 5 hypomagnesemic and 3 control lambs fed semipurified diets with 100 or 2,000 mg of Mg/kg of feed for 3 months. During the first 68 hours, 111In concentrations were 11 times higher in packed cells than in plasma. Packed-cell 111In increased 60% during the first 2 hours, probably due to initial tissue sequestration and later release of labeled platelets. Thereafter, platelet half-life span averaged 60 and 63 hours for hypomagnesemic and control lambs. After 68 hours, lambs were injected with native vascular collagen fibrils at 500 micrograms/kg of body weight to initiate reversible platelet aggregation. Within 1 minute, 83% of packed-cell 111In disappeared from circulation. Thirty minutes later, the lambs were euthanatized and necropsied and in the lungs, liver, and spleen, 111In averaged 24%, 19%, and 9%, respectively, of 111In injected 68 hours earlier. Organ deposits were not affected by Mg intake, but 111In in the lungs was somewhat lower in 2 lambs injected with inactivated collagen. Pathologic changes induced by reversible platelet aggregation were compatible with right ventricular failure complicated by pulmonary edema, similar to changes in hypomagnesemic lambs that died spontaneously. Platelets in blood exposed to vascular lesions in hypomagnesemic ruminants could be a major mortality risk factor in grass tetany disease.

  17. White blood cell counting on smartphone paper electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhao; Lin, Guohong; Cui, Guangzhe; Zhou, Xiangfei; Liu, Gang Logan

    2017-04-15

    White blood cell (WBC) analysis provides rich information in rapid diagnosis of acute bacterial and viral infections as well as chronic disease management. For patients with immune deficiency or leukemia WBC should be persistently monitored. Current WBC counting method relies on bulky instrument and trained personnel and is time consuming. Rapid, low-cost and portable solution is in highly demand for point of care test. Here we demonstrate a label-free smartphone based electrochemical WBC counting device on microporous paper with patterned gold microelectrodes. WBC separated from whole blood was trapped by the paper with microelectrodes. WBC trapped on the paper leads to the ion diffusion blockage on microelectrodes, therefore cell concentration is determined by peak current on the microelectrodes measured by a differential pulse voltammeter and the quantitative results are collected by a smartphone wirelessly within 1min. We are able to rapidly quantify WBC concentrations covering the common physiological and pathological range (200-20000μL(-1)) with only 10μL sample and high repeatability as low as 10% in CoV (Coefficient of Variation). The unique smartphone paper electrochemical sensor ensures fast cell quantification to achieve rapid and low-cost WBC analysis at the point-of-care under resource limited conditions.

  18. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  19. High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yu; Liu, Wenyan; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Kershaw, Stephen V.; Zhang, Tieqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Jun; Yu, William W.; Rogach, Andrey L.

    2014-06-01

    In a line with most recent trends in developing non-toxic fluorescent nanomaterials, we combined blue emissive carbon dots with green and red emissive zinc copper indium sulfide (ZCIS) core/shell quantum dots (QDs) to achieve white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with a high color rendering index of 93. This indicates that ZCIS QDs, with their broad emission bands, can be employed to effectively make up the emission of carbon dots in the yellow and red regions to produce WLEDs in the wide region of color temperature by tuning the volume ratio of these constituting luminophores. Their electroluminescence characteristics including color rendering index, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates, and color temperatures were evaluated as a function of forward current. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates of the as-prepared WLEDs, exhibiting good stability, were slightly shifted from (0.321, 0.312) at 10 mA to (0.351, 0.322) at 30 mA, which was mainly caused by the different thermal quenching coefficients of carbon dots and ZCIS QDs.

  20. High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chun; Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yu E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com; Wang, Yu; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Kershaw, Stephen V.; Rogach, Andrey L.; Zhang, Tieqiang; Zhao, Jun; Yu, William W. E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com

    2014-06-30

    In a line with most recent trends in developing non-toxic fluorescent nanomaterials, we combined blue emissive carbon dots with green and red emissive zinc copper indium sulfide (ZCIS) core/shell quantum dots (QDs) to achieve white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with a high color rendering index of 93. This indicates that ZCIS QDs, with their broad emission bands, can be employed to effectively make up the emission of carbon dots in the yellow and red regions to produce WLEDs in the wide region of color temperature by tuning the volume ratio of these constituting luminophores. Their electroluminescence characteristics including color rendering index, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates, and color temperatures were evaluated as a function of forward current. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates of the as-prepared WLEDs, exhibiting good stability, were slightly shifted from (0.321, 0.312) at 10 mA to (0.351, 0.322) at 30 mA, which was mainly caused by the different thermal quenching coefficients of carbon dots and ZCIS QDs.

  1. Stress, Heredity and Black-White Blood Pressure Differences. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harburg, Ernest; And Others

    The facts that black Americans at all ages have higher blood pressure levels and higher mortality rates from hypertension than whites provided the impetus for this study. In their efforts to discover whether the level of blood pressure within and between black and white groups is related more to stress or to genetic factors, the researchers…

  2. A microfluidic device for continuous white blood cell separation and lysis from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myounggon; Mo Jung, Seung; Lee, Kyeong-Hwan; Jun Kang, Yang; Yang, Sung

    2010-11-01

    A microfluidic device, which is composed of a blood inlet, a cell lysis solution inlet, a bifurcation outlet containing six microchannels, and a white blood cell (WBC)-lysed solution outlet, is proposed in this study to separate WBCs from whole blood and lyse the WBCs in a continuous and near real-time fashion. The geometry of the microfluidic device is determined based on the bifurcation law and a cell crossover method. The microflow patterns of blood cells in the microfluidic channels are simulated by computational fluid dynamics. The simulation results agree with the experiment results by considering the reduction of blood viscosity in the microfluidic channels. The performance of the microfluidic device is evaluated by investigating the WBC recovery efficiency and the ratio of spectrophotometric absorbance of the blood sample at 260 to that at 280nm. The WBC recovery efficiency at the main channel outlet is 97.2%. The measured spectrophotometric absorbance ratio of 1.82 indicates that the separated WBCs are completely lysed, leaving only pure DNA in the WBC-lysed solution. The continuous cell separation and lysis is completed within only 0.5s. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposed microfluidic device is promising for separating WBCs from whole blood without any pretreatment and lysing the WBCs in a continuous and near real-time fashion. The proposed microfluidic device may be applicable to a lab-on-a-chip for blood analysis. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2010, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-10-14

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood--without reagents, electricity, or instruments--is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 10(2)/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries.

  4. Autologous white blood cell transfusion: toward a younger immunity.

    PubMed

    Charron, Dominique

    2007-10-01

    More and more cells and tissues of human origin are considered as unique medical bio-resources and are instrumental in the ongoing development of regenerative medicine. Although a better understanding of the genetic complexity of the major histocompatibility complex has contributed to develop allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the autologous setting was viewed early on only as a means to overcome myelodepression. The contribution of the immune system for adoptive immunotherapy was recognized in the 1990s, when donor lymphocyte infusion demonstrated an antileukemic effect of the transfused T cells. This led to the foundation and development of adoptive immunotherapy in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases and cancer. The recognition that the immune system is undergoing a progressive decline and deterioration with age introduces a new challenge. Immunosenescence results in a well-documented increase in incidence and severity of infections, impaired responses to vaccines, and development of cancer. We propose and argue that autologous white blood cells collected and cryopreserved at a young age will represent a valuable bio-resource for the restoration of immunity and the successful development of adoptive immunotherapies in treating infections and cancer, and will pave the way to anticipatory medicine.

  5. Automatic localization and feature extraction of white blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Vassili A.; Grigoriev, Andrei Y.; Ahn, Hyo-Sok; Myshkin, Nickolai K.

    1995-05-01

    The paper presents a method for automatic localization and feature extraction of white blood cells (WBCs) with color images to develop an efficient automated WBC counting system based on image analysis and recognition. Nucleus blobs extraction consists of five steps: (1) nucleus pixel labeling; (2) filtration of nucleus pixel template; (3) segmentation and extraction of nucleus blobs by region growing; (4) removal of uninterested blobs; and (5) marking of external and internal blob border, and holes pixels. The detection of nucleus pixels is based on the intensity of the G image plane and the balance between G and B intensity. Localized nucleus segments are grouped into a cell nucleus by a hierarchic merging procedure in accordance with their area, shapes and conditions of their spatial occurrence. Cytoplasm segmentation based on the pixel intensity and color parameters is found to be unreliable. We overcome this problem by using an edge improving technique. WBC templates are then calculated and additional cell feature sets are constructed for the recognition. Cell feature sets include description of principal geometric and color properties for each type of WBCs. Finally we evaluate the recognition accuracy of the developed algorithm that is proved to be highly reliable and fast.

  6. Separation of White Blood Cells from Red Blood Cells in a Microfabricated Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Robert H.; Chan, Shirley S.

    1996-03-01

    Leukocytes (WBCs) are relatively rare in a healthy person: approximately 1 out of every thousand cells in the blood are WBCs, the rest are predominantly the un-nucleated erythrocytes (RBCs). Chemotactic control of WBC invasion of small openings (one micron or less) is a critical element in understanding, and perhaps someday controlling, the invasive and lethal transformation of WBCs in leukemia. Quantitative study and understanding of the physical phenomena involved in chemotaxis requires the ability to both capture from blood the relatively rare WBCs and then to challenge them with a precise array of variable sized openings in the presence of a known chemical gradient. We have recently been able to show that a suitably chosen opening in microlithographically constructed array structures can with 100% efficiency sort rare white blood cells from red blood cells and hold them for optical observation under a transparent glass lid. We have developed sensitive fluorescence and dark-field techniques to observe the signal transduction and motile response to both hydrodynamic shear fields and chemotactic patterns. Videos of this work will be shown.

  7. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-Chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-10-01

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood—without reagents, electricity, or instruments—is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 102/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries.

  8. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood—without reagents, electricity, or instruments—is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 102/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries. PMID:26464211

  9. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure.

  10. Chip-scale white flip-chip light-emitting diode containing indium phosphide/zinc selenide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Bingfeng; Yan, Linchao; Lao, Yuqin; Ma, Yanfei; Chen, Zimin; Ma, Xuejin; Zhuo, Yi; Pei, Yanli; Wang, Gang

    2017-08-01

    A method for preparing a quantum dot (QD)-white light-emitting diode (WLED) is reported. Holes were etched in the SiO2 layer deposited on the sapphire substrate of the flip-chip LED by inductively coupled plasma, and these holes were then filled with QDs. An ultraviolet-curable resin was then spin-coated on top of the QD-containing SiO2 layer, and the resin was cured to act as a protecting layer. The reflective sidewall structure minimized sidelight leakage. The fabrication of the QD-WLED is simple in preparation and compatible with traditional LED processes, which was the minimum size of the WLED chip-scale integrated package. InP/ZnS core-shell QDs were used as the converter in the WLED. A blue light-emitting diode with a flip-chip structure was used as the excitation source. The QD-WLED exhibited color temperatures from 5900 to 6400 K and Commission Internationale De L'Elcairage color coordinates from (0.315, 0.325) to (0.325, 0.317), under drive currents from 100 to 400 mA. The QD-WLED exhibited stable optoelectronic properties.

  11. Mimicking the Interfacial Dynamics of Flowing White Blood Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santore, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The rolling of particles on surfaces, facilitated by hydrodynamic forces combined with localized surface interactions of the appropriate strengths, spatial arrangements, and ranges, is a technologically useful means of transporting and manipulating particles. One's intuition for the rolling of a marble or a car tire cannot be extrapolated down to microparticle length scales because the microparticle interactions are dominated by electrostatic, van der Waals, and hydrogen bonding interactions rather than a friction that depends on an imposed normal force. Indeed, our microparticle rolling systems are inspired by the rolling of white blood cells on the inner walls of venules as part of the innate immune response: Selectin molecules engage with their counterparts on the opposing surfaces to slow cell motion relative to that for freely flowing cells. In the resulting rolling signature, ligand-receptor binding and crack closing on the front of the cell are balanced with molecular dis-bonding and crack opening at the rear. The contact region is relatively static, allowing other interactions (for instance signaling) to occur for a finite duration. Thus, achieving particle rolling in synthetic systems is important because it facilitates particle-surface interactions in a continuous nonfouling fashion where the contact surface is continually renewed. In developing a synthetic model for this system, we employ polymers to modify flowing particles and /or planar collectors, producing heterogeneous interfaces which can support rolling or produce other motion signatures such as skipping, arrest, or free flow. We identify, in the synthetic system, combinations of variables that produce rolling and demonstrate how the distinction between rolling and arrest is not a simple matter of the adhesion strength between the particles and the collector. Rolling is a cooperative process and the coordination of binding in one location with dis-bonding in another requires appropriate length

  12. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  13. Flow cytometric determination of residual white blood cell levels in preserved samples from leukoreduced blood products.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Douglas S; Birch, Paul; O'Toole, Joan; Henderson, Deborah; Scalia, Vito

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for a proposed consolidated testing service, Canadian Blood Services undertook the evaluation of a commercial test kit for the enumeration by flow cytometry of residual white blood cells (rWBCs) present in preserved samples recovered from leukoreduced (LR) blood and platelet products. The stability of preserved WBCs, the equivalency of WBCs used for spiking, test method precision, specificity, reliability, accuracy, and sensitivity were investigated. For comparative purposes, WBC counts were also determined by Nageotte as well as by flow cytometry. WBCs were stable up to 4 weeks at room temperature for all components by either method. Within methods, no differences were observed due to the source of WBC used for spiking purposes. By either method, test precision was acceptable (<20% coefficient of variation) and of similar reliability at a target value of 10 +/- 5 WBCs per microL. The flow cytometric method was shown to be more specific and accurate than the Nageotte method. Sensitivity by either method was 0.1 WBCs per microL. On average, Nageotte counts were lower than those observed by flow cytometry. These results demonstrate that WBCs in WBC stabilizing solution-treated samples from LR blood components were stabilized up to 4 weeks at room temperature and that rWBC determinations made with a WBC enumeration kit by flow cytometry have the required precision, specificity, reliability, and accuracy in the relevant test range. This validated WBC stabilization and flow cytometric counting method is considered acceptable as part of a quality control program for leukoreduced blood products.

  14. Higher Blood Pressure Variability in White Coat Hypertension; from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Sook; Shin, Jinho; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ju Han; Park, Sungha; Kim, Kwang-Il; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Soon Gil; Shin, Gil Ja

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Blood pressure variability (BPV) was recently shown to be a risk factor of stroke. White coat hypertension (WCH) used to be regarded as innocuous, but one long-term follow-up study reported that WCH increased stroke rate compared to normotension (NT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between WCH and BPV. Subjects and Methods We analyzed 1398 subjects from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Registry, who were divided into NT (n=364), masked hypertension (n=122), white coat hypertension (n=254), and sustained hypertension (n=658) groups. Results Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. The average real variability (ARV), a highly sensitive BPV parameter, was highest in the WCH group, followed by the sustained hypertension, masked hypertension, and NT groups. The results persisted after being adjusted for covariates. The WCH vs. sustained hypertension results (adjusted mean±standard error) were as follows: 24-h systolic ARV, 22.9±0.8 vs. 19.4±0.6; 24-h diastolic ARV, 16.8±0.6 vs. 14.3±0.5; daytime systolic ARV, 21.8±0.8 vs. 16.8±0.6; and daytime diastolic ARV, 16.2±0.6 vs. 13.4±0.5 (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion From the registry data, we found that subjects with WCH or masked hypertension had higher BPV than NT. However, long-term follow-up data assessing the clinical influences of WCH on stroke are needed. PMID:27275173

  15. Margination of white blood cells: a computational approach by a hydrodynamic phase field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marth, Wieland; Aland, Sebastian; Voigt, Axel

    2016-03-01

    We numerically investigate margination of white blood cells and demonstrate the dependency on a number of conditions including hematocrit, the deformability of the cells and the Reynolds number. A detailed mesoscopic hydrodynamic Helfrich-type model is derived, validated and used for the simulations to provides a quantitative description of the margination of white blood cells. Previous simulation results, obtained with less detailed models, could be confirmed, e.g. the largest probability of margination of white blood cells at an intermediate range of hematocrit values and a decreasing tendency with increasing deformability. The consideration of inertia effects, which become of relevance in small vessels, also shows a dependency and leads to less pronounced margination of white blood cells with increasing Reynolds number.

  16. Scalable system for classification of white blood cells from Leishman stained blood stain images

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Atin; Tripathi, Ardhendu S.; Kuse, Manohar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The White Blood Cell (WBC) differential count yields clinically relevant information about health and disease. Currently, pathologists manually annotate the WBCs, which is time consuming and susceptible to error, due to the tedious nature of the process. This study aims at automation of the Differential Blood Count (DBC) process, so as to increase productivity and eliminate human errors. Materials and Methods: The proposed system takes the peripheral Leishman blood stain images as the input and generates a count for each of the WBC subtypes. The digitized microscopic images are stain normalized for the segmentation, to be consistent over a diverse set of slide images. Active contours are employed for robust segmentation of the WBC nucleus and cytoplasm. The seed points are generated by processing the images in Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV) color space. An efficient method for computing a new feature, ‘number of lobes,’ for discrimination of WBC subtypes, is introduced in this article. This method is based on the concept of minimization of the compactness of each lobe. The Naive Bayes classifier, with Laplacian correction, provides a fast, efficient, and robust solution to multiclass categorization problems. This classifier is characterized by incremental learning and can also be embedded within the database systems. Results: An overall accuracy of 92.45% and 92.72% over the training and testing sets has been obtained, respectively. Conclusion: Thus, incremental learning is inducted into the Naive Bayes Classifier, to facilitate fast, robust, and efficient classification, which is evident from the high sensitivity achieved for all the subtypes of WBCs. PMID:23766937

  17. Differential diagnosis of CT-hypodense cranial lesions with indium-111-oxine-labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, C.; Aragno, M.G.; Medina, M.; Viglietti, A.L.; Oliveri, G.; Ettorre, F.; Barrale, S.; Camuzzini, G.

    1986-05-01

    Scintigraphy using indium-111-oxine-labeled white blood cells was used as a complementary diagnostic study in the differential diagnosis of 20 intracerebral cystic lesions for which computerized tomography scanning did not exclude abscess. To lower the rate of false-positive findings with scintiscanning, three criteria of positivity were tested in the 20 lesions. The most stringent criterion yielded 100% sensitivity, 94% specificity, and 96% diagnostic accuracy. The clinical and surgical implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Isolation and two-step classification of normal white blood cells in peripheral blood smears.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Nisha; Dangott, Bryan; Salama, Mohammed E; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2012-01-01

    An automated system for differential white blood cell (WBC) counting based on morphology can make manual differential leukocyte counts faster and less tedious for pathologists and laboratory professionals. We present an automated system for isolation and classification of WBCs in manually prepared, Wright stained, peripheral blood smears from whole slide images (WSI). A simple, classification scheme using color information and morphology is proposed. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated by comparing our proposed method with a hematopathologist's visual classification. The isolation algorithm was applied to 1938 subimages of WBCs, 1804 of them were accurately isolated. Then, as the first step of a two-step classification process, WBCs were broadly classified into cells with segmented nuclei and cells with nonsegmented nuclei. The nucleus shape is one of the key factors in deciding how to classify WBCs. Ambiguities associated with connected nuclear lobes are resolved by detecting maximum curvature points and partitioning them using geometric rules. The second step is to define a set of features using the information from the cytoplasm and nuclear regions to classify WBCs using linear discriminant analysis. This two-step classification approach stratifies normal WBC types accurately from a whole slide image. System evaluation is performed using a 10-fold cross-validation technique. Confusion matrix of the classifier is presented to evaluate the accuracy for each type of WBC detection. Experiments show that the two-step classification implemented achieves a 93.9% overall accuracy in the five subtype classification. Our methodology achieves a semiautomated system for the detection and classification of normal WBCs from scanned WSI. Further studies will be focused on detecting and segmenting abnormal WBCs, comparison of 20× and 40× data, and expanding the applications for bone marrow aspirates.

  19. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Kulkarni, Rajan P; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV) of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM's captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods.

  20. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV) of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM’s captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods. PMID:26186353

  1. Image resizing using saliency strength map and seam carving for white blood cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Ko, ByoungChul; Kim, SeongHoon; Nam, JaeYeal

    2010-09-20

    A new image-resizing method using seam carving and a Saliency Strength Map (SSM) is proposed to preserve important contents, such as white blood cells included in blood cell images. To apply seam carving to cell images, a SSM is initially generated using a visual attention model and the structural properties of white blood cells are then used to create an energy map for seam carving. As a result, the energy map maximizes the energies of the white blood cells, while minimizing the energies of the red blood cells and background. Thus, the use of a SSM allows the proposed method to reduce the image size efficiently, while preserving the important white blood cells. Experimental results using the PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and ROD (Ratio of Distortion) of blood cell images confirm that the proposed method is able to produce better resizing results than conventional methods, as the seam carving is performed based on an SSM and energy map. For further improvement, a faster medical image resizing method is currently being investigated to reduce the computation time, while maintaining the same image quality.

  2. Lipocalin 2 and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in White Matter after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Yusuke; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Iwama, Toru; Xi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    We reported previously that subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes acute white matter injury in mice. In this study, we investigated lipocalin 2 (LCN2) mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in white matter, which may lead to subsequent injury. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in wild-type (WT) and LCN2-knockout (LCN2(-/-)) mice. Sham mice underwent the same procedure without perforation. Mice underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 24 h after SAH to confirm the development of T2-hyperintensity in white matter. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of LCN2-mediated white matter injury and BBB disruption. It was confirmed that LCN2 expression was significantly increased in white matter of WT mice after SAH by Western blotting (versus sham; p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that LCN2 receptor 24p3R was expressed in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and pericytes in the white matter. In WT mice with SAH, albumin leakage along the white matter was prominently observed and was consistent with T2-hyperintensity on MRI. As with our previous report, LCN2(-/-) mice scarcely developed T2-hyperintensity on MRI or albumin leakage in white matter. Our results suggest that BBB leakage occurs in white matter after SAH and that LCN2 contributes to SAH-induced BBB disruption.

  3. SLEEP DURATION AND AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE IN BLACK AND WHITE ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Mezick, Elizabeth J; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Self-reported short sleep duration is linked to higher blood pressure and incident hypertension in adults. Few studies have examined sleep and blood pressure in younger samples. We evaluated the associations between actigraphy-assessed time spent asleep and ambulatory blood pressure in adolescents. Participants were 246 black and white adolescents (mean age = 15.7) who were free from cardiovascular or kidney disease and were not taking sleep, cardiovascular, or psychiatric medications. Sleep duration and efficiency were assessed with in-home wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries across one week; ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was used to obtain 24-hour, sleep, wake blood pressure, and sleep-wake blood pressure ratios across two full days and nights. Results showed that shorter actigraphy-assessed sleep across one week was related to higher 48-hour blood pressure and higher nighttime blood pressure. Shorter sleep was also related to a higher systolic blood pressure sleep-wake ratio. These results were independent of age, race, sex, and body mass index. Follow-up analyses by race revealed that associations between sleep duration and blood pressure were largely present in white, but not black, adolescents. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the cardiovascular consequences of short sleep may begin as early as adolescence. PMID:22275538

  4. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by /sup 111/In oxine white blood cell scans

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-08-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, /sup 111/In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. /sup 111/In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates.

  5. Changes in immunological characteristics of white blood cells after administration of standardized mistletoe extract.

    PubMed

    Klopp, R; Schmidt, W; Niemer, W; Werner, M; Beuth, J

    2001-01-01

    After administering standardized mistletoe extract, Viscum album L, (Iscador injections of 0.1 mg twice and 1.0 mg in defined intervals) the functional characteristics of microcirculation and immunological behavior of the white blood cells in different target tissues (derma, intestine) were investigated in healthy volunteers by vital microscopic investigation over 13 days of observation. The investigations showed a temporarily improved function of the microcirculation and an increased adhesion and transmigration of white blood cells in the target tissue areas. This observation was evaluated as a biologically relevant immunomodulation. Further investigations under pathophysiological conditions with regard to complementary administration of the test substance (e.g. to cancer patients) appear promising.

  6. Could Blood Pressure Phobia Go Beyond the White Coat Effect?

    PubMed

    Dillon, Kathleen M; Seacat, Jason D; Saucier, Cory D; Doyle-Campbell, Courtney J

    2015-11-01

    While it is known that excessive anxiety surrounding the measuring of blood pressure may preclude an accurate measurement, it is not known whether it could also lead to phobic avoidance behavior. Self-reported information was collected on 125 individuals who made postings on 5 internet-based medical forums. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that these individuals reported experiencing intense fear associated with the measuring of blood pressure, that was excessive or irrational and which contributed to avoidance of medical treatment and interference with life decisions. Based on these preliminary observations, we are speculating that these symptoms could be considered consistent with a diagnosis of a Specific Phobia. Investigations using quantitative methods, representative samples, and standardized clinical instruments need to be conducted before definitive conclusions can be reached. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. ["As white as snow, as red as blood..."].

    PubMed

    Petrilli, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the tale of Biancaneve and the seven dwarfs, by Grimm, used by the Author as a background to discuss the metaphorical function performed by blood images into the psychological relationship between parents and children. This allows a description of a feminine character which, already present in Greek mythology, at the origins of the Western civilization, has been apparently lost in the forthcoming Western cultural history, nonetheless strongly surviving in the construction of the consciousness and soul of women.

  8. Heterogeneity in white blood cells has potential to confound DNA methylation measurements.

    PubMed

    Adalsteinsson, Bjorn T; Gudnason, Haukur; Aspelund, Thor; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Smith, Albert V; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic studies are commonly conducted on DNA from tissue samples. However, tissues are ensembles of cells that may each have their own epigenetic profile, and therefore inter-individual cellular heterogeneity may compromise these studies. Here, we explore the potential for such confounding on DNA methylation measurement outcomes when using DNA from whole blood. DNA methylation was measured using pyrosequencing-based methodology in whole blood (n = 50-179) and in two white blood cell fractions (n = 20), isolated using density gradient centrifugation, in four CGIs (CpG Islands) located in genes HHEX (10 CpG sites assayed), KCNJ11 (8 CpGs), KCNQ1 (4 CpGs) and PM20D1 (7 CpGs). Cellular heterogeneity (variation in proportional white blood cell counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, counted by an automated cell counter) explained up to 40% (p<0.0001) of the inter-individual variation in whole blood DNA methylation levels in the HHEX CGI, but not a significant proportion of the variation in the other three CGIs tested. DNA methylation levels in the two cell fractions, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, differed significantly in the HHEX CGI; specifically the average absolute difference ranged between 3.4-15.7 percentage points per CpG site. In the other three CGIs tested, methylation levels in the two fractions did not differ significantly, and/or the difference was more moderate. In the examined CGIs, methylation levels were highly correlated between cell fractions. In summary, our analysis detects region-specific differential DNA methylation between white blood cell subtypes, which can confound the outcome of whole blood DNA methylation measurements. Finally, by demonstrating the high correlation between methylation levels in cell fractions, our results suggest a possibility to use a proportional number of a single white blood cell type to correct for this confounding effect in analyses.

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome and the peripheral blood white cell count.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, A C; Kelly, R E; Hogan, J L; O'Connor, N; Farah, N; Turner, M J

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examined if the white cell count (WCC) is increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and if so, is it due to PCOS or to the associated obesity? Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 113 women studied, 36 had PCOS and 77 did not. The mean WCC was higher in the PCOS group compared with the non-PCOS group (8.9 × 10(9)/l vs 7.4 × 10(9)/l p = 0.002). This increase was due to a higher neutrophil count (5.6 × 10(9)/l vs 4.3 × 10(9)/l; p = 0.003). There was a leucocytosis (WCC >11 × 10(9)/l) present in 19% of the PCOS group compared with 1% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). The neutrophil count was abnormally high (>7.7 × 10(9)/l) in 14% of the PCOS group compared with 4% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). On regression analysis, however, the only independent variable which explained both the increased WCC and the increased neutrophil count was PCOS. We found that PCOS is associated with an increased WCC due to increased neutrophils, which supports the evidence that PCOS is associated with low-grade inflammation. The increase appears to be due to the underlying PCOS, and not to the increased adiposity associated with PCOS.

  10. Diagnostic imaging of musculoskeletal infection. Roentgenography; Gallium, indium-labeled white blood cell, gammaglobulin, bone scintigraphy; and MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, W.A.; Alavi, A. )

    1991-07-01

    A great deal of effort has been made to evaluate and define the role of various diagnostic imaging techniques in various clinical settings that complicate the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Except possibly in neonates, bone scintigraphy remains generally recommended when there has been no previous osseous involvement. In other cases of chronic disease, previous fracture or trauma, prosthesis, and diabetic foot, In-WBC scintigraphy is generally accepted as an appropriate imaging technique. MRI will play an increasingly important role in diagnosing osteomyelitis and may prove to be an important adjunct in these cases. Research continues to improve our current diagnostic armamentarium. In-IgG appears to avoid practical deficiencies encountered with 67Ga and In-WBC; it remains to be seen what role this agent will play in routine clinical practice. All agents to date image inflammation, not infection, and most require delayed imaging sessions, usually at 24 hours. These shortcomings necessitate further research to develop new radiotracers that can provide useful images within several hours and that are specific for infection, perhaps ultimately delineating the particular microorganism involved.84 references.

  11. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the detection of osteomyelitis complicated by a pre-existing condition.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K; Velchik, M G; Alavi, A; Mandell, G A; Esterhai, J L; Goll, S

    1988-06-01

    Forty-six patients (23M, 23F) ranging in age from 19 to 79 yr with a clinical history of a nonunion fracture, surgery, diabetes or a soft-tissue infection were studied with [111In]oxine WBCs to detect osteomyelitis. There were 27 true-positive, nine true-negative, two false-positive and one false-negative. The false-positives and the false-negative occurred in patients with soft-tissue infections overlying the area of interest. All diagnoses were confirmed by intraoperative bone biopsies and cultures. Bone biopsy and scan were performed within 2 days of each other in 39 patients. The overall sensitivity was 97% (27/28), specificity, 82% (9/11) and the diagnostic accuracy, 92% (36/39). The remaining seven patients had negative [111In]WBC scans several months after positive bone biopsies and definite antibiotic treatment. This suggests that [In]WBC scans become negative after appropriate therapy is undertaken. Interobserver data was obtained from four nuclear physicians of varying experience blinded to clinical information. A high degree of agreement was found in over 90% of the cases. This study demonstrates the utility of [111In]WBC scans in the diagnosis and follow-up of complicated osteomyelitis and a high level of interobserver agreement in scan interpretation.

  12. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the detection of osteomyelitis complicated by a pre-existing condition

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.; Velchik, M.G.; Alavi, A.; Mandell, G.A.; Esterhai, J.L.; Goll, S.

    1988-06-01

    Forty-six patients (23M, 23F) ranging in age from 19 to 79 yr with a clinical history of a nonunion fracture, surgery, diabetes or a soft-tissue infection were studied with (/sup 111/In)oxine WBCs to detect osteomyelitis. There were 27 true-positive, nine true-negative, two false-positive and one false-negative. The false-positives and the false-negative occurred in patients with soft-tissue infections overlying the area of interest. All diagnoses were confirmed by intraoperative bone biopsies and cultures. Bone biopsy and scan were performed within 2 days of each other in 39 patients. The overall sensitivity was 97% (27/28), specificity, 82% (9/11) and the diagnostic accuracy, 92% (36/39). The remaining seven patients had negative (/sup 111/In)WBC scans several months after positive bone biopsies and definite antibiotic treatment. This suggests that (In)WBC scans become negative after appropriate therapy is undertaken. Interobserver data was obtained from four nuclear physicians of varying experience blinded to clinical information. A high degree of agreement was found in over 90% of the cases. This study demonstrates the utility of (/sup 111/In)WBC scans in the diagnosis and follow-up of complicated osteomyelitis and a high level of interobserver agreement in scan interpretation.

  13. PYGM expression analysis in white blood cells: a complementary tool for diagnosing McArdle disease?

    PubMed

    de Luna, Noemí; Brull, Astrid; Lucia, Alejandro; Santalla, Alfredo; Garatachea, Nuria; Martí, Ramon; Andreu, Antoni L; Pinós, Tomàs

    2014-12-01

    McArdle disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme myophosphorylase, resulting in exercise intolerance from childhood and acute crises of early fatigue and contractures. In severe cases, these manifestations can be accompanied by rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and fatal renal failure. Diagnosis of McArdle disease is based on clinical diagnostic tests, together with an absence of myophosphorylase activity in skeletal muscle biopsies and genetic analysis of the myophosphorylase-encoding gene, PYGM. The recently reported association between myophosphorylase and Rac1 GTPase in a T lymphocyte cell line prompted us to study myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells (WBCs) from 20 healthy donors and 30 McArdle patients by flow cytometry using a fluorescent-labeled PYGM antibody. We found that T lymphocytes expressed myophosphorylase in healthy donors, but expression was significantly lower in McArdle patients (p<0.001). PYGM mRNA levels were also lower in white blood cells from McArdle patients. Nevertheless, in 13% of patients (who were either heterozygotes or homozygotes for the most common PYGM pathogenic mutation among Caucasians (p.R50X)), the percentage of myophosphorylase-positive white blood cells was not different compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that analysis of myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells might be a useful, less-invasive, complementary test for diagnosing McArdle disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. White Matter Hyperintensity Associations with Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Subjects Stratified by Cerebrovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuropathology of White Matter Lesions, Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction, and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, Atticus H; Minett, Thais; Andoh, Joycelyn; Forster, Gillian; Bhide, Ishaan; Barrick, Thomas R; Elderfield, Kay; Jeevahan, Jamuna; Markus, Hugh S; Bridges, Leslie R

    2017-10-01

    We tested whether blood-brain barrier dysfunction in subcortical white matter is associated with white matter abnormalities or risk of clinical dementia in older people (n=126; mean age 86.4, SD: 7.7 years) in the MRC CFAS (Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study). Using digital pathology, we quantified blood-brain barrier dysfunction (defined by immunohistochemical labeling for the plasma marker fibrinogen). This was assessed within subcortical white matter tissue samples harvested from postmortem T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected white matter hyperintensities, from normal-appearing white matter (distant from coexistent MRI-defined hyperintensities), and from equivalent areas in MRI normal brains. Histopathologic lesions were defined using a marker for phagocytic microglia (CD68, clone PGM1). Extent of fibrinogen labeling was not significantly associated with white matter abnormalities defined either by MRI (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.03; P=0.130) or by histopathology (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.12; P=0.452). Among participants with normal MRI (no detectable white matter hyperintensities), increased fibrinogen was significantly related to decreased risk of clinical dementia (odds ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.94; P=0.013). Among participants with histological lesions, increased fibrinogen was related to increased risk of dementia (odds ratio, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-4.08; P=0.007). Our data suggest that some degree of blood-brain barrier dysfunction is common in older people and that this may be related to clinical dementia risk, additional to standard MRI biomarkers. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Hematology, blood chemistry and selenium values of captive pronghorn antelope, white-tailed deer and American bison.

    PubMed

    Clemens, E T; Meyer, K L; Carlson, M P; Schneider, N R

    1987-01-01

    Pronghorn were observed to have a significantly higher whole blood selenium concentration than either the white-tailed deer or bison. Pronghorn colloid values were significantly less than those of the bison, and approached statistical significance for the white-tailed deer. Differential white blood cell counts for the white-tailed deer were markedly different from those of the pronghorn and bison. The American bison had significantly higher cortisol values and lower T3 values than either the white-tailed deer or pronghorn.

  17. Joint Effect of Cigarette Smoking and Body Mass Index on White Blood Cell Count in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, A-Ra; Choi, Won-Jun; Kim, Shin-Hye; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background White blood cell count is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Several lifestyle and metabolic factors such as cigarette smoking and obesity are known to be associated with an elevated white blood cell count. However, the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count has not yet been fully described. Methods We explored the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count using multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding variables in a population-based, cross-sectional study of 416,065 Korean adults. Results Cigarette smoking and body mass index have a dose-response relationship with a higher white blood cell count, but no synergistic interaction is observed between them (men, P for interaction=0.797; women, P for interaction=0.311). Cigarette smoking and body mass index might have an additive combination effect on high white blood cell count. Obese male smokers were 2.36 times more likely and obese female smokers 2.35 times more likely to have a high white blood cell count when compared with normal body mass index non-smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking and body mass index are independently associated with an elevated white blood cell count in both men and women. PMID:28360982

  18. Semi-automated identification of white blood cell using active contour technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, Nurhanis Izzati Binti Che; Mahmood, Nasrul Humaimi Bin; Razak, Mohd Azhar Bin Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Manual and automated diagnosis can be used to identify the morphology of blood cells. However, the manual diagnosis of the blood cells is time consuming and need hematologist and pathologist experts in order to diagnose diseases. Recently, the automated diagnosis which is require image processing technique are often been used in this area. This paper focuses on image processing technique to do segmentation on the nucleus of white blood cells (WBC). To identify the nucleus region, there are several image processing techniques applied besides the active contour method. The results obtained show that the detection on the edge of the nucleus is almost same as the original image of the nucleus.

  19. Microstructure and Cerebral Blood Flow within White Matter of the Human Brain: A TBSS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giezendanner, Stéphanie; Fisler, Melanie Sarah; Soravia, Leila Maria; Andreotti, Jennifer; Walther, Sebastian; Wiest, Roland; Dierks, Thomas; Federspiel, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background White matter (WM) fibers connect different brain regions and are critical for proper brain function. However, little is known about the cerebral blood flow in WM and its relation to WM microstructure. Recent improvements in measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) by means of arterial spin labeling (ASL) suggest that the signal in white matter may be detected. Its implications for physiology needs to be extensively explored. For this purpose, CBF and its relation to anisotropic diffusion was analyzed across subjects on a voxel-wise basis with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and also across white matter tracts within subjects. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging and ASL were acquired in 43 healthy subjects (mean age = 26.3 years). Results CBF in WM was observed to correlate positively with fractional anisotropy across subjects in parts of the splenium of corpus callosum, the right posterior thalamic radiation (including the optic radiation), the forceps major, the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. Furthermore, radial diffusivity correlated negatively with CBF across subjects in similar regions. Moreover, CBF and FA correlated positively across white matter tracts within subjects. Conclusion The currently observed findings on a macroscopic level might reflect the metabolic demand of white matter on a microscopic level involving myelination processes or axonal function. However, the exact underlying physiological mechanism of this relationship needs further evaluation. PMID:26942763

  20. A biokinetic and dosimetric model for ionic indium in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Martin; Mattsson, Sören; Johansson, Lennart; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews biokinetic data for ionic indium, and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic indium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on human data and indium in the form of ionic indium(III), as indium chloride and indium arsenide. The model presented for systemic indium is defined by five different pools: plasma, bone marrow, liver, kidneys and other soft tissues. The model is based on two subsystems: one corresponding to indium bound to transferrin and one where indium is transported back to the plasma, binds to red blood cell transferrin and is then excreted through the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Absorbed doses to several organs and the effective dose are calculated for 111In- and 113mIn-ions. The proposed biokinetic model is compared with previously published biokinetic indium models published by the ICRP. The absorbed doses are calculated using the ICRP/ICRU adult reference phantoms and the effective dose is estimated according to ICRP Publication 103. The effective doses for 111In and 113mIn are 0.25 mSv MBq-1 and 0.013 mSv MBq-1 respectively. The updated biokinetic and dosimetric models presented in this paper take into account human data and new animal data, which represent more detailed and presumably more accurate dosimetric data than that underlying previous models for indium.

  1. Blood pressure, smoking, obesity and alcohol consumption in black and white patients in general practice.

    PubMed

    Haines, A P; Booroff, A; Goldenberg, E; Morgan, P; Singh, M; Wallace, P

    1987-06-01

    A comparison of blood pressure (BP), smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity between whites and blacks of Caribbean origin aged 17-70 was undertaken in a general practice in North West London. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) showed no consistent overall differences between the two ethnic groups, though DBP rose significantly more with age in black males than white males. Somewhat higher proportions of the black patients were receiving anti-hyper-tensive treatment compared with the whites, the difference was statistically significant in the case of males (P less than 0.02). This observation did not appear to be due to more effective detection of hypertension amongst black males. Overall, fewer than one-third of black females were current cigarette smokers compared with around one-half of white females (P less than 0.001). Amongst males, however, the proportions of never, ex and current smokers were similar in the two ethnic groups. Young black patients of both sexes were more likely to smoke than older blacks. Blacks who smoked tended to smoke fewer cigarettes than white smokers. Eleven of 190 (5.8%) black males had consumed 35 units or more of alcohol within the last week compared with 87 of 452 (19.2%) of white males, (P less than .001). Amongst females the differences were smaller, 5 of 227 (2.2%) of black females had consumed 21 units or more in the last week compared with 23 of 490 (4.7%) of white females (NS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. White blood cell count correlates with mood symptom severity and specific mood symptoms in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Ole; Sylvia, Louisa G; Bowden, Charles L; Calabrese, Joseph R; Thase, Michael; Shelton, Richard C; McInnis, Melvin; Tohen, Mauricio; Kocsis, James H; Ketter, Terence A; Friedman, Edward S; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ostacher, Michael J; Iosifescu, Dan V; McElroy, Susan; Nierenberg, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Immune alterations may play a role in bipolar disorder etiology; however, the relationship between overall immune system functioning and mood symptom severity is unknown. The two comparative effectiveness trials, the Clinical and Health Outcomes Initiatives in Comparative Effectiveness for Bipolar Disorder Study (Bipolar CHOICE) and the Lithium Treatment Moderate-Dose Use Study (LiTMUS), were similar trials among patients with bipolar disorder. At study entry, white blood cell count and bipolar mood symptom severity (via Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale and Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale) were assessed. We performed analysis of variance and linear regression analyses to investigate relationships between deviations from median white blood cell and multinomial regression analysis between higher and lower white blood cell levels. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Among 482 Bipolar CHOICE participants, for each 1.0 × 10(9)/L white blood cell deviation, the overall Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale severity increased significantly among men (coefficient = 2.13; 95% confidence interval = [0.46, -3.79]; p = 0.013), but not among women (coefficient = 0.87; 95% confidence interval = [-0.87, -2.61]; p = 0.33). Interaction analyses showed a trend toward greater Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale symptom severity among men (coefficient = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = [-0.81, -3.82]; p = 0.2). Among 283 LiTMUS participants, higher deviation from the median white blood cell showed a trend toward higher Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale scores among men (coefficient = 1.33; 95% confidence interval = [-0.22, -2.89]; p = 0.09), but not among women (coefficient = 0.34; 95% confidence interval = [-0.64, -1.32]; p = 0.50). When combining LiTMUS and Bipolar CHOICE, Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale scores

  3. Blood Pressure Control in Aging Predicts Cerebral Atrophy Related to Small-Vessel White Matter Lesions.

    PubMed

    Kern, Kyle C; Wright, Clinton B; Bergfield, Kaitlin L; Fitzhugh, Megan C; Chen, Kewei; Moeller, James R; Nabizadeh, Nooshin; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Stern, Yaakov; DeCarli, Charles S; Alexander, Gene E

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral small-vessel damage manifests as white matter hyperintensities and cerebral atrophy on brain MRI and is associated with aging, cognitive decline and dementia. We sought to examine the interrelationship of these imaging biomarkers and the influence of hypertension in older individuals. We used a multivariate spatial covariance neuroimaging technique to localize the effects of white matter lesion load on regional gray matter volume and assessed the role of blood pressure control, age and education on this relationship. Using a case-control design matching for age, gender, and educational attainment we selected 64 participants with normal blood pressure, controlled hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension from the Northern Manhattan Study cohort. We applied gray matter voxel-based morphometry with the scaled subprofile model to (1) identify regional covariance patterns of gray matter volume differences associated with white matter lesion load, (2) compare this relationship across blood pressure groups, and (3) relate it to cognitive performance. In this group of participants aged 60-86 years, we identified a pattern of reduced gray matter volume associated with white matter lesion load in bilateral temporal-parietal regions with relative preservation of volume in the basal forebrain, thalami and cingulate cortex. This pattern was expressed most in the uncontrolled hypertension group and least in the normotensives, but was also more evident in older and more educated individuals. Expression of this pattern was associated with worse performance in executive function and memory. In summary, white matter lesions from small-vessel disease are associated with a regional pattern of gray matter atrophy that is mitigated by blood pressure control, exacerbated by aging, and associated with cognitive performance.

  4. Relationship between white blood cells and hypertension in Chinese adults: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Ting; Gong, Ying; Zhu, Ruihua; Liu, Xuekui; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Yu; Qiu, Qinqin; Qi, Lu; Liang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Increased blood pressure was associated with increased white blood cell count (adjusted p < 0.001) in a community-based health examination survey of adults in China (n = 39 282; aged 18-93 years). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for hypertension across white blood cell count quintiles were 1.00, 0.99 (0.89-1.09), 1.11 (1.01-1.22), 1.09 (0.99-1.20), and 1.19 (1.08-1.31) (p for trend < 0.001). Body mass index and white blood cell count had an additive effect on systolic blood pressure (p for interaction = 0.047). Therefore, white blood cell count could independently predict hypertension in Chinese adults.

  5. Induction of platelet white blood cell (WBC) aggregate formation by platelets and WBCs in red blood cell units.

    PubMed

    Keating, Friederike K; Fung, Mark K; Schneider, David J

    2008-06-01

    Transfusion of red blood cell (RBC) preparations is independently associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to define mechanisms potentially contributing. The presence of platelets (PLTs), activated PLTs (PLTs expressing P-selectin), PLT-monocyte aggregates (PMAs), and PLT-neutrophil aggregates (PNAs) was determined in vitro with the use of flow cytometry in whole blood from healthy volunteers, in RBCs, and in whole blood after adding aliquots of RBCs. Both prestorage leukoreduced and nonleukoreduced RBCs were analyzed. Nonleukoreduced RBCs were subfractionated with the use of centrifugation and filtration to obtain a RBC-free and a cell-free fraction. Formation of PMAs and PNAs was determined in whole blood after the addition of aliquots of these subfractions. Nonleukoreduced RBCs contained 50 +/- 18 percent of the PLTs found in whole blood from healthy volunteers, and 43 +/- 16 percent of the PLTs were activated. Leukoreduced RBCs contained few PLTs (0.2 +/- 0.1% of volunteer blood). The majority (>60%) of white blood cells (WBCs) in nonleukoreduced RBCs were associated with PLTs. The formation of PMAs and PNAs in whole blood was increased approximately fivefold after addition of nonleukoreduced-RBCs (p < 0.0001) and by less than twofold with leukoreduced RBCs (p = 0.01). Addition of the essentially cell-free fraction of nonleukoreduced RBCs did not increase the formation of PNA or PMA in whole blood significantly. RBC preparations, particularly nonleukoreduced RBCs, contain activated PLTs and PLT-WBC aggregates and induce formation of PLT-WBC aggregates. This may be one mechanism contributing to adverse outcomes linked to transfusions in patients with cardiovascular disease.

  6. Gene Signature of High White Blood Cell Count in B-Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Holly; Rubenstein, Mara; Dombkowski, Alan A; Caldwell, J Timothy; Chu, Roland; Xavier, Ana C; Thummel, Ryan; Neely, Melody; Matherly, Larry H; Ge, Yubin; Taub, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to identify genetic factors associated with the presenting white blood cell (WBC) count in B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BP-ALL). Using ETV6-RUNX1-positive BP-ALL patient samples, a homogeneous subtype, we identified 16 differentially expressed genes based on the presenting WBC count (< 50,000/cumm vs > 50,000). We further confirmed that IL1R1, BCAR3, KCNH2, PIR, and ZDHHC23 were differentially expressed in a larger cohort of ETV6-RUNX1-negative BP-ALL patient samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated that expression levels of these genes could accurately categorize high and low WBC count subjects using two independent patient sets, representing positive and negative ETV6-RUNX1 cases. Further studies in leukemia cell line models will better delineate the role of these genes in regulating the white blood cell count and potentially identify new therapeutic targets.

  7. Low response in white blood cell DNA adducts among workers in a highly polluted cokery environment.

    PubMed

    Kuljukka, T; Savela, K; Vaaranrinta, R; Mutanen, P; Veidebaum, T; Sorsa, M; Peltonen, K

    1998-06-01

    Coke oven workers are often heavily exposed to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); this exposure has been associated with higher cancer rates among these workers. We assessed the exposure of cokery workers in an oil shale processing plant. Personal hygienic monitoring, measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and analysis of PAH-DNA adducts in white blood cells (WBCs) were performed. The 32P-postlabeling method was used for adduct measurement. The mean adduct value, 1.6 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides, did not differ significantly from the control value (P = 0.098). Smokers had significantly higher adduct levels than non-smoking workers (P = 0.002). 1-OHP levels measured in post-shift samples correlated with DNA adducts found in white blood cells (WBCs). We conclude that hygienic monitoring and measurement of urinary metabolites are essential background exposure data when the biologically effective dose of chemical carcinogens is assessed.

  8. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    PubMed

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  9. Pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Gurlo, Aleksander; Dzivenko, Dmytro; Andrade, Miria; Riedel, Ralf; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-09-15

    A static pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium that takes place at ambient temperature is reported. The lattice parameter of c-In(OH)(3) decreased upon compression from 7.977(2) to approximately 7.45 A at 34 GPa, corresponding to a decrease in specific volume of approximately 18%. Fitting the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the obtained compression data gave a bulk modulus of 99 +/- 3 GPa for c-In(OH)(3). The c-In(OH)(3) crystals with a size of approximately 100 nm are comminuted upon compression, as indicated by the grain-size reduction reflected in broadening of the diffraction reflections and the appearance of smaller (approximately 5 nm) incoherently oriented domains in TEM. The rapid decompression of compressed c-In(OH)(3) leads to partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium, mainly as a result of localized stress gradients caused by relaxation of the highly disordered indium sublattice in indium hydroxide. This partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium is irreversible, as confirmed by angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy imaging, Raman scattering, and FTIR spectroscopy. Recovered c-In(OH)(3) samples become completely black and nontransparent and show typical features of metals, i.e., a falling absorption in the 100-250 cm(-1) region accompanied by a featureless spectrum in the 250-2500 cm(-1) region in the Raman spectrum and Drude-like absorption of free electrons in the region of 4000-8000 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectrum. These features were not observed in the initial c-In(OH)(3), which is a typical white wide-band-gap semiconductor.

  10. Intraindividual Temporal miRNA Variability in Serum, Plasma, and White Blood Cell Subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Ammerlaan, Wim; Betsou, Fay

    2016-10-01

    Blood microRNAs (miRNAs) are ideal biomarkers, and blood derivatives are often collected in the scope of miRNA research projects. However, knowledge of temporal variations of miRNAs in healthy individuals is lacking. In this study, miRNA variability was measured over a 1-year period in different blood derivatives, collected every 2-3 months from two healthy donors. There is a continuum of intraindividual temporal variability, with particularly stable (coefficient of variation [CV] <20%-30%) and particularly unstable (CV >100%-130%) miRNAs in serum, plasma, and specific white blood cell subpopulations. The temporal intraindividual variability of miRNAs should be taken into consideration in experimental design of biospecimen collections and validation of diagnostic biomarkers.

  11. Variation in blood pressure is associated with white matter microstructure but not cognition in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P; Williams, Victoria J; Chapman, Caroline E; Grande, Laura J; Rudolph, James L; Schnyer, David M; Barber, Colleen E; Lipsitz, Lewis A; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2010-03-01

    Although hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and is highly prevalent in African Americans, little is known about how blood pressure (BP) affects brain-behavior relationships in this population. In predominantly Caucasian populations, high BP is associated with alterations in frontal-subcortical white matter and in executive functioning aspects of cognition. We investigated associations among BP, brain structure, and neuropsychological functioning in 52 middle-older-age African Americans without diagnosed history of CVD. All participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging for examination of white matter integrity, indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA). Three regions of interest were derived in the anterior (genu) and posterior (splenium) corpus callosum and across the whole brain. A brief neuropsychological battery was administered from which composite scores of executive function and memory were derived. Blood pressure was characterized by mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). When controlling for age, higher MABP was associated with lower FA in the genu, and there was a trend for this same relationship with regard to whole-brain FA. When the sample was broken into groups on the basis of treatment for BP regulation (medicated vs. nonmedicated), MABP was related to genu and whole-brain FA only in the nonmedicated group. Neither MABP nor FA was significantly related to either neuropsychological composite score regardless of medication use. These data provide important evidence that variation in BP may contribute to significant alterations in specific neural regions of white matter in nonmedicated individuals without symptoms of overt CVD.

  12. Positive association between the metabolic syndrome and white blood cell counts in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Fu, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Zeng, Wen; Fan, Zhi-Fen; Chen, Min; Wang, Ling; Li, Duo

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between peripheral circulating white blood cell count (WBC) and the metabolic syndrome among populations in central China. In the present study, 5,278 subjects (2,412 women, 2,866 men) aged 18-75 years were recruited through a health check program in Wuhan, China. Biochemical and haematological parameters were measured by standard methods and the metabolic syndrome diagnosed as defined by the Chinese Diabetes Society criteria for Chinese. Both WBC counts and prevalence of metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in men than in women (p<0.01). Participants in the highest quartile of white blood cell count had significantly higher odds ratio of metabolic syndrome (3.79, 95% CI: 2.64, 5.44), compared with subjects in the lowest quartile. The trend remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors and in further subgroup-analyses. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was significantly and positively correlated with the total white blood cell count in this Chinese population.

  13. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood.

  14. The role of the experience and expression of anger and anxiety in elevated blood pressure among black and white adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    Differences between black and white adolescents in the experience and expression of anger and anxiety, traditional risk factors for hypertension, and blood pressure were examined among adolescents enrolled in a health science course in Tampa, Florida. Relationships between blood pressure and anger/anxiety and traditional risk factors were also examined. Black adolescents of both genders experienced feelings of anxiety more frequently and with greater intensity than did their white counterparts. Although black and white adolescents did not differ in their ability to experience anger, blacks experienced more intense reactions in situations involving unfair criticism and time pressure. More importantly, black males and females suppressed the expression of their anger more often than did their white counterparts. The blood pressure of black adolescent males and females was found to be significantly higher than their white counterparts. Blacks were also more likely to have a family history of hypertension, but were less likely to smoke cigarettes. Racial differences on other risk factors were found only among black females who were heavier and consumed more salty junk foods than white females. Although a number of the personality and risk factor measures were significantly correlated with blood pressure, measures of suppressed anger were more strongly correlated with blood pressure for both black and white adolescents. Findings from the multiple regression analyses showed that suppressed anger was the best independent predictor of blood pressure for all groups except white females. Overall, the findings from this study demonstrate that adolescents with elevated blood pressure can be identified by emotional/psychological factors, which are predictive of high blood pressure for both blacks and whites. PMID:2746680

  15. White blood cell segmentation by circle detection using electromagnetism-like optimization.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Oliva, Diego; Díaz, Margarita; Zaldivar, Daniel; Pérez-Cisneros, Marco; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC) images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO) algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability.

  16. White Blood Cell Segmentation by Circle Detection Using Electromagnetism-Like Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Diego; Díaz, Margarita; Zaldivar, Daniel; Pérez-Cisneros, Marco; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC) images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO) algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability. PMID:23476713

  17. Higher Blood Pressure Partially Links Greater Adiposity to Reduced Brain White Matter Integrity.

    PubMed

    Allen, Ben; Muldoon, Matthew F; Gianaros, Peter J; Jennings, J Richard

    2016-09-01

    Adiposity and elevated blood pressure (BP) are associated with brain structure abnormalities, but whether these effects are independent is unknown. We tested whether associations between adiposity and white matter integrity were explained by elevated BP. A sample of 209 middle-aged adults underwent diffusion tensor imaging to quantify indirect metrics of white matter structural integrity. These included putative markers of global white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy (FA)), axonal integrity (axial diffusivity), and myelin integrity (radial diffusivity). Participants were either normotensive or prehypertensive. After adjusting for age and sex, regression analyses showed that waist circumference was associated with FA (β = -0.15, P < 0.05) and axial diffusivity (β = -0.24, P < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was associated with FA (β = -0.21, P < 0.05). Direct and indirect effect analyses showed that waist circumference was indirectly associated with whole brain FA through MAP (β = -0.06), and directly related to whole brain axial diffusivity, independent of MAP (β = -0.24). Examination of specific white matter tracts yielded similar results; waist circumference was indirectly related to FA through MAP and radial diffusivity, and directly related to axial diffusivity, independent of MAP. Supplemental analyses using body mass index, systolic BP, and diastolic BP also yielded similar results. These findings suggest at least 2 mechanisms explain the adiposity and white matter association: one pathway through elevated BP impacting global white matter integrity and reducing integrity of the myelin sheath, and at least one other adiposity-specific pathway decreasing axonal integrity. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Unfair treatment, discrimination, and ambulatory blood pressure in black and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Karen A; Salomon, Kristen; Kenyon, Karen; Zhou, Fan

    2005-05-01

    The authors tested the hypotheses that unfair treatment and its attribution to race, physical appearance, and peer group were related to elevated ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). During 2 school days, 207 Black and White adolescents wore an ABP monitor and answered questions about mood, posture, location, and activity level at the time of the ABP assessment. At a separate session, in-clinic resting blood pressure and perceptions of unfair treatment were measured. Multilevel mixed models showed that unfair treatment and its attribution to race were not associated with ABP. However, adolescents who indicated that the primary reason for unfair treatment was their physical appearance had elevated ABP. Feeling unfairly treated because of physical appearance may impact blood pressure uniquely during the adolescent transition.

  19. White blood cell segmentation by color-space-based k-means clustering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congcong; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiaomei; Chen, Ying-Jie; Zhen, Wu; Chang, Jun; Zheng, Chengyun; Liu, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    White blood cell (WBC) segmentation, which is important for cytometry, is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. This paper proposes a novel method for the nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation of WBCs for cytometry. A color adjustment step was also introduced before segmentation. Color space decomposition and k-means clustering were combined for segmentation. A database including 300 microscopic blood smear images were used to evaluate the performance of our method. The proposed segmentation method achieves 95.7% and 91.3% overall accuracy for nucleus segmentation and cytoplasm segmentation, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can segment WBCs effectively with high accuracy.

  20. Ocular Blood Flow Measurements in Healthy White Subjects Using Laser Speckle Flowgraphy

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Nikolaus; Wozniak, Piotr A.; Aschinger, Gerold C.; Fondi, Klemens; Bata, Ahmed M.; Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Witkowska, Katarzyna J.; Bolz, Matthias; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the feasibility and reliability of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy (LSFG) to measure ocular perfusion in a sample of healthy white subjects and to elucidate the age-dependence of the parameters obtained. Methods This cross-sectional study included 80 eyes of 80 healthy, non-smoking white subjects of Western European descent between 19 and 79 years of age. A commercial LSFG instrument was applied to measure ocular blood flow at the optic nerve head (ONH) three successive times before and after pharmacological pupil dilation. The mean blur rate (MBR), a measure of relative blood flow velocity, was obtained for different regions of the ONH. Eight parameters of ocular perfusion derived from the pulse-waveform analysis of MBR including blowout time (BOT) and falling rate (FR) were also recorded. Results Artifact-free LSFG images meeting the quality criteria for automated image analysis were obtainable in 93.8% without pupil dilation and in 98.8% with pharmacological pupil dilation. Measurements of MBR showed excellent repeatability with intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.937 and were barely affected by pupil dilation. The majority of pulse-waveform derived variables exhibited equally high repeatability. MBR-related blood flow indices exhibited significant age dependence (p<0.001). FR (r = 0.747, p<0.001) and BOT (r = -0.714, p<0.001) most strongly correlated with age. Conclusions LSFG represents a reliable method for the quantitative assessment of ocular blood flow in white subjects. Our data affirms that the LSFG-derived variables FR and BOT may be useful biomarkers for age-related changes in ocular perfusion. PMID:27959905

  1. Impact of caffeine and psychological stress on blood pressure in black and white men.

    PubMed

    Myers, H F; Shapiro, D; McClure, F; Daims, R

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of caffeine and psychological stress on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) in 40 healthy Black and White male regular coffee drinkers. Half the subjects had a positive family history of hypertension (FH+), and half did not. The effects of 250 mg of caffeine versus placebo (3 mg) in decaffeinated coffee were compared in a within-subject, double-blind, cross-over design. SBP and HR were measured at rest, after caffeine ingestion, during mental arithmetic stress, and during recovery. Results confirmed previous findings with White men that a moderate dose of caffeine produced significant increases in SBP and little effect on HR and that the pressor effects of caffeine and stress combined additively. Contrary to expectations, no overall race or family history differences in SBP levels or in SBP reactivity were observed. FH+ Blacks, however, evidenced slower SBP recovery than Whites. Whites evidenced higher overall HR levels than blacks, but this difference was not specific to caffeine or to mental stress. Mechanisms of racial differences in reactivity underlying differential risk for hypertension are discussed, as well as the utility of caffeine as a pharmacologic probe for such differences.

  2. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, L.P.; Scott, A.C.; Bondurant, F.J.; Browner, B.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the specificity of indium-111 leukocyte scans for osteomyelitis when fractures are present. Midshaft tibial osteotomies were performed in 14 New Zealand white rabbits, seven of which were infected postoperatively with Staphylococcus aureus per Norden's protocol. All 14 rabbits were scanned following injection with 75 microCi of indium 111 at 72 h after osteotomy and at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Before the rabbits were killed, the fracture sites were cultured to document the presence or absence of infection. The results of all infected osteotomy sites were positive, whereas no positive scans were found in the noninfected osteotomies. We concluded from this study that uncomplicated fracture healing does not result in a positive indium-111 leukocyte scan.

  3. Black-White Divergence in the Relation of White Blood Cell Count to Metabolic Syndrome in Preadolescents, Adolescents, and Young Adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Xu, Jihua; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and metabolic syndrome (MetS) by growth periods in black versus white individuals in the general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study cohort consisted of 4,184 black and white preadolescents, adolescents, and adults. In this cohort, 743 adults were followed for 8.1–20.8 years longitudinally. RESULTS White versus black subjects had a significantly higher WBC count in all age-groups. WBC count was associated with more MetS components in whites than in blacks. Mean values of WBC increased significantly with increasing number of MetS components with adverse levels in adolescents and adults, with a stronger trend in whites. WBC count was longitudinally associated with MetS in whites only (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The findings on the association between higher WBC count and MetS beginning in childhood, particularly in whites, underscore a potentially mechanistic link between systemic inflammation, MetS, and cardiovascular risk. PMID:20798336

  4. Black-white divergence in the relation of white blood cell count to metabolic syndrome in preadolescents, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Xu, Jihua; Berenson, Gerald S

    2010-11-01

    To examine the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and metabolic syndrome (MetS) by growth periods in black versus white individuals in the general population. The study cohort consisted of 4,184 black and white preadolescents, adolescents, and adults. In this cohort, 743 adults were followed for 8.1-20.8 years longitudinally. White versus black subjects had a significantly higher WBC count in all age-groups. WBC count was associated with more MetS components in whites than in blacks. Mean values of WBC increased significantly with increasing number of MetS components with adverse levels in adolescents and adults, with a stronger trend in whites. WBC count was longitudinally associated with MetS in whites only (P<0.001). The findings on the association between higher WBC count and MetS beginning in childhood, particularly in whites, underscore a potentially mechanistic link between systemic inflammation, MetS, and cardiovascular risk.

  5. High Brightness Fluorescent White Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes by Promoted Hole Injection via Reduced Barrier by Interfacial Dipole Imparted from Chlorinated Indium Tin Oxide to the Hole Injection Layer PEDOT:PSS.

    PubMed

    Syue, Hong-Ren; Hung, Miao-Ken; Chang, Yao-Tang; Lin, Ge-Wei; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Show-An

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrated that introducing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate as a hole transport layer (HTL) on top of chlorinated indium tin oxide (Cl-ITO) anode can lead to a deeper highest occupied molecular orbital level of the HTL (promoting from 5.22 to 5.42 eV) due to the interfacial dipole imparted by the Cl-ITO, which allows barrier-free hole injection to the emitting layer with polyspirobifluorene doped with the yellow emitter rubrene and significantly prevents excitons quenching by residual chlorine radicals on the surface of Cl-ITO. By use of poly[9,9-bis(6'-(18-crown-6)methoxy)hexyl)fluorene] chelating to potassium ion (PFCn6:K(+)) as electron injection layer and air-stable high work function (EΦ) metal aluminum as the cathode, the performance of fluorescent white polymer light-emitting diode (WPLED) achieves the high maximum brightness (Bmax) of 61 523 cd/m(2) and maximum luminance efficiency (ηL, max) of 10.3 cd/A. Replacing PFCn6:K(+)/Al cathode by CsF/Al, the Bmax and ηL, max are promoted to 87 615 cd/m(2) (the record value in WPLED) and 11.1 cd/A, respectively.

  6. Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity and Periventricular White Matter Hyperintensities in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Vera; Last, David; Alsop, David C.; Abduljalil, Amir M.; Hu, Kun; Lepicovsky, Lukas; Cavallerano, Jerry; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes increases the risk for cerebromicrovascular disease, possibly through its effects on blood flow regulation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of type 2 diabetes on blood flow velocities (BFVs) in the middle cerebral arteries and to determine the relationship between white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and BFVs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured BFVs in 28 type 2 diabetic and 22 control subjects (aged 62.3 ± 7.2 years) using transcranial Doppler ultrasound during baseline, hyperventilation, and CO2 rebreathing. WMHs were graded, and their volume was quantified from fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images on a 3.0 Tesla MRI. RESULTS The diabetic group demonstrated decreased mean BFVs and increased cerebrovascular resistance during baseline, hypo- and hypercapnia (P < 0.0001), and impaired CO2 reactivity (P = 0.05). WMH volume was negatively correlated with baseline BFV (P < 0.0001). A regression model revealed that baseline BFVs were negatively associated with periventricular WMHs, HbA1c (A1C), and inflammatory markers and positively associated with systolic blood pressure (R2 = 0.86, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Microvascular disease in type 2 diabetes, which manifests as white matter abnormalities on MRI, is associated with reduced cerebral BFVs, increased resistance in middle cerebral arteries, and inflammation. These findings are clinically relevant as a potential mechanism for cerebrovascular disease in elderly with type 2 diabetes. PMID:16801574

  7. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni; Estuningsih, Sri; Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  8. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni Estuningsih, Sri; Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-09-30

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  9. High blood pressure and cerebral white matter lesion progression in the general population.

    PubMed

    Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Vernooij, Meike W; de Boer, Renske; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure is considered an important risk factor for cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in the aging population. In a longitudinal population-based study of 665 nondemented persons, we investigated the longitudinal relationship of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure with annual progression of WMLs. Means of blood pressure were calculated over a 5-year period before longitudinal MRI scanning. WML progression was subsequently measured on 2 scans 3.5 years apart. We performed analyses with linear regression models and evaluated adjustments for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and baseline WML volume. In addition, we evaluated whether treatment of hypertension is related to less WML progression. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with annual WML progression (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.08 [0.03; 0.14] mL/y and 0.09 [0.03; 0.15] mL/y per SD increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Pulse pressure was also significantly associated with WML progression, but not independent from hypertension. After adjustment for baseline WML volume, only systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated: 0.05 (0.00; 0.09) mL/y per SD increase. People with uncontrolled untreated hypertension had significantly more WML progression than people with uncontrolled treated hypertension (difference [95% confidence interval], 0.12 [0.00; 0.23] mL/y). The present study further establishes high blood pressure to precede WMLs and implies that hypertension treatment could reduce WML progression in the general population.

  10. White blood cell DNA adducts in a cohort of asthmatic children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen E; Talaska, Glenn; Kahn, Robert S; Schumann, Brenda; Khoury, Jane; Leonard, Anthony C; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) leads to molecular damage in the form of DNA adducts. While lung cancer risk is higher among African Americans compared to White Americans, a few studies have tested for racial differences in DNA adducts among children exposed to ETS. The purpose of this study was to test whether African American children have higher DNA adducts levels compared to White children adjusted for ETS exposure. Data and biologic specimens were drawn from an existing cohort of 212 asthmatic children. These subjects participated in a 12-month ETS-reduction trial that employed HEPA air cleaners with active filter cartridges and sham filter cartridges. White blood cell (WBC) DNA was analyzed for DNA adducts using (32)P-postlabeling. We assessed ETS exposure using a validated air nicotine dosimeter. We determined the independent relationship between African American race and DNA adduct levels adjusted for ETS exposure and air cleaner use. The mean age of the subjects was 8.4 years; 55% were African American. There was no difference in DNA adduct levels between African American and White children (11.8 vs. 11.2 adducts per 10(9) nucleotides, p = 0.86), despite slightly higher levels of air nicotine exposure (3.4 vs. 2.2 μg/m(3), p = 0.14). African American children used their air cleaners less often than White children. We found that the best predictor of DNA adduct levels was the duration of air cleaner use (r = -0.133, p = 0.056). This association was independent of cartridge type. We did not see differences in adduct levels by race even after accounting for the level of ETS exposure. However, there was a marginal inverse association between air cleaner use and adducts. Additional research is required to understand this phenomenon.

  11. White blood cell DNA adducts in a cohort of asthmatic children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Talaska, Glenn; Kahn, Robert S.; Schumann, Brenda; Khoury, Jane; Leonard, Anthony C.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) leads to molecular damage in the form of DNA adducts. While lung cancer risk is higher among African Americans compared to White Americans, a few studies have tested for racial differences in DNA adducts among children exposed to ETS. The purpose of this study was to test whether African American children have higher DNA adducts levels compared to White children adjusted for ETS exposure. Methods Data and biologic specimens were drawn from an existing cohort of 212 asthmatic children. These subjects participated in a 12-month ETS-reduction trial that employed HEPA air cleaners with active filter cartridges and sham filter cartridges. White blood cell (WBC) DNA was analyzed for DNA adducts using 32P-postlabeling. We assessed ETS exposure using a validated air nicotine dosimeter. We determined the independent relationship between African American race and DNA adduct levels adjusted for ETS exposure and air cleaner use. Results The mean age of the subjects was 8.4 years; 55% were African American. There was no difference in DNA adduct levels between African American and White children (11.8 vs. 11.2 adducts per 109 nucleotides, p = 0.86), despite slightly higher levels of air nicotine exposure (3.4 vs. 2.2 μg/m3, p = 0.14). African American children used their air cleaners less often than White children. We found that the best predictor of DNA adduct levels was the duration of air cleaner use (r = −0.133, p = 0.056). This association was independent of cartridge type. Conclusions We did not see differences in adduct levels by race even after accounting for the level of ETS exposure. However, there was a marginal inverse association between air cleaner use and adducts. Additional research is required to understand this phenomenon. PMID:20336464

  12. High throughput imaging of blood smears using white light diffraction phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    While automated blood cell counters have made great progress in detecting abnormalities in blood, the lack of specificity for a particular disease, limited information on single cell morphology and intrinsic uncertainly due to high throughput in these instruments often necessitates detailed inspection in the form of a peripheral blood smear. Such tests are relatively time consuming and frequently rely on medical professionals tally counting specific cell types. These assays rely on the contrast generated by chemical stains, with the signal intensity strongly related to staining and preparation techniques, frustrating machine learning algorithms that require consistent quantities to denote the features in question. Instead we opt to use quantitative phase imaging, understanding that the resulting image is entirely due to the structure (intrinsic contrast) rather than the complex interplay of stain and sample. We present here our first steps to automate peripheral blood smear scanning, in particular a method to generate the quantitative phase image of an entire blood smear at high throughput using white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a single shot and common path interferometric imaging technique.

  13. An ultrastructural analysis of platelets, erythrocytes, white blood cells, and fibrin network in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Etheresia; du Plooy, Jenny; Soma, Prashilla; Gasparyan, Armen Yuri

    2014-07-01

    The study suggests that patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) present with distinct inflammatory ultrastructural changes such as platelets blebbing, generation of platelet-derived microparticles, spontaneous formation of massive fibrin network and fusion of the erythrocytes membranes. Lupoid platelets actively interact with other inflammatory cells, particularly with white blood cells (WBCs), and the massive fibrin network facilitates such an interaction. It is possible that the concerted actions of platelets, erythrocytes and WBC, caught in the inflammatory fibrin network, predispose to pro-thrombotic states in patients with SLE.

  14. Postprandial alterations in whole-blood DNA methylation are mediated by changes in white blood cell composition.

    PubMed

    Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Bringeland, Nathalie; Nilsson, Emil K; Bandstein, Marcus; Olaya Búcaro, Marcela; Vogel, Heike; Schürmann, Annette; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-08-01

    DNA methylation is an essential nuclear process associated with genomic functions such as transcription factor binding and the regulation of gene expression. DNA methylation patterns can also serve as potential biomarkers for disease progression and response to therapy. However, the full dynamics of DNA methylation across daily physiologic events have not been fully elucidated. We sought to study how ingesting a standardized meal acutely affects peripheral blood DNA methylation. We performed an observational study in healthy men (n = 26) on DNA methylation and gene expression in whole blood before and 160 min after the ingestion of a standardized meal. Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) methylation was assayed on the HumanMethylation450k microarray, and gene expression was measured with the Human Gene 2.1 ST Array. Differential methylation after food intake was detected in 13% of the analyzed probes (63,207 CpG probes) at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). This effect was driven by changes in leukocyte fractions as estimated from comparisons against methylation datasets generated from sorted leukocytes. When methylation values were adjusted for estimated leukocyte fractions, 541 probes were observed to be altered in the postprandial state (5% FDR). Apparent alterations in DNA methylation 160 min after meal ingestion mainly reflect changes in the estimated leukocyte population in whole blood. These results have major methodologic implications for genome-wide methylation studies because they highlight the strong underlying effects of changes in leukocyte fractions on CpG methylation patterns as well as the potential importance of meal-standardized sampling procedures for future investigations when alterations in white blood cell fractions are unavailable. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as LSF008786. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Capillary red blood cell flow and activation of white blood cells in chronic muscle ischemia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S I; Hudlicka, O; Brown, M D

    1997-06-01

    Increased activity of ischemic skeletal muscles in which functional hyperemia is impaired has been linked with capillary endothelial swelling postcapillary white blood cell (WBC) adherence. The perfusion pattern of capillaries under these conditions and time course of WBC activation is not known. Capillary microcirculation was studied by videomicroscopy at rest and after muscle contractions (1 Hz, 10 min) in extensor digi-torum longus muscles of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rat during the early stages of chronic ischemia (unilateral ligation of the common iliac artery for 3 days) and in ischemic muscles subjected to increased activity (7 days of ischemia or 3 days of ischemia plus indirect electrical stimulation via planted electrodes, 10 Hz, 7 x 10 min on-90 min off/day) to investigate how perfusion was affected. All ischemic muscles had more intermittently flowing capillaries than did unoperated control) muscles. Temporal heterogeneity of perfusion at rest, assessed by velocity, time spent stationary, and stop/start frequency of red blood cells, was similar to control values in ischemic muscles but greater in ischemic muscles subjected to additional activity. Hyperemic responses to contractions were severely blunted in all ischemic groups. The portion of morphologically nonspherical WBCs, taken to indicate activation, was 24 +/- 3% in venous blood after 3 days of ischemia vs. 14 +/- 1% in control muscles and increased further by 7 days (42 +/- 2%) when activated cells were also found in arterial blood. Thus increased muscular activity may exacerbate the adverse effects of ischemia on capillary perfusion, and WBC activation, evident before endothelial swelling is apparent, provides the potential as a circulating signal for capillary swelling in the ischemic and other muscles.

  16. Effects of winter fasting and refeeding on white-tailed deer blood profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on blood characteristics of 9 nonpregnant, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in captivity from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Percent weight loss was greater in fasted deer than in deer fed diets of 2 crude protein levels. Fasting effects were also observed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), cholesterol, triglycerides, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), potassium (K), glucose, phosphorus (P), insulin, thyroxine (T4), and total protein (TP). Refeeding influenced cholesterol, sodium (Na), and calcium (Ca). Hemoglobin, PCV, Ca, P, and albumin varied with time in fasted deer. Changes over time in the fed deer occurred for several hematological and serum characteristics. Data are presented to serve as reference values for better understanding of data collected from free-ranging deer under less known conditions.

  17. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs. PMID:26504637

  18. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs.

  19. Segmentation of White Blood Cells through Nucleus Mark Watershed Operations and Mean Shift Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Hui; Li, Xiaomei; Chang, Jun; Zheng, Chengyun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for segmentation of white blood cells (WBCs) in peripheral blood and bone marrow images under different lights through mean shift clustering, color space conversion and nucleus mark watershed operation (NMWO). The proposed method focuses on obtaining seed points. First, color space transformation and image enhancement techniques are used to obtain nucleus groups as inside seeds. Second, mean shift clustering, selection of the C channel component in the CMYK model, and illumination intensity adjustment are employed to acquire WBCs as outside seeds. Third, the seeds and NMWO are employed to precisely determine WBCs and solve the cell adhesion problem. Morphological operations are further used to improve segmentation accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm exhibits higher segmentation accuracy and robustness compared with traditional methods. PMID:26370995

  20. Influence of birth weight on white blood cell count in biracial (black-white) children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2009-01-15

    The effect of birth weight on white blood cell (WBC) count among blacks and whites was examined in 2,080 children (aged 4-11 years, 57.4% white, and 49.2% male), 892 adolescents (aged 12-17 years, 57.2% white, and 50.8% male), and 1,872 adults (aged 18-38 years, 68.4% white, and 41.9% male) from Bogalusa, Louisiana, in 2005. After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, and smoking status (in adolescents and adults), the WBC count decreased across quartiles of increasing birth weight specific for race, sex, and gestational age in children (P(trend) = 0.0007) and adults (P(trend) = 0.005). In multivariate regression analyses that included the covariates above, birth weight was inversely associated with WBC count in children (beta coefficients (unit, cells/microL per kg) = -256, -241, and -251 for whites, blacks, and the combined sample, with P = 0.003, 0.029, and <0.001, respectively) and in adults (beta = -224 and -211 for whites and the combined sample, with P = 0.015 and 0.008, respectively). These results show that low birth weight is associated with increased systemic inflammation as depicted by the WBC count in childhood and adulthood, thereby potentially linking fetal growth retardation to cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  1. Preterm white matter brain injury is prevented by early administration of umbilical cord blood cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingang; Yawno, Tamara; Sutherland, Amy; Loose, Jan; Nitsos, Ilias; Bischof, Robert; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; McDonald, Courtney A; Wong, Flora Y; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2016-09-01

    Infants born very preterm are at high risk for neurological deficits including cerebral palsy. In this study we assessed the neuroprotective effects of umbilical cord blood cells (UCBCs) and optimal administration timing in a fetal sheep model of preterm brain injury. 50 million allogeneic UCBCs were intravenously administered to fetal sheep (0.7 gestation) at 12h or 5d after acute hypoxia-ischemia (HI) induced by umbilical cord occlusion. The fetal brains were collected at 10d after HI. HI (n=7) was associated with reduced number of oligodendrocytes (Olig2+) and myelin density (CNPase+), and increased density of activated microglia (Iba-1+) in cerebral white matter compared to control fetuses (P<0.05). UCBCs administered at 12h, but not 5d after HI, significantly protected white matter structures and suppressed cerebral inflammation. Activated microglial density showed a correlation with decreasing oligodendrocyte number (P<0.001). HI caused cell death (TUNEL+) in the internal capsule and cell proliferation (Ki-67+) in the subventricular zone compared to control (P<0.05), while UCBCs at 12h or 5d ameliorated these effects. Additionally, UCBCs at 12h induced a significant systemic increase in interleukin-10 at 10d, and reduced oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) following HI (P<0.05). UCBC administration at 12h after HI reduces preterm white matter injury, via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced blood flow in normal white matter predicts development of leukoaraiosis

    PubMed Central

    Bernbaum, Manya; Menon, Bijoy K; Fick, Gordon; Smith, Eric E; Goyal, Mayank; Frayne, Richard; Coutts, Shelagh B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether low cerebral blood flow (CBF) is associated with subsequent development of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Patients were included from a longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study of minor stroke/transient ischemic attack patients. Images were co-registered and new WMH at 18 months were identified by comparing follow-up imaging with baseline fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). Regions-of-interest (ROIs) were placed on FLAIR images in one of three categories: (1) WMH seen at both baseline and follow-up imaging, (2) new WMH seen only on follow-up imaging, and (3) regions of normal-appearing white matter at both time points. Registered CBF maps at baseline were used to measure CBF in the ROIs. A multivariable model was developed using mixed-effects logistic regression to determine the effect of baseline CBF on the development on new WMH. Forty patients were included. Mean age was 61±11 years, 30% were female. Low baseline CBF, female sex, and presence of diabetes were independently associated with the presence of new WMH on follow-up imaging. The odds of having new WMH on follow-up imaging reduces by 0.61 (95% confidence interval=0.57 to 0.65) for each 1 mL/100 g per minute increase in baseline CBF. We conclude that regions of white matter with low CBF develop new WMH on follow-up imaging. PMID:25966951

  3. Effects of Onion Extracts on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Profiles of White Mini Broilers

    PubMed Central

    An, B. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Oh, S. T.; Kang, C. W.; Cho, S.; Kim, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated) or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract) for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW) and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet were lower than those of medicated control group (p<0.01). The chicks fed diet with 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract showed a similar BW to that of medicated control group. The relative weight of various organs, such as liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, abdominal fat, and the activities of serum enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments. There were no significant differences in meat color among groups. Whereas, groups fed diets containing onion extract had slightly lower cooking loss and higher shear force value, but not significantly. The concentrations of serum free cholesterol and triacylglycerol in groups fed diet containing onion extract were significantly decreased compared with those of controls (p<0.01). In conclusion, the onion extracts exerted a growth-promoting effect when added in White mini broiler diets, reflecting potential alternative substances to replace antibiotics. PMID:25557821

  4. Photoperiodic Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow in White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Teplitsky, Seth; Gnyawali, Surya; Nelson, Randy J; Rink, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Individuals living outside the tropics need to adjust their behavioral and physiological repertoires throughout the year to adapt to the changing seasons. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) reduce hippocampal volumes, hippocampal-dependent memory function, long-term potentiation, and alter neurogenesis in response to short (winter-like) day lengths (photoperiods). During winter, these mice putatively shunt energy away from the brain to maximize peripheral thermogenesis, immune function, and survival. We hypothesized that these changes in brain function are accompanied by alterations in brain vasculature. We maintained white-footed mice in short (8 h light/16 h dark) or long (16 h light/8 h dark) photoperiods for 8-9 weeks. Mice were then perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin to visualize the perfused cerebrovasculature. Short-day mice reduced hippocampal and cortical capillary density (FITC(+) area); vessels isolated from short day-exposed mice expressed higher mRNA levels of the gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Additionally, short-day mice reduced cerebral blood flow ∼15% compared with their long-day counterparts, as assessed by laser speckle flowmetry. Immunohistochemistry revealed higher levels of MMP2 in the hippocampus of mice maintained in short days compared with long days, potentially contributing to the observed vascular remodeling. These data demonstrate that a discrete environmental signal (i.e., day length) can substantially alter cerebral blood flow in adult mammals.

  5. Changes in white blood cells and platelets in children with falciparum malaria: relationship to disease outcome.

    PubMed

    Ladhani, Shamez; Lowe, Brett; Cole, Andrew O; Kowuondo, Ken; Newton, Charles R J C

    2002-12-01

    Little is known about the changes in white blood cells and platelets in children with falciparum malaria in endemic areas. We measured the white cell count (WCC) and platelets of 230 healthy children from the community, 1369 children admitted to hospital with symptomatic malaria, and 1461 children with other medical conditions. Children with malaria had a higher WCC compared with community controls, and leucocytosis was strongly associated with younger age, deep breathing, severe anaemia, thrombocytopenia and death. The WCC was not associated with a positive blood culture. In children with malaria, high lymphocyte and low monocyte counts were independently associated with mortality. A platelet count of less than 150 x 109/l was found in 56.7% of children with malaria, and was associated with age, prostration and parasite density, but not with bleeding problems or mortality. The mean platelet volume was also higher in children with malaria compared with other medical conditions. This may reflect early release from the bone marrow in response to peripheral platelet destruction. Thus, leucocytosis was associated with both severity and mortality in children with falciparum malaria, irrespective of bacteraemia, whereas thrombocytopenia, although very common, was not associated with adverse outcome.

  6. The Cryoprotectant Effect of Polysaccharides from Plants and Microalgae on Human White Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Khudyakov, Andrey Nikolayevich; Polezhaeva, Tatyana Vitalyevna; Zaitseva, Oksana Olegovna; Gűnter, Elena Aleksandrovna; Solomina, Olga Nurzadinovna; Popeyko, Oksana Viktorovna; Shubakov, Anatolyi Aleksandrovich; Vetoshkin, Konstantin Aleksandrovich

    2015-08-01

    The use of carbohydrates as cryoprotectants is increasing. In this study the effects of incorporating polysaccharides extracted from plants and microalgae originating in northern Russia, into cryoprotectant solutions used to preserve human white blood cells were investigated. Cells in the presence of the polysaccharides were cooled to either -40°C or -80°C, using a two-step cooling process. The morphological and functional indicators of the cryopreserved leukocytes were assessed by light microscopy. When combined with glycerol, the pectin-polysaccharides Lemnan from common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and Comaruman from marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre L), were capable of lowering the freezing point of the cryoprotectant solution and helped to preserve the integrity of the human white blood cell membranes at temperatures below zero. In addition, the increase in phagocytic activity of neutrophils was confirmed. In the context of the contemporary search for effective cell cryoprotectants, the results of this research demonstrate that the cryopreservation of biospecimens in a polysaccharide environment is a promising trend in applied medicine, which can be considered an alternative to traditional cryogenic nitrogen techniques.

  7. Photoperiodic Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow in White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus)

    PubMed Central

    Teplitsky, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Individuals living outside the tropics need to adjust their behavioral and physiological repertoires throughout the year to adapt to the changing seasons. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) reduce hippocampal volumes, hippocampal-dependent memory function, long-term potentiation, and alter neurogenesis in response to short (winter-like) day lengths (photoperiods). During winter, these mice putatively shunt energy away from the brain to maximize peripheral thermogenesis, immune function, and survival. We hypothesized that these changes in brain function are accompanied by alterations in brain vasculature. We maintained white-footed mice in short (8 h light/16 h dark) or long (16 h light/8 h dark) photoperiods for 8–9 weeks. Mice were then perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin to visualize the perfused cerebrovasculature. Short-day mice reduced hippocampal and cortical capillary density (FITC+ area); vessels isolated from short day-exposed mice expressed higher mRNA levels of the gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Additionally, short-day mice reduced cerebral blood flow ∼15% compared with their long-day counterparts, as assessed by laser speckle flowmetry. Immunohistochemistry revealed higher levels of MMP2 in the hippocampus of mice maintained in short days compared with long days, potentially contributing to the observed vascular remodeling. These data demonstrate that a discrete environmental signal (i.e., day length) can substantially alter cerebral blood flow in adult mammals. PMID:27570829

  8. Characterizing the white matter hyperintensity penumbra with cerebral blood flow measures.

    PubMed

    Promjunyakul, N; Lahna, D; Kaye, J A; Dodge, H H; Erten-Lyons, D; Rooney, W D; Silbert, L C

    2015-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are common with age, grow over time, and are associated with cognitive and motor impairments. Mechanisms underlying WMH growth are unclear. We aimed to determine the presence and extent of decreased normal appearing white matter (NAWM) cerebral blood flow (CBF) surrounding WMHs to identify 'WM at risk', or the WMH CBF penumbra. We aimed to further validate cross-sectional finding by determining whether the baseline WMH penumbra CBF predicts the development of new WMHs at follow-up. Sixty-one cognitively intact elderly subjects received 3 T MPRAGE, FLAIR, and pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL). Twenty-four subjects returned for follow-up MRI. The inter-scan interval was 18 months. A NAWM layer mask, comprised of fifteen layers, 1 mm thick each surrounding WMHs, was generated for periventricular (PVWMH) and deep (DWMH) WMHs. Mean CBF for each layer was computed. New WMH and persistent NAWM voxels for each penumbra layer were defined from follow-up MRI. CBF in the area surrounding WMHs was significantly lower than the total brain NAWM, extending approximately 12 mm from both the established PVWMH and DWMH. Voxels with new WMH at follow-up had significantly lower baseline CBF than voxels that maintained NAWM, suggesting that baseline CBF can predict the development of new WMHs over time. A CBF penumbra exists surrounding WMHs, which is associated with future WMH expansion. ASL MRI can be used to monitor interventions to increase white matter blood flow for the prevention of further WM damage and its cognitive and motor consequences.

  9. Blood-brain barrier damage, but not parenchymal white blood cells, is a hallmark of seizure activity.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Nicola; Teng, Qingshan; Ghosh, Chaitali; Fan, Qingyuan; Nguyen, Minh T; Desai, Nirav K; Bawa, Harpreet; Rasmussen, Peter; Masaryk, Thomas K; Janigro, Damir

    2010-09-24

    It has long been held that chronic seizures cause blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. Recent studies have also demonstrated that BBB damage triggers seizures. We have used the BBB osmotic disruption procedure (BBBD) to examine the correlation between BBB opening, pattern of white blood cell (WBCs) entry into the brain and seizure occurrence. These findings were compared to results from resected epileptic brain tissue from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. We confirmed that a successful BBB osmotic opening (BBBD) leads to the occurrence of acute epileptiform discharges. Electroencephalography (EEG) and time-joint frequency analysis reveal EEG slowing followed by an increase in the 10-20Hz frequency range. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled WBCs (GFP-WBCs) suspended in Evans Blue we found that, at time of BBB-induced epileptiform discharges, WBCs populated the perivascular space of a leaky BBB. Similar results were obtained at time of pilocarpine seizure. No frank WBCs extravasation in the brain parenchyma was observed. In TLE brain specimens, CD45-positive leukocytes were detected only in the vascular and perivascular spaces while albumin and IgG extravasates were parenchymal. The pattern was similar to those observed in rats. Our data suggest that neither acute-induced nor chronic seizures correlate with WBC brain parenchymal migration while albumin and IgG brain leakage is a hallmark of acute and chronic seizures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood-brain barrier damage, but not parenchymal white blood cells, is a hallmark of seizure activity

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Nicola; Teng, Qingshan; Ghosh, Chaitali; Fan, Qingyuan; Nguyen, Minh T; Desai, Nirav K; Bawa, Harpreet; Rasmussen, Peter; Masaryk, Thomas K; Janigro, Damir

    2010-01-01

    It has long been held that chronic seizures cause blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. Recent studies have also demonstrated that BBB damage triggers seizures. We have used the BBB osmotic disruption procedure (BBBD) to examine the correlation between BBB opening, pattern of white blood cells (WBCs) entry into the brain and seizure occurrence. These findings were compared to results from resected epileptic brain tissue from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. We confirmed that a successful BBB osmotic opening (BBBD) leads to the occurrence of acute epileptiform discharges. Electroencephalography (EEG) and time-joint frequency analysis reveal EEG slowing followed by an increase in the 10-20 Hz frequency range. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled WBCs (GFP-WBCs) suspended in Evans Blue we found that, at time of BBB-induced epileptiform discharges, WBCs populated the perivascular space of a leaky BBB. Similar results were obtained at time of pilocarpine seizure. No frank WBCs extravasation in the brain parenchyma was observed. In TLE brain specimens, CD45-positive leukocytes were detected only in the vascular and perivascular spaces while albumin and IgG extravasates were parenchymal. The pattern was similar to those observed in rats. Our data suggest that neither acute-induced nor chronic seizures correlate with WBC brain parenchymal migration while albumin and IgG brain leakage is a hallmark of acute and chronic seizures. PMID:20599815

  11. Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r = 0.9937, p < 0.001) was found between the increased WBC count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p < 0.05. Interestingly, in citrated blood, WBC counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p > 0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC.

  12. Multicenter evaluation of two flow cytometric methods for counting low levels of white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; van der Meer, Pieter F; Pietersz, Ruby N I; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2004-09-01

    Flow cytometric methods can be used to count residual white blood cells (WBCs) in WBC-reduced blood products, which should contain fewer than 1 x 10(6) WBCs per unit (approximately 3.3 WBCs/ microL). In this study two flow cytometric methods for counting WBCs under routine conditions in nine laboratories were evaluated. Panels of red blood cells (RBCs), platelets (PLTs), and plasma were prepared containing 33.3, 10.0, 3.3, 1.0, and 0.3 WBCs per microL and counted with flow cytometric methods (either LeucoCOUNT, BD Biosciences, four laboratories; or LeukoSure, Beckman Coulter, five laboratories). Requirements were that at the level of 3.3 WBCs per microL, coefficient of variation was < or =20 percent and accuracy was > or =80 percent. Routine flow cytometric quality control (QC) data of WBC-reduced blood products from two laboratories were analyzed. At the level of 3.3 WBCs per microL, none of the laboratories met the requirements for all three blood products. The LeucoCOUNT method met requirements at more laboratories than the LeukoSure method for RBCs and PLTs, but the opposite was true for plasma. Routine QC data showed that >99 percent of the flow cytometric measurements for WBC-reduced products was below the 95 percent prediction interval at 3.3 WBCs per microL. None of the laboratories met the requirements for accuracy and precision for all three blood products. Nevertheless, routine results showed that in >99 percent of the products, WBC counts were below guideline limits. Therefore, both flow cytometric methods are suitable for QC with pass-fail criterion.

  13. A pillar-based microfilter for isolation of white blood cells on elastomeric substrate.

    PubMed

    Alvankarian, Jafar; Bahadorimehr, Alireza; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to design, fabricate, and characterize a pillar-based microfluidic device for size-based separation of human blood cells on an elastomeric substrate with application in the low-cost rapid prototyping of lab-chip devices. The single inlet single outlet device is using parallel U-shape arrays of pillars with cutoff size of 5.5 μm for trapping white blood cells (WBCs) in a pillar chamber with internal dead-volume of less than 1.0 μl. The microstructures are designed to limit the elastomeric deformation against fluid pressures. Numerical analysis showed that at maximum pressure loss of 15 kPa which is lower than the device conformal bonding strength, the pillar elastomeric deformation is less than 5% for flow rates of up to 1.0 ml min(-1). Molding technique was employed for device prototyping using polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) resin and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. Characterization of the dual-layer device with beads and blood samples is performed. Tests with blood injection showed that ∼18%-25% of WBCs are trapped and ∼84%-89% of red blood cells (RBCs) are passed at flow rates of 15-50 μl min(-1) with a slight decrease of WBCs trap and improve of the RBCs pass at higher flow rates. Similar results were obtained by separation of mixed microspheres of different size injected at flow rates of up to 400 μl min(-1). Tests with blood samples stained by fluorescent gel demonstrated that the WBCs are accumulated in the arrays of pillars that later end up to blockage of the device. Filtration results of using elastomeric substrate present a good consistency with the trend of separation efficiencies of the similar silicon-based filters.

  14. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of white blood cells from chikungunya fever patients of different severities.

    PubMed

    Wikan, Nitwara; Khongwichit, Sarawut; Phuklia, Weerawat; Ubol, Sukathida; Thonsakulprasert, Tipparat; Thannagith, Montri; Tanramluk, Duangrudee; Paemanee, Atchara; Kittisenachai, Suthathip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Smith, Duncan R

    2014-04-11

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a recently re-emerged mosquito transmitted viral disease caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. Infection of humans with CHIKV can result in CHIKF of variable severity, although the factors mediating disease severity remain poorly defined. White blood cells were isolated from blood samples collected during the 2009-2010 CHIKF outbreak in Thailand. Clinical presentation and viral load data were used to classify samples into three groups, namely non chikungunya fever (non-CHIKF), mild CHIKF, and severe CHIKF. Five samples from each group were analyzed for protein expression by GeLC-MS/MS. CHIKV proteins (structural and non-structural) were found only in CHIKF samples. A total of 3505 human proteins were identified, with 68 proteins only present in non-CHIKF samples. A total of 240 proteins were found only in CHIKF samples, of which 65 and 46 were found only in mild and severe CHIKF samples respectively. Proteins with altered expression mapped predominantly to cellular signaling pathways (including toll-like receptor and PI3K-Akt signaling) although many other processes showed altered expression as a result of CHIKV infection. Expression of proteins consistent with the activation of the inflammasome was detected, and quantitation of (pro)-caspase 1 at the protein and RNA levels showed an association with disease severity. This study confirms the infection of at least a component of white blood cells by CHIKV, and shows that CHIKV infection results in activation of the inflammasome in a manner that is associated with disease severity.

  15. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of white blood cells from chikungunya fever patients of different severities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a recently re-emerged mosquito transmitted viral disease caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. Infection of humans with CHIKV can result in CHIKF of variable severity, although the factors mediating disease severity remain poorly defined. Methods White blood cells were isolated from blood samples collected during the 2009-2010 CHIKF outbreak in Thailand. Clinical presentation and viral load data were used to classify samples into three groups, namely non chikungunya fever (non-CHIKF), mild CHIKF, and severe CHIKF. Five samples from each group were analyzed for protein expression by GeLC-MS/MS. Results CHIKV proteins (structural and non-structural) were found only in CHIKF samples. A total of 3505 human proteins were identified, with 68 proteins only present in non-CHIKF samples. A total of 240 proteins were found only in CHIKF samples, of which 65 and 46 were found only in mild and severe CHIKF samples respectively. Proteins with altered expression mapped predominantly to cellular signaling pathways (including toll-like receptor and PI3K-Akt signaling) although many other processes showed altered expression as a result of CHIKV infection. Expression of proteins consistent with the activation of the inflammasome was detected, and quantitation of (pro)-caspase 1 at the protein and RNA levels showed an association with disease severity. Conclusions This study confirms the infection of at least a component of white blood cells by CHIKV, and shows that CHIKV infection results in activation of the inflammasome in a manner that is associated with disease severity. PMID:24721947

  16. Occupational Exposure to Indium of Indium Smelter Workers.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun Guang; Wang, Huan Qiang; Song, Han Bo; Li, Zhi Hui; Li, Xiao Ping; Ye, Shao Se; Zhang, Fu Gang; Cui, Shi Wei; Yan, Hui Fang; Li, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Case reports of indium-related lung disease in workers have raised public concern to the human toxicity of indium (In) and its compounds. However, studies evaluating the exposure or health of workers in In smelting plants are rare. Therefore, in this study, we focused on four In smelting plants, with the main objective of characterizing In in smelter plants in China and discussing the potential exposure biomarkers of In exposure. We recruited 494 subjectsat four In smelting plants in China. Personal air samples, first morning urine and spot blood samples were collected. In concentrations in samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In concentrations in air samples did not exceed the permissible concentration-time weighed average, but the smelter workers had a higher internal exposure to In. Positive correlations were observed between the air In and urine In concentrations, and between the air In and blood In concentrations. This study provides basic data for the following In exposure and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Indium fluoride glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    Fluoride glasses are the only material that transmit light from ultraviolet to mid-infrared and can be drawn into industrial optical fibers. The mechanical and optical properties of new indium fluoride glass fibers have been investigated. Multimode fiber 190 microns, has very high mechanical strength greater than 100 kpsi and optical loss as low as 45 dB/km between 2 and 4 microns. Unlike chalcogenide glass fibers, indium fluoride fiber has a wide transmission window from 0.3 to 5.5 microns without any absorption peak. Indium fluoride glass fibers are the technology of choice for all application requiring transmission up to 5 micron such as infrared contour measure (IRCM) and chemical sensing. Furthermore, Indium fluoride glasses have low phonon energy and can be heavily doped and co-doped whit rare-earth elements. Therefore they are very promising candidates for infrared fiber lasers.

  18. [Indium lung disease].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2014-02-01

    "Indium lung" is a new occupational lung disease. The global demand for indium, the major material used in manufacturing flat-screen display panels, has skyrocketed since the 1990s (Japan comprises 85% of the worldwide demand). The first case was reported in Japan in 2003, followed by seven cases (interstitial pneumonia and emphysema) in Japan. Two pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) cases in the USA followed in 2011. Indium lung has been described as interstitial pneumonia, pneumothorax, emphysema, and PAP. In 2013, The Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare issued an "Ordinance on the Prevention of Hazards Due to Specified Chemical Substances" requiring employers to provide regular health checks for employees and measurements of work environment concentrations of respirable indium dust.

  19. Effects of the butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the arylamines N-acetyltransferase activity in rat white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, H F; Wu, H C; Chang, W C; Chung, J G

    1999-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used to determine any effects on the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity in rat whole blood and white blood cells as measured by high performance liquid chromatography assay for the amounts of N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (AAF) and 2-aminofluorene (AF). Two assay systems were performed, one with cellular cytosols, the other with intact white blood cells. The NAT activity in the whole blood and white blood cell cytosols was suppressed by BHA and BHT in a dose-dependent manner, i.e. the higher the concentrations of BHA and BHT, the higher the inhibition of NAT activity. Time-course experiments showed that NAT activity measured from the intact white blood cells was inhibited by BHA and BHT up to 24 h. The results suggest that BHA and BHT suppressed AF acetylation in rat blood with intact white blood cells.

  20. Indium lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kristin J; Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-Long; Harley, Russell A; Roggli, Victor L; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J; Trapnell, Bruce C; Day, Gregory A; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2012-06-01

    Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies.

  1. A comparison of 2 white blood cell count devices to aid judicious antibiotic prescribing.

    PubMed

    Casey, Janet R; Pichichero, Michael E

    2009-04-01

    A low or normal white blood cell (WBC) count is usually associated with viral illnesses. This study evaluated the reliability of a new point-of-care, inexpensive, WBC count device which requires only 10 microL (1 drop) of whole blood from a finger stick to an automated Cell-Dyn counter in a busy office practice setting and assessed its reliability to assist in avoiding antibiotic prescribing. A total of 120 acutely ill children and potential antibiotic recipients were studied from October 2007 to March 2008. The mean WBC count was 7.4x10(9)/L and 8.1x10( 9)/L for the new WBC device and the automated Cell-Dyn counter, respectively. The correlation between the 2 devices was high (r=.988, P=.005). A total of 88 children (73%) did not receive antibiotics and mean WBC was 7.2x10(9)/L. In all, 32 children (27%) received an antibiotic and 1 (3%) returned for a follow-up office visit for the same or a related illness. Of the 88 children with a low blood count who did not receive an antibiotic, 3 (3%) had return visit within 30 days and received an antibiotic. A simple and quick point-of-care WBC count device produces similar results as achievable with a Cell-Dyn counter for total WBCs and may assist in judicious antibiotic prescribing.

  2. A combined spatial-spectral method for automated white blood cells segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Jianbiao; Guo, Fangmin

    2013-12-01

    To overcome the shortcomings in the traditional white blood cells (WBCs) identification methods based on the color or gray images captured by light microscopy, a microscopy hyperspectral imaging system was used to analyze the blood smears. The system was developed by coupling an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) adapter to a microscopy and driven by a SPF Model AOTF controller, which can capture hyperspectral images from 550 nm to 1000 nm with the spectral resolution 2-5 nm. Moreover, a combined spatial-spectral algorithm is proposed to segment the nuclei and cytoplasm of WBCs from the microscopy hyperspectral images. The proposed algorithm is based on the pixel-wise improved spectral angle mapper (ISAM) segmentation, followed by the majority voting within the active contour model regions. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is 91.06% (nuclei) and 85.59% (cytoplasm), respectively, which is higher than that of the spectral information divergence (SID) algorithm because the new method can jointly use both the spectral and spatial information of blood cells.

  3. Prognosis of white-coat and masked hypertension: International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, George S; Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kollias, Anastasios; Niiranen, Teemu J; Hozawa, Atsushi; Boggia, José; Johansson, Jouni K; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Jula, Antti M; Imai, Yutaka; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-04-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is useful in detecting white-coat and masked hypertension and is recommended for patients with suspected or treated hypertension. The prognostic significance of white-coat and masked hypertension detected by home measurement was investigated in 6458 participants from 5 populations enrolled in the International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. During a median follow-up of 8.3 years, 714 fatal plus nonfatal cardiovascular events occurred. Among untreated subjects (n=5007), cardiovascular risk was higher in those with white-coat hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio 1.42; 95% CI [1.06-1.91]; P=0.02), masked hypertension (1.55; 95% CI [1.12-2.14]; P<0.01) and sustained hypertension (2.13; 95% CI [1.66-2.73]; P<0.0001) compared with normotensive subjects. Among treated patients (n=1451), the cardiovascular risk did not differ between those with high office and low home blood pressure (white-coat) and treated controlled subjects (low office and home blood pressure; 1.16; 95% CI [0.79-1.72]; P=0.45). However, treated subjects with masked hypertension (low office and high home blood pressure; 1.76; 95% CI [1.23-2.53]; P=0.002) and uncontrolled hypertension (high office and home blood pressure; 1.40; 95% CI [1.02-1.94]; P=0.04) had higher cardiovascular risk than treated controlled patients. In conclusion, white-coat hypertension assessed by home measurements is a cardiovascular risk factor in untreated but not in treated subjects probably because the latter receive effective treatment on the basis of their elevated office blood pressure. In contrast, masked uncontrolled hypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in both untreated and treated patients, who are probably undertreated because of their low office blood pressure.

  4. Subclinical interstitial lung damage in workers exposed to indium compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study was designed to determine whether there is a relationship between indium compound exposure and interstitial lung damage in workers employed at indium tin oxide manufacturing and reclaiming factories in Korea. Methods In 2012, we conducted a study for the prevention of indium induced lung damage in Korea and identified 78 workers who had serum indium or Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) levels that were higher than the reference values set in Japan (3 μg/L and 500 U/mL, respectively). Thirty-four of the 78 workers underwent chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and their data were used for statistical analysis. Results Geometric means (geometric standard deviations) for serum indium, KL-6, and surfactant protein D (SP-D) were 10.9 (6.65) μg/L, 859.0 (1.85) U/mL, and 179.27 (1.81) ng/mL, respectively. HRCT showed intralobular interstitial thickening in 9 workers. A dose–response trend was statistically significant for blood KL-6 levels. All workers who had indium levels ≥50 μg/L had KL-6 levels that exceeded the reference values. However, dose–response trends for blood SP-D levels, KL-6 levels, SP-D levels, and interstitial changes on the HRCT scans were not significantly different. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interstitial lung changes could be present in workers with indium exposure. Further studies are required and health risk information regarding indium exposure should be communicated to workers and employers in industries where indium compounds are used to prevent indium induced lung damage in Korea. PMID:24472147

  5. Quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells using phase-shifting white light interference microscopy with colour fringe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Mehta, Dalip; Srivastava, Vishal

    2012-11-01

    We report quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells (RBCs) using phase-shifting interference microscopy. Five phase-shifted white light interferograms are recorded using colour charge coupled device camera. White light interferograms were decomposed into red, green, and blue colour components. The phase-shifted interferograms of each colour were then processed by phase-shifting analysis and phase maps for red, green, and blue colours were reconstructed. Wavelength dependent refractive index profiles of RBCs were computed from the single set of white light interferogram. The present technique has great potential for non-invasive determination of refractive index variation and morphological features of cells and tissues.

  6. One-step concentration of malarial parasite-infected red blood cells and removal of contaminating white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Dai Thi Xuan; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Kariu, Tohru; Tajima, Kunihiko; Kamei, Kaeko

    2004-01-01

    Background Isolation of a concentrated, living preparation of malarial parasite-infected red blood cells (PRBCs) that have low contamination of white blood cells (WBCs) facilitates research on the molecular, biochemical and immunological aspects of malarial parasites. This is currently carried out by a two-step method, including the concentration of PRBCs using density gradient centrifugation through Percoll or Nycodenz, followed by the removal of host WBCs using a cellulose powder column or a commercially available filtration unit. These two-step methods can help isolate sufficient PRBCs, but they are laborious. In this study, a simplified one-step procedure that takes advantage of the difference between diamagnetic low-spin oxyhaemoglobin and paramagnetic haemozoin (haem polymer) was described. The paramagnetic polymer is deposited in the food vacuoles of the parasite, allowing the use of magnetic separation to efficiently and rapidly concentrate PRBCs while removing contaminating host WBCs. Methods The magnetic removal of WBCs using a commercial LD column (MACS) was evaluated as a new method for concentrating and purifying PRBCs. To compare this method with the two density gradient centrifugation methods using Percoll or Nycodenz, we analysed the quantities of enriched PRBCs and contaminating host WBCs as well as the viability of malarial parasites in the final preparations. Results The quantity of PRBCs and the viability of malarial parasites in the isolated PRBCs were similar between magnetic and centrifugation methods. However, 90–99% of the contaminating WBCs were removed from the starting material using a magnetic column, whereas WBC content did not change using the Percoll or Nycodenz methods. Conclusion The use of a commercially available magnetic LD column is effective, safe and easy for the one-step purification of PRBCs. This simple method does not affect the viability of malarial parasites. PMID:15025790

  7. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  8. Raman Tweezers Spectroscopy of Live, Single Red and White Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bankapur, Aseefhali; Zachariah, Elsa; Chidangil, Santhosh; Valiathan, Manna; Mathur, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    An optical trap has been combined with a Raman spectrometer to make high-resolution measurements of Raman spectra of optically-immobilized, single, live red (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC) under physiological conditions. Tightly-focused, near infrared wavelength light (1064 nm) is utilized for trapping of single cells and 785 nm light is used for Raman excitation at low levels of incident power (few mW). Raman spectra of RBC recorded using this high-sensitivity, dual-wavelength apparatus has enabled identification of several additional lines; the hitherto-unreported lines originate purely from hemoglobin molecules. Raman spectra of single granulocytes and lymphocytes are interpreted on the basis of standard protein and nucleic acid vibrational spectroscopy data. The richness of the measured spectrum illustrates that Raman studies of live cells in suspension are more informative than conventional micro-Raman studies where the cells are chemically bound to a glass cover slip. PMID:20454686

  9. Analysis of White Blood Cell Counts in Mice after Gamma- or Proton-Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Maks, Casey J.; Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J.; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose–response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  10. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  11. Chlorinated pollutants in blood of White stork nestlings (Ciconia ciconia) in different colonies in Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Hernández-Moreno, David; Castellano, Antonio; Pérez-López, Marcos; Soler, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of persistent chlorinated pollutants (POPs) in wild birds. The concentrations of multiple POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in plasma of White stork nestlings. Blood samples were collected from three breeding colonies located in the West of Spain that were exposed to different environmental conditions and human activities. The concentrations of PCBs were below the limit of detection in all samples. The OCPs Heptaclor, 4,4′-DDE, endosulfan and aldrin were detected most frequently in plasma from White stork nestlings. From these four compounds, 4,4′-DDE and Heptaclor were found in high abundance. OCPs could not be detected in the colony breading nearby a landfill and an intensive agricultural area, indicating that these banned compounds are not taken up by crops growing in this area. However, birds from the colony breading next to a landfill exhibited the highest OCPs levels. These high levels might be due to exposure of the mothers to OCPs during their migration to Africa and subsequent transfer to their eggs.

  12. Higher blood-brain barrier permeability is associated with higher white matter hyperintensities burden.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Li, Man; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Qinglei; Yang, Shuna; Fan, Huimin; Qin, Wei; Yang, Lei; Yuan, Junliang; Jiang, Tao; Hu, Wenli

    2017-07-01

    The pathogenesis of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is incompletely understood but blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction may play a key role. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between BBB permeability and the severity of WMH burden. Consecutive participants without symptomatic stroke history presented for physical examination were recruited in this cross-sectional study and divided into three WMH burden groups according to total Fazekas scores. They received dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging to measure BBB permeability, and received Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). A total of 102 participants aged 49-90 years (mean age of 69.82 years) were enrolled (36 with low WMH burden, 35 with medium WMH burden, and 31 with high WMH burden). Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed that participants with higher WMH burden had significantly higher BBB leakage rate and area under the leakage curve in normal-appearing white matter, WMH, cortical gray matter, and deep gray matter (DGM) after adjustment for age, sex, and vascular risk factors. Scores on MMSE and MoCA decreased with increasing leakage rate in WMH and DGM after adjustment for age, sex, WMH burden, and education years. We found that higher BBB permeability is associated with higher WMH burden and cognitive decline. The compromised BBB integrity may be a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of WMH and part of a series of pathological processes that finally lead to cognitive impairment.

  13. The manifestation of optical centers in UV-Vis absorption and luminescence spectra of white blood human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terent'yeva, Yu G.; Yashchuk, V. M.; Zaika, L. A.; Snitserova, O. M.; Losytsky, M. Yu

    2016-12-01

    A white blood human cells spectral investigation is presented. The aim of this series of experiments was to obtain and analyze the absorption and luminescence (fluorescence and phosphorescence) spectra at room temperature and at 78 K of newly isolated white blood human cells and their organelles. As a result the optical centers and possible biochemical components that form the studied spectra where identified. Also the differences between the spectra of abnormal cells (B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia BCLL) and normal ones were studied for the whole cells and individual organelles.

  14. Serum white blood cell count and pulmonary function test are negatively associated.

    PubMed

    Yang, H-F; Kao, T-W; Wang, C-C; Peng, T-C; Chang, Y-W; Chen, W-L

    2015-12-01

    A variety of inflammatory disorders influence the serum white blood cell (WBC) count. Elevated systemic inflammatory insult may contribute to impaired lung function, such as obstructive or restrictive lung disease. The aim of our study is to investigate the correlation between WBC count and pulmonary function. Eligible participants aged ≥18 years (n=16 312) were enrolled from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994. Pertinent information including pulmonary function test, demographics, WBC count, glucose, C-reactive protein and a personal health questionnaire were obtained for subjects without known pulmonary diseases. White blood cell counts were classified into quartiles over the normal range. Multiple hierarchical regression models and trends testing were used to assess the correlation between WBC counts and pulmonary function tests. In the unadjusted mode of quartile-based analysis, the beta coefficients interpreted as the differences in FEV1% predicted upon comparing subjects in the upper three quartiles of WBC count to those in the lowest quartile were -0.007, -0.022 and -0.041 (P<0.001). After adjusting for multiple pertinent covariates, inverse association between quartiles of WBC count and FEV1% predicted remained essentially unchanged. The negative trends between FEV1% predicted and WBC count quartiles in the stratified comparison with extended-model approach were statistically significant (P for trends<0.001) in quartile-based multiple linear regression. Elevated WBC count is independently associated with declined pulmonary function. It may be a simple, accessible and inexpensive indicator of changes in pulmonary function.

  15. Serum white blood cell count and pulmonary function test are negatively associated.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Fang; Kao, Tung-Wei; Wang, Chung-Ching; Peng, Tao-Chun; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2015-07-22

    A variety of inflammatory disorders influence the serum white blood cell (WBC) count. Elevated systemic inflammatory insult may contribute to impaired lung function, such as obstructive or restrictive lung disease. The aim of our study is to investigate the correlation between WBC count and pulmonary function. Eligible participants aged ≥ 18 years (n = 16 312) were enrolled from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994. Pertinent information including pulmonary function test, demographics, WBC count, glucose, C-reactive protein and a personal health questionnaire were obtained for subjects without known pulmonary diseases. White blood cell counts were classified into quartiles over the normal range. Multiple hierarchical regression models and trends testing were used to assess the correlation between WBC counts and pulmonary function tests. In the unadjusted mode of quartile-based analysis, the beta coefficients interpreted as the differences in FEV1% predicted upon comparing subjects in the upper three quartiles of WBC count to those in the lowest quartile were - 0.007, - 0.022 and - 0.041 (P < 0.001). After adjusting for multiple pertinent covariates, inverse association between quartiles of WBC count and FEV1% predicted remained essentially unchanged. The negative trends between FEV1% predicted and WBC count quartiles in the stratified comparison with extended-model approach were statistically significant (P for trends < 0.001) in quartile-based multiple linear regression. Elevated WBC count is independently associated with declined pulmonary function. It may be a simple, accessible and inexpensive indicator of changes in pulmonary function.

  16. White blood cell counts, insulin resistance, vitamin D levels and sarcopenia in Korean elderly men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia is a major determinant of frailty, disability and mortality in the elderly. Whether low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and vitamin D are independently associated with sarcopenia remains unclear. In our study, sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht(2)) that was <2 SD below the normal means for young adults. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index [(insulin (IU/mL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/18)/22.5]. Data of white blood cell counts and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D) levels were collected in the second and third year (2008-2009) of Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). The results showed that the prevalence of sarcopenia in Korean elderly men aged more than 65 years was 11.2%. ASM/Ht(2) were positively associated with vitamin D levels, but negatively associated with white blood cell counts and HOMA-IR by multiple regression analysis. After adjustment for covariables, sarcopenia was associated with the highest quartile of WBC counts (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.21-7.14) and the highest quartile of serum vitamin D levels (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.95). In conclusion, the study findings suggest that higher WBC counts and lower vitamin D levels are independently associated with the presence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly men. They also provide a basis for further studies of the complex immune-endocrine network in sarcopenia.

  17. Night Blood Pressure Responses to Atenolol and Hydrochlorothiazide in Black and White Patients With Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Night blood pressure (BP) predicts patient outcomes. Variables associated with night BP response to antihypertensive agents have not been fully evaluated in essential hypertension. METHODS We sought to measure night BP responses to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), atenolol (ATEN), and combined therapy using ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring in 204 black and 281 white essential hypertensive patients. Initial therapy was randomized; HCTZ and ATEN once daily doses were doubled after 3 weeks and continued for 6 more weeks with the alternate medication added for combined therapy arms. ABP was measured at baseline and after completion of each drug. Night, day, and night/day BP ratio responses (treatment − baseline) were compared in race/sex subgroups. RESULTS Baseline night systolic BP and diastolic BP, and night/day ratios were greater in blacks than whites (P < 0.01, all comparisons). Night BP responses to ATEN were absent and night/day ratios increased significantly in blacks (P < 0.05). At the end of combined therapy, women, blacks, and those starting with HCTZ as opposed to ATEN had significantly greater night BP responses (P < 0.01). Variables that significantly associated with ATEN response differed from those that associated with HCTZ response and those that associated with night BP response differed from those that associated with day BP response. CONCLUSIONS In summary, after completion of HCTZ and ATEN therapy, women, blacks, and those who started with HCTZ had greater night BP responses. Reduced night BP response and increased night/day BP ratios occured with ATEN in blacks. Given the prognostic significance of night BP, strategies for optimizing night BP antihypertensive therapy should be considered. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00246519 PMID:23886594

  18. The white blood cell line: changes induced in mice by hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Orna; Ishay, Jacob S.

    The effect of hypergravity on the white blood cell (WBC) line of mice was investigated by use of horizontal centrifuge. Several sets of experiments were performed, in which the parameters measured were the WBC and differential cell count in the peripheral blood. In another experiment, lymphocyte counts from the spleen, lymph nodes, and the thymus were measured. The needed samples were taken from the mice during a stay of 7-40 days under a hypergravity of 1.6G. The test groups that were placed on the arms of the centrifuge (1.6G) were compared with stationary control groups (1G) and a rotating control group located at the center of the centrifuge (1G). Such a comparison revealed the test animals to be deficient on all counts, to wit, showing a decrease in total number of WBC's, a decrease in lymphocyte number in the peripheral blood and a decrease in the number of lymphocyte in the spleen and thymus. The decrease of lymphocytes in peripheral blood was characterized by two different slopes - an early and temporary decrease at the first days of the experiment evident in both test and rotating control groups followed by a temporary increase, and a later persistent decrease, evident only in the test group, while in the rotating control lymphocyte counts reverted to normal. There were no significant differences in monocyte or neutrophil counts, except for a temporary increase in the number of neutrophils which peaked on the seventh day. In order to evaluate the effect of hypergravity on restoration of hematopoiesis following hematopoietic suppression, 5-fluoro-uracil (5-FU) was administered i.v. to both the experimental and control mice. Suppression of bone marrow was observed in all groups injected with 5-FU, but while there was later an increase in cell counts in the control groups, there was no such increase in the test group subjected to hypergravity.

  19. White coat hyperglycaemia: disparity between diabetes clinic and home blood glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Campbell, L V; Ashwell, S M; Borkman, M; Chisholm, D J

    1992-11-14

    To identify patients with discrepantly high clinic blood glucose concentrations compared with self reported values and to assess whether such patients have errors in self monitoring technique. To determine whether, in patients with good technique, the discrepancy is a transient phenomenon related to clinic attendance. Prospective study of diabetes clinic patients recruited over six months. Outpatient diabetes clinic of a teaching hospital. 34 consecutive patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes who had had at least two consecutive clinic blood glucose concentrations more than 5 mmol/l higher than the mean self reported concentration. Assessment of monitoring technique; presence of cognitive or physical impairment; serum fructosamine concentration; home and clinic blood glucose concentrations. 15 of 34 patients had errors in monitoring technique, 12 of whom had cognitive or physical impairment. In the remaining 19, the mean (SD) blood glucose concentrations of capillary and venous samples taken at home (10.2 (0.6) and 12.2 (1.1) mmol/l respectively) were significantly lower than in those taken at the clinic (16.8 (1.6) mmol/l, p < 0.0002). The fructosamine concentration was significantly higher in patients with monitoring errors than those without (2.4 (0.4) v 1.8 (0.4) mmol/l, p < 0.0001). "White coat" hyperglycaemia was detected in about half the patients but errors in technique accounted for the rest of the discrepancies. Patients' ability should be assessed before teaching self monitoring and the technique checked regularly.

  20. Predicting ambulatory blood pressure during school: effectiveness of social and nonsocial reactivity tasks in black and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ewart, C K; Kolodner, K B

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated a newly developed stress task, the Social Competence Interview, and three nonsocial tasks (video game, mirror drawing, mental arithmetic) for ability to predict ambulatory blood pressure in 237 black and white adolescents. Blood pressure was measured in laboratory, classroom, and transition (between-class) settings. A resting laboratory baseline explained 10-49% of the variance in ambulatory blood pressure levels; the ability of the stress tasks to explain additional variance was assessed in multiple regression analyses. Only the blood pressure response to the interview enhanced prediction of classroom and transition systolic and diastolic pressures in the total sample and in blacks, whites, females, and males--even when the interview data were entered into a hierarchical regression model after those for the other three tasks were entered. Mirror drawing improved prediction of transition systolic blood pressure in the total sample, and mental arithmetic plus the interview improved prediction of classroom diastolic pressure in black males; however, video game failed to enter any predictive equation. Racial subgroup analyses disclosed that the interview data predicted systolic pressure in whites but predicted diastolic pressure in blacks, indicating biological differences in blood pressure regulation. An interview that elicits characteristic thoughts and social behaviors appears to represent a promising approach to examining environmental influences on blood pressure.

  1. The physiological state of captive and migrating Great White Pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus) revealed by their blood chemistry.

    PubMed

    Shmueli, M; Izhaki, I; Zinder, O; Arad, Z

    2000-01-01

    The Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus is an endangered migratory bird, threatened by diminishing natural feeding sites and by persecution by fishermen. The majority of the migrating White Pelican (71000) stop-over in Israel during their autumn migration to Africa. As part of a larger study, aimed to assess the necessity of feeding during the stop-over in Israel, we examined the blood chemistry of captive and migrating White Pelicans. Blood was sampled from captive birds maintained on a fish diet, after food deprivation for 48 h and from wild birds brought from the field during migration. Food deprivation resulted in increased plasma levels of triglycerides and in lower levels of urea, potassium and calcium. In migrating birds, increased plasma levels of urea and CPK and lower levels of creatinine were revealed. In general, the coefficient of variation in the blood chemistry of migrating pelicans was higher than in the captive birds, that is to say, that these birds were in a variable physiological condition. The blood profile of migrating and wintering pelicans did not indicate a state of dehydration but did indicate energy deficiency. The less extreme changes in blood chemistry of the 48 h food-deprived compared to migrating pelicans suggest that the former did not reach a state of starvation. We conclude that for White Pelicans the stop-over in Israel is a must in order to rest and replenish their fuel reserves for completion of their autumn migration to Africa.

  2. Two- and 13-week inhalation toxicities of indium-tin oxide and indium oxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kasuke; Gotoh, Kaoru; Kasai, Tatsuya; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Ikawa, Naoki; Eitaki, Yoko; Yamada, Kenichi; Arito, Heihachiro; Fukushima, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Two- and 13-week inhalation toxicities of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) were characterized for risk assessments of workers exposed to ITO. F344 rats of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to ITO or IO aerosol for 6 h/day, 5 day/wk for 2 wk at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 mg/m(3) or 13 wk at 0, 0.1 or 1 mg/m(3). An aerosol generator and inhalation exposure system was constructed. Blood and lung contents of indium were elevated in a dose-related manner in the ITO- and IO-exposed rats. ITO and IO particles were deposited in the lung, mediastinal lymph node and nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Exposures to ITO and IO induced alveolar proteinosis, infiltrations of alveolar macrophages and inflammatory cells and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia in addition to increased lung weight. ITO affected the lung more severely than IO did. Fibrosis of alveolar wall developed and some of these lesions worsened at the end of the 26-week post-exposure period. Persistent pulmonary lesions including alveolar proteinosis and macrophage infiltration occurred after 2- and 13-week inhalation exposures of rats to ITO and IO. Fibrosis of alveolar wall developed later. These lesions occurred after ITO exposure at the same concentration as the current occupational exposure limit in the USA and at blood indium levels below the biological exposure index in Japan for indium.

  3. Pregnancy during adolescence has lasting adverse effects on blood lipids: A 10-year longitudinal study of black and white females

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Erica P.; Schreiber, George; Striegel–Moore, Ruth; Hudes, Mark; Daniels, Stephen; Biro, Frank M.; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Primiparity has been associated with 3 to 4 mg/dl lower HDL-C concentrations in Black and White adult women that persist several years after delivery. Objective To examine effects of adolescent pregnancy on blood lipids, an early risk factor for future cardiometabolic diseases. Design The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute’s Growth and Health Study is a multi–center prospective cohort that measured fasting blood lipids for 1,013 (513 Black, 500 White) participants at baseline (1987–1988) ages 9–10, and again at follow-up (1996–1997) ages 18–19. Methods Change in fasting plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C and HDL-C, defined as the difference between baseline and follow-up measurements, was compared among 186 (145 Black, 41 White) primi- or multiparas, 106 (55 Black, 51 White) nulliparous, gravidas versus 721 (313 Black, 408 White) nulligravidas. Fully adjusted multiple linear regression models estimated blood lipid changes among these pregnancy groups adjusted for race, age at menarche, baseline lipids, physical inactivity, BMI, and family socio-demographics. Results In the 10–year study period, adolescent paras compared with nulligravidas had greater decrements in HDL-C (mg/dl) [fully adjusted mean (95%CI) group differences in Black: − 4.3 (− 6.7, −2.0);P<0.001, and White: − 4.5(− 8.2, − 0.7); P=0.016] and greater increments in fasting triglycerides (mg/dl) [adjusted mean (95%CI) group differences in Black: 10.4 (3.9, 16.8); P<0.001, and White: 11.6 (− 3.6, 26.8); P=0.167]. Conclusion Adolescent pregnancy contributes to pro-atherogenic lipid profiles that persist after delivery. Further research is needed to assess whether adolescent pregnancy has implications for future cardiovascular disease risk in young women. PMID:22385547

  4. Impact of complete blood count sampling time change on white blood cell and absolute neutrophil count values in clozapine recipients.

    PubMed

    McKee, Jerry R; Wall, Trossie; Owensby, Jessica

    2011-04-01

    Despite its superior efficacy, clozapine is typically reserved for treatment-refractory schizophrenia due to the risk of agranulocytosis with an occurrence of up to 1% in recipients. The FDA has rigid treatment guidelines for hematologic monitoring for clozapine patients. If the white blood cell (WBC) count or absolute neutrophil count (ANC) falls below predetermined values, clozapine treatment must be held or discontinued. Diurnal and ethnic variations in complete blood count (CBC) values, somewhat dependent upon blood sampling time have been reported, and called pseudoneutropenia, which appears independent of clozapine therapy. Unnecessary treatment interruption or discontinuation is costly and may lead to disease relapse. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a time change in CBC sampling on WBC and ANC values in a group of clozapine patients in a regional public inpatient psychiatric facility. Facility CBC sampling for clozapine patients was switched from 0630 to on or after 0830. A retrospective record review was conducted for all patients who were receiving clozapine before and after the time switch, with a minimum of six values pre- and post-change. CBC values sampled on or after 0830 were accepted as applicable post data, as patients are awakened daily at 0630, and a minimum of two hours of wakefulness/mobility had occurred. Patient medical records, automated lab information system, and the Clozapine National Registry were data sources. Data extracted included WBC/ANC values (with date/time of sampling) and demographic information (DOB, sex, weight, height, BMI, and ethnicity). The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Ten patients (80% male, 90% Caucasian, mean age=55.7 years) met study criteria. The difference in the pre/post time change WBC values was marginally significant (mean increase=667/mm3, p=.07), with a significant difference (mean increase=1,130/mm3, p=.003) between the pre/post time change ANC values. ANC values

  5. The effect of hypodynamia on the structure of the intraorganic blood vessels and the capacity of the blood stream in the diaphragm of white rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerus, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of hypodynamia on the vascular system of white rats with diaphragm deprivation was investigated. Morphological changes in the intraorganic blood stream of the diaphragm were determined. The capacity of the intraorganic vascular flow within the diaphragm muscles was established.

  6. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Normal Appearing White Matter in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Henrik; Krakauer, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold; Sellebjerg, Finn; Garde, Ellen; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Paulson, Olaf B.; Hesse, Dan; Hanson, Lars G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Contrast-enhanced T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to characterize location and extent of BBB disruptions in focal MS lesions. We employed quantitative T1 measurements before and after the intravenous injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent to assess BBB permeability in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS). Methodology/Principal Findings Fifty-nine patients (38 females) with RR-MS undergoing immunomodulatory treatment and nine healthy controls (4 females) underwent quantitative T1 measurements at 3 tesla before and after injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent (0.2 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA). Mean T1 values were calculated for NAWM in patients and total cerebral white matter in healthy subjects for the T1 measurements before and after injection of Gd-DTPA. The pre-injection baseline T1 of NAWM (945±55 [SD] ms) was prolonged in RR-MS relative to healthy controls (903±23 ms, p = 0.028). Gd-DTPA injection shortened T1 to a similar extent in both groups. Mean T1 of NAWM was 866±47 ms in the NAWM of RR-MS patients and 824±13 ms in the white matter of healthy controls. The regional variability of T1 values expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV) was comparable between the two groups at baseline, but not after injection of the contrast agent. After intravenous Gd-DTPA injection, T1 values in NAWM were more variable in RR-MS patients (CV = 0.198±0.046) compared to cerebral white matter of healthy controls (CV = 0.166±0.018, p = 0.046). Conclusions/Significance We found no evidence of a global BBB disruption within the NAWM of RR-MS patients undergoing immunomodulatory treatment. However, the increased variation of T1 values in NAWM after intravenous Gd-DTPA injection points to an increased regional inhomogeneity of BBB function in NAWM in relapsing-remitting MS. PMID:23441184

  7. All-plastic, miniature, digital fluorescence microscope for three part white blood cell differential measurements at the point of care

    PubMed Central

    Forcucci, Alessandra; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Majors, Catherine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2015-01-01

    Three-part differential white blood cell counts are used for disease diagnosis and monitoring at the point-of-care. A low-cost, miniature achromatic microscope was fabricated for identification of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes in samples of whole blood stained with acridine orange. The microscope was manufactured using rapid prototyping techniques of diamond turning and 3D printing and is intended for use at the point-of-care in low-resource settings. The custom-designed microscope requires no manual adjustment between samples and was successfully able to classify three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes) using samples of peripheral whole blood stained with acridine orange. PMID:26601006

  8. White matter disease in midlife is heritable, related to hypertension, and shares some genetic influence with systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Fennema-Notestine, Christine; McEvoy, Linda K; Notestine, Randy; Panizzon, Matthew S; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Franz, Carol E; Lyons, Michael J; Eyler, Lisa T; Neale, Michael C; Xian, Hong; McKenzie, Ruth E; Kremen, William S

    2016-01-01

    White matter disease in the brain increases with age and cardiovascular disease, emerging in midlife, and these associations may be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. We examined the frequency, distribution, and heritability of abnormal white matter and its association with hypertension in 395 middle-aged male twins (61.9 ± 2.6 years) from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging, 67% of whom were hypertensive. A multi-channel segmentation approach estimated abnormal regions within the white matter. Using multivariable regression models, we characterized the frequency distribution of abnormal white matter in midlife and investigated associations with hypertension and Apolipoprotein E-ε4 status and the impact of duration and control of hypertension. Then, using the classical twin design, we estimated abnormal white matter heritability and the extent of shared genetic overlap with blood pressure. Abnormal white matter was predominantly located in periventricular and deep parietal and frontal regions; associated with age (t = 1.9, p = 0.05) and hypertension (t = 2.9, p = 0.004), but not Apolipoprotein ε4 status; and was greater in those with uncontrolled hypertension relative to controlled (t = 3.0, p = 0.003) and normotensive (t = 4.0, p = 0.0001) groups, suggesting that abnormal white matter may reflect currently active cerebrovascular effects. Abnormal white matter was highly heritable (a(2) = 0.81) and shared some genetic influences with systolic blood pressure (rA = 0.26), although there was evidence for distinct genetic contributions and unique environmental influences. Future longitudinal research will shed light on factors impacting white matter disease presentation, progression, and potential recovery.

  9. Regulation of Exacerbated Immune Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Cells by Hydrolysed Egg White Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Molina, Elena; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    The anti-allergic potential of egg white protein hydrolysates (from ovalbumin, lysozyme and ovomucoid) was evaluated as their ability to hinder cytokine and IgE production by Th2-skewed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as the release of pro-inflammatory factors and generation of reactive oxygen species from Th1-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). The binding to IgE of egg allergic patients was determined and the peptides present in the hydrolysates were identified. The hydrolysates with alcalase down-regulated the production of Th2-biased cytokines and the secretion of IgE to the culture media of Th2-skewed PBMCs, and they significantly neutralized oxidative stress in PBLs. The hydrolysates of ovalbumin and ovomucoid with pepsin helped to re-establish the Th1/Th2 balance in Th2-biased PBMCs, while they also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and reduced oxidative stress in PBLs treated with inflammatory stimuli. The hydrolysates with alcalase, in addition to equilibrating Th2 differentiation, exhibited a low IgE-binding. Therefore, they would elicit mild allergic reactions while retaining T cell-stimulating abilities, which might correlate with an anti-allergic benefit. PMID:27007699

  10. Associations between White Blood Cell Count and the Development of Incidental Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Goh Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Donghee; Kwak, Min-Sun; Yang, Jong In; Chung, Su Jin; Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Chronic low-grade inflammation is thought to be associated with the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine the association between serum white blood cell (WBC) counts and the development of incidental NAFLD. Methods. In this retrospective longitudinal cohort study, we recruited participants who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and blood samplings during medical checkups in both 2005 and 2010. A total of 2,216 subjects were included in our analyses. Results. The prevalence of NAFLD in 2010 increased steadily in conjunction with increasing WBC counts in 2005 after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) [odds ratio (OR) 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49-4.00 for women and OR 2.42, 95% CI = 1.61-3.63 for men, lowest quartile versus highest quartile]. Multivariate regression analysis after adjusting for age, BMI, hypertension, smoking, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and glucose levels revealed that NAFLD was significantly associated with the highest WBC quartile compared to the lowest quartile [OR 1.85, 95% CI, 1.10-3.10 for women and OR 1.68, 95% CI, 1.08-2.61 for men]. Conclusions. We demonstrated that the risk of developing NAFLD was significantly associated with WBC counts independently of metabolic factors. This finding provides novel evidence indicating that serum WBC counts may be potential surrogate markers of NAFLD.

  11. Identification of nine novel loci associated with white blood cell subtypes in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yukinori; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Hosono, Naoya; Nalls, Michael A; Chen, Ming Huei; van Rooij, Frank J A; Smith, Albert V; Tanaka, Toshiko; Couper, David J; Zakai, Neil A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Longo, Dan L; Hernandez, Dena G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Harris, Tamara B; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Ganesh, Santhi K; Matsuda, Koichi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tamari, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kamatani, Naoyuki

    2011-06-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) mediate immune systems and consist of various subtypes with distinct roles. Elucidation of the mechanism that regulates the counts of the WBC subtypes would provide useful insights into both the etiology of the immune system and disease pathogenesis. In this study, we report results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a replication study for the counts of the 5 main WBC subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils) using 14,792 Japanese subjects enrolled in the BioBank Japan Project. We identified 12 significantly associated loci that satisfied the genome-wide significance threshold of P<5.0×10(-8), of which 9 loci were novel (the CDK6 locus for the neutrophil count; the ITGA4, MLZE, STXBP6 loci, and the MHC region for the monocyte count; the SLC45A3-NUCKS1, GATA2, NAALAD2, ERG loci for the basophil count). We further evaluated associations in the identified loci using 15,600 subjects from Caucasian populations. These WBC subtype-related loci demonstrated a variety of patterns of pleiotropic associations within the WBC subtypes, or with total WBC count, platelet count, or red blood cell-related traits (n = 30,454), which suggests unique and common functional roles of these loci in the processes of hematopoiesis. This study should contribute to the understanding of the genetic backgrounds of the WBC subtypes and hematological traits.

  12. Education, genetic ancestry, and blood pressure in African Americans and Whites.

    PubMed

    Non, Amy L; Gravlee, Clarence C; Mulligan, Connie J

    2012-08-01

    We assessed the relative roles of education and genetic ancestry in predicting blood pressure (BP) within African Americans and explored the association between education and BP across racial groups. We used t tests and linear regressions to examine the associations of genetic ancestry, estimated from a genomewide set of autosomal markers, and education with BP variation among African Americans in the Family Blood Pressure Program. We also performed linear regressions in self-identified African Americans and Whites to explore the association of education with BP across racial groups. Education, but not genetic ancestry, significantly predicted BP variation in the African American subsample (b=-0.51 mm Hg per year additional education; P=.001). Although education was inversely associated with BP in the total population, within-group analyses showed that education remained a significant predictor of BP only among the African Americans. We found a significant interaction (b=3.20; P=.006) between education and self-identified race in predicting BP. Racial disparities in BP may be better explained by differences in education than by genetic ancestry. Future studies of ancestry and disease should include measures of the social environment.

  13. Education, Genetic Ancestry, and Blood Pressure in African Americans and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Gravlee, Clarence C.; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the relative roles of education and genetic ancestry in predicting blood pressure (BP) within African Americans and explored the association between education and BP across racial groups. Methods. We used t tests and linear regressions to examine the associations of genetic ancestry, estimated from a genomewide set of autosomal markers, and education with BP variation among African Americans in the Family Blood Pressure Program. We also performed linear regressions in self-identified African Americans and Whites to explore the association of education with BP across racial groups. Results. Education, but not genetic ancestry, significantly predicted BP variation in the African American subsample (b = −0.51 mm Hg per year additional education; P = .001). Although education was inversely associated with BP in the total population, within-group analyses showed that education remained a significant predictor of BP only among the African Americans. We found a significant interaction (b = 3.20; P = .006) between education and self-identified race in predicting BP. Conclusions. Racial disparities in BP may be better explained by differences in education than by genetic ancestry. Future studies of ancestry and disease should include measures of the social environment. PMID:22698014

  14. Associations between White Blood Cell Count and the Development of Incidental Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Goh Eun; Kim, Donghee; Kwak, Min-Sun; Yang, Jong In; Chung, Su Jin; Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Chronic low-grade inflammation is thought to be associated with the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine the association between serum white blood cell (WBC) counts and the development of incidental NAFLD. Methods. In this retrospective longitudinal cohort study, we recruited participants who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and blood samplings during medical checkups in both 2005 and 2010. A total of 2,216 subjects were included in our analyses. Results. The prevalence of NAFLD in 2010 increased steadily in conjunction with increasing WBC counts in 2005 after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) [odds ratio (OR) 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49–4.00 for women and OR 2.42, 95% CI = 1.61–3.63 for men, lowest quartile versus highest quartile]. Multivariate regression analysis after adjusting for age, BMI, hypertension, smoking, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and glucose levels revealed that NAFLD was significantly associated with the highest WBC quartile compared to the lowest quartile [OR 1.85, 95% CI, 1.10−3.10 for women and OR 1.68, 95% CI, 1.08−2.61 for men]. Conclusions. We demonstrated that the risk of developing NAFLD was significantly associated with WBC counts independently of metabolic factors. This finding provides novel evidence indicating that serum WBC counts may be potential surrogate markers of NAFLD. PMID:28070183

  15. Pathogen reduction by ultraviolet C light effectively inactivates human white blood cells in platelet products.

    PubMed

    Pohler, Petra; Müller, Meike; Winkler, Carla; Schaudien, Dirk; Sewald, Katherina; Müller, Thomas H; Seltsam, Axel

    2015-02-01

    Residual white blood cells (WBCs) in cellular blood components induce a variety of adverse immune events, including nonhemolytic febrile transfusion reactions, alloimmunization to HLA antigens, and transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). Pathogen reduction (PR) methods such as the ultraviolet C (UVC) light-based THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system were developed to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. As UVC light targets nucleic acids, it interferes with the replication of both pathogens and WBCs. This preclinical study aimed to evaluate the ability of UVC light to inactivate contaminating WBCs in platelet concentrates (PCs). The in vitro and in vivo function of WBCs from UVC-treated PCs was compared to that of WBCs from gamma-irradiated and untreated PCs by measuring cell viability, proliferation, cytokine secretion, antigen presentation in vitro, and xenogeneic GVHD responses in a humanized mouse model. UVC light was at least as effective as gamma irradiation in preventing GVHD in the mouse model. It was more effective in suppressing T-cell proliferation (>5-log reduction in the limiting dilution assay), cytokine secretion, and antigen presentation than gamma irradiation. The THERAFLEX UV-Platelets (MacoPharma) PR system can substitute gamma irradiation for TA-GVHD prophylaxis in platelet (PLT) transfusion. Moreover, UVC treatment achieves suppression of antigen presentation and inhibition of cytokine accumulation during storage of PCs, which has potential benefits for transfusion recipients. © 2014 AABB.

  16. Association between hypermethylation of DNA repetitive elements in white blood cell DNA and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Neale, Rachel E; Clark, Paul J; Fawcett, Jonathan; Fritschi, Lin; Nagler, Belinda N; Risch, Harvey A; Walters, Rhiannon J; Crawford, William J; Webb, Penelope M; Whiteman, David C; Buchanan, Daniel D

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Methylation of DNA may influence risk or be a marker of early disease. The aim of this study was to measure the association between methylation of three DNA repetitive elements in white blood cell (WBC) DNA and pancreatic cancer. DNA from WBCs of pancreatic cancer cases (n=559) and healthy unrelated controls (n=603) were tested for methylation of the LINE-1, Alu and Sat2 DNA repetitive elements using MethyLight quantitative PCR assays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) between both continuous measures of percent of methylated sample compared to a reference (PMR) or quintiles of PMR and pancreatic cancer, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, BMI, alcohol and higher education, were estimated. The PMR for each of the three markers was higher in cases than in controls, although only LINE-1 was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (OR per log unit=1.37, 95%CI=1.16-1.63). The marker methylation score for all three markers combined was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (p-trend=0.0006). There were no associations between measures of PMR and either presence of metastases, or timing of blood collection in relation to diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy or death (all p>0.1). We observed an association between methylation of LINE-1 in WBC DNA and risk of pancreatic cancer. Further studies are needed to confirm this association.

  17. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  18. Method for labelling leucocytes with indium In-111 oxine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, D.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes an improved method for radio-labelling leucocytes with Indium In-111 oxine. It comprises separating the leucocytes from whole blood for obtaining separated leucocytes mixed with residual red blood cells; and then labelling the separated leucocytes with Indium In-111 oxine; wherein the improvement comprises the following further step: depleting residual red blood cells from the separated leucocytes by resuspending the leucocytes in an isotonic saline solution, then rocking the resuspended leucocytes for causing the leucocytes to preferentially settle out, and then removing residual red blood cells which remain suspended within the supernatant isotonic saline solution.

  19. Association between iron status and white blood cell counts in African schoolchildren of the North-West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Onabanjo, Oluseye O; Jerling, Johann C; Covic, Namukolo; Van Graan, Averalda; Taljaard, Christine; Mamabolo, Ramoteme L

    2012-09-01

    Iron deficiency with or without anemia is associated with increased susceptibility to infection owing to impaired immune function; this study aimed to examine the associations between markers of iron status and white blood cell counts in African schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study is part of the larger BeForMi study done in the North-West province of South Africa. A total of 556 African schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) were recruited from the three schools participating in the BeForMi multiple micronutrient intervention study. Demographic information of the children was obtained from their parents/caregivers/guardians in the language of choice using validated questionnaires. Anthropometric indices (weight and height), iron status parameters, hematological parameters (hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), total and differential white blood cell counts) were measured using standard procedures. No significant gender differences were observed in most of the iron markers and hematological parameters except in C-reactive protein (CRP) (p=0.004) and eosinophils (p=0.042) which were higher in boys while RBC (p=0.018) and Hb (p=0.023) levels were higher in girls. No relationships were observed between the different iron markers and differential white blood cell counts. A positive correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) and CRP in girls only (r=0.336, p<0.01), and a positive correlation between SF and mean cell volume (MCV) in boys only (r=0.197, p<0.01). In both genders, no correlations were observed between the different iron markers and the differential white blood cell counts. The study revealed no associations between iron status and differential white blood cell counts in children that participated in the BeForMi study calling for more studies to be done in the area of the significance of iron supplementation in healthy children.

  20. The Relationship between Cortical Blood Flow and Sub-Cortical White-Matter Health across the Adult Age Span

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J. Jean; Rosas, H. Diana; Salat, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Degeneration of cerebral white matter is commonly observed in aging, and the associated degradation in neural connectivity contributes to cognitive decline in older adults. Vascular dysfunction has been implicated as a potential mechanism for general age-related neural tissue deterioration; however, no prior study has examined the direct relationship between cortical vascular health and subcortical white-matter integrity. In this work, we aimed to determine whether blood supply to the brain is associated with microstructural integrity of connective tissue, and whether such associations are regionally specific and mainly accounted for by aging. We examined the association between cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the cortical mantle, measured using arterial spin labeling (ASL), and subcortical white-matter integrity, measured using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), in a group of healthy adults spanning early to late adulthood. We found cortical CBF to be significantly associated with white-matter integrity throughout the brain. In addition, these associations were only partially tied to aging, as they remained even when statistically controlling for age, and when restricting the analyses to a young subset of the sample. Furthermore, vascular risk was not a prominent determinant of these effects. These findings suggest that the overall blood supply to the brain is an important indicator of white-matter health in the normal range of variations amongst adults, and that the decline in CBF with advancing age may potentially exacerbate deterioration of the connective anatomy of the brain. PMID:23437228

  1. Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wagner, Erika B.; Mick, Rosemarie; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. As part of the Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR), we compared the acute effects on white blood cell parameters induced by the more traditionally used animal model of hindlimb unloading (HU) with a recently developed reduced weightbearing analog known as partial weight suspension (PWS). Female ICR mice were either hindlimb unloaded or placed in the PWS system at 16% quadrupedal weightbearing for 4 h, 1, 2, 7 or 10 days, at which point complete blood counts were obtained. Control animals (jacketed and non-jacketed) were exposed to identical conditions without reduced weightbearing. Results indicate that significant changes in total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were observed within the first 2 days of exposure to each system. These differences in blood cell counts normalized by day 7 in both systems. The results of these studies indicate that there are some statistically significant changes observed in the blood cell counts for animals exposed to both the PWS and HU simulated microgravity systems. PMID:23766550

  2. Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jolaine M.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wagner, Erika B.; Mick, Rosemarie; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. As part of the Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR), we compared the acute effects on white blood cell parameters induced by the more traditionally used animal model of hindlimb unloading (HU) with a recently developed reduced weightbearing analog known as partial weight suspension (PWS). Female ICR mice were either hindlimb unloaded or placed in the PWS system at 16% quadrupedal weightbearing for 4 h, 1, 2, 7 or 10 days, at which point complete blood counts were obtained. Control animals (jacketed and non-jacketed) were exposed to identical conditions without reduced weightbearing. Results indicate that significant changes in total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were observed within the first 2 days of exposure to each system. These differences in blood cell counts normalized by day 7 in both systems. The results of these studies indicate that there are some statistically significant changes observed in the blood cell counts for animals exposed to both the PWS and HU simulated microgravity systems.

  3. Expression of candidate genes associated with obesity in peripheral white blood cells of Mexican children

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa-Martínez, Marcela; Burguete-García, Ana I.; Murugesan, Selvasankar; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Cruz-Lopez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial disease, characterized by excess body fat. Diverse studies of the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity. However, relatively few studies have addressed specifically the association between the level of expression of these genes and obesity. Material and methods We studied 160 healthy and obese unrelated Mexican children aged 6 to 14 years. We measured the transcriptional expression of 20 genes associated with obesity, in addition to the biochemical parameters, in peripheral white blood cells. The detection of mRNA levels was performed using the OpenArray Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). Results Obese children exhibited higher values of fasting glucose (p = 0.034), fasting insulin (p = 0.004), low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.006), triglycerides (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), and lower values of high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001) compared to lean children. Analysis of transcriptional expression data showed a difference for ADRB1 (p = 0.0297), ADIPOR1 (p = 0.0317), GHRL (p = 0.0060) and FTO (p = 0.0348) genes. Conclusions Our results suggest that changes in the expression level of the studied genes are involved in biological processes implicated in the development of childhood obesity. Our study contributes new perspectives for a better understanding of biological processes involved in obesity. The protocol was approved by the National Committee and Ethical Committee Board from the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) (IMSS FIS/IMSS/PRIO/10/011). PMID:27695486

  4. Relationship between diurnal blood pressure and renal histopathological changes in white coat hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Erhan; Uslu, Adam; Tasli, Funda; Karatas, Murat

    2017-08-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated the macrovascular risks associated with white coat hypertension (WCH) or sustained hypertension (SH). In patients with WCH, there is no literature available on renal histopathological changes and that on blood pressure pattern and native kidney outcome is scant. We aimed to clarify the relationship between blood pressure variables and pathological features of kidney biopsies in living kidney donors with WCH. This cross-sectional study included living kidney donors with WCH (n = 10) and SH (n = 10), and 20 healthy kidney donors with similar demographic features (control group). Kidney allograft biopsy samples were obtained during transplantation and chronic glomerular, vascular and tubulointertitial changes were semiquantitatively scored according to the Banff classification. The mean age of the 20 hypertensive subjects (Group 1) and controls (Group 2) was 59.3 ± 8.5 versus 59.6 ± 7.6 years and almost half were female. There was no difference in renal function parameters between the groups; however, kidney histopathology in Group 1 was worse than Group 2 with a chronicity index of 2.80 ± 1.67 versus 1.75 ± 1.16 (p = 0.02). There was no difference between histopathological scores of patients with WCH or SH (chronicity index: 2.60 ± 1.43 vs. 2.70 ± 1.70, p = 0.88). Night-to-day mean arterial pressure (MAP) ratio was significantly associated with chronicity index in patients with WCH. Moreover, WCH patients with non-dipper hypertensive pattern had a worse chronicity index. Significant histopathological alterations in the kidney were observed in patients with WCH and SH, and were accentuated in WCH patients with non-dipper blood pressure pattern.

  5. Expression of candidate genes associated with obesity in peripheral white blood cells of Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Martínez, Marcela; Burguete-García, Ana I; Murugesan, Selvasankar; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Cruz-Lopez, Miguel; García-Mena, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial disease, characterized by excess body fat. Diverse studies of the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity. However, relatively few studies have addressed specifically the association between the level of expression of these genes and obesity. We studied 160 healthy and obese unrelated Mexican children aged 6 to 14 years. We measured the transcriptional expression of 20 genes associated with obesity, in addition to the biochemical parameters, in peripheral white blood cells. The detection of mRNA levels was performed using the OpenArray Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). Obese children exhibited higher values of fasting glucose (p = 0.034), fasting insulin (p = 0.004), low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.006), triglycerides (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), and lower values of high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001) compared to lean children. Analysis of transcriptional expression data showed a difference for ADRB1 (p = 0.0297), ADIPOR1 (p = 0.0317), GHRL (p = 0.0060) and FTO (p = 0.0348) genes. Our results suggest that changes in the expression level of the studied genes are involved in biological processes implicated in the development of childhood obesity. Our study contributes new perspectives for a better understanding of biological processes involved in obesity. The protocol was approved by the National Committee and Ethical Committee Board from the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) (IMSS FIS/IMSS/PRIO/10/011).

  6. Leukoflow: multiparameter extended white blood cell differentiation for routine analysis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    van de Geijn, Gert-Jan; van Rees, Vincent; van Pul-Bom, Natasja; Birnie, Erwin; Janssen, Hans; Pegels, Hans; Beunis, Marlène; Njo, Tjin

    2011-09-01

    Differential white blood cell count (dWBC) is a frequently used diagnostic tool. For most patient samples an automated blood counter produces a five-part differential count. If this dWBC does not meet pre-set criteria, microscopic dWBC is performed. Microscopy is labor intensive and requires sustained training of technicians. Inter-observer variation and statistical variation are significant, due to limited numbers of cells counted. Flow cytometry is a candidate reference method for dWBC. Advantages are immunological definitions and large number of measured cells. Our goal was to replace (part of) the microscopic dWBC by a flow cytometric dWBC, that gives additional information on blasts, myeloid precursors, and lymphocyte subsets. We designed a cocktail of antibodies (CD4, CD14, CD34, CD16, CD56, CD19, CD45, CD138, CD3, and CD71) combined with a gating strategy and flow cytometric protocol for easy identification of leukocyte populations. This assay, called Leukoflow, requires low sample volume, has few manual handling steps, and a potential turn-around-time shorter than 2 h. We determine percentages and absolute concentrations of at least 13 different cell populations. For quantification of normoblasts a second flow cytometric staining was designed. We compared microscopic dWBC with that of the automated blood counter and Leukoflow for normal and abnormal blood samples. Leukoflow results correlate well with the automated blood counter for leukocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Correlation with manual dWBC is lower. Blast counts reported by Leukoflow suffer less from inter-observer variation compared to manual dWBC. In addition to microscopic or cytometric dWBC-techniques T-lymphocytes, CD4-T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, NK-cells, myeloid progenitors, plasma cells, and blasts are determined by Leukoflow. These populations give potential useful clinical information and are subject for future studies focusing on the additional clinical

  7. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

  8. Indium Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-long; Harley, Russell A.; Roggli, Victor L.; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Day, Gregory A.; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L.; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. Methods: To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Results: Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:22207675

  9. Consistency of Care and Blood Pressure Control among Elderly African Americans and Whites with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Daniel L.; Carson, April P.; Holmes, DaJuanicia N.; Kaufman, Jay S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether racial differences exist between consistency of medical care and blood pressure (BP) control over time among elderly, hypertensive African Americans and whites. Methods: Participants included 1,402 African Americans and 1,058 whites from the Piedmont Health Survey of the Elderly who were hypertensive (SBP >140 mmHg, DBP >90 mmHg, or used anti-hypertensive medications) at baseline (1987). Consistency of care was assessed based on self-reported receipt of physician care at each wave and categorized as consistent (care at each wave), inconsistent (care at some, but not all waves), and no standard care (no care at any wave). BP control was defined as SBP < 140 mmHg and DBP < 90 mmHg at subsequent waves of participation (1990, 1994, 1998). Repeated measures regression was used to longitudinally assess the association between consistency of care and BP control. Results: African Americans had a less favorable health profile and significantly less consistency of care over time (p<0.0001). In analyses adjusted for demographic factors, participants with consistent or inconsistent care had greater odds of BP control (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.64 and OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.78) than those with no standard care, but these associations were attenuated after additional adjustment for health care characteristics and co-morbidities. Conclusions: Compared to no standard care, receipt of consistent or inconsistent physician care was associated with BP control among the elderly. These associations did not differ by race, although African Americans were more likely to report inconsistent or no standard care which suggests disparities in health care access remain. PMID:19429737

  10. Serial evaluations at an indium-tin oxide production facility.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kristin J; Suarthana, Eva; Edwards, Nicole; Liang, Xiaoming; Stanton, Marcia L; Day, Gregory A; Saito, Rena; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of workplace changes to prevent indium lung disease, using 2002-2010 surveillance data collected by an indium-tin oxide production facility. We assessed pulmonary function using lower limits of normal. Blood indium concentration and personal air sampling data were used to estimate exposure. Abnormalities were uncommon at hire. After hire, prevalence of spirometric restriction was 31% (n = 14/45), about fourfold higher than expected. Excessive decline in FEV1 was elevated at 29% (n = 12/41). Half (n = 21/42) had blood indium ≥5 µg/l. More recent hires had fewer abnormalities. There was a suggestion that abnormalities were more common among workers with blood indium ≥5 µg/l, but otherwise an exposure-response relationship was not evident. Peak dust concentrations were obscured by time averaging. Evolving lung function abnormalities consistent with subclinical indium lung disease appeared common and merit systematic investigation. Traditional measures of exposure and response were not illustrative, suggesting fresh approaches will be needed. Workplace changes seemed to have had a positive though incomplete impact; novel preventive interventions are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. White Matter Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Role of Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Yusuke; Zhao, Hao; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua

    2015-10-01

    We recently observed early white matter injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. This study investigated the potential role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and consequent white matter injury. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male mice. The following 3 experiments were devised: (1) mice underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 24 h after SAH and were euthanized to determine BBB disruption and MMP-9 activation in white matter; (2) to investigate the role of MMP-9 in BBB disruption, lesion volumes on magnetic resonance imaging were compared between wild-type (WT) and MMP-9 knockout (MMP-9-/-) mice at 24 h after SAH; (3) WT and MMP-9-/- mice underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 1 and 8 days after SAH to detect time-dependent changes in brain injury. Brains were used to investigate myelin integrity in white matter. In WT mice with SAH, white matter showed BBB disruption (albumin leakage) and T2 hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging. MMP-9 activity was elevated at 24 h after SAH. MMP-9-/- mice had less white matter T2 hyperintensity after SAH than WT mice. At 8 days after SAH, WT mice had decreased myelin integrity and MMP-9-/- mice developed less white matter injury. SAH causes BBB disruption and consequent injury in white matter. MMP-9 plays an important role in those pathologies and could be a therapeutic target for SAH-induced white matter injury. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Factors Affecting the Toxicity of the Element Indium

    PubMed Central

    Castronovo, F. P.; Wagner, H. N.

    1971-01-01

    Hydrated indium oxide is 40 times more toxic than ionic indium, when expressed as lethality per quantity of metal injected. Ionic indium is nephrotoxic, causing damage in the proximal portion of the proximal convoluted tubule. In this respect, it resembles the element mercury. At extremely high doses, ionic indium causes focal necrosis in the liver. Hydrated indium oxide causes damage to those organs which contain phagocytic cells which clear the insoluble particles from the blood after i.v. injection. Actual focal necrosis was found in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Damage was also found in the thymus and lymph nodes. At extremely high doses, damage was observed in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney. Hydrated indium oxide caused extensive haemorrhage and marked thrombocytopenia. Fibrin thrombi were observed in the liver. The increase in toxicity of indium resulting from phagocytosis of insoluble oxides by the reticuloendothelial system may represent a general mechanism by which the toxicity of certain heavy metals is increased. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6Fig. 2 PMID:5125268

  13. Rotation-Driven Microfluidic Disc for White Blood Cell Enumeration Using Magnetic Bead Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yiwen; Li, Jingyi; Haverstick, Doris M; Landers, James P

    2016-11-15

    We recently defined a magnetic bead-based assay that exploited an agglutination-like response for DNA and applied it to DNA-containing cell enumeration using inexpensive benchtop hardware [ J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012 , 134 ( 12 ), 5689 - 96 ]. Although cost-efficient, the open-well format assay required numerous manual steps, and the magnetic field actuation scheme was not readily adaptable for integration. Here, we demonstrate a low-cost (<$2 in-lab), higher-throughput "pinwheel assay" platform that relies on a combination of a disposable rotation-driven microdisc (RDM), and a simple bidirectional rotating magnetic field (bi-RMF). The assay was transformed into an integrated microfluidic system using a multilayered polyester microfluidic disc created through laser print, cut and laminate fabrication, with fluid flow controlled by rotation speed without any mechanical valves. The RDM accepts four samples that undergo on-chip dilution to five different concentrations that cover the effective concentration range needed for downstream cell counting by pinwheel assay. We show that a bi-RMF is effective for the simultaneous actuation of pinwheel assays in 20 detection chambers. The optimization of the bi-RMF frequencies allows the RDM-based pinwheel assay detect human genomic DNA down to a mass of human genomic DNA (5.5 picograms) that is roughly equal to the mass in a single cell. For proof of principle, enumeration of the white blood cells in human blood samples on the RDM provided data correlating well (C.V. of 10%) with those obtained in a clinical lab. Fusing the cost-effective RDM with a simple bi-RMF provides a promising strategy for automation and multiplexing of magnetic particle-based agglutination assays.

  14. Chronic kidney disease, cerebral blood flow, and white matter volume in hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Bryan, R Nick; Weiner, Daniel E; Diamond, Matthew; Van Buren, Peter; Taylor, Addison; Beddhu, Srinivasan; Rosendorff, Clive; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2016-03-29

    To determine the relation between markers of kidney disease-estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR)-with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and white matter volume (WMV) in hypertensive adults. We used baseline data collected from 665 nondiabetic hypertensive adults aged ≥50 years participating in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). We used arterial spin labeling to measure CBF and structural 3T images to segment tissue into normal and abnormal WMV. We used quantile regression to estimate the association between eGFR and UACR with CBF and abnormal WMV, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. There were 218 participants (33%) with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 146 participants (22%) with UACR ≥30 mg/g. Reduced eGFR was independently associated with higher adjusted median CBF, but not with abnormal WMV. Conversely, in adjusted analyses, there was a linear independent association between UACR and larger abnormal WMV, but not with CBF. Compared to participants with neither marker of CKD (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and UACR <30 mg/g), median CBF was 5.03 mL/100 g/min higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78, 9.29) and abnormal WMV was 0.63 cm(3) larger (95% CI 0.08, 1.17) among participants with both markers of CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and UACR ≥30 mg/g). Among nondiabetic hypertensive adults, reduced eGFR was associated with higher CBF and higher UACR was associated with larger abnormal WMV. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Stability of cryopreserved white blood cells (WBCs) prepared for donor WBC infusions.

    PubMed

    Stroncek, David F; Xing, Lu; Chau, Quyen; Zia, Nausheen; McKelvy, Alyce; Pracht, Leigh; Sabatino, Marianna; Jin, Ping

    2011-12-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) collected from hematopoietic stem cell transplant donors are often given to the recipient to speed immune recovery or treat disease relapse. The postthaw recovery and viability of cryopreserved donor WBCs, stored for as long as 7 years, were assessed. Total nucleated cell (TNC) cell recovery, CD3+ cell recovery, and TNC viability were measured in 311 clinical donor WBC products: 168 products were unmanipulated or minimally manipulated and 143 products were extensively manipulated. An additional 45 products were selected because they were stored for a longer duration; these were tested using both standard methods and global transcriptional analysis. All products were cryopreserved in 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) plus 6% pentastarch and stored in liquid nitrogen. The mean duration of storage of the 311 products was 143 days. Their TNC recovery was 92 ± 17%, CD3+ cell recovery was 76 ± 19%, and the TNC viability was 84 ± 6%. Duration of storage had no effect on TNC recovery, CD3+ cell recovery, or TNC viability of the 311 products. The mean duration of storage of the long-term stored products was 5.2 years; their TNC recovery (93 ± 14%) and the TNC viability (78 ± 13%) did not differ from the 311 products, but their CD3 cell recovery was greater (86 ± 22%; p = 0.0042). Gene expression profiles of the long-term-stored products revealed no differences due to storage duration. Donor WBC products cryopreserved in 5% DMSO and 6% pentastarch can be stored in liquid nitrogen for at least 7 years. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3600 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Godschalk, Roger; Peluso, Marco; Phillips, David H.; Agudo, Antonio; Georgiadis, Panos; Loft, Steffen; Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Palli, Domenico; Perera, Frederica; Vermeulen, Roel; Taioli, Emanuela; Sram, Radim J.; Munnia, Armelle; Rosa, Fabio; Allione, Alessandra; Matullo, Giuseppe; Vineis, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Background Bulky DNA adducts are markers of exposure to genotoxic aromatic compounds, which reflect an individual’s ability to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) represent a major class of carcinogens that are capable of forming such adducts. Factors that have been reported to be related to DNA adduct levels include smoking, diet, body mass index (BMI), genetic polymorphisms, the season of collection of biologic material, and air pollutants. Methods We pooled eleven studies (3,600 subjects) in which bulky DNA adducts were measured in human white blood cells with similar 32P-postlabelling techniques and for which a similar set of variables was available, including individual data on age, gender, ethnicity, batch, smoking habits, BMI, season of blood collection and a limited set of gene variants. Results Lowest DNA adduct levels were observed in the spring (median 0.50 adducts per 108 nucleotides), followed by summer (0.64), autumn (0.70) and winter (0.85) (p=0.006). The same pattern emerged in multivariate analysis, but only among never smokers (p=0.02). Adduct levels were significantly lower (p=0.001) in Northern Europe (the Netherlands, Denmark) (mean 0.60, median 0.40) than in Southern Europe (Italy, Spain, France, Greece) (mean 0.79, median 0.60). Conclusions In this large pooled analysis, we have found only weak associations between bulky DNA adducts and exposure variables. Seasonality (with higher adducts levels in winter) and air pollution may partly explain some of the inter-area differences (North vs South Europe), but most inter-area and inter-individual variation in adduct levels still remain unexplained. Impact Our study describes the largest pooled analysis of bulky DNA adducts so far, showing that inter-individual variation is still largely unexplained, though seasonality appears to play a role. PMID:20921335

  17. Segmentation of white blood cells and comparison of cell morphology by linear and naïve Bayes classifiers.

    PubMed

    Prinyakupt, Jaroonrut; Pluempitiwiriyawej, Charnchai

    2015-06-30

    Blood smear microscopic images are routinely investigated by haematologists to diagnose most blood diseases. However, the task is quite tedious and time consuming. An automatic detection and classification of white blood cells within such images can accelerate the process tremendously. In this paper we propose a system to locate white blood cells within microscopic blood smear images, segment them into nucleus and cytoplasm regions, extract suitable features and finally, classify them into five types: basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte. Two sets of blood smear images were used in this study's experiments. Dataset 1, collected from Rangsit University, were normal peripheral blood slides under light microscope with 100× magnification; 555 images with 601 white blood cells were captured by a Nikon DS-Fi2 high-definition color camera and saved in JPG format of size 960 × 1,280 pixels at 15 pixels per 1 μm resolution. In dataset 2, 477 cropped white blood cell images were downloaded from CellaVision.com. They are in JPG format of size 360 × 363 pixels. The resolution is estimated to be 10 pixels per 1 μm. The proposed system comprises a pre-processing step, nucleus segmentation, cell segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The main concept of the segmentation algorithm employed uses white blood cell's morphological properties and the calibrated size of a real cell relative to image resolution. The segmentation process combined thresholding, morphological operation and ellipse curve fitting. Consequently, several features were extracted from the segmented nucleus and cytoplasm regions. Prominent features were then chosen by a greedy search algorithm called sequential forward selection. Finally, with a set of selected prominent features, both linear and naïve Bayes classifiers were applied for performance comparison. This system was tested on normal peripheral blood smear slide images from two datasets. Two sets

  18. Analysis of human blood plasma and hen egg white by chiroptical spectroscopic methods (ECD, VCD, ROA).

    PubMed

    Synytsya, Alla; Judexová, Miluše; Hrubý, Tomáš; Tatarkovič, Michal; Miškovičová, Michaela; Petruželka, Luboš; Setnička, Vladimír

    2013-06-01

    Chiroptical methods are widely used in structural and conformational analyses of biopolymers. The application of these methods to investigations of biofluids would provide new avenues for the molecular diagnosis of protein-misfolding diseases. In this work, samples of human blood plasma and hen egg white were analyzed using a combination of conventional and chiroptical methods: ultraviolet absorption/electronic circular dichroism (UV/ECD), Fourier transform infrared absorption/vibrational circular dichroism (FTIR/VCD), and Raman scattering/Raman optical activity (Raman/ROA). For comparison, the main components of these substances--human serum albumin (HSA) and ovalbumin (Ova)--were also analyzed by these methods. The ultraviolet region of the ECD spectrum was analyzed using the CDNN CD software package to evaluate the secondary structures of the proteins. The UV/ECD, FTIR/VCD, and Raman/ROA spectra of the substances were quite similar to those of the corresponding major proteins, while some differences were also detected and explained. The conclusions drawn from the FTIR/VCD and Raman/ROA data were in good agreement with the secondary structures calculated from ECD. The results obtained in this work demonstrate that the chiroptical methods used here can be applied to analyze not only pure protein solutions but also more complex systems, such as biological fluids.

  19. Antigenotoxic Effect of Trametes spp. Extracts against DNA Damage on Human Peripheral White Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Aleksandar; Živković, Lada; Stajić, Mirjana; Vukojević, Jelena; Milovanović, Ivan; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trametes species have been used for thousands of years in traditional and conventional medicine for the treatment of various types of diseases. The goal was to evaluate possible antigenotoxic effects of mycelium and basidiocarp extracts of selected Trametes species and to assess dependence on their antioxidant potential. Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, and T. gibbosa were the species studied. Antigenotoxic potentials of extracts were assessed on human peripheral white blood cells with basidiocarp and mycelium extracts of the species. The alkaline comet test was used for detection of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites, as well as the extent of DNA migration. DPPH assay was used to estimate antioxidative properties of extracts. Fruiting body extracts of T. versicolor and T. gibbosa as well as T. hirsuta extracts, except that at 20.0 mg/mL, were not genotoxic agents. T. versicolor extract had at 5.0 mg/mL the greatest antigenotoxic effect in both pre- and posttreatment of leukocytes. The mycelium extracts of the three species had no genotoxic activity and significant antigenotoxic effect against H2O2-induced DNA damage, both in pre- and posttreatment. The results suggest that extracts of these three species could be considered as strong antigenotoxic agents able to stimulate genoprotective response of cells. PMID:26258163

  20. White blood cell recovery after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation predicts clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haesook T; Frederick, David; Armand, Philippe; Andler, Emily; Kao, Grace; Cutler, Corey; Koreth, John; Alyea, Edwin P; Antin, Joseph H; Soiffer, Robert J; Ritz, Jerome; Ho, Vincent T

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) could be estimated by using peripheral white blood cell count (WBC) as a metric that integrates several aspects of HCT recovery, we conducted a retrospective study of 1,109 adult patients who underwent first allogeneic HCT from 2003 through 2009. WBC at 1-3 months after HCT was categorized as low (<2), normal (2-10), and high (>10 × 10(9) cells/L). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were lower for patients with low or high WBC at 1-3 months after HCT (P < 0.0001). We developed a predictive three-group risk model based on the pattern of WBC recovery early after HCT. Five-year OS was 47, 30, and 15% (P < 0.0001) and 5-year PFS was 39, 22, and 14% for patients in the three different risk groups (P < 0.0001). The pattern of WBC recovery early after HCT provides prognostic information for relapse, nonrelapse mortality, progression-free survival, and overall survival. A scoring system based on the trajectory of the WBC in the first 3 months after HCT can effectively stratify patients into three groups with different PFS and OS. If validated, this system could be useful in the clinical management of patients after HCT, and to stratify patients enrolled on HCT clinical trials.

  1. Preoperative Aspartate Aminotransferase to White Blood Cell Count Ratio Predicting Postoperative Outcomes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liao, Weijia; Wang, Yongqin; Liao, Yan; He, Songqing; Jin, Junfei

    2016-04-01

    Effective biomarkers for predicting prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after hepatectomy is urgently needed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of the preoperative peripheral aspartate aminotransferase to white blood cell count ratio (AWR) for the prognostication of patients with HCC.Clinical data of 396 HCC patients who underwent radical hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the low-AWR group (AWR ≤5.2) and the high-AWR group (AWR >5.2); univariate analysis, Kaplan-Meier method analysis, and the multivariate analysis by Cox regression were conducted, respectively.The results showed that AWR was associated with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), tumor size, Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) stage, portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in HCC. AWR > 5.2, AFP > 100 ng/mL, size of tumor >6 cm, number of multiple tumors, B-C of BCLC stage, PVTT, and distant metastasis were predictors of poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Except for recurrence, which was an independent predictor for OS only, AWR >5.2, size of tumor >6 cm, and PVTT were independent predictors of both DFS and OS.We concluded that preoperative AWR > 5.2 was an adverse predictor of DFS and OS in HCC after hepatectomy, AWR might be a novel prognostic biomarker in HCC after curative resection.

  2. Label-free identification of white blood cell using optical diffraction tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Min-hyeok; Kang, Suk-Jo; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    White blood cells (WBC) have crucial roles in immune systems which defend the host against from disease conditions and harmful invaders. Various WBC subsets have been characterized and reported to be involved in many pathophysiologic conditions. It is crucial to isolate a specific WBC subset to study its pathophysiological roles in diseases. Identification methods for a specific WBC population are rely on invasive approaches, including Wright-Gimesa staining for observing cellular morphologies and fluorescence staining for specific protein markers. While these methods enable precise classification of WBC populations, they could disturb cellular viability or functions. In order to classify WBC populations in a non-invasive manner, we exploited optical diffraction tomography (ODT). ODT is a three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging technique that measures 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions of individual WBCs. To test feasibility of label-free classification of WBC populations using ODT, we measured four subtypes of WBCs, including B cell, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, and natural killer (NK) cell. From measured 3-D RI tomograms of WBCs, we obtain quantitative structural and biochemical information and classify each WBC population using a machine learning algorithm.

  3. Functional analysis of eicosanoids from white blood cells in sepsis and SIRS.

    PubMed

    Baenkler, M; Leykauf, M; John, S

    2006-12-01

    Sepsis and SIRS are affections with major alterations in inflammatory activity. The impact of prostaglandins (PG) and leukotrienes (LT) produced from white blood cells (WBC) in this context is not completely understood. Thirty nine patients with sepsis or SIRS were investigated in comparison to 10 healthy controls. WBC were collected and separately exposed to arachidonic acid (AA) or to nothing else. After centrifugation, the generated PGE(2) and LTCDE(4) with or without stimulation were measured in the supernatant. LT-levels were significantly higher during sepsis/SIRS than in controls whereas PG-levels of patients were decreased to those of controls in basic condition. The relation between the level with and without stimulation showed a significant higher ratio in PG in contrast to LTs. The survivor's ratio in LT levels was significantly higher than that of non-survivors, which did not differ from controls. Generation of LT from WBC is enhanced during sepsis/SIRS, but LT generation after stimulation only in survivors but not in non-survivors. This inability of WBC to generate LT during sepsis in non-survivors could be predictive regarding the outcome of sepsis/SIRS and may be part of the "immunoparalysis" seen during sepsis in association with bad outcome.

  4. Effects of white rice containing enriched gamma-aminobutyric acid on blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Yoshida, Shin-ichi; Haramoto, Masafumi; Mizuno, Hidenori; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Kagami-Katsuyama, Hiroyo; Tanaka, Aiko; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Yuji; Nishihira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter with beneficial effects including antihypertension and antistress properties. In this study, we examined the effects of GABA-enriched white rice (GABA rice) on blood pressure (BP) in 39 mildly hypertensive adults in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were divided into a test group (n = 22) who consumed rice with 11.2 mg GABA/100 g of rice and a placebo group (n = 17) who consumed rice with 2.7 mg GABA/100 g of rice. For 8 weeks, the participants took 150 g of either the GABA rice or the placebo rice. Hematological examinations were performed on both groups at 0, 4, and 8 weeks after the start of rice consumption. Home BP was self-measured two times daily, morning and evening, from 1 weeks before to 2 weeks after the intervention. Although the hospital BP and evening BP measurements of the participants showed no significant change, consumption of the GABA rice improved the morning BP compared with the placebo rice after the 1st week and during the 6th and 8th weeks. These results showed the possibility that the GABA rice improves morning hypertension. PMID:26870683

  5. A Biochip with a 3D microfluidic architecture for trapping white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Anurag; Riddell, James; Chronis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    We present a microfluidic biochip for trapping single white blood cells (WBCs). The novel biochip, microfabricated using standard surface micromachining processes, consists of an array of precisely engineered microholes that confine single cells in a tight, three dimensional space and mechanically immobilize them. A high (> 87%) trapping efficiency was achieved when WBC-containing samples were delivered to the biochip at the optimal pressure of 3 psi. The biochip can efficiently trap up to 7,500 cells, maintaining a high trapping efficiency even when the number of cells is extremely low (~200 cells). We believe that the developed biochip can be used as a standalone unit in a biology/clinical lab for trapping WBCs as well as other cell types and imaging them using a standard fluorescent microscope at the single cell level. Furthermore, it can be integrated with other miniaturized optical modules to construct a portable platform for counting a wide variety of cells and therefore it can be an excellent tool for monitoring human diseases at the point-of-care. PMID:23935241

  6. Automated white blood cell counting via classification-free granulometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    1999-03-01

    In this paper we describe an application of the granulometric mixing theorem to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, an iterative algorithm based on the mixing theorem can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. Therefore, a new algorithm based on the theorem is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive mixing theorem to each initial component. Applying the mixing theorem to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the proposed algorithm on 6 classes of cell -- Myeloblast, Promyelocyte, Myelocyte, Metamyelocyte, Band, and PMN -- are very close to the actual numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is not larger than deviation of counts produced by human experts. An important technical point is that, unlike previous algorithms, the proposed algorithm does not require prior knowledge of the total number of cells in an image.

  7. Total cerebral blood flow, white matter lesions and brain atrophy: the SMART-MR study.

    PubMed

    Appelman, Auke P A; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Vincken, Koen L; Tiehuis, Audrey M; Witkamp, Theo D; Mali, Willem P T M; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2008-03-01

    We investigated whether total cerebral blood flow (CBF) was associated with brain atrophy, and whether this relation was modified by white matter lesions (WML). Within the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-magnetic resonance (SMART-MR) study, a prospective cohort study among patients with arterial disease, cross-sectional analyses were performed in 828 patients (mean age 58+/-10 years, 81% male) with quantitative flow, atrophy, and WML measurements on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Total CBF was measured with MR angiography and was expressed per 100 mL brain volume. Total brain volume and ventricular volume were divided by intracranial volume to obtain brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and ventricular fraction (VF). Lower BPF indicates more global brain atrophy, whereas higher VF indicates more subcortical brain atrophy. Mean CBF was 52.0+/-10.2 mL/min per 100 mL, mean BPF was 79.2+/-2.9%, and mean VF was 2.03+/-0.96%. Linear regression analyses showed that lower CBF was associated with more subcortical brain atrophy, after adjusting for age, sex, vascular risk factors, intima-media thickness, and lacunar infarcts, but only in patients with moderate to severe WML (upper quartile of WML): Change in VF per s.d. decrease in CBF 0.18%, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.34%. Our findings suggest that cerebral hypoperfusion in the presence of WML may be associated with subcortical brain atrophy.

  8. Flow-Through Electroporation of HL-60 White Blood Cell Suspensions using Nanoporous Membrane Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Akenhead, Michael A; Sun, Xinghua; Sapper, Harrison; Shin, Hainsworth Y; Hinds, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    A flow-through electroporation system, based on a novel nanoporous membrane/electrode design, for the delivery of cell wall-impermeant molecules into model leukocytes, HL-60 promyelocytes, was demonstrated. The ability to apply low voltages to cell populations, with nm-scale concentrated electric field in a periodic array, contributes to high cell viability. With applied biases of 1-4V, delivery of target molecules was achieved with 90% viability and up to 65% transfection efficiency. More importantly, the system allowed electrophoretic pumping of molecules from a microscale reservoir across the membrane/electrode system into a microfluidic flow channel for transfection of cells, a design that can reduce reagent amount by eightfold compared to current strategies. The flow-through system, which forces intimate membrane/electrode contact by using a 10μm channel height, can be easily scaled-up by adjusting the microfluidic channel geometry and/or the applied voltage pulse frequency to control cell residence times at the cell membrane/electrode interface. The demonstrated system shows promise in clinical applications where low-cost, high cell viability and high volume transfection methods are needed without the risk of viral vectors. In particular genetic modification of freely mobile white blood cells to either target disease cells or to express desired protein/enzyme biomolecules is an important target platform enabled by this device system. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cerebral white matter blood flow and energy metabolism in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Steen, Christel; D'haeseleer, Miguel; Hoogduin, Johannes M; Fierens, Yves; Cambron, Melissa; Mostert, Jop P; Heersema, Dorothea J; Koch, Marcus W; De Keyser, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reduced in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. The objective of this article is to assess the relationship between reduced NAWM CBF and both axonal mitochondrial metabolism and astrocytic phosphocreatine (PCr) metabolism. Ten healthy controls and 25 MS subjects were studied with 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. CBF was measured using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling. N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios (axonal mitochondrial metabolism) were obtained using (1)H-MR spectroscopy and PCr/β-ATP ratios using (31)P-MR spectroscopy. In centrum semiovale NAWM, we assessed correlations between CBF and both NAA/Cr and PCr/β-ATP ratios. Subjects with MS had a widespread reduction in CBF of NAWM (centrum semiovale, periventricular, frontal and occipital), and gray matter (frontoparietal cortex and thalamus). Compared to controls, NAA/Cr in NAWM of the centrum semiovale of MS subjects was decreased, whereas PCr/β-ATP was increased. We found no correlations between CBF and PCr/β-ATP. CBF and NAA/Cr correlated in controls (p = 0.02), but not in MS subjects (p = 0.68). Our results suggest that in MS patients there is no relationship between reduced CBF in NAWM and impaired axonal mitochondrial metabolism or astrocytic PCr metabolism.

  10. Bone scintigraphy and radiolabeled white blood cell scintigraphy for the diagnosis of mandibular osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Boronat-Ferrater, María; Simó-Perdigó, Marc; Cuberas-Borrós, Gemma; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; Dellepiane-Clarke, Fiorella; Torrent-Llongarriu, Elia; Negre-Busó, Montserrat; Porta-Biosca, Francisco; Sáez, Manel; Castell-Conesa, Joan

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of bone scintigraphy (BS) and radiolabeled white blood cell scintigraphy (WBCS) in detecting septic activity in the flat bones of the jaw. A retrospective analysis was conducted using 38 studies of combined BS plus WBCS: 33 of them 3-phase BS and 36 of them 2-phase WBCS. These studies were performed on 34 patients, 19 women and 15 men with a mean age of 56 years (22-79), who presented with suspected mandibular osteomyelitis, either acute or chronic exacerbation. The results were compared with histologic findings (55%) or with a minimum clinical/radiologic follow-up of 6 months (average, 21 months), when biopsy results were not available. BS showed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 6.7%, a positive predictive value of 62%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. For WBCS, the corresponding values were as follows: 73.7%, 78.6%, 82%, and 69%. Accuracy was 63.2% for BS and 94.7% for WBCS. WBCS has proven to be a useful test for detecting septic activity in the jaw bone, being more effective than BS alone, which under certain circumstances, can return a very high false-positive rate.

  11. Beta2-agonist clenbuterol induced changes in the distribution of white blood cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Ken; Tanihata, Jun; Motohashi, Norio; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru; Tomoda, Akio; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko

    2007-06-01

    Clenbuterol [CLE: 4-amino-alpha(t-butyl-amino)methyl-3,5-dichlorobenzyl alcohol] is well known as a potent beta2-adrenergic agonist and non-steroidal anabolic drug, and thus it is generally used for sports doping and asthma therapy. Although the functions of immune cells such as white blood cells (WBCs) have shown to be modulated through beta2-adrenoceptors, the effects of CLE on immune-responsive systems have not been elucidated systematically. Therefore, the effects of CLE on the number of WBCs were studied in rats. Male adult rats were divided into CLE-administered group and the control group to compare the number of total WBCs, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. The administration (dose = 1.0 mg . kg(-1) body weight . day(-1), s.c.) of CLE was maintained for 30 days. CLE did not change the number of total WBCs during the experimental period. However, CLE increased significantly the number of neutrophils and monocytes, while CLE decreased drastically the number of lymphocytes and eosinophils. There was no significant change in the number of basophils between both groups. These results suggest that the administration of CLE induces drastic redistribution of WBCs in circulation without changing the number of total WBCs, and these responses of WBCs during the administration of CLE are sustained for at least 30 days.

  12. Segmentation of White Blood Cell from Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Images Using Dual-Threshold Method

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yihui; Yao, Di

    2016-01-01

    We propose a dual-threshold method based on a strategic combination of RGB and HSV color space for white blood cell (WBC) segmentation. The proposed method consists of three main parts: preprocessing, threshold segmentation, and postprocessing. In the preprocessing part, we get two images for further processing: one contrast-stretched gray image and one H component image from transformed HSV color space. In the threshold segmentation part, a dual-threshold method is proposed for improving the conventional single-threshold approaches and a golden section search method is used for determining the optimal thresholds. For the postprocessing part, mathematical morphology and median filtering are utilized to denoise and remove incomplete WBCs. The proposed method was tested in segmenting the lymphoblasts on a public Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) image dataset. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than single-threshold approach independently performed in RGB and HSV color space and the overall single WBC segmentation accuracy reaches 97.85%, showing a good prospect in subsequent lymphoblast classification and ALL diagnosis. PMID:27313659

  13. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    PubMed

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Elevated white blood cell counts in Cushing's disease: association with hypercortisolism.

    PubMed

    Masri-Iraqi, Hiba; Robenshtok, Eyal; Tzvetov, Gloria; Manistersky, Yossi; Shimon, Ilan

    2014-10-01

    Glucocorticoid receptors are expressed in white blood cells (WBC’s) and are known to play a role in cell adhesion and WBC's recruitment from bone marrow. In Cushing's disease leukocytosis is frequently mentioned as laboratory finding. However, there is no data on the prevalence of this finding among patients, or correlation with disease severity. To investigate the prevalence of leukocytosis in patients with Cushing's disease, alterations in other blood count parameters and correlation with degree of hypercortisolism. Data of 26 patients diagnosed and followed for Cushing's disease at our clinic was reviewed. Two patients had disease relapse after complete remission and were studied as 2 separate events. Of the 26 patients, 17 were women (71 %), with a mean age of 39.8 ± 12.7 years. Mean baseline WBC count was 10,500 ± 2,600 cells/μl and dropped to 8,400 ± 1,900 cells/μl (p < 0.05) after treatment, mean neutrophil count at baseline was 7,600 ± 2,600 cells/μl and dropped to 5,300 ± 1,700 cells/μl (p < 0.05), lymphocyte count was 2,000 ± 600 cells/μl and raised to 2,300 ± 600 cells/μl (p < 0.05), hemoglobin was 13.7 ± 1.2 g/dl and dropped to 12.8 ± 1.4 g/dl (p < 0.05), and platelet number did not change. Elevated WBC count was present in 11/28 cases (40 %). Those patients with normal baseline WBC (mean 9,000 ± 1,500 cells/μl) dropped also to 7,700 ± 1,300 cells/μl after treatment (p < 0. 05). There was a significant positive correlation between decrease in UFC secretion and change in WBC's following treatment (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). Patients with Cushing's disease present with leukocytosis in approximately 40 % of cases. In most cases, including those without elevated baseline count, the WBC's decreased with disease remission, demonstrating the effect of glucocorticoids on these blood cells.

  15. Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases. This study was performed to examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis, we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 h in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed only minor effects in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 h before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 h. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases.

  16. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 hours in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed no effect in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 hours before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 hours. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. PMID:20064088

  17. Extracting, Recognizing, and Counting White Blood Cells from Microscopic Images by Using Complex-valued Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Akramifard, Hamid; Firouzmand, Mohammad; Moghadam, Reza Askari

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a method related to extracting white blood cells (WBCs) from blood microscopic images and recognizing them and counting each kind of WBCs is presented. In medical science diagnosis by check the number of WBCs and compared with normal number of them is a new challenge and in this context has been discussed it. After reviewing the methods of extracting WBCs from hematology images, because of high applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in classification we decided to use this effective method to classify WBCs, and because of high speed and stable convergence of complex-valued neural networks (CVNNs) compare to the real one, we used them to classification purpose. In the method that will be introduced, first the white blood cells are extracted by RGB color system's help. In continuance, by using the features of each kind of globules and their color scheme, a normalized feature vector is extracted, and for classifying, it is sent to a complex-valued back-propagation neural network. And at last, the results are sent to the output in the shape of the quantity of each of white blood cells. Despite the low quality of the used images, our method has high accuracy in extracting and recognizing WBCs by CVNNs, and because of this, certainly its result on high quality images will be acceptable. Learning time of complex-valued neural networks, that are used here, was significantly less than real-valued neural networks. PMID:23717809

  18. Extracting, Recognizing, and Counting White Blood Cells from Microscopic Images by Using Complex-valued Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Akramifard, Hamid; Firouzmand, Mohammad; Moghadam, Reza Askari

    2012-07-01

    In this paper a method related to extracting white blood cells (WBCs) from blood microscopic images and recognizing them and counting each kind of WBCs is presented. In medical science diagnosis by check the number of WBCs and compared with normal number of them is a new challenge and in this context has been discussed it. After reviewing the methods of extracting WBCs from hematology images, because of high applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in classification we decided to use this effective method to classify WBCs, and because of high speed and stable convergence of complex-valued neural networks (CVNNs) compare to the real one, we used them to classification purpose. In the method that will be introduced, first the white blood cells are extracted by RGB color system's help. In continuance, by using the features of each kind of globules and their color scheme, a normalized feature vector is extracted, and for classifying, it is sent to a complex-valued back-propagation neural network. And at last, the results are sent to the output in the shape of the quantity of each of white blood cells. Despite the low quality of the used images, our method has high accuracy in extracting and recognizing WBCs by CVNNs, and because of this, certainly its result on high quality images will be acceptable. Learning time of complex-valued neural networks, that are used here, was significantly less than real-valued neural networks.

  19. Association of Blood Pressure and Hypertension with Alcohol Consumption in HIV-Infected White and Nonwhite Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nêmora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Brandão, Ajácio B. M.; Fuchs, Flávio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although alcohol abuse is associated with hypertension in whites and nonwhites, it has been scarcely investigated in HIV-infected patients. Objective. To investigate whether the association of alcohol abuse with hypertension is influenced by skin color in HIV-infected individuals. Methods. Cross-sectional study in HIV-infected individuals aged 18 years or older. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and HIV infection were investigated. Alcohol abuse was defined as ≥15 (women) and ≥30 g/alcohol/day (men), and binge drinking by the intake of ≥5 drinks on a single occasion. Hypertension was defined by blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or use of blood pressure-lowering agents. Results. We studied 1,240 individuals, with 39.1 ± 10 years, 51% males and 57% whites. Age and body mass index were associated with blood pressure, and there was an independent association of alcohol abuse with hypertension in whites (RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.3) and nonwhites (RR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.0). Among nonwhite individuals who were alcohol abusers, systolic (9.3 ± 3.2; P = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressures (6.4 ± 2.1; P = 0.008) were higher than in nonabusers. Conclusion. Alcohol abuse is a risk factor for hypertension in white and nonwhite HIV-infected individuals. The association of ethanol consumption with blood pressure is not explained by AIDS-related conditions. PMID:24235878

  20. Overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans and adherence to recommended dietary and physical activity guidelines among Hmong and white middle school students.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, Julia; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted among low-income middle-school students (N = 426) in rural northern California to compare rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure and acanthosis nigricans (AN) between Hmong and white students. Associations among rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, AN, and scores for adherence to recommended dietary guidelines were also examined. Fifty-two percent (52%) of white students were overweight/obese compared to 38% of Hmong students. Higher fruit consumption was associated with a lower BMI among white, but not Hmong students. Whereas 7% of white students were classified as pre-hypertensive/hypertensive, the rate for Hmong students was 17%. Additionally, at 13 versus 2%, six-fold more Hmong students had an elevated blood pressure with a normal BMI compared to white students, respectively. Ethnicity was also an independent predictive factor for AN. Hmong students appear to be at higher risk for both hypertension and AN than white students irrespective of BMI.

  1. Higher subcortical and white matter cerebral blood flow in perinatally HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Blokhuis, Charlotte; Mutsaerts, Henri J M M; Cohen, Sophie; Scherpbier, Henriëtte J; Caan, Matthan W A; Majoie, Charles B L M; Kuijpers, Taco W; Reiss, Peter; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus. We used linear regression analysis to evaluate group differences and associations with HIV disease and treatment characteristics, macrostructural (volume loss, WM lesions) or microstructural injury (increased WM diffusivity, neurometabolite alterations), or poorer cognitive performance.HIV-infected children had higher CBF in WM (+10.2%; P = 0.042), caudate nucleus (+4.8%; P = 0.002), putamen (+3.6%; P = 0.017), nucleus accumbens (+3.9%; P = 0.031), and thalamus (+5.5%; P = 0.032). Thalamus CBF was highest in children with a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage B (Coef. = 6.45; P = 0.005) or C (Coef. = 8.52; P = 0.001) diagnosis. Lower GM CBF was associated with higher WM lesion volume in HIV-infected children (Coef. = -0.053; P = 0.001). No further associations with HIV-related cognitive impairment or cerebral injury were found.CBF was higher in WM, basal ganglia, and thalamus in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated perinatally HIV-infected children, but this was not associated with cerebral injury or cognitive impairment. HIV-infected children with lower GM CBF had a higher volume of WM lesions, which could reflect vascular disease as potential contributing factor to white matter injury. Lifelong exposure to HIV and cART in this population warrants longitudinal assessment of CBF and how it relates to (neuro)inflammation, vascular dysfunction, and cerebral injury in

  2. Higher subcortical and white matter cerebral blood flow in perinatally HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Blokhuis, Charlotte; Mutsaerts, Henri J.M.M.; Cohen, Sophie; Scherpbier, Henriëtte J.; Caan, Matthan W.A.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Wit, Ferdinand W.N.M.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment. This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8–18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus. We used linear regression analysis to evaluate group differences and associations with HIV disease and treatment characteristics, macrostructural (volume loss, WM lesions) or microstructural injury (increased WM diffusivity, neurometabolite alterations), or poorer cognitive performance. HIV-infected children had higher CBF in WM (+10.2%; P = 0.042), caudate nucleus (+4.8%; P = 0.002), putamen (+3.6%; P = 0.017), nucleus accumbens (+3.9%; P = 0.031), and thalamus (+5.5%; P = 0.032). Thalamus CBF was highest in children with a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage B (Coef. = 6.45; P = 0.005) or C (Coef. = 8.52; P = 0.001) diagnosis. Lower GM CBF was associated with higher WM lesion volume in HIV-infected children (Coef. = −0.053; P = 0.001). No further associations with HIV-related cognitive impairment or cerebral injury were found. CBF was higher in WM, basal ganglia, and thalamus in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated perinatally HIV-infected children, but this was not associated with cerebral injury or cognitive impairment. HIV-infected children with lower GM CBF had a higher volume of WM lesions, which could reflect vascular disease as potential contributing factor to white matter injury. Lifelong exposure to HIV and cART in this population warrants longitudinal assessment of CBF and how it relates to (neuro)inflammation, vascular dysfunction, and

  3. Indium Sorption to Iron Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. J.; Sacco, S. A.; Hemond, H.; Hussain, F. A.; Runkel, R. L.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Kimball, B. A.; Shine, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics, and its use is growing rapidly as a semiconductive coating (as indium tin oxide) for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and flat panel displays. It also has uses in important energy technologies such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic cells. Despite its rapid increase in use, very little is known about the environmental behavior of indium, and concerns are being raised over the potential health effects of this emerging metal contaminant. One source of indium to the environment is acid mine drainage from the mining of lead, zinc, and copper sulfides. In our previous studies of a stream in Colorado influenced by acid mine drainage from lead and zinc mining activities, indium concentrations were found to be 10,000 times those found in uncontaminated rivers. However, the speciation and mobility of indium could not be reliably modeled because sorption constants to environmental sorbents have not been determined. In this study, we generate sorption constants for indium to ferrihydrite in the laboratory over a range of pHs, sorbent to sorbate ratios, and ionic strengths. Ferrihydrite is one of the most important sorbents in natural systems, and sorption to amorphous iron oxides such as ferrihydrite is thought to be one of the main removal mechanisms of metals from the dissolved phase in aqueous environments. Because of its relatively low solubility, we also find that indium hydroxide precipitation can dominate indium's partitioning at micromolar concentrations of indium. This precipitation may be important in describing indium's behavior in our study stream in Colorado, where modeling sorption to iron-oxides does not explain the complete removal of indium from the dissolved phase when the pH of the system is artificially raised to above 8. This study contributes much-needed data about indium's aqueous behavior, in order to better understand its fate, transport, and impacts in the

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow, white matter abnormalities, and cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics in patients with idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, B; Malm, J; Fagerland, M; Hietala, S O; Johansson, B; Ekstedt, J; Karlsson, T

    1996-03-01

    OBJECTIVES--(1) to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computed tomography and 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in patients with the idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome (IAHS); (2) to examine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), gait, and psychometric functions before and after CSF removal (CSF tap test); (3) to assess abnormalities in subcortical white matter by MRI. METHODS--Thirty one patients fulfilling the criteria for IAHS (according to history and clinical and neuroradiological examination) were studied. Quantified gait measurements, psychometric testing, and rCBF before and after removal of CSF were obtained. Pressure of CSF and CSF outflow conductance were investigated with a constant pressure infusion method. Brain MRI was used to quantify the severity of white matter lesions and periventricular hyperintensities. In IAHS a widespread rCBF hypoperfusion pattern was depicted, with a caudal frontal and temporal grey matter and subcortical white matter reduction of rCBF as the dominant feature. Removal of CSF was not accompanied by a concomitant increase in rCBF. Significant white matter lesions were detected only in a minority of patients by MRI. An altered CSF hydrodynamic state with a higher CSF pressure and lower conductance was confirmed. IAHS is characterised by an abnormal CSF hydrodynamic state, associated with a widespread rCBF reduction with preference for subcortical white matter and frontal-temporal cortical regions. Furthermore in most patients MRI did not show white matter changes suggestive of a coexistent subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. At least in the idiopathic group of patients with AHS, measurements of rCBF before and after temporary relief of the CSF hydrodynamic disturbance will not provide additional information that would be helpful in the preoperative evaluation but is suggestive of a preserved autoregulation of rCBF.

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow, white matter abnormalities, and cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics in patients with idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, B; Malm, J; Fagerland, M; Hietala, S O; Johansson, B; Ekstedt, J; Karlsson, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--(1) to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computed tomography and 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in patients with the idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome (IAHS); (2) to examine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), gait, and psychometric functions before and after CSF removal (CSF tap test); (3) to assess abnormalities in subcortical white matter by MRI. METHODS--Thirty one patients fulfilling the criteria for IAHS (according to history and clinical and neuroradiological examination) were studied. Quantified gait measurements, psychometric testing, and rCBF before and after removal of CSF were obtained. Pressure of CSF and CSF outflow conductance were investigated with a constant pressure infusion method. Brain MRI was used to quantify the severity of white matter lesions and periventricular hyperintensities. In IAHS a widespread rCBF hypoperfusion pattern was depicted, with a caudal frontal and temporal grey matter and subcortical white matter reduction of rCBF as the dominant feature. Removal of CSF was not accompanied by a concomitant increase in rCBF. Significant white matter lesions were detected only in a minority of patients by MRI. An altered CSF hydrodynamic state with a higher CSF pressure and lower conductance was confirmed. IAHS is characterised by an abnormal CSF hydrodynamic state, associated with a widespread rCBF reduction with preference for subcortical white matter and frontal-temporal cortical regions. Furthermore in most patients MRI did not show white matter changes suggestive of a coexistent subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. At least in the idiopathic group of patients with AHS, measurements of rCBF before and after temporary relief of the CSF hydrodynamic disturbance will not provide additional information that would be helpful in the preoperative evaluation but is suggestive of a preserved autoregulation of rCBF. PMID:8609504

  6. A Novel Brainstem Hemorrhage Model by Autologous Blood Infusion in Rat: White Matter Injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Neurobehavioral Features.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chuanyuan; Zhang, Ruzhi; Hu, Xin; Song, Li; Wang, Chunhua; Gao, Fabao; You, Chao

    2016-05-01

    Primary brainstem hemorrhage (BSH) has the highest mortality and morbidity as a subtype of intracerebral hemorrhage. A major limitation of BSH research is the lack of a corresponding animal model. The purpose of this study was to establish a novel rat model of BSH and to characterize the resulting brain injury, especially focusing on white matter injury. BSH was produced by stereotactically injecting autologous whole blood into the pons. Time course of hematoma resolution was observed by 7-T magnetic resonance imaging. White matter injury was evaluated in detail by multiple parameters including diffuse tensor imaging (DTI), demyelination, axonal injury, oligodendrocyte degeneration, and oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation. Brain water content and neurobehavior were also evaluated. Blood infusion (30 µL) led to a stable, reproducible hematoma in the right basotegmental pons. The hematoma absorption started, became obvious, and was nearly completed at 7, 14, and 30 days, respectively. Hematoma caused obvious brain edema at 3 days. White mater injury was observed pathologically, which was in line with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in DTI in the pons. FA reduction was also noticed in the cerebral peduncle and medulla. Behavioral abnormality persisted for at least 14 days and neurofunction was recovered within 1 month. This novel model can produce a stable hematoma resulting in brain edema, white matter injury, and neurofunctional deficits, which could be useful for future investigation of pathophysiological mechanisms and new treatment evaluation after BSH. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Selenocompounds in juvenile white sturgeon: evaluating blood, tissue, and urine selenium concentrations after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Wang, Wei-Fang; Deng, Dong-Fang; Fadel, James G; Hung, Silas S O

    2012-03-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for all vertebrates, however, at environmental relevant levels, it is a potent toxin. In the San Francisco Bay-Delta, white sturgeon, an ancient Chondrostean fish of high ecological and economic value, is at risk to Se exposure. The present study is the first to examine the uptake, distribution, and excretion of various selenocompounds in white sturgeon. A combined technique of stomach intubation, dorsal aorta cannulation, and urinary catheterization was utilized, in this study, to characterize the short-term effects of Se in the forms of sodium-selenate (Selenate), sodium-selenite (Selenite), selenocystine (SeCys), l-selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine (MSeCys), and selenoyeast (SeYeast). An ecologically relevant dose of Se (∼500 μg/kg body weight) was intubated into groups of 5 juvenile white sturgeon. Blood and urine samples were repeatedly collected over the 48 h post intubation period and fish were sacrificed for Se tissue concentration and distribution at 48 h. The tissue concentration and distribution, blood concentrations, and urinary elimination of Se significantly differ (p ≤ 0.05) among forms. In general, organic selenocompounds maintain higher blood concentrations, with SeMeCys maintaining the highest area under the curve (66.3 ± 8.7 and 9.3 ± 1.0 μg h/ml) and maximum Se concentration in blood (2.3 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.2 μg/ml) in both the protein and non-protein bound fractions, respectively. Selenate, however, did not result in significant increase of Se concentration, compared with the control, in the protein-bound blood fraction. Regardless of source, Se is preferentially distributed into metabolically active tissues, with the SeMet treated fish achieving the highest concentration in most tissues. In contrast, Selenite has very similar blood concentrations and tissue distribution profile to SeCys and SeYeast. From blood and tissue Se concentrations, Selenate is not stored in blood

  8. The first week after concussion: Blood flow, brain function and white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Nathan W; Hutchison, Michael G; Richards, Doug; Leung, General; Graham, Simon J; Schweizer, Tom A

    2017-01-01

    Concussion is a major health concern, associated with short-term deficits in physical function, emotion and cognition, along with negative long-term health outcomes. However, we remain in the early stages of characterizing MRI markers of concussion, particularly during the first week post-injury when symptoms are most severe. In this study, 52 varsity athletes were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), including 26 athletes with acute concussion (scanned 1-7 days post-injury) and 26 matched control athletes. A comprehensive set of functional and structural MRI measures were analyzed, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and global functional connectivity (Gconn) of grey matter, along with fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of white matter. An analysis comparing acutely concussed athletes and controls showed limited evidence for reliable mean effects of acute concussion, with only MD showing spatially extensive differences between groups. We subsequently demonstrated that the number of days post-injury explained a significant proportion of inter-subject variability in MRI markers of acutely concussed athletes. Athletes scanned at early acute injury (1-3 days) had elevated CBF and Gconn and reduced FA, but those scanned at late acute injury (5-7 days) had the opposite response. In contrast, MD showed a more complex, spatially-dependent relationship with days post-injury. These novel findings highlight the variability of MRI markers during the acute phase of concussion and the critical importance of considering the acute injury time interval, which has significant implications for studies relating acute MRI data to concussion outcomes.

  9. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis of white blood cell phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Keller, Margaux F; Reiner, Alexander P; Okada, Yukinori; van Rooij, Frank J A; Johnson, Andrew D; Chen, Ming-Huei; Smith, Albert V; Morris, Andrew P; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B; Lettre, Guillaume; Harris, Tamara; Garcia, Melissa; Bandinelli, Stefania; Qayyum, Rehan; Yanek, Lisa R; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C; Kooperberg, Charles; Keating, Brendan; Reis, Jared; Tang, Hua; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Matsuda, Koichi; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kubo, Michiaki; Liu, Simin; Dehghan, Abbas; Felix, Janine F; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franco, Oscar H; Longo, Dan L; Singleton, Andrew B; Psaty, Bruce M; Evans, Michelle K; Cupples, L Adrienne; Rotter, Jerome I; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Takahashi, Atsushi; Wilson, James G; Ganesh, Santhi K; Nalls, Mike A

    2014-12-20

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure used as a predictor of certain aspects of human health, including immunity and infection status. WBC count is also a complex trait that varies among individuals and ancestry groups. Differences in linkage disequilibrium structure and heterogeneity in allelic effects are expected to play a role in the associations observed between populations. Prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses have identified genomic loci associated with WBC and its subtypes, but much of the heritability of these phenotypes remains unexplained. Using GWAS summary statistics for over 50 000 individuals from three diverse populations (Japanese, African-American and European ancestry), a Bayesian model methodology was employed to account for heterogeneity between ancestry groups. This approach was used to perform a trans-ethnic meta-analysis of total WBC, neutrophil and monocyte counts. Ten previously known associations were replicated and six new loci were identified, including several regions harboring genes related to inflammation and immune cell function. Ninety-five percent credible interval regions were calculated to narrow the association signals and fine-map the putatively causal variants within loci. Finally, a conditional analysis was performed on the most significant SNPs identified by the trans-ethnic meta-analysis (MA), and nine secondary signals within loci previously associated with WBC or its subtypes were identified. This work illustrates the potential of trans-ethnic analysis and ascribes a critical role to multi-ethnic cohorts and consortia in exploring complex phenotypes with respect to variants that lie outside the European-biased GWAS pool.

  10. Relationship between white blood cell count and components of metabolic syndrome among young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsiao, Fone-Ching; Lin, Juinn-Diann; Su, Ching-Chieh; Wang, Kwo-Syin; Chu, Yi-Min; Lee, Li-Hsiu; Wang, Kun; Hsia, Te-Lin; Pei, Dee

    2010-03-01

    Components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been associated with several inflammatory factors, including white blood cell count (WBCC). In the present study, the relationships between WBCC and aspects of MetS in young adolescents were investigated. We enrolled 596 participants (328 males and 268 females) from 10 to 13 years of age and with normal WBCC in this study. They were divided into four quartiles according to WBCC (WBCC1-4, from lowest to highest WBCC). The mean values of MetS components for each group were compared in males and females separately. Multivariate linear regression analysis between the WBCC and the components of MetS after adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) were also evaluated. In the male group, the BMI of WBCC1 and WBCC2 was significantly lower than WBCC4. The total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) of WBCC2 were significantly higher than WBCC1 and WBCC4. Triglyceride (TG) levels of WBCC1 were significantly lower than WBCC3 and WBCC4, and TG levels of WBCC2 were significantly lower than WBCC4. Alternatively, the BMI of WBCC1 and WBCC2 were significantly lower than WBCC3 in the female group. Finally, the TG and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels of WBCC1 were significantly lower than WBCC3 or WBCC4, respectively. After multivariate linear regression, WBCC was positively correlated to BMI and TG, but negatively correlated to FPG in males whereas in young adolescent females, WBCC was positively correlated to BMI and FPG. In conclusion BMI was positively correlated with WBCC in young adolescent females and males. Thus, BMI is the most important component of MetS in this age group. In addition, TG levels in males and FPG in females were significantly related to WBCC. These findings could be regarded an early indication for the future development of full-blown MetS or cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Tc-99m Labeled HMPAO white Blood Cell Scintigraphy in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Funda; Kın Cengiz, Arzu; Güngör, Fırat

    2012-04-01

    (99m)Tc labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is a frequently used option for acute infection, particularly in pediatric patients. This scintigraphy is applied to detect sites of infection/inflammation in patients with fever of unknown origin, to find and follow up osteomyelitis, and to detect suspicion of acute appendicitis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the value of (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy in pediatric patients. The study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2008 and included 13 patients (5 boys, 8 girls; mean age 6.9±6.2 years). Those patients who had suspicion of bone infection (n=7), fever of unknown origin (n=3), and suspicion of acute appendicitis (n=3) were evaluated retrospectively. (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy imaging was performed to all patients. Diagnosis was done according to operation and pathological results or clinical follow-up. (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy has been found to be true positive in 6 cases, true negative in 6 cases, and false negative in one patient who had fewer unknown origin. The false negative case has been found to have encephalitis with MRI. Leukocyte scintigraphy has been described as a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of suspicion of bone infection, fever of unknown origin and suspicion of acute appendicitis. (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy is a rapid and very accurate method for detecting those pathologies. Our results showed that WBC scintigraphy might be reliably used for diagnosis of suspected bone infection and acute appendicitis, fever of unknown origin, and acute appendicitis, in pediatric patient population. None declared.

  12. White matter lesion burden in migraine with aura may be associated with reduced cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Datta, Ritobrato; Detre, John A; Cucchiara, Brett

    2017-05-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in subjects with migraine are related to alterations in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF). Methods Migraine with aura (MWA), migraine without aura (MwoA), and control subjects were enrolled in a 1:1:1 ratio. WMH load was scored based on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery/T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a previously established semi-quantitative scale. Global and regional CBFs were quantified using arterial spin labelled perfusion MRI. Integrity of the circle of Willis was assessed with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Results A total of 170 subjects were enrolled (54 controls, 56 MWA, and 60 MwoA). There was no significant difference in subjects with ≥1 WMH across groups (22% controls, 29% MWA, 35% MwoA; p = NS). Similarly, high WMH load was not significantly different across groups (16.7% controls, 21.4% MWA, 25.0% MwoA; p = NS). High WMH load was strongly associated with increasing age (odds ratio: 1.08 per year, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.13, p = 0.01). Resting CBF was similar across groups, but was significantly higher in women. In MWA subjects with high WMH load, CBF was substantially lower ( p = 0.03). No association between WMH load and CBF was seen in control or MwoA subjects. Conclusions WHMs in MWA may be related to alterations in resting CBF.

  13. Combination of white blood cell count with liver enzymes in the diagnosis of blunt liver laceration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Che; Kuo, Liang-Chi; Cheng, Yuan-Chia; Chen, Chao-Wen; Lin, Yen-Ko; Lin, Tsung-Ying; Lin, Hsing-Lin

    2010-11-01

    It is sometimes difficult to decide whether to perform abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scans for possible liver laceration in patients who have sustained less severe or minor blunt abdominal trauma. This study was conducted to find out whether the basic laboratory workup could provide information of possible liver laceration in blunt abdominal trauma patients and act as an indication for CT scans. In this retrospective case-control study, we included 289 patients who had sustained blunt abdominal injury for which they received abdominal CT scans in our emergency department. Of the 289 patients, the study group (n = 42) included patients who had been found to have liver lacerations after obtaining the CT; the controls (n = 42) were those not found to have such injuries by the same method with matching of age and sex. In patients with blunt abdominal injuries, there is a strong difference in liver laceration between elevation of white blood cell (WBC) counts (P = .001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P < .001), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P < .001). A logistic regression model demonstrated that WBC count and AST were independently associated with liver laceration. With elevations of serum AST greater than 100 IU/L, ALT greater than 80 IU/L, and WBC count greater than 10 000/mm(3), we found a sensitivity and specificity of 90.0% and 92.3%, respectively, in the 42 liver laceration victims. In patients with blunt abdominal trauma, elevated WBC counts together with elevated AST and ALT are strongly associated with liver laceration and warrant further imaging studies and management. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis of white blood cell phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Margaux F.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Okada, Yukinori; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Smith, Albert V.; Morris, Andrew P.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B.; Lettre, Guillaume; Harris, Tamara; Garcia, Melissa; Bandinelli, Stefania; Qayyum, Rehan; Yanek, Lisa R.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.; Kooperberg, Charles; Keating, Brendan; Reis, Jared; Tang, Hua; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Matsuda, Koichi; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kubo, Michiaki; Liu, Simin; Dehghan, Abbas; Felix, Janine F.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Longo, Dan L.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Evans, Michelle K.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Rotter, Jerome I.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Wilson, James G.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Nalls, Mike A.

    2014-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure used as a predictor of certain aspects of human health, including immunity and infection status. WBC count is also a complex trait that varies among individuals and ancestry groups. Differences in linkage disequilibrium structure and heterogeneity in allelic effects are expected to play a role in the associations observed between populations. Prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses have identified genomic loci associated with WBC and its subtypes, but much of the heritability of these phenotypes remains unexplained. Using GWAS summary statistics for over 50 000 individuals from three diverse populations (Japanese, African-American and European ancestry), a Bayesian model methodology was employed to account for heterogeneity between ancestry groups. This approach was used to perform a trans-ethnic meta-analysis of total WBC, neutrophil and monocyte counts. Ten previously known associations were replicated and six new loci were identified, including several regions harboring genes related to inflammation and immune cell function. Ninety-five percent credible interval regions were calculated to narrow the association signals and fine-map the putatively causal variants within loci. Finally, a conditional analysis was performed on the most significant SNPs identified by the trans-ethnic meta-analysis (MA), and nine secondary signals within loci previously associated with WBC or its subtypes were identified. This work illustrates the potential of trans-ethnic analysis and ascribes a critical role to multi-ethnic cohorts and consortia in exploring complex phenotypes with respect to variants that lie outside the European-biased GWAS pool. PMID:25096241

  15. Blood pressure and cerebral white matter share common genetic factors in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Kochunov, Peter; Glahn, David C; Lancaster, Jack; Winkler, Anderson; Karlsgodt, Kathrin; Olvera, Rene L; Curran, Joanna E; Carless, Melanie A; Dyer, Thomas D; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter T; Blangero, John

    2011-02-01

    Elevated arterial pulse pressure and blood pressure (BP) can lead to atrophy of cerebral white matter (WM), potentially attributable to shared genetic factors. We calculated the magnitude of shared genetic variance between BP and fractional anisotropy of water diffusion, a sensitive measurement of WM integrity in a well-characterized population of Mexican Americans. The patterns of whole-brain and regional genetic overlap between BP and fractional anisotropy were interpreted in the context the pulse-wave encephalopathy theory. We also tested whether regional pattern in genetic pleiotropy is modulated by the phylogeny of WM development. BP and high-resolution (1.7 × 1.7 × 3 mm; 55 directions) diffusion tensor imaging data were analyzed for 332 (202 females; mean age 47.9 ± 13.3 years) members of the San Antonio Family Heart Study. Bivariate genetic correlation analysis was used to calculate the genetic overlap between several BP measurements (pulse pressure, systolic BP, and diastolic BP) and fractional anisotropy (whole-brain and regional values). Intersubject variance in pulse pressure and systolic BP exhibited a significant genetic overlap with variance in whole-brain fractional anisotropy values, sharing 36% and 22% of genetic variance, respectively. Regionally, shared genetic variance was significantly influenced by rates of WM development (r=-0.75; P=0.01). The pattern of genetic overlap between BP and WM integrity was generally in agreement with the pulse-wave encephalopathy theory. Our study provides evidence that a set of pleiotropically acting genetic factors jointly influence phenotypic variation in BP and WM integrity. The magnitude of this overlap appears to be influenced by phylogeny of WM development, suggesting a possible role for genotype-by-age interactions.

  16. Differential white blood cell count and all-cause mortality in the Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Il; Lee, Jaebong; Heo, Nam Ju; Kim, Sejoong; Chin, Ho Jun; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Suhnggwon

    2013-02-01

    The circulating white blood cell (WBC) count has been considered a good biomarker of systemic inflammation, but the predictive value of this inexpensive and universally obtained test result has not been fully explored in the elderly. The objective of this study was to assess the independent association of WBC count and its individual components with mortality in an elderly population. We studied a total of 9996 participants (age ≥65 years) who underwent routine health examinations at the 2 healthcare centers affiliated with Seoul National University. Mortality data were obtained from the National Statistics Office of Korea. The mean age of the study population was 69.7 (SD 4.3) years, and 5491 of the subjects (54.9%) were male. The median length of follow-up was 44.9 months (range, 1.2-78.7 months). There were 118 deaths (1.2%) during the follow-up period. The leading cause of death was cancer. Compared with the survivors, the deceased subjects were older, predominantly male, had increased levels of inflammatory markers, and had poor nutritional status. A significant difference in mortality was identified among patients in different WBC and WBC subtype quartile groups. Cox proportional hazards analysis indicated that monocyte count (HR: 5.18, 95% CI: 2.44-11.02) was a strongest predictor of all-cause mortality than total WBC count (HR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.88-2.80), granulocyte count (HR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.15-3.88), and lymphocyte count (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.66-1.86), even after adjusting for possible confounding variables. Monocyte counts were associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and cancer-related mortality in the elderly population. In conclusion, the total WBC count is an independent predictor of mortality in older adults, but the monocyte subtype provides greater predictive ability.

  17. Allyl isothiocyanate-induced changes in the distribution of white blood cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shogo; Sakakibara, Yuko; Mori, Sayuri; Ohkuma, Masaki; Kawashima, Yu; Ban, Takamasa; Sasaki, Hiromi; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru

    2010-08-01

    The main pungent component of wasabi (Eutrema japonica) is known to be isothiocyanate and its derivatives, volatile substances. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) accounts for more than half of isothiocyanate derivatives. However, there is a little information on the effects of AITC on the immune system by analyzing the number of white blood cells (WBCs) over the course of days of AITC administration. In the present study, we studied the effects of AITC (dose=20 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days, subcutaneous: s.c.) on the number of WBCs (total WBCs, lymphocytes, monocyte, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil) and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult male rats. Administration of AITC decreased significantly the number of total WBCs on days 1-4 post s.c. injection by 25-27%. Administration of AITC also decreased the number of lymphocytes on days 1-10 by 21-36% and monocyte on days 1-8 by 28-78%. However, administration of AITC increased the number of neutrophil on days 8-10 by 61-112%. AITC did not change the number of eosinophil and basophil. Plasma corticosterone concentrations during the experimental period were 4.7-8.4 times significantly higher in the AITC group than in the control group, indicating that AITC induced stress-responses. The relative weights of thymus and adrenals per body weight were significantly lower and clearly higher in the AITC group than in the control group, respectively. These results suggest that AITC-mediated stress-responses are at least in part attributable to changes in the number of circulating WBCs.

  18. Plasma and White Blood Cells Show Different miRNA Expression Profiles in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Schwienbacher, Christine; Foco, Luisa; Picard, Anne; Corradi, Eloina; Serafin, Alice; Panzer, Jörg; Zanigni, Stefano; Blankenburg, Hagen; Facheris, Maurizio F; Giannini, Giulia; Falla, Marika; Cortelli, Pietro; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age. We evaluated expression levels by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and combined the results from treated PD patients using a fixed effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. We revealed different expression profiles comparing plasma and WBCs and drug-naïve and L-dopa-treated PD patients. We observed an upregulation trend for miR-30a-5p in L-dopa-treated PD patients and investigated candidate target genes by integrated in silico analyses. We could not analyse miR-29b-3p, normally expressed in WBCs, due to the very low expression in plasma. We observed different expression profiles in WBCs and plasma, suggesting that they are both suitable but not interchangeable peripheral sources for biomarkers. We revealed miR-30a-5p as a potential biomarker for PD in plasma. In silico analyses suggest that miR-30a-5p might have a regulatory role in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. Further investigations are needed to confirm miR-30a-5p deregulation and targets and to investigate the influence of L-dopa treatment on miRNA expression levels.

  19. The effect of labor and delivery on white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Arbib, Nissim; Aviram, Amir; Gabbay Ben-Ziv, Rinat; Sneh, Orly; Yogev, Yariv; Hadar, Eran

    2016-09-01

    To explore post-partum white blood cell (WBC) count, and possible factors affecting it. Retrospective cohort analysis of 12 079 healthy women, delivering a singleton term fetus with an uncomplicated course of labor, delivery and puerperium. All women delivered in a single tertiary, university-affiliated medical center from 2009 to 2014. Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney's U-test, χ(2) test and ANOVA were used to compare between variables. Multiple variable analyses was performed to allow adjustment for potential covariates and confounders. The main outcome measures included post-partum WBC count and the difference in the post-partum versus ante-partum WBC count, in association to mode of delivery, type of analgesia, timing of cesarean delivery and perineal trauma. The mean post-partum WBC count was 13.39 ± .24 × 10(9)/L (range 1.20-37.30 × 10(9)/L). There is a significant increase in the WBC after delivery (2.1 9 ± 3.33 × 10(9)/L) with significant differences according to mode of delivery (2.34 ± 3.48, 3.32 ± 3.69 and 1.6 0 ± 2.87 × 10(9)/L for spontaneous, assisted and cesarean deliveries. Multiple variables can affect post-partum leukocytosis, including: age, parity, gestational age, mode of delivery, type of anesthesia, timing of cesarean delivery in relation to labor onset and the extent of perineal trauma. Post-partum leukocytosis is a physiological phenomenon with a wide normal variation and multiple contributing factors. As a single parameter, post-partum leukocytosis should not prompt further work up.

  20. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  1. Independent and interactive effects of blood pressure and cardiac function on brain volume and white matter hyperintensities in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Alosco, Michael L; Brickman, Adam M; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Griffith, Erica Y; Narkhede, Atul; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Reduced systemic perfusion and comorbid medical conditions are key contributors to adverse brain changes in heart failure (HF). Hypertension, the most common co-occurring condition in HF, accelerates brain atrophy in aging populations. However, the independent and interactive effects of blood pressure and systemic perfusion on brain structure in HF have yet to be investigated. Forty-eight older adults with HF underwent impedance cardiography to assess current systolic blood pressure status and cardiac index to quantify systemic perfusion. All participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging to quantify total brain, total and subcortical gray matter volume, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) volume. Regression analyses adjusting for medical and demographic factors showed decreased cardiac index was associated with smaller subcortical gray matter volume (P < .01), and higher systolic blood pressure predicted reduced total gray matter volume (P = .03). The combination of higher blood pressure and lower cardiac index exacerbated WMH (P = .048). Higher blood pressure and systemic hypoperfusion are associated with smaller brain volume, and these factors interact to exacerbate WMH in HF. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the effects of blood pressure on the brain in HF, including the role of long-term blood pressure fluctuations. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Independent and Interactive Effects of Blood Pressure and Cardiac Function on Brain Volume and White Matter Hyperintensities in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Brickman, Adam M.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Griffith, Erica Y.; Narkhede, Atul; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced systemic perfusion and comorbid medical conditions are key contributors to adverse brain changes in heart failure (HF). Hypertension, the most common co-occurring condition in HF, accelerates brain atrophy in aging populations. However, the independent and interactive effects of blood pressure and systemic perfusion on brain structure in HF have yet to be investigated. Methods Forty-eight older adults with HF underwent impedance cardiography to assess current systolic blood pressure status, and cardiac index to quantify systemic perfusion. All participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging to quantify total brain, total and subcortical gray matter volume, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) volume. Results Regression analyses adjusting for medical and demographic factors showed decreased cardiac index was associated with smaller subcortical gray matter volume (p < .01) and higher systolic blood pressure predicted reduced total gray matter volume (p = .03). The combination of higher blood pressure and lower cardiac index exacerbated WMH (p = .048). Conclusions Higher blood pressure and systemic hypoperfusion are associated with smaller brain volume and these factors interact to exacerbate WMH in HF. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the effects of blood pressure on the brain in HF, including the role of long-term blood pressure fluctuations. PMID:23735419

  3. Multicenter study on finger systolic blood pressure test for diagnosis of vibration-induced white finger.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Yoshiro; Kurozawa, Youichi; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Honma, Hiroki; Yanai, Toshiro; Kido, Kenji; Ikeda, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    A multicenter study (six Rosai hospitals around Japan) was performed to investigate the diagnostic value of changes in finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) after segmental local cooling for vibration-induced white finger (VWF). Subjects were 154 men without exposure to vibration and 135 men with occupational vibration exposure. They were classified into four groups: Group A, 154 unexposed control cases; Group B, 21 exposed cases without VWF; Group C, 31 cases with a history of VWF but without any signs of VWF within the last year; and Group D, 83 cases with active VWF within the last year. FSBP% measurements were taken at room temperatures of 23 +/- 1 and 21 +/- 1 degrees C, using a strain-gauge Digimatic 2000 plethysmograph (Medimatic). At a room temperature of 23 +/- 1 degrees C, there was a significant difference between Groups A and D, and B and D. At a room temperature of 21 +/- 1 degrees C, there was a significant difference between Groups A and C, A and D, and B and D. The values in Group D were the lowest at both room temperatures. Assuming a cut-off value of 75% at 23 +/- 1 degrees C, the sensitivity and specificity were 65.2 and 87.5%, respectively. Assuming the same cut-off value at 21 +/- 1 degrees C, the sensitivity and specificity were 73.9 and 82.5%, respectively. These values were not too high. Most of the subjects with WVF in this study were retired and had not used vibratory tools for many years. The situation of the subjects may affect the results of the FSBP test. Our data did not confirm a difference in diagnostic accuracy between room temperatures of 23 +/- 1 and 21 +/- 1 degrees C. Our study showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the FSBP test with a cut-off value of 75% at 23 +/- 1 degrees C, were 65.2 and 87.5%, respectively, and at 21 +/- 1 degrees C, they were 73.9 and 82.5%, respectively.

  4. William B. White Explains the Changes In the Way We Look at Blood Pressure: Which Numbers Matter Most-and Why Can They Be Deceptive?

    PubMed

    McCain, Jack

    2016-09-01

    Dr. White, known worldwide as an expert in the use of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), discusses hypertension, the importance of accurate measurement, and the utility of ABPM for effective diagnoses and treatment.

  5. Changes in winter depression phenotype correlate with white blood cell gene expression profiles: a combined metagene and gene ontology approach.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Fokko J; Terpstra, Peter; Gladkevich, Anatoliy V; Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, D A; te Meerman, Gerard; Nolen, Willem A; Schoevers, Robert A; Meesters, Ybe

    2015-04-03

    In the present study we evaluate the feasibility of gene expression in white blood cells as a peripheral marker for winter depression. Sixteen patients with winter type seasonal affective disorder were included in the study. Blood was taken by venous puncture at three time points; in winter prior and following bright light therapy and in summer. RNA was isolated, converted into cRNA, amplified and hybridized on Illumina® gene expression arrays. The raw optical array data were quantile normalized and thereafter analyzed using a metagene approach, based on previously published Affymetrix gene array data. The raw data were also subjected to a secondary analysis focusing on circadian genes and genes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission. Differences between the conditions were analyzed, using analysis of variance on the principal components of the metagene score matrix. After correction for multiple testing no statistically significant differences were found. Another approach uses the correlation between metagene factor weights and the actual expression values, averaged over conditions. When comparing the correlations of winter vs. summer and bright light therapy vs. summer significant changes for several metagenes were found. Subsequent gene ontology analyses (DAVID and GeneTrail) of 5 major metagenes suggest an interaction between brain and white blood cells. The hypothesis driven analysis with a smaller group of genes failed to demonstrate any significant effects. The results from the combined metagene and gene ontology analyses support the idea of communication between brain and white blood cells. Future studies will need a much larger sample size to obtain information at the level of single genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of Indium-Containing Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspension Using Plasmas in Water for Evaluating Their Kinetics in Living Body.

    PubMed

    Amano, Takaaki; Sarinont, Thapanut; Koga, Kazunori; Hirata, Miyuki; Tanaka, Akiyo; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles have great potential for medical applications such as cancer therapy, whereas their toxic effects on human body are pointed out. To study kinetics and toxicity of nanoparticles in living body, we synthesized indium-containing nanoparticles in aqueous suspension using pulsed electrical discharge plasmas in water, because no indium compounds exist in the living body in the normal situation and hence indium-containing nanoparticles are useful tracer materials for analyzing kinetics of nanoparticles in living body. The mean size of synthesized primary nanoparticles is 7 nm, whereas the mean size of secondary nanoparticles is 315 nm. EDX and XRD analysis reveal that nanoparticles are indium crystalline and indium hydroxide crystalline with the mass ratio of 8:2. Preliminary subcutaneous administration of nanoparticles to mice shows that indium is transported from subcutaneous to blood. These results show that synthesized indium-containing nanoparticles are useful for analyzing kinetics of nanoparticles in living body.

  7. Ultrasensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for analysis of etheno-DNA adducts in human white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Cui, S; Wang, S; Jiang, X; Zhang, S; Zhang, R; Fu, P P; Sun, X

    2015-01-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are generated by interaction of cellular DNA with exogenous environmental carcinogens and end products of lipid peroxidation. It has been determined that 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (εdC) adducts formed in human white blood cells can be used to serve as biomarkers of genetic damage mediated by oxidative stress. In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method used to detect and quantify εdA and dC adducts in human white blood cells. The percent recoveries of εdA and dC adducts were found to be 88.9% ± 2.8 and 95.7% ± 3.7, respectively. The detection limits were ∼ 1.45 fmol for εdA and ∼ 1.27 fmol for εdC in 20 μg of human white blood cell DNA samples, both εdA and εdC adducts could be detected using only ∼ 5 μg of DNA per sample. For validation of the method, 34 human blood cell DNA samples were assayed and the results revealed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between levels (fmol/μg DNA) of 0.82 ± 0.83 (standard deviation [SD]) (range: 0.15-3.11) for εdA, 3.28 ± 3.15 (SD) (range: 0.05-9.6) for εdC in benzene-exposed workers; and 0.04 ± 0.08 (SD) (range: 0.0-0.27) for εdA and 0.77 ± 1.02 (SD) (range: 0.10-4.11) for εdC in non-benzene-exposed workers. Our method shows a high sensitivity and specificity when applied to small amounts of human white blood cell DNA samples; background levels of εdA and εdC could be reproducibly detected. The ultrasensitive and simple detection method is thus suitable for applications in human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies.

  8. The toxicology of indium tin oxide.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M

    2016-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a technologically important semiconductor. An increasing number of cases of severe lung effects (characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and/or interstitial fibrosis) in ITO-exposed workers warrants a review of the toxicological hazards. Short- and long-term inhalation studies in rats and mice revealed persistent alveolar proteinosis, inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs down to concentrations as low as 0.01mg/m(3). In rats, the incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas were significantly increased at all concentrations. In mice, ITO was not carcinogenic. A few bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas occurring after repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters have to be interpreted as treatment-related. In vitro and in vivo studies on the formation of reactive oxygen species suggest epigenetic effects as cause of the lung tumor development. Repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters slightly affected the male sexual organs, which might be interpreted as a secondary effect of the lung damage. Epidemiological and medical surveillance studies, serum/blood indium levels in workers as well as data on the exposure to airborne indium concentrations indicate a need for measures to reduce exposure at ITO workplaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel Blood Biomarkers Are Associated with White Matter Lesions in Fragile X- Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loesch, Danuta Z; Annesley, Sarah J; Trost, Nicholas; Bui, Minh Q; Lay, Sui T; Storey, Elsdon; De Piazza, Shawn W; Sanislav, Oana; Francione, Lisa M; Hammersley, Eleanor M; Tassone, Flora; Francis, David; Fisher, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    The need for accessible cellular biomarkers of neurodegeneration in carriers of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation (PM) alleles. To assess the mitochondrial status and respiration in blood lymphoblasts from PM carriers manifesting the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and non-FXTAS carriers, and their relationship with the brain white matter lesions. Oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and ATP synthesis using a Seahorse XFe24 Extracellular Flux Analyser, and steady-state parameters of mitochondrial function were assessed in cultured lymphoblasts from 16 PM males (including 11 FXTAS patients) and 9 matched controls. The regional white matter hyperintensity (WMH) scores were obtained from MRI. Mitochondrial respiratory activity was significantly elevated in lymphoblasts from PM carriers compared with controls, with a 2- to 3-fold increase in basal and maximum OCR attributable to complex I activity, and ATP synthesis, accompanied by unaltered mitochondrial mass and membrane potential. The changes, which were more advanced in FXTAS patients, were significantly associated with the WMH scores in the supratentorial regions. The dramatic increase in mitochondrial activity in lymphoblasts from PM carriers may represent either the early stages of disease (specific alterations in short-lived blood cells) or an activation of the lymphocytes under pathological situations. These changes may provide early, convenient blood biomarkers of clinical involvements. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Transforming growth factor-β released by apoptotic white blood cells during red blood cell storage promotes transfusion-induced alloimmunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Vallion, Romain; Bonnefoy, Francis; Daoui, Anna; Vieille, Loredane; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe; Perruche, Sylvain

    2015-07-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a major immunologic risk of transfusion. However, RBC storage facilitates white blood cell (WBC) apoptosis and apoptotic cells have immunomodulatory properties. We investigated the behavior of WBCs, and apoptosis in particular, in RBC units during storage and then studied the impact of WBC apoptosis on the modulation of posttransfusion alloimmunization in RBC products stored short term. We used a mouse model of alloimmunization to transfused HEL-ovalbumin-Duffy (HOD) surface antigen expressed specifically on RBCs. The presence of circulating anti-HOD immunoglobulin G detected by flow cytometry confirmed immunization to HOD+ RBCs. WBC apoptosis and factors released by apoptotic WBCs during storage were determined and in particular the role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was assessed on RBC alloimmunization. In blood stored 72 hours, 30% of WBCs were apoptotic, and transfusion of short-term-stored blood resulted in lesser immunization than did fresh blood or stored leukoreduced (LR) RBCs. WBCs undergoing apoptosis released during short-term storage factors modulating RBC alloimmunization. Indeed apoptotic cell-released factors modulate alloimmunization whereas exogenous apoptotic cells directly transfused with LR RBCs did not. While microparticles released during RBC storage had no immunomodulatory role, TGF-β found in the supernatant of stored blood demonstrated the capacity to favor Treg polarization of naïve CD4+CD25- T cells in vitro and limited RBC alloimmunization in vivo. Indeed, addition of recombinant TGF-β to stored LR RBC transfusion strongly limited posttransfusion RBC alloimmunization. Our findings show that short-term storage of non-LR blood facilitates WBC apoptosis therefore releasing TGF-β that modulates posttransfusion RBC alloimmunization. © 2015 AABB.

  11. Blood serum retinol levels in Asinara white donkeys reflect albinism-induced metabolic adaptation to photoperiod at Mediterranean latitudes.

    PubMed

    Cappai, Maria Grazia; Lunesu, Maria Grazia Antonietta; Accioni, Francesca; Liscia, Massimo; Pusceddu, Mauro; Burrai, Lucia; Nieddu, Maria; Dimauro, Corrado; Boatto, Gianpiero; Pinna, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Previous works on albinism form of Asinara white donkeys (Equus asinus) identified the mutation leading to the peculiar phenotype spread to all specimens of the breed. Inbreeding naturally occurred under geographic isolation, on Asinara Island, in the Mediterranean Sea. Albino individuals can be more susceptible to develop health problems when exposed to natural sun radiation. Alternative metabolic pathways involved in photoprotection were explored in this trial. Nutrition-related metabolites are believed to contribute to the conservation of Asinara donkeys, in which melanin, guaranteeing photoprotection, is lacking. Biochemical profiles with particular focus on blood serum β-carotene and retinol levels were monitored. Identical natural grazing conditions for both Asinara (albino) and Sardo (pigmented) donkey breeds were assured on same natural pastures throughout the experimental period. A comparative metabolic screening, with emphasis on circulating retinol and nutrient-related metabolites between the two breeds, was carried out over one year. Potential intra- and interspecimen fluctuations of metabolites involved in photoprotection were monitored, both during negative and positive photoperiods. Differences (p = .064) between blood serum concentrations of retinol from Asinara versus Sardo breed donkeys (0.630 vs. 0.490 μg/ml, respectively) were found. Retinol levels of blood serum turned out to be similar in the two groups (0.523 vs. 0.493 μg/ml, respectively, p = .051) during the negative photoperiod, but markedly differed during the positive one (0.738 vs. 0.486, respectively, p = .016). Blood serum β-carotene levels displayed to be constantly around the limit of sensitivity in all animals of both breeds. Variations in blood serum concentrations of retinol in Asinara white donkeys can reflect the need to cope with seasonal exposure to daylight at Mediterranean latitudes, as an alternative to the lack of melanin. These results may suggest that a

  12. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring profile in urban African black and European white untreated hypertensive patients matched for age and sex.

    PubMed

    Polónia, Jorge; Madede, Tavares; Silva, José A; Mesquita-Bastos, José; Damasceno, Albertino

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) profile in never-treated black hypertensive patients living in Africa, Mozambique (20-80 years), versus never-treated white hypertensive patients living in Europe. ABP recordings of untreated black hypertensive patients and white hypertensive patients with 24-h ABP of 130/80 mmHg or more were retrospectively selected from two computerized database records of ABP and matched for age by decades, sex, and BMI. Black hypertensive patients were n=548, 47 ± 12 years, 52% women, BMI=28.0 ± 8.2 kg/m(2), 7% smokers, 7% diabetics; white hypertensive patients were n=604, 47 ± 15 years, 52% women, BMI=27.4 ± 5.1 kg/m(2), 8.4% diabetics, and 18% smokers (P<0.02). Black hypertensive patients versus white hypertensive patients showed higher casual blood pressure (BP) 160/104 ± 19/14 versus 149/97 ± 18/12 mmHg, 24-h ABP 146/92 ± 16/13 versus 139/85 ± 11/10 mmHg, daytime ABP 150/95 ± 16/13 versus 143/88 ± 13/11 mmHg, night-time BP 139/84 ± 17/13 versus 130/78 ± 13/10 mmHg (all P<0.001) and lower night-time BP fall 8.3 ± 6.9 versus 10.1 ± 8.7% (P<0.02) and higher BP variability. Differences were still significant in all decades above 30 years of age and when calculations were carried out separately for both men and women. The average 24-h heart rate did not differ between groups. Our data suggest that untreated black hypertensive patients systematically present higher clinic and ABP values and a lower night-time BP fall than untreated white hypertensive patients for all spectra of age distribution. This might be the reason for the worse cardiovascular prognosis described in black hypertensive patients compared with white hypertensive patients.

  13. Admixture mapping of white cell count: genetic locus responsible for lower white blood cell count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart studies.

    PubMed

    Nalls, Michael A; Wilson, James G; Patterson, Nick J; Tandon, Arti; Zmuda, Joseph M; Huntsman, Scott; Garcia, Melissa; Hu, Donglei; Li, Rongling; Beamer, Brock A; Patel, Kushang V; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Files, Joe C; Hardy, Cheryl L; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Taylor, Herman A; Reich, David; Harris, Tamara B; Ziv, Elad

    2008-01-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and the Jackson Heart Study. Participants of both studies were genotyped across >or= 1322 single nucleotide polymorphisms that were pre-selected to be informative for African versus European ancestry and span the entire genome. We used these markers to estimate genetic ancestry in each chromosomal region and then tested the association between WBC and genetic ancestry at each locus. We found a locus on chromosome 1q strongly associated with WBC (p < 10(-12)). The strongest association was with a marker known to affect the expression of the Duffy blood group antigen. Participants who had both copies of the common West African allele had a mean WBC of 4.9 (SD 1.3); participants who had both common European alleles had a mean WBC of 7.1 (SD 1.3). This variant explained approximately 20% of population variation in WBC. We used admixture mapping, a novel method for conducting genetic-association studies, to find a region that was significantly associated with WBC on chromosome 1q. Additional studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism for this effect and its clinical implications.

  14. An on-chip instrument for white blood cells classification based on a lens-less shadow imaging technique

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Runlong; Su, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Routine blood tests provide important basic information for disease diagnoses. The proportions of three subtypes of white blood cells (WBCs), which are neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, is key information for disease diagnosis. However, current instruments for routine blood tests, such as blood cell analyzers, flow cytometers, and optical microscopes, are cumbersome, time consuming and expensive. To make a smaller, automatic low-cost blood cell analyzer, much research has focused on a technique called lens-less shadow imaging, which can obtain microscopic images of cells in a lens-less system. Nevertheless, the efficiency of this imaging system is not satisfactory because of two problems: low resolution and imaging diffraction phenomena. In this paper, a novel method of classifying cells with the shadow imaging technique was proposed. It could be used for the classification of the three subtypes of WBCs, and the correlation of the results of classification between the proposed system and the reference system (BC-5180, Mindray) was 0.93. However, the instrument was only 10 × 10 × 10 cm, and the cost was less than $100. Depending on the lens-free shadow imaging technology, the main hardware could be integrated on a chip scale and could be called an on-chip instrument. PMID:28350891

  15. An on-chip instrument for white blood cells classification based on a lens-less shadow imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Yu, Ningmei; Wang, Runlong; Su, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Routine blood tests provide important basic information for disease diagnoses. The proportions of three subtypes of white blood cells (WBCs), which are neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, is key information for disease diagnosis. However, current instruments for routine blood tests, such as blood cell analyzers, flow cytometers, and optical microscopes, are cumbersome, time consuming and expensive. To make a smaller, automatic low-cost blood cell analyzer, much research has focused on a technique called lens-less shadow imaging, which can obtain microscopic images of cells in a lens-less system. Nevertheless, the efficiency of this imaging system is not satisfactory because of two problems: low resolution and imaging diffraction phenomena. In this paper, a novel method of classifying cells with the shadow imaging technique was proposed. It could be used for the classification of the three subtypes of WBCs, and the correlation of the results of classification between the proposed system and the reference system (BC-5180, Mindray) was 0.93. However, the instrument was only 10 × 10 × 10 cm, and the cost was less than $100. Depending on the lens-free shadow imaging technology, the main hardware could be integrated on a chip scale and could be called an on-chip instrument.

  16. Biocompatible and label-free separation of cancer cells from cell culture lines from white blood cells in ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wujun; Cheng, Rui; Lim, So Hyun; Miller, Joshua R; Zhang, Weizhong; Tang, Wei; Xie, Jin; Mao, Leidong

    2017-06-27

    This paper reports a biocompatible and label-free cell separation method using ferrofluids that can separate a variety of low-concentration cancer cells from cell culture lines (∼100 cancer cells per mL) from undiluted white blood cells, with a throughput of 1.2 mL h(-1) and an average separation efficiency of 82.2%. The separation is based on the size difference of the cancer cells and white blood cells, and is conducted in a custom-made biocompatible ferrofluid that retains not only excellent short-term viabilities but also normal proliferations of 7 commonly used cancer cell lines. A microfluidic device is designed and optimized specifically to shorten the time of live cells' exposure to ferrofluids from hours to seconds, by eliminating time-consuming off-chip sample preparation and extraction steps and integrating them on-chip to achieve a one-step process. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, a ferrofluid with 0.26% volume fraction was used in this microfluidic device to separate spiked cancer cells from cell lines at a concentration of ∼100 cells per mL from white blood cells with a throughput of 1.2 mL h(-1). The separation efficiencies were 80 ± 3%, 81 ± 5%, 82 ± 5%, 82 ± 4%, and 86 ± 6% for A549 lung cancer, H1299 lung cancer, MCF-7 breast cancer, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, respectively. The separated cancer cells' purity was between 25.3% and 28.8%. In addition, the separated cancer cells from this strategy showed an average short-term viability of 94.4 ± 1.3%, and these separated cells were cultured and demonstrated normal proliferation to confluence even after the separation process. Owing to its excellent biocompatibility and label-free operation and its ability to recover low concentrations of cancer cells from white blood cells, this method could lead to a promising tool for rare cell separation.

  17. Can C-reactive protein and white blood cell count alone rule out an urgent condition in acute abdominal pain?

    PubMed

    Paolillo, Ciro; Spallino, Ilenia

    2016-02-01

    Up to 10% of all patients at the Emergency Department present for acute abdominal pain. The C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are routinely determined as part of the workup of patients with abdominal pain. Three large prospective cohort studies comprising a total of 2961 adult patients with acute abdominal pain were selected. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. These studies conclude that the laboratory values individually are weak discriminators and cannot be used as a triage instrument in the selection of patients with acute abdominal pain requiring additional diagnostic tests.

  18. Using blood plasma for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the lower Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, D T; Webb, M A H; Fink, A K; Kushner, L R; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B

    2008-09-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in blood plasma samples from 88 juvenile white sturgeon collected from the lower Columbia River were measured and compared to plasma sex steroid and OC tissue levels previously measured in corresponding fish. Significant squared correlation coefficients between summation operator DDT concentrations in sturgeon plasma and gonads and livers were 0.37 and 0.32, respectively. Significant negative correlations between plasma testosterone concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in male fish (r(2)=0.26), plasma 17beta estradiol concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in female fish (r(2)=0.38) and condition factor and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in all fish were found (r(2)=0.17). These results suggest that blood plasma may be a suitable nondestructive method for monitoring adult sturgeon population for persistent OC contaminants.

  19. Depletion Rates of Injected and Ingested Ivermectin from Blood Serum of Penned White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus Virginianus (Zimmermann) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Depletion rates of ivermectin from blood serum of penned doe and buck white-tailed deer that were administered ivermectin both by direct subcutaneous injection and by ingestion of ivermectin-medicated whole kernel corn were determined by bi-weekly and weekly assays of sampled blood. No statistical ...

  20. White-Coat Hypertension: When Blood Pressure Rises at the Doctor's Office

    MedlinePlus

    ... be true for people who have masked hypertension, meaning their blood pressure is normal at the doctor's office, but spikes periodically when measured in other settings. It's thought that even these temporary increases in your blood pressure could develop into a ...

  1. Work Status, Work Satisfaction, and Blood Pressure Among Married Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauenstein, Louise S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study examined blood pressure levels of married women in relation to such work-related variables as work load, satisfaction with work, reported strain, and evaluated performance. Differences in work load were unrelated to blood pressure levels. However, currently unemployed working women had lower levels. (Author)

  2. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  3. Concentrations of Metals, Metalloids, and Chlorinated Pollutants in Blood and Plasma of White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) Nestlings From Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, M; De la Casa-Resino, I; Hernández-Moreno, D; Galeano, J; Míguez-Santiyán, M P; de Castro-Lorenzo, A; Otero-Filgueiras, M; Rivas-López, O; Soler, F

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of different inorganic elements (lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], and arsenic [As]) and persistent chlorinated pollutants (including polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) in blood and plasma of White stork (Ciconia ciconia) nestlings from northwest (NW) Spain. The concentrations of PCBs were lower than the limit of detection in all samples. The OCPs γ-HCH, 4,4'-DDE, HCB, and endosulfan were detected most frequently in plasma from White stork nestlings. These OCPs were detected in 98, 54, 39, and 37 % of all samples, respectively. However, the concentrations of organic pollutants were lower than the risk thresholds for birds. The mean levels of the inorganic elements Pb, Hg, and As were found to be 36.92 ± 33.48, 16.48 ± 12.87, and 9.813 ± 13.84 µg/L, respectively. These levels were also lower than the risk thresholds for birds. This study not only provides a snapshot of the levels of both inorganic and organic contaminants in wild White storks in NW Spain, it also provides a useful baseline for biomonitoring levels of the measured contaminants in this area.

  4. Multimodality MRI assessment of grey and white matter injury and blood-brain barrier disruption after intracerebral haemorrhage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Li, Qian; Wang, Zhongyu; Qi, Cunfang; Han, Xiaoning; Lan, Xi; Wan, Jieru; Wang, Wenzhu; Zhao, Xiaochun; Hou, Zhipeng; Gao, Cong; Carhuapoma, J. Ricardo; Mori, Susumu; Zhang, Jiangyang; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined injury progression after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) induced by collagenase in mice using a preclinical 11.7 Tesla MRI system. On T2-weighted MRI, lesion and striatal volumes were increased on day 3 and then decreased from days 7 to 28. On day 3, with an increase in striatal water content, vasogenic oedema in the perihaematomal region presented as increased T2 and increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signal. With a synchronous change in T2 and ADC signals, microglial activation peaked on day 3 in the same region and decreased over time. Iron deposition appeared on day 3 around the haematoma border but did not change synchronously with ADC signals. Vascular permeability measured by Evans blue extravasation on days 1, 3, and 7 correlated with the T1-gadolinium results, both of which peaked on day 3. On diffusion tensor imaging, white matter injury was prominent in the corpus callosum and internal capsule on day 3 and then partially recovered over time. Our results indicate that the evolution of grey/white matter injury and blood-brain barrier disruption after ICH can be assessed with multimodal MRI, and that perihaematomal vasogenic oedema might be attributable to microglial activation, iron deposition, and blood-brain barrier breakdown. PMID:28084426

  5. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Alex B.; Hock, Adam S.; McCarthy, Robert; Weimer, Matthew S.

    2016-07-05

    A method for synthesizing an In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor including cooling a mixture comprised of diisopropylcarbodiimide and diethyl ether to approximately -30.degree. C., adding methyllithium drop-wise into the mixture, allowing the mixture to warm to room temperature, adding indium(III) chloride as a solid to the mixture to produce a white solid, dissolving the white solid in pentane to form a clear and colorless solution, filtering the mixture over a celite plug, and evaporating the solution under reduced pressure to obtain a solid In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor. This precursor has been further used to develop a novel atomic layer deposition technique for indium sulfide by dosing a reactor with the precursor, purging with nitrogen, dosing with dilute hydrogen sulfide, purging again with nitrogen, and repeating these steps to increase growth.

  6. An optimal LC-MS/MS method for determination of azithromycin in white blood cells: application to pediatric samples.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Tiphaine; Elie, Valery; Kotecha, Sailesh; Junot, Christophe; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Pruvost, Alain

    2014-08-01

    Studies suggest that particular antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of azithromycin (AZM) can be related to its extensive accumulation in white blood cells (WBCs). However, available methods for determination of AZM in WBCs require large blood volumes unsuited to a pediatric context. Therefore, an LC-MS/MS method was developed for determination of AZM in WBCs. WBCs were isolated from 500 µl of whole blood by lysing red blood cells. Then, lysis of WBCs was performed with methanol/buffer containing AZM-d3-(13)C as internal standard. After reversed phase LC, detection was performed under multiple reaction monitoring conditions in positive electrospray mode. Linearity ranged from 0.5 to 200 ng per WBC sample. Within-run and overall accuracy and precision ranged from 95.3 to 101.1% and from 1.6 to 4.7%, respectively. All validation parameters fulfilled international requirements. This method can be easily performed on small samples and provides reliable data, including in children and neonates.

  7. The impact of element-element interactions on antioxidant enzymatic activity in the blood of white stork (Ciconia ciconia) chicks.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Piotr; Kurhalyuk, Nataliya; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Jerzak, Leszek; Tkachenko, Halyna; Szady-Grad, Małgorzata; Klawe, Jacek J; Koim, Beata

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this work was to determine interrelationships among macroelements Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe, microelements Zn, Cu, Mn, and Co, and toxic heavy metals Pb and Cd in the blood of white stork Ciconia ciconia, during postnatal development, in different Polish environments, and their impact on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. We considered the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ceruloplasmine (CP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). Blood samples were collected from storks developing at Odra meadows (Kłopot; southwestern Poland). They were compared with blood of chicks from several suburban sites located 20 km away from Zielona Góra (0.1 million inhabitants; southwestern Poland) and near Głogów, where a copper smelter is situated. We also conducted research in the Pomeranian region (Cecenowo; northern Poland). We collected blood samples via venipuncture of the brachial vein of chicks in 2005-2007. They were retrieved from the nest and placed in individual ventilated cotton sacks. The blood was collected using a 5-ml syringe washed with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). We found significant interactions between macro- and microelements and enzymatic activity and TBARS products. We noticed the predominance of Cd and Pb participation in element-enzyme interactions. Simultaneously, we found interrelationships between cadmium and Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe and the activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, CP, GR, and TBARS products in the blood of white stork chicks. In the case of lead these relationships were not numerous and they were significant for Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, and Co. Correlations with enzymes were significant for Pb-CAT and Pb-TBARS. We noted that activities of most enzymes (SOD, CAT, CP, GR) and TBARS products are determined by their interactions with physiological elements Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn and toxic

  8. Blood pressure and white-matter disease progression in a biethnic cohort: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Rebecca F; Coresh, Josef; Catellier, Diane J; Sharrett, A Richey; Rose, Kathryn M; Coker, Laura H; Shibata, Dean K; Knopman, David S; Jack, Clifford R; Mosley, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a predictor of concurrent and subsequently measured white-matter hyperintensity (WMH), but longitudinal studies of WMH changes and data in black participants are lacking. We hypothesized that WMH progression would be (1) strongly related to BP in blacks and whites and (2) predicted more strongly by earlier (midlife) or cumulative BP measurements than by measures at older ages. Participants were 983 individuals (49% black) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who underwent cerebral magnetic resonance imaging in 1993-1995 and 2004-2006. Associations between BP (measured at each of 5 visits, in addition to a time-averaged cumulative BP) and progression of WMHs were analyzed and compared. Cumulative systolic BP (SBP) was the strongest BP predictor of WMH progression in adjusted models. Higher cumulative SBP (by 20 mm Hg) was associated with greater progression of WMHs and was similar in blacks (2.5 cm(3), P<0.0001) and whites (2.6 cm(3), P<0.0001). Higher cumulative SBP (per 20 mm Hg) was also associated with being in the top quintile of WMH progression (adjusted odds ratio=2.0; 95% CI, 1.6 to 2.6). Earlier SBP measurements were stronger predictors of WMH progression than were later SBP measurements, but in blacks only. In this population-based cohort, cumulative SBP was a stronger predictor of WMH progression than SBP from individual visits, in both blacks and whites. Earlier BPs were stronger predictors than BPs measured at later time points in blacks only.

  9. Thermoregulation and rheological properties of blood in primary Raynaud's phenomenon and the vibration-induced white-finger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Sophie; Zöch, Carina; Gschwandtner, Michael; Eckhardt, Gerald; Windberger, Ursula; Minar, Erich; Rüdiger, Hugo; Osterode, Wolf

    2005-04-01

    Frequent use of vibrating tools may lead to typical attacks of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). The present study assesses the feasibility of the use of thermographic measurements of blood rheometry in the diagnosis of vibration-induced white-finger (VWF) syndrome. We studied 38 patients that were suffering from RP (primary RP, n=29; VWF, n=9) and 13 controls (six men and 45 women; mean age 49.1+/-11.6 years). Superficial finger skin blood flow was assessed with an infrared thermocamera before and after exposure to heat and cold. Fibrinogen, whole-blood viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation at different shear rates and plasma viscosity were measured. In patients with RP finger temperatures after re-warming were lower than those in controls [right hand digit (DIG) I P<0.02; DIG II-V P<0.01; left hand DIG I P<0.01; DIG II-V p<0.02], male patients with primary RP had higher Fg-values (P<0.02) and a trend to higher plasma viscosity. Patients with VWF had a trend to lower plasma viscosity than controls. Whole-blood viscosity at each shear rate was highest in patients with VWF. Provocation manoeuvres are essential in the diagnosis of RP. We speculate that the decreased plasma viscosity in VWF is a compensatory physiological mechanism, probably counteracting the chronic effects of vasospasm. The rise in whole-blood viscosity could be due to endothelial injury or to a reduction in the venous blood pH level. The abnormal cold reactivity of patients with RP may be partly related to rheological factors.

  10. Indium-granulocyte scanning in the painful prosthetic joint

    SciTech Connect

    Pring, D.J.; Henderson, R.G.; Keshavarzian, A.; Rivett, A.G.; Krausz, T.; Coombs, R.R.; Lavender, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    The value of indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning to determine the presence of infection was assessed in 50 prosthetic joints (41 of which were painful) in 40 patients. Granulocytes were obtained from the patients' blood and labeled in plasma with indium 111 tropolonate. Abnormal accumulation of indium 111 in the region of the prosthesis was noted. Proven infection occurred in 11 prostheses, and all of the infections were detected by indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning. Nineteen were not infected (including nine asymptomatic controls) and only two produced false-positive scans. This represents a specificity of 89.5%, sensitivity of 100%, and overall accuracy of 93.2%. These results compare favorably with plain radiography. There was no radiologic evidence of infection in three of the infected prostheses, and 10 of the noninfected prostheses had some radiologic features that suggested sepsis. We conclude that indium-granulocyte scanning can reliably detect or exclude infection in painful prosthetic joints and should prove useful in clinical management.

  11. Exposure-dependent incorporation of trifluridine into DNA of tumors and white blood cells in tumor-bearing mouse.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Fumiaki; Komoto, Ikumi; Oka, Hiroaki; Kuwata, Keizo; Takeuchi, Mayuko; Nakagawa, Fumio; Yoshisue, Kunihiro; Chiba, Masato

    2015-08-01

    Trifluridine (TFT) is an antitumor component of a novel nucleoside antitumor agent, TAS-102, which consists of TFT and tipiracil hydrochloride (thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor). Incorporation of TFT into DNA is a probable mechanism of antitumor activity and hematological toxicity. The objective of this study was to examine the TFT incorporation into tumor- and white blood cell-DNA, and to elucidate the mechanism of TFT-related effect and toxicity. TFT effect on the colony formation of mouse bone marrow cells was also investigated. Pharmacokinetics of TFT was determined in nude mice after single oral administration of TAS-102, while the antitumor activity and body weight change were evaluated in the tumor-bearing nude mice after multiple oral administrations for 2 weeks. TFT concentrations in the blood- and tumor-DNA were determined by LC/MS/MS. The colony formation was evaluated by CFU-GM assay. TFT systemic exposure in plasma increased dose-dependently. The tumor growth rate and body weight gain decreased dose-dependently, but TFT concentrations in the DNA of tumor tissues and white blood cells increased dose-dependently. TFT inhibited colony formation of bone marrow cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A significant relationship between systemic exposure of TFT and pharmacological effects including the antitumor activity and body weight change was well explained by the TFT incorporation into DNA. TFT inhibited proliferations of mouse bone marrow cells and human colorectal carcinoma cells implanted to nude mice dose-dependently. The highest tolerable TFT exposure provides the highest antitumor activity, and the hematological toxicity may serve as a potential surrogate indicator of TAS-102 efficacy.

  12. [Investigation of indium exposure in workers in indium smelting plant].

    PubMed

    Ding, C G; Yan, H F; Wang, H Q; Li, T

    2016-04-20

    To investigate the internal and external exposure levels of indium (In)in workers in an In smelting plant, and to analyze its distribution characteristics. A survey was performed in 63 employed workers with more than one year of experience working in an In smelting plant in 2014. The personal air samples for 31 workers were collected, and the whole blood, serum, and urine samples of all the 63 workers were collected to do the occupational health examination at the same time. In levels in all samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The smelter workers had a higher In exposure level in the air than the office workers (2.26 μg/m(3) vs 0.82 μg/m(3), P>0.05). There was a significant difference in In exposure level in the air between the workers doing different types of jobs (P<0.05). The In exposure levels in the air in the metathesis workers and electrolysis workers were 26.10 μg/m(3) and 20.99 μg/m(3), respectively, which were significantly higher than those in other workers (P<0.05). The smelter workers had significantly higher geometric means of In levels in the whole blood, serum, and urine than the office workers (0.44 μg/L vs 0.09 μg/L, P<0.05; 0.35 μg/L vs 0.09 μg/L, P<0.05; 0.26 μg/L vs 0.12 μg/L, P<0.05). There were significant differences in In levels in the whole blood, serum, and urine between the workers doing different types of jobs (P<0.05). The metathesis workers (13.0 μg/L, 4.02 μg/L, and 2.93 μg/L)and electrolysis workers (5.71 μg/L, 5.14 μg/L, and 4.26 μg/L)had higher In levels in the whole blood, serum, and urine than other workers. The In level in the whole blood was positively correlated with the In levels in the urine and serum (rs=0.601, P<0.05; rs=0.823, P<0.05). The In levels in the whole blood and urine were positively correlated with the In level in the air(rs=0.483, P<0.05; rs=0.428, P<0.05). In the In smelting plant, the In concentrations in the air are lower than the standard value, but the

  13. Universal white blood cell reduction in Europe: has transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease been prevented?

    PubMed

    Vamvakas, Eleftherios C

    2011-04-01

    Universal white blood cell (WBC) reduction was introduced in Europe to prevent transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) by transfusion. Findings from rodent models indicate that WBC reduction should not prevent vCJD transmission because the residual plasma infectivity suffices to infect transfusion recipients even under optimistic infectivity assumptions. Although infectivity in human blood may not partition in the manner in which it is distributed in rodents, prion-reduction filters remove the residual plasma infectivity in rodent models. Precautionary introduction of prion filtration in the UK--for patients without dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy and in the absence of a reported case of vCJD transmission attributable to infectivity residing in plasma--is consistent with the (already in place for such subjects) precautionary importation to the UK of fresh frozen plasma from low-risk countries. Thus, implementation of prion filtration in the UK does not imply that universal WBC reduction--as currently practiced in Europe--does not abrogate transmission of vCJD. Because neither a human case of vCJD transmission through transfusion of WBC-reduced red blood cells nor a case of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy transmission by WBC-reduced transfusion to sheep has been reported, it cannot be concluded that ordinary WBC reduction is ineffective in preventing transfusion transmission in humans. Accordingly, universal WBC reduction for the prevention of vCJD in Europe should continue.

  14. Innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): associations with parasite infection and white blood cell counts.

    PubMed

    Beechler, Brianna R; Broughton, Heather; Bell, Austin; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian immunology has been studied in great detail in laboratory animals, but few of the tools and less of the insight derived from these studies have been placed in the context of natural, outbred wildlife populations subject to variable environments. We investigated patterns of innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo in relation to host traits (age, reproductive status, body condition, white blood cell counts) and disease status (bovine tuberculosis [BTB], gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidia, ticks). We evaluated and used an in vitro assay measuring bactericidal competence of blood to assess a component of innate immunity in 200 female buffalo captured at Kruger National Park, South Africa, in June/July and October 2008. Animals with BTB had higher bactericidal competence of blood. Animals with higher neutrophil counts had higher bactericidal competence, whereas animals with lower lymphocyte counts had higher bactericidal competence. This pattern was driven by animals captured at the end of the dry season (October) and may be evidence of immune polarization, whereby individuals are unable to upregulate multiple components of immunity simultaneously. Bactericidal competence did not vary with host pregnancy status, body condition, age, lactation, tick infestation, nematode egg count, or coccidia oocyst count. Overall, we demonstrate that the bactericidal competence assay is practical and informative for field-based studies in wild bovids. Our results also show a correlation between bactericidal competence and bovine tuberculosis infection and reveal possible functional polarizations between different types of immune response in a free-ranging mammal.

  15. Hyperoxia Does Not Extend Critical Thermal Maxima (CTmax) in White- or Red-Blooded Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes.

    PubMed

    Devor, Devin P; Kuhn, Donald E; O'Brien, Kristin M; Crockett, Elizabeth L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding what limits the capacity of organisms to tolerate increasing temperatures is a critical objective in comparative biology. Using an experimental system of Antarctic notothenioid fishes, we sought to determine whether a mismatch between oxygen demand and oxygen supply was responsible for setting thermal tolerance limits. Previous studies have shown that Antarctic icefishes (family Channichthyidae), which lack hemoglobin, have lower critical thermal maxima (CTmax) than red-blooded notothenioids collected from the same region of the Antarctic (Western Antarctic Peninsula). In addition, within the notothenioid fishes there exists a positive correlation between CTmax and hematocrit. We tested the hypothesis that the lower CTmax of icefishes is associated with reduced oxygen supply. We employed an experimental heat ramp (4°C h(-1)) to determine CTmax under both normoxic and hyperoxic conditions and quantified correlates of oxygen limitation (lactate levels and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) in white-blooded Chaenocephalus aceratus and red-blooded Notothenia coriiceps. Hyperoxia, corresponding to a three- to fourfold increase in seawater Po2, did not extend CTmax in either species despite an overall mitigation in the rise of plasma and muscle lactate compared with the normoxic treatment. Our results also indicate that cardiac HIF-1α mRNA levels were insensitive to changes in both temperature and oxygen treatments. The absence of a change in CTmax with hyperoxia is likely to represent the contribution of factors beyond oxygen supply to physiological failure at elevated temperatures.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of plasma after methylene blue and white light treatment in four Chinese blood centers.

    PubMed

    Chunhui, Yang; Guohui, Bian; Hong, Yang; Xiaopu, Xiao; Zherong, Bai; Mingyuan, Wang; Xinsheng, Zhang; Juanjuan, Wang; Changqing, Li; Wuping, Li

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen reduction technology is an important process in the blood safety system, including solvent/detergent treatment, filtration and methylene blue-photochemical technology (MB-PCT). To investigate the quality of MB-PCT-treated plasma, plasma samples from four Chinese blood centers were analyzed over 12 months of storage to determine the recovery of activities and levels of various plasma proteins. Ten plasma units each from the Suzhou, Yancheng, Chongqing and Shandong blood centers were divided into two aliquots. One was subjected to treatment with one of two methylene blue-photochemical technology instruments and the other was used as control. The treated and untreated sample pairs were stored at -30°C. The recovery rates of coagulation factors, inhibitor proteins, total protein, immunoglobulins, and complement proteins were measured at different time points after storage. The mean recovery of most proteins exceeded 80% after MB treatment. The exceptions were factor XI and fibrinogen, of which only 71.3-74% and 69.0-92.3% were retained during storage. The two equipment types differed in terms of residual MB concentration in the plasma samples (0.18 μM and 0.29 μM, respectively). They had similar protein recovery rates at 0.5 month but differed at later time points. The four blood centers differed significantly with regard to factor II, V, VIII and fibrinogen activities. Only the samples from the Shandong blood center met the methylene blue treated fresh frozen plasma requirement. The major factor that influenced the quality of the MB-FFP samples was the time taken between blood collection and storage. Methylene blue treated plasma showed reduced coagulation factor (CF) activity and protein levels. The MB treatment-induced damage to the proteins was acceptable at the four Chinese blood centers, but the quality of the MB-treated plasma in general was not satisfactory. The main factor affecting plasma quality may be the duration of the collection and

  17. Cerebral Blood Flow Heterogeneity in Preterm Sheep: Lack of Physiological Support for Vascular Boundary Zones in Fetal Cerebral White Matter

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Melissa; Riddle, Art; Manese, Mario; Luo, Ning Ling; Rorvik, Dawn A.; Kelly, Katherine A.; Barlow, Clyde H.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Vinecore, Kevin; Roberts, Colin; Hohimer, A. Roger; Back, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Periventricular white matter (PVWM) injury is the leading cause of chronic neurological disability in survivors of prematurity. To address the role of cerebral ischemia in the pathogenesis of this injury, we tested the hypothesis that immaturity of spatially distal vascular “end” or “border” zones predisposes the PVWM to be more susceptible to falls in cerebral blood flow (CBF) than more proximal regions, such as the cerebral cortex. We used fluorescently-labeled microspheres to quantify regional CBF in situ in the 0.65 gestation fetal sheep in histopathologically-defined 3-dimensional regions by means of post hoc digital dissection and co-registration algorithms. Basal flow in PVWM was significantly lower than gyral white matter and cerebral cortex, but was equivalent in superficial, middle and deep PVWM. Absolute and relative CBF (expressed as percentage of basal) CBF did not differ during ischemia or reperfusion between the PVWM and more superficial gyral white matter or cortex. Moreover, CBF during ischemia and reperfusion was equivalent at three distinct levels of the PVWM. Absolute and relative CBF during ischemia and reperfusion was not predictive of the severity of PVWM injury, as defined by TUNEL staining. However, the magnitude of ischemia to the cerebral cortex directly correlated with lesion severity (r= −0.48, p<.05). Hence, the PVWM did not display unique CBF disturbances that accounted for the distribution of injury. These results suggest that previously-defined cellular-maturational factors have a greater influence on the vulnerability of PVWM to ischemic injury than the presence of immature vascular-boundary zones. PMID:18091757

  18. Blood (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, also called ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia happens when there aren't ...

  19. Model Averaging for Predicting the Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 Using DNA Methylation in White Blood Cells of Infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahardiantoro, S.; Sartono, B.; Kurnia, A.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, DNA methylation has been the special issue to reveal the pattern of a lot of human diseases. Huge amount of data would be the inescapable phenomenon in this case. In addition, some researchers interesting to take some predictions based on these huge data, especially using regression analysis. The classical approach would be failed to take the task. Model averaging by Ando and Li [1] could be an alternative approach to face this problem. This research applied the model averaging to get the best prediction in high dimension of data. In the practice, the case study by Vargas et al [3], data of exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and DNA methylation in white blood cells of infants in The Gambia, take the implementation of model averaging. The best ensemble model selected based on the minimum of MAPE, MAE, and MSE of predictions. The result is ensemble model by model averaging with number of predictors in model candidate is 15.

  20. Alternative exon 3 splicing of the human major protein zero gene in white blood cells and peripheral nerve tissue.

    PubMed

    Besançon, R; Prost, A L; Konecny, L; Latour, P; Petiot, P; Boutrand, L; Kopp, N; Mularoni, A; Chamba, G; Vandenberghe, A

    1999-09-03

    The major protein zero (MPZ) is involved in peripheral myelin folding. Using nested reverse transcription-PCR, we amplified several fragments of MPZ mRNAs in white blood cells and in peripheral nerve tissue. Cloning of PCR products revealed the existence of three alternative splicing patterns: one resulted in the complete loss of exon 3 and two others induced partial skipping of the exon 3 sequence. All three alternative splicing mechanisms produced a frame-shift and created an identical premature stop codon in exon 4. We conclude that the existence of these MPZ RNA transcript variants may be the result of deliberate splicing decisions and may have functional implications in the cell.

  1. The 1-Carbamoyl-2-oxo-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolidine Component of ROS-Induced DNA Damage in White Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Herbert; Patrzyc, Helen B.; Budzinski, Edwin E.; Dawidzik, Jean B.; Freund, Harold G.; Box, Harold C.

    2012-01-01

    The 1-carbamoyl-2-oxo-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolidine modification of cytosine is a known base modification produced in vitro by oxidative stress. However, the presence of this modification in vivo has not been established. In this study the introduction of this base modification into dinucleoside monophosphates was accomplished using the Fenton reaction. Subsequently, the modification was produced in short isotopically labeled oligomers. Labeled tetramers bearing the lesion were used as internal standards for LC-MS/MS determinations of the base modification in the DNA of white blood cells from healthy donors. The background level of the 1-carbamoyl-2-oxo-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolidine modification of cytosine was found to be larger than the levels of the formamide and thymine glycol base modifications. PMID:20681804

  2. A Single-item Global Job Satisfaction Measure Is Associated with Quantitative Blood Immune Indices in White-collar Employees

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Akinori; Irie, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    Although a single-item job satisfaction measure has been shown to be reliable and inclusive as multiple-item scales in relation to health, studies including immunological data are few. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of single-item job and family life satisfaction based on its association with immune indices. A total of 189 white-collar employees (70% men) underwent a blood draw for the measurement of natural killer (NK), total T, and B cell counts as well as plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentrations and completed single-item job and family life satisfaction measures, respectively. The response options for satisfaction measures were ‘dissatisfied’ (coded 1) to ‘satisfied’ (coded 4). Spearman’s partial correlations controlling for cofactors revealed that increased job satisfaction was positively associated with NK cells (rsp=0.201, p=0.007) and IgG (rsp=0.178, p=0.018), while family life satisfaction was unrelated to immune indices. Those who reported a combination of low job/low family life satisfaction had significantly lower NK and higher B cell counts than those with a high job/high family life satisfaction. Our study suggests that the single-item summary measure of job satisfaction, but not family life satisfaction, may be a valid tool to evaluate immune status in healthy white-collar employees. PMID:23196390

  3. A single-item global job satisfaction measure is associated with quantitative blood immune indices in white-collar employees.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori; Irie, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Although a single-item job satisfaction measure has been shown to be reliable and inclusive as multiple-item scales in relation to health, studies including immunological data are few. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of single-item job and family life satisfaction based on its association with immune indices. A total of 189 white-collar employees (70% men) underwent a blood draw for the measurement of natural killer (NK), total T, and B cell counts as well as plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentrations and completed single-item job and family life satisfaction measures, respectively. The response options for satisfaction measures were 'dissatisfied' (coded 1) to 'satisfied' (coded 4). Spearman's partial correlations controlling for cofactors revealed that increased job satisfaction was positively associated with NK cells (rsp=0.201, p=0.007) and IgG (rsp=0.178, p=0.018), while family life satisfaction was unrelated to immune indices. Those who reported a combination of low job/low family life satisfaction had significantly lower NK and higher B cell counts than those with a high job/high family life satisfaction. Our study suggests that the single-item summary measure of job satisfaction, but not family life satisfaction, may be a valid tool to evaluate immune status in healthy white-collar employees.

  4. Cilostazol reduces blood brain barrier dysfunction, white matter lesion formation and motor deficits following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Edrissi, Hamidreza; Schock, Sarah C; Cadonic, Robert; Hakim, Antoine M; Thompson, Charlie S

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a pathological process leading to lacunar infarcts, leukoaraiosis and cerebral microbleeds. Dysfunction of the blood brain barrier (BBB) has been proposed as a mechanism in the progression cerebral small vessel disease. A rodent model commonly used to study some aspects of CSVD is bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in the rat. In the present study it was determined that gait impairment, as determined by a tapered beam test, and BBB permeability increased following BCCAO. Cilostazol, a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been shown to have anti-apoptotic effects and prevent white matter vacuolation and rarefaction induced by BCCAO in rats. In this study the protective effect of cilostazol administration on the increase BBB permeability following BCCAO was determined as well as the effect on plasma levels of circulating microparticles (MPs), cerebral white matter rarefaction, glial activation and gait disturbance. The effect of cilostazol on in vitro endothelial barriers was also evaluated. Cilostazol treatment improved BBB permeability and reduced gait disturbance, visual impairment and microglial activation in optic tract following BCCAO in vivo. It also reduced the degree of cell death and the reduction in trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) in artificial endothelial barriers in vitro induced by MP treatment of in vitro barriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts Response to Environmental Levels of Diesel Exhaust and Ozone Inhalation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Stiegel, Matthew A.; Pleil, Joachim D.; Sobus, Jon R.; Madden, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lymphocyte decreases and neutrophil increases following the DE + O3 exposure; lymphocytes and neutrophils changes also persist for at least 22-hours. Because human studies must be conducted under strict safety protocols at environmental levels, these effects are subtle and are generally only seen with detailed statistical analysis. This study indicates that the observed associations between environmental exposures and cardiopulmonary effects are possibly mediated by inflammatory response mechanisms. PMID:27058360

  6. Automated five-part white blood cell differential counts. Efficiency of software-generated white blood cell suspect flags of the hematology analyzers Sysmex SE-9000, Sysmex NE-8000, and Coulter STKS.

    PubMed

    Thalhammer-Scherrer, R; Knöbl, P; Korninger, L; Schwarzinger, I

    1997-06-01

    The present study evaluates the efficiency of software-generated white blood cell (WBC) "suspect flags" of the hematology analyzers Sysmex SE-9000, Sysmex NE-8000, and Coulter STKS. Automated WBC differential counts were considered positive if they contained any suspect WBC flag indicating the presence of blasts, myeloid precursor cells, or abnormal lymphocytes. Reference differential counts were performed by microscopic examination of 400 WBCs per sample. After comparison to the reference method, automated differential counts were classified as true-positive, true-negative, false-positive, and false-negative. The flagging efficiency of analyzers was expressed as a percentage of subjects correctly classified. Four hundred sixty-seven blood samples were randomly chosen for comparison analysis from various inpatient and outpatient departments of the Vienna university hospital, Austria. The efficiency rates of flagging for the presence of > or = 1% abnormal WBCs were 78% (SE-9000), 77% (NE-8000), and 72% (Coulter STKS). The flagging efficiencies were best for samples with normal WBC counts. With regard to the specific suspect flags, the flagging of blast cells was most efficient on all analyzers. Our results demonstrate the comparable overall performance of three analyzers, SE-9000, NE-8000, and Coulter STKS. They further underscore the importance of critical interpretation of automated differential counts, because at a detection limit of > or = 1% abnormal WBCs > 20% of samples were not correctly flagged by either analyzer.

  7. Association of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate with advanced white matter lesions in ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Lim, Young-Hyo; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Hee-Tae; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Lim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Young Seo

    2014-02-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) are a common finding in stroke patients, and the most important risk factors are old age and hypertension. Although many studies have described the association between WMLs and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) parameters in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients, little is known about the association in hypertensive ischemic stroke patients. From July 2009 to June 2012, 169 consecutive hypertensive noncardioembolic ischemic stroke patients were recruited within 1 week of suffering a stroke, and ABPM was applied 1 or 2 weeks after stroke onset. The subjects were classified into 2 groups according to the presence of advanced WMLs, and their ABPM parameters were compared. Finally, multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the independent relationships between WMLs and ABPM parameters. Seventy (41%) patients had advanced WMLs. In univariable analysis, higher 24-hour, awake, and asleep systolic blood pressure (SBP)/diastolic blood pressure levels and 24-hour pulse pressure were associated with advanced WMLs. However, circadian blood pressure parameters such as 24-hour BP variability, morning surge, and nocturnal dipping pattern were not associated with advanced WMLs. After adjustments, old age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.063; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.024-1.104; P = 0.002), high 24-hour SBP levels (OR = 1.055; 95% CI = 1.028-1.082; P < 0.001), and high 24-hour heart rate (OR = 1.041; 95% CI = 1.006-1.078; P = 0.023) were independently associated with advanced WMLs. In addition to old age and elevated 24-hour SBP, increased heart rate is associated with advanced WMLs in ischemic stroke patients. Heart rate deserves more attention in predicting advanced WMLs in those patients.

  8. DNA damage and repair in white blood cells at occupational exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, R. T.; Zaharieva, E. K.; Rupova, I. M.; Acheva, A. R.; Nikolov, V. N.

    2008-02-01

    : The present work was aimed at finding appropriate biomarkers applicable in molecular epidemiological surveys of occupationally exposed individuals and/or population in order to prove low dose effects. Blood samples were taken from NPP workers, in the 'strict regimen' area (exposed group) and from the administration staff (control group). The spontaneous and induced (exposed to a challenge dose of 2,0 Gy gamma irradiation) DNA repair synthesis in leucocytes, the level of DNA damage by single cell gel-electrophoresis in lymphocytes and the concentration of malonedialdehyde in blood serum, were analyzed. A significant decrease of potentially lethal damage in leucocytes as well as reduction of DNA double strand breaks level in lymphocytes of persons with 'mean annual dose' lower or equal to 5 mSv/a was found, compared to the control group. A higher repair capacity corresponding to elevated protein synthesis after a challenging dose of 2,0 Gy gamma rays and a significant decrease in the level of oxidative stress in the blood plasma were established in persons from the same group. The present investigation showed that annual doses not higher than twice the natural radiation background exert positive effects on DNA damage and repair, increase cellular resistance and decrease oxidative stress.

  9. Relationship of change in body mass to blood pressure among children in Korea and black and white children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Suh, I l; Webber, L S; Cutler, J A; Berenson, G S

    1995-11-01

    Body mass is a major factor in determining blood pressure levels in children. We compared associations of body mass with blood pressure in 121 white and 91 black children in Bogalusa, Louisiana with that of 370 children in Kangwha, Korea. All children were seven years old at entry into the study and were followed for three years. Korean children were shorter (p < 0.001) thinner (p <0.0001), and had a lower body mass index (p < 0.01) than white or black children. At age seven, systolic blood pressure levels were 2 approximately 5 mm Hg lower, but at age 10, they were 2 approximately 5 mm Hg higher in Korean than white or black children. The increases in blood pressure levels from age seven to ten years were much greater in Korean than black or white children, while changes in height, weight, and body mass index were generally less. Change in blood pressure level was positively associated with change in body mass index for systolic (but not diastolic) levels; however, the association was no stronger for Korean than for U.S. children, except for Korean males vs Bogalusa black males. Cross-cultural studies of other factors, such as diet and physical activity, may explain these differences.

  10. Immunogenic properties and mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lung lesions in Large White pigs selected for higher peripheral blood immune capacity.

    PubMed

    Borjigin, Liushiqi; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Katayama, Yuki; Li, Meihua; Satoh, Takumi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Roh, Sang-Gun; Aso, Hisashi; Katoh, Kazuo; Uchida, Takafumi; Suda, Yoshihito; Sakuma, Akiko; Nakajo, Mituru; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-05-01

    Immunogenic properties and mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lung lesions were compared between the immunity-selected Large White line and the non-selected Large White line. The selected Large White line showed a higher level of pulmonary MPS lesions compared with the non-selected Large White line. Subsequent to vaccination, the percentage of natural killer cells and T cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) CD8(-) and CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(+) T cells) were significantly increased in the non-selected line but remained unchanged in the immunity-selected Large White line. Secretion of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine-specific immunoblogulin G and phagocyte activity in peripheral blood were significantly higher in the immunity-selected Large White line than in the non-selected line. Expression of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 messenger RNA in hilar lymph nodes was significantly lower in the immunity-selected Large White line than in the non-selected line. However, expression of IL-10 in all immune tissues was significantly higher in the immunity-selected Large White line. These results suggest that the selection for high immunity was not effective in increasing resistance to MPS lung lesions. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Racial variation in umbilical cord blood sex steroid hormones and the insulin-like growth factor axis in African-American and white female neonates

    PubMed Central

    Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Rohrmann, Sabine; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Bienstock, Jessica L.; Monsegue, Deborah; Akereyeni, Folasade; Bradwin, Gary; Rifai, Nader; Pollak, Michael N.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether there is racial variation in venous umbilical cord blood concentrations of sex steroid hormones and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis between female African-American and white neonates. Methods Maternal and birth characteristics and venous umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 77 African-American and 41 white full-term uncomplicated births at two urban hospitals in 2004 and 2005. Cord blood was measured for testosterone, dehydroespiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), estradiol, sex-steroid hormone binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoassay. IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were measured by ELISA. Crude and multivariable-adjusted geometric mean concentrations were computed for the hormones. Results African-American neonates weighed less at birth (3,228 vs. 3,424 grams, p<0.004) than whites. Birth weight was positively correlated with IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and the molar ratio of IGF1 to IGFBP-3, but inversely correlated with the molar ratio of IGF-2 to IGFBP-3. Adjusted models showed higher testosterone (1.82 vs. 1.47 ng/mL, p=0.006) and the molar ratio of testosterone to SHBG (0.42 vs. 0.30, p=0.03) in African-American compared to white female neonates. IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGFBP-3 were lower in African-American compared to white female neonates, but only the difference for IGF-2 remained significant (496.5 vs. 539.2 ng/mL, p=0.04). Conclusion We provide evidence of racial variation in cord blood testosterone and testosterone to SHBG in African-American compared to white female neonates, and higher IGF-2 in white compared to African-American female neonates. Findings suggest plausible explanations for a prenatal influence on subsequent breast cancer risk and mortality. Further work is needed to confirm these observations. PMID:22252677

  12. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) lowers blood glucose and cholesterol levels in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Jeong, Yong Tae; Yang, Byung Keun; Islam, Rezuanul; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Pang, Gerald; Cho, Kai Yip; Song, Chi Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom; WBM) contains high levels of dietary fibers and antioxidants including vitamin C, D, and B(12); folates; and polyphenols that may provide beneficial effects on cardiovascular and diabetic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that intake of the fruiting bodies of WBM regulates anticholesterolemic and antiglycemic responses in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (0.5% cholesterol; 14% fat) and rats with type 2 diabetes induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg body weight), respectively. The STZ-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats fed the Agaricus bisporus powder (ABP; 200 mg/kg of body weight) for 3 weeks had significantly reduced plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG) concentrations (24.7% and 39.1%, respectively), liver enzyme activities, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (11.7% and 15.7%, respectively), and liver weight gain (P < .05). In hypercholesterolemic rats, oral feeding of ABP for 4 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (22.8% and 33.1%, respectively) (P < .05). A similar significant decrease in hepatic cholesterol and TG concentrations was observed (36.2% and 20.8%, respectively) (P < .05). Decrease in TC, LDL, and TG concentrations was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations. It was concluded that A bisporus mushroom had both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity in rats.

  13. Prognostic value of parameters derived from white blood cell and differential counts in patients receiving palliative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tetsuo; Toya, Ryo; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Semba, Akiko; Matsuyama, Keiya; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify white blood cell (WBC) parameters with high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy. The prognostic value of seven parameters derived from WBC and differential counts was retrospectively evaluated in patients who underwent palliative radiotherapy between October, 2010 and June, 2013. The analyzed parameters were the total WBC count, the absolute and relative lymphocyte count, the absolute and relative neutrophil count, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios. Following univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, disease type, previous chemotherapy, previous radiotherapy and the levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. A total of 220 patients with a median survival of 4.7 months were identified. All seven parameters were found to be statistically significant predictors of survival on univariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.05). Of these parameters, the low relative lymphocyte and high relative neutrophil counts were consistent predictors of poor survival in patients who received chemotherapy within 1 month prior to blood sampling (n=68) and in patients who received steroid treatment at the time of sampling (n=49). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of survival in all 220 patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were of high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy, even in those receiving medications that affect WBC and differential counts.

  14. A more appropriate white blood cell count for estimating malaria parasite density in Plasmodium vivax patients in northeastern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaie; Feng, Guohua; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xiaomei; Bai, Yao; Deng, Shuang; Ruan, Yonghua; Morris, James; Li, Siman; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang

    2016-04-01

    The conventional method of estimating parasite densities employ an assumption of 8000 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl. However, due to leucopenia in malaria patients, this number appears to overestimate parasite densities. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of parasite density estimated using this assumed WBC count in eastern Myanmar, where Plasmodium vivax has become increasingly prevalent. From 256 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, we estimated parasite density and counted WBCs by using an automated blood cell counter. It was found that WBC counts were not significantly different between patients of different gender, axillary temperature, and body mass index levels, whereas they were significantly different between age groups of patients and the time points of measurement. The median parasite densities calculated with the actual WBC counts (1903/μl) and the assumed WBC count of 8000/μl (2570/μl) were significantly different. We demonstrated that using the assumed WBC count of 8000 cells/μl to estimate parasite densities of P. vivax malaria patients in this area would lead to an overestimation. For P. vivax patients aged five years and older, an assumed WBC count of 5500/μl best estimated parasite densities. This study provides more realistic assumed WBC counts for estimating parasite densities in P. vivax patients from low-endemicity areas of Southeast Asia.

  15. White blood cell differential counts in severely leukopenic samples: a comparative analysis of different solutions available in modern laboratory hematology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy of white blood cell (WBC) differential counts in severely leukopenic samples by the Hematoflow method and by automated hematology analyzers and compared the results with manual counts. Methods EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples (175 samples) with WBC counts of 40-990/µL were selected. Hematoflow differential counts were performed in duplicates employing flow cytometry using the CytoDiff reagent and analysis software. Differential counts were also performed using the DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter) and XE-2100 (Sysmex) automated hematology analyzers. The sum of the manual counts by a hematology technician and a resident were used as the manual counts. Results The total analysis time and hands-on time required by the Hematoflow method were shorter than those required by manual counting. Hematoflow counts were reproducible, showed a good correlation with automated analyzers, and also showed strong correlation with manual counts (r > 0.8) in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. None of the cases containing less than 4% blasts as analyzed by the Hematoflow method had blasts in the manual counts, but 8 cases of 21 cases (38.1%) with over 4% blasts by Hematoflow had blasts in manual counts. Conclusion Hematoflow counts of severely leukopenic samples were reproducible and showed a good correlation with manual counts in terms of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. The Hematoflow method also detected the presence of blasts. Manual slide review is recommended when over 4% blasts are found by Hematoflow. PMID:25025014

  16. White blood cell differential counts in severely leukopenic samples: a comparative analysis of different solutions available in modern laboratory hematology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Han, Kyungja

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of white blood cell (WBC) differential counts in severely leukopenic samples by the Hematoflow method and by automated hematology analyzers and compared the results with manual counts. EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples (175 samples) with WBC counts of 40-990/µL were selected. Hematoflow differential counts were performed in duplicates employing flow cytometry using the CytoDiff reagent and analysis software. Differential counts were also performed using the DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter) and XE-2100 (Sysmex) automated hematology analyzers. The sum of the manual counts by a hematology technician and a resident were used as the manual counts. The total analysis time and hands-on time required by the Hematoflow method were shorter than those required by manual counting. Hematoflow counts were reproducible, showed a good correlation with automated analyzers, and also showed strong correlation with manual counts (r > 0.8) in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. None of the cases containing less than 4% blasts as analyzed by the Hematoflow method had blasts in the manual counts, but 8 cases of 21 cases (38.1%) with over 4% blasts by Hematoflow had blasts in manual counts. Hematoflow counts of severely leukopenic samples were reproducible and showed a good correlation with manual counts in terms of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. The Hematoflow method also detected the presence of blasts. Manual slide review is recommended when over 4% blasts are found by Hematoflow.

  17. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is differentially expressed by different white blood cell populations of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Lei, N; Wang, Y; Zhang, W-J; Duan, J-Z; Yang, G-B

    2013-08-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is involved in immune processes such as transplant and fetal rejection, autoimmunity, cancer, and infection; however, its expression in rhesus macaques has not been fully addressed. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase mRNA and protein in the white blood cells (WBCs) of Chinese rhesus macaques were examined by RT-PCR, western blotting, real-time RT-PCR, and flow cytometry. Both IDO protein and mRNA could be readily detected in WBCs or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of normal rhesus macaques. IDO+ cell frequency was the highest among CD14(+) mononuclear cells, followed by CD56(+) cells and DCs. No difference in the frequency of IDO+ cells between CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; however, Th17 cells have higher frequency of IDO+ cells than Th1 cells, with Th2 cells the lowest. Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation significantly increased IDO protein level in CD14(+) , CD56(+) , CD1c(+) , CD11c(+) , and CD123(+) myeloid cells. Rhesus macaques express IDO differentially in their leukocyte subsets and are suitable for IDO-related pathophysiological studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Alteration of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation in peripheral white blood cells of septic patients with trauma and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Linghui; Wang, Yiqin; Zhu, Duming; Xue, Zhanggang; Mao, Hailei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of histone methylation in sepsis. A total of 43 blood samples from trauma and esophageal cancer patients with or without sepsis were collected. Immunofluorescence staining of isolated peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) was conducted. Co-stained 293T cells served as a reference, to allow the levels of histone methylation in different types of WBCs from patients to be determined. Immunostaining analyses revealed different levels of histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in neutrophils (Neu), lymphocytes (Lym), and monocytes (Mon) from trauma patients. Compared with trauma patients, the levels of H3K9me2 were elevated in the three types of WBCs from cancer patients. When combined with sepsis, trauma patients demonstrated increased H3K9me2 levels in Neu (P=0.0005) and Mon (P=0.0002), whereas cancer patients had a significant decrease of H3K9me2 levels in the three types of WBCs (Neu, P=0.0003; Lym, P=0.007; Mon, P=0.007). The H3K9me2 alterations in patients with trauma and cancer were different with the occurrence of sepsis. A larger cohort study is warranted to explore the diagnostic significance and prognostic implications of altered histone methylation in septic patients. PMID:27878270

  19. Alteration of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation in peripheral white blood cells of septic patients with trauma and cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Linghui; Wang, Yiqin; Zhu, Duming; Xue, Zhanggang; Mao, Hailei

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of histone methylation in sepsis. A total of 43 blood samples from trauma and esophageal cancer patients with or without sepsis were collected. Immunofluorescence staining of isolated peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) was conducted. Co‑stained 293T cells served as a reference, to allow the levels of histone methylation in different types of WBCs from patients to be determined. Immunostaining analyses revealed different levels of histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in neutrophils (Neu), lymphocytes (Lym), and monocytes (Mon) from trauma patients. Compared with trauma patients, the levels of H3K9me2 were elevated in the three types of WBCs from cancer patients. When combined with sepsis, trauma patients demonstrated increased H3K9me2 levels in Neu (P=0.0005) and Mon (P=0.0002), whereas cancer patients had a significant decrease of H3K9me2 levels in the three types of WBCs (Neu, P=0.0003; Lym, P=0.007; Mon, P=0.007). The H3K9me2 alterations in patients with trauma and cancer were different with the occurrence of sepsis. A larger cohort study is warranted to explore the diagnostic significance and prognostic implications of altered histone methylation in septic patients.

  20. Clinical value of total white blood cells and neutrophil counts in patients with suspected appendicitis: retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Al-Gaithy, Zuhoor K

    2012-10-02

    Acute appendicitis (AA) is common surgical problem associated with acute-phase reaction. Blood tests role in decision-making process is unclear. This retrospective study aimed to determine diagnostic value of preoperative evaluation of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils and its value in predicting AA severity. Medical records of 456 patients who underwent appendectomy during 4-years period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were subdivided according to histological finding into: normal appendix (n = 29), uncomplicated inflamed appendix (n = 350), complicated appendicitis (n = 77). Diagnostic performances of WBCs and neutrophils were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. WBCs and neutrophils counts were higher in patients with inflamed and complicated appendix than normal appendix and in complicated than inflamed appendix. In patients, WBCs count 9.400 × 103/mL had sensitivity of 76.81%, specificity of 65.52%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 97.0%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 16.1%, positive likelihood ratio [LR(+)] of 2.23, negative LR(-) of 0.35. Neutrophil count 7.540 × 103/mL had sensitivity of 70.96%, specificity of 65.52%, PPV of 96.8%, NPV of 13.3%, LR(+) of 2.06, LR(-) of 0.44. Areas under ROC curve were 0.701, 0.680 for elevated WBCs and neutrophils count. Clinicians should not rely on either elevated WBCs or neutrophils count as appendicitis indicator as clinical data are superior in decision-making appendectomy.

  1. Malaria Parasite Density Estimation using Actual and Assumed White Blood Cells Count in Children in Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Jalal A; Gasim, Gasim I; Karsani, Amani H; Elbashir, Leana M; Adam, Ishag

    2016-04-01

    Estimating malaria parasite count is needed for estimating the severity of the disease and during the follow-up. This study was conducted to determine the malaria parasite density among children using actual white blood cell (WBC) and the assumed WBC counts (8.0 × 10(9)/l). A cross-sectional study was conducted at New Halfa Hospital, Sudan. WBC count and count of asexual malaria parasite were performed on blood films. One hundred and three children were enrolled. The mean (SD) WBCs was 6.2 (2.9) cells × 10(9)/l. The geometric mean (SD) of the parasite count using the assumed WBCs (8.0 × 10(9)/l cells/μl) was significantly higher than that estimated using the actual WBC count [7345.76 (31,038.56) vs. 5965 (28,061.57) rings/μl,p = 0.042]. Malaria parasitemia based on assumed (8.0 × 10(9)/) WBCs is higher than parasitemia based on actual WBCs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Image segmentation and classification of white blood cells with the extreme learning machine and the fast relevance vector machine.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, S

    2016-05-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) or leukocytes are an important part of the body's defense against infectious organisms and foreign substances. WBC segmentation is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. The standard ELM classification techniques are used for WBC segmentation. The generalization performance of the ELM classifier has not achieved the maximum nearest accuracy of image segmentation. This paper gives a novel technique for WBC detection based on the fast relevance vector machine (Fast-RVM). Firstly, astonishingly sparse relevance vectors (RVs) are obtained while fitting the histogram by RVM. Next, the relevant required threshold value is directly sifted from these limited RVs. Finally, the entire connective WBC regions are segmented from the original image. The proposed method successfully works for WBC detection, and effectively reduces the effects brought about by illumination and staining. To achieve the maximum accuracy of the RVM classifier, we design a search for the best value of the parameters that tune its discriminant function, and upstream by looking for the best subset of features that feed the classifier. Therefore, this proposed RVM method effectively works for WBC detection, and effectively reduces the computational time and preserves the images.

  3. Dietary and Urinary Metabonomic Factors Possibly Accounting for Higher Blood Pressure of African-Americans Compared to White Americans – – The INTERMAP Study RR

    PubMed Central

    Stamler, Jeremiah; Brown, Ian J.; Yap, Ivan K.S.; Chan, Queenie; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Ebbels, Timothy M.D.; De Iorio, Maria; Posma, Joram; Daviglus, Martha L.; Carnethon, Mercedes; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Elliott, Paul

    2014-01-01

    African-Americans compared to non-Hispanic-White-Americans have higher systolic, diastolic blood pressure and rates of prehypertension/hypertension. Reasons for these adverse findings remain obscure. Analyses here focused on relations of foods/nutrients/urinary metabolites to higher African-American blood pressure for 369 African-Americans compared to 1,190 non-Hispanic-White-Americans ages 40-59 from 8 population samples. Standardized data were from four 24-hour dietary recalls/person, two 24-h urine collections, 8 blood pressure measurements; multiple linear regression quantitating role of foods, nutrients, metabolites in higher African-American blood pressure. Compared to non-Hispanic-White-Americans, African-Americans average systolic/diastolic pressure was higher by 4.7/3.4 mm Hg (men) and 9.0/4.8 mm Hg (women). Control for higher body mass index of African-American women reduced excess African-American systolic/diastolic pressure to 6.8/3.8 mm Hg. African American intake of multiple foods, nutrients related to blood pressure was less favorable - - less vegetables, fruits, grains, vegetable protein, glutamic acid, starch, fiber, minerals, potassium; more processed meats, pork, eggs, sugar-sweetened beverages, cholesterol, higher sodium to potassium ratio. Control for 11 nutrient and 10 non-nutrient correlates reduced higher African-American systolic/diastolic pressure to 2.3/2.3 mm Hg (52% and 33% reduction) (men) and to 5.3/2.8 mm Hg (21% and 27% reduction) (women). Control also for foods/urinary metabolites had little further influence on higher African-American blood pressure. Multiple nutrients with less favorable intakes by African-Americans than non-Hispanic-White-Americans account at least in part for higher African-American blood pressure. Improved dietary patterns can contribute to prevention/control of more adverse African-American blood pressure levels. PMID:24101663

  4. Indium oxide based fiber optic SPR sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Sarika; Sharma, Navneet K.

    2016-05-06

    Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic sensor using indium oxide layer is presented and theoretically studied. It has been found that with increase in thickness of indium oxide layer beyond 170 nm, the sensitivity of SPR sensor decreases. 170 nm thick indium oxide layer based SPR sensor holds maximum sensitivity.

  5. Indium Foil Serves As Thermally Conductive Gasket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, G. Yale; Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    Indium foil found useful as gasket to increase thermal conductance between bodies clamped together. Deforms to fill imperfections on mating surfaces. Used where maximum temperature in joint less than melting temperature of indium. Because of low melting temperature of indium, most useful in cryogenic applications.

  6. Indium Foil Serves As Thermally Conductive Gasket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, G. Yale; Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    Indium foil found useful as gasket to increase thermal conductance between bodies clamped together. Deforms to fill imperfections on mating surfaces. Used where maximum temperature in joint less than melting temperature of indium. Because of low melting temperature of indium, most useful in cryogenic applications.

  7. White blood cell count, sex and age are major determinants of heterogeneity of platelet indices in an adult general population: results from the MOLI-SANI project.

    PubMed

    Santimone, Iolanda; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Spinelli, Maria; Cugino, Daniela; Gianfagna, Francesco; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2011-08-01

    The understanding of non-genetic regulation of platelet indices--platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width--is limited. The association of these platelet indices with a number of biochemical, environmental and clinical variables was studied in a large cohort of the general population. Men and women (n=18,097, 52% women, 56±12 years) were randomly recruited from various villages in Molise (Italy) in the framework of the population-based cohort study "Moli-sani". Hemochromocytometric analyses were performed using an automatic analyzer (Beckman Coulter, IL, Milan, Italy). Associations of platelet indices with dependent variables were investigated by multivariable linear regression analysis. Full models including age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, menopause, white and red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, D-dimers, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose, and drug use explained 16%, 21%, 1.9% and 4.7% of platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width variability, respectively; variables that appeared to be most strongly associated were white blood cell count, age, and sex. Platelet count, mean platelet volume and plateletcrit were positively associated with white blood cell count, while platelet distribution width was negatively associated with white blood cell count. Platelet count and plateletcrit were also positively associated with C-reactive protein and D-dimers (P<0.0001). Each of the other variables, although associated with platelet indices in a statistically significant manner, only explained less than 0.5% of their variability. Platelet indices varied across Molise villages, independently of any other platelet count determinant or characteristics of the villages. The association of platelet indices with white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and D-dimers in a general population underline the

  8. Causal Neuro-immune Relationships at Patients with Chronic Pyelonephritis and Cholecystitis. Correlations between Parameters EEG, HRV and White Blood Cell Count.

    PubMed

    Kul'chyns'kyi, Andriy B; Kyjenko, Valeriy M; Zukow, Walery; Popovych, Igor L

    2017-01-01

    We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey's immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG ("NeuroCom Standard", KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV ("Cardiolab+VSR", KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count. Revealed that canonical correlation between constellation EEG and HRV parameters form with blood level of leukocytes 0.92 (p<10-5), with relative content in white blood cell count stubnuclear neutrophiles 0.93 (p<10-5), segmentonucleary neutrophiles 0.89 (p<10-3), eosinophiles 0.87 (p=0.003), lymphocytes 0.77 (p<10-3) and with monocytes 0.75 (p=0.003). Parameters of white blood cell count significantly modulated by electrical activity some structures of central and autonomic nervous systems.

  9. Causal Neuro-immune Relationships at Patients with Chronic Pyelonephritis and Cholecystitis. Correlations between Parameters EEG, HRV and White Blood Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Kul’chyns’kyi, Andriy B; Kyjenko, Valeriy M; Zukow, Walery; Popovych, Igor L

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey’s immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. Methods In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG (“NeuroCom Standard”, KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV (“Cardiolab+VSR”, KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count. Results Revealed that canonical correlation between constellation EEG and HRV parameters form with blood level of leukocytes 0.92 (p<10-5), with relative content in white blood cell count stubnuclear neutrophiles 0.93 (p<10-5), segmentonucleary neutrophiles 0.89 (p<10-3), eosinophiles 0.87 (p=0.003), lymphocytes 0.77 (p<10-3) and with monocytes 0.75 (p=0.003). Conclusion Parameters of white blood cell count significantly modulated by electrical activity some structures of central and autonomic nervous systems. PMID:28730179

  10. Immunochemical detection of adducts of sulfur mustard to DNA of calf thymus and human white blood cells.

    PubMed

    van der Schans, G P; Scheffer, A G; Mars-Groenendijk, R H; Fidder, A; Benschop, H P; Baan, R A

    1994-01-01

    As part of a program to develop methods for dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard, we developed immunochemical methods for the detection of the major adduct, N7-[2-[(hydroxyethyl)thio]ethyl]guanine (N7-HETE-Gua), formed after alkylation of DNA with sulfur mustard. After immunization of rabbits with calf thymus DNA treated with sulfur mustard, we obtained the antiserum W7/10 with a high specificity for DNA adducts of sulfur mustard. With this serum, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed in which sulfur mustard adducts to DNA could be detected with a minimum detectable amount of 1-5 fmol per well and a selectivity that allows detection of one N7-HETE-Gua among 5 x 10(6) unmodified nucleotides in single-stranded DNA. The complications that arise to isolate double-stranded DNA from biological samples and to make the DNA single-stranded without destruction of the sulfur mustard adducts result in about a 20-fold higher limit for adduct detection in DNA from human blood than in single-stranded DNA. Presently, adducts in white blood cells can be detected after exposure of human blood to sulfur mustard concentrations > or = 2 microM. We synthesized N7-HETE-GMP for use as a hapten to generate monoclonal antibodies against this adduct. After immunization of mice with this adduct coupled to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin we obtained several hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies that recognize N7-HETE-Gua, containing an intact imidazolium ring. The sensitivity of the competitive ELISA with the monoclonal antibodies was comparable to that of the assays performed with the rabbit antiserum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Indium-Mediated Stereoselective Allylation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Vemula, Sandeep R; Balasubramanian, Narayanaganesh; Cook, Gregory R

    2016-10-04

    Stereoselective indium-mediated organic reactions have enjoyed tremendous growth in the last 25 years. This is in part due to the insensitivity of allylindium to moisture, affording facile and practical reaction conditions coupled with outstanding functional group tolerance and minimal side reactions. Despite the plethora of articles about allylindium, there is much yet to be discovered and exploited for efficient and sustainable synthesis. In this Account, we describe indium-mediated synthetic methods for the preparation of chiral amines with the aim to present a balance of practical method development, novel asymmetric chemistry, and mechanistic understanding that impact multiple chemical and materials science disciplines. In 2005, we demonstrated the indium-mediated allylation of chiral hydrazones with complete diastereoselectivity (>99:1) and quantitative yields. Further, we revealed the first example of enantioselective indium-mediated allylation of hydrazones using catalytic (R)-3,3'-bis(trifluoromethyl)-BINOL ligands to afford homoallylic amines with high enantioselectivity. The use of enantiopure perfluoroalkylsulfonate BINOLs greatly improved the indium-mediated allylation of N-acylhydrazones with exquisite enantiocontrol (99% yield, 99% ee). This laboratory has also investigated indium-mediated asymmetric intramolecular cyclization in the presence of amino acid additives to deliver biologically relevant chromanes with excellent diastereoselectivity (dr >99:1). The effect of amino acid additives (N-Boc-glycine) was further investigated during the indium-mediated allylation of isatins with allyl bromide to yield homoallylic alcohols in excellent yields in a short time with a wide range of functional group tolerance. Critical mechanistic insight was gained, and evidence suggests that the additive plays two roles: (1) to increase the rate of formation of allylindium from allyl bromide and In(0) and (2) to increase the nucleophilicity of the allylindium

  12. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  13. The utility of erythrocyte sedimentation rate values and white blood cell counts after spinal deformity surgery in the early (≤3 months) post-operative period.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Margaret G; Lenke, Lawrence G; Bridwell, Keith H; O'Donnell, June C; Luhmann, Scott J

    2012-03-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count are frequently obtained in the work-up of post-operative fever. However, their diagnostic utility depends upon comparison with normative peri-operative trends which have not yet been described. The purpose of this study is to define a range of erythrocyte sedimentation rates and white blood cell counts following spinal instrumentation and fusion in non-infected patients. Seventy-five patients underwent spinal instrumentation and fusion. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cell count were recorded pre-operatively, at 3 and 7 days post-operatively, and at 1 and 3 months post-operatively. Both erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cell count trends demonstrated an early peak, followed by a gradual return to normal. Peak erythrocyte sedimentation rates occurred within the first week post-operatively in 98% of patients. Peak white blood cell counts occurred with the first week in 85% of patients. In the absence of infection, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was abnormally elevated in 78% of patients at 1 month and in 53% of patients at 3 months post-operatively. The white blood cell count was abnormally elevated in only 6% of patients at 1 month post-operatively. Longer surgical time was associated with elevated white cell count at 1 week post-operatively. The fusion of more vertebral levels had a negative relationship with elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate at 1 week post-operatively. The anterior surgical approach was associated with significantly lower erythrocyte sedimentation rate at 1 month post-operatively and with lower white cell count at 1 week post-operatively. In non-infected spinal fusion surgeries, erythrocyte sedimentation rates are in the abnormal range in 78% of patients at 1 month and in 53% of patients at 3 months post-operatively, suggesting that the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is of limited diagnostic value in the early post

  14. Telomere Length Is Not Related to Established Cardiovascular Risk Factors but Does Correlate with Red and White Blood Cell Counts in a German Blood Donor Population

    PubMed Central

    Kelsch, Reinhard; Jäger, Kathrin; Brüggmann, Nina; van der Harst, Pim; Walter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging and has been associated with the presence of various coronary risk factors in patients. Much less is known about the relationships between TL and classic coronary risk factors in other populations. We measured TL in peripheral blood leukocytes of 343 middle-aged blood donors (mean age 40.2 ± 12.4 years; 201 men, 142 women) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Median TL was 0.86 (range: 0.48–1.85) relative TL units. In linear regression analyses with natural log-transformed T to S ratio as the dependent variable, there was a significant association with age (per year: beta = -0.007, p<0.001) and sex (males vs. females: beta = 0.075, p = 0.007) with longer telomeres in men. After adjusting for these two variables, we observed no association of TL with classic coronary risk factors including cholesterol (p = 0.36), triglyceride (p = 0.09), HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.26), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.36), smoking (p = 0.97), and personal (p = 0.46) or family history (p = 0.63) of cardiovascular disease. However, we did find a significant positive association with white (p = 0.011) and red blood cell count (p = 0.031), hemoglobin (p = 0.014) and hematocrit (p = 0.013); we also found a borderline positive association with thrombocytes (p = 0.074). Positive associations remained significant for hemoglobin (p = 0.017), hematocrit (p = 0.023), and leukocytes (p = 0.009) in a subgroup with no reported vascular disease; associations were of borderline significance for erythrocytes (p = 0.053) and thrombocytes (p = 0.088) in this subgroup. The data do not support the concept that classic coronary risk factors contribute to telomere attrition in a blood donor population. However, telomere attrition may be a marker for reduced proliferation reserve in hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:26445269

  15. Ras activation in normal white blood cells and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    von Lintig, F C; Huvar, I; Law, P; Diccianni, M B; Yu, A L; Boss, G R

    2000-05-01

    Ras is an important cellular switch, relaying growth-promoting signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. In cultured cells, Ras is activated by various hematopoietic cytokines and growth factors, but the activation state of Ras in peripheral WBCs and bone marrow cells has not been studied nor has Ras activation been assessed in cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using an enzyme-based method, we assessed Ras activation in peripheral WBCs, lymphocytes, and bone marrow cells from normal subjects and from children with T-cell ALL (T-ALL) and B-lineage ALL (B-ALL). In normal subjects, we found mean Ras activations of 14.3, 12.5, and 17.2% for peripheral blood WBCs, lymphocytes, and bone marrow cells, respectively. All three of these values are higher than we have found in other normal human cells, compatible with constitutive activation of Ras by cytokines and growth factors present in serum and bone marrow. In 9 of 18 children with T-ALL, Ras activation exceeded two SDs above the mean of the corresponding cells from normal subjects, whereas in none of 11 patients with B-ALL did Ras show increased activation; activating genetic mutations in ras occur in less than 10% of ALL patients. Thus, Ras is relatively activated in peripheral blood WBCs, lymphocytes, and bone marrow cells compared with other normal human cells, and Ras is activated frequently in T-ALL but not in B-ALL. Increased Ras activation in T-ALL compared with B-ALL may contribute to the more aggressive nature of the former disease.

  16. White blood cell and platelet count as adjuncts to standard clinical evaluation for risk assessment in patients at low probability of acute aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morello, Fulvio; Cavalot, Giulia; Giachino, Francesca; Tizzani, Maria; Nazerian, Peiman; Carbone, Federica; Pivetta, Emanuele; Mengozzi, Giulio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Pre-test probability assessment is key in the approach to suspected acute aortic syndromes (AASs). However, most patients with AAS-compatible symptoms are classified at low probability, warranting further evaluation for decision on aortic imaging. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen explore pathophysiological pathways mobilized in AASs and are routinely assayed in the workup of AASs. However, the diagnostic performance of these variables for AASs, alone and as a bundle, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that white blood cell count, platelet count and/or fibrinogen at presentation may be applied as additional tools to standard clinical evaluation for pre-test risk assessment in patients at low probability of AAS. This was a retrospective observational study conducted on consecutive patients managed in our Emergency Department from 2009 to 2014 for suspected AAS. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen were assayed during evaluation in the Emergency Department. The final diagnosis was obtained by computed tomography angiography. The pre-test probability of AAS was defined according to guidelines. Of 1210 patients with suspected AAS, 1006 (83.1%) were classified at low probability, and 271 (22.4%) were diagnosed with AAS. Within patients at low probability, presence of at least one alteration among white blood cell count >9*10(3)/µl, platelet count <200*10(3)/µl and fibrinogen <350 mg/dl was associated with a sensitivity of 95.5% (89.7-98.5%) and a specificity of 18.3% (15.6-21.2%). In patients at low probability, white blood cell count >9*10(3)/µl and platelet count <200*10(3)/µl were found as independent predictors of AAS beyond established clinical risk markers. Within patients at low probability, the estimated risk of AAS based on the number of alterations amongst white blood cell count >9*10(3)/µl and platelet count <200*10(3)/µl was 2.7% (1.2-5.7%) with zero alterations, 11.3% (8.8-14.3%) with one alteration and 31.9% (24

  17. Graft-versus-host disease and survival after cord blood transplantation for acute leukemia: a comparison of Japanese versus White populations.

    PubMed

    Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Horowitz, Mary M; Inagaki, Jiro; Kanda, Junya; Kato, Koji; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Eapen, Mary

    2014-05-01

    An earlier report identified higher risks of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in White children compared with the Japanese after HLA-matched sibling transplantations. The current analysis explored whether racial differences are associated with GVHD risks after unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation. Included are patients of Japanese descent (n = 257) and Whites (n = 260; 168 of 260 received antithymocyte globulin [ATG]). Transplants were performed in the United States or Japan between 2000 and 2009; patients were aged 16 years or younger, had acute leukemia, were in complete remission, and received a myeloablative conditioning regimen. The median ages of the Japanese and Whites who received ATG were younger at 5 years compared with 8 years for Whites who did not receive ATG. In all groups most transplants were mismatched at 1 or 2 HLA loci. Multivariate analysis found no differences in risks of acute GVHD between the Japanese and Whites. However, chronic GVHD was higher in Whites who did not receive ATG compared with the Japanese (hazard ratio, 2.16; P < .001), and treatment-related mortality was higher in Whites who received ATG compared with the Japanese (relative risk, 1.81; P = .01). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in overall survival between the 3 groups.

  18. Temporal Relationship Between Elevated Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffening Among Middle-Aged Black and White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez, Camilo; Sun, Dianjianyi; Lai, Chin-Chih; Zhang, Tao; Bazzano, Lydia; Urbina, Elaine M.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the temporal relationship between elevated blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in a biracial (black-white) cohort of middle-aged adults aged 32–51 years from the semirural community of Bogalusa, Louisiana. Measurements of aortic-femoral pulse wave velocity (afPWV; n = 446) and large- and small-arterial compliance (n = 381) were obtained at 2 time points between 2000 and 2010, with an average follow-up period of 7 years. A cross-lagged path analysis model was used to examine the temporal relationship of elevated BP to arterial stiffness and elasticity. The cross-lagged path coefficients did not differ significantly between blacks and whites. The path coefficient (ρ2) from baseline BP to follow-up afPWV was significantly greater than the path coefficient (ρ1) from baseline afPWV to follow-up BP (ρ2 = 0.20 vs. ρ1 = 0.07 (P = 0.048) for systolic BP; ρ2 = 0.19 vs. ρ1 = 0.05 (P = 0.034) for diastolic BP). The results for this 1-directional path from baseline BP to follow-up afPWV were confirmed, although marginally significant, by using large- and small-artery elasticity measurements. These findings provide strong evidence that elevated BP precedes large-artery stiffening in middle-aged adults. Unlike the case in older adults, the large-arterial wall is not stiff enough in youth to alter BP levels during young adulthood. PMID:26960706

  19. Inflammatory response measured by body temperature, C-reactive protein and white blood cell count 1, 3, and 5 days after laparotomic or laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Csendes, Attila; Burgos, Ana Maria; Roizblatt, Daniel; Garay, Claudio; Bezama, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    Morbid obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition due to the production of several cytokines from the adipose tissue. However, what happens with some of these parameters the first days after surgery is unknown. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine, through a prospective and descriptive study, the behavior of the C-reactive protein (CRP), the white blood cell count, and the body temperature prior to a gastric bypass and for 5 days afterwards. A total of 156 patients with morbid obesity were included in this prospective study. There were 120 women and 36 men, with a mean age of 41 years and a body mass index of 43 kg/m(2). They were submitted either to a laparotomic resectional gastric bypass or to a laparoscopic gastric bypass. Body temperature was measured every 8 h during 5 days. CPR and white blood cells were measured at the first, third, and fifth day after surgery. All patients had a normal postoperative course. Body temperature showed no change. White blood cells increased significantly at the first and third day after surgery but normalized by the fifth day. However, the third day after surgery, laparotomic gastric bypass patients showed a significantly greater increase in the total white blood cell count as well as in segmented neutrophil cells compared to laparoscopic surgery patients. CRP exhibited a similar increase and was more pronounced after a laparotomic approach. During the 5 days after gastric bypass, a significant increase in white blood cells and CRP was observed. The increase was significantly greater after a laparotomic bypass compared to the laparoscopic approach.

  20. Indium lung--case reports and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Omae, Kazuyuki; Nakano, Makiko; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Hamaguchi, Tsutahiro; Chonan, Tatsuya

    2011-06-01

    The present review is aimed to introduce an new occupational lung disease, Indium Lung. We searched case reports and epidemiological studies concerning indium-related lung diseases and reviewed. Up to March, 2010, 7 cases of interstitial pneumonia in Japanese indium-exposed workers, two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in US indium-exposed workers, one case of PAP in a Chinese indium-exposed worker, and 4 cross-sectional surveys in Japan had been published. All cases and epidemiological studies in Japan indicate that exposure to hardly soluble indium compounds causes interstitial as well as emphysematous lung damages, which we call "Indium Lung". Based on the epidemiological studies, the Japan Society for Occupational Health proposed 3 μg/l of indium in serum as an occupational exposure limit based on biological monitoring to prevent significant increase of KL-6. Long-term follow-up of currently and formerly indium-exposed workers is essential not only to clarify the natural history of indium lung but also to trace the incidence of lung cancer. It is also necessary to elucidate the mechanism of indium lung and difference in clinical manifestations between Japanese and US cases.

  1. Unfair treatment and trait anger in relation to nighttime ambulatory blood pressure in African American and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Danielle L; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-10-01

    To determine if ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) at night relative to day ABP among adolescents is influenced by unfair treatment and trait anger, and whether these associations are stronger in African Americans and adolescents from lower socioeconomic status (SES) families and neighborhoods. A total of 189 healthy white and African American adolescents (ages = 14-16 years, standard deviation = 0.62, 50% female) completed 2 days and 1 night of ABP monitoring and unfair treatment and trait anger questionnaires. SES was measured using 1) parental education and 2) a composite neighborhood SES score based on U.S. Census tract data for neighborhood poverty and education. The night/day ABP ratio was calculated by dividing the night ABP mean (readings from the self-reported bedtime of each participant through 5 AM) by the day ABP mean (8:30 AM until self-reported bedtime). Higher trait anger was associated with a higher night/day diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ratio in the full sample, B = 0.003, SE = 0.001, t = 2.20, p = .03. A significant interaction effect for Race x Unfair Treatment on the night/day DBP ratio, B = 0.01, SE = 0.003, t = 3.17, p = .002, followed by post hoc tests indicated that greater unfair treatment was associated with a higher night/day DBP ratio among African Americans, B = 0.006, SE = 0.002, t = 2.56, p = .01. Further, among African American adolescents living in lower SES neighborhoods, greater unfair treatment predicted a higher night/day DBP ratio, B = 0.008, SE = 0.003, t = 3.15, p = .002, and higher trait anger scores predicted a higher night/day DBP ratio, B = 0.008, SE = 0.002, t = 3.19, p = .002. Trait anger may be a factor leading to elevated nighttime DBP in both African Americans and whites. Unfair treatment and trait anger are important predictors of elevated night/day ABP ratios among African American adolescents living in lower SES neighborhoods. These factors may contribute to the onset of hypertension in African Americans at a

  2. Inflammation and infection: imaging properties of 18F-FDG-labeled white blood cells versus 18F-FDG.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Daniela; Bonab, Ali A; Dragotakes, Stephen C; Pitman, Justin T; Mariani, Giuliano; Carter, Edward A

    2005-09-01

    (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FDG-labeled white blood cells ((18)F-FDG-WBCs) are valuable radiopharmaceuticals for imaging focal sites of inflammation and infection. In the present study, the imaging properties of both radiotracers were compared in sterile and septic inflammation models. Groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (100-120 g) were injected in the left posterior thigh muscle with saline solution (group 1: controls, n = 15), 0.100 mL of turpentine oil (group 2: sterile inflammation, n = 26), 10(9) viable Escherichia coli bacteria (group 3: E. coli septic inflammation, n = 29), or 10(8) viable Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (group 4: P. aeruginosa septic inflammation, n = 25). Twenty-four hours later, the animals were divided into 2 groups: One received (18)F-FDG intravenously and the other received human white blood cells (WBCs) labeled in vitro with (18)F-FDG injected intravenously. Biodistribution and microPET studies were performed 1 h after radiotracer injection. One hour after injection with cell-associated or free (18)F-FDG, phosphorimaging of abscess and contralateral muscle was performed in specimens collected from animals in groups 1, 2, and 3. The region of interest was selected within the abscess wall and values were converted to kBq/g using a (14)C calibration standard curve. Thin-layer radiochromatography (TLRC) was performed to study the chemical forms of (18)F within the WBCs. Whole-body biodistribution demonstrated a significantly higher uptake ratio of (18)F-FDG-WBCs compared with (18)F-FDG in all sterile and septic inflammation models (t test: sterile, P = 0.048; E. coli, P = 0.040; P. aeruginosa, P = 0.037). microPET imaging confirmed the greater performance of (18)F-FDG-WBCs versus (18)F-FDG in the sterile inflammation model and in both E. coli and P. aeruginosa septic models. Phosphorimaging analysis showed higher (18)F-FDG-WBC uptake than (18)F-FDG in the sterile inflammation and P. aeruginosa septic models and similar tissue uptake in the

  3. Radiation dose effect of DNA repair-related gene expression in mouse white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-juan; Wang, Wei-wei; Chen, Shi-wei; Shen, Qian; Min, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to screen molecular biomarkers for biodosimetry from DNA repair-related gene expression profiles. Material/Methods Mice were subjected to whole-body exposure with 60Co γ rays with a dose range of 0–8 Gy at a dose rate of 0.80 Gy/min. RNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of irradiated mice at 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48hrs post-irradiation. The mRNA transcriptional changes of 11 genes related to DNA damage and repair were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Of the 11 genes examined, CDKN1A (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A or p21, Cip1) and ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) expression levels were found to be heavily up- and down-regulated, respectively, with exposure dose increasing at different post-irradiation times. RAD50 (RAD50 homolog), PLK3 (polo-like kinase 3), GADD45A (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible, alpha), DDB2 (damage-specific DNA-binding protein 2), BBC3 (BCL2-binding component 3) and IER5 (immediate early response 5) gene expression levels were found to undergo significant oscillating changes over a broad dose range of 2–8 Gy at post-exposure time points observed. Three of the genes were found not to change within the observed exposure dose and post-radiation time ranges. Conclusions The results of this study add to the biodosimetry with biomarker data pool and will be helpful for constructing appropriate gene expression biomarker systems to evaluate radiation exposure doses. PMID:21959603

  4. Gene biomarkers in peripheral white blood cells of horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kamm, J Lacy; Frisbie, David D; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Orr, Kindra E

    2013-01-01

    To use microarray analysis to identify genes that are differentially expressed in horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis. 24 horses. During arthroscopic surgery, a fragment was created in the distal aspect of the radiocarpal bone in 1 forelimb of each horse to induce osteoarthritis. At day 14 after osteoarthritis induction, horses began exercise on a treadmill. Blood and synovial fluid samples were collected before and after surgery. At day 70, horses were euthanized and tissues were harvested for RNA analysis. An equine-specific microarray was used to measure RNA expression in peripheral WBCs. These data were compared with mRNA expression (determined via PCR assay) in WBCs, cartilage, and synovium as well as 2 protein biomarkers of cartilage matrix turnover in serum and synovial fluid. A metalloproteinase domain-like protein decysin-1 (ADAMDEC1), glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 94, hematopoietic cell signal transducer (HCST), Unc-93 homolog A (hUNC-93A), and ribonucleotide reductase M2 polypeptide (RRM2) were significantly differentially regulated in WBCs of horses with osteoarthritis, compared with values prior to induction of osteoarthritis. There was correlation between the gene expression profile in WBCs, cartilage, and synovium and the cartilage turnover proteins. Gene expression of ADAMDEC1, hUNC-93A, and RRM2 in WBCs were correlated when measured via microarray analysis and PCR assay. Expression of ADAMDEC1, GRP94, HCST, hUNC-93A, and RRM2 was differentially regulated in peripheral WBCs obtained from horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis. Gene expression of ADAMDEC1, hUNC-93A, and RRM2 in peripheral WBCs has the potential for use as a diagnostic aid for osteoarthritis in horses.

  5. Quantitation of white cell subpopulations by polymerase chain reaction using frozen whole-blood samples. Viral Activation Transfusion Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Sakahara, N S; Fiebig, E W; Hirschkorn, D F; Johnson, D K; Busch, M P

    1998-03-01

    Previous methods for processing whole blood (WB) for nucleic acid analyses of white cells (WBCs) required fresh blood samples. A simple protocol that involves the freezing of WB for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses was evaluated. Controlled studies were conducted in which paired fresh and frozen WB preparations were analyzed. The integrity of WBCs in the frozen WB samples was first assessed by flow cytometry using CD45 fluorescence, and calibration beads to quantitate recovery of WBC subsets. PCR of an HLA-DQ-A sequence was used to quantitate residual WBCs in a double-filtered red cell (RBC) component spiked with serial dilutions of WBCs, as well as in 51 filtered RBCs and 19 filtered platelet concentrates. Y-chromosome-specific PCR was used to quantitate male WBCs in five female WB samples spiked with serial dilutions of male WBCs and in serially collected frozen WB samples from four females transfused with male blood components. By flow cytometry, all major WBC subpopulations in frozen-thawed WB were quantitatively recovered and immunologically intact, although they were nonviable. HLA-DQ-A PCR quantitation of a dilution series from 8 to 16,700 per mL of WBCs spiked into double-filtered RBCs showed linear correlation of the results with both fresh and frozen preparations of the expected WBC concentrations (r2 = 0.98, p<0.0001 for both), without significant difference between observed and expected values (p>0.05). Y-chromosome-specific PCR results in female WB samples spiked with male WBCs were not significantly different in fresh and frozen preparations over a 3 log10 range of male cells. The results of WBC survival studies on frozen WB samples were consistent with previous observations in fresh blood samples. Direct freezing of WB enables subsequent recovery of WBCs for quantitative PCR analyses, with results comparable to those of fresh preparations.This protocol should facilitate wider implementation of nucleic acid-based analyses for

  6. Biological monitoring of exposures to aluminium, gallium, indium, arsenic, and antimony in optoelectronic industry workers.

    PubMed

    Liao, Y-H; Yu, H-S; Ho, C-K; Wu, M-T; Yang, C-Y; Chen, J-R; Chang, C-C

    2004-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate aluminum, gallium, indium, arsenic, and antimony exposures on blood and urine levels in the optoelectronic workers. One hundred seventy subjects were enrolled in this cohort study. Whole blood and urine levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Blood indium and urine gallium and arsenic levels in the 103 workers were significantly higher than that in 67 controls during the follow-up period. In regression models, the significant risk factors of exposure were job title, preventive equipment, Quetelet's index, sex, and education level. The findings of this study suggest that gallium, indium, and arsenic exposure levels may affect their respective levels in blood and urine. The use of clean, preventive equipment is recommended when prioritizing the administration of safety and hygiene in optoelectronics industries.

  7. Effects of feeding on thermoregulatory behaviours and gut blood flow in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) using biotelemetry in combination with standard techniques.

    PubMed

    Gräns, A; Olsson, C; Pitsillides, K; Nelson, H E; Cech, J J; Axelsson, M

    2010-09-15

    The effects of thermoregulatory behaviours on gut blood flow in white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus before and after feeding was studied using a blood flow biotelemetry system in combination with a temperature preference chamber. This is the first study to look at cardiovascular responses to feeding in white sturgeon, and also the first time behavioural tests in fish have been combined with recordings of cardiac output, heart rate, cardiac stroke volume and gut blood flow. The results showed strong correlations between gut blood flow and temperature choice after feeding (R(2)=0.88+/-0.03, 6-8 h postprandially and R(2)=0.89+/-0.04, 8-10 h postprandially) but not prior to feeding (R(2)=0.11+/-0.05). Feeding did not affect the actual temperature preference (18.4+/-0.7 degrees C before feeding, 18.1+/-0.7 degrees C, 6-8 h postprandially and 17.5+/-0.5 degrees C, 8-10 h postprandially). Fish instrumented with a blood flow biotelemetry device, and allowed to move freely in the water, had a significantly lower resting heart rate (37.3+/-0.26 beats min(-1)) compared with the control group that was traditionally instrumented with transit-time blood flow probes and kept in a confined area in accordance with the standard procedure (43.2+/-2.1 beats min(-1)). This study shows, for the first time in fish, the correlation between body temperature and gut blood flow during behavioural thermoregulation.

  8. Evaluation of two point-of-care meters and a portable chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in juvenile white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Burdick, Stacy; Mitchell, Mark A; Neil, Johanna; Heggem, Brittany; Whittington, Julia; Acierno, Mark J

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate agreement of blood glucose concentrations measured in juvenile white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) by use of 2 point-of-care (POC) blood glucose meters and 1 portable chemistry analyzer with values obtained in serum by use of a standard laboratory chemistry analyzer, and to evaluate agreement between results obtained with the 2 POC meters. Prospective evaluation study. 14 venous blood samples from 14 healthy white-tailed deer fawns. Blood glucose concentration was measured with each of 2 POC meters. The remainder of the sample was divided into 2 tubes (1 that contained lithium heparin and 1 with no anticoagulant). Glucose concentration in anticoagulated whole blood was measured with the portable analyzer. Serum was collected from the remaining sample for measurement of glucose concentrations with the laboratory analyzer. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement. Agreement between POC blood glucose meters and the laboratory analyzer was poor; mean values for bias were 2.9 mg/dL (95% limits of agreement [LOA], -70.2 to 76.0 mg/dL) and -30.8 mg/dL (95% LOA, -111.6 to 49.9 mg/dL), respectively. Agreement between the 2 POC meters was also poor (bias, 31.0 mg/dL; 95% LOA, -47.2 to 109.2 mg/dL). Agreement between the portable analyzer and the laboratory analyzer was good (bias, -1.6 mg/dL; 95% LOA, -15.3 to 12.1 mg/dL). Results suggested that the POC blood glucose meters used in this study are not appropriate for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in juvenile white-tailed deer.

  9. Pulmonary toxicity in mice by 2- and 13-week inhalation exposures to indium-tin oxide and indium oxide aerosols.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kasuke; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Eitaki, Yoko; Ohnishi, Makoto; Noguchi, Tadashi; Arito, Heihachiro; Fukushima, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation toxicities of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) in mice were characterized in comparison with those previously reported in rats. B6C3F(1) mice of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to ITO or IO aerosol for 6 h/day, 5 day/wk for 2 wk at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 mg/m(3) or 13 wk at 0, 0.1or 1 mg/m(3). ITO and IO particles were deposited in the lung, mediastinal lymph node (MLN) and nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Alveolar proteinosis, infiltrations of alveolar macrophages and inflammatory cells and increased lung weight were induced by 2- and 13-week exposures to ITO and IO, while alveolar epithelial hyperplasia occurred only in the 2-week exposures. Thickened pleural wall, hyperplastic MLN, extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and increased levels of erythrocyte parameters were induced by 13-week exposure to ITO. The ITO- and IO-induced pulmonary lesions were milder in mice than those previously reported in rats, and the fibrotic lesions were different between these two species. Indium levels in the lung and pooled blood were analyzed in the mice exposed to ITO and IO for 13 wk. In the 13-week inhalation exposure of mice to ITO, alveolar proteinosis and significantly increased lung weight were induced at the same exposure concentration as the current threshold limit value for indium and its compounds.

  10. Transcriptomic profiles of peripheral white blood cells in type II diabetes and racial differences in expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Along with obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of metabolic disorders, African American ethnicity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in gene expression and transcriptomic profiles of blood in T2D between African Americans (AA) and Caucasians (CAU), and microarray analysis of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) from these two ethnic groups will facilitate our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism in T2D and identify genetic biomarkers responsible for the disparities. Results A whole human genome oligomicroarray of peripheral WBCs was performed on 144 samples obtained from 84 patients with T2D (44 AA and 40 CAU) and 60 healthy controls (28 AA and 32 CAU). The results showed that 30 genes had significant difference in expression between patients and controls (a fold change of <-1.4 or >1.4 with a P value <0.05). These known genes were mainly clustered in three functional categories: immune responses, lipid metabolism, and organismal injury/abnormaly. Transcriptomic analysis also showed that 574 genes were differentially expressed in AA diseased versus AA control, compared to 200 genes in CAU subjects. Pathway study revealed that "Communication between innate and adaptive immune cells"/"Primary immunodeficiency signaling" are significantly down-regulated in AA patients and "Interferon signaling"/"Complement System" are significantly down-regulated in CAU patients. Conclusions These newly identified genetic markers in WBCs provide valuable information about the pathophysiology of T2D and can be used for diagnosis and pharmaceutical drug design. Our results also found that AA and CAU patients with T2D express genes and pathways differently. PMID:22369568

  11. Transcriptomic profiles of peripheral white blood cells in type II diabetes and racial differences in expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jinghe; Ai, Junmei; Zhou, Xinchun; Shenwu, Ming; Ong, Manuel; Blue, Marketta; Washington, Jasmine T; Wang, Xiaonan; Deng, Youping

    2011-12-23

    Along with obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of metabolic disorders, African American ethnicity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in gene expression and transcriptomic profiles of blood in T2D between African Americans (AA) and Caucasians (CAU), and microarray analysis of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) from these two ethnic groups will facilitate our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism in T2D and identify genetic biomarkers responsible for the disparities. A whole human genome oligomicroarray of peripheral WBCs was performed on 144 samples obtained from 84 patients with T2D (44 AA and 40 CAU) and 60 healthy controls (28 AA and 32 CAU). The results showed that 30 genes had significant difference in expression between patients and controls (a fold change of <-1.4 or >1.4 with a P value <0.05). These known genes were mainly clustered in three functional categories: immune responses, lipid metabolism, and organismal injury/abnormaly. Transcriptomic analysis also showed that 574 genes were differentially expressed in AA diseased versus AA control, compared to 200 genes in CAU subjects. Pathway study revealed that "Communication between innate and adaptive immune cells"/"Primary immunodeficiency signaling" are significantly down-regulated in AA patients and "Interferon signaling"/"Complement System" are significantly down-regulated in CAU patients. These newly identified genetic markers in WBCs provide valuable information about the pathophysiology of T2D and can be used for diagnosis and pharmaceutical drug design. Our results also found that AA and CAU patients with T2D express genes and pathways differently.

  12. Total and differential white blood cell counts in Caiman latirostris after in ovo and in vivo exposure to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Latorre, María A; Romito, María L; Larriera, Alejandro; Poletta, Gisela L; Siroski, Pablo A

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural activities associated mainly with soybean crops affect the natural environment and wildlife by habitat destruction and the extensive use of agrochemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunotoxic effects of the insecticides cypermethrin (CYP) and endosulfan (END) in Caiman latirostris analyzing total blood cell count (TWBC) and differential white blood cell count (DWBC) after in ovo and in vivo exposure. Eggs (in ovo) and hatchlings (in vivo) from nests harvested in natural habitats were artificially incubated and reared under controlled conditions in the Proyecto Yacaré (Gob.Santa Fe/MUPCN) facilities. Exposure of embryos was performed by topication on the eggshell during the first stage of development. The treatments were distilled water (negative control; NC), ethanol (vehicle control; VC), four groups treated with different concentrations of CYP and four groups with END. In vivo exposure was performed by immersion; treatments were NC, VC, two groups exposed to CYP and two to END. After embryonic exposure to the insecticides, no differences were found in TWBC or DWBC among the neonates exposed to pesticides versus controls. In the in vivo scenario, similar results were obtained for TWBC, but DWBC data showed differences between NC hatchlings and CYP-1 hosts for heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte levels, and between NC and END-1 hosts for lymphocyte and monocyte levels. Research on the effects of pesticide exposure on this species is of special interest not only to assess the impact on caiman populations, but also to further characterize the species as a potential sentinel of ecosystem health.

  13. Self-reported sleep duration, white blood cell counts and cytokine profiles in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Pérez de Heredia, Fátima; Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Díaz, Ligia E; Wärnberg, Julia; Androutsos, Odysseas; Michels, Nathalie; Breidenassel, Christina; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Huybrechts, Inge; Gottrand, Frédéric; Ferrari, Marika; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnár, Denes; Sjöstrom, Michael; Widhalm, Kurt; Moreno, Luis A; Marcos, Ascensión

    2014-10-01

    Sleep patterns face important changes during adolescence. This can have implications for the immune system, which is regulated by the sleep-wake cycle; however, most studies relating sleep and immune system have been conducted on adults. To study the relationships between sleep duration, immune cell counts, and cytokines in European adolescents participating in the HELENA Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents (12.5-17.5 years; n = 933; 53.9% girls) were grouped according to self-reported sleep duration into <8, 8-8.9 and ≥9 h/night. Blood samples were collected in the morning after an overnight fast to analyze counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, the lymphocyte subsets CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD45RA(+), CD45RO(+), CD3(-)CD16(+)56(+) and CD19(+), and concentrations of cortisol, CRP, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Pro-/anti-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 cytokine ratios were calculated. Immune parameters were correlated to sleep duration and compared between the three groups. Sleep duration was negatively associated with cortisol levels and WBC, neutrophil, monocyte, CD4(+) and CD4(+)CD45RO(+) counts; in girls it is also negatively associated with IL-5 and IL-6 levels. The 8-8.9 h/night group presented the highest IL-4 values and the lowest pro-/anti-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 cytokine ratios. A sleep duration of 8-8.9 h/night was associated with a healthier immune profile in our adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Doppler, oscillometric, auricular and carotid arterial blood pressure measurements in isoflurane anesthetized New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Barter, Linda S; Epstein, Steven E

    2014-07-01

    To assess agreement between carotid arterial pressure and auricular arterial, thoracic limb Doppler or thoracic limb oscillometric blood pressure measurements. Prospective experimental study. Six adult New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen at 1, 1.5 and 2 MAC on two separate occasions. Catheters in the auricular and the contralateral external carotid artery were connected to calibrated pressure transducers via non-compliant tubing. Inflatable cuffs of width equal to approximately 40% of the limb circumference were placed above the carpus on both thoracic limbs with a Doppler transducer placed distal to the cuff on one. Systolic (SAP) and mean (MAP) arterial blood pressure measurements were obtained at each dose, on each occasion. Agreement between measurement techniques was evaluated by repeated measures Bland Altman analysis with carotid pressure as the reference. Variation in bias over the measurement range was evaluated by regression analysis. Carotid MAP and SAP ranged from 20 to 65 mmHg and 37 to 103 mmHg respectively. Bias and 95% limits of agreement for auricular and oscillometric MAP were 7 (0-14) and -5 (-21-11) mmHg, respectively, and for auricular, oscillometric and Doppler SAP were 23 (8-37), -2 (-24-20) and 13 (-14-39) mmHg, respectively. Bias varied significantly over the measurement range (p < 0.001) for all three SAP techniques but not for MAP measurements. Limits of agreement for all measurements were large but less so for MAP than SAP. Variation in bias with SAP should be considered when using these measurements clinically. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  15. Systemic inflammation in 222.841 healthy employed smokers and nonsmokers: white blood cell count and relationship to spirometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking has been linked to low-grade systemic inflammation, a known risk factor for disease. This state is reflected in elevated white blood cell (WBC) count. Objective We analyzed the relationship between WBC count and smoking in healthy men and women across several age ranges who underwent preventive medical check-ups in the workplace. We also analysed the relationship between smoking and lung function. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study in 163 459 men and 59 382 women aged between 16 and 70 years. Data analysed were smoking status, WBC count, and spirometry readings. Results Total WBC showed higher counts in both male and female smokers, around 1000 to 1300 cell/ml (t test, P < 0.001). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) was higher in nonsmokers for both sexes between 25 to 54 years (t test, P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance showed a multiple variable effect of age, sex, smoking status, body mass index on WBC count. The relationship between WBC blood count and smoking status was confirmed after the sample was stratified for these variables. Smokers with airway obstruction measured by FEV1% were found to have higher WBC counts, in comparison to smokers with a normal FEV1% among similar age and BMI groups. Conclusions Smoking increases WBC count and affects lung function. The effects are evident across a wide age range, underlining the importance of initiating preventive measures as soon as an individual begins to smoke. PMID:22613769

  16. Genetic variants associated with the white blood cell count in 13,923 subjects in the eMERGE Network

    PubMed Central

    McDavid, Andrew; Weston, Noah; Nelson, Sarah C.; Zheng, Xiuwen; Hart, Eugene; de Andrade, Mariza; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth; Kho, Abel; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Pretel, Stephanie; Saip, Alexander; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Crawford, Dana C.; Crane, Paul K.; Newton, Katherine; Li, Rongling; Mirel, Daniel B.; Crenshaw, Andrew; Larson, Eric B.; Carlson, Chris S.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2013-01-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is unique among identified inflammatory predictors of chronic disease in that it is routinely measured in asymptomatic patients in the course of routine patient care. We led a genome-wide association analysis to identify variants associated with WBC levels in 13,923 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We identified two regions of interest that were each unique to subjects of genetically determined ancestry to the African continent (AA) or to the European continent (EA). WBC varies among different ancestry groups. Despite being ancestry specific, these regions were identifiable in the combined analysis. In AA subjects, the region surrounding the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor gene (DARC) on 1q21 exhibited significant association (p value = 6.71e–55). These results validate the previously reported association between WBC and of the regulatory variant rs2814778 in the promoter region, which causes the Duffy negative phenotype (Fy−/−). A second missense variant (rs12075) is responsible for the two principal antigens, Fya and Fyb of the Duffy blood group system. The two variants, consisting of four alleles, act in concert to produce five antigens and subsequent phenotypes. We were able to identify the marginal and novel interaction effects of these two variants on WBC. In the EA subjects, we identified significantly associated SNPs tagging three separate genes in the 17q21 region: (1) GSDMA, (2) MED24, and (3) PSMD3. Variants in this region have been reported to be associated with WBC, neutrophil count, and inflammatory diseases including asthma and Crohn’s disease. PMID:22037903

  17. Estimating malaria parasite density among pregnant women at central Sudan using actual and assumed white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Haggaz, Abdelrahium D; Elbashir, Leana M; Adam, Gamal K; Rayis, Duria A; Adam, Ishag

    2014-01-05

    Microscopic examination using Giemsa-stained thick blood films remains the reference standard for detection of malaria parasites and it is the only method that is widely and practically available for quantifying malaria parasite density. There are few published data (there was no study during pregnancy) investigating the parasite density (ratio of counted parasites within a given number of microscopic fields against counted white blood cells (WBCs) using actual number of WBCs. Parasitaemia was estimated using assumed WBCs (8,000), which was compared to parasitaemia calculated based on each woman's WBCs in 98 pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at Medani Maternity Hospital, Central Sudan. The geometric mean (SD) of the parasite count was 12,014.6 (9,766.5) and 7,870.8 (19,168.8) ring trophozoites /μl, P <0.001 using the actual and assumed (8,000) WBC count, respectively. The median (range) of the ratio between the two parasitaemias (using assumed/actual WBCs) was 1.5 (0.6-5), i e, parasitaemia calculated assuming WBCs equal to median (range) 1.5 (0.6-5) times higher than parasitaemia calculated using actual WBCs. There were 52 out of 98 patients (53%) with ratio between 0.5 and 1.5. For 21 patients (21%) this ratio was higher than 2, and for five patients (5%) it was higher than 3. The estimated parasite density using actual WBC counts was significantly lower than the parasite density estimated using assumed WBC counts. Therefore, it is recommended to use the patient`s actual WBC count in the estimation of the parasite density.

  18. Clinical value of total white blood cells and neutrophil counts in patients with suspected appendicitis: retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute appendicitis (AA) is common surgical problem associated with acute-phase reaction. Blood tests role in decision-making process is unclear. This retrospective study aimed to determine diagnostic value of preoperative evaluation of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils and its value in predicting AA severity. Methods Medical records of 456 patients who underwent appendectomy during 4-years period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were subdivided according to histological finding into: normal appendix (n = 29), uncomplicated inflamed appendix (n = 350), complicated appendicitis (n = 77). Diagnostic performances of WBCs and neutrophils were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results WBCs and neutrophils counts were higher in patients with inflamed and complicated appendix than normal appendix and in complicated than inflamed appendix. In patients, WBCs count 9.400 × 103/mL had sensitivity of 76.81%, specificity of 65.52%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 97.0%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 16.1%, positive likelihood ratio [LR(+)] of 2.23, negative LR(−) of 0.35. Neutrophil count 7.540 × 103/mL had sensitivity of 70.96%, specificity of 65.52%, PPV of 96.8%, NPV of 13.3%, LR(+) of 2.06, LR(−) of 0.44. Areas under ROC curve were 0.701, 0.680 for elevated WBCs and neutrophils count. Conclusions Clinicians should not rely on either elevated WBCs or neutrophils count as appendicitis indicator as clinical data are superior in decision-making appendectomy. PMID:23031349

  19. Low maternal vitamin B12 status is associated with lower cord blood HDL cholesterol in white Caucasians living in the UK.

    PubMed

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Vatish, Manu; Lawson, Alexander; Wood, Catherine; Sivakumar, Kavitha; McTernan, Philip G; Webster, Craig; Anderson, Neil; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2015-04-02

    Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182), of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood). Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L) and folate (<4.6 μg/L) were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring's Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol.

  20. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Vatish, Manu; Lawson, Alexander; Wood, Catherine; Sivakumar, Kavitha; McTernan, Philip G.; Webster, Craig; Anderson, Neil; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182), of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood). Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L) and folate (<4.6 μg/L) were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol. PMID:25849948

  1. Ecophysiological determinations of antioxidant enzymes and lipoperoxidation in the blood of White Stork Ciconia ciconia from Poland.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Piotr; Kurhalyuk, Nataliya; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Tkachenko, Halyna; Klawe, Jacek J; Szady-Grad, Małgorzata; Koim, Beata; Wiśniewska, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the blood of White Stork Ciconia ciconia chicks (aged 19-54 days) in Poland in 2006. We took under consideration superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ceruloplasmine (CP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (malondialdehyde) in polluted (copper manufacture), suburban areas, at the Odra meadows, and at swamps near Baltic Sea in the Pomeranian region. We examined the levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Cd, and Pb and compared ecophysiological determinations for developing storks. Blood samples of wing venous were collected from 91 chicks from 33 nests. The degree of activity of antioxidant enzymes studied has been different in White Stork chicks' blood from Poland regions, as a rule. We have stated a relatively high level of CAT, GPx, SOD, and GR activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in chicks from polluted areas. However, relative value for GR in storks from Odra meadows was considerably higher (about 112 nmol NADPH(2)/min ml) than those in chicks from other environments (56-84 nmol on average). Relatively high levels of CAT, CP, and GPx (2.7 mkM/min l, 22.2 mg/l, and 3.8 nmol GSH/min ml, respectively) were also stated in chicks nested in swamps near Baltic Sea. Simultaneously, we have stated differences (p<0.02-p<0.001) in the level of elements (besides Ca) in blood of young storks from the studied areas. We found a high level of toxic metals, e.g. Cd, either from swamps near Baltic Sea (2.7 mg/kg) or from Głogów smelter (2.2mg/kg), whilst Pb concentration was high in chicks from Głogów (7.2 mg/kg). Cd and Pb levels in blood of chicks were different in individuals from each region (p<0.001). Birds from a smelter have the highest level of these elements, whereas the lowest one was stated in chicks from Odra meadows (Cd: 1.45, Pb: 0.84 mg/kg). Thus, Cd could be a useful marker of

  2. Effects of a powered air-purifying respirator intervention on indium exposure reduction and indium related biomarkers among ITO sputter target manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chen, Chang-Yuh; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) worn by the workers, and to investigate the effect of this application on exposure and preclinical effects in terms of workplace measuring and biomarker monitoring in ITO sputter target manufacturing plants and workers, respectively. Fifty-four workers were recruited and investigated from 2010-2012, during which PAPRs were provided to on-site workers in September 2011. Each worker completed questionnaires and provided blood and urine samples for analysis of biomarkers of indium exposure and preclinical effects. Area and personal indium air samples were randomly collected from selected worksites and from participants. The penetration percentage of the respirator (concentration inside respirator divided by concentration outside respirator) was 6.6%. Some biomarkers, such as S-In, SOD, GPx, GST, MDA, and TMOM, reflected the decrease in exposure and showed lower levels, after implementation of PAPRs. This study is the first to investigate the efficacy of PAPRs for reducing indium exposure. The measurement results clearly showed that the implementation of PAPRs reduces levels of indium-related biomarkers. These findings have practical applications for minimizing occupational exposure to indium and for managing the health of workers exposed to indium.

  3. Low plasma adiponectin level, white blood cell count and Helicobacter pylori titre independently predict abnormal pancreatic beta-cell function.

    PubMed

    So, Wing-Yee; Tong, Peter C; Ko, Gary T; Ma, Ronald C; Ozaki, Risa; Kong, Alice P; Yang, Xilin; Ho, Chung-Shun; Lam, Christopher C; Chan, Juliana C

    2009-11-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with insulin sensitizing effect while chronic inflammation damages pancreatic beta-cells leading to reduced insulin response. We aimed to prove the hypothesis that adiponectin levels and inflammatory markers (white blood cell counts [WCC], Helicobacter pylori [HP] titers, high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) may interact to affect risk of diabetes. We studied 288 Chinese men (age-median: 41.0 years, IQR: 35.3-46.0 years) being recruited from the community in Hong Kong. The mean adiponectin level was 5.39+/-2.81 microg/ml and 40.9% (n=107) had low adiponectin level (<4 microg/ml). On multiple regression analysis, adiponectin was negatively associated with diabetes, HOMA insulin resistance top quartile, plasma glucose (PG) and 2h insulin; and positively associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity index. WCC was independently associated with PG and 15' insulin, and negatively associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity top quartile. HP titre was associated with 30' PG level and diabetes. hs-CRP did not enter the multivariable model. In conclusion, adiponectin, WCC and HP titer are independent predictors for hyperglycemia and reduced insulin sensitivity in Chinese men. These findings may explain the high risk for diabetes in Chinese population despite their relatively low adiposity.

  4. Presence and active synthesis of the 67 kDa elastin-receptor in human circulating white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Larbi, Anis; Levesque, Georges; Robert, Ladislas; Gagné, Daniéle; Douziech, Nadine; Fülöp, Tamas

    2005-07-08

    Early after the identification of the elastin-receptor (El-R) on mesenchymal cells, it was demonstrated that phagocytic cells and lymphocytes could also respond to elastin peptides. Nevertheless, the level of El-R expression has never been demonstrated on immune cells and no data exist whether these cells actively synthesize this El-R. Thus, our aim in the present work was to study the expression and number of El-R on white blood cells (WBC) using a specific 67 kDa El-R antibody and to demonstrate the presence of mRNA corresponding to the gene coding for El-R. Our results show that messenger RNA corresponding to the presumptive gene coding for the 67 kDa El-R subunit could be detected in all three WBC-types investigated. On all of these WBC, the presence of El-R could be demonstrated, however their number and their function varied following the cell type. The presence of El-R is very important for the interaction of circulating cell with the matrix as these cells intervene during atherosclerosis and in host defence.

  5. Effects of tannic acid on Haemonchus contortus larvae viability and immune responses of sheep white blood cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R Z; Sun, H X; Liu, H W; Zhou, D W

    2014-02-01

    Direct inhibitory effects of tannic acid on Haemonchus contortus viability were studied in vitro using the larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. Sheep white blood cells (WBC) were preincubated with 5 and 50 lg/mL tannic acid or not followed by whole H. contortus antigen (WHA). Cells were harvested at 24 h post-incubation to test host immune responses. Concentrations of 50, 100, 500, 1000, 3000 and 5000 lg/mL tannic acid inhibited larvae migration by 19.8, 42.4, 46.3, 92.0, 93.7 and 100%, respectively, within 96 h post-incubation (P < 0.001). The relative mRNA levels of interferon (IFN)-c, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10 were increased by WHA stimulation without tannic acid. However, the increased effects on IFN-c and IL-2 were inhibited by tannic acid preincubation (P < 0.001), while the increases in IL-4 and IL-10 were greatly enhanced by tannic acid preincubation (P < 0.001). Changes in protein levels of all cytokines essentially paralleled the changes in their corresponding mRNA levels. In conclusion, tannic acid is directly harmful to larvae in a dose- and time-dependent manner and modulates immune responses of sheep WBC stimulated by H. contortus antigen by inhibiting Th1 cytokines and increasing Th2 cytokine expression in vitro.

  6. Effects of copy number variable regions on local gene expression in white blood cells of Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, August; Almeida, Marcio; Dean, Angela; Curran, Joanne E; Johnson, Matthew P; Moses, Eric K; Abraham, Lawrence J; Carless, Melanie A; Dyer, Thomas D; Kumar, Satish; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C; Comuzzie, Anthony; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Blangero, John; Lehman, Donna M; Göring, Harald H H

    2015-01-01

    Only few systematic studies on the contribution of copy number variation to gene expression variation have been published to date. Here we identify effects of copy number variable regions (CNVRs) on nearby gene expression by investigating 909 CNVRs and expression levels of 12059 nearby genes in white blood cells from Mexican-American participants of the San Antonio Family Heart Study. We empirically evaluate our ability to detect the contribution of CNVs to proximal gene expression (presumably in cis) at various window sizes (up to a 10 Mb distance) between the gene and CNV. We found a ~1-Mb window size to be optimal for capturing cis effects of CNVs. Up to 10% of the CNVs in this study were found to be significantly associated with the expression of at least one gene within their vicinity. As expected, we find that CNVs that directly overlap gene sequences have the largest effects on gene expression (compared with non-overlapping CNVRs located nearby), with positive correlation (except for a few exceptions) between estimated genomic dosage and expression level. We find that genes whose expression level is significantly influenced by nearby CNVRs are enriched for immunity and autoimmunity related genes. These findings add to the currently limited catalog of CNVRs that are recognized as expression quantitative trait loci, and have implications for future study designs as well as for prioritizing candidate causal variants in genomic regions associated with disease. PMID:25585699

  7. Analysis of gene expression in white blood cells of cattle orally challenged with bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Panelli, Simona; Strozzi, Francesco; Capoferri, Rossana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Martinelli, Nicola; Capucci, Lorenzo; Lombardi, Guerino; Williams, John L

    2011-01-01

    Bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE) is one of the recently discovered atypical forms of BSE, which is transmissible to primates, and may be the bovine equivalent of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in humans. Although it is transmissible, it is unknown whether BASE is acquired through infection or arises spontaneously. In the present study, the gene expression of white blood cells (WBCs) from 5 cattle at 1 yr after oral BASE challenge was compared with negative controls using a custom microarray containing 43,768 unique gene probes. In total, 56 genes were found to be differentially expressed between BASE and control animals with a log fold change of 2 or greater. Of these, 39 were upregulated in BASE animals, while 17 were downregulated. The majority of these genes are related to immune function. In particular, BASE animals appeared to have significantly modified expression of genes linked to T- and B-cell development and activation, and to inflammatory responses. The potential impacts of these gene expression changes are described.

  8. LINE1 and Alu repetitive element DNA methylation in tumors and white blood cells from epithelial ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Stacey N.; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Wa; Lai, Golda Collamat; Miller, Austin; Lele, Shashikant; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We determined whether DNA methylation of repetitive elements (RE) is altered in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patient tumors and white blood cells (WBC), compared to normal tissue controls. Methods Two different quantitative measures of RE methylation (LINE1 and Alu bisulfite pyrosequencing) were used in normal and tumor tissues from EOC cases and controls. Tissues analyzed included: i) EOC, ii) normal ovarian surface epithelia (OSE), iii) normal fallopian tube surface epithelia (FTE), iv) WBC from EOC patients, obtained before and after treatment, and v) WBC from demographically-matched controls. Results REs were significantly hypomethylated in EOC compared to OSE and FTE, and LINE1 and Alu methylation showed a significant direct association in these tissues. In contrast, WBC RE methylation was significantly higher in EOC cases compared to controls. RE methylation in patient-matched EOC tumors and pre-treatment WBC did not correlate. Conclusions EOC shows robust RE hypomethylation compared to normal tissues from which the disease arises. In contrast, RE are generally hypermethylated in EOC patient WBC compared to controls. EOC tumor and WBC methylation did not correlate in matched patients, suggesting that RE methylation is independently controlled in tumor and normal tissues. Despite the significant differences observed over the population, the range of RE methylation in patient and control WBC overlapped, limiting their specific utility as an EOC biomarker. However, our data demonstrate that DNA methylation is deranged in normal tissues from EOC patients, supporting further investigation of WBC DNA methylation biomarkers suitable for EOC risk assessment. PMID:24374023

  9. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 µg collagen. All rats with established CIA, with arthritis scores exceeding 1, were orally treated with betamethasone (0.5 mg/ml/kg body weight), curcumin (110 mg/ml/kg body weight) or olive oil (1.0 ml/kg body weight) daily, for two weeks. One remaining group was kept as normal control. Treatment with 110 mg/ml/kg curcumin showed significant mean differences in the average white blood cell (WBC) count (p<0.05), cell infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion scores (p<0.05) compared to the olive oil treated group. Pannus formation scores showed that curcumin supplementation successfully suppressed the pannus formation process that occurred in the articular cartilage of the CIA joints. The mean difference for histological scores for the curcumin group was insignificant compared to the betamethasone treated group. It is concluded that supplementation of curcumin has protective effect on the histopathological and degenerative changes in the joints of CIA rats which was at par with betamethasone.

  10. Effect of a Single Finnish Sauna Session on White Blood Cell Profile and Cortisol Levels in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pilch, Wanda; Pokora, Ilona; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Pałka, Tomasz; Pilch, Paweł; Cisoń, Tomasz; Malik, Lesław; Wiecha, Szczepan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Finnish sauna bathing on a white blood cell profile, cortisol levels and selected physiological indices in athletes and non-athletes. The study evaluated 9 trained middle-distance runners and 9 male non-athletes. The subjects from both groups participated in 15-minute sauna sessions until their core temperature rose by 1.2°C (mean temperature in the sauna room was 96° ± 2°C; relative humidity was 15 ± 3%) with a 2 minute cool down with water at a temperature of 19–20°C. Body mass was measured before and after the session and blood samples were taken for tests. Rectal temperature was monitored at five-minute intervals during the whole session. Serum total protein, haematological indices and cortisol levels were determined. Sauna bathing caused higher body mass loss and plasma volume in the athletes compared to the group of non-athletes. After the sauna session, an increased number of white blood cells, lymphocyte, neutrophil and basophil counts was reported in the white blood cell profile. Higher increments in leukocyte and monocyte after the sauna bathing session were recorded in the group of athletes compared to untrained subjects. The obtained results indicated that sauna bathing stimulated the immune system to a higher degree in the group of athletes compared to the untrained subjects. PMID:24511348

  11. Effect of a single finnish sauna session on white blood cell profile and cortisol levels in athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Pilch, Wanda; Pokora, Ilona; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Pałka, Tomasz; Pilch, Paweł; Cisoń, Tomasz; Malik, Lesław; Wiecha, Szczepan

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Finnish sauna bathing on a white blood cell profile, cortisol levels and selected physiological indices in athletes and non-athletes. The study evaluated 9 trained middle-distance runners and 9 male non-athletes. The subjects from both groups participated in 15-minute sauna sessions until their core temperature rose by 1.2°C (mean temperature in the sauna room was 96° ± 2°C; relative humidity was 15 ± 3%) with a 2 minute cool down with water at a temperature of 19-20°C. Body mass was measured before and after the session and blood samples were taken for tests. Rectal temperature was monitored at five-minute intervals during the whole session. Serum total protein, haematological indices and cortisol levels were determined. Sauna bathing caused higher body mass loss and plasma volume in the athletes compared to the group of non-athletes. After the sauna session, an increased number of white blood cells, lymphocyte, neutrophil and basophil counts was reported in the white blood cell profile. Higher increments in leukocyte and monocyte after the sauna bathing session were recorded in the group of athletes compared to untrained subjects. The obtained results indicated that sauna bathing stimulated the immune system to a higher degree in the group of athletes compared to the untrained subjects.

  12. Role of eicosanoids and white blood cells in the beneficial effects of limited reperfusion after ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.; Cambria, R.A.; Dikdan, G.; Lysz, T.W.; Hobson, R.W. II )

    1990-08-01

    Limiting the rate of reperfusion blood flow has been shown to be beneficial locally in models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of this on eicosanoids (thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and leukotriene B4), white blood cell activation, and skeletal muscle injury as quantitated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and technetium-99m pyrophosphate after ischemia-reperfusion injury in an isolated gracilis muscle model in 16 anesthetized dogs. One gracilis muscle in each dog was subjected to 6 hours of ischemia followed by 1 hour of limited reperfusion and then by a second hour of normal reperfusion. The other muscle was subjected to 6 hours of ischemia followed by 2 hours of normal reperfusion. Six dogs each were used as normal reperfusion controls (NR) and limited reperfusion controls (LR), with 5 dogs being treated with a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (LR/TSI) and another five with a leukotriene inhibitor (LR/LI). LR in all three groups (LR, LR/TSI, and LR/LI) showed a benefit in skeletal muscle injury as measured by triphenyltetrazolim chloride and technetium-99m pyrophosphate when compared with NR. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with LR regarding eicosanoid levels and white blood cell activation when compared with NR. These results demonstrate that LR produces benefits by mechanisms other than those dependent upon thromboxane A2, prostacyclin, or white blood cell activation.

  13. Two methods to adapt the human haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation algorithm to the blood of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and to determine the accuracy of pulse oximetry.

    PubMed

    Haymerle, Agnes; Knauer, Felix; Walzer, Chris

    2016-09-01

    To adapt the algorithm for the calculation of oxygen saturation to the blood characteristics of the white rhinoceros by two different methods and to determine the accuracy of conventional pulse oximetry measurements. Adaptation of two mathematical models of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC). Twenty-five captive white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), including 12 males and 13 females, aged 6-32 years. During 33 anaesthetic events, 94 arterial blood gas samples with 72 simultaneous pulse oximetry measurements were analysed. The calculation of oxygen saturation was adapted to the characteristics of rhinoceros blood using two different methods. Firstly, a mathematical model developed in 1984 and, secondly, an oxygen status algorithm (OSA) produced by the same developer in 2005 were tested for their applicability for clinical use. When arterial partial pressure of oxygen is >7.98 kPa (60 mmHg), oxygen saturation exceeds 95%. At partial pressures of 6.12-6.52 kPa (46-49 mmHg) Method 1 determined oxygen saturations of 92.5-95.3% and Method 2 oxygen saturations of 90.2-91.6%. Both methods resulted in similar ODCs and accounted for the low p50 value of rhinoceros blood. Method 1 provided better adaptation in respect to the physiological parameters of the rhinoceros, especially with regard to the Bohr effect, than Method 2. Pulse oximetry was an unreliable method of monitoring arterial oxygen saturation during general anaesthesia in this species. Adapting the oxygen saturation algorithm to consider the left shift of the ODC provides a useful tool for monitoring oxygen status, especially as pulse oximetry is insufficiently accurate. Experimental determination of the complete Hill curve is required to further validate and optimize the algorithm for use in the white rhinoceros. The method will facilitate the accurate interpretation of oxygen saturation calculated by blood gas analysis in white rhinoceros. © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American

  14. Setting Thresholds to Varying Blood Pressure Monitoring Intervals Differentially Affects Risk Estimates Associated With White-Coat and Masked Hypertension in the Population

    PubMed Central

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J.; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W.; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E.; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S.; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (P<0.0001), ranging from 1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. PMID:25135185

  15. Setting thresholds to varying blood pressure monitoring intervals differentially affects risk estimates associated with white-coat and masked hypertension in the population.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-11-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (P<0.0001), ranging from 1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study

    PubMed Central

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively

  17. White blood cell counts as risk markers of developing metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03-2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as

  18. Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Inflammatory Response in White Blood Cells Is Associated with Alterations in Senescence Mediators: Modulation by Metformin.

    PubMed

    Aljada, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Sirtuin (SirT), a family of conserved histone deacetylases and transferases, has been proposed to function in inflammatory, cancer, and metabolic diseases. However, it is unclear how SirT modulates these processes. In this study, the effect of metformin on senescence and antisenescence mediators (SirT1-7, p53, and p16(INK4a)) mRNA expression in white blood cells (WBCs) following lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced inflammation in mice was examined. C57BL/6 mice were treated with metformin in their drinking water (2 mg/mL) for 1 week followed by intraperitoneal injection of LPS from Escherichia coli serotype 0111:B4 at 2 mg/kg. Blood was collected at the basal level and 1, 2, and 3 hr after LPS injection. SirT1-7, p53, and p16(INK4a) mRNA expression in WBCs was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). SirT7 at 2 hr, SirT1 at 3 hr, and p16(INK4a) at 1 hr were inhibited significantly in WBCs following LPS injection. There were no significant changes in other SirT nor p53 mRNA expression in WBCs after LPS injection. Metformin inhibited SirT2 expression in WBCs significantly (P<0.05) and did not induce any significant changes in other SirT forms and p53, whereas it induced p16(INK4a) mRNA expression in WBCs (P<0.05) at the basal levels. Additionally, metformin treatment significantly inhibited SirT7, SirT1, and p16(INK4a) mRNA expression in WBCs at 1, 2, and 3 hr, whereas p53 was inhibited significantly at 2 hr after LPS injection. SirT7 and SirT1 are stress responsive proteins that may mediate inflammation. The data suggest that metformin may exert its potential antisenescence and anti-inflammatory effects by targeting SirT7 and SirT1 pathways. SirT7 inhibition may allow the healing process and prevention of tissue damage by enabling cells to survive through inhibition of cytokines and inflammatory mediators under severe stress conditions.

  19. Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Productive Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and White Blood Cells of Lactating Sows

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.; Seo, J.; Kim, W.; Yun, H. M.; Kim, S. C.; Jang, Y.; Jang, K.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.; Park, S.; Park, I.; Kim, M. K.; Seo, K. S.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, I. H.; Seo, S.; Song, M.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and changes in white blood cells (WBC) of lactating sows. A total of 14 sows (200±12 kg of average body weight [BW]; 2.5 of average parity) were used and moved from gestation room to farrowing room on d 109 of gestation. Sows were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were a diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE). Sows were fed the treatments for 28 days (weaning) after farrowing. Blood was collected from each sow and 4 randomly selected piglets from each sow before farrowing or on d 3, 7, or 14 of lactation. Sows were fed respective treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 15 to 21 of lactation. Fecal samples were collected daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were performances and WBC changes of sows and litter, nutrient digestibility of sows, and daily diarrhea of litter. Sows fed PKE had greater average daily feed intake (7.38 vs 7.10 kg/d; p<0.05) and lost less BW (−6.85 vs −8.54 kg; p<0.05) and backfat depth (−0.42 vs −0.71 mm; p<0.05) than those fed CON. However, there were no differences on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy and weaning to estrus interval of sows fed either CON or PKE. Piglets from sows fed PKE gained more BW (203 vs 181 g/d; p = 0.08) and had less frequency of diarrhea (6.80 vs 8.56%; p = 0.07) than those from sows fed CON. On the other hand, no difference was found on preweaning mortality of piglets from sows fed either CON or PKE. Sows fed PKE had lower number of WBC (9.57 vs 11.82 ×103/μL; p = 0.09) before farrowing than those fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. Similarly, piglets from sows fed PKE had also lower number of WBC (7.86 vs 9.80 ×103/μL; p<0.05) on d 14 of lactation than those from sows fed CON, but no

  20. [Morphometrical parameters of placenta and condition of NO-dependent mechanisms in fetuses during normal pregnancy and with damages of uteroplacental blood circulation at white rats].

    PubMed

    Nazorov, S B; Ivanova, A S; Novikov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of paper is an estimation of morphometric parameters and status of NO-dependent mechanisms of embryos placenta of white rats in normal conditions, experimental disturbance of the utero-placental circulation and after the nitric oxide donator "Deponit-10" using. The volume density of blood vessels in the placenta and placental vascular exchange area significantly increases under chronic intrauterine hypoxia. The donator of nitric oxide has a positive effect on morphometric parameters of the placenta, provides effective adaptation of feto-placental blood flow to hypoxia and could be useful for clinical practice.

  1. Usefulness of combined white blood cell count and plasma glucose for predicting in-hospital outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masaharu; Kojima, Sunao; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Asada, Yujiro; Kimura, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Shunichi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Tei, Chuwa; Hiraoka, Hisatoyo; Sonoda, Masahiro; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Shinoyama, Nobuo; Honda, Takashi; Ogata, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hisao

    2006-06-01

    Admission white blood cell (WBC) count and plasma glucose (PG) have been associated with adverse outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study investigated the joint effect of WBC count and PG on predicting in-hospital outcomes in patients with AMI. WBC count and PG were measured at the time of hospital admission in 3,665 patients with AMI. Patients were stratified into tertiles (low, medium, and high) based on WBC count and PG. Patients with a high WBC count had a 2.0-fold increase in in-hospital mortality compared with those with a low WBC count. Patients with a high PG level had a 2.7-fold increase in mortality compared with those with a low PG level. When a combination of different strata for each variable was analyzed, a stepwise increase in mortality was seen. There was a considerable number of patients with a high WBC count and low PG level or with a low WBC count and high PG level. These patients had an intermediate risk, whereas those with a high WBC count and high PG level had the highest risk, i.e., 4.8-fold increase in mortality, compared with those with a low WBC count and low PG level. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the predictor for in-hospital mortality using WBC count and PG level as continuous variables and showed that WBC count and PG level were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. These findings suggested that a simple combination of WBC count and PG level might provide further information for predicting outcomes in patients with AMI.

  2. Role of white blood cell and neutrophil counts in predicting spontaneous stone passage in patients with renal colic.

    PubMed

    Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Kavouras, Adamantios; Katafigiotis, Ioannis; Perimenis, Petros

    2012-10-01

    To determine the clinical, imaging and laboratory variables that can predict spontaneous passage of ureteral stones causing renal colic and the role of white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts for the prediction of spontaneous calculi passage. A total of 156 patients who were referred to the emergency department complaining of renal colic due to a ureteral stone entered the analysis. Several clinical, laboratory and imaging parameters were evaluated for their potential ability to predict stone passage in a time interval of 1 month. The study design had two objectives. Primarily we analyzed all patients irrespective of stone size and secondly we analyzed patients with calculi of 10 mm maximum length. Spontaneous stone passage was observed in 96 (61.5%) patients in the overall population and in 84 (65.1%) of 129 patients with calculi <10 mm. Increased concentrations of serum WBCs and neutrophils at the time of the acute phase of a renal colic were associated with increased likelihood of spontaneous passage. In the multivariate analyses we found that WBC and neutrophil counts were the most important predictors of stone elimination. Active surveillance of patients suffering from ureteral lithiasis is an acceptable option. Identifying the parameters which can predict those patients who will mostly benefit from this is of great importance. Based on our results, WBC and neutrophil counts should be considered when patients with renal colic secondary to ureteral calculi are evaluated since they can significantly add to spontaneous elimination prediction. Their consideration in addition to other important factors, like stone size and location, would maximize their predictive ability. © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  3. Simultaneous determination of CRP and D-dimer in human blood plasma samples with White Light Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Koukouvinos, Georgios; Petrou, Panagiota; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Drygiannakis, Dimitris; Raptis, Ioannis; Stefanitsis, Gerasimos; Martini, Spyridoula; Nikita, Dimitra; Goustouridis, Dimitrios; Moser, Isabella; Jobst, Gerhard; Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2016-10-15

    A dual-analyte assay for the simultaneous determination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer in human blood plasma based on a white light interference spectroscopy sensing platform is presented. Measurement is accomplished in real-time by scanning the sensing surface, on which distinct antibody areas have been created, with a reflection probe used both for illumination of the surface and collection of the reflected interference spectrum. The composition of the transducer, the sensing surface chemical activation and biofunctionalization procedures were optimized with respect to signal magnitude and repeatability. The assay format involved direct detection of CRP whereas for D-dimer a two-site immunoassay employing a biotinylated reporter antibody and reaction with streptavidin was selected. The assays were sensitive with detection limits of 25ng/mL for both analytes, precise with intra- and inter-assay CV values ranging from 3.6% to 7.7%, and from 4.8% to 9.5%, respectively, for both assays, and accurate with recovery values ranging from 88.5% to 108% for both analytes. Moreover, the values determined for the two analytes in 35 human plasma samples were in excellent agreement with those received for the same samples by standard diagnostic laboratory instrumentation employing commercial kits. The excellent agreement of the results supported the validity of the proposed system for clinical application for the detection of multiple analytes since it was demonstrated that up to seven antibody areas can be created on the sensing surface and successfully interrogated with the developed optical set-up.

  4. Office blood pressure is a predictor of aortic elastic properties and urinary protein excretion in subjects with white coat hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Masoura, Konstantina; Pietri, Panagiota; Vyssoulis, Gregory; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-15

    White coat hypertension (WCH) is related to target organ damage and increased cardiovascular risk. Arterial elastic properties and urinary protein excretion are determinants of cardiovascular performance and predictors of outcomes. We investigated whether office blood pressure (BP) is a better determinant of arterial and renal function than the ambulatory BP in WCH patients. We studied 440 consecutive untreated non-diabetic patients with WCH (office BP >140/90 mmHg, mean daytime ambulatory BP <135/85 mmHg). Arterial function was evaluated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), an index of aortic stiffness, and aortic augmentation index (AIx), a composite marker of aortic stiffness and wave reflections. In 24-hour urine, albumin excretion and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured as markers of glomerular function and urinary α1-microglobulin was measured as a marker of renal tubular function. In univariate analysis, office systolic BP correlated significantly with cfPWV (r=0.245, P<0.001), AIx (r=0.31, P<0.001), albumin (r=0.134, P=0.005), ACR (r=0.199, P<0.001) and α1-microglobulin (r=0.118, P=0.013). In contrast, mean ambulatory systolic BP did not correlate with arterial function or urinary proteins (all P>0.5). Hierarchical multilevel linear regression analysis showed that office systolic BP is an independent determinant of cfPWV (P=0.050), AIx (P=0.029), albumin (P=0.002) and ACR (P=0.001) and has a borderline association with α1-microglobulin (P=0.088). In non-diabetic WCH individuals, office systolic BP is an independent predictor of aortic elastic properties and urinary protein excretion, whereas ambulatory BP is not. This finding suggests that office BP may be a marker of cardiovascular risk in subjects with WCH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subtypes of white blood cells in patients with prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Arslan, Alaettin; Ergul, Mehmet Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the baseline white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, eosinophil count, total prostate-specific antigen (TPSA), free PSA (FPSA) level, neutrophil- to-lymphocyte and neutrophil-to-monocyte ratios among patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), as well as healthy individuals. 2005-2012 laboratory files of 160 patients with prostate cancer at Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Oncology Outpatient Clinic, 285 patients who were pathologically diagnosed with BPH in Urology Outpatient Clinic and 200 healthy individuals who were admitted to Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinic were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, eosinophil count, TPSA, FPSA level, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and neutrophil-to-monocyte ratio were recorded and compared across groups. Patients with prostate cancer had a lower lymphocyte level compared to the patients with BPH and healthy controls (p<0.001). The mean monocyte count, leukocyte-to-monocyte ratio, and leukocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio were higher in patients with prostate cancer, but without significance. The mean WBC and leukocyte count were lower in patients with prostate cancer, but again without statistical significance (p=0.130). The mean TPSA and FPSA were 39.4 and 5.67, respectively in patients with prostate cancer, while they were 5.78 and 1.28 in patients with BPH. There was a significant difference in the mean TPSA and FPSA levels between the patient groups (p<0.001). Our study results showed that patients with prostate cancer had a lower level of lymphocytes, neutrophils and WBCs and a higher level of monocytes with a significant difference in lymphocyte count, compared to healthy controls. We suggest that lymphocyte count may be used in combination with other parameters in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, thanks to its ease of assessment.

  6. Genetic Modifiers of White Blood Cell Count, Albuminuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Jonathan M.; Alvarez, Ofelia A.; Nelson, Stephen C.; Aygun, Banu; Nottage, Kerri A.; George, Alex; Roberts, Carla W.; Piccone, Connie M.; Howard, Thad A.; Davis, Barry R.; Ware, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Discovery and validation of genetic variants that influence disease severity in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) could lead to early identification of high-risk patients, better screening strategies, and intervention with targeted and preventive therapy. We hypothesized that newly identified genetic risk factors for the general African American population could also impact laboratory biomarkers known to contribute to the clinical disease expression of SCA, including variants influencing the white blood cell count and the development of albuminuria and abnormal glomerular filtration rate. We first investigated candidate genetic polymorphisms in well-characterized SCA pediatric cohorts from three prospective NHLBI-supported clinical trials: HUSTLE, SWiTCH, and TWiTCH. We also performed whole exome sequencing to identify novel genetic variants, using both a discovery and a validation cohort. Among candidate genes, DARC rs2814778 polymorphism regulating Duffy antigen expression had a clear influence with significantly increased WBC and neutrophil counts, but did not affect the maximum tolerated dose of hydroxyurea therapy. The APOL1 G1 polymorphism, an identified risk factor for non-diabetic renal disease, was associated with albuminuria. Whole exome sequencing discovered several novel variants that maintained significance in the validation cohorts, including ZFHX4 polymorphisms affecting both the leukocyte and neutrophil counts, as well as AGGF1, CYP4B1, CUBN, TOR2A, PKD1L2, and CD163 variants affecting the glomerular filtration rate. The identification of robust, reliable, and reproducible genetic markers for disease severity in SCA remains elusive, but new genetic variants provide avenues for further validation and investigation. PMID:27711207

  7. Performance evaluation of the Sysmex XE-5000 hematology analyzer for white blood cell analysis in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Perné, Andrea; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Womastek, Irene; Haushofer, Alexander; Szekeres, Thomas; Schwarzinger, Ilse

    2012-02-01

    The newest generation hematology analyzer, Sysmex XE-5000 (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan) is equipped with an improved body fluid analysis mode. To evaluate the applicability of the XE-5000 analyzer to white blood cell (WBC) analysis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A total of 425 routinely collected, consecutive CSF samples were included in the study. For a comparison of total WBC counts, the results of routine chamber counts were grouped into categories of 0 to 5 (n  =  330), >5 to 10 (n  =  36), >10 to 50 (n  =  39), >50 to 200 (n  =  15), and >200 (n  =  5) WBC/µL. Microscopic differential counts were performed using cytospins from 276 samples. Results were grouped according to the percent content of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, 0% to 25% (n  =  263), >25% to 50% (n  =  7), >50% to 75% (n  =  3), and >75% to 100% (n  =  3) of WBC. Corresponding results of XE-5000 analysis were matched to these particular count categories. For total WBC counts, the proportions of samples correctly classified by the XE-5000 from the percentage groups described above were 88%, 47%, 72%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. After the two lowest count categories were combined into one range of 0 to 10 WBC/µL, matches increased to 95%. For PMN counts in the 0% to 25% group, 37% of samples were misclassified by the XE-5000. Conversely, for samples with microscopic PMN counts of more than 25%, there was a trend toward underestimation by the XE-5000. Mismatches were most pronounced in samples with fewer than 10 WBC/µL. The Sysmex XE-5000 hematology analyzer yields valid total CSF cell counts and may be considered an acceptable alternative to the traditional chamber method, even for samples with low WBC counts. However, it cannot be recommended as a suitable alternative for manual differential cytologic workup.

  8. Elevated white blood cell count and outcome in cancer patients with venous thromboembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Iannuzzo, Mariateresa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Guijarro, Ricardo; Madridano, Olga; Monreal, Manuel

    2008-11-01

    A significant association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and mortality in patients with cancer has been reported, but the predictive value of elevated WBC on mortality in cancer patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been explored. RIETE is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with acute VTE. We compared the three-month outcome of cancer patients with acute VTE according to their WBC count at baseline. As of May 2007, 3805 patients with active cancer and acute VTE had been enrolled in RIETE. Of them, 215 (5.7%) had low- (<4,000 cells/microl), 2,403 (63%) normal- (4,000-11,000 cells/microl), 1,187 (31%) elevated (>11,000 cells/microl) WBC count. During the study period 190 patients (5.0%) had recurrent VTE, 156 (4.1%) major bleeding, 889 (23%) died (399 of disseminated cancer, 113 of PE, 46 of bleeding. Patients with elevated WBC count at baseline had an increased incidence of recurrent VTE (odds ratio [OR]: 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-2.2), major bleeding (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) or death (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 2.3-3.2). Most of the reported causes of death were significantly more frequent in patients with elevated WBC count. Multivariate analysis confirmed that elevated WBC count was independently associated with an increased incidence of all three complications. In conclusion, cancer patients with acute VTE and elevated WBC count had an increased incidence of VTE recurrences, major bleeding or death. This worse outcome was consistent among all subgroups and persisted after multivariate adjustment.

  9. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Betty J; Anousheh, Ramtin; Fan, Jing; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-10-01

    Previous work studying vegetarians has often found that they have lower blood pressure (BP). Reasons may include their lower BMI and higher intake levels of fruit and vegetables. Here we seek to extend this evidence in a geographically diverse population containing vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores. Data are analysed from a calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort who attended clinics and provided validated FFQ. Criteria were established for vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, partial vegetarian and omnivorous dietary patterns. Clinics were conducted at churches across the USA and Canada. Dietary data were gathered by mailed questionnaire. Five hundred white subjects representing the AHS-2 cohort. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that the vegan vegetarians had lower systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) than omnivorous Adventists (β = -6.8, P < 0.05 and β = -6.9, P < 0.001). Findings for lacto-ovo vegetarians (β = -9.1, P < 0.001 and β = -5.8, P < 0.001) were similar. The vegetarians (mainly the vegans) were also less likely to be using antihypertensive medications. Defining hypertension as systolic BP > 139 mmHg or diastolic BP > 89 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications, the odds ratio of hypertension compared with omnivores was 0.37 (95 % CI 0.19, 0.74), 0.57 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.92) and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.50, 1.70), respectively, for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and partial vegetarians. Effects were reduced after adjustment for BMI. We conclude from this relatively large study that vegetarians, especially vegans, with otherwise diverse characteristics but stable diets, do have lower systolic and diastolic BP and less hypertension than omnivores. This is only partly due to their lower body mass.

  10. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2)

    PubMed Central

    Pettersen, Betty J; Anousheh, Ramtin; Fan, Jing; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous work studying vegetarians has often found that they have lower blood pressure (BP). Reasons may include their lower BMI and higher intake levels of fruit and vegetables. Here we seek to extend this evidence in a geographically diverse population containing vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores. Design Data are analysed from a calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort who attended clinics and provided validated FFQ. Criteria were established for vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, partial vegetarian and omnivorous dietary patterns. Setting Clinics were conducted at churches across the USA and Canada. Dietary data were gathered by mailed questionnaire. Subjects Five hundred white subjects representing the AHS-2 cohort. Results Covariate-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that the vegan vegetarians had lower systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) than omnivorous Adventists (β =−6·8, P<0·05 and β = −6·9, P<0·001). Findings for lacto-ovo vegetarians (β = −9·1, P<0·001 and β = −5·8, P<0·001) were similar. The vegetarians (mainly the vegans) were also less likely to be using antihypertensive medications. Defining hypertension as systolic BP > 139 mmHg or diastolic BP > 89 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications, the odds ratio of hypertension compared with omnivores was 0·37 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·74), 0·57 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·92) and 0·92 (95 % CI 0·50, 1·70), respectively, for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and partial vegetarians. Effects were reduced after adjustment for BMI. Conclusions We conclude from this relatively large study that vegetarians, especially vegans, with otherwise diverse characteristics but stable diets, do have lower systolic and diastolic BP and less hypertension than omnivores. This is only partly due to their lower body mass. PMID:22230619

  11. Vibration white finger, digital blood pressure, and some biochemical findings on workers operating vibrating tools in the engine manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, M

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and laboratory investigation was carried out on 76 operators using pneumatic hand grinders and impact wrenches in the engine manufacturing industry. Twenty-two vibration-exposed workers (28.9%) had no symptoms in the hands (stage 0 of the Stockholm Workshop scale), 34 (44.7%) were affected with sensorineural disturbances in the fingers (stage SN), and 20 (26.3%) suffered from vibration white finger (VWF stages 1-2-3). In the vibration-exposed operators and in 30 comparable referents not exposed to vibration, finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured on a test finger and on a control finger after digit cooling to 30 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The results of the cold provocation test were expressed as percent change of FSP by cooling the test finger from 30 degrees C to 10 degrees C (FSP%t, 10 degrees) and as digital/brachial pressure index during local cooling at 10 degrees C (DPIt, 10 degrees). After cold provocation the mean values of FSP%t, 10 degrees and DPIt 10 degrees were more significantly reduced in the vibration-exposed workers with VWF than in those without VWF and the referents (p less than 0.001). The cold provocation test was found to differentiate between VWF subjects with stages 1-2 and stage 3 (p less than 0.02). It is concluded that the measurement of FSP combined with finger cooling is a useful laboratory test to diagnose objectively Raynaud's phenomenon of occupational origin. The vibration-exposed workers and the referents were also tested for serum levels of immunoglobulins and complement and for daily excretion of urinary free catecholamines. Between the reference and vibration groups no differences in the mean values of the immunologic parameters and urinary catecholamines were found. The meaning of these findings is discussed.

  12. In vitro effects of Ala16Val manganese superoxide dismutase gene polymorphism on human white blood cells exposed to methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Algarve, T D; Barbisan, F; Ribeiro, E E; Duarte, M M M F; Mânica-Cattani, M F; Mostardeiro, C P; Lenz, A F; da Cruz, I B M

    2013-10-29

    Environmental contamination by methylmercury (MeHg) is an enormous public health problem in world regions such as Amazonia. MeHg toxic effects seem to be influenced by environmental and genetic factors. However, few studies have evaluated the genetic influences of MeHg toxicity in humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic influence of Ala16Val manganese superoxide dismutase gene polymorphism (Ala16Val-MnSOD) on the cytotoxic effects of in vitro human leukocytes exposed to MeHg. Subjects were selected from 100 individuals aged 26.4 ± 7.3 years genotyped to Ala16Val-MnSOD polymorphism (AA = 6, VV = 6, and AV = 12) to perform in vitro testing using white blood cells (WBCs). Reactive oxygen species production was measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorimetric assay, and cell viability was measured using MTT assay on WBC samples from the same subjects that were both exposed and not exposed to MeHg (2.5 µM for 6 h). The results showed that AA- and VV-WBCs exposed to MeHg did not display increased reactive oxygen species levels compared to those in cells that were not exposed. However, AV-leukocytes exposed to MeHg displayed increased ROS levels. Cellular viability comparison among genotypes exposed to MeHg showed that the viability of AA-WBCs was lower than that of VV-WBC, with mean values of 3.46 ± 0.13 and 3.08 ± 0.77 (standard error), respectively (P = 0.033), whereas heterozygous cells (AV) displayed intermediate values. This difference was likely due to the higher basal H2O2 production of AA-WBCs compared to that of other genotypes. These results suggest that the Ala16Val-MnSOD polymorphism has toxicogenetic effects in human cells exposed to MeHg.

  13. Genetic Modifiers of White Blood Cell Count, Albuminuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Beverly A; Flanagan, Jonathan M; Alvarez, Ofelia A; Nelson, Stephen C; Aygun, Banu; Nottage, Kerri A; George, Alex; Roberts, Carla W; Piccone, Connie M; Howard, Thad A; Davis, Barry R; Ware, Russell E

    2016-01-01

    Discovery and validation of genetic variants that influence disease severity in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) could lead to early identification of high-risk patients, better screening strategies, and intervention with targeted and preventive therapy. We hypothesized that newly identified genetic risk factors for the general African American population could also impact laboratory biomarkers known to contribute to the clinical disease expression of SCA, including variants influencing the white blood cell count and the development of albuminuria and abnormal glomerular filtration rate. We first investigated candidate genetic polymorphisms in well-characterized SCA pediatric cohorts from three prospective NHLBI-supported clinical trials: HUSTLE, SWiTCH, and TWiTCH. We also performed whole exome sequencing to identify novel genetic variants, using both a discovery and a validation cohort. Among candidate genes, DARC rs2814778 polymorphism regulating Duffy antigen expression had a clear influence with significantly increased WBC and neutrophil counts, but did not affect the maximum tolerated dose of hydroxyurea therapy. The APOL1 G1 polymorphism, an identified risk factor for non-diabetic renal disease, was associated with albuminuria. Whole exome sequencing discovered several novel variants that maintained significance in the validation cohorts, including ZFHX4 polymorphisms affecting both the leukocyte and neutrophil counts, as well as AGGF1, CYP4B1, CUBN, TOR2A, PKD1L2, and CD163 variants affecting the glomerular filtration rate. The identification of robust, reliable, and reproducible genetic markers for disease severity in SCA remains elusive, but new genetic variants provide avenues for further validation and investigation.

  14. White Toenails

    MedlinePlus

    ... This would cause a black toenail. If the trauma does not cause broken blood vessels, a white spot may appear under the nail. The spot will slowly grow out with the normal growth of the ... may be caused by recurring trauma, such as when a runner wears shoes that ...

  15. High waist circumference is associated with elevated blood pressure in non-Hispanic White but not Hispanic children in a cohort of pre-adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Smith, L P; Gilstad-Hayden, K; Carroll-Scott, A; Ickovics, Jeannette

    2014-12-01

    Hispanics comprise the most rapidly growing demographic in the US, but little is known about the cardiometabolic risk factors in Hispanic children. This study examined the association of high waist circumference (WC) and elevated blood pressure by race/ethnicity in a cohort of 9 to 13 year olds in New Haven, CT (n = 824). WC, overweight status and blood pressure were measured in 2009, with follow-up in 2011. Logistic regression revealed that Hispanic children had increased likelihood of elevated blood pressure at follow-up. High baseline WC was associated with increased likelihood of elevated blood pressure for non-Hispanic White but not Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black pre-adolescents, controlling for baseline age, gender, overweight, and blood pressure. Potential racial/ethnic differences in the association between high WC and elevated blood pressure may impact identification of children at risk for elevated blood pressure, especially among Hispanics. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  16. Breeding near a landfill may influence blood metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, Zn) and metalloids (Se, As) in white stork (Ciconia ciconia) nestlings.

    PubMed

    de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Hernández-Moreno, David; Castellano, Antonio; Pérez-López, Marcos; Soler, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, zinc and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from 59 free-ranging white stork nestlings from colonies located in three different environmental conditions in Western Spain. The reference colony was situated in "Llanos de Cáceres y Sierra de Fuentes", an Area of Special Interest for Bird Protection. A second colony was located close to (4.9 km) an urban landfill and a third one was close to both an intensive agricultural area and an urban landfill (1.5 km). Blood samples were diluted and elemental analysis was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. In all cases, the essential metals zinc and iron were found at the highest mean concentrations followed by lead > selenium > mercury > arsenic > cadmium. Regarding toxic metals, the highest concentrations were found for lead (ranging from 23.27 to 146.4 µg/L) although in all cases the concentrations were lower than those considered to cause subclinical effects. The metals levels detected in the chick's blood were not related to the previously reported levels in the soil next to the colonies, which may indicate that landfills are the main source of metals in white stork nestlings. The present data showed that metal levels in white stork chicks may be influenced by the use of landfills as feeding areas by the parents. However, more studies on the metal content in the feed of white stork and the influence of the distance to the landfill are necessary to establish the causality of these findings.

  17. Influence of Metallic Indium Concentration on the Properties of Indium Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, N.

    2016-10-01

    Current-voltage characteristics of indium-embedded indium oxide thin films (600-850 Å), with Ag electrodes approximately 1000 Å thick, prepared by reactive evaporation of pure metallic indium in partial air pressure have been studied for substrate temperatures between 50 and 125°C. The optical properties of these films have also been investigated as a function of metallic indium concentration and substrate temperature. I-V characteristics of all the samples are non-ohmic, independent of metallic indium concentration. The conductivity of the films increases but the optical transmission decreases with increasing metallic indium concentration. Metallic indium concentration was found to be an important parameter affecting the film properties. Furthermore, two possible conduction mechanisms are proposed.

  18. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R.; Wang, Hongmei; Levy, Lawrence B.; Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ≥60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ≥3 or grade ≥2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/μL. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ≥3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/μL for grade ≥3 and ≥2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ≥3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4‒4.9, P=.003) and grade ≥2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ≥2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ≥3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  19. Comparison of white and red blood cell estimates in urine sediment with hemocytometer and automated counts in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Elizabeth; Burton, Shelley; Horney, Barbara; MacKenzie, Allan

    2013-03-01

    Therapeutic decisions regarding urinalysis are commonly based on the presence of white and red blood cells. Traditionally, numbers per high-power field are estimated using wet-mount microscopic examination. This technique is not standardized and counts are likely prone to inaccuracy. In addition, differentiation of leukocyte types is not possible. The aims of this study were to (1) compare WBC and RBC estimates using wet-mount examination with counts obtained using a hemocytometer, (2) assess if a hematology automated analyzer (Sysmex ST-2000iV/XT) provides reliable WBC and RBC counts in urine comparable to hemocytometer counts, and (3) evaluate air-dried Wright-Giemsa-stained urine drop sediment preparations for the determination of differential leukocyte counts. WBC and RBC counts were obtained by performing wet-mount estimates, manual hemocytometer counts, and Sysmex automated counts on 219 canine and feline urine samples. Results were correlated using Spearman rank correlation. Air-dried Wright-Giemsa stained sediment drop preparations (n = 215) were examined for differential counts of leukocytes. A low but significant association was found between WBC estimates on wet-mount examination and hemocytometer counts (rho = 0.37, P < .01). There was a high and significant association when RBC counts were compared between wet-mount and hemocytometer evaluation (rho = 0.7, P < .01). There was very high and significant interassay correlation between Sysmex data from duplicate samples for what the analyzer classified as WBC (rho = 0.97, P < .01) and RBC (rho = 0.94, P < .01). Low correlations were found between the Sysmex RBC counts and both wet-mount estimates and hemocytometer RBC counts (rho = 0.43, P < .01 and rho = 0.39, P < .01, respectively). Cell preservation in the air-dried sediment preparations was so poor that differential counts could not be performed. WBC and RBC estimates on wet-mount examination agreed with hemocytometer counts and are therefore

  20. LINE-1 hypermethylation in white blood cell DNA is associated with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Barchitta, Martina; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Maugeri, Andrea; Canto, Carolina; La Rosa, Nadia; Cantarella, Maria Antonietta; Spampinato, Giuseppa; Scalisi, Aurora; Agodi, Antonella

    2017-08-30

    Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements-1 (LINEs-1) methylation from white blood cells (WBCs) DNA has been proposed as biomarker associated with different types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the degree of WBCs LINE-1 methylation, according to high-risk Human Papilloma Virus (hrHPV) status in a healthy population, and the association with high-grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN2+) in hrHPV positive women. Women with abnormal cervical cells were enrolled and classified by histological diagnosis and hrHPV infection. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic variables and lifestyle factors. LINE-1 methylation level in WBCs was measured by pyrosequencing-based methylation analysis after bisulfite conversion. Among 252 women diagnosed with normal cervical epithelium, with regard to LINE-1 methylation level no significant difference was observed between hrHPV positive and hrHPV negative women, also adjusting for known risk factors of infection. The association between WBCs LINE-1 methylation and CIN2+ status was analyzed in hrHPV positive women. The median value of LINE-1 methylation levels was higher in cases (CIN2+) than in controls (75.00% versus 73.17%; p = 0.002). For a one-unit increase in LINE-1 methylation level, the odds of being diagnosed with CIN2+ increased by 10%, adjusting for known factors related to LINE-1 methylation (adjOR: 1.10; 95% CI:1.01-1.20; p = 0.032). The Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis identified the cut-off value of 73.8% as the best threshold to separate cases from controls (sensitivity: 63.4% and specificity: 61.8%). LINE-1 methylation status in WBCs DNA may represent a cost-effective and tissue-accessible biomarker for high-grade CIN in hrHPV positive women. However, LINE-1 hypermethylation cannot be considered specific for cervical cancer (CC) and a model based solely on LINE-1 methylation levels has limited performance. Further investigations

  1. White blood cell inflammatory markers are associated with depressive symptoms in a longitudinal study of urban adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, M A; Beydoun, H A; Dore, G A; Canas, J-A; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, M T; Evans, M K; Zonderman, A B

    2016-01-01

    Total white blood cell count (TWBCC) and percentage (%) composition of lymphocytes (PL) or neutrophils (PN) are linked to mid- and late-life depression, though sex-specific temporal relationships between those inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms remain unclear. The association between inflammation and depressive symptoms in longitudinal data on ethnically and socioeconomically diverse urban adults was examined with two hypotheses. In hypothesis 1, we examined the relationship between TWBCC, PL and PN with change in level of depressive symptoms from baseline to follow-up, stratifying by sex. In hypothesis 2, we examined reverse causality, by testing the relationship of depressive symptoms with change in TWBCC, PL and PN. Multiple linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine both the hypotheses. The sample sizes of participants (n) and repeated observations (n') were: Hypothesis 1 (n=2009; n'=3501); Hypothesis 2 (n=2081; n'=3560). Among key findings (Hypothesis 1), in women, higher TWBCC was linked to a faster increase in depressive symptom total score (γ1112±s.e.: +0.81±0.28, P=0.003), with a slower increase over time in the positive affect subdomain coupled with faster increases in depressed affect and somatic complaints. Among women, baseline score on somatic complaints was positively associated with low PN (γ01a=+1.61±0.48, P<0.001) and high PL (γ01a=+1.16±0.45, P=0.011), whereas baseline score on positive affect was inversely related to higher PL (γ01a=−0.69±0.28, P=0.017). Results among men indicated that there was a positive cross-sectional relationship between low TWBCC and depressive symptoms, depressed affect and an inverse cross-sectional relationship with positive affect. However, over time, a low TWBCC in men was linked to a higher score on positive affect. There was no evidence of a bi-directional relationship between WBC parameters and depressive symptoms (Hypothesis 2). In sum, TWBCC and related markers were

  2. Process for Patterning Indium for Bump Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denis, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    An innovation was created for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor for integration of low-temperature detector chips with a silicon backshort and a silicon photonic choke through flipchip bonding. Indium bumps are typically patterned using liftoff processes, which require thick resist. In some applications, it is necessary to locate the bumps close to high-aspect-ratio structures such as wafer through-holes. In those cases, liftoff processes are challenging, and require complicated and time-consuming spray coating technology if the high-aspect-ratio structures are delineated prior to the indium bump process. Alternatively, processing the indium bumps first is limited by compatibility of the indium with subsequent processing. The present invention allows for locating bumps arbitrarily close to multiple-level high-aspect-ratio structures, and for indium bumps to be formed without liftoff resist. The process uses the poor step coverage of indium deposited on a silicon wafer that has been previously etched to delineate the location of the indium bumps. The silicon pattern can be processed through standard lithography prior to adding the high-aspect-ratio structures. Typically, high-aspectratio structures require a thick resist layer so this layer can easily cover the silicon topography. For multiple levels of topography, the silicon can be easily conformally coated through standard processes. A blanket layer of indium is then deposited onto the full wafer; bump bonding only occurs at the high points of the topography.

  3. Difference in blood pressure response to ACE-Inhibitor monotherapy between black and white adults with arterial hypertension: a meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among African-Americans adults, arterial hypertension is both more prevalent and associated with more complications than among white adults. Hypertension is also epidemic among black adults in sub-Saharan Africa. The treatment of hypertension among black adults may be complicated by lesser response to certain classes of anti-hypertensive agents. Methods We systematically searched literature for clinical trials of ACE-inhibitors among hypertensive adults comparing blood pressure response between whites and blacks. Meta-analysis was performed to determine the difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure response. Further analysis including meta-regressions, funnel plots, and one-study-removed analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of heterogeneity or bias. Results In a meta-analysis of 13 trials providing 17 different patient groups for evaluation, black race was associated with a lesser reduction in systolic (mean difference: 4.6 mmHg (95% CI 3.5-5.7)) and diastolic (mean difference: 2.8 mmHg (95% CI 2.2-3.5)) blood pressure response to ACE-inhibitors, with little heterogeneity. Meta-regression revealed only ACE-inhibitor dosage as a significant source of heterogeneity. There was little evidence of publication bias. Conclusions Black race is consistently associated with a clinically significant lesser reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure to ACE-inhibitor therapy in clinical trials in the USA and Europe. In black adults requiring monotherapy for uncomplicated hypertension, drugs other than ACE-inhibitors may be preferred, though the proven benefits of ACE-inhibitors in some sub-groups and the large overlap of response between blacks and whites must be remembered. These data are particularly important for interpretation of clinical drug trials for hypertensive black adults in sub-Saharan Africa and for the development of treatment recommendations in this population. PMID:24067062

  4. Difference in blood pressure response to ACE-Inhibitor monotherapy between black and white adults with arterial hypertension: a meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Peck, Robert N; Smart, Luke R; Beier, Rita; Liwa, Anthony C; Grosskurth, Heiner; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Schmidt, Bernhard M W

    2013-09-26

    Among African-Americans adults, arterial hypertension is both more prevalent and associated with more complications than among white adults. Hypertension is also epidemic among black adults in sub-Saharan Africa. The treatment of hypertension among black adults may be complicated by lesser response to certain classes of anti-hypertensive agents. We systematically searched literature for clinical trials of ACE-inhibitors among hypertensive adults comparing blood pressure response between whites and blacks. Meta-analysis was performed to determine the difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure response. Further analysis including meta-regressions, funnel plots, and one-study-removed analyses were performed to investigate possible sources of heterogeneity or bias. In a meta-analysis of 13 trials providing 17 different patient groups for evaluation, black race was associated with a lesser reduction in systolic (mean difference: 4.6 mmHg (95% CI 3.5-5.7)) and diastolic (mean difference: 2.8 mmHg (95% CI 2.2-3.5)) blood pressure response to ACE-inhibitors, with little heterogeneity. Meta-regression revealed only ACE-inhibitor dosage as a significant source of heterogeneity. There was little evidence of publication bias. Black race is consistently associated with a clinically significant lesser reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure to ACE-inhibitor therapy in clinical trials in the USA and Europe. In black adults requiring monotherapy for uncomplicated hypertension, drugs other than ACE-inhibitors may be preferred, though the proven benefits of ACE-inhibitors in some sub-groups and the large overlap of response between blacks and whites must be remembered. These data are particularly important for interpretation of clinical drug trials for hypertensive black adults in sub-Saharan Africa and for the development of treatment recommendations in this population.

  5. The ameliorative effects of exercise on cognitive impairment and white matter injury from blood-brain barrier disruption induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Song, Min Kyung; Oh, Yoo Joung; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Youn-Jung

    2017-01-18

    Vascular dementia is the progressive change in blood vessels that leads to neuronal injuries in vulnerable areas induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). CCH induces disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), and this BBB disruption can initiate the cognitive impairment and white matter injury. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the cognitive impairment, white matter injury, and BBB disruption induced by CCH. Vascular dementia was induced by permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) in rats. The rats in the exercise group were made to run on a treadmill for 30min once a day for 14 weeks, starting 4 weeks after birth. Our results revealed that treadmill exercise group was alleviated the cognitive impairment and myelin degradation induced by CCH. The disruption of BBB after CCH indicates degradation of occludin, zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Treadmill exercise may provide protective effects on BBB disruption from degradation of occludin, ZO-1, and overexpression of MMP-9 after CCH. These findings suggest that treadmill exercise ameliorates cognitive impairment and white matter injury from BBB disruption induced by CCH in rats. The present study will be valuable for means of prophylactic and therapeutic intervention for patients with CCH.

  6. Differing associations between Aβ accumulation, hypoperfusion, blood-brain barrier dysfunction and loss of PDGFRB pericyte marker in the precuneus and parietal white matter in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Miners, J Scott; Schulz, Isabel; Love, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies implicate loss of pericytes in hypoperfusion and blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we have measured levels of the pericyte marker, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRB), and fibrinogen (to assess blood-brain barrier leakage), and analyzed their relationship to indicators of microvessel density (von Willebrand factor level), ante-mortem oxygenation (myelin-associated glycoprotein:proteolipid protein-1 ratio and vascular endothelial growth factor level), Aβ level and plaque load, in precuneus and underlying white matter from 49 AD to 37 control brains. There was reduction in PDGFRB and increased fibrinogen in the precuneus in AD. These changes correlated with reduction in oxygenation and with plaque load. In the underlying white matter, increased fibrinogen correlated with reduced oxygenation, but PDGFRB level was unchanged. The level of platelet-derived growth factor-ββ (PDGF-BB), important for pericyte maintenance, was increased in AD but mainly in the insoluble tissue fraction, correlating with insoluble Aβ level. Loss of the PDGFRB within the precuneus in AD is associated with fibrinogen leakage and reduced oxygenation, and related to fibrillar Aβ accumulation. In contrast, fibrinogen leakage and reduced oxygenation of underlying white matter occur independently of loss of PDGFRB, perhaps secondary to reduced transcortical perfusion.

  7. The effect of ex vivo CDDO-Me activation on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway in white blood cells from patients with septic shock.

    PubMed

    Noel, Sanjeev; Zheng, Laura; Navas-Acien, Ana; Fuchs, Ralph J

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) has been shown to protect against experimental sepsis in mice and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in ex vivo white blood cells from healthy subjects by upregulating cellular antioxidant genes. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that ex vivo methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) activates NRF2-regulated antioxidant genes in white blood cells from patients with septic shock and protects against LPS-induced inflammation and reactive oxidative species production. Peripheral blood was collected from 18 patients with septic shock who were being treated in medical and surgical intensive care units. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression of NRF2 target genes (NQO1, HO-1, GCLM, and FTL) and IL-6 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, and neutrophils after CDDO-Me treatment alone or after subsequent LPS exposure. Superoxide anion (O2) was measured to assess the effect of CDDO-Me pretreatment on subsequent LPS exposure. Treatment with CDDO-Me increased the gene expression of NQO1 (P = 0.04) and decreased the expression of HO-1 (P = 0.03) in PBMCs from patients with septic shock. Purified monocytes exhibited significant increases in the expression of NQO1 (P = 0.01) and GCLM (P = 0.003) after CDDO-Me treatment. Levels of other NRF2 target genes (HO-1 and FTL) remained similar to those of vehicle-treated cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a trend toward increased IL-6 gene expression after CDDO-Me treatment, whereas purified monocytes showed a trend toward decreased IL-6. There was no discernible trend in the IL-6 expression subsequent to LPS treatment in either vehicle-treated or CDDO-Me-treated PBMCs and monocytes. Treatment with CDDO-Me significantly increased O2 production in PBMCs (P = 0.04). Although CDDO-Me pretreatment significantly attenuated O2 production to subsequent LPS exposure (P = 0.03), the

  8. Relationship between low blood lead levels and growth in children of white-collar civil servants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Rokho; Kim, Ho; Paek, Domyung

    2008-03-01

    The study examined the relationship between low blood lead levels and the physical growth of children in Seoul, Korea. Data were collected from 108 children (62 boys, 46 girls) aged 5-13 years, and the mean of the blood lead levels was 2.4microg/100ml (SD=0.7). The data analyzed included the blood lead levels, height, total arm length, weight, body mass index (BMI), and father's level of education. We used four multiple linear regression models with height, total arm length, weight, and BMI as the dependent variables, and age, sex, father's level of education, and blood lead levels as independent variables. In the multiple linear regression analysis, we found statistically significant, negative associations of height (p<0.02) and total arm length (p<0.01) with blood lead levels, but no association between blood lead or weight and BMI. Our study suggests that low blood lead levels specifically influence children's physical growth.

  9. Association between Resting Heart Rate and Inflammatory Markers (White Blood Cell Count and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein) in Healthy Korean People.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo-Chul; Seo, Inho; Kim, Shin-Hye; Lee, Yong-Jae; Ahn, Song Vogue

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is an important underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and an elevated resting heart rate underlies the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation. We hypothesized an association between resting heart rate and subclinical inflammation. Resting heart rate was recorded at baseline in the KoGES-ARIRANG (Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population) cohort study, and was then divided into quartiles. Subclinical inflammation was measured by white blood cell count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. We used progressively adjusted regression models with terms for muscle mass, body fat proportion, and adiponectin in the fully adjusted models. We examined inflammatory markers as both continuous and categorical variables, using the clinical cut point of the highest quartile of white blood cell count (≥7,900/mm(3)) and ≥3 mg/dL for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Participants had a mean age of 56.3±8.1 years and a mean resting heart rate of 71.4±10.7 beats/min; 39.1% were men. In a fully adjusted model, an increased resting heart rate was significantly associated with a higher white blood cell count and higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in both continuous (P for trend <0.001) and categorical (P for trend <0.001) models. An increased resting heart rate is associated with a higher level of subclinical inflammation among healthy Korean people.

  10. Triggering of DNA strand breaks by 45/sup 0/C hyperthermia and its influence on the repair of. gamma. -radiation damage in human white blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Birnboim, H.C.

    1985-05-01

    Human peripheral white blood cells, freshly isolated from normal individual donors, were exposed to hyperthermia. Heat-generated DNA strand break damage and white blood cell capacity to repair radiation-induced breaks were determined by a fluorometric alkaline unwinding assay. Strand breaks could be readily detected when white blood cells were incubated in a physiological salt solution at temperatures between 41/sup 0/ and 46/sup 0/C, for times up to 90 min. The time course of strand break induction at 45/sup 0/C was characterized by a short initial lag, followed by a period of rapid break induction and subsequently a lower rate. Evidence is presented which suggests that the induction of DNA damage involved a triggering mechanism; a short treatment at 45/sup 0/C (10 to 20 min) initiated a cellular event which led to a rapid increase in the number of stand breaks during subsequent incubation of 37/sup 0/C. Continuous incubation at 45/sup 0/C produced less DNA damage than an initial period at 45/sup 0/C followed by incubation at 37/sup 0/C. This apparent triggering phenomenon was not due to a triggering of the respiratory burst in phagocytic cells, since no O/sub 2//sup -/ could be detected; in fact, a 30-min treatment at 45/sup 0/C largely blocked the capacity of the cells to respond normally to a soluble stimulator of the respiratory burst. Unlike ..gamma..-ray-induced breaks, 45/sup 0/C hyperthermia-induced breaks did not rejoin during subsequent incubation for up to 1 h at 37/sup 0/C. Additionally, 45/sup 0/C hyperthermia treatment progressively inhibited the ability of the cells to repair subsequent ..gamma..-ray-induced breaks (4 Gy). 17 references, 1 table.

  11. Triggering of DNA strand breaks by 45 degrees C hyperthermia and its influence on the repair of gamma-radiation damage in human white blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchel, R.E.; Birnboim, H.C.

    1985-05-01

    Human peripheral white blood cells, freshly isolated from normal individual donors, were exposed to hyperthermia. Heat-generated DNA strand break damage and white blood cell capacity to repair radiation-induced breaks were determined by a fluorometric alkaline unwinding assay. Strand breaks could be readily detected when white blood cells were incubated in a physiological salt solution at temperatures between 41 degrees and 46 degrees C, for times up to 90 min. The time course of strand break induction at 45 degrees C was characterized by a short initial lag, followed by a period of rapid break induction and subsequently a lower rate. Evidence is presented which suggests that the induction of DNA damage involved a triggering mechanism; a short treatment at 45 degrees C (10 to 20 min) initiated a cellular event which led to a rapid increase in the number of strand breaks during subsequent incubation of 37 degrees C. Continuous incubation at 45 degrees C produced less DNA damage than an initial period at 45 degrees C followed by incubation at 37 degrees C. This apparent triggering phenomenon was not due to a triggering of the respiratory burst in phagocytic cells, since no O/sub 2/- could be detected; in fact, a 30-min treatment at 45 degrees C largely blocked the capacity of the cells to respond normally to a soluble stimulator of the respiratory burst. Unlike gamma-ray-induced breaks, 45 degrees C hyperthermia-induced breaks did not rejoin during subsequent incubation for up to 1 h at 37 degrees C.

  12. Performance evaluation of the Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer in assessment of the white blood cell count differential in pediatric specimens.

    PubMed

    Becker, P-H; Fenneteau, O; Da Costa, L

    2016-02-01

    The automated XN-1000 hematology analyzer enables to perform a blood cell count and a leukocyte differential. When abnormal cells were detected, a flag was generated by the analyzer and a manual microscopic examination of the corresponding blood film was performed. We compared the white blood cell differentials provided by the automated hematology analyzer XN-1000 in a pediatric population (n = 765) with those obtained through microscopic examination by cytologists and those obtained using a previous version of this analyzer, the XE-2100. Leukocytes count as well as flags sensitivity and specificity was analyzed. The leukocytes count provided by the analyzer is in good accordance with the differential obtained by manual count in children older than 3 months. The sensitivity for blast detection is 99% and the detection of reactive cells is 63%. The flag specificity remains low (<35%) for blood samples collected from infants between 8 days and 2 years of age, but increases up to 67% thereafter. The results obtained with the XN-1000 analyzer show an improvement in comparison with those obtained with the XE-2100 analyzer. The automated WBC differential provided by the XN-1000 analyzer in the pediatric setting is accurate, but a meticulous microscopic examination of blood smears remains necessary for infants up to 3 months of age to validate the analyzer flags. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Low local blood perfusion, high white blood cell and high platelet count are associated with primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer metastasis model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Chen, Ying-Ge; Gao, Jian-Li; Lyu, Gui-Yuan; Su, Jie; Zhang, Q I; Ji, Xin; Yan, Ji-Zhong; Qiu, Qiao-Li; Zhang, Yue-Li; Li, Lin-Zi; Xu, Han-Ting; Chen, Su-Hong

    2015-08-01

    It was originally thought that no single routine blood test result would be able to indicate whether or not a patient had cancer; however, several novel studies have indicated that the median survival and prognosis of cancer patients were markedly associated with the systemic circulation features of cancer patients. In addition, certain parameters, such as white blood cell (WBC) count, were largely altered in malignant tumors. In the present study, routine blood tests were performed in order to observe the change of blood cells in tumor-bearing mice following the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into the mammary fat pad; in addition, blood flow in breast tumor sites was measured indirectly using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), in an attempt to explain the relevance between the blood circulation features and the growth or metastasis of breast cancer in mice model. The LDPI and blood test results indicated that the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into BALB/c mice led to thrombosis as well as high WBC count, high platelet count, high plateletcrit and low blood perfusion. Following implantation of the 4T1 cells for four weeks, the lung metastatic number was determined and the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that the number of visceral lung metastatic sites had a marked negative association with the ratio of basophils (BASO%; r=-0.512; P<0.01) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin was significantly correlated with primary tumor weight (r=0.425; P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that tumor growth led to thrombosis and acute anemia in mice; in addition, when blood BASO% was low, an increased number of lung metastases were observed in tumor-bearing mice.

  14. [Characterization of the latent periods of excitation and shortening of anterior tibial muscle of white rats depending on the blood level of triiodothyronine].

    PubMed

    Stanishevs'ka, T I; Soboliev, V I

    2012-01-01

    In experiments in situ it was shown an expressed negative correlation between the duration of latent periods of excitation and contraction of the anterior tibial muscle of white rats and the blood level of free triiodothyronine. The difference in mean values of latent periods at starting and final points of scale of physiological fluctuations of triiodothyronine level amounted 15.5% and 37.0% respectively. In parallel with lengthening of latent period of anterior tibial muscle excitation it was found an increase in latent period of this muscle contraction. Interestingly, at high values of the latent periods of excitation such dependence disappeared.

  15. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  16. Evaluation of Blood Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium Bovis in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) in Michigan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surveillance and control activities for bovine tuberculosis (TB) in free-ranging Michigan white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been underway for over a decade, with significant progress. However, foci of higher TB prevalence on private land, and limited agency ability to eliminate them ...

  17. Effects of sea squirt (Halocynthia roretzi) lipids on white adipose tissue weight and blood glucose in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Nana; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Lipids extracted from Halocynthia roretzi contain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, as well as carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of H. roretzi lipids on white adipose tissue (WAT) weight and high blood glucose levels in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice. H. roretzi lipids were fed to the diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice for 5 weeks. In the mice treated with the H. roretzi lipids compared to control mice, WAT weight was reduced, blood glucose levels and leptin mRNA expression in the epididymal WAT were significantly decreased, serum leptin levels also tended to decrease, and serum adiponectin levels tended to increase. These results demonstrate that H. roretzi lipids have beneficial health effects on diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice.

  18. Indium-111 WBC detection of emphysematous gastritis in pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Caruana, V.; Swayne, L.C.; Salaki, J.S. )

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of emphysematous gastritis initially detected with 111In oxine-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy and subsequently confirmed by computed tomography. Early aggressive antibiotic and supportive therapy resulted in a successful clinical outcome.

  19. THE RHYTHMIC RANGE OF THE WHITE BLOOD CELLS IN HUMAN, PATHOLOGICAL LEUCOPENIC AND LEUCOCYTIC STATES, WITH A STUDY OF THIRTY-TWO HUMAN BONE MARROWS

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Charles A.; Zerfas, Leon G.

    1927-01-01

    In a study of twenty clinical cases with a wide range of diagnoses, repeated total counts of the white cells at 15 minute intervals reveal a large fluctuation at various levels comparable to that found for the normal (1, 2). The granulocytes seem to follow a more or less hourly rhythm, the most marked shift to the left in the Ameth pattern and the moment of greatest percentage of motility coinciding with the peaks. The independence found existing between the peripheral blood concentrations of individual strains of white cells and the red cells, as determined by total and differential counts, their differential response to pathological and pharmacological stimuli, and their normal relative relations, all indicate some separate physiological mechanism of control for each type of cell, either working through, or independently of, their sources of origin. The many factors to which the circulation of the blood, as such, is subject, the complexity of the influences on origin, maturation, delivery, longevity, and destruction of each cell group, the limitations inherent in the present involved, indirect technics of counting, combine to make any single observation subject to grave misinterpretation. The value to the clinician must come in repeated observations, at times when the diagnosis or a therapeutic procedure is in doubt, at frequent intervals, at other times over longer or shorter periods, but always with the relation between consecutive counts, rather than the absolute values, the important point for consideration. Both the red and the white cells probably change their relative concentrations in the peripheral blood from time to time over a considerable range that is quite within normal physiological limits, so that, in theoretical considerations and in practical functional estimations, a zonal concept with adequate individual extremes should always be kept in mind for both physiological and pathological states. A cytological analysis of thirty-two bone marrows from

  20. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on New Zealand White Rabbits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  1. Salivary gland thrombostasin isoforms differentilally regulate blood uptake of horn flies fed on New Zealand white rabbits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  2. Effect of modest salt reduction on blood pressure, urinary albumin, and pulse wave velocity in white, black, and Asian mild hypertensives.

    PubMed

    He, Feng J; Marciniak, Maciej; Visagie, Elisabeth; Markandu, Nirmala D; Anand, Vidya; Dalton, R Neil; MacGregor, Graham A

    2009-09-01

    A reduction in salt intake lowers blood pressure. However, most previous trials were in whites with few in blacks and Asians. Salt reduction may also reduce other cardiovascular risk factors (eg, urinary albumin excretion, arterial stiffness). However, few well-controlled trials have studied these effects. We carried out a randomized double-blind crossover trial of salt restriction with slow sodium or placebo, each for 6 weeks, in 71 whites, 69 blacks, and 29 Asians with untreated mildly raised blood pressure. From slow sodium to placebo, urinary sodium was reduced from 165+/-58 (+/-SD) to 110+/-49 mmol/24 hours (9.7 to 6.5 g/d salt). With this reduction in salt intake, there was a significant decrease in blood pressure from 146+/-13/91+/-8 to 141+/-12/88+/-9 mm Hg (P<0.001), urinary albumin from 10.2 (IQR: 6.8 to 18.9) to 9.1 (6.6 to 14.0) mg/24 hours (P<0.001), albumin/creatinine ratio from 0.81 (0.47 to 1.43) to 0.66 (0.44 to 1.22) mg/mmol (P<0.001), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity from 11.5+/-2.3 to 11.1+/-1.9 m/s (P<0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that the reductions in blood pressure and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were significant in all groups, and the decrease in pulse wave velocity was significant in blacks only. These results demonstrate that a modest reduction in salt intake, approximately the amount of the current public health recommendations, causes significant falls in blood pressure in all 3 ethnic groups. Furthermore, it reduces urinary albumin and improves large artery compliance. Although both could be attributable to the falls in blood pressure, they may carry additional benefits on reducing cardiovascular disease above that obtained from the blood pressure falls alone.

  3. Studies on the Toxicity and Distribution of Indium Compounds According to Particle Size in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong-Hee; Cho, Hae-Won; Kang, Mingu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The use of indium compounds, especially those of small size, for the production of semiconductors, liquid-crystal panels, etc., has increased recently. However, the role of particle size or the chemical composition of indium compounds in their toxicity and distribution in the body has not been sufficiently investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of particle size and the chemical composition of indium compounds on their toxicity and distribution. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to two different-sized indium oxides (average particle sizes under 4,000 nm [IO_4000] and 100 nm [IO_100]) and one nano-sized indium-tin oxide (ITO; average particle size less than 50 nm) by inhalation for 6 hr daily, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks at approximately 1 mg/m3 of indium by mass concentration. Results: We observed differences in lung weights and histopathological findings, differential cell counts, and cell damage indicators in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid between the normal control group and IO- or ITO-exposed groups. However, only ITO affected respiratory functions in exposed rats. Overall, the toxicity of ITO was much higher than that of IOs; the toxicity of IO_4000 was higher than that of IO_100. A 4-week recovery period was not sufficient to alleviate the toxic effects of IO and ITO exposure. Inhaled indium was mainly deposited in the lungs. ITO in the lungs was removed more slowly than IOs; IO_4000 was removed faster than IO_100. IOs were not distributed to other organs (i.e., the brain, liver, and spleen), whereas ITO was. Concentrations of indium in the blood and organ tissues were higher at 4 weeks after exposure. Conclusions: The effect of particle size on the toxicity of indium compounds was not clear, whereas chemical composition clearly affected toxicity; ITO showed much higher toxicity than that of IO. PMID:24795801

  4. Mineral resource of the month: indium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Geologically, the occurrence of indium minerals is rare. The element most often occurs as a sulfide inclusion or substitutes in other base-metal minerals, including cassiterite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and stannite. Indium’s abundance in the crust is estimated to be 0.05 parts per million, which makes it more abundant than silver, but it is so widely disseminated that it does not occur in high enough concentrations to form mineable deposits. Therefore, indium is most often recovered from byproduct residues produced during the refining of lead and zinc. But only about one-quarter of the indium mined worldwide is refined into metal, as many indium-bearing concentrates are sent to refineries that do not have the capability of recovering the metal.

  5. Comparison of indium 111-labeled platelets v leukocytes in a pyogenic abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.P.; Sugerman, H.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Hirsch, J.I.; Sharp, D.E.; Qureshi, G.D.

    1985-02-01

    This study sought to determine which blood component, WBCs or platelets, is the more specific indicator of an abscess and where each localizes. An abscess was created using stool in the hind limb of dogs. After 24 hours, one group was given autologous indium 111-labeled platelets and another group was given autologous indium 111-labeled WBCs. Blood, abscess fluid, infected operative control muscle tissue, and nonoperative control muscle tissue were counted for radioactivity 24 hours after administration of the labeled cells. There was significantly less WBC radioactivity in blood and more within abscess fluid compared with platelets. The highest platelet activity occurred in muscle tissue adjacent to the abscess compared with platelet activity in abscess fluid or control muscle tissue. The unwanted high platelet blood background activity and the desirable high concentration of WBC radioactivity within the abscess fluid makes the latter the preferential radionuclide imaging agent.

  6. Long-term effects of bleached kraft mill effluents on red and white blood cell status, ion balance, and vertebral structure in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Haerdig, J.A.; Andersson, T.; Bengtsson, B.E.; Foerlin, L.L.; Larsson, A.

    1988-02-01

    In a laboratory investigation fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) were exposed for 5-9 months to wastewater from pine and birch lines from a bleached kraft pulp plant. This long-term exposure to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) affected the hematology, the ion balance, and the vertebral structure. Decreased values for hematocrit and hemoglobin and a reduced red blood cell count, as well as increased levels of methemoglobin, indicated disturbances in the red blood cell status. The white blood cell picture was not significantly affected by the BKME exposure. Decreased levels of potassium and chloride ions in the blood plasma in some of the exposed fish suggest an impaired ability to maintain ion homeostasis. Elevated frequencies of vertebral deformations in fish exposed to BKME confirm previous observations of vertebral damage in feral fourhorn sculpin caught in the receiving body of water of the same bleached kraft pulp industry. Many of the parameters analyzed in this investigation may be used as health indicators in future laboratory and field studies on fish exposed to BKME.

  7. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J. C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel for endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (≤ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important.

  8. Indium Single-Ion Frequency Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagourney, Warren

    2001-01-01

    A single laser-cooled indium ion is a promising candidate for an ultimate resolution optical time or frequency standard. It can be shown that single ions from group IIIA of the periodic table (indium, thallium, etc.) can have extremely small systematic errors. In addition to being free from Doppler, transit-time and collisional shifts, these ions are also quite insensitive to perturbations from ambient magnetic and electric fields (mainly due to the use of a J=0-0 transition for spectroscopy). Of all group IIIA ions, indium seems to be the most practical, since it is heavy enough to have a tolerable intercombination cooling transition rate and (unlike thallium) has transitions which are easily accessible with frequency multiplied continuous-wave lasers. A single indium ion standard has a potential inaccuracy of one part in 10(exp 18) for integration times of 10(exp 6) seconds. We have made substantial progress during the grant period in constructing a frequency standard based upon a single indium ion. At the beginning of the grant period, single indium ions were being successfully trapped, but the lasers and optical systems were inadequate to achieve the desired goal. We have considerably improved the stability of the dye laser used to cool the ions and locked it to a molecular resonance line, making it possible to observe stable cooling-line fluorescence from a single indium ion for reasonable periods of time, as required by the demands of precision spectroscopy. We have substantially improved the single-ion fluorescence signal with significant benefits for the detection efficiency of forbidden transitions using the 'shelving' technique. Finally, we have constructed a compact, efficient UV 'clock' laser and observed 'clock' transitions in single indium ions using this laser system. We will elaborate on these accomplishments.

  9. Concentrations of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections: Gram-negative bacilli vs coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Kordek, A

    2011-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether concentrations of procalcitonin in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections depend on the type of pathogen. Qualification for the study group was based on the clinical signs of infection. We found that infections with Gram-positive (chiefly coagulase-negative staphylococci) and Gram-negative bacteria are accompanied by elevated concentrations of procalcitonin. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, other laboratory signs of infection studied by us (concentration of C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, immature-to-total neutrophil ratio) were not discriminatory, confirming the diagnostic usefulness of procalcitonin measurements in nosocomial infections of the neonate with Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria.

  10. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow. ... the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced by new cells. Blood also contains important proteins called clotting factors , ...

  11. Melatonin Restores White Blood Cell Count, Diminishes Glycated Haemoglobin Level and Prevents Liver, Kidney and Muscle Oxidative Stress in Mice Exposed to Acute Ethanol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kurhaluk, Natalia; Sliuta, Alina; Kyriienko, Svitlana; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of melatonin impact on changes in haematological profile, biomarkers of oxidative stress (dienes conjugates, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidatively modified protein levels, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity) in liver, muscle, kidney and erythrocytes, and glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c) in mice during acute ethanol stress. Assays were carried out in quadruplicate: control, melatonin (10 mg/kg, 10 days), acute ethanol stress (0.75 g/kg/day, 10 days) and acute ethanol stress plus melatonin groups. Acute ethanol stress caused a significant increase in the total number of white blood cells (WBC), especially neutrophils in the blood, and HBA1c levels vs. control mice. The correlation between lipid peroxidation and the glycated haemoglobin level was shown (r = 0.93, P = 0.007). Ethanol reduced the antioxidant capacity by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the level of oxidatively modified protein content, diene conjugates and MDA. Melatonin administration in animals during acute ethanol stress reduced antioxidant stress biomarkers, WBC, HBA1c levels and ROS production. Melatonin had protective effects on liver, kidney and muscle tissues by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes in initial (diene conjugation production) and late stages (MDA level), and significantly reduced the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives. Furthermore, melatonin restored elevated WBC count and HBA1c level and diminished ROS production. Ethanol reduces antioxidant capacity and leads to exaggerated reactive oxygen species production and consequent increases in oxidatively modified proteins. Melatonin exerts protective effects by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes. Melatonin significantly reduces the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives, restores glycated haemoglobin level and white blood cell count.

  12. Blood pressure effects of high-dose amlodipine-benazepril combination in Black and White hypertensive patients not controlled on monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2012-06-01

    Black hypertensive patients are more resistant to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor monotherapy than White patients. This resistance can be overcome with the combination of ACE inhibitors with diuretics or calcium-channel blockers (CCBs). The objective of this clinical investigation was to evaluate the antihypertensive effectiveness of monotherapy with the ACE inhibitor benazepril or the CCB amlodipine and their combination in Black and White hypertensive patients in two separate studies. This was a post hoc analysis of data from two separate studies, pooled because of their similarities, to increase the sample size. Outpatient Black and White hypertensive patients were selected for these studies. In study H2303, 201 patients of both sexes and races, whose mean seated diastolic blood pressure (MSDBP) was ≥95 mmHg after 4 weeks of single-blind treatment with benazepril 40 mg/day, were randomized into two groups. Group 1 received benazepril 40 mg/day and group 2 received amlodipine/benazepril 5/40 mg/day, which was uptitrated to amlodipine/benazepril 10/40 mg/day at week 4 of the study. In study H2304, 812 similar patients, whose MSDBP was ≥95 mmHg after 4 weeks of single-blind treatment with amlodipine 10 mg/day, were randomized into three groups. Group 1 received amlodipine/benazepril 10/20 mg/day, uptitrated to amlodipine/benazepril 10/40 mg/day after 2 weeks. Group 2 received amlodipine/benazepril 10/20 mg/day. Group 3 received amlodipine 10 mg/day. All three groups were followed up for 6 additional weeks. This report presents the results of post hoc analysis of pooled data from two separate but similar studies. Combination therapy resulted in greater lowering of MSDBP and mean seated systolic blood pressure (MSSBP) than monotherapy with either benazepril or amlodipine (p < 0.001). With respect to combination therapy, the combination of amlodipine/benazepril 10/20 mg/day resulted in greater blood pressure (BP

  13. A Mixed-Methods Study on Acceptability, Tolerability, and Substitution of Brown Rice for White Rice to Lower Blood Glucose Levels among Nigerian Adults.

    PubMed

    Adebamowo, Sally N; Eseyin, Olabimpe; Yilme, Susan; Adeyemi, David; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Adebamowo, Clement A

    2017-01-01

    Whole-grain products such as brown rice have been associated with lower risk of metabolic disorders including diabetes. We examined the acceptability and tolerability of substituting brown rice for white rice and the feasibility of introducing brown rice into the diet through a long-term trial to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Fifty-one adults residing in Abuja, Nigeria, participated in this study. Using purposeful sampling for focus group discussions (FGDs), participants were enrolled based on their age (19-25 vs. 40-60 years) and body mass index (BMI) (normal weight vs. overweight/obese). Participants tasted four meals with different constitution of brown and white rice (25:75%, 50:50%, 75:25%, and 100% brown rice). Twelve FGDs were conducted, six before and six after the food tasting. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was measured after consumption of each rice meal. The mean age of the participants was 39 (±14) years, their mean BMI was 25.6 (±5.2) and about half of them were male. Most of the participants (61%) reported that rice was their main source of carbohydrate and 67% consumed rice at least five times/week. Before the food tasting, participants considered white polished rice superior to brown rice with regard to quality, taste, and nutritional value. After the food tasting, most of the participants (49%) indicated a preference for the 100% brown rice, 19% preferred the 25% brown rice, 18% preferred the 50% brown rice, and 7% preferred the 75% brown rice meals. Factors that may affect the acceptability of brown rice include its appearance, longer cooking time, cost, limited availability, and poor appreciation of its nutritional value. In general, 2-h postprandial glucose levels were lower, after consumption of meals with higher proportion of brown rice. This study provides valuable insight into the acceptability of brown rice as a substitute for white rice in Nigeria. If confirmed in larger studies, these results highlight the importance of

  14. Total and Differential White Blood Cell Counts in Late-Life Predict Eight-Year Incident Stroke: The Honolulu Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Ji Young; Ross, G. Webster; Chen, Randi; Abbott, Robert D.; Bell, Christina; Willcox, Bradley; Launer, Lenore; Petrovitch, Helen; Kaya, Brock; Masaki, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Previous studies have found that higher white blood cell count is associated with incident stroke. However, there are inconsistent results in the elderly and only a few studies have included differential white blood cell counts or Asian populations. We studied the association between total and differential white blood cell counts and incident stroke in an older Asian population. Design Prospective population-based study with 8 years of follow-up. Setting The Honolulu Heart Program, Oahu, Hawaii. Participants Three thousand, three hundred and forty-two Japanese-American men (ages 71–93 years) who were free of stroke and had baseline WBC counts in 1991–93. Measurements Participants were divided into quartiles of total and differential WBC counts for analysis, and were followed for incident stroke (all strokes [ALL-CVA], thromboembolic [TE-CVA] and hemorrhagic [HEM-CVA]) for eight years using data from a comprehensive hospital surveillance system. Results Age-adjusted incident ALL-CVA rates increased significantly with total WBC quartiles (7.68, 9.04, 9.26, 14.10, per 1,000 person years follow-up, respectively, p=0.001).Hazard ratios for ALL-CVA for each quartile of total and differential WBC counts were obtained using Cox regression, with the lowest quartile as the reference group. After full adjustment including age, cardiovascular