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Sample records for indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy

  1. Diagnostic significance of indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy in febrile patients

    SciTech Connect

    Syrjaelae, M.T.Va.; Valtonen, V.; Liewendahl, K.; Myllylae, G.

    1987-02-01

    Sixty-eight patients with fever of unknown origin, 32 patients with postoperative fever, and 26 patients with therapy-resistant fever after bacteremia were investigated with (/sup 111/In) granulocyte scintigraphy for the detection of abscesses. The results showed that the value of (/sup 111/In)granulocyte scintigraphy in the detection of infectious foci vary in these three types of febrile conditions. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 86.5% and 87.8%, respectively. We observed, however, a relatively low predictive value of a positive result in the fever of unknown origin group (73.1%), and also a low predictive value of a negative result in the bacteremia group (66.7%). The C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with a true-positive scintigram were significantly (p less than 0.001) higher than in patients with a true-negative scintigram. There was also a significant positive correlation (p less than 0.01) between the serum CRP concentration and the intensity of the granulocyte accumulations. There was no correlation between the peripheral leukocyte count or the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the intensity of the granulocyte uptake. Therefore CRP, but not the leukocyte count or ESR, appears useful for selecting the patients who benefit most from granulocyte scintigraphy.

  2. Indium-111-granulocyte scintigraphy in brain abscess diagnosis: Limitations and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, K.G.; Rasmussen, J.W.; Frederiksen, P.B.; Kock-Jensen, C.; Pedersen, N.T. )

    1990-07-01

    The scintigrams and records of 28 patients referred for indium-111-granulocyte scintigraphy (111In-GS) because of a suspected brain abscess were studied retrospectively. The final diagnosis was brain abscess in 8 patients, brain tumor in 18 patients, and infarct and hematoma in 1 patient each. Five patients not on corticosteroid treatment showed intense focal 111In accumulation in abscesses, whereas an abscess patient receiving a high steroid dose showed no uptake. Two patients studied twice showed intense uptake in abscesses when not on steroid therapy or on a low dose, whereas no uptake was seen when they received high or medium doses. Weak or moderate 111In uptake was observed in nine tumors. Microscopically assessed degree of tumor granulocyte infiltration, vessel proliferation, and hemorrhage did not correlate with the outcome of 111In GS. Our results suggest that intense focal cerebral 111In uptake favors the abscess diagnosis. Abscesses may go undetected, however, in patients on high- or medium-dose steroid therapy.

  3. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  4. Accumulation of indium-111-labeled granulocytes in malignant tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, K.G.; Rasmussen, J.W.; Wedebye, I.M.; Frederiksen, P.B.; Pedersen, N.T.

    1988-04-01

    In a retrospective study of 220 (/sup 111/In)granulocyte scintigrams from 208 patients, 25 patients had malignant neoplasms. Among these, tumor uptake of /sup 111/In activity was observed in ten patients (intense activity in two patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and colonic carcinoma, respectively; moderate uptake in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and in a patient with an ovarian carcinoma; weak activity in three patients with cerebral neoplasms; and activity within otherwise cold metastatic lesions of the liver in three patients). Microscopic investigation following specific granulocyte staining revealed the greatest extent of granulocyte infiltration in the tumors which took up /sup 111/In activity, emphasizing the importance of tumor granulocyte infiltration as the single most important factor underlying tumor accumulation of /sup 111/In activity during (/sup 111/In)granulocyte scintigraphy.

  5. Indium-111-labeled platelet scintigraphy in carotid atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Minar, E.; Ehringer, H.; Dudczak, R.; Schoefl, R.J.; Jung, M.; Koppensteiner, R.; Ahmadi, R.; Kretschmer, G.

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated platelet accumulation in carotid arteries by means of a dual-radiotracer method, using indium-111-labeled platelets and technetium-99m-labeled human serum albumin, in 123 patients (92 men, 31 women; median age 60 years). Sixty patients had symptoms of transient ischemic carotid artery disease, and 63 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease served as controls. Antiplatelet treatment with acetylsalicylic acid was taken by 53 of the 123 patients. In 36 of the 60 symptomatic patients, platelet scintigraphy was repeated 3-4 days after carotid endarterectomy. Comparison of different scintigraphic parameters (platelet accumulation index and percent of the injected dose of labeled platelets at the carotid bifurcation) showed no significant differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, and the severity of stenosis and the presence of plaque ulceration also had no influence on the parameters. There was no difference between patients with a short (less than 4 weeks) or long (greater than 4 weeks) interval from the last transient ischemic attack to scintigraphy and no difference between patients with or without antiplatelet treatment. Classifying the patients according to plaque morphology judged by high-resolution real-time ultrasonography also demonstrated no differences. No significant correlation was found between any scintigraphic parameter and other platelet function parameters such as platelet survival time, platelet turnover rate, and concentration of platelet-specific proteins. Quantification of platelet deposition after carotid endarterectomy in 36 patients demonstrated a significant increase of the median platelet accumulation index and the percent injected dose index.

  6. Indium 111-granulocyte scanning in the assessment of disease extent and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. A comparison with colonoscopy, histology, and fecal indium 111-granulocyte excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Saverymuttu, S.H.; Camilleri, M.; Rees, H.; Lavender, J.P.; Hodgson, H.J.; Chadwick, V.S.

    1986-05-01

    Indium 111-leukocyte scanning has recently been introduced as a new method for imaging inflammatory bowel disease. The technique has recently been made more specific for acute inflammation by labeling a pure granulocyte fraction rather than the conventional mixed leukocyte preparation. We now report a prospective study comparing 111In-granulocyte scanning with endoscopy, histology, and fecal 111In-granulocyte excretion for the assessment of disease extent and severity in colonic inflammatory bowel disease. In 52 patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, disease extent and severity were assessed macroscopically, histologically, or by scanning using a numerical grading system. Excellent correlations were found between both endoscopy and histology and 111In scans (r = 0.90 (endoscopy) and r = 0.90 (histology) for extent; r = 0.86 and r = 0.91 for disease activity). Severity graded by scanning also showed a close correlation with fecal 111In-granulocyte excretion (r = 0.90). Indium 111-granulocyte scans are a rapid, accurate, noninvasive means of assessing both disease extent and severity of colonic involvement in inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Effect of leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of indium-111-labeled granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, J.; Weiblen, B.J.; Clay, M.E.; Forstrom, L.

    1981-07-01

    The effect of different leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of granulocytes is not known. Thus, the optimum in vitro serologic tests to determine a safe and effective granulocyte transfusion or to diagnose immune destruction of granulocytes in other clinical situations have not been identified. We have studied the effect of granulocyte agglutinating (GA), granulocytotoxic (GC), and lymphocytotoxic (LC) antibodies on the intravascular recovery and half-life (t 1/2) and the extravascular localization of Indium-111-granulocytes in 50 patients. GA antibodies caused reduced granulocyte recovery and t 1/2 in three of three non-neutropenic patients (one with anti-NB1), increased sequestration of cells in the liver, and failure of granulocytes to localize at sites of infection in two of two patients (one with anti-NA1). In contrast, GC antibodies in five patients and LC antibodies in one patient did not cause reduced intravascular recovery or t 1/2 of granulocytes. In nine patients with GC and six patients with LC antibodies, incompatible granulocytes localized at known sites of infection. It appears that GA, but not GC nor LC, antibodies alter the fate in vivo of granulocytes.

  8. Indium 111-labeled granulocyte scan in the diagnosis and management of acute inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.L.; Subramanian, K.; Gasparaitis, A.; Abcarian, H.; Pavel, D.G. )

    1990-06-01

    The indium 111 granulocyte scan was used to evaluate 39 individuals known to have or suspected of having inflammatory bowel disease. Twenty-three of these individuals had positive scans and 16 had negative scans. Eighty-seven confirmatory studies, which consisted of barium radiography, endoscopy, operative findings, and histopathology, were performed in 37 of these individuals. The remaining two negative scans corroborated only by clinical course, CBC, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In addition, 10 follow-up scans were performed in six of the 39 patients to monitor therapy or investigate a change in symptoms. As an anatomic indicator of acute granulocytic infiltration of the intestinal lamina propria and crypts, the authors found that this scan had a 97 percent rate of sensitivity and 100 percent specificity. Specific indications for the use of the indium 111-labeled granulocyte scan are described. For the authors, in general, this test has become a vital adjunct to endoscopy and radiography in the diagnosis and management of patients with symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease.

  9. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in hemodialysis access-site infection

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Bacterial sepsis, a significant complication of chronic hemodialysis, is generally the result of infection at the vascular access site. We retrospectively reviewed the utility of indium-111-(111In) labeled autologous leukocyte scintigraphy in 26 patients (30 scans) with synthetic vascular grafts, on chronic hemodialysis, in whom hemodialysis access site infection was a diagnostic consideration. Leukocyte scintigraphy correctly identified all fifteen access-site infections; there was one false-positive study, for an overall sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93%, respectively. Of particular significance is the fact that in nine (60%) of the fifteen access-site infections, physical examination was normal. Our data indicate that 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of hemodialysis access-site infection, and it is especially valuable when physical examination of the access site is normal.

  10. Detection of platelet deposition at the site of peripheral balloon angioplasty using indium-111 platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, C.F.; Ezekowitz, M.D.; Smith, E.O.; Rapoport, S.; Glickman, M.; Sostman, H.D.; Zaret, B.L.

    1985-02-01

    Restenosis after balloon angioplasty may be mediated through platelet deposition at the site of arterial dilatation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether platelet deposition at the site of dilatation could be detected using indium-111 platelet scintigraphy. Fifteen patients, aged 60 +/- 9 years, with iliac or femoral (n . 12), renal artery (n . 2) or distal aortic (n . 1) stenoses were studied. All patients received intravenous heparin at the time of dilatation. Labeled platelets containing 471 +/- 65 muCi indium-111 were injected 0.25 to 4 hours after dilatation and 1 to 24 hours after imaging. In 11 of 12 patients with iliac and femoral dilatations, focal uptake was demonstrated at the angioplasty site. In 4 patients (2 patients with renal, 1 patient with iliofemoral, and 1 with distal aortic stenoses), uptake at the dilatation sites was not detected. This preliminary study indicates that despite intravenous heparin, platelets accumulate at sites of balloon dilatation. Platelet scintigraphy may be useful in predicting sites of future narrowing after angioplasty and may be used to test the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy in retarding restenosis.

  11. Thyrotropinoma with Graves’ disease detected by the fusion of indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Okuyucu, Kursat; Alagoz, Engin; Arslan, Nuri; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Deveci, Mehmet Salih; Bolu, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare benign endocrinological tumor which produces TSH in the pituitary gland. Herein, we presented a female patient having TSHoma with Graves’ disease during and just after pregnancy that we found by indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy while investigating the patient for hyperthyroidism symptoms. PMID:27095865

  12. Appearance of acute gouty arthritis on indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 66-yr-old male with polyarticular acute gouty arthritis. Images revealed intense labeled leukocyte accumulation in a pattern indistinguishable from septic arthritis, in both knees and ankles, and the metatarsophalangeal joint of both great toes, all of which were involved in the acute gouty attack. Joint aspirate as well as blood cultures were reported as no growth; the patient was treated with intravenous colchicine and ACTH for 10 days with dramatic improvement noted. Labeled leukocyte imaging, repeated 12 days after the initial study, revealed near total resolution of joint abnormalities, concordant with the patient's clinical improvement. This case demonstrates that while acute gouty arthritis is a potential pitfall in labeled leukocyte imaging, in the presence of known gout, it may provide a simple, objective, noninvasive method of evaluating patient response to therapy.

  13. Left ventricular platelet deposition after acute myocardial infarction. An attempt at quantification using blood pool subtracted indium-111 platelet scintigraphy.

    PubMed Central

    Verheugt, F W; Lindenfeld, J; Kirch, D L; Steele, P P

    1984-01-01

    Since indium-111 platelet scintigraphy for the detection of left ventricular thrombosis often shows considerable non-specific blood pool activity a subtraction method using simultaneous technetium-99m blood pool scintigraphy was undertaken in 11 subjects with well documented remote myocardial infarction, who served as positive or negative controls, and in 18 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. The results were compared with those of cross sectional echocardiography. Thirteen patients had transmural myocardial infarction and the calculated count per pixel in the left ventricle of the subtracted indium-111 platelet scintigram was (mean (SD)) 0.28(0.35), but five patients with subendocardial myocardial infarction had a mean count of 0.04(0.06). In seven patients with transmural myocardial infarction (two anterior and five inferior) left ventricular thrombosis was detected by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy but in only one of these by cross sectional echocardiography. None of the patients with subendocardial myocardial infarction had left ventricular thrombosis. Subtracted left ventricular counts correlated well with the visual results. It is concluded that left ventricular platelet sequestration after acute myocardial infarction may be quantified and precisely located and that quantitative longitudinal studies of the natural history and drug intervention are now possible. Images PMID:6437421

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of indium-111 platelet scintigraphy in identifying left ventricular thrombi

    SciTech Connect

    Ezekowitz, M.D.; Burrow, R.D.; Heath, P.W.; Streitz, T.; Smith, E.O.; Parker, D.E.

    1983-06-01

    This study defines the optimum imaging time window after injection of labeled platelet suspension for detection on left ventricular (LV) thrombi, identifies the most useful imaging views, and determines the reproducibility of this technique. A total of 662 images obtained from 64 patients were analyzed retrospectively on 2 separate occasions by 3 observers blinded as to patient identity, view (right anterior oblique, anterior, left anterior oblique, and left lateral), and time after injection of the platelet suspension that the images were obtained (0 to 2, 3 to 4, and 5 to 6 days). Images were categorized as either positive or negative. In every case surgical or autopsy verification of the presence or absence of LV thrombus was possible. It was concluded that (1) indium-111 platelet scintigraphy is a reproducible and specific technique for identifying LV thrombus, and (2) we advise imaging on day 0 and again 3 to 4 days after injection of the platelet suspension in right anterior oblique, left anterior oblique, left lateral, and anterior views to maximize accuracy and to facilitate localization of LV thrombus.

  15. Early Indium-111 antimyosin scintigraphy for assessment of regional wall motion asynergy on discharge after myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    van Vlies, B.; Baas, J.; Visser, C.A.; van Royen, E.; Delemarre, B.J.; Bot, H.; Dunning, A.J. )

    1990-01-01

    To assess the relation between early Indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin antibody scintigraphy and degree of regional asynergy on discharge, 38 patients with a first acute myocardial infarct were studied (18 anterior, 20 inferoposterior infarctions). In 21 patients thrombolytic therapy was administered. On the first day of myocardial infarction, 80 MBq Indium-111 Antimyosin was injected. Planar images, anterior, lateral and left anterior oblique, were made 24 hours later. Localized myocardial uptake was present in 37/38 patients, and was evaluated for Count Density Index (count density of infarct zone/left lung count density) in the left anterior oblique images, which displayed the infarct zone well. Regional asynergy on discharge was evaluated by cross-sectional echocardiography and defined mild (hypokinesia) or severe (akinesia or dyskinesia). Count density index was significantly lower in 15 patients with mild asynergy, compared with 22 patients with severe asynergy (1.61 +/- 0.25 vs. 2.42 +/- 0.40, p less than 0.001). This difference was present in both patient groups treated with or without thrombolysis. We conclude that early count density index, reflecting the amount of local necrosis, is highly correlated to the ultimate degree of wall motion impairment.

  16. Effect of histocompatibility factors on pulmonary retention of indium-111-labeled granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dutcher, J.P.; Riggs, C. Jr.; Fox, J.J.; Johnston, G.S.; Norris, D.; Wiernik, P.H.; Schiffer, C.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Granulocyte transfusions are associated with a number of side effects including febrile transfusion reactions and occasionally pulmonary infiltrates. There is evidence that the presence of preformed antibodies may be a cause of these complications. In this study, allogeneic 111Indium-labeled granulocytes were used to evaluate the pulmonary retention of radioactivity in alloimmunized and non-alloimmunized patients in an attempt to assess antibody effect on granulocyte migration. After injection of labeled allogeneic granulocytes into neutropenic patients, the ratios of lung to heart activity were calculated for the first 30 min of scanning. There was significantly greater retention of radioactivity from cells in the lungs of patients who were alloimmunized, having both lymphocytotoxic (anti-HLA) and leuko-agglutinating antibodies, compared to the activity in the lungs of non-alloimmunized patients (P less than .001) or of patients receiving autologous granulocytes (P less than .001). This study demonstrates that labeled, mismatched granulocytes may be retained in the lungs for a significantly longer time in patients with preformed antibodies. This implies that transfusion of large numbers of such mismatched granulocytes, i.e., granulocyte transfusions, may also be retained in the lungs of alloimmunized patients, which could lead to pulmonary compromise. Therefore, granulocyte transfusions from random donors should not be given to alloimmunized patients.

  17. Imaging of acute myocardial infarction in pigs with Indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin scintigraphy and MRI

    SciTech Connect

    ten Kate, C.I.; van Kroonenburgh, M.J.; Schipperheyn, J.J.; Doornbos, J.; Hoedemaeker, P.J.; Maes, A.; v.d. Nat, K.H.; Camps, J.A.; Huysmans, H.A.; Pauwels, E.K. )

    1990-07-01

    Indium-111 antimyosin F(ab')2 was used in a series of scintigraphic studies on experimentally induced myocardial infarctions in pigs. Antimyosin distribution recorded by planar images of in vivo pigs and by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of excised hearts delineated areas of myocardial necrosis if infarct volume exceeded 3.3 cm3. Scintigraphic images were compared with magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained from excised hearts and with photographs of slices of the hearts. Infarct size and localization determined with antimyosin were compared. The MR images, with or without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA), of the in vivo pigs were all false-negative; some myocardial wall thinning and high bloodpool signals were visible. Results show that both the antimyosin and the MR technique are specific methods for the visualization of induced myocardial necrosis in this animal model. However, the use of antimyosin is limited to a period ranging from 24 to 72 hours after infarction.

  18. Alloimmunization prevents the migration of transfused indium-111-labeled granulocytes to sites of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Dutcher, J.P.; Schiffer, C.A.; Johnston, G.S.; Papenburg, D.; Daly, P.A.; Aisner, J.; Wiernik, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    111In-labeled granulocytes were used to study the effects of histocompatibility factors on the migration of transfused granulocytes to infected sites. Fourteen alloimmunized and 20 nonalloimmunized patients received approximately 10(8) 111In-labeled granulocytes from ABO-compatible, non-HLA-matched donors, and scans were performed over known infected sites. All 14 alloimmunized patients had lymphocytotoxic antibody (LCTAb) and required HLA-matched platelet transfusions. Of the nonalloimmunized patients, 20/20 had positive scans at sites of infection. None of the 20 had LCTAb, 0/17 had a positive lymphocytotoxic crossmatch (LCTXM) with the donor, and 3/18 had a positive leukoagglutinin crossmatch (LAXM). Thus, histocompatibility testing was not found to be important in nonalloimmunized patients. In contrast, only 3/14 alloimmunized patients had positive scans at sites of infection (p . 0.00001 compared to nonalloimmunized patients). One of 3 had a positive LCTXM and 2/3 had a positive LAXM. Of the alloimmunized patients, 10/11 with negative scans had a positive LCTXM and 8/11 had a positive LAXM. Labeled granulocytes failed to reach sites of infection in 11/14 (78%) alloimmunized patients, demonstrating that histocompatibility factors can be of major importance in affecting the outcome of granulocyte transfusions. Granulocytes from random donors are unlikely to be effective in alloimmunized patients. The lack of an adequate crossmatching technique is a major problem limiting the ability to provide granulocyte transfusions for alloimmunized patients.

  19. Indium-111 antimyosin scintigraphy to assess myocardial damage in patients with suspected myocarditis and cardiac rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Carrio, I.; Berna, L.; Ballester, M.; Estorch, M.; Obrador, D.; Cladellas, M.; Abadal, L.; Ginjaume, M.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 antimyosin scans were used to assess myocardial damage in patients with suspected myocarditis and cardiac transplant rejection. The calculation of a myocardium to lung ratio (AM index) to quantify antimyosin uptake was performed. AM index in normal subjects (n = 8) at 48 hr postinjection was 1.46 +/- 0.04. In patients with suspected myocarditis (16 studies in 13 patients), AM index was 2.0 +/- 0.5 (p less than 0.001); suggesting a considerable incidence of ongoing cell damage in this group, despite the small proportion of positive right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy (RVbx) (4/13). In patients studied after cardiac transplantation (37 studies in 17 patients), AM indexes correlated with RVbx. In patients with RVbx proven rejection (n = 14), AM index was 1.87 +/- 0.19 (p less than 0.001). In patients with RVbx showing infiltrates but not myocyte damage (n = 13), AM index was 1.80 +/- 0.27 (p = 0.02). In patients with normal RVbx (n = 10), AM index was 1.56 +/- 0.17 (p = NS versus controls; p = 0.001 versus those with positive RVbx). Calculated AM indexes correlated with graded visual analysis of the scans (r = 0.823; p = 0.001). Antimyosin scans are an appropriate method to assess myocardial damage in patients with suspected myocarditis and cardiac rejection.

  20. Early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection by indium-111-labeled platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Tisdale, P.L.; Collier, B.D.; Kauffman, H.M.; Adams, M.B.; Isitman, A.T.; Hellman, R.S.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Rao, S.A.; Joestgen, T.; Krohn, L.

    1986-08-01

    A prospective evaluation of /sup 111/In-labeled platelet scintigraphy (IPS) for the early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection (TR) was undertaken. The results of IPS were compared with in vitro biochemical tests, the clinical finding of graft tenderness, and combined (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA and (/sup 131/I)orthoiodohippurate scintigraphy. With a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.95, IPS provided otherwise unavailable diagnostic information. Furthermore, postoperative IPS was a good predictor of long-term allograft survival.

  1. Postoperative osteomyelitis following implant arthroplasty of the foot: diagnosis with indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Bakst, R.H.; Kanat, I.O.

    1987-11-01

    Many complications can occur following insertion of silicone elastomer implants into the foot. Postoperative infection may be difficult to distinguish from other conditions such as dislodgment, fracture, ectopic and heterotopic new bone formation, synovitis, and bursitis. White blood cell scintigraphy, in conjunction with the clinical scenario, may prove to be an invaluable tool in the diagnosis of postoperative osteomyelitis, subsequent to implant arthroplasties. 32 references.

  2. Postoperative osteomyelitis following implant arthroplasty of the foot: diagnosis with indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Bakst, R.H.; Kanat, I.O.

    1987-11-01

    Many complications can occur following insertion of silicone elastomer implants into the foot. Postoperative infection may be difficult to distinguish from other conditions such as dislodgment, fracture, ectopic and heterotopic new bone formation, synovitis, and bursitis. White blood cell scintigraphy, in conjunction with the clinical scenario, may prove to be an invaluable tool in the diagnosis of postoperative osteomyelitis, subsequent to implant arthroplasties. 32 references.

  3. The use of indium-111 oxine platelet scintigraphy and survival studies in pediatric patients with thrombocytopenia

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, V.P.; Shulkin, B.L.; Coates, G.; Andrew, M. )

    1989-11-01

    We have utilized {sup 111}In-labeled heterologous platelets to investigate the mechanism of thrombocytopenia in ten children. From the scintigraphic findings, platelet survival times, and clinical information, thrombocytopenia was ascribed to decreased production or to increased destruction. Two patients were found to have bone marrow production defects. Two patients with hemangiomas were studied. In one, the hemangioma was shown not to be the cause of thrombocytopenia. In the second, the hemangioma was proven the source of platelet destruction, but was much more extensive than clinically evident. In both, surgical manipulation of the hemangioma was avoided. Six additional patients had thrombocytopenia due to accelerated destruction. In four, the spleen was shown responsible. In two, however, the spleen was shown not to be responsible for the low platelet counts, and splenectomy was avoided. Thus, {sup 111}In-platelet scintigraphy and survival studies are valuable in the classification and management of childhood thrombocytopenia. We believe that this study should be performed, when possible, in any child with thrombocytopenia where the mechanism is unclear or the therapeutic intervention involves splenectomy or resection of a hemangioma.

  4. Detection of rejection of canine orthotopic cardiac allografts with indium-111 lymphocytes and gamma scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, H.J.; Rosenbloom, M.; Laschinger, J.C.; Saffitz, J.E.; Cox, J.L.; Sobel, B.E.; Bolman, R.M. III; Bergmann, S.R.

    1988-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of detecting canine heterotopic cardiac allograft rejection scintigraphically after administration of 111In lymphocytes. To determine whether the approach is capable of detecting rejection in orthotopic cardiac transplants in which labeled lymphocytes circulating in the blood pool may reduce sensitivity, the present study was performed in which canine orthotopic cardiac transplants were evaluated in vivo. Immunosuppression was maintained with cyclosporine A (10-20 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) for 2 wk after transplantation. Subsequently, therapy was tapered. Five successful allografts were evaluated scintigraphically every 3 days after administration of 100-350 microCi 111In autologous lymphocytes. Correction for labeled lymphocytes circulating in the blood pool, but not actively sequestered in the allografts was accomplished by administering 3-6 mCi 99mTc autologous erythrocytes and employing a previously validated blood-pool activity correction technique. Cardiac infiltration of labeled lymphocytes was quantified as percent indium excess (%IE), scintigraphically detectable 111In in the transplant compared with that in blood, and results were compared with those of concomitantly performed endomyocardial biopsy. Scintigraphic %IE for hearts not undergoing rejection manifest histologically was 0.7 +/- 0.4. Percent IE for rejecting hearts was 6.8 +/- 4.0 (p less than 0.05). Scintigraphy detected each episode of rejection detected by biopsy. Scintigraphic criteria for rejection (%IE greater than 2 s.d. above normal) were not manifest in any study in which biopsies did not show rejection. Since scintigraphic results with 111In-labeled lymphocytes were concordant with biopsy results in orthotopic cardiac transplants, noninvasive detection of graft rejection in patients should be attainable with the approach developed.

  5. A Family with Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome: The Findings of Indium-111 Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy, Iodine-123 Metaiodobenzylguanidine Scintigraphy and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Arıcan, Pelin; Okudan Tekin, Berna; Naldöken, Seniha; Şefizade, Rıza; Berker, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHLS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary familial disorder characterized by development of malignant and benign neoplasms. Differential diagnosis of the adrenal and pancreatic masses are difficult in patients with VHLS. Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-123 MIBG) and indium-111 somatostatin receptor scintigraphies (In-111 SRS) have important roles in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and pancreatic masses in those patients. In this case report, we present the findings of I-123 MIBG single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) and In-111 SRS SPECT/CT in three members of a family with VHLS. In case 1, a residual neuroendocrine tumor (NET) was detected in the head of pancreas on In-111 SRS SPECT/CT images. In case 2 and 3, I-123 MIBG SPECT/CT confirmed the adrenal masses as pheochromocytoma, and the extra-adrenal mass as NET, before surgery. We thought that In-111 SRS and I-123 MIBG scan might be helpful in the routine work up of VHLS patients for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Hybrid SPECT/CT system may improve diagnostic accuracy of planar images since it assesses morphologic and functional information together. PMID:28291009

  6. Effect of aspirin and ticlopidine on platelet deposition in carotid atherosclerosis: assessment by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Isaka, Y.; Kimura, K.; Etani, H.; Uehara, A.; Uyama, O.; Yoneda, S.; Kamada, T.; Kusunoki, M.

    1986-11-01

    The antiplatelet effects of aspirin and ticlopidine were studied by a dual-tracer method, using indium-111 labeled platelets and technetium-99m human serum albumin, in a group of 12 patients with suspected ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The magnitude of platelet accumulation at the carotid bifurcation was expressed as the ratio of radioactivity of indium-111 platelets deposited on the vascular wall to those circulating in the blood-pool (PAI, platelet accumulation index), 48 hr after injection of labeled platelets. PAI values were measured before (baseline studies) and after the antithrombotic therapies (aspirin studies: 325 mg bid for 22.3 +/- 1.3 days, ticlopidine studies: 100 mg tid for 21.8 +/- 2.1 days). At the baseline, the mean PAI value at 24 carotid bifurcations in the patient group was 15.7 +/- 15.3% (mean +/- S.D.) compared to -4.3 +/- 9.1 at 24 carotid bifurcations in 12 normal subjects (p less than 0.01). We defined the upper limit for a normal PAI (%) value to be +13.9, namely the mean PAI plus 2 SD for the carotid bifurcation in normal subjects and used this value for semiquantitative analysis. At the baseline, significant elevation of PAI (more than 13.9%; positive scintigram) was observed at 12 of 24 vessels, while 12 other regions were negative (less than 13.9%). In the lesions with positive scintigraphic results at the baseline, the mean PAI (%) value from the baseline, aspirin and ticlopidine studies was 29.5 +/- 7.0, 11.2 +/- 8.5 (p less than 0.01 versus baseline) and 21.4 +/- 21.3 (not significant from baseline), respectively.

  7. Specificity of indium-111 granulocyte scanning and fecal excretion measurement in inflammatory bowel disease--an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Price, Y.E.; Peters, A.M.; Lavender, J.P.; Wright, N.A.; Hodgson, H.J.

    1985-12-01

    The validity of /sup 111/In granulocyte scanning and fecal excretion measurement, as a reflection of loss of cells into the gastrointestinal tract, was studied using an autoradiographic technique in 11 patients in whom /sup 111/In granulocyte scan and colonoscopy were carried out simultaneously. /sup 111/In granulocytes were injected 1.5-4 hr prior to colonoscopy, and intraluminal fluid, mucosal brushings, and colonic biopsies were collected during the colonoscopy. In two patients with no histological evidence of inflammatory bowel disease, and four patients with clinically and histologically inactive inflammatory bowel disease, no /sup 111/Indium was detected in fluid, brushing, or biopsies. In five patients with active disease, 85% of the /sup 111/In activity in colonic fluid was precipitated by low-speed centrifugation. Autoradiography confirmed that the label remained attached to whole granulocytes in colonic fluid and mucosal brushings. Studies on biopsies, at intervals up to 4 1/2 hr following labeled granulocyte injection, demonstrated labeled polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) on the inflamed epithelial surface, with occasional cells in crypt abscesses by 110 min. We conclude that the techniques of /sup 111/In granulocyte scanning and fecal counting in patients with IBD are specifically measuring cell loss; labeled PMNs are capable of migrating through the gastrointestinal mucosa, in active disease, within 2 hr of administration.

  8. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus.

  9. Diagnosis of brain abscesses with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rehncrona, S.; Brismar, J.; Holtas, S.

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen patients with intracerebral mass lesions where computed tomography (CT) was not fully conclusive with respect to the differential diagnosis between brain tumor and abscess were examined with leukocyte brain scintigraphy (LBS). Autologous leukocytes were labeled with indium-111 oxinate and were reinjected intravenously; registration with a gamma camera was performed after 24 and 48 hours. In 10 of 11 patients with the final diagnosis of a brain tumor, no accumulation of radiolabeled leukocytes could be detected in the brain. In 4 of 5 patients with the final diagnosis of brain abscess, scintigraphy showed a pronounced increase of focal activity corresponding to the lesion demonstrated with CT. The reasons for the one false-positive and the one false-negative result are discussed, and it is concluded that LBS (a) can be used to detect intracranial infection and (b) may be a useful diagnostic tool for distinguishing between brain abscess and brain tumor.

  10. Frequency of myocardial indium-111 antimyosin uptake after uncomplicated coronary artery bypass grafting

    SciTech Connect

    van Vlies, B.; van Royen, E.A.; Visser, C.A.; Meyne, N.G.; van Buul, M.M.; Peters, R.J.; Dunning, A.J. )

    1990-11-15

    The reported incidence of myocardial damage after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is highly related to the methods used. Since indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin antibody scintigraphy has been shown to be highly specific and sensitive for myocardial necrosis, even in small lesions, uptake of this radiotracer was evaluated after CABG. In 23 consecutive patients without previous myocardial infarction who underwent CABG for stable angina, 80 MBq indium-111 antimyosin was injected on the third postoperative day. Planar images were obtained 48 hours later and analyzed for myocardial uptake of indium-111 antimyosin. Scintigraphic results were related to creatine kinase MB levels, duration of both aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass, and electrocardiographic changes. In all patients surgical procedure and postoperative course was uncomplicated. Indium-111 antimyosin uptake was present in 19 of 23 patients (82%). It was diffused in 7 patients and localized in 12. No pathologic Q waves occurred postoperatively. Fourteen patients exhibited ST-segment changes. No good relation was found among indium-111 antimyosin uptake and creatine kinase MB levels, duration of cross-clamping or bypass, and ST-T changes. It is concluded that some degree of myocardial damage, though silent, is common after CABG.

  11. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, L.P.; Scott, A.C.; Bondurant, F.J.; Browner, B.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the specificity of indium-111 leukocyte scans for osteomyelitis when fractures are present. Midshaft tibial osteotomies were performed in 14 New Zealand white rabbits, seven of which were infected postoperatively with Staphylococcus aureus per Norden's protocol. All 14 rabbits were scanned following injection with 75 microCi of indium 111 at 72 h after osteotomy and at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Before the rabbits were killed, the fracture sites were cultured to document the presence or absence of infection. The results of all infected osteotomy sites were positive, whereas no positive scans were found in the noninfected osteotomies. We concluded from this study that uncomplicated fracture healing does not result in a positive indium-111 leukocyte scan.

  12. Indium 111 autologous leucocyte scanning in lobar pneumonia and lung abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Saverymuttu, S H; Phillips, G; Peters, A M; Lavender, J P

    1985-01-01

    Indium 111 leucocyte scanning was used to examine the kinetics of granulocyte localisation in five patients with lobar pneumonia and four patients with lung abscess. Lung abscesses showed dense accumulation of labelled granulocytes within four hours of injection. In contrast, in all cases of lobar pneumonia granulocytes failed to accumulate over a period of up to 24 hours despite evidence of adequate perfusion and of uptake in inflammation elsewhere. These results suggest that the recruitment of granulocytes to lobar pneumonia may be terminated early in its clinical course. Images PMID:4095674

  13. Differential diagnosis of CT-hypodense cranial lesions with indium-111-oxine-labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, C.; Aragno, M.G.; Medina, M.; Viglietti, A.L.; Oliveri, G.; Ettorre, F.; Barrale, S.; Camuzzini, G.

    1986-05-01

    Scintigraphy using indium-111-oxine-labeled white blood cells was used as a complementary diagnostic study in the differential diagnosis of 20 intracerebral cystic lesions for which computerized tomography scanning did not exclude abscess. To lower the rate of false-positive findings with scintiscanning, three criteria of positivity were tested in the 20 lesions. The most stringent criterion yielded 100% sensitivity, 94% specificity, and 96% diagnostic accuracy. The clinical and surgical implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Role of indium-111 chloride imaging in osteoid osteoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Swischuk, L.E.; Schreiber, M.H.

    1986-10-01

    Indium-111 chloride imaging plays an important role in differentiating intracortical osteoid osteoma from chronic cortical abscess. The study also may be useful in the detection of intramedullary osteoid osteoma. Four patients who greatly benefited from indium-111 chloride imaging are presented.

  15. Evaluation of indium-111-labeled antifibrin monoclonal antibody for the diagnosis of venous thrombotic disease

    SciTech Connect

    De Faucal, P.; Peltier, P.; Planchon, B.; Dupas, B.; Touze, M.D.; Baron, D.; Scaible, T.; Berger, H.J.; Chatal, J.F. )

    1991-05-01

    The potential advantage of using {sup 111}In-antifibrin ({sup 111}In-AF) monoclonal antibody for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was studied in 44 patients with suspected DVT (27 underwent heparin therapy before {sup 111}In-AF injection). All patients had contrast venography (considered as the gold standard) and {sup 111}In-AF scintigraphy within 24 hr. Two to 3 mCi of {sup 111}In-AF were injected intravenously, and planar scintigraphy of the limbs was recorded within 10 min (17 times), 3 hr (44 times), and 18 hr (39 times). Indium-111-AF images were then interpreted without knowledge of the results of the other examinations. The DVT diagnostic accuracy of {sup 111}In-AF was greater when interpretation was based on images recorded at different time periods after injection. Indium-111-AF sensitivity for diagnosis of DVT was 85% (29/34) and was not apparently decreased by heparin therapy. None of the 10 patients with negative contrast venography had a positive {sup 111}In-AF scan. The results demonstrate the importance of recording serial images and the excellent accuracy of {sup 111}In-AF for diagnosing DVT.

  16. Edwardsiella tarda Endocarditis Confirmed by Indium-111 White Blood Cell Scan: An Unusual Pathogen and Diagnostic Modality.

    PubMed

    Litton, Kayleigh M; Rogers, Bret A

    2016-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a freshwater marine member of the family Enterobacteriaceae which often colonizes fish, lizards, snakes, and turtles but is an infrequent human pathogen. Indium-111- ((111)In-) labeled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is an imaging modality which has a wide range of reported sensitivity and specificity (from 60 to 100% and from 68 to 92%, resp.) for diagnosing acute and chronic infection. We describe a case of suspected E. tarda prosthetic aortic valve and mitral valve endocarditis with probable vegetations and new mitral regurgitation on transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms which was supported with the use of (111)In-labeled WBC scintigraphy.

  17. Technetium-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime granulocyte scintigraphy in Crohn's disease: diagnostic and clinical relevance.

    PubMed Central

    Sciarretta, G; Furno, A; Mazzoni, M; Basile, C; Malaguti, P

    1993-01-01

    Scintigraphy with autologous granulocytes labelled by technetium-99m hexamethyl, propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) was performed in 103 Crohn's disease patients and 52 healthy controls. In 31 patients endoscopic and histologic activity was compared with scan activity index. In the 98 patients with a positive scan, the extent of Crohn's disease, assessed by scintigraphy, was compared with that evaluated by small bowel x ray or colonoscopy with biopsies. In 48 patients, Crohn's disease activity index, activity index, simple index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein were correlated with the scan results. In 16 patients the five parameters and scan were repeated after treatment with methyl-prednisolone (10 cases), enteral nutrition (3), and 5-acetylsalicylic acid (3). The results showed that 99mTc-HMPAO granulocyte scan had a 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity to detect active inflammation; it correctly showed an abscess or a fistula in all the 24 cases found. The correlation between histological inflammatory activity and scan activity index was highly significant (r = 0.85; p < 0.01), less significant (r = 0.65; p < 0.01) between endoscopy and scan activity index. The evaluation for the extent of Crohn's disease by scan was completely correct in the small bowel (100%) and 93% correct in the large bowel. No correlation was seen between the three clinical activity parameters and scanning; in more than 80% of the cases in remission on the basis of a clinical or laboratory index, scintigraphy remained positive. Medical treatment was effective on the clinical indices but not on the active inflammation in the ileum, whereas it led to a negative scan in 5/11 cases in the large intestine. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-HMPAO granulocyte plays an important part in Crohn's disease for the diagnosis of complications, for activity and assessment of the extent, and for the treatment results evaluation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8244102

  18. Persistent uptake of indium-111-antimyosin monoclonal antibody in patients with myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumori, A.; Yamada, T.; Tamaki, N.; Kawai, C.; Watanabe, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J.; Yoshida, A.; Tamaki, S. )

    1990-11-01

    Indium-111(111In)-antimyosin scintigraphy was investigated in 27 patients with myocardial infarction. {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab was administered intravenously, and planar and single photon emission computed tomographic images were obtained 48 hours later. Uptake of {sup 111}In-antimyosin was present in 9 of 10 patients (90%) studied within 6 days of infarction. During the second week positive scans were seen in 16 of 16 patients (100%) including 13 (81%) who had normal creatine kinase levels. The mechanism of persistent positive antimyosin images in the subacute stage of myocardial infarction remains to be clarified. {sup 111}In-antimyosin scintigraphy may be useful as a noninvasive method for the detection of myocardial injury late and early after a suspected acute myocardial infarction.

  19. Occult Purulent Pericarditis Detected by Indium-111 Leukocyte Imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Mark L.; Niebulski, Harvey I. J; Uretsky, Barry F.; Salerni, Rosemarie; Klein, Herbert A.; Forstate, William J.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Leukocyte imaging with indium-111 is-a relatively new technique which, to this point in time, has been discussed almost exclusively in the radiologic literature. Although this procedure has been used mainly to detect intra-abdominal infection, the thorax is routinely imaged along with the abdomen, and therefore detection of cardiac disease may be feasible. This case report is of a young woman after liver transplantation who developed occult purulent pericarditis initially detected by a leukocyte scan with indium-111. This case demonstrates that striking pericardial uptake on a whole-body indium-111 leukocyte scan can occur with purulent pericarditis, and it reemphasizes how insidiously purulent pericarditis may present in an immunosuppressed patient. PMID:6370622

  20. Noninvasive assessment of treatment of cardiac allograft rejection with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbloom, M.; Eisen, H.J.; Laschinger, J.; Saffitz, J.E.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.; Bolman, R.M. III

    1988-09-01

    We have shown previously that cardiac allograft rejection can be detected noninvasively with gamma scintigraphy after administration of indium-111 (111In)-labeled lymphocytes. To determine whether this technique could be used to monitor salvage immunosuppressive therapy in reversing rejection, 5 dogs were studied after thoracic heterotopic cardiac transplantation. Initial postoperative immunosuppression was maintained with cyclosporine (10-20 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after transplantation and then discontinued. Scintigraphy after administration of labeled lymphocytes was performed during initial immunosuppression and every 3 days after its termination. Endomyocardial biopsies were obtained on each day scintigraphy was performed. Once scintigraphic criteria for rejection were met (111In-lymphocyte uptake greater than mean +/- 2SD of normal myocardium), animals were treated with high dose methylprednisolone and cyclosporine. Myocardial 111In-lymphocyte activity compared with that in blood was 0.7 +/- 0.8 during initial immunosuppression, increased to 5.7 +/- 3.5 after termination of therapy (P less than 0.01), and diminished with salvage immunosuppressive therapy to 0.5 +/- 0.8 (P = NS compared with native hearts or allografts during initial immunosuppression). Scintigraphy accurately predicted all but one episode of biopsy-documented rejection and accurately detected reversal of rejection during salvage. Thus, scintigraphy with 111In-labeled lymphocytes should facilitate noninvasive monitoring of antirejection therapy in patients.

  1. Indium-111-leukocyte imaging in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Clarke, K.; Tsai, D.; Nuechterlein, P.; Gora, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Eleven patients with suspected acute cholecystitis underwent sequential {sup 99}mTc-iminodiacetic derivative (IDA) and {sup 111}In-white blood cell (WBC) imaging to determine if {sup 111}In-WBCs accumulate within an acutely inflamed hemorrhagic gallbladder wall and, thus, could be employed as a reasonable alternative to {sup 99}mTc-IDA scintigraphy in detecting acute cholecystitis. Seven patients had surgically confirmed acute cholecystitis. Of these cases, five had a true-positive {sup 99}mTc-IDA and {sup 111}In-WBC, one an indeterminate {sup 111}In-WBC and true-positive {sup 99}mTc-IDA, and one a true-positive {sup 111}In-WBC and false-negative {sup 99}mTc-IDA scan. The remaining four patients did not have acute cholecystitis. All visualized their gallbladder within 1 hr after {sup 99}mTc-IDA administration and none had {sup 111}In-WBC gallbladder wall uptake. Both {sup 111}In-WBC and {sup 99}mTc-IDA scintigraphy accurately detected acute cholecystitis: hepatobiliary scintigraphy demonstrated a cystic duct obstruction and {sup 111}In-WBC imaging detected the inflammatory infiltrate within the gallbladder wall. The sensitivity and specificity of each was 86% and 100%, respectively.

  2. The role of indium-111 antimyosin (Fab) imaging as a noninvasive surveillance method of human heart transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    De Nardo, D.; Scibilia, G.; Macchiarelli, A.G.; Cassisi, A.; Tonelli, E.; Papalia, U.; Gallo, P.; Antolini, M.; Pitucco, G.; Reale, A. )

    1989-09-01

    The identification of rejection after heart transplantation in patients receiving cyclosporine immunosuppressive therapy requires the endomyocardial biopsy, an invasive method associated with a finite morbidity. To evaluate the role of indium-111 antimyosin (Fab) scintigraphy as a noninvasive surveillance method of heart transplant rejection, the Fab fragment of murine monoclonal antimyosin antibodies labeled with indium-111 was administered intravenously in 30 scintigraphic studies to 10 consecutive heart transplant recipients. Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained 72 hours after each scintigraphic study. Nineteen scintigraphic studies had negative findings; no false negative finding was obtained. Eleven antimyosin scintigraphic studies had positive findings, and in these studies endomyocardial biopsy revealed mild rejection in two cases, moderate acute rejection with myocyte necrosis in two cases, myocyte necrosis as a consequence of ischemic injury in six cases, and possibly cytotoxic damage in one case. Antimyosin scintigraphy may represent a reliable screening method for the surveillance of heart transplant patients. In the presence of a negative finding from antimyosin scintigraphy, it may be possible to avoid endomyocardial biopsy. Conversely, in patients who have a positive finding from antimyosin scintigraphy, the endomyocardial biopsy is mandatory to establish the definitive diagnosis by histologic examination of the myocardium.

  3. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  4. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  5. Sequential technetium-99m sulfur colloid/indium-111 white blood cell imaging in macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Balon, H.R.; Irwin, R. )

    1990-06-01

    Technetium-99m sulfur colloid (SC) and indium-111 labeled leukocyte (In-111 WBC) scintigraphy was performed on a 77-year-old female patient to rule out a left periprosthetic infection. Anterior Tc-99m SC and In-111 WBC images of the pelvis and femurs revealed no abnormal deposition of radiotracer about the Austin-Moore prosthesis. Absent radiotracer uptake, however, was demonstrated within the left hemipelvis. A left iliac bone marrow aspirate and biopsy revealed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate consistent with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.

  6. Acute myocardial infarct imaging with indium-111-labeled monoclonal antimyosin Fab

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, B.A.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Johns, J.A.; Kanke, M.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Strauss, H.W.; Haber, E.

    1987-11-01

    Indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin Fab scintigraphy was used to detect myocardial necrosis in 52 of 54 patients (96.3%) with acute myocardial infarction. Infarcts were visualized when coronary arteries were persistently occluded (n = 10), became patent after thrombolysis (n = 33), or became patent after spontaneous reperfusion (n = 7). Posteroinferolateral visualizations were obtained in two patients with clinical and enzymatic evidence of infarction but normal electrocardiograms. Of the two patients in whom no infarcts were visualized, one had an anterior myocardial infarct. This patient underwent successful thrombolytic therapy, with attendant minimization of creatine kinase release. The other patient had a small, nonreperfused inferior myocardial infarct. Five patients with a history of remote infarction and acute necrosis showed antimyosin uptake only in regions concordant with the acute episodes of infarction, and radiolabeled antimyosin Fab localized in neither old infarcts nor normal, noninfarcted myocardium. Antimyosin Fab scintigraphy, thus, appears to be a highly specific means of delineating necrotic myocardium, at least in this limited and selected group of patients.

  7. Screening for acute myocarditis--is scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-Anti-Granulocyte BW 250/183 an answer?

    PubMed

    Hubalewska, Alicja; Dudek, Dariusz; Dubiel, Jacek; Płaczkiewicz-Jankowska, Ewa; Huszno, Bohdan; Staszczak, Anna; Frasik, Wiesław

    2004-01-01

    Myocarditis is most often caused by Coxackie B virus, influenza viruses, and echoviruses. It is usually self-restricting and ending in full recovery, but in some patients the infection leads to congestive cardiomyopathy. It is difficult to identify patients with myocarditis using clinical criteria, laboratory tests, ECG and ultrasonography, and currently a myocardial biopsy is required to establish the diagnosis. The risk of complications, sampling error and costs of this procedure underline the need of non-invasive but sensitive methods of imaging. Several radiopharmaceuticals have been used so far to confirm inflammation: 67Ga, (99m)Tc-nanocolloids and 111In-leucocytes. Scintigraphy with radiolabeled autologous white blood cells (WBCs) is considered a very useful method in identifying sources of inflammation but is difficult to perform and time-consuming. The aim of our study was to investigate whether scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-Anti-Granulocyte BW 250/183 antibody is a valuable diagnostic method in evaluating focal and diffuse inflammation of the heart and could therefore be suggested for use in screening for acute myocarditis. A two dimensional scintigraphy and SPECT mode of heart imaging with the use of (99m)Tc-Anti-Granulocyte antibody (740 MBq) was performed on 14 subjects (11 males and 3 females) aged 25-60 years with a positive myocardial biopsy confirming an inflammatory process in the myocardium. After i.v. administration of the tracer a 1 minute series of planar scans was performed within the first 60 minutes. Delayed static scans were performed at 1, 2, 4 and 24 hours. The scintigraphic scans revealed the uptake of the tracer in the heart area in 13 patients, confirming active inflammatory process. Follow-up scintigraphy was performed 3-5 months after the first study, when the control myocardial biopsy was negative. The results of the study showed the concordance between myocardial biopsy and scintigraphy results in patients with an inflammatory process

  8. Scintigraphic detection of bone and joint infections with indium-111-labeled nonspecific polyclonal human immunoglobulin G

    SciTech Connect

    Oyen, W.J.; Claessens, R.A.; van Horn, J.R.; van der Meer, J.W.; Corstens, F.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The utility of indium-111-({sup 111}In) labeled immunoglobulin G (IgG) to detect infection of bone and adjacent tissues was investigated. Proof of infection was obtained by cultures taken at surgery. All 32 patients showed focally increased uptake on the technetium-99m- (99mTc) methylene diphosphonate (MDP) skeletal scintigraphies. Labeled immunoglobulin correctly identified presence, location, extent and soft-tissue involvement of the suspected inflammatory site. In these patients, focally increasing accumulation was noted over 48 hr. Discrimination between infection and sterile inflammatory lesions was not possible. Two fractures, 6-mo-old, and an aseptic loosening of a total-hip prosthesis were not visualized. Side effects after the immunoglobulin administration were not observed. Radiolabeled immunoglobulin is a new and safe radiopharmaceutical for the investigation of infectious bone and joint disease. The sensitivity of this agent appears at least as high as that of labeled leukocytes. However, labeled immunoglobulin can easily be prepared in every nuclear medicine department.

  9. Metabolic imaging with gallium-68- and indium-111-labeled low-density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Moerlein, S.M.; Daugherty, A.; Sobel, B.E.; Welch, M.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) labeled with either gallium-68 ({sup 68}Ga) or indium-111 ({sup 111}In) was evaluated as a potential PET or SPECT radiopharmaceutical for determination of hepatic lipoprotein metabolism in rabbits. Gallium-68 or {sup 111}In was linked to LDL via diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) with a 25-70% radiochemical yield. Studies in vivo that compared {sup 68}Ga- or {sup 111}In-DTPA-LDL with dilactitol-({sup 125}I)-tyramine LDL and 131I-LDL showed that both {sup 68}Ga- and {sup 111}In-labeled LDL behaved as residualizing radiotracers. Localization of radioactivity within the liver of normal rabbits was visualized clearly with ({sup 68}Ga)DTPA-LDL by PET and with ({sup 111}In)DTPA-LDL by gamma scintigraphy. Significant differences were observed in hepatic uptake of normal compared with hypercholesterolemic rabbits in which low-capacity LDL receptor-mediated catabolism was saturated. Gallium-68 and {sup 111}In-DTPA-LDL are attractive radiopharmaceuticals for noninvasive delineation of tissue LDL metabolism under normal and pathophysiologic conditions.

  10. Indium 111-labeled white blood cell scans after vascular prosthetic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Sedwitz, M.M.; Davies, R.J.; Pretorius, H.T.; Vasquez, T.E.

    1987-11-01

    The clinical value of indium 111-labeled white blood cell (WBC) scanning done after vascular graft procedures was investigated to differentiate noninfectious postoperative inflammation associated with graft incorporation from early prosthetic graft infection. Indium 111-labeled WBC scans were initially obtained in 30 patients before discharge from the hospital and during the subsequent follow-up period (334 days). Fourteen of 30 patients (47%) had normal predischarge scans that included all 10 patients who had grafts confined to the abdomen and 4 of 20 patients (20%) who had grafts arising or terminating at the femoral arteries (p less than 0.05). Sixteen of 30 patients (53%) discharged with abnormal initial indium 111 WBC scans underwent serial scanning until the scan normalized or a graft complication developed. All of the 16 patients had grafts involving the groin region. Abnormal indium 111 uptake in the femoral region continued for a mean 114 days without the development of prosthetic graft infections. The sensitivity of indium 111-labeled WBC scans for detecting wound complications was 100%, whereas the specificity was 50%. Thus, the accuracy of the test was only 53%. We conclude that (1) abnormal indium 111 WBC scans are common after graft operations involving the groin region but are unusual after vascular procedures confined to the abdomen, and (2) in the absence of clinical suspicion, the indium 111-labeled WBC scan does not reliably predict prosthetic graft infection because of the low specificity of the test in the early postoperative period.

  11. Noninvasive detection of rejection of transplanted hearts with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, H.J.; Eisenberg, S.B.; Saffitz, J.E.; Bolman, R.M. 3d.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-04-01

    To determine whether cardiac transplant rejection can be detected noninvasively with indium-111 (/sup 111/In)-labeled lymphocytes, we studied 11 dogs with thoracic heterotopic cardiac transplants without immunosuppression and five dogs with transplants treated with cyclosporine (10 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day). All were evaluated sequentially with gamma scintigraphy after administration of 150 to 350 muCi of autologous /sup 111/In-lymphocytes. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (1 to 3 mCi) were used for correction of radioactivity in the blood pool attributable to circulating labeled lymphocytes. Lymphocyte infiltration was quantified as the ratio of indium in the myocardium of the transplant or native heart compared with that in blood (indium excess, IE). Results were correlated with mechanical and electrical activity of allografts and with histologic findings in sequential biopsy specimens. In untreated dogs (n = 11), IE was 15.5 +/- 7.0 (SD) in transplanted hearts undergoing rejection and 0.4 +/- 1.1 in native hearts on the day before animals were killed. In dogs treated with cyclosporine and prednisone (n = 5), IE was minimal in allografts during the course of immunosuppression (0.8 +/- 0.4) and increased to 22.9 +/- 11.1 after immunosuppression was stopped. Scintigraphic criteria of rejection (IE greater than 2 SD above that in native hearts) correlated with results of biopsies indicative of rejection and appeared before electrophysiologic or mechanical manifestations of dysfunction. Thus infiltration of labeled lymphocytes in allografts, indicative of rejection, is detectable noninvasively by gamma scintigraphy and provides a sensitive approach potentially applicable to clinical monitoring for early detection of rejection and guidance for titration of immunosuppressive measures.

  12. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte localization in hematomas: a pitfall in abscess detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, V.W.; vanSonnenberg, E.; Kipper, S.; Bieberstein, M.P.

    1984-07-01

    Indium-111-labeled white-blood-cell scanning is a useful modality in abscess detection and has replaced gallium scanning in many institutions. Sensitivities of 72% to 90% and specificities of 90% to 100% have been reported. In searching for abscesses seven cases of indium-111-labeled leukocyte uptake were encountered in collections subsequently proved to be noninfected hematomas. Abundant red blood cells with few or no white blood cells, no bacteria, and a benign clinical course identified these noninfected hematomas. Five of the patients were being treated with hemodialysis and three were recent allograft recipients. The results indicate some limitation and nonspecificity in indium-111 scanning, despite its many benefits.

  13. Granulocyte migration in uncomplicated intestinal anastomosis in man

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Gibson, R.; Guest, J.; Spencer, J.; Lavender, J.P.; Hodgson, H.J.

    1986-03-01

    We have investigated the presence, duration, and clinical significance of granulocyte accumulation, using indium-111 granulocyte scanning, in patients following uncomplicated intestinal anastomosis. Eight patients underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis (right hemicolectomy, 5; sigmoid colectomy, 2; ileal resection, 1) for carcinoma, angiodysplasia, or perforation. All patients had an uneventful postoperative course, with no evidence of any leakage or infection. Indium-111 granulocyte scan and abdominal ultrasound were performed 7-20 days (12 +/- 4.7 means +/- SD) following surgery. Indium-111 granulocyte scan showed the presence of labeled granulocytes at the site of anastomosis in all patients. In three of eight, cells subsequently passed into the lumen of the bowel. In contrast, granulocytes were not visualized along the abdominal incision. Thus, in contrast to skin wounds, granulocytes continue migrating into the intestinal wall in areas of anastomosis for at least up to 20 days following surgical trauma. They may play a significant role both in healing the anastomosis and in preventing systemic bacterial infection. Moreover, indium-111 granulocyte scans following intestinal surgery should be interpreted with care, and the presence of labeled granulocytes around anastomoses does not necessarily indicate abscess formation.

  14. Early and delayed indium 111 leukocyte imaging in Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Navab, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Diner, W.C.; Subramani, R.; Chan, C.

    1987-10-01

    Twenty-seven patients with Crohn's disease were studied for the presence and location of activity by both early (4 h) and delayed (18-24 h) indium 111 leukocyte imaging. The results were compared with other parameters of disease activity including Crohn's disease activity index, barium studies, and endoscopy. There was a correlation between early images and Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.78) and between delayed images and index (r = 0.82). Based upon the corresponding Crohn's disease activity index, the sensitivity of early and delayed imaging was 81.0% and 95.2%, respectively. Specificity of early and delayed imaging was 75.0% and 87.0%, respectively. Presence of activity on the early and delayed imaging agreed with activity on barium studies and colonoscopy in approximately 80% of cases. Correlation of location of disease by leukocyte imaging and x-ray was observed in 58.9% of early scans and 55.0% of delayed scans. Correlation of the location of disease by imaging and endoscopy was observed in 71.4% of early and 75.0% of delayed studies. Because of the possibility of occurrence of false-negative results in early images, delayed imaging should always be included in evaluation of disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease who are suspected of having mild activity. Delayed imaging is not required if the early imaging study clearly shows activity.

  15. Indium-111 WBC scan in acute toxic centrilobular hepatic necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.M.; Dhekne, R.D.; Moore, W.H. )

    1989-12-01

    In this case of prolonged fever and abnormal liver functions, dual tracer scintigraphy with In-111 WBCs and Tc-99m SC led to a biopsy-proven diagnosis of severe acute toxic hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis). Correlation of the Tc-99m SC scan findings with those previously reported for pseudotumors of the liver is discussed. A pseudonormal scan pattern is described for the In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Discordance between In-111 WBC and Tc-99m SC scintigraphy in this clinical setting should raise the possibility of hepatic necrosis as a diagnostic alternative to hepatic abscess.

  16. Indium-111 WBC detection of emphysematous gastritis in pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Caruana, V.; Swayne, L.C.; Salaki, J.S. )

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of emphysematous gastritis initially detected with 111In oxine-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy and subsequently confirmed by computed tomography. Early aggressive antibiotic and supportive therapy resulted in a successful clinical outcome.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of indium-111 (In-111) octreotide pituitary activity: Comparison in patient with and without pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, P.; Waxman, A.; Nguyen, K.

    1995-05-01

    Indium 111 Octreotide is known to detect pituitary tumors. Variable low level pituitary activity has been reported in pts. with no demonstrable pituitary tumors. To our knowledge, there have been no studies which quantitatively categorize pituitary activity with respect to distinguishing normal subject from pts. with pituitary tumors. 13 pts. with proven, treated acromegaly were included, as well as 15 pts. with no history of pituitary disorder. Both groups underwent SPECT In-111 scintigraphy 24 hours post-injection Average count per pixel ratios were obtained for the pituitary/calvarium (P/C) and pituitary/brain (P/B) regions. 10 pts. with acromegaly underwent growth hormone (GH) measurements 2 hours post-glucose load. Statistical correlation between growth hormone levels using P/C and P/B ratios were obtained. P/C ratios, as well as P/B ratios demonstrated high correlation with serum GH levels correlation coefficient(r)= .717 for P/C p<0.05, and correlation coefficient(r) = 0.828 for P/B ratios p<0.005. P/C ratios and P/B ratios for controls correlated closely with the upper level of normal predicted by P/C or P/B ratios as a function of serum growth hormone found in patients with acromegaly. Somatostatin receptor SPECT scintigraphy of the pituitary and appropriate quantitation can predict patients with growth hormone secreting tumors.

  18. Evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis with indium-111 white blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ouzounian, T.J.; Thompson, L.; Grogan, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1987-08-01

    The detection of musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following joint replacement, continues to be a challenging problem. Often, even with invasive diagnostic evaluation, the diagnosis of infection remains uncertain. This is a report on the first 55 Indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) images performed in 39 patients for the evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis. There were 40 negative and 15 positive Indium-111 WBC images. These were correlated with operative culture and tissue pathology, aspiration culture, and clinical findings. Thirty-eight images were performed for the evaluation of possible total joint sepsis (8 positive and 30 negative images); 17 for the evaluation of nonarthroplasty-related musculoskeletal sepsis (7 positive and 10 negative images). Overall, there were 13 true-positive, 39 true-negative, two false-positive, and one false-negative images. Indium-111 WBC imaging is a sensitive and specific means of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following total joint replacement.

  19. Indium-111 labeled gold nanoparticles for in-vivo molecular targeting.

    PubMed

    Ng, Quinn K T; Olariu, Cristina I; Yaffee, Marcus; Taelman, Vincent F; Marincek, Nicolas; Krause, Thomas; Meier, Lorenz; Walter, Martin A

    2014-08-01

    The present report describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of a molecular imaging platform based on gold nanoparticles directly labeled with indium-111. The direct labeling approach facilitated radiolabeling with high activities while maintaining excellent stability within the biological environment. The resulting imaging platform exhibited low interference of the radiolabel with targeting molecules, which is highly desirable for in-vivo probe tracking and molecular targeted tumor imaging. The indium-111 labeled gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple procedure that allowed stable labeling of the nanoparticle core with various indium-111 activities. Subsequent surface modification of the particle cores with RGD-based ligands at various densities allowed for molecular targeting of the αvß3 integrin in-vitro and for molecular targeted imaging in human melanoma and glioblastoma models in-vivo. The results demonstrate the vast potential of direct labeling with radioisotopes for tracking gold nanoparticles within biological systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease.

  1. Indium-111-labeled autologous leukocyte scanning in gastrointestinal graft versus host disease (GVHD)

    SciTech Connect

    Saverymuttu, S.H.; Peters, A.M.; O'Brien, C.; Chadwick, V.S.; Lavender, J.P.; Goldman, J.M.; Gordon-Smith, E.C.; Hodgson, H.J.

    1986-08-01

    The technique of scanning with indium-111 autologous leukocytes has been used to assess gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogenic marrow transplantation. In patients with active disease, abdominal scans showed extensive abnormal localization in the bowel, while in those whose disease was quiescent after responding to treatment, scans showed localized ileocecal involvement. Rectal histology showed excellent agreement with scanning in the diagnosis of GVHD, but in three of six cases with active disease underestimated disease severity. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning is a useful noninvasive technique for the diagnosis and assessment of gut GVHD.

  2. Discordant gallium-67 and indium-111 leukocyte images in a suspected pelvic abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Intenzo, C.; Thakur, M.L.; Park, C.

    1984-11-01

    An Indium-111 labeled white blood cell scan suggested the presence of a pelvic abscess in a woman at four weeks postpartum. This was not identified on a subsequent gallium scan. This discrepancy can be attributed to the normal accumulation of white blood cells within the uterus at one month postpartum.

  3. Possible pitfalls with clinical imaging of indium-111 leukocytes: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.E.; Welch, D.

    1980-02-01

    Indium-111 leukocyte imaging is a reliable procedure for detecting abscesses. Problems such as cell clumping can occur before injection, thus altering the normal distribution. Furthermore, accumulation of the labeled leukocytes in the colon, brain infarcts, and accessory spleens has been observed. Thus, these physiologic and pathologic conditions other than abscesses must be borne in mind to avoid false-positive diagnoses of abscess.

  4. Granulocyte antigen systems and antibodies and their clinical significance

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, J.

    1983-03-01

    Granulocyte alloantibodies and autoantibodies have a key role in the pathophysiology of several clinical problems. These include febrile transfusion reactions, severe pulmonary reactions to transfusion, isoimmune neonatal neutropenia, failure of effective granulocyte transfusion, autoimmune neutropenia, drug-induced neutropenia, and neutropenias secondary to many other diseases. Although many techniques are available for detecting granulocyte antibodies, the optimal in-vitro tests for predicting the antibodies' clinical effects are not established. Use of indium-111-labeled granulocytes may provide valuable information regarding the in-vivo effects of different granulocyte antibodies. Granulocyte transfusions continue to be used for a limited number of severely infected neutropenic patients who do not respond to antibiotic therapy.

  5. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Uno, K.; Matsui, N.; Nohira, K.; Suguro, T.; Kitakata, Y.; Uchiyama, G.; Miyoshi, T.; Uematsu, S.; Inoue, S.; Arimizu, N.

    1986-03-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of labeled leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In 33 patients, the incidence of pain and swelling in 66 wrist joints and 66 knee joints was compared with the accumulation of (/sup 111/In)leukocytes. No accumulation of (/sup 111/In)leukocytes was seen in any of the patients' wrists (0/12) or knee joints (0/14) when both pain and swelling were absent. In contrast, 93% (25/27) of wrist joints and 80% (24/30) of knee joints with both pain and swelling were positive by (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scintigraphy. There was little correlation between the stage of the disease, as determined by radiography, and (/sup 111/In)leukocyte accumulation. This study suggests that (/sup 111/In)leukocyte imaging may be a reliable procedure for monitoring the activity of rheumatoid arthritis, especially for confirming the lack of an ongoing inflammatory response.

  6. Indium-granulocyte scanning in the painful prosthetic joint

    SciTech Connect

    Pring, D.J.; Henderson, R.G.; Keshavarzian, A.; Rivett, A.G.; Krausz, T.; Coombs, R.R.; Lavender, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    The value of indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning to determine the presence of infection was assessed in 50 prosthetic joints (41 of which were painful) in 40 patients. Granulocytes were obtained from the patients' blood and labeled in plasma with indium 111 tropolonate. Abnormal accumulation of indium 111 in the region of the prosthesis was noted. Proven infection occurred in 11 prostheses, and all of the infections were detected by indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning. Nineteen were not infected (including nine asymptomatic controls) and only two produced false-positive scans. This represents a specificity of 89.5%, sensitivity of 100%, and overall accuracy of 93.2%. These results compare favorably with plain radiography. There was no radiologic evidence of infection in three of the infected prostheses, and 10 of the noninfected prostheses had some radiologic features that suggested sepsis. We conclude that indium-granulocyte scanning can reliably detect or exclude infection in painful prosthetic joints and should prove useful in clinical management.

  7. Pitfalls in establishing the diagnosis of deep venous thrombophlebitis by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Kimball, D.A.; Ponto, J.A.; Bricker, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Forty-seven /sup 111/In-platelet scintigraphs (In-PS) were analyzed retrospectively to identify sources of diagnostic error and to optimize the diagnostic criteria for active deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT). The results of In-PS were compared with contrast venography, additional diagnostic studies, and clinical outcome. Three patterns of platelet localization emerged as the best predictors of active DVT: (a) focal or (b) linear 4-hr localization, or (c) an asymmetric blood-pool pattern on 4-hr imaging that evolved into a focal or linear pattern by 16 to 24 hr. All false-positive studies had abnormal patterns confined to the inguinal region at 24 hr. All patients with false-negative studies had received heparin between 4 and 24 hr. The potential pitfalls encountered in the evaluation of the iliac, femoral, and popliteal veins are reviewed and the importance of delayed imaging in selected cases is emphasized.

  8. Human lymphocyte traffic assessed by indium-111 oxine labelling: clinical observations.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, J; Gibson, C; Thatcher, N; Ford, W L; Sharma, H; Crowther, D

    1981-01-01

    Clinical studies using indium-111 oxine labelling of human peripheral blood lymphocytes are presented. Data from animal models of lymphocyte migration are compared with results found in healthy subjects and patients with malignant neoplasms. The physiological significance of bone marrow and liver localization on gamma camera imaging is discussed and the importance of considering the surface marker characteristics of the lymphocytes under study, when interpreting results, is emphasized. The possibility that the redistribution of lymphocytes within the body is a cause of the peripheral blood lymphopenia in patients with Hodgkin's disease and other malignancies is suggested, and the usefulness of indium-111 oxine labelling in clarifying this problem is proposed. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7285388

  9. Comparison of indium 111-labeled platelets v leukocytes in a pyogenic abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.P.; Sugerman, H.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Hirsch, J.I.; Sharp, D.E.; Qureshi, G.D.

    1985-02-01

    This study sought to determine which blood component, WBCs or platelets, is the more specific indicator of an abscess and where each localizes. An abscess was created using stool in the hind limb of dogs. After 24 hours, one group was given autologous indium 111-labeled platelets and another group was given autologous indium 111-labeled WBCs. Blood, abscess fluid, infected operative control muscle tissue, and nonoperative control muscle tissue were counted for radioactivity 24 hours after administration of the labeled cells. There was significantly less WBC radioactivity in blood and more within abscess fluid compared with platelets. The highest platelet activity occurred in muscle tissue adjacent to the abscess compared with platelet activity in abscess fluid or control muscle tissue. The unwanted high platelet blood background activity and the desirable high concentration of WBC radioactivity within the abscess fluid makes the latter the preferential radionuclide imaging agent.

  10. Indium-111 labelled platelets in diagnosis of leg-vein thrombosis: preliminary findings.

    PubMed Central

    Fenech, A; Dendy, P P; Hussey, J K; Bennett, B; Douglas, A S

    1980-01-01

    Platelets from eight patients thought clinically to have deep venous thrombosis were labbelled with indium-111 and reinjected. Subsequent scanning of the patients with a wholebody scanner and imaging with a gammacamera showed focal accumulation of the label at five sites in four legs, which correlated precisely with the sites of venous thrombi identified by ascending venography. This technique is a useful addition to methods for diagnosis venous thrombosis. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:7427171

  11. Rapid and simple methods for labeling white blood cells and platelets with indium-111-oxine

    SciTech Connect

    Steffel, F.G.; Rao, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    Simple procedures in a kit form for labeling white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets with commercially available indium-111 (/sup 111/In)-oxine have been developed for the convenience of small community hospitals. The time required for the labeling procedure is less than 2 hr. The resulting scintigrams from the clinical studies in both WBCs and platelets showed that the /sup 111/In-labeled cells have a high degree of viability.

  12. Advantage of indium-111 leukocytes over ultrasound in imaging an infected renal cyst

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, A.; Taylor, A. Jr.; Alazraki, N.; Datz, F.L.

    1986-07-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scanning is a highly sensitive and specific method of detecting abscesses. This report describes a patient with polycystic kidneys and a single infected cyst. Ultrasound could not determine which cyst was infected, but the infected cyst could be localized by (/sup 111/In)leukocyte imaging in conjunction with a (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA renal scan. The two radionuclide studies were used to identify an infected renal cyst and direct ultrasound guided aspiration.

  13. A method for following human lymphocyte traffic using indium-111 oxine labelling.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, J; Gibson, C; Thatcher, N; Ford, W L; Sharma, H; Benson, W; Crowther, D

    1981-01-01

    A method is described whereby large numbers of human lymphocytes are separated from peripheral blood and labelled in vitro with indium-111 oxine. Following autologous reinjection, the distribution within the body is followed by means of serial blood samples, surface-probe counting and gamma camera imaging. The distribution of radioactivity following reinjection of heat-damaged labelled lymphocytes and free indium-111 oxine is different from that of 'normal' lymphocytes. The results suggest that the separation and labelling procedure does not cause significant physical damage to the lymphocytes The importance of restricting the specific lymphocyte activity to 20-40 microCi per 10(8) cells in order to minimize radiation damage to the lymphocytes is emphasized. Good resolution of lymphoid structures is obtained using gamma camera imaging and the changes recorded in organ distribution correlate well with data from animal models of lymphocyte migration. Thus, indium-111 oxine labelling of human lymphocytes provides a non-invasive method whereby the migratory properties of human lymphocytes can be followed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7285387

  14. Ultrasonography and indium 111 white blood cell scanning for the detection of intraabdominal abscesses

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, B.; Silverman, P.M.; Goodwin, D.A.; McDougall, I.R.

    1981-07-01

    Ultrasound and indium 111 white blood cell scanning were performed on 163 patients with suspected intraabdominal abscesses. In all but one case, intraabdominal abscesses were correctly identified by one or both tests; conversely, no patient was falsely diagnosed by both tests to have an abscess. Sonography was useful in those patients with focal symptoms, and frequently identified nonabscess causes for fever. White cell scanning was valuable when focal signs were absent, and frequently identified extraabdominal sources of sepsis. The two imaging modalities are complementary and provide a highly accurate and sensitive means of intraabdominal abscess detection.

  15. Endothelial cell labeling with indium-111-oxine as a marker of cell attachment to bioprosthetic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sharefkin, J.B.; Lather, C.; Smith, M.; Rich, N.M.

    1983-03-01

    Canine vascular endothelium labeled with indium-111-oxine was used as a marker of cell attachment to vascular prosthetic surfaces with complex textures. Primarily cultured and freshly harvested endothelial cells both took up the label rapidly. An average of 72% of a 32 micro Ci labeling dose was taken up by 1.5 X 10(6) cells in 10 min in serum-free medium. Over 95% of freshly labeled cells were viable by trypan blue tests and only 5% of the label was released after 1 h incubations at 37 degrees C. Labeled and unlabeled cells had similar rates of attachment to plastic dishes. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed that labeled cells retained their ability to spread on tissue culture dishes even at low (1%) serum levels. Labeled endothelial cells seeded onto Dacron or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular prostheses by methods used in current surgical models could be identified by autoradiography of microscopic sections of the prostheses, and the efficiency of cell attachment to the prosthesis could be measured by gamma counting. Indium-111 labeling affords a simple and rapid way to measure initial cell attachment to, and distribution on, vascular prosthetic materials. The method could also allow measurement of early cell loss from a flow surface in vivo by using external gamma imaging.

  16. Bone-marrow imaging with indium-111 chloride in aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Sayle, B.A.; Helmer, R.E.; Birdsong, B.A.; Balachandran, S.; Gardner, F.H.

    1982-02-01

    Twenty-nine patients with aplastic anemia and 11 patients with myelofibrosis were evaluated with indium-111 chloride bone-marrow imaging, ferrokinetics, and bone-marrow core biopsies. There was good correlation between the erythrocyte cellularity of the marrow and the In-111 bone-marrow scan grades in most patients. In some, the overall scan grade tended to underestimate the erythroid elements because the core biopsy had been taken from the area of the greatest radionuclide concentration on the scan. In patients with aplastic anemia, there was good correlation between the plasma iron clearance t1/2 and the scan grade. Less agreement was found in the comparison between the Fe-59 sacral and organ counts and the red-cell iron utilization. In patients with myelofibrosis, there was poor correlation between the surface counts over the sacrum and the red-cell iron utilization. Plasma iron clearances were abnormally short and were unrelated to the transferrin saturation levels. Eighteen patients were studied several times to evaluate their responses to steroid therapy. In all, there was good correlation between the bone-marrow imaging, the erythrocyte cellularity, ferrokinetics, and the patient's response to therapy. Indium-111 bone-marrow imaging is useful both in evaluating marrow erythroid activity and in following the response to therapy in patients with these diseases.

  17. Imaging the inflammatory response to acute myocardial infarction in man using indium-111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, R.A.; Thakur, M.L.; Berger, H.J.; Wackers, F.J.T.; Gottschalk, A.; Zaret, B.L.

    1981-04-01

    The feasibility of imaging the inflammatory response to acute transmural myocardial infarction in man using indium-111 (/sup 111/In)-labeled autologous leukocytes was assessed in 36 patients. Indium-111 leukocytes were injected i.v. 18 to 112 hs after the onset of chest pain. Cardiac imaging was performed 24 hs later with a mobile gamma camera. Twenty-one patients had positive images and 15 had negative images. The percent of positive images increased as the interval between infarction and /sup 111/In-leukocyte injection shortened; all patients injected within 24 hs of infarction had positive images. Patients with positive images were injected with /sup 111/In leukocytes earlier after infarction and were younger than those with negative images. Several other parameters that could possibly have affected the imaging results were examined and were not significantly different in patients with positive and negative images. These included peak serum creatine kinase, location of infarction, incidence of pericarditis, use of antiinflammatory drugs or membrane-active antiarrhythmic drugs, peripheral leukocyte count, and cell labeling efficiency. The function of the labeled cells was similar in patients with positive and negative images. Six patients with acute infarction serving as controls and given free /sup 111/In-oxine and six patients with stable coronary artery disease given /sup 111/In-leukocytes all had negative cardiac images.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and theranostic evaluation of Indium-111 labeled multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zolata, Hamidreza; Abbasi Davani, Fereydoun; Afarideh, Hossein

    2015-02-01

    Indium-111 labeled, Trastuzumab-Doxorubicin Conjugated, and APTES-PEG coated magnetic nanoparticles were designed for tumor targeting, drug delivery, controlled drug release, and dual-modal tumor imaging. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition method to obtain narrow size particles. To increase SPIONs circulation time in blood and decrease its cytotoxicity in healthy tissues, SPIONs surface was modified with 3-Aminopropyltriethoxy Silane (APTES) and then were functionalized with N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester of Polyethylene Glycol Maleimide (NHS-PEG-Mal) to conjugate with thiolated 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9,-triacetic acid (PCTA) bifunctional chelator (BFC) and Trastuzumab antibody. In order to tumor SPECT/MR imaging, SPIONs were labeled with Indium-111 (T1/2=2.80d). NHS ester of monoethyl malonate (MEM-NHS) was used for conjugation of Doxorubicin (DOX) chemotherapeutic agent onto SPIONs surface. Mono-Ethyl Malonate allows DOX molecules to be attached to SPIONs via pH-sensitive hydrazone bonds which lead to controlled drug release in tumor region. Active and passive tumor targeting were achieved through incorporated anti-HER2 (Trastuzumab) antibody and EPR effect of solid tumors for nanoparticles respectively. In addition to in vitro assessments of modified SPIONs in SKBR3 cell lines, their theranostic effects were evaluated in HER2 + breast tumor bearing BALB/c mice via biodistribution study, dual-modal molecular imaging and tumor diameter measurements.

  19. [Experimental study of indium-111 labeled octreotide application for radionuclide diagnostics of tumors with high expression of somatostatin receptors].

    PubMed

    Grinin, M G; Shimanovskiĭ, N L

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the possibility of using octreoitid labeled by indium-111 for radionuclide diagnostics of neoplasms with high expression of somatostatin receptors. It has been established that, using experiments with cell cultures, it is possible to predict the application of 111In-labeled octreotid and determine time intervals for the best visualization of tumors. Indium-111-labeled octreotid accumulation in animals with transferred B16 tumor (pigment melanoma) shows evidence for the opportunity of using this substance as radiopharmaceutical medium for tumor diagnostics.

  20. Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.; Yellin, J.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

  1. Factors governing the subcellular distribution of indium-111 in human platelets. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, J.L.; Rushin, C.; Vecchione, J.J.; Valeri, C.R.

    1982-07-21

    The subcellular distribution of indium-111 (In-111), and the effect of the metabolic inhibitors rotenone and 2-deoxyglucose on its uptake, retention, and subcellular distribution, have been investigated in human platelets using techniques which permit the maintenance of dense body integrity during fractionation. As with chromium-51 (Cr-51), the In-111 label appears to be located principally in the cytosolic (soluble) fraction. Equilibrium dialysis studies suggest that only 10-20% of the In-111 is associated noncovalently with non-microsomal proteins. There appears to be a relationship between the metabolic pool of nucleotides and the uptake and retention of In-111, since incubation of platelets at 37 C with metabolic inhibitors prior to labeling with In-111 reduces the amount of label taken up when compared to platelets incubated at 22 C.

  2. Indium-111 labeled platelet survival time studies in patients with prosthetic heart valves

    SciTech Connect

    Martinovitch, U.; Carrick, P.; Lieberman, L.M.

    1985-05-01

    Platelet survival time (PST) studies are useful to demonstrate whether or not patients with prosthetic heart valves have normal or shortened PST. During treatment for recurrent TIAs the PST will signal whether the patient is returning towards a normal PST. Using Indium-111 labeled platelets (ILP) the authors studied 10 patients suffering recurrent TIAs after prosthetic valve surgery to determine whether low dose aspirin increased their PST toward normal and whether the treatment had a beneficial effect on their TIA episodes. The authors conclude that low dose aspirin therapy as studied by ILP has no beneficial effect on PST or in preventing recurrent TIA. ILP is an important technique that allows the physician to identify those patients with shortened PST and to determine response to therapy.

  3. Indium-111 chloride imaging in patients with suspected abscesses: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Sayle, B.A.; Balachandran, S.; Rogers, C.A.

    1983-12-01

    Two hundred and fifty-eight patients with clinically suspected inflammatory processes were studied. Seventy-two images were categorized as true positive; 211 as true negative. There were nine false-positive studies, four of which were due to activity in beds of excised organs. There were six false-negative studies, four of which were due to walled-off abscesses found either at surgery or biopsy. The sensitivity was 92%, the specificity 95%, and the accuracy 94%. This study shows that indium-111 chloride imaging provides a reliable way to locate inflammatory processes and overcomes the disadvantages of other imaging agents, for example gastrointestinal activity or the demonstration of healing surgical wounds with gallium-67, and the false-positive images due to cystic fibrosis and other respiratory diseases, or accessory spleens as seen with In-111-labeled white cells.

  4. Initial experience with indium-111 autologous leucocyte imaging in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J R; Spence, R A; Laird, J D; Ferguson, W R; Kennedy, T L

    1983-01-01

    Indium-111 labelled autologous leucocyte imaging was used to assess severity in 13 patients with acute pancreatitis. All three patients with severe disease as judged by a prognostic factor grading system had a positive result on imaging. A fourth patient with mild disease as judged by prognostic factors had a positive imaging result and 14 days later developed a pseudocyst. There were no false positive or false negative scans. Evidence from three patients suggested that a positive 111In-leucocyte imaging result implies substantial fat necrosis. In this study imaging was as accurate as prognostic factor grading. The technique may be a useful method of separating mild from severe acute pancreatitis. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:6411262

  5. Noninvasive detection of human cardiac transplant rejection with indium-111 antimyosin (Fab) imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Frist, W.; Yasuda, T.; Segall, G.; Khaw, B.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Gold, H.; Stinson, E.; Oyer, P.; Baldwin, J.; Billingham, M.

    1987-11-01

    Diagnosis of rejection after cardiac transplantation is currently made by right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. To evaluate antimyosin imaging as a noninvasive means of detecting human cardiac rejection, the Fab fragment of murine monoclonal antimyosin antibodies was labeled with indium-111 and given intravenously to 18 patients (age 45 +/- 12 years) in 20 studies 7 days to 9 years after transplantation. Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained at the time of each imaging study. Eight patients had positive scans confirmed by biopsy as rejection, and eight patients had negative scans and no evidence of rejection on biopsy. Discordance was observed in four studies, two with positive scans and no rejection on biopsy and two with negative scans and positive biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the technique were each 80%. Imaging with radiolabeled antimyosin antibody Fab fragments may be of value in the noninvasive identification of rejection in the cardiac transplant recipient.

  6. Indium-111-oxine labeled platelet kinetics in patients with diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, L.A.; Luikens, B.; Johnson, T.

    1984-01-01

    The possible role of abnormal platelet function in the pathogenesis of vascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus remains controversial. In vitro studies have shown variable alterations in platelet function in such patients. Studies of in vivo platelet kinetics in diabetic patients have been inconclusive, although decreased platelet survival has been observed in some cases. Earlier studies were carried out using chromium-51 or selenium-75 for platelet labeling. The authors have performed Indium-111-oxine labeled platelet kinetic and biodistribution studies in 4 patients with diabetes mellitus (ages 49-61 years), and in 4 control subjects (ages 46-60 years). All subjects were male. All diabetic patients were poorly controlled at the time of study, with blood glucose > 140 mg% and hemoglobin A-1c > 10%. Autologous platelets were labeled with Indium-111-oxine in ACD:plasma by previously reported methods, and reinjected in a dose of approximately 50 ..mu..Ci (range 42-67..mu..Ci). Average recovery of the injected platelets was 67% (range 41-85%). Computer analyzed images at 24 hours showed no significant difference in liver uptake between diabetic and control subjects. Mildly increased splenic uptake in diabetic patients was of borderline significance (p=.07). Platelet survival was slightly decreased in diabetic subjects by 3 of 4 models utilized (linear, exponential, multiple hit and weighted mean), although the difference achieved significance only for the weighted man model (p=.05). These data support observations by earlier methods which suggest that platelet survival may be decreased in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  7. Use of indium-111-labeled cells in measurement of cellular dynamics of experimental cardiac allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Oluwole, S.; Wang, T.; Fawwaz, R.; Satake, K.; Nowygrod, R.; Reemtsma, K.; Hardy, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    This study evaluates the kinetics and utility of infused indium-111-labeled cells in detecting rejection in ACI to Lewis rat heart allografts. Syngeneic leukocytes, lymph node lymphocytes, and platelets were isolated and labeled with indium-111 (/sup 111/In) oxine, respectively, and were infused i.v. into Lewis rats carrying beating ACI or syngeneic hearts from post-transplant days 0 to 6. Recipients were imaged serially at 24 hr after infusion of labeled cells followed by excision of both native and transplanted hearts for direct isotope count. Labeled leukocytes accumulative progressively in the allograft with the scan becoming positive by post-transplant day 4. The ratio of allograft to native heart isotope counts rose from 1.25 on day 1 to 10.07 (P less than 0.0001) on day 7. The Lewis recipients infused with labeled lymphocytes showed a positive scan on days 6 and 7 whereas the allograft to native heart isotope count ratio rose from 0.97 on day 1 to 5.33 (P less than 0.001) on day 7. Recipients infused with /sup 111/In-labeled platelets showed a positive scan on days 5 to 7 and the allograft to native heart isotope count ratio rose sharply from 2.56 on day 4 to 16.98 (P less than 0.005) on day 7. Syngeneic heart grafts failed to demonstrate significant accumulation of any of the labeled cell population. These studies confirm the importance of nonlymphocytic cells in cellular rejection, evaluate the kinetics of graft invasion by the various cell types, and suggest that the techniques used afford a method for a safe and an early detection of allograft rejection.

  8. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites.

  9. Quantitative assessment of overall inflammatory bowel disease activity using labelled leucocytes: a direct comparison between indium-111 and technetium-99m HMPAO methods.

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, J C; Giaffer, M H; Tindale, W B; Holdsworth, C D

    1995-01-01

    The ideal imaging method in inflammatory bowel disease would reliably detect inflammation, identify the correct intestinal location, and assess the severity of the disease. The aim of this study was to compare scintigraphic methods of quantifying overall disease activity using both indium-111 (111In) and technetium-99M (99mTc) HMPAO labelled leucocyte scans. The four day faecal excretion of 111In was measured after 111In scintigraphy in 24 patients known to have inflammatory bowel disease. The same patients also underwent 99mTc HMPAO scanning. The scans were performed 10 days or less apart with no changes in treatment between scans. Bowel activity on the 99mTc HMPAO scans was assessed using a computer based method (scan score) and a visual grading method in a further 54 99mTc HMPAO. The results showed a close correlation between inflammatory activity defined by faecal 111In excretion and the scan score generated from the computer analysis of the 99mTc HMPAO image (Spearman rank correlation: rs = 0.78; p < 0.001). Accurate information to localise inflammatory activity could be obtained by simple visual assessment of both types of scan images, although image quality was superior with 99mTc HMPAO. Qualification of disease activity from 99mTc HMPAO images by visual grading was associated with a large variability, only 69% of scans had similar scores when graded by three observers. Computer generated image analysis was more reproducible. In conclusion, in inflammatory bowel disease 99mTc HMPAO scintigraphy and faecal 111In excretion correlated well. Either method can quantify and localise the inflammation. As 99mTc HMPAO scanning provides a quicker result, with a lower radiation dose, and avoids faecal collection, it may be the preferred method. Images Figure 2 PMID:8549945

  10. Role of indium-111 white blood cells in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, J.W.; Field, S.A.

    1988-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease in patients may be difficult to diagnose because of the complex problems associated with this disease. Radionuclides are able to provide a rapid and effective method of imaging the bowel in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. In the past, clinical work-ups have included barium x-ray studies and endoscopy. Scarring and fistula formation have made it difficult to determine between the active disease and abscesses that may occur. Gallium-67 (67Ga) has been very useful in imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease, but the multiple-day imaging procedure has been a limitation for the clinicians when achieving a diagnosis. Recent results with Indium-111 (111In)--labeled WBCs have provided excellent correlation between clinical symptoms and colonoscopy findings in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. This technique has also allowed the differentiation between reoccurring inflammatory bowel disease and abscesses that accompany the disease within a 24-hour time period. The use of intravenous (IV) glucagon has increased the clarity of the images in the small bowel. Technetium 99m (99mTc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been used in patients with inflammatory bowel disease demonstrating promising results. Investigators feel labelling 99mTc with WBCs will be improved, therefore yielding a greater efficiency, which will have a major impact on imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease using radionuclides has yielded promising results. This is a significant advancement over barium radiography and endoscopy exams.24 references.

  11. Indium-111-labeled LDL: A potential agent for imaging atherosclerotic disease and lipoprotein biodistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.M.; Butler, S.P.; Meinken, G.E.; Wang, T.S.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Srivastava, S.C.; Alderson, P.O.; Ginsberg, H.N. )

    1990-03-01

    Radiolabeling of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and external imaging with a gamma camera would offer a means of taking advantage of the metabolic activity of developing atherosclerotic lesions in order to noninvasively detect and determine the extent of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Indium-111-({sup 111}In) labeled LDL was prepared and its purity demonstrated by agarose electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. In vitro studies with cultured human fibroblasts demonstrated significant inhibition of iodine-125-({sup 125}I) LDL binding to LDL receptors by {sup 111}In-LDL, although this was less than the inhibition produced by unlabeled LDL. Adrenal gland uptake of {sup 111}In-LDL by hypercholesterolemic rabbits was reduced by 86% compared to the level of uptake observed in normal rabbits. These results were compatible with downregulation of adrenal LDL receptors in the hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Uptake of {sup 111}In-LDL in the atherosclerotic proximal aorta of hypercholesterolemic rabbits was 2.5 times higher than in normal rabbits. These results suggest that {sup 111}In-LDL has the potential to be a useful agent for external imaging of atherosclerotic lesions and lipoprotein biodistribution.

  12. Patterns of evolution of myocyte damage after human heart transplantation detected by indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin

    SciTech Connect

    Ballester-Rodes, M.; Carrio-Gasset, I.; Abadal-Berini, L.; Obrador-Mayol, D.; Berna-Roqueta, L.; Caralps-Riera, J.M.

    1988-09-15

    The indium-111 labeled Fab fragment of antimyosin monoclonal antibody was used to study cardiac rejection and the time course of myocyte damage after transplantation. Fifty-three studies were performed in 21 patients, 17 men and 4 women, aged 19 to 54 years (mean 37 +/- 8), from 7 to 40 months after transplantation. Repeat studies were available in 8, and 10 were studied after the first year of transplantation. A heart-to-lung ratio was used for quantitation of uptake (normal 1.46 +/- 0.04). Differences between absent (1.69 +/- 0.29) and moderate (1.90 +/- 0.36) rejection were significant (p less than 0.03). Antimyosin ratio at 1 to 3 months (1.89 +/- 0.35) differed from that at greater than 12 months (1.65 +/- 0.2) (p less than 0.01). Repeat studies revealed a decrease in antimyosin ratio in 5 patients with uneventful clinical course; 2 had persistent activity after transplantation and suffered heart failure from rejection. After 1 year of transplantation uptake was within normal limits in 7 of 10 patients, and high uptake was associated with vascular rejection in 1. Because they can define evolving patterns of myocardial lesion activity, antimyosin studies could be useful both in patient management and in concentrating resources for those patients who most require them. The heart-to-lung ratio is suggested to monitor sequentially the degree of myocyte damage after transplantation.

  13. In vivo traffic of indium-111-oxine labeled human lymphocytes collected by automated apheresis

    SciTech Connect

    Read, E.J.; Keenan, A.M.; Carter, C.S.; Yolles, P.S.; Davey, R.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The in vivo traffic patterns of autologous lymphocytes were studied in five normal human volunteers using lymphocytes obtained by automated apheresis, separated on Ficoll-Hypaque gradients, and labeled ex vivo with {sup 111}In-oxine. Final lymphocyte infusions contained 1.8-3.1 X 10(9) cells and 270-390 microCi (9.99-14.43 MBq) {sup 111}In, or 11-17 microCi (0.41-0.63 MBq) per 10(8) lymphocytes. Gamma imaging showed transient lung uptake and significant retention of radioactivity in the liver and spleen. Progressive uptake of activity in normal, nonpalpable axillary and inguinal lymph nodes was seen from 24 to 96 hr. Accumulation of radioactivity also was demonstrated at the forearm skin test site, as well as in its associated epitrochlear and axillary lymph nodes, in a subject who had been tested for delayed hypersensitivity with tetanus toxoid. Indium-111-oxine labeled human lymphocytes may provide a useful tool for future studies of normal and abnormal lymphocyte traffic.

  14. Predictive value of indium-111 antimyosin uptake for improvement of left ventricular wall motion after thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    van Vlies, B.; Baas, J.; Visser, C.A.; van Royen, E.; Delemarre, B.J.; Bot, H.; Dunning, A.J.

    1989-07-15

    In 21 patients treated with thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the degree of myocardial uptake of indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin antibodies injected within 24 hours after onset of AMI was compared with the degree and extent of regional asynergy on admission and discharge, as assessed by 2-dimensional echocardiography. On the first day of AMI, 80 MBq of indium-111 antimyosin was injected and planar images were made 24 hours later. Indium-111 antimyosin uptake was evaluated for count density index (count density of infarct zone/left lung count density) in the left anterior oblique projection, in which the infarction zone was well displayed in all patients. Using 2-dimensional echocardiography, the left ventricle was divided into 13 segments and evaluated for regional asynergy, which was considered severe (akinesia or dyskinesia) or mild (hypokinesia). The extent of regional asynergy was measured by the number of asynergic segments. All 21 patients had severe regional asynergy on admission. Nine of 21 showed only mild regional asynergy on discharge and 12 of 21 had persistent severe regional asynergy in at least 1 segment. The count density index was significantly lower in patients with mild regional asynergy on discharge compared with patients with severe regional asynergy (1.63 +/- 0.27 vs 2.50 +/- 0.42, p less than 0.01).

  15. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphic detection of myocardial abscess formation in patients with endocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Cerqueira, M.D.; Jacobson, A.F.

    1989-05-01

    Myocardial abscess formation in patients with bacterial endocarditis in most clinical settings, especially in patients with prosthetic valves, is a primary indicator for surgical valve replacement. We report the detection of myocardial abscesses using /sup 111/In leukocyte scintigraphy in three patients with prosthetic or native valve endocarditis and nondiagnostic echocardiograms. Leukocyte scintigraphy may allow identification of myocardial abscess formation earlier than other imaging modalities.

  16. Reduction of indium-111 platelet deposition on Dacron vascular grafts in humans by aspirin plus dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, J.R.; Ritchie, J.L.

    1986-02-01

    Aspirin plus dipyridamole reduces platelet accumulation on short-term Dacron vascular grafts in man. To determine whether drug inhibition of platelet deposition is sustained on older grafts, we studied 18 men aged 41 to 87 years who had Dacron aortic bifurcation grafts in place a mean of 43.4 months (range 9.8 to 121.0) before and during short-term therapy with aspirin (325 mg tid) plus dipyridamole (75 mg tid). During both the baseline and drug studies, indium-111 (/sup 111/In) platelet deposition was quantitated by two techniques, standard planar imaging performed at 24, 48, and 72 hr after injection of platelets and single photon emission computed tomographic imaging performed at 24 and 72 hr after injection. All analyses were performed in a blinded fashion. On both the planar and tomographic images, platelet accumulation on the graft was quantitated by a graft/blood ratio that compared activity in the graft to simultaneously collected whole blood /sup 111/In platelet activity. Aspirin plus dipyridamole reduced the tomographic graft/blood ratio at 24 hr (20.6 +/- 3.5 vs 17.3 +/- 2.5) (+/-SEM) and at 72 hr (29.0 +/- 4.8 vs 25.0 +/- 4.1) after injection of platelets (p = .02). Dacron vascular grafts. Similarly, the planar graft/blood ratio was reduced at 24 hr (2.7 +/- 0.5 vs 2.4 +/- 0.5), 48 hr (3.7 +/- 0.9 vs 3.1 +/- 0.7), and 72 hr (4.0 +/- 0.9 vs 3.6 +/- 0.8) (p = .04). We conclude that aspirin (325 mg tid) plus dipyridamole (75 mg tid) reduces platelet accumulation on long-term Dacron vascular grafts.

  17. Kinetics of indium-111-labelled platelets in HIV-infected patients with and without associated thrombocytopaenia.

    PubMed

    Van Wyk, V; Kotzé, H F; Heyns, A P

    1999-05-01

    Seven to 12% of HIV-infected patients have thrombocytopaenia. The pathophysiology of the thrombocytopaenia is not clear. It has been variously suggested that it may be caused by an increased peripheral platelet destruction, a defect in platelet production, or by a combination of these. The aim of the study was to elucidate the pathogenesis of HIV-associated thrombocytopaenia. We determined the mean platelet life span (MPLS) and calculated the turnover of autologous indium-111-labelled platelets in 17 HIV-positive patients, seven with thrombocytopaenia. The sites of sequestration of labelled platelets were quantified. The thrombocytopaenic patients had a very short MPLS (3.0+/-3.8 h) and a marked increase in platelet production (18.2+/-12.6x10(9)/l/h). The majority of these patients (5 of 7) had excessive sequestration of platelets in the spleen. Five of the patients with a normal blood platelet count had a shortened MPLS (109+/-23 h) and increased platelet turnover (3.8+/-1.2x10(9)/l/h), i.e. the increased peripheral platelet destruction was compensated for by increased platelet production. The other five patients with a normal platelet count had normal MPLS (195+/-11 h) and slightly increased platelet production (2.5+/-0.6x10(9)/l/h). We conclude that patients with HIV-associated thrombocytopaenia have increased peripheral platelet destruction. Platelet production is elevated but is insufficient to maintain a normal peripheral platelet count. In these patients platelets are predominantly sequestrated in the spleen. Patients with HIV infection and a normal blood platelet count may also have increased platelet production. This may be an early subclinical phase in the development of full-blown HIV-associated thrombocytopaenia.

  18. Assessment of myocardial damage in dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by using indium-111-antimyosin Fab myocardial scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, T.; Nagata, S.; Uehara, T.; Hayashida, K.; Mitani, I.; Kumita, S. )

    1991-07-01

    For the detection of myocardial cell damage, an 111In-antimyosin Fab study was carried out on seven patients (Group A) in the dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, seven patients (Group B) with dilated cardiomyopathy, and eight control patients (Group C). Imaging was done 48 hr after intravenous injection of 74 MBq of 111In-antimyosin Fab. Myocardial antimyosin uptake was visually graded as 0, +1, +2 or +3. A score of +2 or +3 was considered positive. The heart/lung ratio of antimyosin uptake (antimyosin index) also was determined. Antimyosin uptake was positive in seven (100%), nine (90%) and no (0%) patients in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. The antimyosin index in Groups A and B was 2.46 {plus minus} 0.49 and 2.04 {plus minus} 0.24, respectively, findings were significantly higher than that in Group C (1.51 {plus minus} 0.13) (p less than 0.01). Positive biopsy findings were noted in only two patients in Group A. Thus, antimyosin uptake was increased in dilated phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy, which suggests ongoing necrotic changes in these patients.

  19. Failure of ticlopidine to inhibit deposition of indium-111-labeled platelets on Dacron prosthetic surfaces in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, J.R.; Ritchie, J.L.

    1984-04-01

    In a randomized double-blind trial we sought to determine whether short-term therapy with ticlopidine (250 mg bid for 14 days) inhibited platelet deposition on Dacron aortic bifurcation grafts that had been in place a year or longer. A total of 10 men, 42 to 69 years old, underwent indium-111 platelet imaging during both placebo and drug phases of the trial at 24, 48, and 72 hr after the injection of labeled platelets. Platelet accumulation was quantitated by a graft/blood ratio that compared background-corrected activity of indium-111-labeled platelets in the graft with whole-blood activity of indium-111-labeled platelets. Additionally, blinded qualitative visual analysis of the unprocessed images was used to compare graft area activity with activity in adjacent native arteries. Ticlopidine significantly prolonged the template bleeding time from 5.3 +/- 0.5 to 17.1 +/- 3.1 min (+/- SEM) (p . .003). However, by quantitative analysis there was no significant reduction in platelet deposition in the graft during ticlopidine therapy compared with placebo at 24 hr (graft/blood ratio 2.3 +/- 0.4 vs 2.6 +/- 0.3), 48 hr (3.1 +/- 0.5 vs 3.2 +/- 0.4), or 72 hr (3.9 +/- 0.7 vs 4.0 +/- 0.6) after injection of labeled platelets. By visual analysis, nine patients had positive results for abnormal platelet deposition when on placebo that were unchanged when on ticlopidine. The tenth patient had an equivocal result for abnormal platelet deposition when on placebo and a negative result for abnormal platelet deposition when on ticlopidine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Myocardial uptake of indium-111-labeled antimyosin in acute subendocardial infarction: Clinical, histochemical, and autoradiographic correlation of myocardial necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hendel, R.C.; McSherry, B.A.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Indium-111-labeled antimyosin has been utilized in the diagnosis and localization of acute transmural myocardial infarction. The present report describes a patient who presented with a massive subendocardial infarction. Two days after the injection of antimyosin, the patient's clinical status markedly deteriorated and he expired. Postmortem examination demonstrated severe three-vessel coronary artery disease with extensive myocyte death in the endocardium. Autoradiography and histochemical staining of the prosected heart demonstrated high correlation for myocardial necrosis and corresponded to clinical evidence for diffuse subendocardial infarction.

  1. The value of indium 111 leukocyte scanning in the evaluation of painful or infected total knee arthroplasties

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, J.A.; Brown, M.L. )

    1990-10-01

    Evaluation of painful total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) for infection can be difficult. Indium 111 ({sup 111}In) leukocyte bone scanning provides a minimally invasive technique for evaluation of possible infection. Thirty-eight patients with a painful TKA who had surgical exploration after {sup 111}In leukocyte scanning were reviewed. The scan had an accuracy of 84%, a sensitivity of 83%, and a specificity of 85%. The {sup 111}In leukocyte scans must be interpreted in conjunction with the clinical evaluation of the patient because they are less accurate for study of TKAs than of total hip arthroplasties.

  2. Sensitivity of scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-lymphocytes for detection of cardiac allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, S.B.; Eisen, H.J.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.; Bolman, R.M. 3d.

    1988-12-01

    We recently demonstrated the feasibility of noninvasive detection of cardiac allograft rejection after administration of indium-111-labeled lymphocytes. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technique, as well as its value for delineating the severity of rejection, we studied 16 dogs with heterotopic thoracic cardiac allografts. Five animals were evaluated while exposed to immunosuppressive agents. Animals were scanned sequentially after administration of 100-400 microCi of indium-111-labeled autologous lymphocytes. Myocardial lymphocyte infiltration was expressed as the indium excess (IE), defined as the ratio of indium activity of the transplant or native heart compared with that in blood. Scintigraphic results were compared with characteristics of simultaneously obtained endomyocardial biopsies. Among 17 biopsy documented episodes of rejection, 16 were detected scintigraphically. Among 18 biopsies with no evidence of rejection, scintigraphy was uniformly negative. Thus, the sensitivity and specificity of scintigraphy were 94 and 100%, respectively. Biopsies graded as showing no rejection were associated with an IE of 0.3 +/- 0.5 (+/- SD); those graded as mild, 2.8 +/- 1.7; those as moderate, 10.7 +/- 7.2; and those graded as indicative of severe rejection, 14.2 +/- 4.5. Thus, scintigraphy with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes sensitively and specifically detects cardiac allograft rejection and delineates the intensity of the rejection process. It should be useful clinically for assessing potential allograft rejection noninvasively.

  3. Radioimmunoimaging of metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland using an indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibody to CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Edington, H.D.; Watson, C.G.; Levine, G.; Tauxe, W.N.; Yousem, S.A.; Unger, M.; Kowal, C.D.

    1988-12-01

    Elevated levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or calcitonin after surgical therapy for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) indicate the presence of residual or metastatic disease. CEA elevations appear to be prognostically more reliable in patients with metastatic disease and suggest a more virulent tumor. Attempts to stage the disease with use of conventional imaging techniques are usually inadequate, as is the therapy for disseminated or recurrent MCT. An indium-111-labeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (ZCE-025) was used to image metastases in a patient with MCT. Potential applications of monoclonal antibody technology in the management of MCT would include (1) preoperative differentiation of unicentric from multicentric thyroid gland involvement, (2) detection of regional or distant metastases or both, (3) measurement of response to systemic therapy, and (4) the facilitation of radionuclide immunoconjugate therapy.

  4. Accurate diagnosis of renal transplant rejection by indium-111 platelet imaging despite postoperative cyclosporin therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, B.D.; Adams, M.B.; Kauffman, H.M.; Trembath, L.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Tisdale, P.L.; Rao, S.A.; Hellman, R.S.; Isitman, A.T.

    1988-08-01

    Previous reports indicate that In-111 platelet scintigraphy (IPS) is a reliable test for the early diagnosis of acute post-operative renal transplant rejection (TR). However, the recent introduction of cyclosporin for post-transplantation immunosuppression requires that the diagnostic efficacy of IPS once again be established. Therefore, a prospective IPS study of 73 post-operative renal transplant recipients was conducted. Fourty-nine patients received cyclosporin and 24 patients did not receive this drug. Between these two patient groups, there were no significant differences in the diagnostic sensitivities (0.86 vs 0.80) and specificities (0.93 vs 0.84) with which TR was identified. We conclude that during the first two weeks following renal transplantation the cyclosporin treatment regimen used at our institution does not limit the reliability of IPS as a test for TR.

  5. In vitro effects on Indium-111-Oxine labeled leukocytes functions of N-etilmycin

    SciTech Connect

    Iacovo, R.D.; Perna, M.; Esposito, G.; Polese, C.; Frizzi, L.

    1985-05-01

    In order to study in vitro chemotaxis, phagocytosis and bactericydal efficiencies of granulocytes (PMN) and monocytes (Mo) of cancer patients with solid tumours, the authors have undertaken the evaluation of a method of measuring PMN and Mo chemotaxis with modified Boyden chambers, using In-111-oxine. The tests were performed in order to evaluate the interference of N-etilmycin with leukocyte functions, a currently fashionable antibiotic used in the treatment of gram-negative infections. The results both compare well with the visual method and are objective. Cancer patients, disease-free for a minimum of one year, were compared and evidenced normal chemotaxis and normal controls. No difference between the two groups was found (20.46% of those tested). The addition of N-etilmy-cin (6..mu..g/ml) to PMN and Mo further decreased the chemotaxis from 20.46% to 16.07% (t=2.81, P=0.0102). The addition of 30..mu..g/ml further decreased the chemotaxis from the mean control values to 5.925% (t=4.55,P 1%). The use of N-etilmycin in disease-free cancer patients should be avoided in the possible event of tumour enhancement.

  6. Dynamic studies of lymphocytes labelled with indium-111 during and after treatment with monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody in advanced B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, E M; Hekman, A; Hardeman, M R; Hoefnagel, C A

    1984-01-01

    The migration pattern of lymphocytes labelled with indium-111 was followed in a patient with B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with a murine monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody. During the early phase of continuous infusion of antibody rapid fluxes of labelled lymphocytes into and out of the blood were seen. Dynamic scanning showed immediate uptake in the lungs; thereafter activity decreased in the lungs and increased in the liver. Studies of labelled and unlabelled cells in the circulation showed that treatment resulted in the removal of lymphocytes from the blood which was repopulated from an extravascular compartment. Tumour cells were shown to be cleared from the blood by the reticuloendothelial system in the liver. Indium-111 should be used circumspectly because it may cause chromosomal damage in labelled cells, but it is clearly useful as a radiolabel for following the migration pathways of lymphocytes in vivo. Images FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:6435791

  7. Deep arterial injury during experimental angioplasty: relation to a positive indium-111-labeled platelet scintigram, quantitative platelet deposition and mural thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, J.Y.; Chesebro, J.H.; Steele, P.M.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Badimon, L.; Fuster, V.

    1986-12-01

    Although it is not clear why coronary occlusion and restenosis occur after successful coronary angioplasty, factors related to the procedure may influence early and late results. The possible adverse effects of a medial tear documented histologically and produced during balloon angioplasty of the common carotid arteries were studied in 30 fully heparinized (100 U/kg body weight) normal pigs. Scanning electron microscopy showed endothelial denudation and extensive platelet deposition in all dilated arterial segments. Visible macroscopic mural thrombus was present within an hour of the procedure in 29 (91%) of the 32 arteries that had a medial tear documented by histologic study; the tear produced an indium-111-labeled platelet deposition of 116.4 +/- 26.5 X 10(6)/cm2 (mean +/- SE) and total thrombotic occlusion in 2 arteries (4%). None of the 24 arteries without a medial tear had a thrombus, and the mean platelet deposition in that group was 7.0 +/- 0.5 X 10(6)/cm2 (p less than 0.0008). In 12 pigs scanned with a gamma camera, visible thrombus was associated with platelet deposition in excess of 20 X 10(6)/cm2 in 12 arteries, 9 of which had a positive indium-111-labeled platelet scintigram. Thus, arterial angioplasty causes deep arterial injury, which appears to be a major cause of mural thrombosis, heavy platelet deposition, a positive indium-111-labeled platelet scintigram and acute arterial occlusion. A positive indium-111-labeled platelet scintigram was always associated with macroscopic thrombus of at least 20 > 10(6) platelets/cm2 and underlying deep arterial injury.

  8. The effect of ibuprofen on accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets and leukocytes in experimental myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Romson, J.L.; Hook, B.G.; Rigot, V.H.; Schark, M.A.; Swanson, D.P.; Lucchesi, B.R.

    1982-11-01

    To assess the ability of ibuprofen to influence the extent of platelet aggregation and leukocyte infiltration during acute myocardial infarction, autologous indium-111 (/sup 111/In)-labeled platelets or leukocytes were injected before 60 minutes of left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) occlusion, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion in the canine heart. Myocardial infarct size, as a percent of the area at risk, was reduced in the ibuprofen-treated group (12.5 mg/kg i.v. every 4 hours beginning 30 minutes before LCx occulsion) by 40%, from 48 +/- 4% in control animals to 29 +/- 4% in ibuprofen-treated dogs (p=0.005). Quantification of the platelet-associated /sup 111/In radioactivity in irreversibly injured myocardium indicated that ibuprofen did not alter the accumulation of platelets in infarcted myocardium. In contrast, leukocyte accumulation in infarcted tissue was reduced significantly. In tissue samples with 0.41-0.60 gram infarct, the infarcted/normal ratio of leukocyte radioactivity was 12 +/- 2 in control dogs and 4 +/- 1 in ibuprofen-treated dogs, which represents a 67% reduction in leukocyte accumulation in ibuprofen-treated compared with control dogs. Similar reductions were found in other gram-infarct-weight categories. Although both platelets and leukocytes acumulate in infarcted canine myocardium, ibuprofen may exert its beneficial effect on ischemic myocardium by suppressing the inflammatory response associated with myocardial ischemia and infarction.

  9. Use of indium-111 oxine to study the effects of terbutaline on pulmonary and hepatic platelet sequestration in endotoxin shock

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, J.T.; Sigurdsson, G.H.; Mousawi, M.; Owunwanne, A.

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the effects of the beta 2 receptor agonist terbutaline on platelet sequestration in sheep exposed to endotoxin shock. The in vivo behavior of Indium-111-labeled platelets was followed simultaneously in the lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys. The effects on the respiratory function and the central hemodynamics were also followed. Twelve adult sheep were given endotoxin (10 micrograms/kg bw), and six of those received a continuous intravenous infusion of terbutaline (20 micrograms/kg/hr) during 4 hr, starting 30 min after injection of endotoxin. The other six acted as controls. It was found that a marked pulmonary and hepatic platelet sequestration occurred during and just after the endotoxin infusion and was followed by a marked platelet disaggregation within 30 min in both groups. Three hours after the endotoxin a second wave of platelet trapping occurred in the control animals in both the lungs and the liver, while no such increase was seen in the terbutaline-treated animals. In the spleen, however, there was a decrease in platelet sequestration after endotoxin in both groups, and in the kidneys only minor changes occurred. Furthermore, less marked hemodynamic and respiratory alterations occurred in the terbutaline group compared with the controls. It was concluded that terbutaline decreased sequestration of platelets in the lungs and in the liver of sheep in endotoxin shock, which may be of importance in the development of multiple organ failure.

  10. Novel indium-111 labeled gastrin peptide analogues (MG-CL1-4): synthesis and quality control.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Nagra, Saeed Ahmad; Yar, Muhammad; Sherazi, Tauqir A; Shahzad, Sohail Shahzad; Shah, Syed Qaiser; Mahmood, Nasir; Ishfaq, Malik Muhammad; Mather, Stephen John

    2013-03-01

    Radiolabeled neuropeptides are widely investigated to diagnose and therapy of tumors. These peptides get internalization after binding with particular receptors at the surface of cells and finally move to lysosome. Internalization into tumor cells helps in mapping the infected site. Minigastrin peptide analogues (MG-CL1-4) were synthesised and labeled with 111-In radioisotope under different sets of conditions for imaging CCk-2 receptor bearing tumors. Different parameters such as temperature (80-100°C), pH (4-12), incubation time (5-30 minutes) and dilution effect were investigated to get the maximum labeling yield and stability. The results indicated that MG-CL1-4 is successfully labeled with indium-111 at pH 4.5 with heating at 98°C for 15 minute. At these conditions i.e. heating, pH and incubation minimum oxidized and maximum labeling yield, more than 94 %, was obtained. The labeling stability was studied by incubating the radiolabeled complex for predefined time points in PBSA and blood serum. Results show that more than 90% radiolabeled MG-CL1-4 remained intact.

  11. Indium-111-antimyosin images compared with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining in a patient six days after myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, D.; Crawley, J.C.; Lahiri, A.; Raftery, E.B. )

    1990-02-01

    The results of indium-111 ({sup 111}In) antimyosin imaging during life and the findings on postmortem imaging and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of the heart are reported from a patient who received {sup 111}In-antimyosin on the sixth day following myocardial infarction and died after imaging the next day. The planar images obtained during life showed abnormal {sup 111}In-antimyosin uptake in the posterior, lateral, and apical walls of the left ventricle. Autopsy revealed extensive infarction of the left ventricular lateral and posterior walls with cardiac rupture, which was the cause of sudden death. Direct imaging of the sliced specimen of heart revealed abnormal tracer uptake in the lateral and posterior walls of the left ventricle, which correlated closely with the area of necrosis outlined by TTC staining. Our results confirm the experimental findings that antimyosin antibody binds specifically to the acute irreversibly damaged myocardial cells. A high degree of tracer uptake can be seen even when {sup 111}In-antimyosin is injected six days postinfarction.

  12. Intratumoral consumption of indium-111 labeled platelets in a patient with hemangiomatosis and intravascular coagulation (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome)

    SciTech Connect

    Warrell, R.P. Jr.; Kempin, S.J.; Benua, R.S.; Reiman, R.E.; Young, C.W.

    1983-12-15

    Previous studies regarding sites of platelet destruction in patients with the Kasabach-Merritt syndrome are conflicting. The authors recently studied an adult patient with multiple large hemangiomata, thrombocytopenia, and intravascular coagulation by external imaging following the injection of autologous Indium-111 labeled platelets. Sequential images showed prompt accumulation of platelet-associated radioactivity in areas within the right hemithorax which corresponded to certain tumors noted on the chest roentgenogram. Despite the presence of multiple other lesions in bone and soft tissues, platelet radioactivity was otherwise normally confined to liver and spleen. Using data obtained from serial images, it was shown that radioactivity within the thoracic masses actually increased over time. These data indicate that platelet consumption occurred as an active process and that localization was not a result of tumor vascularity. It is concluded that platelets are locally consumed within certain hemangiomata. However, within the same individual, there may exist considerable heterogeneity among these tumors with respect to platelet-trapping ability. In similar patients with multiple tumors, indium-platelet scanning might be used to direct local therapy to particular lesions in an effort to correct the thrombocytopenia.

  13. Indium-111-labeled platelets: effect of heparin on uptake by venous thrombi and relationship to the activated partial thromboplastin time

    SciTech Connect

    Fedullo, P.F.; Moser, K.M.; Moser, K.S.; Konopka, R.; Hartman, M.T.

    1982-09-01

    The goal of heparin thepapy in deep vein thrombosis is to prevent thrombus extension. The relationship between thrombus extension and the results of coagulation tests used to monitor heparin thepapy is unclear. To expose this relationship, we studied the effect of several heparin regimens on the accretion of indium-111-labeled platelets on fresh venous thrombi, as detected by gamma imaging, and monitored the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Six dogs were treated with a 300-U/kg bolus of heparin followed by a 90-U/kg/hour heparin infusion, a dose of heparin sufficient to increase the APTT to levels greater than eight times baseline (APTT ratio); platelet accretion (thrombus imaging) occurred only after the heparin effect was reversed with protamine sulfate. Nineteen dogs were treated with a 150-U/kg bolus of heparin followed by a 4-hour, 45-U/kg/hour heparin infusion; a thrombus was demonstrated only after protamine injection in 12 (mean APTT ratio 1.3 +/- 0.19) and before protamine injection in seven. In thirteen of these 19 dogs, 30 minutes separated the platelet injection from heparin therapy, while in six this duration was less than 30 minutes. In four of these six dogs, thrombi were demonstrated before protamine therapy and at APTT ratios greater than 3.0. Finally, 10 dogs were treated with a 100-U/kg bolus followed by a 3-hour, 50-U/kg/hour heparin infusion, after which the APTT was allowed to return to baseline values spontaneously. In all 10 dogs, a thrombus was demonstrated only after cessation of the heparin infusion, and at a mean APTT ratio of 1.4 +/- 0.15 times baseline. These results suggest that, except with very early platelet injection, platelet accretion by thrombi is consistently inhibited by heparin at APTT ratios greater than 2.5.

  14. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide analogs labeled with technetium-99m and indium-111 for malignant melanoma targeting.

    PubMed

    Chen, JianQing; Cheng, Zhen; Miao, Yubin; Jurisson, Silvia S; Quinn, Thomas P

    2002-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that the compact structure of a rhenium-cyclized alpha--melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide analog, [Cys3410,D-Phe7]alpha-MSH(3--13), or Re-CCMSH, significantly enhanced its in vivo tumor uptake and retention. In this study, the metal chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) was coupled to the N-terminus of Re-CCMSH in order to develop a melanoma-targeting peptide that could be labeled with a wider variety of imaging and therapeutic radionuclides. Biodistribution properties of indium-111 ((111)In)--labeled DOTA-Re-CCMSH were compared with the non-DOTA-containing technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)--CCMSH in murine melanoma--bearing C57 mice to determine the effects of DOTA on tumor uptake and whole-body clearance. The tumor targeting capacity and clearance kinetics of (111)In-DOTA-Re-CCMSH were also compared with other related cyclic and linear (111)In-labeled DOTA-alpha-MSH complexes. The in vivo distribution data showed that the conjugation of DOTA to Re-CCMSH did not reduce its initial tumor uptake kinetics but did enhance its tumor retention and renal clearance properties. The tumor uptake of (111)In-DOTA-Re-CCMSH was significantly higher than the other (111)In-DOTA--coupled cyclic or linear alpha-MSH analogs used in this study. Moreover, (111)In-DOTA-Re-CCMSH displayed lower radioactivity accumulation in normal tissues of interest than its non-Re-cyclized counterpart, (111)In-DOTA-CCMSH; the disulfide bond--cyclized (111)In-DOTA-CMSH; or the linear (111)In-DOTA-NDP. Peptide cyclization via rhenium coordination significantly enhanced the tumor targeting and renal clearance properties of DOTA-Re-CCMSH, making it an excellent candidate for melanoma radiodetection and radiotherapy. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.

  15. A comparative study of indium-111 DTPA radionuclide and iothalamate meglumine roentgenographic arthrography in the evaluation of painful total hip arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Maxon, H.R.; Schneider, H.J.; Hopson, C.N.; Miller, E.H.; Von Stein, D.E.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Cummings, D.D.; McDevitt, R.M. )

    1989-08-01

    Fifteen patients with painful total hip prostheses were referred for nuclear medicine and roentgenographic arthrography studies to exclude loosening of the acetabular and/or the femoral component. A new radioisotopic technique suitable for the evaluation of both components was developed using dual-isotope single-photon tomography with {sup 99m}technetium methylene diphosphonate bone imaging and indium-111 diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid arthrography. Thirteen of the 15 subjects were subsequently treated with additional surgery. The surgical findings were compared with the nuclear medicine and roentgenographic results. The overall diagnostic accuracy of both arthrographic procedures was approximately 80%, but the roentgenographic arthrogram was more sensitive and the radionuclide arthrogram was more specific.

  16. Effects of antithrombotic drugs in patients with left ventricular thrombi: assessment with indium-111 platelet imaging and two-dimensional echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, J.R.; Ritchie, J.L.

    1984-03-01

    Patients with left ventricular thrombi not caused by recent myocardial infarction were prospectively studied by indium-111 platelet imaging and two-dimensional echocardiography to determine the reproducibility of these techniques and the short-term effects of sulfinpyrazone (200 mg four times daily), aspirin (325 mg three times daily) plus dipyridamole (75 mg three times daily), and full-dose warfarin. At baseline, all patients underwent indium-111 platelet imaging and echocardiography, and the results were positive for thrombus. In six patients on no antithrombotic drug therapy, repeat platelet scans and echocardiographic studies at 6.0 +/- 3.3 weeks remained positive and were unchanged. In seven patients studied on sulfinpyrazone, three platelet scans became negative, two became equivocal, and two were unchanged; the presence and size of thrombus was constant by echocardiography in all seven patients. Of the six patients studied on aspirin plus dipyridamole, one platelet scan became negative, those of three became equivocal, and two were unchanged; all echocardiographic findings remained positive, but one patient had decreased thrombus size. Among four warfarin-treated patients, three had resolution of platelet deposition and one was unchanged; by echocardiography, thrombus resolved in one patient, was decreased in size in one, and was unchanged in two. We conclude that, in the absence of antithrombotic drug therapy, platelet imaging and echocardiographic findings are stable in patients with left ventricular thrombi not caused by recent myocardial infarction. Sulfinpyrazone, aspirin plus dipyridamole, and warfarin all interrupt platelet deposition in some patients with chronic left ventricular thrombi.

  17. The use of indium-111 labeled platelet scanning for the detection of asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis in a high risk population

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.S.; Rae, J.L.; Ryan, N.L.; Edwards, C.; Fortune, W.P.; Lewis, R.J.; Reba, R.C. )

    1989-11-01

    Five hundred indium-111 labeled platelet imaging studies (387 donor and 113 autologous) were performed postoperatively in 473 patients who had undergone total hip replacement, total knee replacement, or internal fixation of a hip fracture to detect occult deep venous thrombosis. All patients had been anticoagulated prophylactically with aspirin, warfarin sodium (Coumadin), or dextran. Thirty-four possible cases of proximal deep venous thrombosis were identified in 28 asymptomatic patients. To verify the scan results, 31 venograms were performed in 25 patients (three refused). In 21 of 31 cases, totally occlusive thrombi were detected; in 5 cases, partially occlusive thrombi were detected; in 5 cases, no thrombus was seen. No patient who had a negative scan nor any patient who had a verified positive scan (and received appropriate heparin therapy) subsequently developed symptoms or signs of pulmonary embolism. One hundred forty-one indium study patients also underwent Doppler ultrasonography/impedance plethysmography (Doppler/IPG) as a comparative non-invasive technique. In 137 cases, the results of the indium study and Doppler/IPG studies were congruent. The indium study had no false negative results that were detected by Doppler/IPG. No patient had any clinically evident toxicity. These results suggest that indium-111 labeled platelet scanning is a safe, noninvasive means for identifying DVT in high risk patients.

  18. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid uptake by a malignant fibrous histiocytoma: Phagocytosis by tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Klein, M.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1990-09-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte imaging, performed on a patient with a calcified mass in the right thigh, demonstrated labeled leukocyte accumulation in this mass. Technetium-99m-sulfur colloid imaging was performed to differentiate labeled leukocyte uptake in heterotopic bone marrow from uptake in a focus of infection. Leukocyte and sulfur colloid images were virtually identical, and the study was interpreted as without evidence of infection. Excision of the mass revealed an angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma with metaplastic bone formation. While no marrow elements were present in either the tumor or the metaplastic bone, phagocytosis of leukocytes by tumor cells was identified. Phagocytosis of leukocytes by tumor cells may be another cause of white cell accumulation in uninfected neoplasms.

  19. Quantitation of platelet loss with indium-111 labeled platelets in a hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator and arterial filter during extracorporeal circulation in a pig model

    SciTech Connect

    Palatianos, G.M.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Robinson, R.P.; Novak, S.; Dewanjee, P.K.; Kapadvanjwala, M.; Hsu, L.C.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Kaiser, G.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Platelet consumption in a hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator (HFMO) and arterial filter (AF) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was quantified in five pigs using Indium-111 labeled autologous platelets. Platelet labeling was performed 20-24 hours before CPB. After general endotracheal anesthesia, the pigs were systemically heparinized and were placed on CPB via a median sternotomy. After 3 hours of CPB, radioactivity was quantified with a gamma camera and an ionization chamber. The percent of injected dose (mean {plus minus} SD) was 0.79 +/- 0.45 in the HFMO, 2.52 {plus minus} 0.93 in AF, 4.3 {plus minus} 1.2 in blood loss during CPB. Platelet consumption in HFMO during CPB was lower than in bubble oxygenators (19%) or silicone membrane oxygenators (12%) as observed in previous studies.

  20. Indium-111 labeled monoclonal antibodies (Ab): The effect of DTPA conjugation on the Ab activity and tissue distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakashima, T.; Ohta, H.; Okada, K.; Yoshida, O.; Ohmomo, Y.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Torizuka, K.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Ab) to human ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) were conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) using cyclic DTPA anhydride and the obtained conjugates, DTPA-Ab, were labeled with In-111. The effect of DTPA conjugation on the affinity constant and the maximum binding capacity of Ab was evaluated by radioimmunoassay and Scatchard plot analysis and In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab were used for the radioimmunodetection of tumor. Ab containing 1.0 DTPA molecule per Ab showed almost full retention of both the affinity constant and the maximum binding capacity. Then, 40 ..mu..Ci of In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab were injected intravenously to nude mice bearing AFP-producing human testicular tumor and the resulted were compared with I-131 labeled Ab. Scintigraphy clearly revealed transplanted tumor. Localization of In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab was significantly higher than I-131 labeled Ab. Tumor to blood ratio obtained at 4 days after injection was 2.59 with In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab compared to 0.99 with I-131 labeled Ab. When more than 1.9 DTPA molecules were incorporated per Ab, the maximum binding capacity decreased, although the affinity constant was less affected. These In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab caused significantly higher liver accumulation. These results indicate that In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab at a cojugated DTPA to Ab molar ratio of 1.0 may be superior to I-131 labeled Ab for tumor imaging, but the maximum binding capacity and tissue distribution of In-111 labeled DTPA-AB are greatly dependent upon the number of DTPA molecules incorporated per Ab molecule.

  1. Myocardial distribution of indium-111-antimyosin Fab in acute inferior and right ventricular infarction: comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, T.; Sakakibara, T.; Noto, T.; Shoji, T.; Tsuda, T.; Kubota, M.; Hattori, A.; Iimura, O. )

    1991-05-01

    In a postmortem study of a 69-yr-old female patient who had suffered 2 yr previously a non-Q-wave anterior infarction and who had sustained just seven days earlier a left inferior and right ventricular infarction, the distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab was compared to the results of {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination. Indium-111-antimyosin Fab imaging could not be performed because of cardiogenic shock. However, postmortem gamma scintillation counting revealed increased activities of antimyosin Fab in the inferoapical and right ventricular infarcted regions in which {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate positive imagings were observed; in contrast, a histologically confirmed old subendocardial anterior infarction had no definite activity. Thus, the myocardial distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab corresponded well to the results of {sup 99}mTc scintigrams and histologic examinations in a human heart, suggesting that this technique could be useful in vivo for detecting several-day-old myocardial infarction of the right ventricle as well as the left ventricle. Tissue from the 2-yr-old infarction was not identified by this technique.

  2. Reduction in deposition of indium 111-labeled platelets after autologous endothelial cell seeding of Dacron aortic bifurcation grafts in humans: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Ortenwall, P.; Wadenvik, H.; Kutti, J.; Risberg, B.

    1987-07-01

    Autologous endothelial seeding (AES) of vascular prostheses in dogs increases thrombus-free surface and improves prosthetic prostacyclin production, patency, and the ability to withstand hematogenous challenge with bacteria. No such information is available in human subjects. In the present study one limb of an aortic Dacron bifurcation prosthesis was seeded with autologous endothelial cells (ECs) harvested from the distal portion of the saphenous vein by enzymatic treatment. The deposition of indium 111-labeled platelets on the vascular prostheses was studied 1 and 4 months after operation. In seven of nine patients seeding resulted in decreased accumulation of radiolabeled platelets compared with sham-seeded control limbs (p less than 0.04), when studied 1 month after surgery. A decrease in platelet accumulation occurred over the whole prosthesis between 1 and 4 months, and no significant difference was noted at 4 months between seeded and nonseeded graft limbs. Although the seeding density was very low (440 ECs/cm2), the observed difference in platelet accumulation for AES-treated graft limbs in the early postoperative course merits further investigation of this technique in human beings.

  3. In vivo quantitation of platelet deposition on human peripheral arterial bypass grafts using indium-111-labeled platelets. Effect of dipyridamole and aspirin

    SciTech Connect

    Pumphrey, C.W.; Chesebro, J.H.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Wahner, H.W.; Hollier, L.H.; Pairolero, P.C.; Fuster, V.

    1983-03-01

    Indium-111-labeled autologous platelets, injected 48 hours after operation, were used to evaluate the thrombogenicity of prosthetic material and the effect of platelet inhibitor therapy in vivo. Dacron double-velour (Microvel) aortofemoral artery bifurcation grafts were placed in 16 patients and unilateral polytetrafluoroethylene femoropopliteal grafts were placed in 10 patients. Half the patients in each group received platelet inhibitors before operation (dipyridamole, 100 mg 4 times a day) and after operation (dipyridamole, 75 mg, and acetylsalicylic acid, 325 mg 3 times a day); the rest of the patients served as control subjects. Five-minute scintigrams of the graft region were taken with a gamma camera interfaced with a computer 48, 72, and 96 hours after injection of the labeled platelets. Platelet deposition was estimated from the radioactivities of the grafts and expressed as counts per 100 pixels per microcurie injected. Dipyridamole and aspirin therapy significantly reduced the number of platelets deposited on Dacron grafts and prevented platelet accumulation over 3 days. With the small amount of platelet deposition on polytetrafluoroethylene femoropopliteal artery grafts even in control patients, platelet inhibitor therapy had no demonstrable effect on platelet deposition on these grafts. It is concluded that (1) platelet deposition on vascular grafts in vivo can be quantitated by noninvasive methods, and (2) dipyridamole and aspirin therapy reduced platelet deposition on Dacron aortofemoral artery grafts.

  4. Renal Scintigraphy

    MedlinePlus

    ... size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Renal Scintigraphy Sponsored by ...

  5. Characterization of a tubular flow chamber for studying platelet interaction with biologic and prosthetic materials: deposition of indium 111-labeled platelets on collagen, subendothelium, and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Badimon, L.; Turitto, V.; Rosemark, J.A.; Badimon, J.J.; Fuster, V.

    1987-12-01

    A plastic (Plexiglas) chamber for evaluating platelet deposition under controlled hemodynamic conditions has been developed. The perfusion chamber has been designed to retain the cylindrical shape typical of the vasculature, to be flexible enough to accept a variety of biologic and prosthetic materials, and to simulate a broad range of physiologic flow conditions in either an ex vivo or in vitro perfusion system. Three type of surfaces were exposed to blood flowing directly from the carotid artery of a heparinized pig through the perfusion chamber: de-endothelialized pig aorta, collagen strips from rabbit Achilles tendon, and an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene material (Gore-Tex). Platelets, previously radiolabeled with indium 111 and injected into the animal, were quantified on the material surface, and the total number of deposited platelets determined for a range of blood flow rates (5 to 40 ml/min) and exposure times (0.5 to 20 minutes). The deposition rates were correlated with theory for describing the mass transport of platelets to the test surface. At the wall shear rates investigated (105 to 850 sec-1), the deposition of platelets on subendothelium was strongly dependent on the local flow conditions. Values of deposition on Gore-Tex obtained at similar flow conditions (105 to 425 sec-1) were reduced compared with that observed on subendothelium and showed a markedly weaker dependence on the shear rate. In contrast, deposition of platelets on collagen was more than an order of magnitude greater than on subendothelium and showed a dependence on flow only at the lowest flow rate studied (10 ml/min). The results indicate that collagen is much more reactive than subendothelium and Gore-Tex with respect to the growth and stability of platelet aggregates and moreover suggest that flow mechanisms for depositing platelets on various surface may be substantially different.

  6. Use of indium-111 oxine to study pulmonary and hepatic leukocyte sequestration in endotoxin shock and effects of the beta-2 receptor agonist terbutaline

    SciTech Connect

    Sigurdsson, G.H.; Christenson, J.T.; al-Mousawi, M.; Owunwanne, A. )

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of indium-111 oxine-labeled leukocytes was simultaneously recorded in multiple organs during endotoxin shock in sheep. Also, the effects of the beta-2 receptor agonist terbutaline were studied. An experimental protocol was designed to mimic a clinical condition in an intensive care setting as far as possible. The animals were ventilated with 50% oxygen to avoid hypoxemia and were given large amounts of intravenous fluids to reduce adverse effects of hypovolemia. A moderate dose of E. coli endotoxin (10 micrograms/kg bwt) was given by intravenous infusion to 14 adult sheep, seven of them receiving continuous intravenous infusion of terbutaline (20 micrograms/kg/hr) during 4 hr, starting 30 min after endotoxin, when signs of lung injury had developed. The other seven acted as controls. A marked pulmonary and hepatic leukocyte sequestration together with a sharp drop in leukocyte counts in peripheral blood occurred within minutes after start of the endotoxin infusion in both groups. However, no changes were observed in the kidneys or the gut. After 60 min and until the end of the experiment, there was a significantly lower activity in the lungs and in the liver of the animals treated with terbutaline than in the controls (P less than .01). Furthermore, less marked hemodynamic and respiratory alterations occurred in the terbutaline group compared with the controls. This study confirms the results of other investigators showing that significant leukocyte sequestration occurs in the lungs during endotoxemia, but it also demonstrates that leukocytes sequestrate in the liver, although slightly less than in the lungs.

  7. Effect of different aspirin doses on arterial thrombosis after canine carotid endarterectomy: a scanning electron microscope and indium-111-labeled platelet study

    SciTech Connect

    Ercius, M.S.; Chandler, W.F.; Ford, J.W.; Swanson, D.P.; Burke, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation in arterial thrombosis, the appropriate dosage of aspirin remains quite controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of aspirin (0.5 mg/kg vs. 10 mg/kg) on mural thrombus formation after carotid endarterectomy. Eighteen hours after oral aspirin administration, 20 endarterectomies were performed on mongrel dogs with the use of the operating microscope. Blood flow was then restored for 3 hours and the vessels were prepared for investigation with the scanning electron microscope. Ten endarterectomies were also performed on unmedicated dogs as controls. Five minutes before vessel unclamping, autologous indium-111-labeled platelets were administered intravenously, and the endarterectomized portions of the vessels were studied with a gamma counter system after harvesting. Group 1, the control group, revealed extensive mural thrombus consisting of platelet aggregates, fibrin, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Six of the 10 vessels in Group 2, premedicated with 0.5 mg of aspirin per kg, demonstrated varying amounts of mural thrombus. Group 3 (10 vessels), premedicated with 10 mg of aspirin per kg, revealed a platelet monolayer completely covering the exposed vessel wall media, with scattered white blood cells and infrequent fine fibrin strands overlying the platelet surface. The mean (+/- SD) radioactivity per group expressed as counts/minute/mm2 was: Group 1--2055.3 +/- 1905.5, log . 7.253 +/- 0.926; Group 2--1235.6 +/- 1234.3, log . 6.785 +/- 0.817; Group 3--526 +/- 433.06, log . 5.989 +/- 0.774.

  8. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-12-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan.

  9. (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in evaluation of active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO).

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua; Jiang, Xu-Feng; Wang, Shu; Chen, Hao-Yan; Sun, Jiao; Li, Pei-Yong; Ning, Guang; Zhao, Yong-Ju

    2007-06-01

    A promising radiopharmaceutical (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-Octreotide) can be applied for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with the potential to replace Indium-111 labeled somatostatin analogus. Here we evaluate whether orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy can be used as a Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) activity parameter to predict the retrobulbar irradiation response. Orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy was performed on 14 consecutive patients demonstrating moderated to severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. The patients were treated with retrobulbar irradiation following the octreoscan and the response to this therapy was assessed at 3 months after the start of treatment. The orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC uptake was calculated to assess the effects of treatment. Among the 14 GO patients, eight (57.1%) responded to retrobulbar radiotherapy; six (42.9%) showed no change. We compared the eight responders and six non-responders in terms of orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC uptake, using the orbital/occipital ratio. On the 4-h (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy, responders had a higher orbital/occipital uptake ratio than the no-responders (P = 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the orbital/occipital ratio and the clinical activity score (CAS) (P = 0.034). The Receiving-Operator-Characteristic curve showed the best threshold for discriminating active and inactive disease was 1.40 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 83.3%). In the responders group, all these eight patients had positive scintigraphy. While there were five patients who had negative scintigraphy in the non-responders group. Orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy can be a useful method for the estimation of disease activity and prediction the response to subsequent radiotherapy in GO patient. And the patients with positive octreoscan were more likely to respond to irradiation.

  10. Skeletal Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Montilla-Soler, Jaime L; Makanji, Rikesh

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal scintigraphy remains a valuable tool in the initial and subsequent evaluation of the skeletal system in patients with a diagnosis of primary or metastatic neoplasms. We discuss radiopharmaceuticals, nuclear medicine imaging techniques, and current as well as future oncological applications in the adult population. Pertinent literature was reviewed to describe the advantages and limitations of available technologies for the evaluation of skeletal metastatic disease. Evaluation of primary and metastatic skeletal disease using nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography techniques is discussed. Skeletal scintigraphy provides valuable information in the initial evaluation for the presence of osteoblastic skeletal metastases. Incremental advances on available radiopharmaceuticals (fludeoxyglucose F 18, sodium fluoride F 18), coupled with advances in imaging techniques and imaging devices (single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging), have had a significant impact on sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy rates for the detection of skeletal metastases. Skeletal scintigraphy has a significant role in the initial diagnosis, staging, restaging, and treatment monitoring of patients with cancer and primary skeletal or metastatic disease. The coupling of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine agents in the setting of osteoblastic skeletal metastases is a valuable tool for the treatment for certain cancer types, including prostate cancer, and may become more widely used to treat other histologies as more data on other tumor types (eg, breast cancer, osteosarcoma) become available.

  11. Skeletal Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, I. Ross

    1979-01-01

    Skeletal scintigraphy, using phosphates or diphosphonates labeled with technetium 99m, is a sensitive method of detecting bone abnormalities. The most important and most frequent role of bone scanning is evaluating the skeletal areas in patients who have a primary cancer, especially a malignant condition that has a tendency to spread to bone areas. The bone scan is superior to bone radiographs in diagnosing these abnormalities; 15 percent to 25 percent of patients with breast, prostate or lung cancer, who have normal roentgenograms, also have abnormal scintigrams due to metastases. The majority of bone metastases appear as hot spots on the scan and are easily recognized. The incidence of abnormal bone scans in patients with early stages (I and II) of breast cancer varies from 6 percent to 26 percent, but almost invariably those patients with scan abnormalities have a poor prognosis and should be considered for additional therapies. Progression or regression of bony lesions can be defined through scanning, and abnormal areas can be identified for biopsy. The incidence of metastases in solitary scan lesions in patients with known primary tumors varies from 20 percent to 64 percent. Bone scintigraphy shows positive uptake in 95 percent of cases with acute osteomyelitis. Stress fractures and trauma suspected in battered babies can be diagnosed by scanning before there is radiological evidence. The procedure is free from acute or long-term side effects and, except in cases of very young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Although the test is sensitive, it is not specific and therefore it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and scanning correlation in each patient. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:390886

  12. Detection of abnormalities in febrile AIDS patients with In-111-labeled leukocyte and Ga-67 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Fineman, D.S.; Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Needle, L.B.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    Thirty-six patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who were febrile but without localizing signs, underwent indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy 24 hours after injection of labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and were restudied 48 hours after injection of gallium-67 citrate. Fifty-six abnormalities were identified as possible sources of the fever; 27 were confirmed with biopsy. Of these 27, 15 were identified only on In-111 WBC scans (including colitis, sinusitis, and focal bacterial pneumonia); six, only on Ga-67 scans (predominantly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and lymphadenopathy); and six, on both studies (predominantly pulmonary lesions). In-111 WBC scanning revealed 21 of 27 abnormalities (78%) and gallium scanning, 12 of 27 (44%). If only one scintigraphic study has been performed, particularly with Ga-67, a significant number of lesions would not have been detected. The authors believe radionuclide evaluation of the febrile AIDS patient without localizing signs should begin with In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Gallium scanning may be used depending on results of In-111 WBC scans or if there is a high index of suspicion for P carinii pneumonia.

  13. Orbital granulocytic sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stockl, F.; Dolmetsch, A.; Saornil, M; Font, R.; Burnier, M.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a localised tumour composed of cells of myeloid origin. Histological diagnosis can be difficult in patients with poorly differentiated orbital tumours and no evidence of systemic leukaemia. The naphthol AS-D chloracetate esterase (Leder stain) and immunohistochemical stains for lysozyme and MAC387 were used to determine the staining characteristics of these tumours. A case series of seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma is presented.
METHODS—Seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma were studied. Haematoxylin and eosin, Leder, and lysozyme stained sections were available in seven cases. Unstained formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections of seven cases were available for immunohistochemical evaluation using the avidin-biotin-complex technique for MAC387.
RESULTS—The mean age of presentation of the orbital tumour was 8.8 years. Four patients presented with an orbital tumour before any systemic manifestations of leukaemia. In two cases the diagnosis of the orbital tumour and systemic leukaemia was made simultaneously. There was one case of established systemic myeloid leukaemia in remission with the subsequent development of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. Six of seven cases (86%) were positive for the Leder stain. Five of seven cases (71%) showed positive immunoreactivity with lysozyme. The immunohistochemical stain for MAC387 was positive in all seven cases (100%) including one case that was negative for both lysozyme and Leder stains.
CONCLUSIONS—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a tumour that affects children and can present with rapidly progressive proptosis. This tumour may develop before, during, or after the occurrence of systemic leukaemia. The combination of Leder and lysozyme stains is useful in the diagnosis of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. MAC387 may be a more reliable marker for orbital granulocytic sarcoma.

 PMID:9497470

  14. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-11-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal.

  15. Nuclear scintigraphy in horses.

    PubMed

    Winter, Matthew D; Berry, Clifford R; Reese, David J

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear scintigraphy has been used successfully for various applications in horses in the past 30 years. Many private practices and most veterinary schools have gamma cameras, which are used to image an injected radionuclide in an equine patient. Unique exercise-related demands place specific physiologic stressors on the musculoskeletal system of horses. Horses are often pushed beyond normal physiologic limits because of specific performance stresses; therefore, injury to their musculoskeletal system is common. Skeletal scintigraphy is exceedingly sensitive but relatively nonspecific for determining a definitive etiology. Equine scintigraphy is best suited for detecting acute soft tissue and osseous abnormalities because radiopharmaceutical uptake often precedes radiographic detection. However, scintigraphy can also be used to locate potential areas of abnormal osseous turnover in horses with chronic, vague lameness. This article reviews the basic principles of equine scintigraphy, with an emphasis on bone scintigraphy and the clinical applications of this technique. Vascular-, soft tissue-, and bone-phase acquisition are described along with basic image interpretation. Potential pitfalls in image acquisition and interpretation are discussed.

  16. Vaginal distribution and retention of a multiparticulate drug delivery system, assessed by gamma scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Samata; Verstraelen, Hans; Peremans, Kathelijne; Villeirs, Geert; Vermeire, Simon; De Vos, Filip; Mehuys, Els; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris

    2012-04-15

    For any new vaginal dosage form, the distribution and retention in the vagina has to be assessed by in vivo evaluation. We evaluated the vaginal distribution and retention of starch-based pellets in sheep as live animal model by gamma scintigraphy (using Indium-111 DTPA as radiolabel) and in women via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, using a gadolinium chelate as contrast agent). A conventional cream formulation was used as reference in both studies. Cream and pellets were administered to sheep (n=6) in a two period-two treatment study and to healthy female volunteers (n=6) via a randomized crossover trial. Pellets (filled into hard gelatin capsule) and cetomacrogol cream, both labeled with Indium-111 DTPA (for gamma scintigraphy) or with gadolinium chelate (for MRI) were evaluated for their intravaginal distribution and retention over a 24h period. Spreading in the vagina was assessed based on the part of the vagina covered with formulation (expressed in relation to the total vaginal length). Vaginal retention of the formulation was quantified based on the radioactivity remaining in the vaginal area (sheep study), or qualitatively evaluated (women study). Both trials indicated a rapid distribution of the cream within the vagina as complete coverage of the vaginal mucosa was seen 1h after dose administration. Clearance of the cream was rapid: about 10% activity remained in the vaginal area of the sheep 12h post-administration, while after 8h only a thin layer of cream was detected on the vaginal mucosa of women. After disintegration of the hard gelatin capsule, the pellet formulation gradually distributed over the entire vaginal mucosa. Residence time of the pellets in the vagina was longer compared to the semi-solid formulation: after 24h 23 ± 7% radioactivity was detected in the vaginal area of the sheep, while in women the pellet formulation was still detected throughout the vagina. A multi-particulate system containing starch-based pellets was identified as a

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of bombesin derivatives on the basis of pan-bombesin peptides labeled with indium-111, lutetium-177, and yttrium-90 for targeting bombesin receptor-expressing tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanwen; Chen, Jianhua; Waldherr, Christian; Hinni, Karin; Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude; Maecke, Helmut R

    2004-09-15

    Bombesin receptors are overexpressed on a variety of human tumors like prostate, breast, and lung cancer. The aim of this study was to develop radiolabeled (Indium-111, Lutetium-177, and Yttrium-90) bombesin analogues with affinity to the three bombesin receptor subtypes for targeted radiotherapy. The following structures were synthesized: diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-gamma-aminobutyric acid-[D-Tyr6, beta-Ala11, Thi13, Nle14] bombesin (6-14) (BZH1) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N"' -tetraacetic acid-gamma-aminobutyric acid-[D-Tyr6, beta-Ala11, Thi13, Nle14] bombesin (6-14) (BZH2). [111In]-BZH1 and in particular [90Y]-BZH2 were shown to have high affinity to all three human bombesin receptor subtypes with binding affinities in the nanomolar range. In human serum metabolic cleavage was found between beta-Ala11 and His12 with an approximate half-life of 2 hours. The metabolic breakdown was inhibited by EDTA and beta-Ala11-His12 (carnosine) indicating that carnosinase is the active enzyme. Both 111In-labeled peptides were shown to internalize into gastrin-releasing peptide-receptor-positive AR4-2J and PC-3 cells with similar high rates, which were independent of the radiometal. The biodistribution studies of [111In]-BZH1 and [111In]-BZH2 ([177Lu]-BZH2) in AR4-2J tumor-bearing rats showed specific and high uptake in gastrin-releasing peptide-receptor-positive organs and in the AR4-2J tumor. A fast clearance from blood and all of the nontarget organs except the kidneys was found. These radiopeptides were composed of the first pan-bombesin radioligands, which show great promise for the early diagnosis of tumors bearing not only gastrin-releasing peptide-receptors but also the other two bombesin receptor subtypes and may be of use in targeted radiotherapy of these tumors.

  18. Indium 111 toxicity in the human lymphocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, E.B.; Watson, S.; Mayfield, G.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Bullock, W.

    1985-05-01

    Indium-labeled lymphocytes were examined for response to a variety of mitogens, ability to synthesize immunoglobulins, mitotic index, and presence of chromosome aberrations at a range of exposures from 0.2 to 500 muCi/10(8) cells. Results of all four tests were found to be abnormal when the lymphocytes were labeled with /sup 111/In activities well within those employed for diagnostic testing.

  19. Leukemic cell labeling with indium-111-oxine

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, T.; Takagi, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Yui, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kimura, H.; Kariyone, S.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemic cells were labeled with In-111-oxine in patients with acute leukemia. In vitro labeling studies revealed that labeling efficiency reached maximum 80.8 +- 3.6% (mean +- 1SD) by 2 times washes after 20 minutes incubation time. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion test and in vitro culture of leukemic cells, which showed no cellular damage during labeling procedure. Elution of In-111 from the labeled cells was 10.0 +- 1.2% at 12 hours after labeling. For in vivo leukemic cell kinetic studies, more than 10/sup 8/ leukemic cells separated from Ficoll-Hypacque sedimentation were labeled by 30 minutes of In-111-oxine incubation and two times washes at 37/sup 0/C. In vivo studies were performed in 7 patients with acute myeloblastic, lymphoblastic leukemia and blastic crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia. Labeled leukemic cells disappeared in single exponential fashion with half life of 9.6 to 31.8 hours. Total leukemic cell pool in peripheral circulation was calculated, which correlated well with peripheral leukemic cell counts (r=0.99). No relationship was observed between total leukemic cell pool and leukemic cell turnover rate. Migration patterns of labeled leukemic cells showed that pulmonary uptake was evident within 15 minutes after the infusion and returned to base-line. Splenic and hepatic uptake showed gradual increase up to 24 hours. Bone marrow accumulation was shown only in 2 cases. Presently, there are no suitable radionuclides for leukemic cell labeling. In-111-oxine labeled leukemic cells would overcome this difficulty.

  20. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed.

  1. The acetabulum: A prospective study of three-phase bone and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous-coated hip arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Anderson, J.H.; Callaghan, J.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Although few studies address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and indium-111-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy ({sup 111}In-WBC) in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous-coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen with the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous-coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and {sup 111I}n-WBC at approximately 7 days, and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the acetabulum. All 25 prostheses (144 of 144 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone-phase images. Although this activity decreased with time, 76% had persistent uptake at 24 mo. Twenty-three of 25 prostheses (126 of 140 scans) showed increased uptake on {sup 111}In-WBC scintigraphy, invariably decreasing with time, but with 37% having significant uptake at 24 mo. Scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated porous-coated hip arthroplasty patient appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses.

  2. Postoperative bone marrow alterations: Potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis with In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Nepola, J.V.; Marsh, J.L.; Hawes, D.R.; Justin, E.P.; Ponto, J.A.; Pettit, W.A.; el-Khoury, G.Y.; Kirchner, P.T. )

    1991-09-01

    Scintigraphy was used after injection of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and indium-111-labeled white blood cells (WBCs) to assess for the presence of osteomyelitis in 97 patients who had undergone prior surgical procedures. Thirty-four patients with abnormal In-111-labeled WBC patterns underwent restudy with Tc-99m albumin colloid (AC). Scintigraphic findings were considered positive for osteomyelitis whenever localization of In-111-labeled WBCs exceeded Tc-99m AC activity in extent or focal intensity (discordant pattern). Ten of 12 patients with culture-proved osteomyelitis had discordant patterns; two had false-negative (concordant) patterns. The cases of 20 of 22 patients without infection who were considered to have osteomyelitis on the basis of patterns of In-111-labeled WBCs and Tc-99m MDP were reclassified correctly on the basis of concordant patterns of In-111-labeled WBCs and Tc-99m AC. Radiocolloid images improved the overall scintigraphic specificity for osteomyelitis from 59% without bone marrow imaging to 92%; sensitivity decreased from 94% to 88%.

  3. Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Dzięgiel, Beata; Adaszek, Łukasz; Kalinowski, Marcin; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2013-10-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of horses that is transmitted by Ixodid ticks. Recent studies suggest that multiple strains of A. phagocytophilum may be circulating in wild and domestic animal populations, and these strains may have differential host tropisms and pathogenicity. The organism infects and survives within neutrophils. Co-infections with other tick-borne pathogens may occur, especially Borrelia burgdorferi. A. phagocytophilum causes an acute febrile illness in horses with lethargy, inappetence, lameness and hemorrhages. Diagnosis is based on finding morulae within granulocytes in the peripheral blood, and detection of the DNA of A. phagocytophilum using specific polymerase chain reaction assays. Most reports suggesting that anaplasmosis is a self-limiting disease that responds well to a tetracycline therapy.

  4. sup 111 Indium-labeled neutrophil migration into the lungs of bleomycin-treated rabbits assessed noninvasively by external scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Haslett, C.; Shen, A.S.; Feldsien, D.C.; Allen, D.; Henson, P.M.; Cherniack, R.M. )

    1989-09-01

    Factors controlling neutrophil migration into the lung are poorly understood, but their identification is important for our understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases. Pulmonary inflammation is difficult to quantify, and neutrophils in tissues and BAL may not accurately represent cell migration. In this study, intravenously delivered pulses of rabbit neutrophils labeled with Indium-111 (111In-neutrophils) were used to monitor neutrophil migration into the lungs. Radioactivity quantified in the lung region of interest (ROI) of external gamma camera scintigrams recorded 24 h after intravenous 111In-neutrophil injection accurately reflected the actual neutrophil-associated lung tissue radioactivity. ROI radioactivity at 24 h also correlated closely with the percent of 111In-neutrophils that had migrated into lavageable air spaces, and this parameter therefore provided an index of total lung 111In-neutrophil migration. Using 24-h ROI radioactivity and percent of injected 111In-neutrophils recovered in BAL at 24 h as indices of neutrophil migration into the lung, it was found that intratracheal saline caused only a transient neutrophil migration, whereas 10 U/kg intratracheal bleomycin induced migration that persisted for as long as 3 wk. 111In-neutrophil migration into the lung, assessed by external scintigraphy, correlated with total neutrophils quantified in histologic sections (r = 0.71, p = 0.006). The data suggest that this approach will be valuable in investigating mechanisms controlling neutrophil migration in lung inflammation, and that 111In-neutrophil scintigraphy may provide a noninvasive index of total lung neutrophil load that might be useful in staging inflammation in patchy diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Johan S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), a deer tick transmitted rickettsial infection caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is a common cause of undifferentiated fever in the Northeast and Upper Midwest U.S. Patients are often initially diagnosed with a mild viral infection, and illness readily resolves in most cases. However, as many as 3% may develop life threatening complications and nearly 1% die from the infection. A history of tick bite and a high degree of clinical suspicion thus warrant consideration for doxycycline treatment in both adults and children, even in the absence of known tick bite, a negative blood film examination, or pending results of specific A. phagocytophilum diagnostic tests such as paired serology or PCR on acute phase blood. Antibody tests and titers should not be used to monitor active infection as detectable antibodies can remain present for years. Moreover, persistent infection has never been reported. While co-infections with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti occur, there is little evidence to suggest synergism of disease or a role for A. phagocytophilum in chronic illness. Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, use of tick repellents, and careful searches of skin to remove attached ticks; no vaccine is available. PMID:25999228

  6. Serum amyloid P inhibits granulocyte adhesion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extravasation of granulocytes (such as neutrophils) at a site of inflammation is a key aspect of the innate immune system. Signals from the site of inflammation upregulate granulocyte adhesion to the endothelium to initiate extravasation, and also enhance granulocyte adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins to facilitate granulocyte movement through the inflamed tissue. During the resolution of inflammation, other signals inhibit granulocyte adhesion to slow and ultimately stop granulocyte influx into the tissue. In a variety of inflammatory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, an excess infiltration of granulocytes into a tissue causes undesired collateral damage, and being able to reduce granulocyte adhesion and influx could reduce this damage. Results We found that serum amyloid P (SAP), a constitutive protein component of the blood, inhibits granulocyte spreading and granulocyte adhesion to extracellular matrix components. This indicates that in addition to granulocyte adhesion inhibitors that are secreted during the resolution of inflammation, a granulocyte adhesion inhibitor is present at all times in the blood. Although SAP affects adhesion, it does not affect the granulocyte adhesion molecules CD11b, CD62L, CD18, or CD44. SAP also has no effect on the production of hydrogen peroxide by resting or stimulated granulocytes, or N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced granulocyte migration. In mice treated with intratracheal bleomycin to induce granulocyte accumulation in the lungs, SAP injections reduced the number of granulocytes in the lungs. Conclusions We found that SAP, a constitutive component of blood, is a granulocyte adhesion inhibitor. We hypothesize that SAP allows granulocytes to sense whether they are in the blood or in a tissue. PMID:23324174

  7. [Granulocytes transfusion for neutropenic patients].

    PubMed

    Fernández, J; Pressiani, V; Solimano, J; Koziner, B

    2001-01-01

    A renewed interest in the transfusion of granulocytes for support of patients afflicted by severe and prolonged neutropenia has resulted from improved methods of mobilization and collection that provide cellular products superior in number and functions as compared with historical experiences of the 70's. In this review we discuss the clinical experience reported in the literature over the past three decades, the progress made in donor selection, the use of growth factors and mechanical apheresis. We comment on adverse effects, emphasize present indications and our own experience for the use of granulocyte transfusions. Hopefully, the progress made in this area will justify the consideration of granulocyte transfusions in the management of the severely neutropenic patient and provide proper documentation to avoid repeating the disappointment experienced in the previous two decades.

  8. Liver scintigraphy in ponies

    SciTech Connect

    Theodorakis, M.C.; Bermudez, A.J.; Manning, J.P.; Koritz, G.D.; Hillidge, C.J.

    1982-09-01

    Six derivatives of ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis (alpha-2-hydroxy phenyl) acetic acid labeled with /sup 99m/Tc were prepared and their imaging qualities evaluated in ponies. The 6 agents produced good scintigraphic images of certain structures of the liver in the pony. For each agent, 13 different scans were taken. Dorsal views of the left lateral, right lateral, and quadrate lobe were obtained with dorsal scans. Left lateral and left lateral oblique (45 degrees) scans provided a left lateral view of the left lobe and a medial view of the right lateral lobe. Right lateral scans revealed the right lateral and quadrate lobes. Administration of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled colloids which are commonly used in other species for liver scintigraphy resulted in extensive lung uptake in the pony.

  9. Dynamic esophageal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Reilley, J.J.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S.; Applegate, G.; DeVegvar, M.L.

    1982-06-01

    Esophageal scintigraphy was developed in order to quantitatively evaluate esophageal transit in patients with a variety of esophageal disorders. The study is performed with orally administered technetium-99m sulfur colloid in water, using a gamma camera on-line to a digital computer. Esophageal transit is expressed as the percent emptying for each of the first 15-sec intervals for 10 min after an initial swallow and at 15-sec intervals after serial swallows. Esophageal transit is significantly decreased in patients with motor disorders of the esophagus, compared to normal controls. In patients with reflux esophagitis, esophageal transit was abnormal when the reflux disease was accompanied by abnormal motor function. The technique we describe is the first quantitative test of esophageal function; it is a useful, sensitive, scintigraphic technique for evaluation of esophageal transit.

  10. Liver scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

  11. Interactions between human granulocytes and Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    PubMed Central

    Sixbey, J W; Fields, B T; Sun, C N; Clark, R A; Nolan, C M

    1979-01-01

    We studied interactions in vitro between human granulocytes and the yeast-like form of Blastomyces dermatitidis, because granulocytes are prominent in the host response to systemic blastomycosis. In Boyden chamber assays, broth culture filtrates of B. dermatitidis contained levels of granulocyte chemotactic activity that were significantly higher than those present in similar culture filtrates of Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans, two fungi that characteristically do not elicit granulocytes in infected tissues. Microscopic study, including electron microscopy, demonstrated that granulocytes phagocytosed B. dermatitidis promptly and efficiently. Moreover, granulocytes emitted light (chemiluminescence) at a brisk rate during phagocytosis of B. dermatitidis, indicating activation of intracellular metabolic pathways. However, fungicidal assay showed that granulocytes (1:1 cell-yeast ratio, 10% serum) killed only 29% of the B. dermatitidis inoculum during 3 h of incubation. Taken together, these findings suggest that there is disparity between phagocytosis and intracellular killing of B. dermatitidis by human granulocytes, perhaps because of resistance of this fungus to granulocyte microbicidal mechanisms. PMID:422234

  12. Osmotic tolerance of human granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, W.J.; Mazur, P.

    1984-11-01

    Human granulocytes are injured when returned to isotonic conditions after exposure at 0/sup 0/C to hyperosmotic solutions of NaCl or sucrose with osmolalities above 0.6 osmolal. The damage was expressed as a loss of membrane integrity (fluorescein diacetate (FDA) assay) only after 60-90 min incubation at 37/sup 0/C. Survival after exposure to a 1.4-osmolal solution at 0/sup 0/C was dependent on the extent of subsequent dilution. Dilution to below 0.6 osmolal was damaging, but cells could be returned to near-osmotic conditions provided that the solute concentration was increased again to 0.64 osmolal before the cells were incubated at 37/sup 0/C. Granulocyte cell volumes were measured under various osmotic conditions by computer-assisted micrometry. The cells did not display a minimum volume but behaved as osmometers over the observed range of 0.2-1.4 osmolal. Granulocyte volume at a given osmolality was independent of whether the cells had first been exposed to a strongly hyperosmotic medium, indicating that no solute loading occurred in hyperosmotic sucrose solutions. Even though the cells did not survive sequential exposure to >0.6 osmolal solutions, subsequent return to isotonicity, and incubation at 37/sup 0/C, neither cell lysis nor loss in FDA-positive cells occurred after the first two steps. This finding is not consistent with the critical-surface area-increment theory of freezing injury. The mechanism of cell injury in hyperosmotic solutions is thus not known. However, the results show that osmotic stress is potentially a major damaging factor both in the equilibration of cells with protective additives and during freezing and thawing.

  13. Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma): CT manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Pomeranz, S.J.; Hawkins, H.H.; Towbin, R.; Lisberg, W.N.; Clark, R.A.

    1985-04-01

    Nests of granulocytic tumor cells in patients who have myelogeneous leukemia are termed chloromas. Eight cases of chloroma seen on CT were reviewed. Lymph nodes, subcutaneous tissues, peritoneum, pleural space, pelvis, and portal hepatis were involved. The extracranial appearance of chloroma on CT is that of small, nonenhancing, nodular densities that resemble lymphoma. Cranial involvement is characteristically in the orbit. The central nervous system appearance is variable, however, and high attenuation masses may occur that mimic lymphoma, hematoma, and metastatic neuroblastoma. The recognition of these lesions is important, since radiation, not chemotherapy, is often the preferred treatment for localized chloroma.

  14. Dipyridamole thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    Thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial scintigraphy is a sensitive technique for detecting coronary artery disease. Standardized exercise testing is the most common method for inducing myocardial stress for /sup 201/Tl imaging. Unfortunately, a significant number of patients are unable to undergo adequate treadmill or bicycle exercise. In these patients, pharmacologic stress with dipyridamole provides a safe, efficacious, and reliable alternative.

  15. Gallium scintigraphy in acute panniculitis

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, D.; Murray, I.P.C.; Ford, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    Gallium scintigraphy was performed in a 27-yr-old female in search of a possible occult focus of infection; it showed an unusual diffuse superficial accumulation in the thighs and buttocks. Biopsy of an area of abnormal uptake showed lobular panniculitis which, in the clinical context, led to the diagnosis of Weber-Christian syndrome.

  16. Thallium 201 Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    McKillop, James H.

    1980-01-01

    The radioactive isotope thallium 201 behaves physiologically as a potassium analog, and when injected intravenously accumulates rapidly within the cells of many organs. Uptake of the isotope reflects both regional perfusion and sodium-potassium pump activity. The radionuclide emits 80 keV x-rays which are suitable for scintillation camera imaging. The main clinical application of 201TI scintigraphy has been in myocardial imaging. Abnormal uptake of the isotope results in a cold spot on the myocardial image. In patients with coronary artery disease, the differentiation of ischemic and infarcted myocardium is made by comparing images obtained after injecting the radionuclide at the peak of a maximal exercise test with those obtained after injection at rest. Abnormalities due to ischemia usually are seen only on the stress image whereas fixed defects in both rest and stress studies usually indicate areas of infarction or scarring. Some investigators believe that redistribution images obtained four to six hours after stress injection (without administering further 201TI) give the same information as a separate rest study. The sensitivity of stress imaging for detecting significant coronary disease is of the order of 80 percent to 95 percent, though computer processing of the images may be necessary to achieve the higher figure. The prediction of the extent of coronary disease from 201TI images is less reliable. An abnormal 201TI image is not entirely specific for coronary artery disease and the likelihood of an abnormal image being due to this diagnosis varies according to the clinical circumstances. The main clinical value of 201TI myocardial imaging is likely to be in the noninvasive screening of patients with atypical chest pain or with ambiguous findings on stress electrocardiographic tests. It has also proved useful in studying patients with variant angina or following a coronary bypass operation. It is doubtful whether the technique is clinically helpful in most

  17. [The position of scintigraphy in traumatology].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, C; Neck, K; Ritter, R; Glanzmann, C; Schwarz, H

    1978-12-01

    A report on the findings of skeletal scintigraphy in 80 cases of traumatic bone lesions is discussed. After a short survey on the physiological process in the activity ensilage, the assertion of the scintigraphy is compared to the X-ray. The indication which has been approved in practice is discussed and described. In correct indication scintigraphy is a valuable diagnostic measure and it may influence the procedure.

  18. Primary granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, G; Gangadharan, V P; Elizabath, K A; Preetha, S; Chithrathara, K

    2000-06-01

    Granulocytic sarcomas are rare extramedullary tumors of malignant myeloid precursor cells. Exceedingly rare in childhood, it commonly involves skin, lymph nodes, bone, and the spine. Ovarian involvement is rare. It can arise de novo, precede the development of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, or be the sole manifestation of relapse. We describe a 26-year-old woman with granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary without any hematologic disorder.

  19. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    SciTech Connect

    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V. )

    1990-08-01

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection.

  20. Indium-111 chloride imaging in the detection of infected prostheses

    SciTech Connect

    Sayle, B.A.; Fawcett, H.D.; Wilkey, D.J.; Cierny, G. III; Mader, J.T.

    1985-07-01

    Thirty-three patients with painful joint prostheses and a suspicion of infection were imaged with (/sup 111/In)chloride. A final diagnosis was established by culture in 19. Of these, 12 were categorized as true positives and three as true negatives. There were two false-positive studies, occurring in patients with knee prostheses. In both, the culture was obtained by aspiration. The sensitivity was 86%, specificity 60%, and accuracy 79%. Seventeen of the proven cases had bone imaging prior to (/sup 111/In)chloride imaging. All 17 static images were positive and were not helpful in differentiating loosening from infection. Using increased uptake on the blood-pool image as a criteria for infection, the sensitivity was 89%, but the specificity was 0. Adding flow studies made little difference in interpreting the blood-pool images. This study shows that (/sup 111/In)chloride imaging is more accurate in evaluating infection in prosthesis than bone imaging.

  1. Detection of an abdominal aneurysm by indium-111 platelet imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, L.; Thorpe, P.; Weir, E.K.; Johnson, T.

    1985-10-01

    The authors report a case in which In-111 platelet imaging provided uniquely useful information in the discovery of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. This case illustrates the potential usefulness of this procedure in the detection of unsuspected sites of thrombogenic vascular disease.

  2. In vivo dissolution measurement with indium-111 summation peak ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, M.; Woodward, M.A.; Brouwer, K.R.

    1985-10-01

    Dissolution of (/sup 111/In)labeled tablets was measured in vivo in a totally noninvasive manner by using a modification of the perturbed angular correlation technique known as the summation peak ratio method. This method, which requires the incorporation of only 10-12 microCi into the dosage form, provided reliable dissolution data after oral administration of (/sup 111/In)lactose tablets. These results were supported by in vitro experiments which demonstrated that the dissolution rate as measured by the summation peak ratio method was in close agreement with the dissolution rate of salicylic acid in a (/sup 111/In)salicylic acid tablet. The method has the advantages of using only one detector, thereby avoiding the need for complex coincidence counting systems, requiring less radioactivity, and being potentially applicable to a gamma camera imaging system.

  3. Uptake of indium-111-labeled leukocytes by brain metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, S.; Husain, M.M.; Adametz, J.R.; Pallin, J.S.; Angtuaco, T.L.; Boyd, C.M.

    1987-04-01

    Uptake of indium-labeled leukocytes was seen in two cases of histologically proven brain metastasis. In one, this led to misdiagnosis of the lesion as an abscess. On histological evaluation, a large number of white blood cells or macrophages was seen at the neoplastic sites. Reasons for leukocyte accumulation around metastatic brain neoplasms are discussed. In contrast to the current reports that indium-labeled leukocyte scans can differentiate intracranial infection from tumor, these cases demonstrate their lack of specificity in the detection of brain abscess.

  4. Positive indium-111 leukocyte scan in Nocardia brain abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, J.M.; Osenbach, R.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Youngblood, L.; Crooks, L.; Landry, A.J.; Cawthon, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    We report a case of clinically unsuspected nocardia brain abscess detected by /sup 111/In-labeled autologous leukocytes. Clinical and computed tomographic findings supported the diagnosis of primary or metastatic tumor and the patient was treated with dexamethasone for 30 days prior to the leukocyte scan. Labeled leukocytes may provide a sensitive discriminator for brain abscess despite previous therapy with steroids.

  5. Nonvisualization of sterile surgical incisions with indium-111 labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Nabi, H.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.

    1985-09-01

    The localization of In-111 labeled leukocytes (WBCs) in recent surgical incisions was studied in 18 patients. In-111 WBC images correlated well with culture results and clinical findings. No accumulation of In-111 WBCs was detected at the site of noninfected incisions in nine patients. In-111 WBCs did accumulate at incision sites in nine patients with infected surgical incisions. These results indicate that In-111 WBC study can accurately distinguish between normal healing and infection of recent surgical incisions.

  6. Uptake of indium-111-labeled platelets and indium-111 oxine by murine kidneys after total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbe, S.; Taylor, S.; Maurer, H.; Kullgren, B.

    1996-08-01

    Radiation nephropathy is a well-known late manifestation of renal irradiation in human beings and experimental animals. Its pathogenesis is unclear, but vascular injury may play a role. Endothelial cells have been demonstrated to manifest a variety of abnormalities within hours of exposure to radiation. In the present experiments mice were exposed to lethal doses of whole-body radiation, and the distribution of {sup 111}In-labeled platelets was evaluated during the first week after irradiation. The purpose was to determine if early abnormalities of endothelial cells would be manifested by altered sequestration of platelets in kidneys and other organs. It was found that the indium accumulated in the kidneys of irradiated mice to a greater extent than in nonirradiated mice, but the pattern of accumulation differed from that seen after injection of radiolabeled platelets. Renal hyperemia was not demonstrable with {sup 51}Cr-labeled red cells, renal vascular permeability was not detected with {sup 125}I-labeled albumin, and the pattern of renal uptake of plasma proteins labeled albumin, and the pattern of renal uptake of plasma proteins labeled with {sup 59}Fe {sup 111}In did not coincide with that seen from {sup 111}In administered as labeled platelets or oxine. Renal uptake of {sup 111}In-oxine was not associated with alterations in urinary or fecal excretion or an increase in total-body retention of the radioisotope. The findings are consistent with the notion that renal vascular injury at the time of irradiation results in accumulation of platelets or platelet constituents during the first week after total-body irradiation of mice. 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  8. Hemopathologic consequences of protracted gamma irradiation: alterations in granulocyte reserves and granulocyte mobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.; Cullen, S.M.; Kaspar, L.V.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.

    1980-07-01

    Aplastic anemia and myelogenous leukemia are prominent pathologic effects in beagles exposed to continuous, daily, low-dose gamma irradiation. In the present work, granulocyte reserves and related mobilization functions have been sequentially assessed by the endotoxin stress assay during the preclinical and clinical phases of these hemopoietic disorders. Characteristic patterns of granulocyte reserve mobilization are described that reflect given stages of pathologic progression. For radiation-induced leukemia, a five-stage pattern has been proposed. In contrast, a simple pattern of progressive, time-dependent contraction of granulocyte reserves and mobilization capacity was noted in the development of terminal aplastic anemia. Early preclinical phases of radiation-induced leukemia appear to involve an extensive depletion of the granulocyte reserves (phase I) during the first approx. 200 days of exposure followed by a partial renewal of the reserves and associated mobilization functions between approx. 200 and 400 days (phase II). Sustained, subnormal granulocyte mobilizations (phase III) following endotoxin stress typify the responses of dogs during the intermediate phase, whereas late preclinical, preleukemic stages (phase IV) are characterized by a further expansion of the reserves and in the mobilization capacities, particularly of the less mature granulocytes. Such late alterations in the pattern of granulocyte mobilization, together with other noted cellular aberrancies in the peripheral blood and marrow, appear to indicate leukemia (phase V) onset.

  9. Long Term Cryopreservation of Dog Granulocytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-21

    using DINGO , HES and autologous plasma as the cryoprotectant. Our laboratory, employing CCE of whole blood and buffy coats, has also reported...cryopreservation of dog (1), baboon (3) and guinea pig granulocytes (4) using 5% DMSO, 6% HES, and 4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) formulated in Normosol-R pH 7.4...Hunt, S.M., Sehepis, R., Roy, A.J., Liss, R., Valeri, C.R.: In vitro distribution of cryopreserved guinea pig granulocytes. Cryobiology 1980; 17:1-11. S

  10. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  11. Evaluation of biliary disease by scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, M.D.; Hagihara, P.F.; Kim, E.E.; Coupal, J.; Griffen, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    The value of biliary scintigraphy was studied in 180 patients with suspected biliary tract disease. Most of the patients were investigated additionally by conventional techniques such as cholecystography, cholangiography and ultrasonography. It is concluded that biliary scintigraphy is a simple and safe technique for visualization of the biliary tract. It is particularly useful in the evaluation of acute cholecystitis, in patients with iodine sensitivity obstructive from nonobstructive jaundice.

  12. Granulocyte transfusions: A concise review for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Gea-Banacloche, Juan

    2017-09-12

    Granulocyte transfusions (GTXs) have been used to treat and prevent infections in neutropenic patients for more than 40 years, despite persistent controversy regarding their efficacy. This narrative review attempts to complement recent systematic reviews by the Cochrane Collaboration and provide both historical context and critical assessment of the most significant clinical studies published over the years. The data suggest that properly collected and promptly infused granulocytes are active against infections, both bacterial and fungal. The most important question that remains unanswered is in which patients the administration of granulocytes will be beneficial. The preponderance of evidence suggests that granulocyte transfusions may be efficacious in few select cases as a temporizing measure to control an infection that is expected (or proven) to be refractory to optimal antimicrobial treatment, and that could otherwise be controlled by marrow recovery, which is expected to happen. In this regard, they are best considered a "bridge" that grants enough time for the recipient to develop their own response to the infection. The challenges to use GTXs successfully are both clinical, in terms of timely identifying the patients who may benefit, and logistical, in terms of optimal selection of donors and collection technique. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Monocytic Differentiation Inhibits Infection and Granulocytic Differentiation Potentiates Infection by the Agent of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marina B.; Hayes, Stanley F.; Goodman, Jesse L.

    1998-01-01

    Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is an emerging tick-borne infection with a specific tropism for granulocytes. We previously isolated and cultivated the HGE agent in the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and have also demonstrated the susceptibility of both granulocytic and monocytic human marrow progenitors. Circulating monocytes have not been observed to be infected, suggesting that cell susceptibility may be differentiation specific. To evaluate this hypothesis, HL-60 cells were differentiated towards granulocytes (with dimethyl sulfoxide or all-trans retinoic acid) or toward monocytes-macrophages (with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate [TPA], gamma interferon, or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) and then challenged with HGE. HGE binding, internalization, and proliferation were compared in differentiated and untreated control HL-60 cells by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and Giemsa staining. Granulocytic differentiation resulted in a doubling of HGE binding and enhanced infection consistent with the agent’s clinical tropism for neutrophils. Granulocytic cells were unable to kill internalized ehrlichiae even after activation induced by N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe alone or together with tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, monocyte-macrophage differentiation with TPA resulted in complete resistance to infection through at least two distinct mechanisms: (i) reduction in binding and uptake and (ii) killing of any internalized organisms. Diminished binding in TPA-treated cells correlated with their reduced expression of sialyl Lewis x (CD15s), a putative cellular receptor component for HGE. The degree of monocytic differentiation and activation induced (i.e., TPA > gamma interferon > vitamin D3) correlated with resistance to HGE. Thus, HL-60 cells exhibit a striking differentiation-specific susceptibility to HGE. Differentiation-induced changes in bacterial adhesion and killing capacity underlie the tropism of HGE for granulocytic HL-60 cells and

  14. Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

    1981-10-01

    A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

  15. Technical aspects of bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Brown, M L; O'Connor, M K; Hung, J C; Hayostek, R J

    1993-07-01

    Optimal bone scintigraphy is obtained by using a current generation gamma camera with a high-resolution collimator, minimizing the patient-to-collimator distance, using scatter reduction techniques where possible, and obtaining a 500,000 to 1 million count image for 40-cm field of view camera. Hard copy images from an analog or digital formatter should be optimized to display all intensities either on the same images or, when necessary, to display the low count information on one image and the high count information on another. Additional images using different collimators, such as converging or pinhole collimators, and oblique and lateral views should be obtained when necessary to demonstrate or define the pathologic area. To optimize SPECT imaging, the following parameters should be used: a high-resolution collimator, a 128 x 128 acquisition matrix, and minimum separation between the patient and the collimator, which may require the use of an elliptic orbit. Between 64 and 128 views should be obtained, and depending on preference, the planar data should be prefiltered with a Butterworth, order 8-12 and a cutoff at 0.5 Nyquist. The data should then be reconstructed using a simple ramp filter. This method provides a good technique when one is first beginning to perform bone SPECT. Attenuation correction is not generally beneficial for SPECT bone studies, although sometimes weighted backprojection may improve image contrast and resolution. Finally, the use of volume rendering may help clarify the location of suspect lesions.

  16. Rater agreement in lung scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, F; Andersson, T; Rydman, H; Qvarner, N; Måre, K

    1996-09-01

    The PIOPED criteria in their original and revised forms are today's standards in the interpretation of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy. When the PIOPED criteria are used by experienced raters with training in consensus interpretation, the agreement rates have been demonstrated to be excellent. Our purpose was to investigate the rates of agreement between 2 experienced raters from different hospital who had no training in consensus interpretation. The 2 raters investigated a population of 195 patients. This group included 72 patients from a previous study who had an intermediate probability of pulmonary embolism and who had also been examined by pulmonary angiography. The results demonstrated moderate agreement rates with a kappa value of 0.54 (0.45-0.63 in a 95% confidence interval), which is similar to the kappa value of the PIOPED study but significantly lower than the kappa values of agreement rates among consensus-trained raters. There was a low consistency in the intermediate probability category, with a proportional agreement rate of 0.39 between the experienced raters. The moderate agreement rates between raters from different hospitals make it difficult to compare study populations of a certain scintigraphic category in different hospitals. Further investigations are mandatory for accurate diagnosis when the scintigrams are in the category of intermediate probability of pulmonary embolism.

  17. Simultaneous pancreatic-renal transplant scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Shulkin, B.L.; Dafoe, D.C.; Wahl, R.L.

    1986-12-01

    99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy was evaluated in seven patients as a technique to assess perfusion of the transplanted pancreas and kidney. Such scans provide high-quality images of both organs in both the flow phase and later phases. The radionuclide is readily available and its brief effective half-life allows repeated evaluations at short intervals. /sup 131/I-hippuran, the major radiopharmaceutical for renal transplant scintigraphy, does not allow visualization of the transplanted pancreas or evaluation of its blood supply. Although the blood glucose is a gross indicator of the function of the pancreatic allograft, pancreatic scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA in one case was capable of detecting graft dysfunction before elevation of the blood glucose occurred. While additional studies will be necessary to determine the predictive value of this test, 99mTc-DTPA is valuable for pancreatic-renal transplant evaluation.

  18. Cytokines induce selective granulocyte chemotactic responses.

    PubMed

    Bittleman, D B; Erger, R A; Casale, T B

    1996-02-01

    Neutrophils, eosinophils and cytokines are important in allergic airway inflammatory responses. However, it is unclear how cytokines selectively influence neutrophils versus eosinophils to migrate to an inflammatory site. The cytokines, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-5, IL-8, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), are released subsequent to allergic reactions and affect both neutrophil and eosinophil functions. We studied whether these cytokines differed in capacity to induce human neutrophil versus eosinophil migration through naked filters and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and human pulmonary type II-like epithelial (A549) cell monolayers grown on filters. Dose-response experiments using all barriers were performed for each granulocyte and cytokine. TGF-beta1 did not induce granulocyte migration. IL-5 induced eosinophil migration only through naked filters. IL-1alpha stimulated neutrophil migration through cellular barriers, but not through naked filters. TNF-alpha and GM-CSF induced neutrophil and eosinophil migration through filters, but only neutrophil migration through cellular monolayers. Only IL-8 induced significant neutrophil and eosinophil migration; however, there were clear-cut differences between the neutrophilotactic and eosinophilotactic responses through all barriers employed. Thus, our data show that these cytokines induce distinct chemotactic responses for neutrophils versus eosinophils. Moreover, by using relevant cellular barriers versus naked filters, our data better examines the capability of these cytokines to induce selective granulocyte migration to an inflammatory site in lung diseases such as asthma.

  19. Cryogenic Preservation of Granulocytes and Monocytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-25

    plateletpheresis bags and preserved with the granulocyte protocol. All cells were recovered after 3 months storage in liquid nitrogen with 94...phagocytic index. Technical Reports. Cryogenic preservation of monocytes from human blood and plateletpheresis cellular residues. December 20, 1980. Long...and Callalan, A.B. : Cryogenic preservation of monocytes from human blood and plateletpheresis cellular residues. Blood 57:592-598, 1981. Arnaout, A.A

  20. Effect and safety of granulocyte transfusions in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia or defective granulocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Atay, Didem; Ozturk, Gulyuz; Akcay, Arzu; Yanasik, Melek; Anak, Sema; Devecioglu, Omer

    2011-08-01

    Despite the introduction of new broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungal therapies over the past decade, infections remains the most frequent cause of death in patients with neutropenia. The aim of this study is to assess the effect and safety of granulocyte transfusions (GTX) for the treatment of severe life-threatening infections in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia or defective granulocyte functions. In this study, 35 pediatric patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia or defective granulocyte functions, who received 111 GTX, were included. GTX were used for 3 consecutive days during infections not responding to antimicrobial therapy. The mean granulocyte content per concentrate was 27.4×10⁹ (min: 4.2×10⁹ to max: 68.4×10⁹) depending on donor's white blood cell count before harvest. GTX were well tolerated in all patients. The infection-related survival rate was 82.4% and overall survival rate was 77.1% at day 30. The overall survival rate was 65.7% and 52% at 3 and 48 months, respectively. GTX is safe and effective in controlling the life-threatening infections. Further randomized controlled studies with long-term follow-up are needed to assess the exact role of GTX in the outcome of patients with neutropenia and patients with defective granulocyte functions.

  1. Intraoperative scintigraphy for active small intestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, A.; Palestro, C.; Lewis, B.S.; Katz, L.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Localizing active sites of bleeding within the small intestine remains a difficult task. Endoscopic, angiographic or scintigraphic studies may point to the small intestine as the site of blood loss, but at operation, without a palpable lesion, the exact site of bleeding remains elusive. Patients are managed at laparotomy with intraoperative endoscopy, angiography, multiple enterotomies, blind resections, or placement of an enterostomy. We describe two patients in whom intraoperative scintigraphy accurately identified active sites of bleeding in the small intestine when other modalities failed. Intraoperative scintigraphy is rapid, easy to perform and is an effective means of identifying active sites of bleeding within the small intestine.

  2. Guidelines for radioiodinated MIBG scintigraphy in children.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Pierre; Colarinha, Paula; Fettich, Jure; Fischer, Sibylle; Frökier, Jörgen; Giammarile, Francesco; Gordon, Isky; Hahn, Klaus; Kabasakal, Levent; Mann, Mike; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Piepsz, Amy; Porn, Ute; Sixt, Rune; van Velzen, Jeannette

    2003-05-01

    These guidelines on the use of radioiodinated (99m)Tc-MIBG scintigraphy in children, which summarise the views of the Paediatric Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, provide a framework which may prove helpful to nuclear medicine teams in daily practice. They have been influenced by the conclusions of the "Consensus Guidelines for MIBG Scintigraphy" (Paris, November 6, 1997) of the European Neuroblastoma Group and by those of the Oncological Committee of the French Society of Nuclear Medicine. The guidelines should be taken in the context of "good practice" and any local/national rules which apply to nuclear medicine examinations.

  3. Colovesical fistula demonstrated on renal cortical scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Stathaki, Maria; Vamvakas, Lampros; Papadaki, Emmanouela; Papadimitraki, Elisavet; Tsaroucha, Angeliki; Karkavitsas, Nikolaos

    2012-11-01

    A 70-year-old man with a history of weight loss, changes in bowel habits, and hematochezia had rectal adenocarcinoma. He was palliated with diverting colostomy, followed by radiochemotherapy. Bilateral hydronephrosis was found incidentally on lower abdominal CT scan. He underwent 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid scan prior to percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement. Apart from the renal cortex, scintigraphy showed activity in the ascending colon continuous to the activity of the bladder. This indicated urine extravasation on account of a colovesical fistula, complicating postoperative radiation treatment. Here we highlight the contribution of renal cortical scintigraphy in the detection of colovesical fistulas.

  4. Granulocyte and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factors as therapy in human and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Varón, Emilio; Villamayor, Lucía

    2007-07-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSFs) are endogenous cytokines that regulate granulocyte colonies and play a major role in the stimulation of granulopoiesis (neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils) and in the regulation of microbicidal functions. There are numerous pathological conditions in which neutrophils are decreased, the most common being neutropenia associated with cancer chemotherapy, which increases the risk of serious microbial infections developing with the potential for high morbidity and mortality. New methods in molecular biology have led to the identification and cloning of CSF genes and biopharmaceutical production. Since then, CSFs have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of neutropenia associated with cancer chemotherapy, for mobilising haematopoietic cell precursors, and for other neutropenia-related pathologies. This review focuses on the use of CSFs within both human and veterinary medicine. Clinical applications, pharmacology, tolerability and the potential role of these factors in veterinary medicine are considered.

  5. Missed torsion in undescended testes detected by scintigraphy: testicular scintigraphy a decisive complementary tool.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Sunil Kumar; Abdullah, Zuhair Saleh; Sharma, Punit; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Naeem, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Torsion of undescended testis, although not uncommon, causes diagnostic difficulties. We here present testicular scintigraphy images of a typical case of torsion of an undescended inguinal testis with disparity between clinical and ultrasonography (USG) findings in the contralateral retractile testis.

  6. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostopoulos, C.; Cerqueira, M.; Ell, P. J.; Flint, E. J.; Harbinson, M.; Kelion, A. D.; Al-Mohammad, A.; Prvulovich, E. M.; Shaw, L. J.; Tweddel, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    This review summarises the evidence for the role of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. It is the product of a consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society and is endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Radiologists. It was used to inform the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence in their appraisal of MPS in patients with chest pain and myocardial infarction. MPS is a well-established, non-invasive imaging technique with a large body of evidence to support its effectiveness in the diagnosis and management of angina and myocardial infarction. It is more accurate than the exercise ECG in detecting myocardial ischaemia and it is the single most powerful technique for predicting future coronary events. The high diagnostic accuracy of MPS allows reliable risk stratification and guides the selection of patients for further interventions, such as revascularisation. This in turn allows more appropriate utilisation of resources, with the potential for both improved clinical outcomes and greater cost-effectiveness. Evidence from modelling and observational studies supports the enhanced cost-effectiveness associated with MPS use. In patients presenting with stable or acute chest pain, strategies of investigation involving MPS are more cost-effective than those not using the technique. MPS also has particular advantages over alternative techniques in the management of a number of patient subgroups, including women, the elderly and those with diabetes, and its use will have a favourable impact on cost-effectiveness in these groups. MPS is already an integral part of many clinical guidelines for the investigation and management of angina and myocardial infarction. However, the technique is underutilised in the UK, as judged by the inappropriately long waiting times and by

  7. [Osteoarticular scintigraphy in comparison with clinical evidence].

    PubMed

    del Puente, Antonio; Venditti, Carlo; Peluso, Rosario; Esposito, Antonella; Cimmino, Michele; De Luca Bossa, Rosa; Loi, Gabriella; Spanò, Angelo; Oriente, Alfonso; Oriente, Pasquale

    2003-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a technique which is often resorted to in diagnostic rheumatology. There are few data on the effective relevance of bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of chronic inflammatory diseases of the joints. The aim of this study was to compare the results of bone scintigraphy with clinical evidence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Seventy-five patients were submitted to total body bone scintigraphy (44 rheumatoid arthritis, 31 osteoarthritis). The nuclear medicine specialist indicated the list of joints showing uptake. For the same patients a rheumatologist indicated the number of affected joints. The laboratory and clinical data were recorded. The patients were first stratified according to the prevalence of the clinical evidence and scintigraphic uptake. The distribution was found to be not significant. Only 5.3% of patients showed no uptake. Thirty-three patients had no clinical evidence of disease; among these, 30 showed joint uptake. Considering only the patients with clinical evidence, 97.6% showed joint uptake. These results were confirmed even when the data were analyzed by sex, disease and therapy. Considering the patients with clinical evidence, the uptake/clinical ratio did not show any significant correlation. The number of joints with clinical evidence correlated with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The number of joints showing uptake correlated only with age. In conclusion, on average, scintigraphy, performed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, highlights a significantly higher number of joints involved as compared to what would be expected on the basis of clinical evaluation. It remains to be defined whether this is an overestimation related to the characteristics of the scan or whether it is sign of a higher sensitivity in highlighting the site of inflammation. Against the latter hypothesis is the absence of correlation with the inflammatory indexes.

  8. Granulocytic sarcoma: a rare cause of sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Thomas Edward

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case report of a man aged 56 years with a 4-month history of right-sided sciatica-type pain with subclinical disc prolapse evident on MRI. Worsening pain together with the appearance of a tender mass in his right buttock prompted further imaging, which demonstrated an infiltrative mass engulfing the lumbosacral plexus. This was later shown to be a granulocytic sarcoma on biopsy. Intervertebral disc herniation can be an incidental finding and is not always the cause of sciatica. PMID:28202486

  9. Granulocytic Spongiotic Papulovesiculosis (Neutrophilic Spongiosis): A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Mendiratta, Vibhu; Sanke, Sarita; Ramchander; Nangia, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophilic spongiosis also known as granulocytic spongiotic papulovesiculosis (GSPV) is an uncommon disorder of uncertain classification. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman suffering from recurrent episodes of itchy, grouped papulovesicles over her body, histologically showing granulocytic spongiosis. The eruptions showed complete response to dapsone. PMID:28216731

  10. Priming effects of lipopolysaccharide and inflammatory cytokines on canine granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kenichi; Sakonju, Iwao; Kanda, Aya; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Kakuta, Tomoko; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Okano, Shozo; Takase, Katsuaki

    2010-01-01

    Granulocytes play a pivotal role in natural immunity. Under inflammatory conditions, granulocytes are universally primed by several agents, such as endotoxins and inflammatory cytokines. Primed granulocytes exert potent adhesiveness, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, effectively eliminating invading agents. Reactivity against priming agents is known to vary with species; however, there have been few reports on the effects of priming agents on canine granulocytes. In the present study, we assayed the priming effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recombinant canine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rcTNF-alpha) and recombinant canine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rcGM-CSF) on canine granulocyte function in vitro. Isolated recombinant canine were primed with various concentrations of LPS, rcTNF-alpha and rcGM-CSF, and CD11b expression was assayed. Furthermore, actin polymerization, phagocytosis and ROS production were then assayed at primer concentrations where enhancement of CD11b expression was observed. LPS did not enhance canine granulocyte function. Phagocytosis and actin polymerization were not enhanced by priming agents; however, rcTNF-alpha and rcGM-CSF enhanced CD11b expression and ROS production in canine granulocytes. These results suggest that priming effects are mainly reflected in CD11b expression and ROS production, with rcGM-CSF and rcTNF-alpha having a priming effect similar to that observed in humans.

  11. Radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism precludes thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Orzel, J.A.; Kruyer, W.B.; Borchert, R.D.

    1987-02-01

    The authors attempted to perform Tl-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in a 42-year-old man 23 and 35 days after he received 9.8 mCi of oral I-131 for documented Graves' disease. Interference from primary and scattered photons from residual thyroid I-131 made Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy technically impossible. A series of phantom and patient studies using I-131 and Tl-201 were performed, yielding guidelines for planning Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy following radioiodine therapy.

  12. Efficacy of thyroid scintigraphy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic goiter

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Tarver, R.D.; Siddiqui, A.R.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Wellman, H.N.

    1987-03-01

    For evaluation of the usefulness of thyroid scintigraphy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic goiter, we analyzed the results of radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy in 54 consecutive cases with suspected upper mediastinal masses. Intrathoracic goiters were found in 42. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the scintigraphy for intrathoracic goiter were 93% (39/42), 100% (12/12), and 94% (51/54), respectively. Scintigraphic morphology, scanning technique, and pitfalls are discussed. The results show that most intrathoracic goiters do have thyroid function and that radioiodine scintigraphy is a definitive and cost-effective diagnostic procedure for this disease.

  13. Musculoskeletal scintigraphy of the equine athlete.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphic examination of equine athletes has a potentially important role in the diagnosis of lameness or poor performance, but increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) is not necessarily synonymous with pain causing lameness. Nuclear scintigraphy is highly sensitive to changes in bone turnover that may be induced by loading and knowledge of normal patterns of RU is crucial for accurate diagnosis. Blood pool images can be useful for identification of some soft tissue injuries, although acute bone injuries may also have intense IRU in blood pool images. Some muscle injuries may be associated with IRU in bone phase images. The use of scintigraphy together with other diagnostic imaging modalities has helped us to better understand the mechanisms of some musculoskeletal injuries. In immature racehorses, stress-related bone injury is a common finding and may be multifocal, whereas in mature sport horses, a very different spectrum of injuries may be identified. False-negative results are common with some injuries.

  14. Adenosine thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Verani, M.S. )

    1991-07-01

    Pharmacologic coronary vasodilation as an adjunct to myocardial perfusion imaging has become increasingly important in the evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease, in view of the large number of patients who cannot perform an adequate exercise test or in whom contraindications render exercise inappropriate. Adenosine is a very potent coronary vasodilator and when combined with thallium 201 scintigraphy produces images of high quality, with the added advantages of a very short half-life (less than 10 seconds) and the ability to adjust the dose during the infusion, which may enhance safety and curtail the duration of side effects. The reported sensitivity and specificity of adenosine thallium 201 scintigraphy for the detection of coronary artery disease are high and at least comparable with imaging after exercise or dipyridamole administration. 23 refs.

  15. [Utility of SPECT in gallium scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Uto, Tomoyuki

    2002-11-01

    Whole-body gallium planar scintigraphy is a mainstay for the detection of tumors and inflammatory lesions. Recently, gallium SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) has become more common in the clinical setting. This diagnostic modality is widely employed in our hospital, and lesions are actually detected by SPECT in some cases. Although the contrast of SPECT images is better than that of planar images, spatial resolution is limited by the limited matrix size. Thus, the overall diagnostic utility of SPECT remains to be confirmed. The usefulness of SPECT for the detection of gallium-accumulated lesions was evaluated in a phantom. In this study, we showed that SPECT is able to detect more smaller and lower gallium accumulations than planar imaging. Thus, SPECT imaging is useful in gallium scintigraphy.

  16. Cervical venous reflux in dynamic brain scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Hayt, D B; Perez, L A

    1976-01-01

    Cervical venous reflux, shown by dynamic brain scintigraphy, was investigated through three avenues of approach: (A) by reviewing 371 randomly chosen routine dynamic intracerebral bloodflow studies to estimate its incidence; (B) by correlative positive-contrast superior venacavography in patients with characteristic cervical venous reflux; and (C) by performing dynamic brain scintigraphy while utilizing various positional and physiologic maneuvers to attempt to produce cervical venous reflux in patients who did not exhibit this phenomenon on earlier examination. Although any obstruction of the superior vena cava or a properly timed Valsalva maneuver in selected patients can produce the scintigraphic picture of cervical venous reflux, in most cases it is a normal phenomenon due to incompetent or absent cervical venous valves.

  17. Esophageal transit scintigraphy in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kobylecka, Małgorzata; Olesińska, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disease, distinctive features of which are fibrosis and microangiopathy. The esophagus is one of the most commonly involved internal organs. Most patients experience dysphagia, difficulties in swallowing and gastro-esophageal reflux. However, in up to one third of cases, the initial onset of esophageal disease may be clinically silent. There are several diagnostic modalities available for assessing both morphological and functional abnormalities of the esophagus. If structural abnormalities are suspected, endoscopy is the method of choice. Functional evaluation is best achieved with manometry. Both endoscopy and manometry are invasive techniques, with low patient acceptance. Barium-contrast study is well tolerated, but qualitative assessment of functional abnormalities is imprecise. Esophageal scintigraphy is an easy, non-invasive, sensitive and specific diagnostic modality. It can detect esophageal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. In patients already diagnosed with systemic sclerosis, scintigraphy is useful in evaluating severity and progression of the disease. PMID:27994270

  18. Esophageal transit scintigraphy in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chojnowski, Marek; Kobylecka, Małgorzata; Olesińska, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disease, distinctive features of which are fibrosis and microangiopathy. The esophagus is one of the most commonly involved internal organs. Most patients experience dysphagia, difficulties in swallowing and gastro-esophageal reflux. However, in up to one third of cases, the initial onset of esophageal disease may be clinically silent. There are several diagnostic modalities available for assessing both morphological and functional abnormalities of the esophagus. If structural abnormalities are suspected, endoscopy is the method of choice. Functional evaluation is best achieved with manometry. Both endoscopy and manometry are invasive techniques, with low patient acceptance. Barium-contrast study is well tolerated, but qualitative assessment of functional abnormalities is imprecise. Esophageal scintigraphy is an easy, non-invasive, sensitive and specific diagnostic modality. It can detect esophageal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. In patients already diagnosed with systemic sclerosis, scintigraphy is useful in evaluating severity and progression of the disease.

  19. Biliary atresia and neonatal hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wynchank, S.; Guillet, J.; Leccia, F.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P.

    1984-03-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m diethyl IDA was performed on 14 jaundiced neonates. It aided greatly the differential diagnosis between neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia. Limitations in the interpretation of the results are described, as neonatal hepatitis may be accompanied by biliary excretion ranging from zero to normal. Also both biliary atresia (intra- and extrahepatic) and neonatal hepatitis may show no biliary excretion within 24 hours.

  20. Role of scintigraphy in urinary tract infection

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    There is controversy regarding the role of radiological imaging for urinary tract infection (UTI). The gold standard has been the intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Yet, the IVP has a very limited value with only about 25% of children with pyelonephritis demonstrating abnormalities. Ultrasound (US) has recently been advocated as a replacement for the poorly sensitive and poorly specific IVP. However, comparative studies between US and IVP indicate only an equivalent sensitivity and specificity. Cortical scintigraphy with Technetium-99m glucoheptonate (99mTc GH) or 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) has also been advocated as a means of differentiating parenchymal (pyelonephritis) from nonparenchymal (lower UTI) involvement in UTI. The clinical presentation may be misleading especially in the infant and child in whom an elevated temperature, flank pain, shaking chills, or an elevated sedimentation rate are often lacking. The clinician attempts to localize the site of infection for it has a direct bearing upon the therapy. A collecting system infection can often be eradicated with a single oral dose of an appropriate antibiotic, whereas renal parenchymal involvement requires IV therapy for an extended interval. Cortical scintigraphy can localize the site of infection with a high degree of accuracy. Recent studies report a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 81% of pyelonephritis. This is in contrast to the IVP with a sensitivity of only 24% and US with a sensitivity of only 42%. The scintigraphic appearance of parenchymal infection of the kidney is a spectrum of minimal to gross defects reflecting the degree of histologic involvement that spans from a mild infection to frank abscess. Cortical scintigraphy can be used to monitor the evolution of scarring following infection. Cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc DMSA or 99mTc GH is the method of choice for the initial evaluation of UTI. 37 references.

  1. Bone scintigraphy in patients with pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Jang

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging is widely used in pain medicine. Low back pain is commonly encountered by physicians, with its prevalence from 49% to 70%. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are usually used to evaluate the cause of low back pain, however, these findings from these scans could also be observed in asymptomatic patients. Bone scintigraphy has an additional value in patients with low back pain. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is defined as a painful disorder of the extremities, which is characterized by sensory, autonomic, vasomotor, and trophic disturbances. To assist the diagnosis of CRPS, three-phase bone scintigraphy is thought to be superior compared to other modalities, and could be used to rule out CRPS due to its high specificity. Studies regarding the effect of bone scintigraphy in patients with extremity pain have not been widely conducted. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are widely used imaging modalities for evaluating extremity pain. However, SPECT/CT has an additional role in assessing pain in the extremities. PMID:28757916

  2. Bone scintigraphy in fluoride treated osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, J.W.; Kleerekoper, M.; Parker, D.A.

    1985-05-01

    Quantitative bone scintigraphy was performed on 23 white females with post-menopausal osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures. These patients were then entered into a randomized, double-blind clinical trial or sodium fluoride therapy (NaF=14, placebo=9) which included repeat bone scintigraphy every six months. Scintigraphic images were acquired for 500K counts per image over the total body with computer acquisition over the posterior thoracic and lumbar spine. Images were obtained on a wide field-of-view gamma camera two hours after injecting 15 mCi of Tc-99m MDP. Data analysis showed a significant reduction in the activity ratio of abnormal vertebral body to normal vertebral body in those patients treated with sodium fluoride (paired t-test p=0.0095). No significant change was observed in the control group of (p=0.142). These results suggest that sodium fluoride therapy promotes more rapid healing of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. They also demonstrate the utility of serial quantitative bone scintigraphy in assessing osteoporotic patients with vertebral compression fractures.

  3. The pathological basis for skeletal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Galasko, C S

    1975-08-01

    Skeletal scintigraphy, which has now been established as a useful and accurate method of detecting early skeletal metastases and assessing their response to treatment, has been investigated for its pathological basis. Histological examination of several hyndred necropsy specimens, from sixty-eight patients who died from malignant disease, showed a significant increase of osteoid and immature woven bone in the presence of metastatic cancer. Tumour-cell suspensions of the VX2 carcinoma were injected into the medullary cavity or on to the periosteal surface of the ilia or tibiae of New Zealand white rabbits. A combination of bone destruction and new bone formation, similar to the autopsy material, was seen. There were at least two mechanisms for the new bone production. Initially, intramembranous ossification was seen in the fibrous stroma surrounding the tumour. Once the cortex was involved and cortical bone destruction had occurred, large amounts of woven bone resembling fracture callus were laid down. The new bone had a markedly increased avidity for bone-seeking isotopes, indicating why skeletal scintigraphy was useful. A further twenty rabbits, in whose ilia the VX2 carcinoma was growing, were treated by local irradiation. When treatment was successful the tumour was destroyed, the production of new bone ceased, and the lesion lost its increased avidity for bone-seeking isotopes, indicating that skeletal scintigraphy could be used to assess the response of skeletal metastases to therapy.

  4. Pediatric skeletal scintigraphy: applications of pinhole magnification.

    PubMed

    Connolly, L P; Treves, S T; Connolly, S A; Zimmerman, R E; Bar-Sever, Z; Itrato, D; Davis, R T

    1998-01-01

    Pinhole magnification scintigraphy is an effective means of evaluating the pediatric skeleton because it provides optimal high-resolution images. This technique is indicated when diagnostic uncertainty persists after high-resolution imaging with parallel hole collimation. Pinhole magnification scintigraphy requires approximately 20 minutes of acquisition time per image and meticulous attention to details such as choice of pinhole insert, collimator positioning, and patient immobilization. However, the technique is superior to planar imaging in demonstrating acute osteomyelitis in bone adjacent to growth centers and epiphyseal involvement that is either primary or the result of local spread of infection. In addition, pinhole imaging has proved highly reliable in the early diagnosis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and is useful in depicting osteonecrosis related to specific causes such as corticosteroid treatment or trauma. Scintigraphic manifestations of femoral head ischemia or infarction and findings indicative of osteomyelitis associated with a hip effusion are well demonstrated with pinhole imaging. This technique also helps characterize osteoid osteomas and may be used intraoperatively to confirm the complete excision of this benign tumor. Finally, pinhole magnification scintigraphy clearly depicts fractures of the femoral neck and allows a high degree of confidence in diagnosing injuries to the small bones of the hands and feet.

  5. Granulocytic sarcoma of the rectum: a rare complication of myelodysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Dabbagh, V; Browne, G; Parapia, L A; Price, J J; Batman, P A

    1999-01-01

    A 67 year old man with myelodysplasia was admitted as an emergency with a six week history of rectal bleeding and diarrhoea. Barium enema showed an irregular polypoid filling defect in the lateral wall of the proximal rectum near the rectosigmoid junction. Histology showed this to be a granulocytic sarcoma (extramedullary granulocytic leukaemia; chloroma) infiltrating the bowel. A low index of suspicion of this lesion results in an incorrect diagnosis in many such cases. A chloroacetate esterase immunoperoxidase stain will confirm the granulocytic nature of the tumour cells. Images PMID:10690184

  6. [Renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-penicillamine].

    PubMed

    Lichte, H; Hör, G

    1975-02-01

    By application of 99mTc-Penicillamine in renal scintigraphy excellent scintigraphies of the kidneys, especially by using the gamma-camera, can be obtained, even in case of damaged renal function, up to an increase of creatinine in serum of about 7 mg %.

  7. CXCR4+ granulocytes reflect fungal cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Carevic, Melanie; Singh, Anurag; Rieber, Nikolaus; Eickmeier, Olaf; Griese, Matthias; Hector, Andreas; Hartl, Dominik

    2015-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis airways are frequently colonised with fungi. However, the interaction of these fungi with immune cells and the clinical relevance in cystic fibrosis lung disease are incompletely understood.We characterised granulocytes in airway fluids and peripheral blood from cystic fibrosis patients with and without fungal colonisation, non-cystic fibrosis disease controls and healthy control subjects cross-sectionally and longitudinally and correlated these findings with lung function parameters.Cystic fibrosis patients with chronic fungal colonisation by Aspergillus fumigatus were characterised by an accumulation of a distinct granulocyte subset, expressing the HIV coreceptor CXCR4. Percentages of airway CXCR4(+) granulocytes correlated with lung disease severity in patients with cystic fibrosis.These studies demonstrate that chronic fungal colonisation with A. fumigatus in cystic fibrosis patients is associated with CXCR4(+) airway granulocytes, which may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in fungal cystic fibrosis lung disease.

  8. Assessment of Granulocyte Subset Activation: New Information from Image-Based Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Williams, Randall R; Prado, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of granulocyte function can provide important information about the state of the body's innate immune system. Existing flow cytometry methods that lack image-based analysis capabilities fail to fully evaluate granulocyte function. In the present method, we combine simultaneous detection of phagocytosis and oxidative burst in granulocytes to identify unique subsets of activated granulocytes. This analysis method provides novel information about granulocytes that allows our lab and others to evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional and lifestyle countermeasures, designed to improve immunity.

  9. Diuretic renal scintigraphy in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Silke; Lane, India F; Daniel, Gregory B; Morandi, Federica; Sharp, Dorothy E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol for diuretic renal scintigraphy (renography) in cats and describe normal findings. 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy was performed twice in 10 healthy cats. Furosemide or saline were injected 4.5 min after radiopharmaceutical administration for the diuretic or control scan, respectively. A dynamic acquisition was performed for 8 min. The following parameters were evaluated: (1) global and individual glomerular filtration rate (GFR); (2) shape of the time-activity curve (TAC); (3) time of peak (TOP); (4) individual kidney excretion half-time (T1/2) of the radiopharmaceutical; (5) percentage of maximum activity measured at the end of the study. Global GFR in the control studies (2.79 +/- 0.83 ml/min/kg, mean +/- SD) did not differ significantly from the diuretic scans (2.34 +/- 0.51 ml/min/kg). The shape of most (16/ 20) TAC of diuretic renograms was similar to those of control renograms. The TOP of the diuretic renogram curves was 3.06 +/- 0.58 min, and did not differ from that of the control scans (3.01 +/- 0.61 min). T1/2 of the diuretic renograms was significantly shorter (5.15 +/- 0.83 min) than that of the control renograms (6.31 +/- 1.50 min). A significantly lower percentage of maximum activity was present at the end of the study in diuretic renograms (median: 47.25%; range: 33.60-59.60%) compared with control renograms (63.40%; 30.00-69.40%). Diuretic renal scintigraphy is a noninvasive and fast procedure to perform in cats. The applicability of this technique needs to be investigated in patients with significantly impaired renal function and obstructive uropathies.

  10. Pancreas transplants: Evaluation using perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuni, C.C.; du Cret, R.P.; Boudreau, R.J.

    1989-07-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphic perfusion studies in evaluating pancreas transplant patients, we reviewed 56 of these studies in 22 patients who had 27 transplants. Seventeen patients underwent two or more studies. The perfusion studies were performed with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA injected as a bolus followed by eight to 16 serial 2-sec images and a 500,000-count immediate static image. Images were evaluated for (1) the time and intensity of pancreatic peak radioactivity relative to the time and intensity of the iliac arterial peak; (2) relative pancreatic to iliac arterial intensity on the static image; and (3) size, homogeneity, and definition of the pancreas. Clinical diagnoses at the time of scintigraphy of normal function (n = 36), rejection (n = 13), pancreatitis (n = 6), or arterial thrombosis (n = 1) were based on insulin requirement, urine amylase, serum glucose, serum amylase, response to therapy, cultures, CT, MR, sonography, scintigraphy with 67Ga or 111In-WBCs, percutaneous drainage results, angiography, surgery, and pathologic examination of resected transplants. Three 99mTc-DTPA perfusion studies showed no pancreatic perfusion, four showed decreasing perfusion on serial studies, and five showed progressive loss of definition of the pancreas on serial studies. Of the three patients with no detectable perfusion, one had a normally functioning transplant, one had arterial thrombosis with transplant infarction, and one had severe rejection with minimal function. Decreasing perfusion was associated with rejection in three patients and pancreatitis in one. Decreasing definition was seen in four patients with rejection and one with pancreatitis. We conclude that perfusion scintigraphy is useful, primarily when performed serially, although nonspecific for evaluating pancreas transplants.

  11. Detection of gastrointestinal bleeding by radionuclide scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Luna, E.; Kingsley, S.; Prince, M.; Herrera, N.

    1984-01-01

    Scanning with Technetium /sup 99m/ labeled autologous red blood cells was performed in 59 patients with clinical suspicion of acute and/or intermittent, chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. In 36 patients (61%), a definite site of bleeding could be demonstrated. A strong correlation with other modalities such as upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, contrast angiography, and surgical exploration was found. Overall sensitivity of the procedure was 91%; specificity 100% and accuracy 93.3%. It is suggested that radionuclide scintigraphy provides a completely noninvasive, simple, and sensitive procedure which may be routinely used for the detection and localization of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  12. Renal scintigraphy in the acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Sfakianaki, Efrosyni; Sfakianakis, George N; Georgiou, Mike; Hsiao, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Renal scintigraphy is a powerful imaging method that provides both functional and anatomic information, which is particularly useful in the acute care setting. In our institution, for the past 2 decades, we have used a 25-minute renal diuretic protocol, technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) mercaptoacetyltriglycine with simultaneous intravenous injection of furosemide, for all ages and indications, including both native and transplant kidneys. As such, this protocol has been widely used in the workup of acutely ill patients. In this setting, there are common clinical entities which affect patients with native and transplant kidneys. In adult patients with native kidneys one of the most frequent reasons for emergency room visits is renal colic due to urolithiasis. Although unenhanced computed tomography is useful to assess the anatomy in cases of renal colic, it does not provide functional information. Time zero furosemide renal scintigraphy can do both and we have shown that it can effectively stratify patients with renal colic. To this end, 4 characteristic patterns of scintirenography have been identified, standardized, and consistently applied: no obstruction, partial obstruction (mild vs high grade), complete obstruction, and stunned (postdecompressed) kidney. With the extensive use of this protocol over the past 2 decades, a pattern of "regional parenchymal dysfunction" indicative of acute pyelonephritis has also been delineated. This information has proved to be useful for patients presenting with urinary tract infection and suspected pyelonephritis, as well as for patients who were referred for workup of renal colic but were found to have acute pyelonephritis instead. In instances of abdominal trauma, renal scintigraphy is uniquely suited to identify urine leaks. This is also true in cases of suspected leak following renal transplant or from other iatrogenic/postsurgical causes. Patients presenting with acute renal failure can be evaluated with renal scintigraphy. A

  13. Scintigraphy for Pulmonary Capillary Protein Leak

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    lnate? o~~d) - aREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE UFFiEI.N C011l’Ll1TING FORM Anteuim Swvnuztl R porta IepoI Scintigraphy for Pulmonary Capillary Protein Leak...higher "slope of injury" (pɘ.01) following thoractomy, lung , retraction and lym..,ph duct cannulation. Further studies are required in animals...undergoing thoracotomyw only. This suggests that the acute sheep lung lymph model is associated with acute pulmonary injury and, therefore, will make

  14. Horseshoe Kidney Incidentally Revealed on Meckel Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xia; Codreanu, Ion; Yang, Hua; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2015-09-01

    An 8-year-old male patient with history of bloody stools underwent a Meckel diverticulum scintigraphy to evaluate for ectopic gastric mucosa. The static images showed 2 abnormal foci of radiotracer accumulation in the mid-abdomen. Contrary to the renal activity, the foci appeared more prominent on the anterior view and localized anteriorly to the expected kidneys location on the left lateral view. Carefully reviewed dynamic acquisition revealed faint catenary-shaped activity in this region on earlier images, gradually evolving into 2 prominent foci on later images. A horseshoe kidney was suspected, the pathology being confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography.

  15. Granulocytic sarcoma of pediatric head and neck: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Roby, Brianne Barnett; Drehner, Dennis; Sidman, James D

    2013-08-01

    To demonstrate a case series of granulocytic sarcoma of the head and neck found in the pediatric population and review long-term outcomes. A pathology database at a tertiary hospital was searched for patients with biopsy specimens from the head and neck diagnosed as granulocytic sarcoma. There were 6 cases between 1992 and 2004 that met inclusion criteria. Subjects' age ranged from 22 months to 14 years old. In three cases, the patients were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) based on biopsy results; 2 patients were already diagnosed with AML when diagnosed with granulocytic sarcoma, and in 1 case, a relapse of AML was diagnosed. In all cases, patients began induction chemotherapy. Two patients died during induction chemotherapy from infection. The remaining 4 patients underwent bone marrow transplants. One patient had a relapse post-transplant and died. Only one patient was healthy two years post-transplant. The results of this series suggest granulocytic sarcoma must be on the differential when tumors present in the head and neck region in pediatric patients. In our series, 100% of the patients with granulocytic sarcoma had underlying AML. The long-term prognosis of patients with AML who developed granulocytic sarcoma is quite poor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of lidocaine hydrochloride on canine granulocytes, granulocyte CD11b expression and reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kenichi; Sakonju, Iwao; Kumakura, Azusa; Tomizawa, Zenko; Kakuta, Tomoko; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Okano, Shozo; Takase, Katsuaki

    2010-02-01

    Lidocaine hydrochloride (Lido) is widely used for analgesia in veterinary medicine; however, in humans, it has been suggested that Lido attenuates granulocyte functions, such as adhesion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Thus, Lido may affect canine granulocyte function; however, there have been no reports on the effects of Lido on canine granulocyte function. Thus, we studied the effects of Lido on canine granulocyte CD11b expression and ROS production. We further studied the effects of Lido on the priming of canine granulocyte CD11b expression and ROS production by recombinant canine granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (rcGM-CSF). Isolated granulocytes were incubated with 3, 30 or 300 microg/ml Lido, or with Lido followed by priming with 5 ng/ml rcGM-CSF. CD11b was detected by the immune fluorescent antibody method, and the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) was assayed by flow cytometry. ROS production was assessed by the peak time (PT) of ROS production and area under the luminol reaction curve (AUC), which represents total ROS production quantity against opsonized zymosan stimuli. Only 300 microg/ml Lido (tissue level observed by regional block) significantly attenuated both the MFI of CD11b and its enhancement by rcGM-CSF. Moreover, at this concentration, the AUC and its enhancement by rcGM-CSF were significantly attenuated by Lido; in contrast, Lido did not affect PT. In conclusion, Lido suppressed granulocyte adhesion to the endothelium and antiseptic capability by suppressing CD11b expression and/or ROS production. Particular care should thus be exercised when performing regional anesthesia block using Lido.

  17. [Positron emission tomography and scintigraphy. Nuclear imaging in clinical orthopaedics].

    PubMed

    Kirsch, C M

    2006-09-01

    Nuclear medicine uses the function of organs or organ systems to diagnose and treat disease. The source of radiation is brought into the patient's body by means of a radioactive labelled pharmaceutical. Its way through the body is recorded by appropriate equipment on the outside. Of the many nuclear medical procedures, those primarily applicable to orthopaedic problems are explained here, such as bone scintigraphy, scintigraphy of inflammatory lesions, and tumour scintigraphy. Besides their use in diagnostics, therapeutic applications are covered as well. Using examples from clinical practice, "conventional" nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography are also covered.

  18. Postcholecystectomy syndrome: evaluation using biliary scintigraphy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Burrell, M.I.; Dobbins, J.; Jaffe, M.K.; Choyke, P.L.

    1985-09-01

    The authors prospectively studied 30 patients with postcholecystectomy syndrome to determine the efficacy of biliary scintigraphy in the detection of stenosis of the sphincter of Oddi. All patients underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Biliary scintigraphy disclosed stenosis of the sphincter by agreement with the ERCP or surgical findings in nine (90%) of ten patients and in eight (100%) of eight patients with biliary obstruction from other causes. Retention of activity at 2 hours in visually prominent ducts was the best predictor of abnormal biliary drainage. Biliary scintigraphy is a useful, noninvasive screening test for the detection of postcholecystectomy biliary obstruction.

  19. Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy. Multiple applications besides pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sinzinger, Helmut; Rodrigues, Margarida; Kummer, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy is the diagnostic tool of choice for detection and monitoring of pulmonary embolism. However, the knowledge on its value for other or concurrent pathologies is poor. In this review scintigraphic characteristics of the main pathologies, interpretation and artefacts are described. Together with the understanding of pathophysiology of the lung, the potential gain of information derived from ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy is much higher than generally believed. In conclusion, ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy not only in PE but also in other lung diseases is underused, its value and clinical potential underestimated.

  20. Radiation Therapy for Chloroma (Granulocytic Sarcoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Bakst, Richard; Wolden, Suzanne; Yahalom, Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Objectives: Chloroma (granulocytic sarcoma) is a rare, extramedullary tumor of immature myeloid cells related to acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Radiation therapy (RT) is often used in the treatment of chloromas; however, modern studies of RT are lacking. We reviewed our experience to analyze treatment response, disease control, and toxicity associated with RT to develop treatment algorithm recommendations for patients with chloroma. Patients and Methods: Thirty-eight patients who underwent treatment for chloromas at our institution between February 1990 and June 2010 were identified and their medical records were reviewed and analyzed. Results: The majority of patients that presented with chloroma at the time of initial leukemia diagnosis (78%) have not received RT because it regressed after initial chemotherapy. Yet most patients that relapsed or remained with chloroma after chemotherapy are in the RT cohort (90%). Thirty-three courses of RT were administered to 22 patients. Radiation subsite breakdown was: 39% head and neck, 24% extremity, 9% spine, 9% brain, 6% genitourinary, 6% breast, 3% pelvis, and 3% genitourinary. Median dose was 20 (6-36) Gy. Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival and overall survival in the RT cohort were 39% and 43%, respectively, at 5 years. At a median follow-up of 11 months since RT, only 1 patient developed progressive disease at the irradiated site and 4 patients developed chloromas at other sites. RT was well tolerated without significant acute or late effects and provided symptom relief in 95% of cases. Conclusions: The majority of patients with chloromas were referred for RT when there was extramedullary progression, marrow relapse, or rapid symptom relief required. RT resulted in excellent local disease control and palliation of symptoms without significant toxicity. We recommend irradiating chloromas to at least 20 Gy, and propose 24 Gy in 12 fractions as an appropriate regimen.

  1. Impaired accumulation of granulocytes in the lung during ozone adaptation.

    PubMed

    Fiévez, L; Kirschvink, N; Dogné, S; Jaspar, F; Merville, M P; Bours, V; Lekeux, P; Bureau, F

    2001-09-01

    Respiratory alterations induced by an acute exposure to ozone (O(3)) paradoxically resolve during multiday exposure. This adaptation is characteristically accompanied by a gradual attenuation of lung neutrophilia. As maintenance of neutrophilia at the site of inflammation is due to cytokine-mediated delayed neutrophil apoptosis, which is associated with reduced levels of Bax, a proapoptotic protein, we sought to determine whether defects in these mechanisms could account for O(3) adaptation. Lung granulocytes obtained at different time points from calves exposed to 0.75 ppm O(3) for 12 h/d for 7 consecutive days neither showed enhancement of survival nor Bax deficiency, when compared to blood granulocytes. To further investigate the effects of an exogenous oxidative stress on neutrophil survival, human granulocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide alone, or in combination with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, an antiapoptotic cytokine. Both treatments led to rapid apoptosis associated with downregulation of Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-2, two antiapoptotic proteins. This study shows that O(3) adaptation is associated with a failure in the mechanisms leading to accumulation of neutrophils at the site of inflammation, and suggests that this defect is due to direct proapoptotic effects of exogenous oxidative stress on granulocytes.

  2. The relationship of granulocyte ATP to chemotactic response during storage.

    PubMed

    McCullough, J J; Weiblen, B J

    1979-01-01

    During the storage of granulocytes, bactericidal activity declines more slowly than does chemotactic response (CTR). Bacterial killing involves increased activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt, oxygen utilization and the generation of toxic products of oxygen. Chemotaxis is probably a contractile process involving myosin and actin filaments and possibly ATP as a source of energy. Thus, maintainance of ATP may be important in granulocyte preservation. During storage at 1 to 6 C of granulocytes collected by continuous and intermittent flow centrifuge leukapheresis, both CTR and ATP decreased approximately 33 percent. Decreases in CTR and ATP were 12 and 10 percent respectively when cells were stored at 20 to 24 C. Further decreases in CTR and ATP occurred between 24 and 48 hours of storage, although levels of both were higher in cells stored at 20 to 24 C compared with those stored at 1 to 6 C. When the results from all storage conditions were combined, the overall coefficient of correlation between CTR and ATP was 0.71 (p less than .05). Although ATP is probably not the only important variable in granulocyte preservation, granulocytes may resemble red blood cells in that a minimal level of ATP may be necessary for adequate function.

  3. Limitations of indium leukocyte imaging for the diagnosis of spine infections

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, J.L.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr. )

    1991-02-01

    The usefulness of indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy in the detection of spine sepsis was studied in 22 patients who had open or percutaneous biopsies for microbiologic diagnosis. The indium images in 18 patients with vertebral infection were falsely negative in 15 (83%) and truly positive in 3 (17%). All four patients with negative cultures and histology had true-negative scans. The indium-111 WBC imaging results yielded a sensitivity of 17%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy rate of 31%. Prior antibiotic therapy was correlated with a high incidence of false-negative scans and photon-deficient indium-111 WBC uptake. The usefulness of indium-111 WBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of vertebral infection may be limited to those patients who have not been treated with antibiotics previously.

  4. Primary pericardial mesothelioma detected by gallium-67 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikimi, T.; Ochi, H.; Hirota, K.; Ikuno, Y.; Oku, H.; Takeuchi, K.; Takeda, T.

    1987-07-01

    We present a case report of a 73-yr-old woman with progressive systemic sclerosis who showed extensive pericardial uptake of /sup 67/Ga by scintigraphy. At autopsy, primary pericardial mesothelioma was found.

  5. The independent value of exercise thallium scintigraphy to physicians

    SciTech Connect

    Hlatky, M.; Botvinick, E.; Brundage, B.

    1982-11-01

    To determine the effect of exercise myocardial scintigraphy with thallium-201 on diagnostic accuracy and the need for coronary angiography, consecutive patients with a variety of clinical presentations were identified. Clinical summaries, including a detailed history, physical examination, and complete data from a standard treadmill exercise test, were presented to 91 cardiologists. The cardiologists assessed the probability of coronary disease and the need for coronary angiography. They were then presented the results of thallium scintigraphy and revisd their assessments if warranted. Scintigraphy significantly increased the cardiologists' diagnostic accuracy beyond that attained with other clinical information (p<0.0001). The change in accuracy varied from +4% to +20% in different patient groups, and was greatest in patients with atypical angina and a positive exercise ECG. Ratings of the need for coronary angiography changed from -13% to +21% in different patient groups. We conclude that exercise thallium scintigraphy can provide independent diagnostic information and influence the need for coronary angiography.

  6. The independent value of exercise thallium scintigraphy to physicians

    SciTech Connect

    Hlatky, M.; Botvinick, E.; Brundage, B.

    1982-11-01

    To determine the effect of exercise myocardial scintigraphy with /sup 201/Tl on diagnostic accuracy and the need for coronary angiography, consecutive patients with a variety of clinical presentations were identified. Clinical summaries, including a detailed history, physical examination, and complete data from a standard treadmill exercise test, were presented to 91 cardiologists. The cardiologists assessed the probability of coronary disease and the need for coronary angiography. They were then presented the results of thallium scintigraphy and revised their assessments if warranted. Scintigraphy significantly increased the cardiologists' diagnostic accuracy beyond that attained with other clinical information (p less than 0.0001). The change in accuracy varied from + 4% to + 20% in different patient groups, and was greatest in patients with atypical angina and a positive exercise ECG. Ratings of the need for coronary angiography changed from -13% to +21% in different patient groups. We conclude that exercise thallium scintigraphy can provide independent diagnostic information and influence the need for coronary angiography.

  7. Cerebral scintigraphy--the phoenix rises again.

    PubMed Central

    Shepstone, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of cerebral scintigraphy from its early days of planar imaging with simple technetium-99m labelled compounds to the recent revival of the technique in the form of positron-emission and single-photon emission tomography. A short explanation of instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals is given as a prelude to a description of both techniques in normal and pathological situations. Particular emphasis is placed on the more readily-available single-photon emission-tomographic techniques using labelled amines in the functional investigation of disorders not readily diagnosed by computed tomography. Images Figure 2(a) Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3047720

  8. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Van der Wall, Hans; Lee, Allen; Magee, Michael; Frater, Clayton; Wijesinghe, Harindu; Kannangara, Siri

    2010-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy is one of the mainstays of molecular imaging. It has retained its relevance in the imaging of acute and chronic trauma and sporting injuries in particular. The basic reasons for its longevity are the high lesional conspicuity and technological changes in gamma camera design. The implementation of hybrid imaging devices with computed tomography scanners colocated with the gamma camera has revolutionized the technique by allowing a host of improvements in spatial resolution and anatomical registration. Both bone and soft-tissue lesions can be visualized and identified with greater and more convincing accuracy. The additional benefit of detecting injury before anatomical changes in high-level athletes has cost and performance advantages over other imaging modalities. The applications of the new imaging techniques will be illustrated in the setting of bone and soft-tissue trauma arising from sporting injuries.

  9. Quantitative planar imaging in renal scintigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lárraga, J. M.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Martínez-Duncker, C.; Rodríguez, R. Herrera

    2002-08-01

    In this work we show the results of the implementation of the double energy window method (DEW) to correct for scatter and geometric mean of opposite image to correct for attenuation of radiation within the patient for absolute quantification of radiotracer in renal scintigraphy studies. We show that DEW method subestimates the scatter radiation within main energy window and that result in a 11% of maximun error for the determination of true activity of a renal kidney phantom. Moreover, in order to avoid transmission scans of patients we perform a Monte Carlo simulation (MC) for the determination of scatter component of the main energy window. The results of the MC simulation was validated with experimental data of emission studies.

  10. Detection of deep venous thrombophlebitis by Gallium 67 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.

    1981-07-01

    Deep venous thrombophlebitis may escape clinical detection. Three cases are reported in which whole-body gallium 67 scintigraphy was used to detect unsuspected deep venous thrombophlebitis related to indwelling catheters in three children who were being evaluated for fevers of unknown origin. Two of these children had septicemia from Candida organisms secondary to these venous lines. Gallium 67 scintigraphy may be useful in the detection of complications of indwelling venous catheters.

  11. Detection of deep venous thrombophlebitis by gallium 67 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.

    1981-07-01

    Deep venous thrombophlebitis may escape clinical detection. Three cases are reported in which whole-body gallium 67 scintigraphy was used to detect unsuspected deep venous thrombophlebitis related to indwelling catheters in three children who were being evaluated for fevers of unknown origin. Two of these children had septicemia from Candida organisms secondary to these venous lines. Gallium 67 scintigraphy may be useful in the detection of complications of indwelling venous catheters.

  12. Gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bakir, A.A.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Levy, P.S.; Rhee, H.L.; Dunea, G.

    1988-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease, 45 patients with various glomerulopathies, excluding lupus nephritis and renal vasculitis, were studied. Persistent renal visualization 48 hours after the gallium injection, a positive scintigram, was graded as + (less than), ++ (equal to), and +++ (greater than) the hepatic uptake. Positive scintigrams were seen in ten of 16 cases of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, six of 11 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis, and one case of minimal change, and one of two cases of membranous nephropathy; also in three of six cases of sickle glomerulopathy, two cases of diabetic neuropathy, one of two cases of amyloidosis, and one case of mild chronic allograft rejection. The 25 patients with positive scans were younger than the 20 with negative scans (31 +/- 12 v 42 +/- 17 years; P less than 0.01), and exhibited greater proteinuria (8.19 +/- 7.96 v 2.9 +/- 2.3 S/d; P less than 0.01) and lower serum creatinine values (2 +/- 2 v 4.1 +/- 2.8 mg/dL; P less than 0.01). The amount of proteinuria correlated directly with the intensity grade of the gallium image (P less than 0.02), but there was no correlation between the biopsy diagnosis and the outcome of the gallium scan. It was concluded that gallium scintigraphy is not useful in the differential diagnosis of the glomerular diseases under discussion. Younger patients with good renal function and heavy proteinuria are likely to have a positive renal scintigram regardless of the underlying glomerulopathy.

  13. [Ultrastructure of granulocytes of bony fishes (orders Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes)].

    PubMed

    Flerova, E A; Balabanova, L V

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of data on utrastructure of granulocytes of freshwater and marine bony fish of orders Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, and Perciformes showed that in all studied species there were revealed two types of granulocytes - neutrophils and eosinophils. The exception was the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix L. whose pronephros hemopoietic tissue was found to contain one type of the granulocytic line - neutrophils. The identification parameters of granular leukocytes are specific granules filling the cytoplasm. The main form of specific granules in neutrophils of bony fish of various phylogenetic groups is an elongated granule with different distribution of fibrils or a granule that has crystalloid formed from fibrils. The main form of eosinophil granules - large, electron-dense, homogenous.

  14. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for generalized pustular psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Shukuya, Ryoko; Hasegawa, Toshio; Niwa, Yusuke; Okuma, Keiko; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2011-12-01

    Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) is an extracorporeal circulation therapy that removes activated granulocytes and monocytes. GCAP was initially approved for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, which is attributed to activated granulocytes and macrophages that infiltrate the target tissues. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is also supposed to be caused by activated neutrophils. In this study, we treated two patients with refractory GPP by using GCAP. Patient 1, a 68-year-old woman who had liver cirrhosis, underwent seven GCAP sessions. Patient 2, a 26-year-old woman who had systemic lupus erythematosus and had been treated with systemic corticosteroids, underwent eight GCAP sessions. In both patients, GCAP resulted in an immediate improvement in skin lesions and fever reduction, without any adverse effects. We suggest that GCAP is an effective therapy for refractory GPP. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Inflammatory granulocytes decrease subcutaneous growth of melanoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Costa, Madalena M; Aguas, Artur P

    2004-12-01

    Growing melanomas invade the subcutaneous tissues. We have compared the size of tumors implanted in the subcutaneous cavities of C57BL/6 mice where inflammatory reactions were induced before the injection of 5 x 10(5) melanoma cells (B16F10 cell line). Granulocytic inflammation of the subcutaneous cavities resulted in a significant decrease in the growth of the implanted melanomas, whereas monocytic inflammation had no effect on tumor growth. We conclude that granulocytes, but not monocytes/macrophages, have anti-tumor action on melanoma that invade the subcutaneous tissues.

  16. 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy is superior to 123I-MIBG scintigraphy in the diagnosis and location of chemodectoma.

    PubMed

    Muros, M A; Llamas-Elvira, J M; Rodríguez, A; Ramírez, A; Gómez, M; Arráez, M A; Valéncia, E; Vílchez, R

    1998-08-01

    Chemodectomas, or glomus tumours, are unusual head and neck paragangliomas. A non-invasive imaging technique, 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy, has long been used for the diagnosis of all types of paraganglioma. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare classic 123I-MIBG scintigraphy with the more recent 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy in the diagnosis and location of chemodectomas. We performed 123I-MIBG and 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy in eight patients (7 females, 1 male) with histologically or radiologically confirmed chemodectomas (five carotid body and three jugulotympanic chemodectomas). 123I-MIBG uptake was visualized in four patients on planar views and SPET images (sensitivity 50%); uptake was low in three patients. Using 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy, all chemodectomas in eight patients were visualized (sensitivity 100%) and 111In-pentetreotide uptake was high in all cases. In conclusion, our results indicate that 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy is superior to 123I-MIBG scintigraphy in the diagnosis and location of chemodectomas. In-pentetreotide or 123I-MIBG uptake suggests a neuroendocrine origin, providing important functional information in the diagnosis of chemodectomas. Moreover, 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy permits a good classification of patients with or without somatostatin receptors in the chemodectoma in the application of pharmacological therapy with somatostatin analogues to inoperable tumours. The main therapeutic action of cold somatostatin analogues is to inhibit hormonal hypersecretion in different neuroendocrine tumours. In chemodectomas, however, the most important effect of somatostatin analogues is to reduce tumour volume or inhibit growth progression.

  17. Immunostimulation using granulocyte- and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Schefold, Joerg C

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is associated with failure of multiple organs, including failure of the immune system. The resulting 'sepsis-associated immunosuppression' resembles a state of immunological anergy that is characterized by repeated 'infectious hits', prolonged multiple-organ failure, and death. As a consequence, adjunctive treatment approaches using measures of immunostimulation with colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) were tested in animal experiments and clinical trials. Herein, data from randomized clinical trials will be discussed in the context of a recently published meta-analysis investigating the effects of granulocyte- and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

  18. Renal scintigraphy following angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension (captopril scintigraphy)

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.N. )

    1989-09-01

    This article describes the pathophysiology and primary causes of renovascular hypertension (RVH). No historical or physical finding is specific in the diagnosis of RVH, although onset of hypertension before the age of 30 years may suggest the possible presence of RVH. The physiology of the kidney is described along with the biochemistry of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The main thrust of the article is nuclear medicine techniques useful in the diagnosis of this disease. Several diagnositic methods are described but captopril scintigraphy is presented as a method that may give more optimal results in the diagnosis of RVH.

  19. [A CASE OF GRANULOCYTIC SARCOMA IN THE BILATERAL URETER].

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Ken; Ikeda, Atsushi; Komine, Manabu; Tsutsumi, Masakazu; Shinagawa, Atsushi

    2015-07-01

    A 61-year-old female presented with the complaints of fever and left back pain. She had previously undergone bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia and achieved remission. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed left hydronephrosis and suspected tumor lesions in the right upper ureter and left lower ureter. Ureteroscopy was performed for a diagnosis. A yellowish tumor was detected in the left lower ureter, and tissue biopsy was performed. Two weeks after the examination, abdominal CT revealed ascites and retroperitoneal dissemination. The results of the ascites cytology showed infiltration by leukemia cells, and the patient was diagnosed as having recurrent leukemia. A week later, she died. The ureteral tumor was diagnosed as a granulocytic sarcoma. Granulocytic sarcoma, a condition characterized by mass formation outside the bone marrow by granulocytic cells, is classified as a myeloid sarcoma, occurring in an estimated 2-8% of patients with myeloid leukemia. The possibility of granulocytic sarcoma should be considered when treating patients with a history of leukemia.

  20. The origin of the chemiluminescence of phagocytosing granulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Cheson, B D; Christensen, R L; Sperling, R; Kohler, B E; Babior, B M

    1976-01-01

    Granulocytes engaged in the phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan emit light by a process that is inhibited by superoxide dismutase and catalase. In the present report is is shown that light emission is the result of reactions between certain unspecified constituents of the ingested particles and some or all of the oxidizing agents (H2O2, O2),and possibly the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen) produced by the activated cells. This conclusion is based on a study of light emission by both activated cells ans artificial O2 generating system containing xanthine oxidase and purine. With these two systems light production required the presence of both zymosan and oxidizing agent, suggesting that the oxidation of particle components is necessary for luminescence to occur. The characteristics of the emission spectrum as well as the finding that granulocytes activated by a nonparticulate agent (F-) fail to liminesce show that light emission by the relaxation of singlet oxygen to the ground state does not contribute in a major way to the chemiluminescence of phagocytosing granulocytes; whether singlet oxygen contributes to chemiluminescence in other ways cannot be decided from the data available. Inasmuch as the oxidation of constituents of ingested particles is an important bacterial killing mechanism in the granulocyte, chemiluminescence may be viewed as a manifestation of the microbicidal activity of the cell. PMID:965486

  1. Cardiac granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma): in vivo diagnosis with transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Ibáñez, Borja; Rey, Manuel; Román, Alejandro; Rábago, Rosa; Orejas, Miguel; Tomás, José F; Farré, Jerónimo

    2004-09-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma, or chloroma, is an uncommon presentation of acute leukemia. Cardiac involvement is very rare and usually diagnosed at autopsy. We present a case that discloses the essential role of transesophageal echocardiography for its in vivo diagnosis. The principal features with this imaging technique are finely described.

  2. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Shende, Ruchira P; Sampat, Bhavin K; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Kulkarni, Satish

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of 58 year old female diagnosed with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) with recurrence of PAP after 5 repeated whole lung lavage, responding to subcutaneous injections of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor therapy (GM-CSF). Thus indicating that GM-CSF therapy is a promising alternative in those requiring repeated whole lung lavage

  3. Diagnostic and Pathophysiological Impact of Myocardial MIBG Scintigraphy in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Myocardial MIBG scintigraphy is established in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies address the pathophysiological impact of myocardial MIBG scintigraphy: the myocardial MIBG uptake correlates with the clinical phenotype of PD; the background of this phenomenon is unclear. Furthermore MIBG scintigraphy enables to study the extracranial Lewy body type-degeneration. In combination with cerebral dopamine transporter imaging, MIBG scintigraphy allows to correlate cerebral and extracranial Lewy body type-degeneration in PD.

  4. The current status of bone scintigraphy in malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Dasgeb, Bahar; Mulligan, Michael H; Kim, Chun K

    2007-12-01

    For the past few decades, planar bone scintigraphy has been the most frequently performed imaging study in the evaluation of metastatic bone disease. Although scintigraphic findings alone are often nonspecific for skeletal pathologies, this technique reportedly has an exquisite sensitivity. However, recently accumulated data on the efficacy of positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose and fluorine-18 sodium fluoride as well as magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating skeletal metastatic disease now indicate that conventional planar bone scintigraphy is not very sensitive in the detection of metastatic bone lesions in selected malignancies. Nevertheless, bone scintigraphy still remains the primary imaging modality for evaluation of metastatic bone disease owing mainly to its cost effectiveness and wide availability. In addition, recently introduced hybrid imaging systems combining single-photon emission computed tomography and spiral computed tomography, although not widely available yet, increase considerably both the sensitivity and specificity of bone scintigraphy. This article focuses primarily on the current role of bone scintigraphy and its strengths and weaknesses in assessing different types of malignant diseases relative to other imaging modalities in selected malignancies.

  5. Thallium-201 stress scintigraphy in Takayasu arteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Y.; Numano, F.; Maruyama, Y.; Oniki, T.; Kasuya, K.; Kakuta, T.; Wada, T.; Yajima, M.; Maezawa, H. )

    1991-04-15

    Thirty-eight women with Takayasu arteritis were studied using thallium-201 stress myocardial scintigraphy to assess the prevalence and pathophysiology of the perfusion abnormality. Twenty (53%) had abnormal scintigraphic findings (group A). Abnormal scans were divided into 3 groups: permanent defects in 6, reversible defects in 7 and slow washout in 7. The remaining 18 patients had normal scintigrams (group N). Group A had a tendency to be older and to have a high prevalence of complicated significant aortic regurgitation. Interventricular thickness plus left ventricular posterior wall thickness (26 +/- 7 vs 17 +/- 2 mm, p less than 0.01) and left ventricular mass (267 +/- 121 vs 133 +/- 39 g, p less than 0.01) were all greater in group A on echocardiography. The mean value of the central aortic pressure in systole was 170 +/- 15 mm Hg in the 7 catheterized patients in group A. Coronary ostial stenoses were present in 2 group A patients who showed reversible defects on scintigrams. These data indicate that the abnormal perfusion detected by imaging in patients with Takayasu arteritis was responsible for a decrease in coronary reserve or myocardial damage, or both, due to long-standing systemic hypertension or aortic regurgitation. Coronary artery disease should be considered if a reversible defect is present.

  6. Bone scintigraphy and radiolabeled white blood cell scintigraphy for the diagnosis of mandibular osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Boronat-Ferrater, María; Simó-Perdigó, Marc; Cuberas-Borrós, Gemma; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; Dellepiane-Clarke, Fiorella; Torrent-Llongarriu, Elia; Negre-Busó, Montserrat; Porta-Biosca, Francisco; Sáez, Manel; Castell-Conesa, Joan

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of bone scintigraphy (BS) and radiolabeled white blood cell scintigraphy (WBCS) in detecting septic activity in the flat bones of the jaw. A retrospective analysis was conducted using 38 studies of combined BS plus WBCS: 33 of them 3-phase BS and 36 of them 2-phase WBCS. These studies were performed on 34 patients, 19 women and 15 men with a mean age of 56 years (22-79), who presented with suspected mandibular osteomyelitis, either acute or chronic exacerbation. The results were compared with histologic findings (55%) or with a minimum clinical/radiologic follow-up of 6 months (average, 21 months), when biopsy results were not available. BS showed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 6.7%, a positive predictive value of 62%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. For WBCS, the corresponding values were as follows: 73.7%, 78.6%, 82%, and 69%. Accuracy was 63.2% for BS and 94.7% for WBCS. WBCS has proven to be a useful test for detecting septic activity in the jaw bone, being more effective than BS alone, which under certain circumstances, can return a very high false-positive rate.

  7. In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected orthopedic prosthesis infection: comparison with other imaging modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, J.E.; Brown, M.L.; Hauser, M.F.; Berquist, T.H.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.; Klee, G.G.

    1988-07-01

    When infection of prosthetic orthopedic implants is suspected, optimal management requires accurate confirmation or exclusion of infection. The authors retrospectively studied 98 patients with possible infection who underwent scanning with indium-111-labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and subsequently underwent surgery within 14 days. At surgery, 50 patients had infections, as determined by means of culture or histologic results. The diagnostic accuracy of In-111 scanning was compared with that of plain radiography, arthrography, three-phase bone scanning, and various clinical and laboratory findings classically associated with infection. Positive findings on In-111 WBC scans and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rates were found to be the most predictive variables in the diagnosis of septic prostheses (P less than or equal to .001 and P less than or equal to .002, respectively). Likelihood ratio analysis more clearly demonstrated the superiority of In-111 WBC scanning, with positive and negative scans yielding likelihood ratios of 5.0 and 0.16, respectively.

  8. Elevated granulocyte strontium in inflammatory arthritides is related to the inflammatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haellgren, R.; Svensson, K.; Johansson, E.; Lindh, U.

    1984-12-01

    Total cellular strontium and calcium were measured by the nuclear microprobe technique. Increased mass fraction of both elements was found in granulocytes isolated from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and other kinds of inflammatory arthritides. Increased granulocyte calcium but only marginally elevated granulocyte strontium was demonstrated in patients with scleroderma. The granulocyte accumulation of strontium and calcium seems to be linked to the degree of inflammatory activity, because the granulocyte content of both elements was positively correlated to the plasma concentration of acute-phase proteins. Corticosteroid therapy induced a marked reduction of granulocyte strontium but a more modest decrease of granulocyte calcium. The serum levels of strontium and calcium were within the normal ranges in all patients and were not significantly altered by corticosteroids. 21 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  9. AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: findings on thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Rosen, M.P.; Baum, A.; Cohen, S.E.; Cooley, T.P.; Liebman, H.A.

    1988-12-01

    No simple, noninvasive method is available for evaluating extracutaneous Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients or for following the tumor's response to treatment. We report our preliminary experience with thallium-201 scintigraphy in nine AIDS patients with proved Kaposi sarcoma. Eight of the nine had abnormal uptake of the radionuclide in skin, lymph nodes, oral cavity, vagina, and lungs. Only four of the nine had cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma at the time of scanning. All cutaneous and mucosal lesions were thallium avid. Two of the six patients with thallium-avid nodes underwent nodal biopsy. Both biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma. Cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma developed later in one of these patients, showing the efficacy of thallium scintigraphy for the early detection of extracutaneous lesions. These preliminary results show thallium avidity in Kaposi sarcoma involving the skin and various extracutaneous sites (lymph nodes, lung, mucosa, and vagina). Thallium scintigraphy is a potentially useful procedure for detecting extracutaneous Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients.

  10. Arteriovenous fistula stent infection diagnosed with radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Kim, Miyeon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Chang, Jee Won; Song, Heesung

    2015-07-01

    Infectious complications of haemodialysis in patients with arteriovenous fistula stent are rare. In addition, patients with low-grade infection are more difficult to diagnose. Here, we report the first case of low-grade infection of an arteriovenous fistula stent diagnosed using (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy. A 62-year-old man with end-stage renal disease was referred for prolonged fever. We performed (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy following a work-up according to fever of unknown origin. A focal uptake on the left forearm compatible with the arteriovenous fistula stent insertion site was shown, and the stent was removed. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy could be a suitable method for assessing vascular stent infection in low-grade fever.

  11. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Scintigraphy in Primary Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shoukat H; Madhu, Vijay P; Rather, Tanveer A; Laway, Bashir A

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Esophageal dysmotility is associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility in various systemic and neuroregulatory disorders. Hypothyroidism has been reported to be associated with impaired motor function in esophagus due to accumulation of glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid in its soft tissues, leading to changes in various contraction and relaxation parameters of esophagus, particularly in the lower esophageal sphincter. In this study we evaluated esophageal transit times in patients of primary hypothyroidism using the technique of radionuclide esophageal transit scintigraphy. Methods Thirty-one patients of primary hypothyroidism and 15 euthyroid healthy controls were evaluated for esophageal transit time using 15–20 MBq of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid diluted in 10–15 mL of drinking water. Time activity curve was generated for each study and esophageal transit time was calculated as time taken for clearance of 90% radioactive bolus from the region of interest encompassing the esophagus. Esophageal transit time of more than 10 seconds was considered as prolonged. Results Patients of primary hypothyroidism had a significantly increased mean esophageal transit time of 19.35 ± 20.02 seconds in comparison to the mean time of 8.25 ± 1.71 seconds in healthy controls (P < 0.05). Esophageal transit time improved and in some patients even normalized after treatment with thyroxine. A positive correlation (r = 0.39, P < 0.05) albeit weak existed between the serum thyroid stimulating hormone and the observed esophageal transit time. Conclusions A significant number of patients with primary hypothyroidism may have subclinical esophageal dysmotility with prolonged esophageal transit time which can be reversible by thyroxine treatment. Prolonged esophageal transit time in primary hypothyroidism may correlate with serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels. PMID:27444283

  12. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Scintigraphy in Primary Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shoukat H; P, Madhu Vijay; Rather, Tanveer A; Laway, Bashir A

    2017-01-30

    Esophageal dysmotility is associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility in various systemic and neuroregulatory disorders. Hypothyroidism has been reported to be associated with impaired motor function in esophagus due to accumulation of glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid in its soft tissues, leading to changes in various contraction and relaxation parameters of esophagus, particularly in the lower esophageal sphincter. In this study we evaluated esophageal transit times in patients of primary hypothyroidism using the technique of radionuclide esophageal transit scintigraphy. Thirty-one patients of primary hypothyroidism and 15 euthyroid healthy controls were evaluated for esophageal transit time using 15-20 MBq of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid diluted in 10-15 mL of drinking water. Time activity curve was generated for each study and esophageal transit time was calculated as time taken for clearance of 90% radioactive bolus from the region of interest encompassing the esophagus. Esophageal transit time of more than 10 seconds was considered as prolonged. Patients of primary hypothyroidism had a significantly increased mean esophageal transit time of 19.35 ± 20.02 seconds in comparison to the mean time of 8.25 ± 1.71 seconds in healthy controls (P < 0.05). Esophageal transit time improved and in some patients even normalized after treatment with thyroxine. A positive correlation (r = 0.39, P < 0.05) albeit weak existed between the serum thyroid stimulating hormone and the observed esophageal transit time. A significant number of patients with primary hypothyroidism may have subclinical esophageal dysmotility with prolonged esophageal transit time which can be reversible by thyroxine treatment. Prolonged esophageal transit time in primary hypothyroidism may correlate with serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels.

  13. Separation of granulocytes from whole blood by leukoadhesion, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Capillary glass tubes are investigated for the separation and retrieval of large quantities of viable granulocytes and monocytes from whole blood on a continuous basis from a single donor. This effort represented the feasibility demonstration of a three phase program for development of a capillary tube cell separation device. The activity included the analysis and parametric laboratory testing with subscale models required to design a prototype device. Capillary tubes 40 cm long with a nominal 0.030 cm internal diameter yielded the highest total process efficiency. Recovery efficiencies as high as 89% of the adhering cell population were obtained. Granulocyte phagocytosis of latex particles indicated approximately 90% viability. Monocytes recovered from the separation column retained their capability to stimulate human bone marrow colony growth, as demonstrated in an in vitro cell culture assay.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal intradural granulocytic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ang, P; Virapongse, C

    1990-01-01

    We report the case of a young black male with a spinal intradural granulocytic sarcoma proved by needle aspiration. The tumor was evaluated by myelography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Other than its rarity, the "dripping candle wax" appearance on MR T1-weighted images and the lack of enhancement with Gd-DTPA makes this case unique. Progressive changes of the tumor following chemo- and radiotherapy were successfully demonstrated by MR.

  15. Toxic and osmotic effects of glycerol on human granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, W.J.; Mazur, P.

    1984-11-01

    Human granulocytes are damaged by exposure to concentrations of glycerol as low as 0.5 M. We therefore investigated the addition of glycerol to granulocytes and its subsequent dilution under various conditions to try to distinguish between toxic and harmful osmotic effects of glycerol. The lesion caused by glycerol at 0/sup 0/C was expressed as a loss of plasma membrane integrity (as visualized by fluorescein diacetate) only after incubation (greater than or equal to1 h) at 37/sup 0/C. This damage was not ameliorated when osmotic stress was lessened by reducing the rates of addition and dilution of glycerol to keep the computed cell volume within 80-170% of isotonic cell volume. However, when osmotic stress was reduced further by increasing the temperature of addition and dilution of glycerol from 0/sup 0/ to 22/sup 0/C, the tolerance of the cells to 1 M glycerol increased somewhat. Reducing exposure to glycerol to 3 min or less at 0/sup 0/C greatly increased survival, but this time was too short to allow glycerol to equilibrate intracellularly. Finally, the presence of extra impermeant solute (NaCl or sucrose) in the medium to reduce the equilibrium cell volume to 60% of isotonic cell volume enabled granulocytes to survive 30-min exposure to 1 M glycerol at 0/sup 0/C, but cells had to remain shrunken during the 37/sup 0/C incubation to prevent the loss of membrane integrity. Suspensions that contained damaged granulocytes formed aggregates when incubated at 37/sup 0/C, and these aggregates were responsible for a major fraction of the observed loss in viability.

  16. [Evaluation of lung perfusion scintigraphy without ventilation scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Jurkiene, Nemira

    2002-01-01

    The role of perfusion lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is reviewed. During the study 227 perfusion lung scans were obtained. The scans were grouped according to the PIOPED criteria into 5 groups: normal scans, very low, low, intermediate and high PE probability. The perfusion scans were analyzed according to the original PIOPED criteria, without ventilation scans. Evidence is provided that a normal perfusion scan excludes pulmonary embolism, and that a high probability lung scan, defined as a segmental perfusion defect with locally normal chest X-ray or findings in X-ray are smaller, sufficiently confirms the presence of pulmonary embolism in the majority of these patients (92.2%).

  17. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in synovial fluid granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, J; Forslund, T; Sundqvist, T; Skogh, T

    2002-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the NO-producing potential of synovial fluid (SF) cells. SF from 15 patients with arthritis was compared with blood from the same individuals and with blood from 10 healthy controls. Cellular expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analysed by flow cytometry. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure l-arginine and l-citrulline. Nitrite and nitrate were measured colourimetrically utilizing the Griess' reaction. Compared to whole blood granulocytes in patients with chronic arthritis, a prominent iNOS expression was observed in SF granulocytes (P < 0.001). A slight, but statistically significant, increase in iNOS expression was also recorded in lymphocytes and monocytes from SF. l-arginine was elevated in SF compared to serum (257 +/- 78 versus 176 +/- 65 micro mol/l, P = 0.008), whereas a slight increase in l-citrulline (33 +/- 11 versus 26 +/- 9 micro mol/l), did not reach statistical significance. Great variations but no significant differences were observed comparing serum and SF levels of nitrite and nitrate, respectively, although the sum of nitrite and nitrate tended to be elevated in SF (19.2 +/- 20.7 versus 8.6 +/- 6.5 micro mol/l, P = 0.054). Synovial fluid leucocytes, in particular granulocytes, express iNOS and may thus contribute to intra-articular NO production in arthritis.

  18. [Granulocyte alkaline phosphatase--a biomarker of chronic benzene exposure].

    PubMed

    Khristeva, V; Meshkov, T

    1994-01-01

    In tracing the cellular population status in the peripheral blood of workers, exposed to benzene, was included and cytochemical determination of the alkaline phosphatase activity in leucocytes. This enzyme is accepted as marker of the neutrophilic granulocytes, as maturation of the cells and their antibacterial activity are parallel to the cytochemical activity of the enzyme. 78 workers from the coke-chemical production from state firm "Kremikovtsi" and 41 workers from the production "Benzene" and "Isopropylbenzene"--Oil Chemical Plant, Burgas are included. The benzene concentrations in the air of the working places in all productions are in the range of 5 to 50 mg/m3. For cytochemical determination of the alkaline phosphatase activity is used the method of L. Kaplow and phosphatase index was calculated. It was established that in 98.4% of all examined the alkaline phosphatase activity is inhibited to different rate, as from 46.5% [61 workers] it is zero. In considerably lower percentage of workers were established and other deviations: leucocytosis or leucopenia, neutropenia, increased percent of band neutrophils and toxic granules. The results of the investigation of the granulocyte population show that from all indices, the activity of granulocyte alkaline phosphatase demonstrates most convincing the early myelotoxic effect of benzene.

  19. Strenuous physical exercise inhibits granulocyte activation induced by high altitude.

    PubMed

    Choukèr, Alexander; Demetz, Florian; Martignoni, André; Smith, Leslie; Setzer, Florian; Bauer, Andreas; Hölzl, Joseph; Peter, Klaus; Christ, Frank; Thiel, Manfred

    2005-02-01

    To test the hypothesis of whether strenuous physical exercise inhibits neutrophils that can get activated by hypobaric hypoxia, we analyzed the effects of both high altitude and strenuous exercise alone and in combination on potentially cytotoxic functions of granulocytes in healthy volunteers (n = 12 men; average age 27.6 yr; range 24-38 yr). To this end, a field study was prospectively performed with an open-labeled within-subject design comprising three protocols. Protocol I (high altitude) involved a helicopter ascent, overnight stay at 3,196 m, and descent on the following day. Protocol II (physical exercise) involved hiking below an altitude of 2,100 m with repetitive ascents amounting to a total ascent to that of protocol III. Protocol III (combination of physical exercise and high altitude) involved climbing from 1,416 to 3,196 m, stay overnight, and descent on the following day. In protocol I, number of granulocytes did not change, but potentially cytotoxic functions of cells (CD18 expression and superoxide production) were early and significantly upregulated. In protocol II, subjects developed granulocytosis, but functions of cells were inhibited. In protocol III, granulocytosis occurred at higher values than those observed under protocol II. Potentially cytotoxic functions of cells, however, were strongly inhibited again. In conclusion, high altitude alone, even moderate in extent, can activate potentially cytotoxic functions of circulating granulocytes. Strenuous physical exercise strongly inhibits this activation, which may give protection from an otherwise inflammatory injury.

  20. Modification of granulocytopoietic cell proliferation by granulocyte extracts.

    PubMed

    Lord, B I

    1975-07-31

    Saline extracts of mature granulocytes have been partially purified by an ultrafiltration technique. The fraction in the 500-2000 daltons molecular weight range was retained and tested in a variety of experimental systems. Comparable fractions of erythrocyte and lymphocyte extracts were used for control purposes. Measurement of the structuredness of the cytoplasmic matrix (SCM) of cells is shown to be a very sensitive measure of the effects of the extract. Specific and reversible increases in SCM of proliferating granulocytic cell populations indicate changes compatible with reduced proliferation and these are confirmed by autoradiographic observations following tritiated thymidine labelling. Repeated labelling experiments to obtain the rate of flow of cells through the cycle gave a mean cell cycle time of 15 hrs in the controls but in animals treated with the granulocyte extract this was increased to about 30 hrs. The duration of DNA synthesis was increased slightly but there was no effect on G2 as measured by the stathmokinetic index method. Cell production in developing spleen colonies was reduced by repeated doses of the extract over a period of 4 days. Approximately two cell doublings were lost during this period due to the prolonged cell cycle.

  1. Noninvasive external cardiac pacing for thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.D.; Warren, S.E.; Gervino, E.V.; Aroesty, J.M.; Royal, H.D.; Parker, J.A.; Silverman, K.J.; Kolodny, G.M.; Zoll, P.M.; McKay, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Improvements in noninvasive external cardiac pacing have led to a technique with reliable electrical capture and tolerable patient discomfort. To assess the use of this modality of pacing in combination with thallium scintigraphy as a noninvasive pacing stress test, we applied simultaneous noninvasive cardiac pacing, hemodynamic monitoring, and thallium-201 scintigraphy in 14 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for chest pain syndromes. Two patients had normal coronary arteries, while the remaining 12 had significant coronary artery disease. Thallium scintigraphic responses to pacing were compared to routine exercise thallium stress testing in nine of these 14 patients. All patients were noninvasively paced to more than 85% of the age-predicted maximum heart rate. Twelve patients demonstrated reversible thallium defects, which corresponded in 11 cases to significant lesions seen on coronary angiography. Of nine patients who underwent both pacing and exercise thallium stress tests, comparable maximal rate-pressure products were achieved. Moreover, thallium imaging at peak pacing and during delayed views did not differ significantly from exercise thallium scintigraphy. A limiting factor associated with the technique was local patient discomfort, which occurred to some degree in all patients. We conclude that noninvasive external cardiac pacing together with thallium scintigraphy is capable of detecting significant coronary artery disease and may be comparable to routine exercise thallium stress testing. This new modality of stress testing could be useful in patients unable to undergo the exercise required for standard exercise tolerance testing, particularly if improvements in the technology can be found to reduce further the local discomfort.

  2. Myopericarditis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosed by gallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Cregler, L.L.; Sosa, I.; Ducey, S.; Abbey, L. )

    1990-07-01

    Myocarditis is among the cardiac complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and, yet, is often not discovered until autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy has been employed in diagnosing this entity, but few data are available about its diagnostic accuracy and value. Here, the authors report two cases of myopericarditis as diagnosed by gallium scan.

  3. Cavernous hemangioma. Why is peripheral filling at scintigraphy so rare

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Weatherby, E. III

    1987-10-01

    Peripheral filling at dynamic CT occurs frequently with cavernous hemangiomas, yet this phenomenon is a rare finding on Tc-99m RBC imaging. A case of peripheral filling of a cavernous hemangioma with scintigraphy is reported and the rationale for its infrequent occurrence is discussed.

  4. False-positive indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigram in a patient with a painful hip prosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, N.; Makler, P.T. Jr.; Alavi, A.

    1986-01-01

    A Tronzo hip prosthesis is designed to elicit an inflammatory reaction in order to promote prosthesis stability. A three-phased bone scan and Ga-67 imaging in conjunction with physical examination and laboratory findings failed to demonstrate evidence for osteomyelitis in a patient with a painful hip prosthesis, in whom images obtained with In-111-labeled leukocytes were positive. This observation demonstrated that the interpretation of the latter technique in demonstrating inflammation can cause a false impression of an infectious process.

  5. Indium-111-antimyosin and iodine-123-MIBG studies in early assessment of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Carrio, I.; Estorch, M.; Berna, L.

    1995-11-01

    Detection of myocyte cell damage with {sup 111}In-antimyosin and impairment of adrenergic neuron function with MIBG during doxorubicin administration may provide early identification of patients at risk of significant functional impairment. We studied 36 cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy, including doxorubicin, to assess MIBG and {sup 111}In-antimyosin uptake in the course of doxorubicin administration. MIBG scans, antimyosin scans and ejection fraction measurements were performed before chemotherapy, at intermediate cumulative doses and at maximal cumulative doses of doxorubicin. MIBG uptake was quantified by a heart-to-mediastinum ratio and antimyosin uptake was quantified by a heart-to-lung ratio. All patients had absent antimyosin uptake (mean ratio 1.40 {+-} 0.06) with normal MIBG uptake (ratio 1.85 {+-} 0.29) before chemotherapy; ejection fraction was 61% {+-} 8%. With a 240-300 mg/m{sup 2} dose of doxorubicin, an increase in antimyosin uptake was observed with a ratio of 1.85 {+-} 0.2 (p < 0.01), whereas a similar degree of MIBG uptake was observed (mean ratio of 1.80 {+-} 0.2, p = ns); ejection fraction was 59% {+-} 5% (p = ns). At 420-600 mg/m{sup 2}, increased antimyosin uptake was observed with a ratio of 2.02 {+-} 0.3 (p < 0.01), and a decrease in MIBG uptake was also observed (mean ratio of 1.76 {+-} 0.2, p < 0.05); ejection fraction was 52% {+-} 8% (p < 0.05). Patients with more intense antimyosin uptake at intermediate doses tended to be those with more severe functional impairment at maximal cumulative doses. At cumulative doses of 420-600 mg/m{sup 2}, antimyosin and MIBG studies detect cell damage and impaired adrenergic neuron activity in patients with maintained or slightly decreased ejection fraction. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Distribution of DNA strand breaks produced by iodine-123 and indium-111 in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Karamychev, V N; Reed, M W; Neumann, R D; Panyutin, I G

    2000-01-01

    Antigene radiotherapy, a procedure based on delivery of short-range Auger-electron-emitting radioisotopes to target genes via sequence-specific triplex-forming oligonucleotides, has been successfully demonstrated in vitro using the well-studied radionuclide 125I. To proceed with in vivo trials, Auger electron emitters with shorter half-lives than 125I are required. Here we report a study of the efficiency and distribution of sequence-specific DNA strand breaks produced by decay of 123I and mIIn. 123I and 111In were introduced into triplex-and duplex-forming oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) through carbohydrate linkers of various lengths. Labeling with radioiodine was performed through tributylstannylbenzamide intermediates while 111In was attached via DTPA. The Auger-emitter-labeled ODNs were hybridized to a single-stranded DNA target, to form duplexes. After decay accumulation, the target DNA samples were assayed for strand breaks using a sequencing gel-electrophoresis technique. For the first time, we observed footprints of DNA strand breaks produced by 123I and 111In. Most of the breaks were located within 10 nucleotides from the decay site. The yield of strand breaks per decay varies; decay of 111In breaks DNA almost 10 times more effectively than decay of 123I. Both 123I and 111In are less effective in breaking DNA strands than 121I, which reflects the higher total energy of the Auger decay process of 125I.

  7. Indium-111 platelet imaging for detection of platelet deposition in abdominal aneurysms and prosthetic arterial grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.L.; Stratton, J.R.; Thiele, B.; Haminton, G.W.; Warrick, L.N.; Huang, T.W.; Harker, L.A.

    1981-04-01

    Thirty-four platelet imaging studies were performed in 23 patients to determine whether platelet deposition could be detected in patients with vascular aneurysms (18 patients) or in patients in whom Dacron prosthetic grafts had been placed (5 patients). In patients in whom abnormal platelet deposition was detected, the effect of administration of platelet-active drugs on platelet deposition was examined. Of the 18 patients with an aneurysm, 12 had equivocally positive studies on initial imaging and 2 had equivocally positive images. Of five patients with Dacron arterial grafts in place, four had diffuse platelet deposition in the grafts; the fifth patient had a platelet deposition only in a pseudoaneurysm. Eight patients with an abdominal aneurysm and positive or equivocally positive baseline images were restudied during platelet-active drug therapy either with aspirin plus dipyridamole (seven patients) or with sulfinpyrazone (four patients). No patient studied during treatment with aspirin plus dipyridamole had detectably decreased platelet deposition compared with baseline determinations. In contrast, two of four patients studied while receiving sulfinpyrazone showed decreased platelet deposition. Thus, platelet imaging may be of value for studying platelet physiology in vivo and for assessing platelet-active drugs and the thrombogenicity of prosthetic graft materials in human beings.

  8. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning. False-negative study in a renal abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Bedi, D.G.; Fawcett, H.D.; Winsett, M.Z.; Fagan, C.J.

    1986-04-01

    A 33-year-old man had clinical features of a right renal abscess. Results of excretory urography and ultrasonography showed a focal complex mass lesion in the right kidney. An In-111 leukocyte scan failed to detect the right renal abscess, which later was aspirated under CT guidance and explored surgically. The role of In-111 leukocyte imaging in the detection of intra-abdominal abscesses, with limitations of the procedure, is discussed.

  9. Dual isotope study of iodine-125 and indium-111-labeled antibody in athymic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, P.L.; Rogers, P.E.; Johnson, D.K. )

    1989-03-01

    Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was coupled to a benzylisothiocyanate derivative of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The maximum substitution achievable without loss of immunoreactivity was three DTPA groups per immunoglobulin molecule. The resulting conjugate was labeled with {sup 111}In by brief incubation with {sup 111}InCl{sub 3}, giving a mean radiochemical yield of {sup 111}In-labeled antibody of 96%. The ({sup 111}In)B72.3 preparation was mixed with an ({sup 125}I) B72.3 preparation, obtained by the chloramine-T method, and the mixture administered to athymic mice bearing subcutaneous LS174T colon carcinoma xenografts. There were no significant differences (p greater than 0.1) in the biodistributions of the two labels at 1, 2, 5, and 7 days postinjection. These results are contrasted with prior studies showing elevated levels of {sup 111}In in liver, spleen, and kidneys using B72.3-DTPA conjugates prepared via the bicyclic anhydride. It is concluded that protein cross-linking and/or the formation of unstable chelate sites in anhydride coupled conjugates underlie these disparities.

  10. Colonic localization of indium-111 labeled leukocytes in active Behcet's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Harre, R.G.; Conrad, G.R.; Seabold, J.E.

    1988-06-01

    A patient with known Behcet's disease demonstrated intense colonic localization of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Gastrointestinal involvement had not been previously manifested, but extensive colonic inflammation was documented by endoscopy. This case illustrates the utility of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging for detecting active bowel disease in a debilitated patient with documented Behcet's vasculitis.

  11. Indium-111 transferrin imaging for the diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Kinuya, S.; Takayama, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.; Ueno, T.; Takeda, R. )

    1989-09-01

    For assessment of gastrointestinal protein loss, seven patients suspected of having protein-losing enteropathy were studied by gamma camera imaging using in-111 transferrin. Four patients with a value equal to or more than 20 ml/day on the alpha-antitrypsin clearance test or a high protein content on the gastric juice showed definite intestinal activity on an early image, demonstrating protein loss. The loss site could be determined by observing the movement of radiotracer within the bowel lumen on the subsequent images. The three patients with a value of less than 20 ml/day in the test showed no obvious intestinal activity throughout the study. Therefore, in-111 transferrin abdominal imaging appears to be useful for determining the loss site as well as for establishing the rapid diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy.

  12. Indium-111 white blood cell scan for infectious complications of polycystic renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, B.R.; Cerqueira, M.D.; Eary, J.F.; Simmons, M.C.; Nabi, H.A.; Nelp, W.B.

    1985-11-01

    This case report describes the localization of a unilateral renal abscess with ( In)oxine-labeled autologous leukocyte scanning in a febrile patient with polycystic renal disease, after other noninvasive imaging procedures failed to identify a source of infection. In polycystic renal disease, leukocyte scans have advantages over standard diagnostic modalities and are very helpful in planning appropriate therapy.

  13. Distribution and imaging of Indium-111 labelled circulating immune complexes (CIC) in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Wirquin, E.; Bruneau, C.; Cinotti, L.; Sobel, A.; Meignan, M.

    1984-01-01

    The clearance of labelled CIC has been widely used to investigate the phagocytic function of the reticuloendothelial system in humans. Many of these studies have been performed with red blood cells (RBC) sensitized with IgG anti Rh and labelled with Cr-51, so that no image of the distribution of these CIC has been presented up to now. The authors obtained such images by using In-111 instead of Cr-51, and compared the values of the clearances provided by each label in 9 normal controls. The In-111 procedure included camera imaging on spleen, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. Local kinetic-curves were obtained on each organ: 1) The blood clearance values were similar with In-111 (T 1/2 = 23.3 +- 6.4 min) or Cr-51 (T 1/2 = 21.4 +- 4.9); 2) The heart clearance (T 1/2 = 26.6 +- 8.3 min) was not significantly different from the blood T1/.2; 3) There was no uptake of sensitized RBC in lungs and kidneys; 4) Sensitized RBC were mostly cleared by the spleen and T1/2 values were homogenous (20.3 +- 3.8 min); and 5) Sensitized RBC were retained in the liver in 8 out of 9 cases and subsequently released in 5, indicating sequestration without phagocytosis. The variability of the results made it difficult to establish a norm, possibly due to small variations in sensitization, insufficient to influence the spleen T1/2. The authors conclude that sensitized RBC labelled with Cr-51 or In-111 may be used equally well. By camera imaging, the authors identified an hepatic Fc function and could determine the respective role of spleen and liver. IgG sensitized RBC, like their IgM counterparts, were sequestered and released by the liver.

  14. Skeletal photopenic appearance of Paget's disease with indium-111 white blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Borin, B.F.; Abghari, R.; Sarkissian, A.

    1987-10-01

    A case of focal decreased skeletal uptake with In-111 labeled white blood cells representing Paget's disease is reported. Although uncommon, other causes for skeletal photon deficient areas using In-111 white blood cells have been described. To the authors' knowledge, this finding representing Paget's disease has not been previously described.

  15. Imaging focal sites of bacterial infection in rats with indium-111-labeled chemotactic peptide analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Fischman, A.J.; Pike, M.C.; Kroon, D.; Fucello, A.J.; Rexinger, D.; ten Kate, C.; Wilkinson, R.; Rubin, R.H.; Strauss, H.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Four DTPA-derivatized chemotactic peptide analogs: ForNleLFNleYK-DTPA (P1), ForMLFNH(CH2)6NH-DTPA (P2), ForNleLFK(NH2)-DTPA (P3), and ForNleLFK-DTPA (P4), were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro bioactivity and receptor binding. The peptides were radiolabeled with 111In by transchelation and their biodistribution determined in rats at 5, 30, 60 and 120 min after injection. Localization at sites of infection was determined by scintillation camera imaging in animals with deep-thigh infection due to Escherichia coli. Images were recorded from 5 min to 2 hr after injection. All peptides maintained biologic activity (EC50 for O2-production by human PMN's: 3-150 nM) and the ability to bind to the oligopeptide chemoattractant receptor on human PMN's (EC50 for binding: 7.5-50 nM); biologic activity and receptor binding were highly correlated (r = 0.99). For all the peptides, blood clearance was rapid (half-lives: 21.5, 33.1, 31.6, and 28.7 min for P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively). Biodistributions of the individual peptides were similar with low levels of accumulation in the heart, lung, liver, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract. In the kidney, P1 had much greater accumulation than other organs. All peptides yielded high quality images of the infection sites within 1 hr of injection. This study demonstrates that 111In-labeled chemotactic peptide analogs were effective agents for the external imaging of focal sites of infection.

  16. Kinetics of indium-111-labeled leukemic cells in patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Yamauchi, K.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of autologous leukemic cells labeled with In-111 oxine were studied in 5 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and one patient with acute premyelocytic leukemia (APL), and kinetics of OKM1 monoclonal antibody-treated leukemic cells were studied in one patient with acute monoblastic leukemia (AMoL). Recoveries of 33.7 +- 23.3%(range, 22.0 to 48.1%) were achieved at 10min after injection of In-111 oxine labeled leukemic cells in AML and APL patients. However, in a patient with AMoL recovery of 12.3% was only achieved at 10min after injection of OKM1-treated leukemic cells. Clearance of the activity from blood was rapid up to one in all patients. The clearance curve of the activity in 5 AML patients showed a hump or a plateau from one to 5hr after injection of labeled leukemic cells. In APL patient and AMoL patient, however, this hump or plateau was not noted. In AML and APL patients the activity over the spleen was higher than that of over the liver at from 30min to 3hr after and showed a plateau or gradual rising thereafter. In a patient with AMoL, the hepatic activity was higher than the splenic activity at 30min after, but thereafter the latter became higher than the former. Liver activity curves showed transient fall at 3hr after and then gradual uprising in all patients. In a patient with APL, high activity was noted over the kidneys. This rose to a maximum after 3hr and then decreased rapidly. Since In-111 oxine stays firmly attached to the cells in spite of the possibility of radiation damage in a long-term survey, it seems an ideal label for studying leukemic cell kinetics.

  17. Value of blood-pool subtraction in cardiac indium-111-labeled platelet imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Machac, J.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Goldman, M.E.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Palestro, C.; Strashun, A.; Vaquer, R.; Phillips, R.A.; Fuster, V. )

    1989-09-01

    Blood-pool subtraction has been proposed to enhance {sup 111}In-labeled platelet imaging of intracardiac thrombi. We tested the accuracy of labeled platelet imaging, with and without blood-pool subtraction, in ten subjects with cardiac thrombi of varying age, eight with endocarditis being treated with antimicrobial therapy and ten normal controls. Imaging was performed early after labeled platelet injection (24 hr or less) and late (48 hr or more). Blood-pool subtraction was carried out. All images were graded subjectively by four experienced, blinded readers. Detection accuracy was measured by the sensitivity at three fixed levels of specificity estimated from receiver operator characteristic curve analysis and tested by three-way analysis of variance. Detection accuracy was generally improved on delayed images. Blood-pool subtraction did not improve accuracy. Although blood-pool subtraction increased detection sensitivity, this was offset by decreased specificity. For this population studied, blood-pool subtraction did not improve subjective detection of abnormal platelet deposition by 111In platelet imaging.

  18. Utility of thallium-201 scintigraphy in Tolosa-Hunt syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Numata, Yurika; Hirose, Mieko; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Doi, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kure, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is a rare disorder, especially in the pediatric population, characterized by unilateral painful ophthalmoplegia with a relapsing-remitting course. Because the diagnosis of THS is based on the exclusion of other causes of painful ophthalmoplegia, attention should be paid to possible alternative diagnoses. Thallium-201 chloride ((201)Tl) scintigraphy has been used to evaluate tissue histology in clinical oncology with a marker, the retention index (RI). A higher value indicates histological malignancy. Although its utility in pediatric THS has not been discussed, we suggest that (201)Tl scintigraphy may be informative as a marker in the diagnosis. We present an 11-year-old boy with THS who was evaluated with (201)Tl scintigraphy before treatment with corticosteroids, when he had headache, photophobia, and diplopia. The RI of (201)Tl indicated that the lesion would be benign. Although his clinical symptoms did not fulfill the THS criteria completely, his eye symptoms disappeared 2 weeks after corticosteroid treatment, which was not within the 72 h as in the diagnostic criteria of THS. He has been symptom-free for more than 2 years with only an initial 4-week corticosteroid therapy. This report not only shows the potential of (201)Tl scintigraphy to contribute to the correct diagnosis of pediatric THS but also suggests the possibility that the diagnosis of THS could be supported uniquely even in a pediatric THS-suspicious patient who did not fulfill the current THS criteria completely. In conclusion, we suggest that (201)Tl scintigraphy may be useful for making the diagnosis of THS, especially in pediatric patients.

  19. Utilization of nuclear medicine scintigraphy in Taiwan, 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Hung, Mao-Chin; Hsieh, Wanhua Annie; Chang, Peter Wushou; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the utilization of nuclear medicine scintigraphy in the Taiwanese population within the national health-care system between 1997 and 2009. Based on the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database of 1997-2009, a retrospective population-based analysis was conducted. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were employed to analyze the frequencies and longitudinal trends in the utilization of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures during the period. In addition, correlation analysis was applied to determine the correlated factors in the utility of nuclear medicine scintigraphy. The annual total nuclear medicine scintigraphy was estimated to be 256,389 on average in 1997-2009 and 11.7 per 1,000 population over the period. The frequency had increased by 67% over the years, from 8.2 per 1,000 population in 1997 to 13.7 per 1,000 population in 2009. The most frequently performed procedures were whole-body bone scans (33.4% of total) and myocardial perfusion scans (29.4% of total), with 4,615 and 5,620 increments per year, respectively. Most patients were in the age group of 41-65 years old when taking examinations. In addition, male subjects were slightly more than female patients (51.5 vs. 48.5%). Furthermore, the frequencies of whole-body bone scans and PET scans were proportional to the incidences of cancers (correlation coefficients were 0.96 and 0.94, respectively). The utilization of nuclear medicine scintigraphy with the National Health Insurance system in Taiwan has been changed considerably in the past 13 years. Both whole-body bone scan and myocardial perfusion scan were performed most often with significantly increases. The trend of nuclear medicine scintigraphy may have potential impact on making health-care policy in Taiwan.

  20. Granulocytes as models for human protein marker identification following nicotine exposure.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Matthew J; Lester, Henry A

    2017-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric cation channels expressed in the mammalian CNS, in the peripheral nervous system, and in skeletal muscle. Neuronal-type nAChRs are also found in several non-neuronal cell types, including leukocytes. Granulocytes are a subtype of leukocytes that include basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Granulocytes, also known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, are characterized by their ability to produce, store, and release compounds from intracellular granules. Granulocytes are the most abundant type of leukocyte circulating in the peripheral blood. Granulocyte abundance, nAChR expression, and nAChR upregulation following chronic nicotine administration makes granulocytes interesting models for identifying protein markers of nicotine exposure. Nicotinic receptor subunits and several non-nAChR proteins have been identified as protein markers of granulocyte nicotine exposure. We review methods to isolate granulocytes from human tissue, summarize present data about the expression of nAChRs in the three granulocyte cell types (basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils), describe current knowledge of the effects of nicotine exposure on human granulocyte protein expression, and highlight areas of interest for future investigation. This is an article for the special issue XVth International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanisms. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Role of Yops in inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of opsonized Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Visser, L G; Annema, A; van Furth, R

    1995-07-01

    The virulence plasmid of Yersinia enterocolitica codes for the production of the outer membrane protein YadA and the secretion of several proteins, called Yops, which may play a role in the interaction between granulocytes and this bacterium. We investigated whether the expression of YadA or the secretion of Yops affected the phagocytosis and killing of opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. The rates of phagocytosis and killing of Y. enterocolitica by granulocytes in suspension in the presence of rabbit Yersinia antibodies and complement were determined by microbiological assays. In addition, noningested cell-adherent bacteria were differentiated from ingested yersiniae by immunofluorescence microscopy. Plasmid-bearing opsonized Y. enterocolitica was able to inhibit phagocytosis and killing by human granulocytes. The inhibition of phagocytosis was specific for the plasmid-bearing strain of Y. enterocolitica, since granulocytes were still able to phagocytose and kill Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of Y. enterocolitica. Plasmid-cured Y. enterocolitica was readily phagocytosed and killed by these cells. To investigate the role of YadA or Yops in the inhibition of phagocytosis by granulocytes, the phagocytosis of mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops was studied. A Y. enterocolitica mutant unable to secrete Yops lost its ability to inhibit phagocytosis; a mutant expressing only YadA was readily ingested by granulocytes. These results indicate that after attachment of opsonized Y. enterocolitica to granulocytes, Yops play an important role in inhibiting the ingestion of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes.

  2. Characterization of buffy coat-derived granulocytes for clinical use: a comparison with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/dexamethasone-pretreated donor-derived products.

    PubMed

    van de Geer, A; Gazendam, R P; Tool, A T J; van Hamme, J L; de Korte, D; van den Berg, T K; Zeerleder, S S; Kuijpers, T W

    2017-02-01

    Buffy coat-derived granulocytes have been described as an alternative to the apheresis product from donors pretreated with dexamethasone and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The latter is - dependent on the local and national settings - obtained following a demanding and time-consuming procedure, which is undesirable in critically ill septic patients. In contrast, buffy coat-derived products have a large volume and are often heavily contaminated with red cells and platelets. We developed a new pooled buffy coat-derived product with high purity and small volume, and performed a comprehensive functional characterization of these granulocytes. We pooled ten buffy coats following the production of platelet concentrates. Saline 0·9% was added to decrease the viscosity and the product was split into plasma, red cells and a 'super' buffy coat. Functional data of the granulocytes were compared to those obtained with granulocytes from healthy controls and G-CSF/dexamethasone-pretreated donors. Buffy coat-derived granulocytes showed adhesion, chemotaxis, reactive oxygen species production, degranulation, NETosis and in vitro killing of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus species comparable to control and G-CSF/dexamethasone-derived granulocytes. Candida killing was superior compared to G-CSF/dexamethasone-derived granulocytes. Immunophenotyping was normal; especially no signs of activation in the buffy coat-derived granulocytes were seen. Viability was reduced. Buffy coats are readily available in the regular blood production process and would take away the concerns around the apheresis product. The product described appears a promising alternative for transfusion purposes. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  3. Accuracy of Diagnosis of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in China

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) was reported from China. However, the clinical and laboratory findings, including reports of nosocomial transmission, were inconsistent with those reported for HGA in the United States. In 2012, it was demonstrated that the patients described in the 2008 report had all been infected with a newly discovered bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, which causes an illness with the same clinical features described for the patients in the 2008 report. This finding raises the question of HGA misdiagnosis in China and establishes the need for further studies to determine whether HGA occurs there. PMID:27648639

  4. Lazy leucocyte syndrome--disorder of the granulocyte membrane?

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, P H; Robinson, J B; Senn, J S

    1978-01-01

    An adult with long-standing neutropenia had the functional granulocyte abnormalities typical of the lazy leucocyte syndrome. Scanning electron microscopy of the patient's neutrophils showed alteration in the surface configuration of the cell with coarsening of the normal fine ruffles and the appearance of knob-like projections. Similar functional and anatomical changes were induced in normal neutrophils by treatment with vinblastine. The lazy leucocyte syndrome may be a consequence of altered membrane microfilamentous protein structure or function, and undue rigidity of the affected neutrophils may explain the clinicopathological features of the disease. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:641207

  5. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Orimo, S; Ozawa, E; Nakade, S; Sugimoto, T; Mizusawa, H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy is clinically used to estimate local myocardial sympathetic nerve damage in some forms of heart disease, autonomic nerve disturbance in diabetic neuropathy, and disturbance of the autonomic nervous system in neurodegenerative disease. In the present study, examinations were performed to clarify (1) the proportion of cardiac sympathetic nerve disturbance in Parkinson's disease, (2) the usefulness of 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy to detect sympathetic nerve disturbances compared with autonomic function tests, (3) cardiac function in patients who have a decreased MIBG uptake in 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy, (4) the usefulness of 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy to differentiate Parkinson's disease from the other neurological diseases mimicking it.
METHODS—123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy was performed, together with autonomic function tests and cardiac examinations in 46 patients with Parkinson's disease and 25 patients with vascular parkinsonism, essential tremor, or multiple system atrophy.
RESULTS—In an anterior image study, the average count per pixel in heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio decreased in 80% of the patients with Parkinson's disease in the early phase and 84% in the late phase. The mean H/M ratio in Parkinson's disease was significantly lower than that in controls and the other diseases. The H/M ratio tended to decrease with the disease progression. In almost half of the patients in Hoehn and Yahr stage I, the H/M ratio was already decreased. The sympathetic skin response in upper and lower limbs, head up tilt test, and coefficient of variation of R-R interval were abnormal in 17%, 31%, 30%, and 17% of the patients, respectively. All the patients with abnormal autonomic functions were in Hoehn and Yahr stage III, IV, or V. Echocardiography showed normal left ventricular function. Twenty four hour Holter electrocardiography detected no serious arrhythmias except

  6. Role of thallium-201 total-body scintigraphy in follow-up of thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Delprat, C.C.; Marcuse, H.R.; de Vijlder, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    To evaluate the reliability of total-body scintigraphy using (/sup 201/Tl)chloride in postoperative follow-up of thyroid carcinoma, this procedure was performed in 326 patients after total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma. The results were compared with those of 131I scintigraphy and thyroglobulin assays. /sup 201/Tl total-body scintigraphy was found to have the greatest sensitivity (94%), whereas /sup 131/I scintigraphy had the highest specificity (99%). It is shown that /sup 201/Tl total-body scintigraphy is a useful procedure in follow-up of thyroid cancer, however, the combination of parameters provides the greatest reliability. In medullary thyroid carcinoma, which is usually /sup 131/I negative, /sup 201/Tl total-body scintigraphy can be of great value for the localization of metastases which are indicated by elevated serum levels of calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen.

  7. Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica Inhibit Receptor-Dependent Superoxide Anion Production by Human Granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Visser, L. G.; Seijmonsbergen, E.; Nibbering, P. H.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Furth, R.

    1999-01-01

    The virulence plasmid-borne genes encoding Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and several Yersinia secreted proteins (Yops) are involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes. One of these Yops, YopH, dephosphorylates multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. We investigated whether antibody- and complement-opsonized plasmid-bearing (pYV+) Y. enterocolitica inhibits O2− production by human granulocytes in response to various stimuli and whether YopH is involved. Granulocytes were preincubated with mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops or YopH. O2− production by granulocytes during stimulation was assessed by measuring the reduction of ferricytochrome c. PYV+ Y. enterocolitica inhibited O2− production by granulocytes incubated with opsonized Y. enterocolitica or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (f-MLP). This inhibitory effect mediated by pYV did not affect receptor-independent O2− production by granulocytes in response to phorbol myristate acetate, indicating that NADPH activity remained unaffected after activation of protein kinase C. The inhibition of f-MLP-induced O2− production by granulocytes depends on the secretion of Yops and not on the expression of YadA. Insertional inactivation of the yopH gene abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes but not of the f-MLP-induced O2− production by granulocytes or tyrosine phosphorylation of granulocyte proteins. These findings suggest that the specific targets for YopH are not present in f-MLP receptor-linked signal transduction and that other Yop-mediated mechanisms are involved. PMID:10024567

  8. Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica inhibit receptor-dependent superoxide anion production by human granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Visser, L G; Seijmonsbergen, E; Nibbering, P H; van den Broek, P J; van Furth, R

    1999-03-01

    The virulence plasmid-borne genes encoding Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and several Yersinia secreted proteins (Yops) are involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes. One of these Yops, YopH, dephosphorylates multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. We investigated whether antibody- and complement-opsonized plasmid-bearing (pYV+) Y. enterocolitica inhibits O2- production by human granulocytes in response to various stimuli and whether YopH is involved. Granulocytes were preincubated with mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops or YopH. O2- production by granulocytes during stimulation was assessed by measuring the reduction of ferricytochrome c. PYV+ Y. enterocolitica inhibited O2- production by granulocytes incubated with opsonized Y. enterocolitica or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (f-MLP). This inhibitory effect mediated by pYV did not affect receptor-independent O2- production by granulocytes in response to phorbol myristate acetate, indicating that NADPH activity remained unaffected after activation of protein kinase C. The inhibition of f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes depends on the secretion of Yops and not on the expression of YadA. Insertional inactivation of the yopH gene abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes but not of the f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes or tyrosine phosphorylation of granulocyte proteins. These findings suggest that the specific targets for YopH are not present in f-MLP receptor-linked signal transduction and that other Yop-mediated mechanisms are involved.

  9. ROC analysis of diagnostic performance in liver scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Fritz, S L; Preston, D F; Gallagher, J H

    1981-02-01

    Studies on the accuracy of liver scintigraphy for the detection of metastases were assembled from 38 sources in the medical literature. An ROC curve was fitted to the observed values of sensitivity and specificity using an algorithm developed by Ogilvie and Creelman. This ROC curve fitted the data better than average sensitivity and specificity values in each of four subsets of the data. For the subset dealing with Tc-99m sulfur colloid scintigraphy, performed for detection of suspected metastases and containing data on 2800 scans from 17 independent series, it was not possible to reject the hypothesis that interobserver variation was entirely due to the use of different decision thresholds by the reporting clinicians. Thus the ROC curve obtained is a reasonable baseline estimate of the performance potentially achievable in today's clinical setting. Comparison of new reports with these data is possible, but is limited by the small sample sizes in most reported series.

  10. Bone scintigraphy in children with cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Donoso, Gilda; Paulsen, Cesar; Riquelme, Paulina; Lobo, Gabriel; Gutierrez, Daniela; Perez, Andrés; Jiménez, César

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree and incidence of bone involvement in patients with cat scratch disease. Patients admitted between 2004 and 2011 at the pediatric department for cat scratch disease and a positive serology for Bartonella henselae were identified. Only those having undergone a bone scintigraphy (BS) were included in this retrospective study. Sixteen girls and 8 boys with a mean age of 7 years were studied. Bone scintigraphy was positive in 6 (25%), but only 2 had bone pain. Axial involvement was present in all 6 patients, and appendicular lesions in 3 of them. Three patients had a BS control, with improvement or normalization after treatment with antibiotics. Bone involvement occurs infrequently in patients with cat scratch disease and is not always associated with specific signs. Cat scratch disease must be suspected in patients with fever of unknown origin presenting multifocal lesions on BS.

  11. Absorbed dose to the fetus during bone scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, W.R.; DiSimone, R.N.; Wolf, B.H.; Langer, A.

    1988-07-01

    The authors observed the uptake of radiopharmaceutical and calculated absorbed dose in fetuses of two patients who underwent bone scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate. Dose estimates per administered activity were 17 mrad/mCi (4.6 microGy/MBq) for an 8-week-old fetus and 9.7 mrad/mCi (2.6 microGy/MBq) for an 18-week-old fetus. Neither fetus demonstrated radionuclide uptake above maternal background levels. The uterine activity showed rapid clearance, with an effective half-life of 12 minutes after reaching a maximum within 1 minute after injection. Major contribution to fetal dose comes from the presence of the radionuclide in the maternal bladder. The authors conclude that bone scintigraphy performed unknowingly in pregnant individuals presents negligible increased risk to the fetus.

  12. Bone scintigraphy of hip joint effusions in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kloiber, R.; Pavlosky, W.; Portner, O.; Gartke, K.

    1983-05-01

    Thirty-eight children with hip pain of acute onset were studied by bone scintigraphy. Nine patients had diminished radiotracer deposition involving the entire proximal femoral ossification center. This could be related to infarction or compression of blood supply by a tense joint effusion. Eight of these patients had joint aspiration confirming the presence of an effusion. Five patients had follow-up studies after aspiration, and femoral-head uptake reverted to normal in all but one which subsequently proved to be infarcted. A photopenic zone was seen on blood pool images in 10 patients, many of whom were also aspirated of fluid. Bone scintigraphy is useful in the diagnosis of joint effusions and can give information as to the state of perfusion of the femoral head. Follow-up studies after aspiration can differentiate infarction from reversible ischemia.

  13. Granulocytes in Helminth Infection - Who is Calling the Shots?

    PubMed Central

    Makepeace, BL; Martin, C; Turner, JD; Specht, S

    2012-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as “worms” due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen; and nematodes (roundworms), which are dioecious, cylindrical parasites that inhabit intestinal and peripheral tissue sites. Helminths exhibit a sublime co-evolution with the host´s immune system that has enabled them to successfully colonize almost all multicellular species present in every geographical environment, including over two billion humans. In the face of this challenge, the host immune system has evolved to strike a delicate balance between attempts to neutralize the infectious assault versus limitation of damage to host tissues. Among the most important cell types during helminthic invasion are granulocytes: eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils. Depending on the specific context, these leukocytes may have pivotal roles in host protection, immunopathology, or facilitation of helminth establishment. This review provides an overview of the function of granulocytes in helminthic infections. PMID:22360486

  14. Altitude-Dependent Prevalence of Canine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in Romania.

    PubMed

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Corduneanu, Alexandra; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Lefkaditis, Menelaos; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA) is an important tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution. The importance of this disease resides in the ability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect humans and several animal species. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence rate of CGA in different altitudinal areas of Romania. A total of 357 canine blood samples were collected during 2010-2013 from eight counties. To assess the influence of the altitude on A. phagocytophilum prevalence, the samples were collected from four different altitude areas (coastal 0-5 meters; lowland 6-100 meters; hilly areas 200-300 meters; low mountain areas >500 meters). These samples were evaluated for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by amplifying part of the Ankyrin repeat protein (AnkA) gene. A higher prevalence was obtained for coastal compared with remaining areas, suggesting an influence of altitude on the CGA. Moreover, the results suggest an influence of climate and rainfall. In the present research work, we highlight the risk of granulocytic anaplasmosis in Central and Southern Romania, with a greater risk associated to Southern lowland region, especially in coastal areas. The importance of these results resides in the zoonotic potential of the canine A. phagocytophilum strains. In conclusion, the altitude and precipitation level may be risk factors for A. phagocytophilum infection in dogs and other hosts, including humans.

  15. Pulmonary scintigraphy and the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J.F.; McNeil, B.J.

    1984-09-01

    The authors attempt to demonstrate those circumstances for which perfusion scintigraphy, by itself, or in combination with ventilation scintiscanning, offers the best adjunctive information in excluding or confirming the presence of pulmonary embolism. They then identify those circumstances in which scintiscanning does not or cannot contribute significantly to the medical decision-making process. In these cases, the use of pulmonary angiography or possibly peripheral venography is not only recommended but, if warranted clinically, is absolutely necessary.

  16. Visualization of bullet track and bullet by radionuclide brain scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Partha; Conrad, Gary R; Williams, Brad L

    2005-04-01

    Radionuclide brain scintigraphy is a commonly performed examination for the confirmation of brain death. Although the absence of scintigraphically detectable flow of lipophilic tracers to the brain combined with the lack of uptake in the brain is considered consistent with brain death in the appropriate clinical scenario, the cause of death itself is usually not apparent on the scan. A case of bullet track and bullet visualization during a radionuclide brain death study with Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is described.

  17. Pulmonary scintigraphy in fibrosing mediastinitis due to histoplasmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Jay, S.J.; Brandt, M.J.; Holden, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The pulmonary scintigraphic findings from our patients with fibrosing mediastinitis due to histoplasmosis are reported. The ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch mimicked pulmonary emboli. However, in these cases the chest radiographs and/or gallium-67 scintigraphy were abnormal, suggesting mediastinal or hilar disease. Awareness of the nonembolic conditions that can result in V/Q mismatches is important in the interpretation of lung scans.

  18. [Variability in interpretation of static renal scintigraphy findings].

    PubMed

    Jaksić, Emilija; Beatović, Slobodanka; Paunković, Nebojsa; Stefanović, Aida; Han, Ruben

    2005-03-01

    Static renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA is a sensitive method for evaluation of any reduction of cortical mass function. There is not enough reliable references in the literature on scintigraphic reports in terms of objectivity and standardization. The aim of this paper was to assess the differences in interpretation of routine renal scintigraphic findings by nuclear medicine specialists from various institutions (interobserver variability). Both interobserver variability and agreement in the interpretation were evaluated in two groups. Six observers from four different institutions (group A), and three observers from the same institution (group B) interpreted independently 60 static renal scintigraphy findings obtained by analogous imaging using x-ray films in four standard projections. Using at least two options, seven parameters of renal scintigraphy protocols were analysed: size (1), uptake (2), outlines (3), scars (4), focal changes (5), relative function (6), and conclusions (7). The interpretations of scintigraphic findings were in accordance in items 1 to 7 within the group A: 62, 42.5, 45, 9, 47, 52, and 34 percent respectively, and within the group B: 72, 55, 59, 22, 62, 60, and 41 percent, respectively. The conformity was more significant in the findings observed in group B as opposed to group A, which was statistically highly significant, especially for the category of scars (p < 0.01). Significant variability was also observed by six observers in all the parameters of scintigraphic protocol, especially, again, in the scars analysis (p < 0.01). Insignificant degree of accordance, especially in the assessment of scars necessitates the standardization of criteria and terminology in order to interprete the renal scintigraphy with more accuracy and objectivity.

  19. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in acute myocardial infarction and ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J.

    1982-04-01

    Thallium-201 scintigraphy provides a sensitive and reliable method of detecting acute myocardial infarction and ischemia when imaging is performed with understanding of the temporal characteristics and accuracy of the technique. The results of scintigraphy are related to the time interval between onset of symptoms and time of imaging. During the first 6 hr after chest pain almost all patients with acute myocardial infarction and approximately 50% of the patients with unstable angina will demonstrate /sup 201/TI pefusion defects. Delayed imaging at 2-4 hr will permit distinction between ischemia and infarction. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the size of the perfusion defect accurately reflects the extent of the infarcted and/or jeopardized myocardium, which may be used for prognostic stratification. In view of the characteristics of /sup 201/TI scintigraphy, the most practical application of this technique is in patients in whom myocardial infarction has to be ruled out, and for early recognition of patients at high risk for complications.

  20. [Pulmonary scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Favretto, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Pulmonary scintigraphy constitutes an important step in the non invasive diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). This technique may be employed for the evaluation of the pulmonary perfusion alone, as in Italy and in the PISA-PED study, or else even for the evaluation of the pulmonary ventilation (as in Anglo-Saxon countries and in the PIOPED study). In the present study, the reasons which have prompted the ANMCO-SIC Commission for the Guidelines for The Prophylaxis, Diagnosis and Therapy of Pulmonary Thromboembolism to propose, for the diagnostic work-up of the patient with clinically suspected PE, the use of perfusion scintigraphy alone and of the classification criteria employed in the PISA-PED study instead of the more commonly utilized ventilatory-perfusion scintigraphy and of the criteria included in the PIOPED article, are discussed. Besides, the Commission's decision to consider PE as being present in case of agreement between the scintigraphic and clinical pictures, and to exclude this condition when the scintigraphic outcome is normal/almost normal regardless of the clinical probabilities, is also motivated.

  1. Current role of lung scintigraphy in pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Giordano, A; Angiolillo, D J

    2001-12-01

    The pivotal role of lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) has been questioned in recent years due to the introduction of spiral computed tomography. However, the scintigraphic results used for comparisons are often those of the authoritative PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) study, carried out in the 1980s. Pulmonary scintigraphy has progressed from those years both in the methodological and interpretative fields, although perhaps too slowly. Results better than those of PIOPED's have been presented by study groups who used: 1) perfusion-only approach, 2) SPET imaging; 3) new interpretative criteria; 4) different prediction rules to integrate clinical and scintigraphic probabilities of PE. These advances are still insufficiently recognised by the nuclear medicine community, possibly due to a sort of PIOPED-based "cultural globalisation". This paper reviews the actual advantages and limitations of nuclear medicine techniques, the diagnostic role of scintigraphy within the diagnostic algorithms proposed by international working groups and scientific societies and the results obtained from SPET imaging in the diagnosis of PE.

  2. Incidental diagnosis of pregnancy on bone and gallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Malat, J.; Collica, C.J.; Richman, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    Bone and gallium scintigraphy were performed as part of the diagnostic workup of a 21-yr-old woman who presented at our institution with a history of progressively worsening low back pain over a 1-wk period of time. The angiographic phase of the bone scan demonstrated a well-defined radionuclide blush within the pelvis just cephalad to the urinary bladder with persistent hyperemia noted in the blood-pool image. We attribute these findings to a uterine blush secondary to the pronounced uterine muscular hyperplasia, hyperemia, and edema that accompany pregnancy. Gallium scintigraphy demonstrated intense bilateral breast accumulation of the imaging agent in a typical doughnut pattern which is commonly found in the prelactating and lactating breast. Also demonstrated was apparent gallium accumulation in the placenta. This case is presented to emphasize the radionuclide findings that occur during pregnancy, particularly the incidental finding of radionuclide blush during the angiographic phase of a radionuclide scintigraphy which should alert the nuclear physician to the possibility of pregnancy in a woman of childbearing age.

  3. Statin induced myopathy does not show up in MIBI scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Lupattelli, G; Palumbo, B; Sinzinger, H

    2001-05-01

    Statin induced myopathy is the most commonly seen side effect in users of this family of drugs. Their different forms present with either creatine phosphokinase (CK) elevation or not, signs of in vivo oxidation injury or not or a combination of both. The pathogenetic background, however, still remains obscure. As MIBI, beside myocardial and tumour scintigraphy, is useful in detecting muscle metabolic abnormalities, an increased uptake of MIBI in the diseased muscular segments could be expected. We investigated seven patients (five males, two females; aged 36-56 years) with statin induced myopathy with either elevated CK, isoprostanes or muscle pains at varying combinations. MIBI whole-body imaging was done immediately, the patients still being on the respective statin. Sixteen patients (six males, 10 females) suffering from lung or breast cancer and being on statins served as controls. No uptake abnormalities in any muscular segment either in the patients or the control group were seen. Thus, MIBI scintigraphy is not useful, apparently, in diagnosing and eventually localizing statin induced myopathy. These findings indicate that MIBI scintigraphy is of no help for diagnosis and gaining further insight into statin induced myopathy.

  4. Effect of endotoxin on serum granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dale, D C; Lau, S; Nash, R; Boone, T; Osborne, W

    1992-04-01

    The biologic effects of endotoxin are attributed to the release of several cytokines, including interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, and the colony-stimulating factors. To investigate the mechanism of endotoxin-induced neutrophilia in dogs, several cell lines known to proliferate selectively in response to recombinant human colony-stimulating factors were examined to determine their responses to recombinant canine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rcG-CSF) or recombinant canine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rcGM-CSF). The murine cell line NFS-60 was found to respond well to rcG-CSF and the human cell line TALL-101 to rcGM-CSF, and these responses were neutralized by antibodies to these recombinant proteins. These bioassays were then used to determine G-CSF and GM-CSF levels in dogs after intravenous endotoxin administration. G-CSF levels increased by 2 h, peaked at 4 h, and had not returned to normal by 24 h after endotoxin. In contrast, GM-CSF was not detectible before or after endotoxin administration.

  5. Granulocytic Sarcoma Presenting as a Palpable Breast Lump

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes Vieira, Victor; Vo, Quoc Duy; Bouquet de la Jolinière, Jean; Khomsi, Fathi; Feki, Anis; Hoogewoud, Henri-Marcel

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who palpated a voluminous painless lump in the superior outer quadrant of her left breast. Her past medical history revealed an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated and considered in remission 1 month prior to this discovery. Imaging work-up by mammogram, US, and MRI showed multiples masses suspect of malignancy in both breasts. US-guided needle biopsy was performed in the palpable mass and in one of the multiple lesions located in the right breast. Histologic findings were compatible with a granulocytic sarcoma in both breasts, which was considered as a relapse of the AML treated a few months earlier. PMID:28168190

  6. Spinal epidural granulocytic sarcoma in non-leukemic patient.

    PubMed

    Antic, Darko; Verstovsek, Srdan; Elezovic, Ivo; Grujicic, Dana; Gotic, Mirjana; Bila, Jelena; Perunicic, Maja; Jakovic, Ljubomir

    2009-01-01

    A previously healthy 24-year-old male presented with a 3-month history of progressive backache and weakness in both legs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine showed a large soft tissue mass infiltrating paraspinal musculature of lumbosacral area, sacral laminas, last lumbar and all sacral vertebra, protruding into the spinal canal, and with propagation into pelvis. Baseline laboratory data were normal. Decompressive laminectomy and tumor removal were performed resulting in neurological improvement. Histological examination identified granulocytic sarcoma (GS). Bone marrow biopsy showed normal findings. The patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, resulting in the elimination of residual lesion, followed by autologous transplant. Immediate diagnosis and adequate systematic treatment are essential to achieve optimal results in patients with isolated GS. The patient is alive and free of the disease 14 months from the diagnosis.

  7. Comparison of scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging for stress injuries of bone.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Yoshihisa; Otsuka, Hironori; Nishizawa, Kazuharu; Sasaki, Taisuke; Toh, Satoshi

    2002-03-01

    To compare findings of radiography, scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in stress injuries of bone and evaluate changes of these findings with time correlated with clinical symptoms. Prospective study. A primary care hospital outpatient orthopedic clinic. All 31 patients with stress injuries of bone who visited our clinic from July 1996 to June 2000. Radiography, scintigraphy, MRI, and clinical examinations were performed on the same day or at least within 1 week of each other, and the findings were compared. If symptoms of stress injury of bone continued, these examinations were repeated at intervals of 2 months until symptoms disappeared. These radiologic findings were assessed by an independent radiologist who was blinded to the clinical symptoms of the patients. Correlation accuracy of MRI and scintigraphy findings with clinical symptoms. Even with negative initial radiographic findings, all initial scintigraphy and MRI indicated stress injury of bone. There were no patients with positive/negative examinations. Grade of scintigraphy and MRI were closely correlated, and these findings also correlated with the degree of clinical symptoms. Compared with scintigraphy, MRI showed more diagnostic information, such as fracture line and periosteal edema. Areas of increased activity in scintigraphy were consistent with the grades of MRI, especially high signal intensity areas of STIR (short tau inversion recovery) image. From these observations, MRI is less invasive, provides more information than scintigraphy, and is recommended for initial diagnosis and assessment stages of stress injury of bone.

  8. Failure of Gallium-67 scintigraphy to identify reliably noninfectious interstitial nephritis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.D.; Lundy, M.M.; Moreno, A.J.

    1983-07-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of noninfectious interstitial nephritis. We studied 12 patients with Ga-67 citrate that were diagnosed as having noninfectious interstitial nephritis on renal biopsy. Only seven of the twelve patients with interstitial nephritis on biopsy were scan-positive. Gallium-67 scintigraphy may not reliably identify noninfectious interstitial nephritis.

  9. Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Patients with Sjogren's Syndrome: A local Experience with Dual-tracer.

    PubMed

    Luk, Wing Hang; Yeung, Jessie Tse Hang; Fung, Eliza Po Yan; Lok, Chiu Ming; Ng, Yuet Ming

    2017-01-01

    To review the findings of the patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) having technetium99-m-pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-pertechnetate) and gallium67- citrate (Ga-67) salivary gland scintigraphy in the past eight years. The patients with SS, who were referred to our department for salivary gland scintigraphy during January -2008December 2015 were studied using both (99m)Tc-pertechnetate and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy. Eighteen patients were included in the study, 17 of whom had positive findings on (99m)Tc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy. One patient had negative parotid glands findings on (99m)Tc-pertechnetate, but positive findings in Ga-67 study. Four patients had asymmetric involvement of the parotid glands, and one patient had asymmetric involvement of the submandibular glands in (99m)Tc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy. On the other hand, one patient had only submandibular gland involvement in the (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan. Nine patients (18/9) had positive parotid gland findings on Ga-67 study. The involvements of the parotid glands were all symmetrical, except for one patient. No abnormal gallium uptake in the submandibular glands in our patients was noted. (99m)Tc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy is sufficient for the assessment in the majority of patients with SS. Ga-67 scintigraphy may be a useful supplementary test, especially if the result of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is not conclusive.

  10. Incidental detection of a bleeding gastrointestinal stromal tumor on Tc-99m red blood cell scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Bhattacharya, Anish; Gupta, Vikas; Singh, Rajinder; Radotra, Bishan Dass; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2012-10-01

    The role of 99m-technetium labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy in acute gastro-intestinal bleed is well-established. The authors report a case of a bleeding gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) incidentally discovered on Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy.

  11. False-positive technetium 99m depreotide scintigraphy resulting from round atelectasis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Linda P; Balingit, Antonio G; Morison, David S; Gilman, Matthew D

    2003-04-01

    The authors report two cases of round atelectasis that showed increased accumulation of technetium (Tc) 99m depreotide on planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy. It should be considered that round atelectasis is a potential nonmalignant cause for positive 99mTc depreotide scintigraphy.

  12. Anti-granulocyte opsonic activity in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Hadley, A G; Byron, M A; Chapel, H M; Bunch, C; Holburn, A M

    1987-01-01

    Neutropenia is common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but mechanisms of cell depletion remain obscure. To investigate the possible autoimmune aetiology of neutropenia in SLE, sera from 31 patients with this disorder were tested for anti-granulocyte activity. Granulocyte-binding immunoglobulins were detected by indirect immunofluorescence, and the ability of patient sera to opsonize granulocytes was determined by measuring the chemiluminescent response of human monocytes to granulocytes sensitized by test sera. Sera from 22 of the 31 patients bound IgG to granulocyte cell membranes and/or to nuclei, but only membrane-binding antibodies opsonized the cells for recognition by monocytes. There was no correlation between neutrophil count and the level of granulocyte-binding IgG as measured by indirect immunofluorescence. In contrast, opsonic activity and neutrophil count were inversely correlated (r = 0.5; P less than 0.05). However, opsonic activity was present in sera from most non-neutropenic patients. In patients with SLE, impaired reticuloendothelial system function may allow sensitized granulocytes to remain in the circulation.

  13. Characterization of the hemocytes in Larvae of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis: involvement of granulocyte-mediated phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyojung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Cho, Saeyoull

    2014-01-01

    Hemocytes are key players in the immune response against pathogens in insects. However, the hemocyte types and their functions in the white-spotted flower chafers, Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis (Kolbe), are not known. In this study, we used various microscopes, molecular probes, and flow cytometric analyses to characterize the hemocytes in P. brevitarsis seulensis. The circulating hemocytes were classified based on their size, morphology, and dye-staining properties into six types, including granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. The percentages of circulating hemocyte types were as follows: 13% granulocytes, 20% plasmatocytes, 1% oenocytoids, 5% spherulocytes, 17% prohemocytes, and 44% adipohemocytes. Next, we identified the professional phagocytes, granulocytes, which mediate encapsulation and phagocytosis of pathogens. The granulocytes were immunologically or morphologically activated and phagocytosed potentially hazardous substances in vivo. In addition, we showed that the phagocytosis by granulocytes is associated with autophagy, and that the activation of autophagy could be an efficient way to eliminate pathogens in this system. We also observed a high accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in activated granulocytes, which altered their shape and led to autophagic cell death. Finally, the granulocytes underwent mitotic division thus maintaining their number in vivo.

  14. Characterization of the Hemocytes in Larvae of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis: Involvement of Granulocyte-Mediated Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Saeyoull

    2014-01-01

    Hemocytes are key players in the immune response against pathogens in insects. However, the hemocyte types and their functions in the white-spotted flower chafers, Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis (Kolbe), are not known. In this study, we used various microscopes, molecular probes, and flow cytometric analyses to characterize the hemocytes in P. brevitarsis seulensis. The circulating hemocytes were classified based on their size, morphology, and dye-staining properties into six types, including granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. The percentages of circulating hemocyte types were as follows: 13% granulocytes, 20% plasmatocytes, 1% oenocytoids, 5% spherulocytes, 17% prohemocytes, and 44% adipohemocytes. Next, we identified the professional phagocytes, granulocytes, which mediate encapsulation and phagocytosis of pathogens. The granulocytes were immunologically or morphologically activated and phagocytosed potentially hazardous substances in vivo. In addition, we showed that the phagocytosis by granulocytes is associated with autophagy, and that the activation of autophagy could be an efficient way to eliminate pathogens in this system. We also observed a high accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in activated granulocytes, which altered their shape and led to autophagic cell death. Finally, the granulocytes underwent mitotic division thus maintaining their number in vivo. PMID:25083702

  15. Separation of haemocyte subpopulations in shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis by immunomagnetic bead using monoclonal antibody against granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jing; Chang, Yanhong; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In our previous work, two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against granulocytes of shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) had been produced, in this paper, haemocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) using the Mabs. Then immunomagnetic bead (IMB) method was applied for separation hyalinocytes and granulocytes using the Mabs. The separated hyalinocytes and granulocytes were analyzed by FCM, indirect immunofluorescence assay, Giemsa staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The results showed the proportion of hyalinocytes in haemolymph of F. chinensis was 15.14 ± 1.22%, and that of granulocytes was 75.43 ± 2.31%. After two times separation by IMB, the purity rate of hyalinocytes and granulocytes was 96.27 ± 1.06% and 98.13 ± 0.86%, respectively. The hyalinocytes possessed 0.60-0.85 in nucleus/cytoplasm (N/C) ratio and had few granule in cytoplasm, whereas the separated granulocytes with N/C ratio of 0.12-0.36 and high electronic density of double membrane granules. The results reported the separation of haemocyte subpopulations using Mabs in shrimp for the first time, and the hyalinocytes and granulocytes isolated by IMB could be used for their differential protein analysis.

  16. Value of bone scintigraphy for detection and ageing of vertebral fractures in patients with severe osteoporosis and correlation between bone scintigraphy and mineral bone density.

    PubMed

    Kucukalic-Selimovic, Elma; Begic, Amela

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common of the metabolic bone diseases, and is an important cause of morbidity in the elderly. Bone scintigraphy is used to detect skeletal lesions at the earliest possible time, to monitor the course of the skeletal discase and to evaluate the metabolic activity of skeletal lesions. The aim of this study was to determine, by using the bone scan age of vertebral fractures in patients with severe osteoporosis, and make correlation between bone scintigraphy and mineral bone density. Material and methods 30 female patients were studied with bone scintigraphy after BMD.BMD was measurred with DEXA Hologic QDR 4500 Elite System. Correlation between T-score and uptake of radiofarmaceutical (Tc-99mMDP) was 0.849, and it was high. Intensity of uptake of Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy is an accurate method for the detection and ageing of fractures in osteoporotic patients.

  17. Diffuse Hepatic and Spleen Uptake of Tc-99m MDP on Bone Scintigraphy Resembling Liver-Spleen Scintigraphy in a Patient of Plasma Cell Tumor.

    PubMed

    Ravanbod, Mohammad Reza; Nemati, Reza; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The present case demonstrates a diffuse intense hepatic and, to a lesser degree, spleen, Tc-99m MDP uptake on a routine bone scintigraphy resembling liver-spleen imaging. A 49-year-old female with a history of anaplastic plasma cell tumor and suffering from bone pain was referred for bone scintigraphy to evaluate possible bone metastases. The bone scintigraphy showed diffuse hepatic and spleen uptake of Tc-99m MDP resembling liver-spleen imaging. Furthermore, bone uptake of Tc-99m MDP was significantly diminished and there were no abnormal foci throughout the skeleton. The bone scintigraphy of the present case of an anaplastic plasma cell tumor suggests the possible presence of amyloidosis.

  18. Thallium-201 scintigraphy of the suppressed thyroid: an alternative for iodine-123 scanning after TSH stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Corstens, F.; Huysmans, D.; Kloppenborg, P.

    1988-08-01

    Thallium-201 scintigraphy of the thyroid gland suppressed by autonomous nodule was compared with /sup 123/I scintigraphy after TSH stimulation. In all patients, similar images were obtained by both methods. In 20 patients, the contralateral lobe was visualized on both scans and in 14 of these, the upper pole of the ipsilateral lobe was also visualized. In one patient, neither /sup 123/I scanning after TSH nor /sup 201/TI scintigraphy showed any extranodular tissue. This study suggests that /sup 201/TI scintigraphy is a reliable alternative for scanning after TSH. It is a relatively simple method, not inducing any TSH-related allergic reactions. Iodine uptake in extranodular tissue is not stimulated and therefore, /sup 201/TI scintigraphy and radioiodine therapy can be combined on one day, without increasing the risk of radiation damage to the normal thyroid tissue with a resultant post-treatment hypothyroidism.

  19. Pharmacological properties of granulocytic colony-stimulating factor pegylated using electron beam synthesis nanotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Dygai, A M; Zyuz'kov, G N; Zhdanov, V V; Madonov, P G; Udut, E V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Khrichkova, T Yu; Simanina, E V; Stavrova, L A; Artamonov, A V; Bekarev, A A; Kinsht, D N; Chaikovskiy, A V; Markova, T S; Gurto, R V

    2011-11-01

    Granulocytic CSF pegylated using electron-beam synthesis nanotechnology exhibits pronounced granulomonocytopoiesis-stimulating and SC-mobilizing activity. More potent stimulation of committed precursors against the background of less pronounced activation of polypotent hemopoietic cells is a peculiarity of hemostimulating action of pegylated using electron-beam synthesis nanotechnology granulocytic CSF in comparison with its non-modified analog. The mobilizing effect of pegylated using electron-beam synthesis nanotechnology granulocytic CSF on early progenitor elements surpasses that of non-conjugated cytokine.

  20. Production of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) during infection: separate determinations of macrophage-, granulocyte-, granulocyte-macrophage-, and multi-CSFs.

    PubMed Central

    Cheers, C; Haigh, A M; Kelso, A; Metcalf, D; Stanley, E R; Young, A M

    1988-01-01

    After infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes, elevated levels of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) in the serum were quantitated by six different assays: ability to stimulate colony formation, the proliferation of 2 suspension of bone marrow cells (both measuring total colony-stimulating activity), a radioimmunoassay for macrophage-CSF (CSF-1), the WEHI-3B differentiation assay for granulocyte-CSF, and proliferation of 32D-c1-3 and FDC-P1 cell lines (specific for multi-CSF and either multi- or granulocyte-macrophage-CSFs, respectively). The great bulk of serum colony-stimulating activity represented macrophage- and granulocyte-CSFs, with small but measurable amounts of granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The degree of elevation of serum CSF depended on the infecting dose used and the numbers of bacteria growing in the spleens and livers of the two mouse strains compared, i.e., L. monocytogenes-resistant C57BL/10 and susceptible BALB/cJ. The increase in serum CSFs occurred before the peak in bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitors and before the reduction in bacterial numbers which follows the onset of specific cell-mediated immunity. PMID:3257205

  1. Perfusion Scintigraphy and Patient Selection for Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Divay; Lipson, David A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Hansen-Flaschen, John; Sciurba, Frank C.; DeCamp, Malcolm M.; Reilly, John J.; Washko, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: It is unclear if lung perfusion can predict response to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). Objectives: To study the role of perfusion scintigraphy in patient selection for LVRS. Methods: We performed an intention-to-treat analysis of 1,045 of 1,218 patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial who were non–high risk for LVRS and had complete perfusion scintigraphy results at baseline. The median follow-up was 6.0 years. Patients were classified as having upper or non–upper lobe–predominant emphysema on visual examination of the chest computed tomography and high or low exercise capacity on cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline. Low upper zone perfusion was defined as less than 20% of total lung perfusion distributed to the upper third of both lungs as measured on perfusion scintigraphy. Measurements and Main Results: Among 284 of 1,045 patients with upper lobe–predominant emphysema and low exercise capacity at baseline, the 202 with low upper zone perfusion had lower mortality with LVRS versus medical management (risk ratio [RR], 0.56; P = 0.008) unlike the remaining 82 with high perfusion where mortality was unchanged (RR, 0.97; P = 0.62). Similarly, among 404 of 1,045 patients with upper lobe–predominant emphysema and high exercise capacity, the 278 with low upper zone perfusion had lower mortality with LVRS (RR, 0.70; P = 0.02) unlike the remaining 126 with high perfusion (RR, 1.05; P = 1.00). Among the 357 patients with non–upper lobe–predominant emphysema (75 with low and 282 with high exercise capacity) there was no improvement in survival with LVRS and measurement of upper zone perfusion did not contribute new prognostic information. Conclusions: Compared with optimal medical management, LVRS reduces mortality in patients with upper lobe–predominant emphysema when there is low rather than high perfusion to the upper lung. PMID:20538961

  2. Perfusion scintigraphy and patient selection for lung volume reduction surgery.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Divay; Lipson, David A; Hoffman, Eric A; Hansen-Flaschen, John; Sciurba, Frank C; Decamp, Malcolm M; Reilly, John J; Washko, George R

    2010-10-01

    It is unclear if lung perfusion can predict response to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). To study the role of perfusion scintigraphy in patient selection for LVRS. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis of 1,045 of 1,218 patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial who were non-high risk for LVRS and had complete perfusion scintigraphy results at baseline. The median follow-up was 6.0 years. Patients were classified as having upper or non-upper lobe-predominant emphysema on visual examination of the chest computed tomography and high or low exercise capacity on cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline. Low upper zone perfusion was defined as less than 20% of total lung perfusion distributed to the upper third of both lungs as measured on perfusion scintigraphy. Among 284 of 1,045 patients with upper lobe-predominant emphysema and low exercise capacity at baseline, the 202 with low upper zone perfusion had lower mortality with LVRS versus medical management (risk ratio [RR], 0.56; P = 0.008) unlike the remaining 82 with high perfusion where mortality was unchanged (RR, 0.97; P = 0.62). Similarly, among 404 of 1,045 patients with upper lobe-predominant emphysema and high exercise capacity, the 278 with low upper zone perfusion had lower mortality with LVRS (RR, 0.70; P = 0.02) unlike the remaining 126 with high perfusion (RR, 1.05; P = 1.00). Among the 357 patients with non-upper lobe-predominant emphysema (75 with low and 282 with high exercise capacity) there was no improvement in survival with LVRS and measurement of upper zone perfusion did not contribute new prognostic information. Compared with optimal medical management, LVRS reduces mortality in patients with upper lobe-predominant emphysema when there is low rather than high perfusion to the upper lung.

  3. Gallium scintigraphy in a case of tuberculous trochanteric bursitis.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Etsushi; Kawabe, Joji; Tsumoto, Chikako; Hayashi, Takehiro; Oe, Ai; Kurooka, Hiroko; Kotani, Jin; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Tsushima, Hiroyuki; Habu, Daiki; Shiomi, Susumu

    2007-06-01

    We report a 67-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic disseminated tuberculosis affecting the femoral trochanteric bursae, a site rarely affected by tuberculosis. For quantification of the inflammation with gallium-67 scintigraphy, we calculated the radioisotope count ratio in the most inflamed areas, the right lateral thorax and bursa of the right greater trochanter. Systemic scanning with this modality allowed evaluation of the extent of lesions and simple quantitative determination of the severity of inflammation, yielding information useful for the follow-up of the patient during the course of tuberculosis treatment.

  4. Skeletal Scintigraphy in Radiation-Induced Fibrosis With Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieqi; Iranmanesh, Arya M; Oates, M Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Despite increasing reliance on CT, MRI, and FDG PET/CT for oncological imaging, whole-body skeletal scintigraphy remains a frontline modality for staging and surveillance of osseous metastatic disease. We present a 54-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who received palliative external-beam radiation to the left ilium. Serial follow-up Tc-MDP bone scans demonstrated progressive soft-tissue uptake in her left lower extremity, extending from thigh to leg, with associated enlargement and skin thickening, consistent with lymphedema related to radiation-induced fibrosis. Correlative abdominopelvic CT scans confirmed fibrotic changes in the left thigh.

  5. Three-phase bone scintigraphy in Pellegrini-Stieda disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, R S; Chou, C S; Yeh, S H

    1987-01-01

    In a patient with Pellegrini-Stieda disease, radiographs of the knees were unremarkable at the time the three-phase bone scintigraphy was abnormal. The results of follow-up radiographs three months later remained normal in the left knee, where local steroid injection was given, but revealed typical positive results in the right knee with no treatment. The three-phase bone scintigraphic pattern is rather typical and antedates the radiographic changes. Thus, the radionuclide technique would provide a useful procedure for the early diagnosis and treatment of Pellegrini-Stieda disease.

  6. Radiation hazards from horses undergoing scintigraphy using technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Whitelock, R G

    1997-01-01

    This paper quantifies the extent of the radiation hazard to personnel from horses undergoing scintigraphy using technetium99m methylene diphosphonate (99Tcm-MDP). From the data produced it is possible to derive safe working protocols which are comfortably within the legislated limits for whole body doses as set out in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. Measurements were made of the surface and environmental activities which result from individuals undergoing scintigraphic evaluation and also from urine contaminated bedding. The use of both high and low activities in the assessment of the radiation hazard to personnel and owners is considered.

  7. Papillary carcinoma in ectopic thyroid detected by Tl-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Michigishi, T.; Mizukami, Y.; Mura, T.; Nomura, T.; Watanabe, K.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K. )

    1991-05-01

    A 37-year-old man with papillary carcinoma in an ectopic thyroid is presented. Excisional biopsy revealed the cervical mass to be a metastasis from thyroid cancer. X-ray, ultrasonography, and computed tomography, however, failed to identify the primary tumor in the thyroid. Incidental TI-201 uptake was noted in the midline of the anterior neck, and a palpable nodule was discovered in this area. Fine needle aspiration cytology demonstrated Class V papillary adenocarcinoma, and subsequent surgery confirmed a papillary carcinoma in the ectopic thyroid. This case suggests the usefulness of TI-201 scintigraphy for the detection of ectopic thyroid malignancy.

  8. Rare case of thoracic kidney detected by renal scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Aravintho; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic kidney is a rare congenital abnormality with lowest frequency among all renal ectopias. Patients with thoracic kidneys are usually asymptomatic, and the condition is usually discovered incidentally during radiological evaluation for other conditions or during thoracic surgery. We report a case of a 62-year-old male who was referred to our department for renal scintigraphy for a nonvisualized left kidney on ultrasonography report. Both Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scans revealed a left thoracic kidney which was confirmed by CT scan of the thorax and abdomen. PMID:27385896

  9. Bone Scintigraphy in the Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Is There Additional Value of Bone Scintigraphy with Blood Pool Phase over Conventional Bone Scintigraphy?

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Chan Woo; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Yoo, Dae-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the value of bone scintigraphy with additional blood pool phase (BSBP), compared with conventional bone scintigraphy (CBS), in the assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 242 patients (43 males, 199 females; 14-78 years) with arthralgia, and underwent BSBP were retrospectively analyzed. On the first physical examination, active arthritis was found in 128 of the 242 patients. Clinical diagnosis was made by a rheumatologist on the basis of the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, which are considered to be the gold standard. The diagnostic performances and prognostic value of BSBP and CBS were analyzed in the total patients with arthralgia and in the patients with arthritis. The sensitivity of BSBP (84.2%, 80/95) were significantly higher than that of CBS (74.8%, 72/95) in the patients with arthralgia (P = 0.039). When BSBP was interpreted with the results of elevated/positive anti-CCP antibody, its accuracy over CBS also became significantly higher (86.0%, 208/242 vs. 83.1%, 201/242 respectively, P = 0.021). The diagnostic odds ratio of BSBP positivity was higher than CBS positivity in the patients with arthralgia (26.0, 12.9-52.4 vs. 21.1, 10.8-41.3) and with arthritis (12.0, 4.9-29.4 vs. 10.0, 4.2-23.4). Both BSBP and CBS appear to provide acceptable accuracy and comparable diagnostic performance for diagnosis of RA. However, in the patients with arthralgia, BSBP was found to be more sensitive than CBS and more accurate when interpreted with the result of anti-CCP antibody. This could help physicians diagnose RA in daily clinical practice.

  10. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor versus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells from healthy donors.

    PubMed

    Fischmeister, G; Gadner, H

    2000-05-01

    The harvesting of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulation instead of bone marrow in healthy donors has become increasingly popular. Donors, given the choice between bone marrow and PBPC donation, often prefer cytapheresis because of the easier access, no necessity for general anesthesia, and no multiple bone marrow punctures. In addition, accelerated engraftment and immunomodulation by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized PBPCs are advantageous for the recipient. However, because of donor inconvenience and poor mobilization, there is a need to develop improved procedures. Aspects such as durability of hematopoietic engraftment, characterization of the earliest stem cell, and composition of PBPCs are not yet well defined, and international donor registration and follow-up must be considered when evaluating long-term safety profiles in healthy donors. This review concentrates on the most significant developments on mobilization of PBPCs published during the past year.

  11. Granulocytic sarcoma in a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia in complete haematological, cytogenetic and molecular remission.

    PubMed

    Kittai, Adam; Yu, Eun-Mi; Tabbara, Imad

    2014-12-23

    Granulocytic sarcoma, also known as myeloid sarcoma, is an extramedullary tumour composed of immature myeloid cells. Granulocytic sarcoma is typically found in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, accelerated phase or blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, or as an isolated event without bone marrow involvement. We present a case of granulocytic sarcoma in a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia in the setting of complete haematological, molecular and cytogenetic remission. Our patient was first treated with imatinib for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia. After maintaining remission for 42 months, he developed a granulocytic sarcoma in his spine. In this case report, we describe our case, along with the three other cases reported in the literature. In addition to being a rare diagnosis, this case demonstrates the importance of being vigilant in diagnosing the cause of back pain and atypical symptoms in patients with a history of leukaemia. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Effect of Corynebacterium parvum on colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony formation.

    PubMed

    Foster, R S; MacPherson, B R; Browdie, D A

    1977-05-01

    Because Corynebacterium parvum has tumor-inhibitory properties and stimulates granulocyte-macrophage production, it may have clinical value in combination with chemotherapy. The leukopoietic effect of killed suspensions of C. parvum was studied in mice using the technique of in vitro clonal culture of hematopoietic cells. After C. parvum injection, there was a prompt, sustained elevation of serum colony-stimulating factor followed by an increase in granulocyte-macrophage precursor cells in the spleen and increases in blood mononuclear and granulocyte cells. Colony-stimulating factor production is suggested as a major mechanism of stimulation of granulocyte-macrophage proliferation by C. parvum. Since rapidly proliferating hematopoietic cells may have increased sensititity to cytotoxic agents, the details of hematopoietic stimulation by C. parvum may be critical in the sequential timing of combined C. parvum and chemotherapy treatment to obtain maximal tumor inhibition and minimal hematopoietic toxicity.

  13. Granulocytic sarcoma in a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia in complete haematological, cytogenetic and molecular remission

    PubMed Central

    Kittai, Adam; Yu, Eun-Mi; Tabbara, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma, also known as myeloid sarcoma, is an extramedullary tumour composed of immature myeloid cells. Granulocytic sarcoma is typically found in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, accelerated phase or blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, or as an isolated event without bone marrow involvement. We present a case of granulocytic sarcoma in a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia in the setting of complete haematological, molecular and cytogenetic remission. Our patient was first treated with imatinib for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia. After maintaining remission for 42 months, he developed a granulocytic sarcoma in his spine. In this case report, we describe our case, along with the three other cases reported in the literature. In addition to being a rare diagnosis, this case demonstrates the importance of being vigilant in diagnosing the cause of back pain and atypical symptoms in patients with a history of leukaemia. PMID:25538217

  14. Physiology of Continuous Bone Marrow Culture Derived Permanent Granulocyte-Macrophage Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    capable of differentiating to mature neutrophillic granulocytes and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells . Several T- cell lines including K45, JURKAT...CEM, K230 have been screened for produc- tion of Interleukin-3 by assay of supernatant from cell lines for proliferation of mouse IL-3 dependent...hematopoietic progeni- tor cell lines Lines 45 and 230 produce low levels of activity. "In contrast, IL-2 (T- cell growth factor) dependent human T- cell

  15. Granulocyte transfusions in recovery of neutropenic rats from induced E. coli toxicemia.

    PubMed

    Popovic, V; Schaffer, R; Popovic, P

    1977-05-01

    Rats made transiently neutropenic by intra-arterial administration of vinblastine (3 mg/kg) and infected with E. coli (6.02+/-0.45 X 10(8), per animal) have a mortality rate of 90% within 48 h post infection. Multiple transfusions of large numbers of granulocytes (harvested from Deca-Durabolin treated donor rats) protected the neutropenic animals from sepsis. Out of a group of 11 rats, 10 recovered completely after repeated granulocyte transfusions.

  16. Soluble complement receptor 1 inhibits both complement and granulocyte activation during ex vivo hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Himmelfarb, J; McMonagle, E; Holbrook, D; Toth, C

    1995-10-01

    Hemodialysis with cellulosic membranes results in both complement and granulocyte activation. We investigated the effects of soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1), a potent complement inhibitor, on both complement and granulocyte activation in an ex vivo model of dialysis. Measurements were made of complement activation (radioimmunoassay for C3a desArg) as well as granulocyte activation (flow cytometric measurements of reactive oxygen species production, granulocyte CD11b/CD18 (MAC-1) expression and CD62L (L-selectin) expression). sCR1 completely abolished the generation of plasma C3a desArg during ex vivo hemodialysis. Without sCR1, C3a desArg levels rose from 968 +/- 373 ng/ml to 4961 +/- 40 ng/ml by the end of the ex vivo procedure (p < 0.001). sCR1 also completely inhibited MAC-1 upregulation and L-selectin shedding from granulocytes during ex vivo hemodialysis. With sCR1 there was still a statistically significant increase in granulocyte reactive oxygen species production (from 2.42 +/- 0.1 fluorescence channels to 6.47 +/- 0.7 fluorescence channels, p < 0.01) but a 50% inhibition when compared with experiments without sCR1 (3.15 +/- 0.5 to 11.2 +/- 1.9, p < 0.01). We conclude that sCR1 completely abolishes complement activation and changes in granulocyte cell adhesion molecules during ex vivo hemodialysis with cellulosic membranes. sCR1 partially inhibits granulocyte reactive oxygen species formation.

  17. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Hv1 Proton Channel in Human Granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Petheő, Gábor L.; Orient, Anna; Baráth, Mónika; Kovács, István; Réthi, Bence; Lányi, Árpád; Rajki, Anikó; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Geiszt, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton current (IHv) has been characterized in several cell types, but the majority of the data was collected in phagocytes, especially in human granulocytes. The prevailing view about the role of IHv in phagocytes is that it is an essential supporter of the intense and sustained activity of Nox2 (the core enzyme of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex) during respiratory burst. Recently Hv1, a voltage-gated proton channel, was cloned, and leukocytes from Hv1 knockout mice display impaired respiratory burst. On the other hand, hardly anything is known about Hv1 in human granulocytes. Using qPCR and a self made antibody, we detected a significant amount of Hv1 in human eosinophil and neutrophil granulocytes and in PLB-985 leukemia cells. Using different crosslinking agents and detergents in reducing and non-reducing PAGE, significant expression of Hv1 homodimers, but not that of higher-order multimers, could be detected in granulocytes. Results of subcellular fractionation and confocal imaging indicate that Hv1 is resident in both plasmalemmal and granular membrane compartments of resting neutrophils. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that Hv1 accumulates in phagosome wall during zymosan engulfment together with, but independently of Nox2. During granulocytic differentiation early and parallel upregulation of Hv1 and Nox2 expression was observed in PLB-985 cells. The upregulation of Hv1 or Nox2 expression did not require the normal expression of the other molecule. Using RNA interference, we obtained strong correlation between Hv1 expression and IHv density in PLB-985 cells. It is also demonstrated that a massive reduction in Hv1 expression can limit the Nox2 mediated superoxide production of PLB-985 granulocytes. In summary, beside monomers native Hv1 forms stable proton channel dimer in resting and activated human granulocytes. The expression pattern of Hv1 in granulocytes is optimized to support intense NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:21124855

  18. Laxative Related Primary Hyperphosphatemic Tumoral Calcinosis Identified by Bone Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Asokendaran, Marcus; Lenzo, Nat Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 40-year-old female patient presenting with tumor calcinosis where hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) was suspected given her extensive history of malignancy. Plain X-rays did not show reveal the typical periarticular calcification but did show appearances consistent with HPOA. Bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) is a sensitive investigation in the detection of hypertrophic osteoarthopathy but did not show findings characteristics of HPOA like bilateral symmetrical increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical along the cortical margins of the long bones. The final diagnosis of tumor calcinosis was only made after low dose computerized tomography chest showed a moderated sized amorphous calcified cluster in the apical segment of the right upper lobe consistent. In conclusion, bone scintigraphy continues to be a useful investigation for both common and rare conditions like tumor calcinosis. The unusual three phase bone scan finding of diffuse activity throughout both lung fields, which turned to out to be tumoral calcinosis is highlighted in this case. PMID:27651742

  19. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Housholder, D.F.; Hynes, H.E.; Dakhil, S.R.; Marymont, J.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Two patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) required cholecystectomy for both acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis suggesting chemical cholecystitis. To evaluate the incidence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients receiving HAIC, the authors performed hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m DISIDA or PIPIDA on eight patients receiving HAIC through an indwelling hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid (trademark) pump. In 7 of 8 patients, there was non-visualization of the gall bladder throughout the hepatobiliary study. In the eighth patient, the gall bladder visualized at 2 hr. One patient with non-visualization of the gall bladder at 4 hr developed acute symptoms requiring cholecystectomy which showed acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholethiasis. There was prominent sclerosis which was thought to be due to chemical cholecystitis as well as cholelithiasis. In all 10 patients, no evidence of cholecystitis had been observed during the surgical placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump. The hepatobiliary scintigraphic finding of gall bladder dysfunction in all eight patients studied is most likely due to chemical cholecystitis from HAIC. This series suggests that chemical cholecystitis is common during HAIC and can be identified by hepatobiliary scintigraphy. The authors consider elective cholecystectomy during the operative placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump.

  20. [Adrenal cortex scintigraphy with and without dexamethasone suppression in the study of primary aldosteronism].

    PubMed

    Milà López, M; Castell-Conesa, J; Pifarré Montaner, P; Lorenzo Bosquet, C; García-Burillo, A; Porta Biosca, F; Roca Bielsa, I

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance and efficacy of adrenal scintigraphy in primary aldosteronism following the protocol that combines adrenal suppression scintigraphy plus non-suppression study. 20 patients referred to our service with the suspicion of primary aldosteronism were studied by combined scintigraphy. Thirteen men and 7 women, mean age of 52 years, aged from 31 to 73 years, were included. Uptake of free iodine by the thyroid was inhibited by oral Lugol 5 % administration. Dexamethasone 4 mg per day was administered from day 7 to the third day of detection, when administration was stopped. Adrenal scintigraphy was performed after intravenous injection of I-131-norcolesterol (37 MBq). Images were taken at 24 and/or 48 hours and on the third day. Afterwards, dexamethasone administration was stopped and late images on 5th and/or 7th days were obtained. The scintigraphic result was confirmed with the final clinical evaluation (FCE) of the patient. 11 patients presented pathological studies, 9 adenomas (8TP + 1FP) and 2 bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (2TP); 7 normal scintigraphies (6TN and 1 non-conclusive FCE) and 2 non-conclusive scintigraphies (1 incidentaloma and 1 non-conclusive FCE). Normal adrenal glands were visualized in all cases on the 5th and/or 7th day scintigraphy. The study of adrenal functionalism by the combined protocol of adrenal suppression study plus later non-suppression study made it possible to identify with high precision primary aldosteronism and to confirm the function of normal adrenal glands.

  1. Targeted disruption of the MYC antagonist MAD1 inhibits cell cycle exit during granulocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, K P; McArthur, G A; Quéva, C; Hurlin, P J; Soriano, P; Eisenman, R N

    1998-01-01

    The switch from transcriptionally activating MYC-MAX to transcriptionally repressing MAD1-MAX protein heterodimers has been correlated with the initiation of terminal differentiation in many cell types. To investigate the function of MAD1-MAX dimers during differentiation, we disrupted the Mad1 gene by homologous recombination in mice. Analysis of hematopoietic differentiation in homozygous mutant animals revealed that cell cycle exit of granulocytic precursors was inhibited following the colony-forming cell stage, resulting in increased proliferation and delayed terminal differentiation of low proliferative potential cluster-forming cells. Surprisingly, the numbers of terminally differentiated bone marrow and peripheral blood granulocytes were essentially unchanged in Mad1 null mice. This imbalance between the frequencies of precursor and mature granulocytes was correlated with a compensatory decrease in granulocytic cluster-forming cell survival under apoptosis-inducing conditions. In addition, recovery of the peripheral granulocyte compartment following bone marrow ablation was significantly enhanced in Mad1 knockout mice. Two Mad1-related genes, Mxi1 and Mad3, were found to be expressed ectopically in adult spleen, indicating that functional redundancy and cross-regulation between MAD family members may allow for apparently normal differentiation in the absence of MAD1. These findings demonstrate that MAD1 regulates cell cycle withdrawal during a late stage of granulocyte differentiation, and suggest that the relative levels of MYC versus MAD1 mediate a balance between cell proliferation and terminal differentiation. PMID:9451002

  2. Granulocyte-associated IgG in neutropenic disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Cines, D.B.; Passero, F.; Guerry, D.; Bina, M.; Dusak, B.; Schreiber, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    We applied a radiolabeled antiglobulin test to a study of patients with a variety of neutropenic disorders. After defining the nature of the interaction of radiolabeled anti-IgG with the neutrophil, we studied 16 patients with neutropenia of uncertain etiology and adequate bone marrow granulocyte precursors. Twelve of these 16 patients had increased neutrophil-associated IgG (PMN-IgG). Patients with the highest levels of PMN-IgG had the lowest neutrophil counts. The majority of patients with neutropenia and increased PMN-IgG had an underlying immunologic disorder that included immune thrombocytopenic purpura in 5 patients and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in 1 patient. In some patients, elevated PMN-IgG preceded other evidence for immunologic disease. The direct antiglobulin test helped to distinguish neutropenic patients with increased PMN-IgG both from patients with neutropenia due to a known nonimmune disorder and from nonneutropenic patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosis. Each of four patients with increased neutrophil-associated IgG treated with systemic corticosteroids responded clinically with an associated fall in neutrophil IgG and a rise in the circulating neutrophil count. The radiolabeled antiglobulin test appears useful in defining a subpopulation of patients with neutropenia due to an underlying immunologic disorder.

  3. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor induces in vitro lymphangiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ae Sin; Kim, Dal; Wagle, Susbin Raj; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Yu Jin; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Won

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •G-CSF induces tube formation, migration and proliferation of lymphatic cells. •G-CSF increases phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt in lymphatic endothelial cells. •MAPK and Akt pathways are linked to G-CSF-induced in vitro lymphangiogenesis. •G-CSF increases sprouting of a lymphatic ring. •G-CSF produces peritoneal lymphangiogenesis. -- Abstract: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is reported to induce differentiation in cells of the monocyte lineage and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells, but its effects on lymphangiogenesis is uncertain. Here we examined the effects and the mechanisms of G-CSF-induced lymphangiogenesis using human lymphatic endothelial cells (hLECs). Our results showed that G-CSF induced capillary-like tube formation, migration and proliferation of hLECs in a dose- and time-dependent manner and enhanced sprouting of thoracic duct. G-CSF increased phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in hLECs. Supporting the observations, specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase and MAPK suppressed the G-CSF-induced in vitro lymphangiogenesis and sprouting. Intraperitoneal administration of G-CSF to mice also stimulated peritoneal lymphangiogenesis. These findings suggest that G-CSF is a lymphangiogenic factor.

  4. Superoxide Production by Digitonin-Stimulated Guinea Pig Granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Harvey J.; Chovaniec, Margaret E.

    1978-01-01

    N-ethylmaleimide, divalent cations, ethylene glycol bis (β aminoethyl ether) N,N,N′,N′,-tetraacetate, 2-deoxyglucose, cyanide, and dinitrophenol were examined for their effect on the ability of guinea pig granulocytes to generate superoxide (O2−) when stimulated by digitonin. N-ethylmaleimide (1 mM) inhibits only when added before complete activation of the O2− generating system, and at lower concentrations (0.05-0.2 mM) slows the activation process. Ca++ is required for maximum O2− generation, and Mg++ decreases the amount of Ca++ required. Ethylene glycol bis (β aminoethyl ether) N,N,N′,N′,-tetraacetate (10 mM) inhibits only if added before complete activation. Incubation of cells in 2-DOG causes a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of O2− generation. It also increases the time required for activation of this system. Cyanide and dinitrophenol increase the rate of O2− production. However, when these compounds are added to cells whose O2− production is partially inhibited by incubation in 2-deoxyglucose, complete inhibition results. If cyanide or dinitrophenol is added after activation of 2-deoxyglucose-treated cells, no further inhibition occurs. On the basis of the above results, we conclude that the activation of the O2− generating system is N-ethylmaleimide sensitive, Ca++ dependent, and energy requiring, but that the activity of the enzyme system in the cell is not. PMID:207722

  5. Immunohistochemical patterns in the differential diagnosis of rhinopharyngeal granulocytic sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Cantone, Elena; Cavaliere, Michele; Di Lullo, Antonella Miriam; Guadagno, Elia; Iengo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is a rare extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). GS may develop simultaneously to AML or as a relapse of leukemia, particularly following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Subperiosteal bone, lymph nodes and skin are commonly involved, whereas rhinopharyngeal involvement is less common, with only 14 cases reported in the literature. Due to its rarity, rhinopharyngeal GS may lead to diagnostic pitfalls, particularly when it is poorly differentiated or is without concomitant marrow involvement. Thus, immunohistochemical findings play a key role in diagnosis. The current report describes a case of a 53-year-old female suffering from rhinopharyngeal GS and with a history of AML treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, focusing on the importance of the immunohistochemical pattern to assess the right diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that the immunophenotype is of utmost importance for the diagnosis of GS. The high expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) is common in GS; however, ~30% of GSs do not contain MPO. Therefore, the presence of other markers is required to confirm the diagnosis of GS. PMID:27698857

  6. Granulocyte-associated IgG in neutropenic disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Cines, D.B.; Passero, F.; Guerry, D. IV; Bina, M.; Dusak, B.; Schreiber, A.D

    1982-01-01

    We applied a radiolabeled antiglobulin test to a study of patients with a variety of neutropenic disorders. After defining the nature of the interaction of radiolabeled anti-IgG with the neutrophil, we studied 16 patients with neutropenia of uncertain etiology and adequate bone marrow granulocyte precursors. Twelve of these 16 patients had increased neutrophil-associated IgG (PMN-IgG). Patients with the highest levels of PMN-IgG had the lowest neutrophil counts. The majority of patients with neutropenia and increased PMN-IgG had an underlying immunologic disorder that included immune thrombocytopenic purpura in 5 patients and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in 1 patient. In some patients, elevated PMN-IgG preceded other evidence for immunologic disease. The direct antiglobulin test helped to distinguish neutropenic patients with increased PMN-IgG both from patients with neutropenia due to a known nonimmune disorder and from noneutropenic patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosis. Each of four patients with increased neutrophil-associated IgG treated with systemic corticosteroids responded clinically with an associated fall in neutrophil IgG and a rise in the circulating neutrophil count. The radiolabeled antiglobulin test appears useful in defining a subpopulation of patients with neutropenia due to an underlying immunologic disorder.

  7. 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Myocardial Scintigraphy in Lewy Body-Related Disorders: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Joo; Kim, Sang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Lewy body-related disorders are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, which have abnormal aggregations of α-synuclein in the nigral and extranigral areas, including in the heart. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is a well-known tool to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in the Lewy body-related disorders. MIBG scintigraphy showed low uptake of MIBG in the Lewy body-related disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, pure autonomic failure and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review summarizes previous results on the diagnostic applications of MIBG scintigraphy in Lewy body-related disorders. PMID:26090077

  8. Congenital renal anomaly: evaluation with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, S; Kawamura, J; Tomoyoshi, T; Yoshida, O

    1983-05-01

    Technetium 99m-2,3, dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) preferentially accumulates in the renal cortex, demonstrating functioning cortical mass. We used 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in ten patients with horseshoe kidneys and five patients with unilateral fused kidneys. The results show that 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy reliably establishes the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney and clearly shows the isthmus, which is very essential for proper management. The technique also aids in the definitive assessment of separate kidney function and of total radionuclide uptake is possible using 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy.

  9. Uremic Leontiasis Ossea in a Patient With Chronic Renal Insufficiency Demonstrated on Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Han, Yeon-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee

    2016-08-01

    A 37-year-old woman with chronic renal insufficiency underwent bone scintigraphy to evaluate renal osteodystrophy (ROD). Markedly increased uptakes were shown in the maxilla and the mandible, which suggested extensive maxillary and mandibular hypertrophy. CT image revealed that diffuse bony thickening and ground-glass appearance in the skull, maxilla, and mandible with poor distinction of the corticomedullary junction. Whole-body bone scintigraphy images also demonstrated various skeletal characteristics of ROD. This case emphasizes the utility of bone scintigraphy for the surveillance of the whole body in ROD.

  10. Acute pyelonephritis resulting in intense vascular blush during dynamic renal scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Deshpande, Sushil; Kulkarni, Mukta; Shetkar, Shubhangi

    2016-01-01

    A thirty-year-old male underwent Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scintigraphy for evaluation of gross hydronephrosis of left kidney. The perfusion phase revealed an intense vascular blush in left renal fossa. The uptake phase of scintigraphy revealed the absence of tracer uptake in left kidney. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) was performed for evaluating the cause of vascular blush. CECT demonstrated features suggestive of acute pyelonephritis (APN) involving lower pole of the hydronephrotic left kidney, corresponding to the site of vascular blush seen on renal scintigraphy. The postnephrectomy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of APN suggested on CECT. PMID:26917903

  11. Congenital renal anomaly: evaluation with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, S.; Kawamura, J.; Tomoyoshi, T.; Yoshida, O.

    1983-05-01

    Technetium 99m-2,3, dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) preferentially accumulates in the renal cortex, demonstrating functioning cortical mass. We used 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in ten patients with horseshoe kidneys and five patients with unilateral fused kidneys. The results show that 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy reliably establishes the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney and clearly shows the isthmus, which is very essential for proper management. The technique also aids in the definitive assessment of separate kidney function and of total radionuclide uptake is possible using 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy.

  12. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor ameliorate the proinflammatory response in human meningococcal septic shock?

    PubMed

    Rojahn, Astrid; Brusletto, Berit; Øvstebø, Reidun; Haug, Kari B F; Kierulf, Peter; Brandtzaeg, Petter

    2008-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor acts cooperatively with interleukin-10 in down-regulating monocyte function in severe meningococcal septic shock. 1) We quantified the plasma levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-10, Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide and the number of N. meningitidis DNA copies in 28 patients with systemic meningococcal disease. 2) We studied the inhibitory effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on normal human monocytes stimulated with purified meningococcal lipopolysaccaride. 3) We monitored the inhibitory effects of endogenously produced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-10 in meningococcal shock plasmas on monocytes. Comparative, experimental study. University Hospital and laboratory. Twenty-eight patients with systemic meningococcal disease, 13 with persistent shock, 7 died, and 15 without shock. The median levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in shock and nonshock patients were 1.7 x 10(6) and 8.1 x 10(2) pg/mL; interleukin-10, 2.1 x 10(4) and 4 x 10(1) pg/mL; number of N. meningitidis DNA copies, 2.9 x 10(7) and <10(3)/mL; and lipopolysaccharide, 105 and <0.04 endotoxin units/mL, respectively. The plasma levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were reduced by 50% within 4 to 6 hrs after initiation of antibiotic treatment. In model experiments with lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-10 reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by mean 30% and 92%, respectively. When plasmas from three shock patients were depleted of native granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or interleukin-10 by immunoprecipitation, no increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha release occurred after removal of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, whereas removal of interleukin-10 increased the tumor necrosis factor-alpha release eight-fold. Although

  13. Growth of human hemopoietic colonies in response to recombinant gibbon interleukin 3: comparison with human recombinant granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Messner, H.A.; Yamasaki, K.; Jamal, N.; Minden, M.M.; Yang, Y.C.; Wong, G.G.; Clark, S.C.

    1987-10-01

    Supernatants of COS-1 cells transfected with gibbon cDNA encoding interleukin 3 (IL-3) with homology to sequences for human IL-3 were tested for ability to promote growth of various human hemopoietic progenitors. The effect of these supernatants as a source of recombinant IL-3 was compared to that of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) as well as to that of medium conditioned by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated leukocytes. The frequency of multilineage colonies, erythroid bursts, and megakaryocyte colonies in cultures containing the COS-1 cell supernatant was equivalent to the frequency observed in the controls and significantly higher than found in cultures plated with recombinant GM-CSF. G-CSF did not support the formation of multilineage colonies, erythroid bursts, and megakaryocyte colonies. In contrast, growth of granulocyte-macrophage colonies was best supported with GM-CSF, while recombinant IL-3 yielded colonies at lower or at best equivalent frequency. The simultaneous addition of higher concentrations of GM-CSF to cultures containing IL-3 in optimal amounts did not enhance the formation of multilineage colonies, erythroid bursts, and megakaryocyte colonies. However, the frequency of such colonies and bursts increased with GM-CSF when cultures were plated with suboptimal concentrations of IL-3. Growth of colonies within the granulocyte-macrophage lineage is optimally supported by GM-CSF and does not increase with further addition of IL-3.

  14. The role of scintigraphy in the lameness evaluation.

    PubMed

    Steckel, R R

    1991-08-01

    Bone scanning to help diagnose orthopedic disease has been used in human patients for over two decades. The value of this diagnostic tool has been well established in helping to identify a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. It has only recently been used by veterinarians for more accurate characterization of equine musculoskeletal disease. The technique offers the major advantage of increased sensitivity over standard radiographic imaging. The case material illustrated here shows that except for consistent identification of bone cysts, most of the pathologic changes to the horse's musculoskeletal system that might cause lameness are detected on bone scans. Many acute bone diseases can be diagnosed by scintigraphy that cannot be discerned by radiographs until the condition has become chronic: Because of their body size, these conditions may not be diagnosed at all in horses. Scintigraphy in horses offers the other major advantage of affording accurate imaging of the upper limbs, pelvis, and vertebral column without general anesthesia. Therefore, it has a final advantage of increased safety over conventional radiography because it eliminates the need to perform general anesthesia to study these areas. In the author's experience, if abnormal uptake of isotope in the upper limbs, pelvis or spine is not observed, general anesthesia to radiograph those areas is not warranted. A second major benefit of scintigraphic imaging is to differentiate mixed lameness conditions in which the component of bone disease must be separated from that of soft tissues to arrive at a rational course of treatment or prognosis. Finally, for athletic horses suspected of having lameness due to localized myositis, scintigraphy not only allows confirmation of muscle inflammation but also identifies the muscle bellies injured reasonably accurately so that specific local treatment may be given. Nuclear imaging of equine skeletal disease is an option that should be employed more frequently by

  15. Dual-phase (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy with delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT and bone scintigraphy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: correlation with clinical or pathological variables.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Wu, Bo; Shen, Chen-Tian; Zhu, Rui-Sen; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between (99m)Tc-MIBI and (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy and clinical or pathological variables, including preoperative serum PTH levels and tumor diameter, in patients with newly diagnosed PHPT. Dual-phase (99m)Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy was performed in 244 patients with PHPT. Of these patients, 155 underwent (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy to detect bone changes before parathyroidectomy. Factors influencing (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy and (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy detection rate were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis; optimal cutoff values for predicting positive (99m)Tc-MIBI and (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy were evaluated using ROC analysis. Among 244 patients, 174 (71.31 %) patients with 181 foci had a positive (99m)Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy; delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT could identify and locate the (99m)Tc-MIBI lesions but could not find more lesions than planar scintigraphy. 70 (28.69 %) patients had a negative (99m)Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy. Tumor diameter, serum PTH level and symptoms were statistically significant predictive factors in predicting positive (9m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.03 cm and 127.60 ng/L, respectively. Among 155 patients with bone scintigraphy, (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy showed positive finding in 80 (51.61 %) patients and negative finding in 75 patients. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that patient age, sex, tumor diameter and PTH level (≥150 ng/L) were statistically significant in predicting positive (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed both tumor diameter and PTH ≥ 150 ng/L were statistically significant in predicting positive (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were

  16. Increased Granulocyte Heparanase Activity in Neutrophils from Patients with Lupus Nephritis and Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Maciej; Kuźniar, Jakub; Kopeć, Wacław; Żabińska, Marcelina; Marchewka, Zofia; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Klinger, Marian

    2017-02-01

    Heparanase is a β-glucuronidase that cleaves sugar chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. It is believed that heparanase may be involved in the pathogenesis of proteinuria. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of heparanase in the pathogenesis of particular glomerulonephritis types. The evaluation of heparanase activity in serum, urine, and granulocytes and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in granulocytes of patients with lupus nephritis (n = 17), membranous nephropathy (n = 11), IgA nephropathy (n = 12), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 18), mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (n = 12) and in 19 healthy volunteers were performed. The heparanase activity in granulocytes of patients with lupus nephritis and membranous nephropathy was higher than heparanase activity in granulocytes in the control group (p = 0.02 in both cases). This is the first observation of this phenomenon. There was no difference between SOD activity in granulocytes of patients with all assessed types of glomerulonephritis and the control group. A positive correlation between heparanase activity in urine and double-strain DNA antibodies (r = 0.51; p = 0.04), and reverse correlations between heparanase in urine and hemolytic activity of the complement (r = -0.57; p = 0.03) in the lupus nephritis group, and between heparanase activity in granulocytes and serum total protein level (r = -0.69; p = 0.02) in membranous nephropathy were observed. Increase in heparanase activity without changes in superoxide dismutase activity in the granulocytes from patients with lupus nephritis and membranous nephropathy was observed. It may be used as one of the markers of these disease activities.

  17. Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from endothelial cells to peripheral granulocytes in vitro under shear flow conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinyong; Dyachenko, Viktor; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum(Ap) is a tick-borne pathogen, which can cause granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. In vivo this obligate intracellular pathogen is primarily located in circulating mature granulocytes, but it also infects endothelial cells. In order to study the interaction between Ap-infected endothelial cells and human granulocytes under conditions similar to those found naturally in the infected host, an in vitro model that mimics physiological flow conditions in the microvasculature was established. Cell-to-cell interactions were then visualized by microscopy, which showed that granulocytes adhered strongly to Ap-infected endothelial cells at a shear stress of 0.5 dyne/cm2. In addition, Ap-transmission assays under flow conditions showed that the bacteria transferred from infected endothelial cells to circulating granulocytes and were able to establish infection in constantly moving granulocytes. Cell surface analysis showed that Ap induced up-regulation of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on infected endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-8 secretion by endothelial cells indicated that the presence of Ap induced a pro-inflammatory response. In summary, the results of this study suggest that endothelial cells of the microvasculature (1) provide an excellent site for Ap dissemination to peripheral blood granulocytes under flow conditions and therefore may play a crucial role in the development of persistent infection, and (2) are stimulated by Ap to express surface molecules and cytokines that may lead to inflammatory responses at the site of the infection. PMID:25618174

  18. A novel tool for high-throughput screening of granulocyte-specific antibodies using the automated flow cytometric granulocyte immunofluorescence test (Flow-GIFT).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Xuan Duc; Dengler, Thomas; Schulz-Linkholt, Monika; Klüter, Harald

    2011-02-03

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a severe complication related with blood transfusion. TRALI has usually been associated with antibodies against leukocytes. The flow cytometric granulocyte immunofluorescence test (Flow-GIFT) has been introduced for routine use when investigating patients and healthy blood donors. Here we describe a novel tool in the automation of the Flow-GIFT that enables a rapid screening of blood donations. We analyzed 440 sera from healthy female blood donors for the presence of granulocyte antibodies. As positive controls, 12 sera with known antibodies against anti-HNA-1a, -b, -2a; and -3a were additionally investigated. Whole-blood samples from HNA-typed donors were collected and the test cells isolated using cell sedimentation in a Ficoll density gradient. Subsequently, leukocytes were incubated with the respective serum and binding of antibodies was detected using FITC-conjugated antihuman antibody. 7-AAD was used to exclude dead cells. Pipetting steps were automated using the Biomek NXp Multichannel Automation Workstation. All samples were prepared in the 96-deep well plates and analyzed by flow cytometry. The standard granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT) and granulocyte agglutination test (GAT) were also performed as reference methods. Sixteen sera were positive in the automated Flow-GIFT, while five of these sera were negative in the standard GIFT (anti-HNA 3a, n = 3; anti-HNA-1b, n = 1) and GAT (anti-HNA-2a, n = 1). The automated Flow-GIFT was able to detect all granulocyte antibodies, which could be only detected in GIFT in combination with GAT. In serial dilution tests, the automated Flow-GIFT detected the antibodies at higher dilutions than the reference methods GIFT and GAT. The Flow-GIFT proved to be feasible for automation. This novel high-throughput system allows an effective antigranulocyte antibody detection in a large donor population in order to prevent TRALI due to transfusion of blood products.

  19. Utility of Immature Granulocyte Percentage in Pediatric Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Eleanor K.; Griffin, Russell L.; Mortellaro, Vincent; Beierle, Elizabeth A.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Chen, Mike K.; Russell, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal surgery in children. Adjuncts are utilized to help clinicians predict acute or perforated appendicitis, which may affect treatment decisions. Automated hematologic analyzers can perform more accurate automated differentials including immature granulocyte percentages (IG%). Elevated IG% has demonstrated improved accuracy for predicting sepsis in the neonatal population than traditional immature to total neutrophil count (I/T) ratios. We intended to assess the additional discriminatory ability of IG% to traditionally assessed parameters in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. Materials and Methods We identified all patients with appendicitis from July 2012 to June 2013 by ICD-9 code. Charts were reviewed for relevant demographic, clinical, and outcome data, which were compared between acute and perforated appendicitis groups using Fischer’s exact and t-test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. We utilized an adjusted logistic regression model utilizing clinical lab values to predict the odds of perforated appendicitis. Results 251 patients were included in the analysis. Those with perforated appendicitis had a higher white blood cell (WBC) count (p=0.0063), C-reactive protein (CRP) (p<0.0001), and IG% (p=0.0299). In the adjusted model, only elevated CRP (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.40-8.54) and presence of left shift (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.09-6.46) were significant predictors of perforated appendicitis. The c-statistic of the final model was 0.70, suggesting fair discriminatory ability in predicting perforated appendicitis. Conclusions IG% did not provide any additional benefit to elevated CRP and presence of left shift in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. PMID:24793450

  20. Effect of surface modifiers on an ectoenzyme: granulocyte 5'-nucleotidase.

    PubMed

    Smolen, J E; Karnovsky, M L

    1980-05-01

    Several agents that react with plasma membranes, namely the native lectins concanavalin A, Ricinus communis agglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin, the modified lectin succinyl concanavalin A, and sodium meta-periodate, inhibited the ecto-5'-nucleotidase of intact guinea pig granulocytes. Stimulation of the enzyme was not observed at any lectin concentration. Inhibition by native lectins could be blocked or reversed by appropriate competing hapten sugars. In the case of concanavalin A, reversal could be achieved at 37 degrees C, but not at 5 degrees C. When lectins were used in combination with each other, the effects were found to be largely independent. However, when concanavalin A and R. communis agglutinin were applied together, complications arose because the former lectin binds to the latter as well as to the cell surface. To avoid some of the complexities inherent in studying intact cell 5'-nucleotidase and to gain additional information about the system, two broken cell enzyme preparations were also examined. The enzyme of plasma membrane-enriched fractions was inhibited by all five agents mentioned above. 5'-Nucleotidase solubilized in sodium deoxycholate was inhibited by the four lectins but stimulated by periodate. The effects of the surface modifiers on kinetic data for all three enzyme preparations are consistent with the hypothesis that direct interactions with the enzyme molecule give rise to changes in Vmax; interactions at membrane sites other than 5'-nucleotidase itself could cause increases in apparent Km values. Effects of interactions of ectoenzymes with plant lectins may serve as models for phenomena that result from cell-cell interactions or from interactions of animal cells with lectin-like components of the cellular environment.

  1. Exercise increases lactoferrin, but decreases lysozyme in salivary granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Gillum, Trevor; Kuennen, Matthew; McKenna, Zachary; Castillo, Micaela; Jordan-Patterson, Alex; Bohnert, Caitlin

    2017-05-01

    Intracellular lactoferrin (Lac) and lysozyme (Lys) content play an important role in regulating inflammation and promoting host protection. While exercise has demonstrated an increase in Lac and Lys concentration in exocrine solutions, little is known regarding intracellular concentration changes in response to exercise. To quantify intracellular Lac and Lys concentration before and after exercise in salivary CD45(+)CD15(+) cells. 11 males (20.3 ± 0.8 years, 57.2 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min V̇O2pk, 11.1 ± 3.9% body fat) ran for 45 min at 75% of VO2pk. 12 mL of stimulated saliva were collected pre and immediately post exercise. Saliva was filtered through a 30-µm filter before analysis of leukocytes (CD45(+)) and granulocytes (CD45(+)CD15(+)) using flow cytometry. Median fluorescent intensity (MFI) of Lac increased from pre (64,268 ± 46,036 MFI) to post (117,134 ± 88,115 MFI) exercise (p <0.05). Lys MFI decreased with exercise (pre: 16,933 ± 8249; post: 11,616 ± 6875) (p <0.05). Acute running resulted in an increased Lac concentration which could lead to a decrease in inflammation, adding further evidence of the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. Conversely, the exercise-associated decrease of intracellular Lys content could be the cause of increased Lys in exocrine solutions.

  2. Altered biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals used in bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Zuckier, Lionel S; Martineau, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy has remained a mainstay of clinical nuclear medicine for more than 4 decades. Extensive medical literature has developed surrounding the etiology and significance of alterations in distribution of bone radiopharmaceuticals. Altered biodistribution may be of a global nature, reflecting altered partition of radiopharmaceutical between bone and soft tissues, or more focal, reflecting regional abnormalities, including those related to bone or soft tissues. A third category of alterations in the distribution of bone radiopharmaceuticals is those due to errors and blunders, colloquially termed "artifactual" in the medical imaging literature. Being cognizant of these unexpected abnormalities, and understanding their etiology, will prepare the reader to more readily appreciate the significance of these findings when encountered in clinical practice.

  3. /sup 111/In platelet scintigraphy in cerebrovascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, W.J.; Siegel, B.A.; Davis, H.H.; Mathias, C.J.; Clark, H.B.; Welch, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    We obtained scintigraphic images of the neck from 100 patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease after injecting /sup 111/In-labeled autologous platelets. One or more focuses of increased activity, implying local platelet accumulation, were seen along the course of the cervical carotid arteries in 52 patients. In 64 patients, there was a highly significant correlation between the results of scintigraphy and carotid arteriography (p . 10(6)). There was no significant correlation between the scintigraphic findings and the previous or subsequent occurrence of transient ischemic attack or cerebral infarction in the carotid circulation. These data suggest that factors other than the simple formation of platlet thrombi in the cervical carotid arteries are of primary importance in the pathogenesis of stroke.

  4. Rim sign in Tc-99m sulfur colloid hepatic scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Usha A; Barron, Bruce J; Lamki, Lamk M

    2005-04-01

    A case of pericholecystic hyperperfusion on Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC) flow images with a pericholecystic rim of increased activity (PCHA) on delayed planar and single-photon emission computed tomography images of the liver was seen in a patient with a history of multiple renal transplants admitted with cramping right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Laparotomy performed 5 days after the scan revealed an acutely perforated gangrenous gallbladder and occluded cystic duct. The secondary findings of gallbladder hyperperfusion and PCHA or "rim sign" have been frequently reported with Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary imaging. These secondary findings in conjunction with a nonvisualized gallbladder on an IDA scan suggest a complicated or advanced stage of acute cholecystitis and usually require urgent surgical intervention. The rim sign on Tc-99m SC scintigraphy also likely indicates the same grave diagnosis.

  5. Abnormal thallium 201 scintigraphy during low-dose vasopressin infusions

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, R.; Kaplan, K.; Bines, A.; Spies, S.; Reed, M.T.; Lesch, M.

    1986-12-01

    Thallium 201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial scans were obtained in 16 patients just prior to the discontinuation of a vasopressin infusion (.1 to .2 units/min) administered for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Repeat scintigraphy was performed two to three hours after the vasopressin was stopped. Eleven of the 16 patients (69 percent) demonstrated areas of decreased myocardial /sup 201/Tl uptake that resolved after the infusion was stopped. Heart rate-blood pressure product was significantly lower at the time of the second scan. Autopsies were secured in three of 11 scan-positive patients: one had severe coronary artery obstruction, one nonsignificant disease, and another had normal coronary arteries. Vasopressin, even at low doses, can induce abnormalities in myocardial perfusion that are probably mediated by a direct effect on the coronary circulation. They are usually not detectable by routine monitoring techniques and conceivably form the basis for the cardiovascular morbidity associated with the use of this agent.

  6. Nurse exposure doses resulted from bone scintigraphy patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunçman, Duygu; Kovan, Bilal; Poyraz, Leyla; ćapali, Veli; Demir, Bayram; Türkmen, Cüneyt

    2016-03-01

    Bone scintigraphy is used for displaying the radiologic undiagnosed bone lesions in nuclear medicine. It's general indications are researching bone metastases, detection of radiographically occult fractures, staging and follow-up in primary bone tumors, diagnosis of paget's disease, investigation of loosening and infection in orthopedic implants. It is applied with using 99mTc labeled radiopharmaceuticals (e.g 99m Tc MDP,99mTc HEDP and 99mTc HMDP). 20 -25 mCi IV radiotracer was injected into vein and radiotracer emits gamma radiation. Patient waits in isolated room for about 3 hours then a gamma camera scans radiation area and creates an image. When some patient's situation is not good, patients are hospitalized until the scanning because of patients' close contact care need. In this study, measurements were taken from ten patients using Geiger Muller counter. After these measurements, we calculated nurse's exposure radiations from patient's routine treatment, examination and emergency station.

  7. Diagnostic value of image processing in myocardial scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Cinotti, L.; Meignan, M.; Usdin, J.P.; Vasile, N.; Castaigne, A.

    1983-09-01

    The diagnostic value of stress myocardial analog scintigrams, and of five image-processing methods, was assessed by a decisional analysis in 96 patients undergoing coronary arteriography. The methods involved digitalization, nine-point binomial smoothing, background subtraction by linear interpolation, stationary filtering, and a combination of them. The difference between after-test probabilities of having the disease with a postive or a negative examination provided a discriminant index for different prevalences of the disease. Though the processing methods failed to improve the detection of a circumflex stenosis, the stationary filter significantly increased the diagnostic value for the detection of stenosis in a left anterior descending artery for a large range of prevalence, and in a right coronary artery at high prevalence. Thus, the filter seemed to provide a useful tool for enhancing the diagnostic value of myocardial scintigraphy.

  8. Diagnostic value of image processing in myocardial scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Cinotti, L.; Meignan, M.; Usdin, J.P.; Vasile, N.; Castaigne, A.

    1983-09-01

    The diagnostic value of stress myocardial analog scintigrams, and of five image-processing methods, was assessed by a decisional analysis in 96 patients undergoing coronary arteriography. The methods involved digitalization, nine-point binomial smoothing, background subtraction by linear interpolation, stationary filtering, and a combination of them. The difference between after-test probabilities of having the disease with a positive or a negative examination provided a discriminant index for different prevalences of the disease. Though the processing methods failed to improve the detection of a circumflex stenosis, the stationary filter significantly increased the diagnostic value for the detection of stenosis in a left anterior descending artery for a large range of prevalence, and in a right coronary artery at high prevalence. Thus, the filter seemed to provide a useful tool for enhancing the diagnostic value of myocardial scintigraphy.

  9. The role of bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of the suspected abused child

    SciTech Connect

    Sty, J.R.; Starshak, R.J.

    1983-02-01

    A comparison was made of the radiographic and scintigraphic skeletal surveys of 261 children who were suspected victims of abuse. Radiography was positive in 105 children and produced false-negative results in 32; scintigraphy was positive in 120 children and produced false-negative results in two. Although radiography has traditionally been used to assess the skeletal injuries of battered children, the authors conclude that scintigraphy should be the screening procedure of choice for children suspected of having been abused.

  10. [Imaging of hyperparathyroidism-Ultrasonography and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy-].

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Yoshida, Atsushi; Kotani, Kohei; Shiomi, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    Treatments for primary hyperparathyroidism due to adenoma, hyperplasia and carcinoma and secondary hyperparathyroidism are mainly surgical resections of them. Accurate imaging diagnoses of the existences and the regions are very important for reductions of invasiveness. We describe ultrasonography and (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy of hyperparathyroidism. We explain an advantage, a disadvantage and diagnosability of these modalities. We mention utilities of SPECT/CT, too. We show echogram and (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy images about 3 cases of hyperparathyroidism.

  11. A case of synovial sarcoma with bone metastasis identified by bone marrow scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, N.; Morita, R.; Yamamoto, T.; Muranaka, A.; Tomomitsu, T.; Yanagimoto, S.; Sone, T.; Fukunaga, M.

    1985-04-01

    In a patient with synovial sarcoma, routine bone survey showed no abnormality, while bone marrow scintigraphy with Tc-99m sulfur colloid revealed a defect in the fifth lumbar vertebra. At surgery, tumorous invasion was noted in the fifth lumbar vertebra and the surrounding tissues. It was suggested that the bone marrow scintigraphy was particularly useful in the detection of tumorous invasion into the bone marrow at the early stage before the destruction of skeletal tissue.

  12. Tc-99m Labeled HMPAO white Blood Cell Scintigraphy in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Funda; Kın Cengiz, Arzu; Güngör, Fırat

    2012-04-01

    (99m)Tc labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is a frequently used option for acute infection, particularly in pediatric patients. This scintigraphy is applied to detect sites of infection/inflammation in patients with fever of unknown origin, to find and follow up osteomyelitis, and to detect suspicion of acute appendicitis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the value of (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy in pediatric patients. The study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2008 and included 13 patients (5 boys, 8 girls; mean age 6.9±6.2 years). Those patients who had suspicion of bone infection (n=7), fever of unknown origin (n=3), and suspicion of acute appendicitis (n=3) were evaluated retrospectively. (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy imaging was performed to all patients. Diagnosis was done according to operation and pathological results or clinical follow-up. (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy has been found to be true positive in 6 cases, true negative in 6 cases, and false negative in one patient who had fewer unknown origin. The false negative case has been found to have encephalitis with MRI. Leukocyte scintigraphy has been described as a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of suspicion of bone infection, fever of unknown origin and suspicion of acute appendicitis. (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy is a rapid and very accurate method for detecting those pathologies. Our results showed that WBC scintigraphy might be reliably used for diagnosis of suspected bone infection and acute appendicitis, fever of unknown origin, and acute appendicitis, in pediatric patient population. None declared.

  13. Spontaneous perforation of common bile duct in a pediatric patient: application of hepatobiliary scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Joodi, Marjan; Norouzbeigi, Nasim; Rad, Mohammad Ali Ghodsi; Shojaeian, Reza; Kakhki, Vahid Reza Dabbagh; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2012-10-01

    We report a case of spontaneous biliary perforation in a 21-month old female pediatric patient with the presenting symptoms of abdominal distension, jaundice, and umbilical hernia. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed tracer accumulation in the peritoneal cavity. Preliminary diagnosis of spontaneous biliary perforation was confirmed during surgery. After surgical repair of the biliary leakage, the patient recovered fully. This case shows the importance of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients suspicious for this condition.

  14. Improving the diagnostic performance of lung scintigraphy in suspected pulmonary embolic disease.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, F V; Turner, S; Scarsbrook, A F

    2006-12-01

    to determine the effectiveness of a new imaging algorithm in the investigation of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). A new imaging algorithm for suspected PE was introduced following the installation of a multisection computed tomography (CT) machine at our institution. Before its installation, patients with suspected PE were evaluated with ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy. Subsequently, patients were triaged according to chest radiography (CR) and respiratory history to either lung scintigraphy or CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Patients with a normal CR and no history of lung disease were evaluated using perfusion (Q) scintigraphy [ventilation (V) scintigraphy was no longer performed]. Patients with an abnormal CR, asthma or chronic lung disease were evaluated using CTPA. All V/Q images in a continuous 3-year period before the introduction of the new imaging algorithm and all Q images performed in a 3-year period after its introduction were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging reports were categorized into normal, non-diagnostic (low or intermediate probability) or high probability for PE. Patients in the later group who subsequently underwent CTPA, were also reviewed. After the policy change the percentage of normal scintigrams significantly increased (39 to 60%; p<0.001). There was a non-significant increase in the percentage of high probability scintigrams (15 to 18%; p=0.716). Overall the diagnostic yield of lung scintigraphy improved significantly (54 to 78%; p<0.001). the diagnostic performance of lung scintigraphy can be improved by careful triage of patients to either Q scintigraphy or CTPA based on clinical history and CR findings. Q scintigraphy remains a valuable diagnostic test in the investigation of suspected PE in carefully selected patients.

  15. Bone scintigraphy of severe hypercalcemia following simvastatin induced rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Zubair B.; Hu, Sophia; Amorosa, Louis F.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Simvastatin induced rhabdomyolysis with renal failure is a well reported clinical entity with hyperkalemia recognized as a life threatening risk. The risk of delayed hypercalcemia during the recovery of renal function is not well appreciated as this varies in severity and can be caused by multiple mechanisms. We present a patient with high dose simvastatin induced rhabdomyolysis leading to late onset of severe hypercalcemia due to calcium phosphate deposition in muscles diagnosed by distinctive bone scintigraphy. A 60-year-old Asian male was admitted to the hospital for profound weakness one week following the initiation of simvastatin 80 mg daily post myocardial infarction. His clinical course was complicated by contrast nephropathy. One week later, he developed progressive weakness in all his extremities and inability to raise his head and eat. Simvastatin was discontinued at this point. CPK elevation to greater than 425,000 U was found, consistent with rhabdomyolysis. He became oliguric requiring hemodialysis. Muscle biopsy showed severe muscle necrosis and type 2 fiber atrophy. One month later, he developed hypercalcemia with suppressed intact PTH and 1, 25(OH) D levels. Whole body bone scintigraphy showed calcium phosphate deposition throughout his musculature. His calcium levels normalized in 1 week on hemodialysis. This patient’s experience illustrates the marked risk of delayed severe hypercalcemia from rhabdomyolysis due to dissolution of myocellular calcium phosphate deposits. It also provides an opportunity to review the different mechanisms of hypercalcemia especially in statin induced rhabdomyolysis. Recognition of this phenomenon is critical for appropriate follow up and treatment of such patients. PMID:28228795

  16. Characterization of multiple acquired portosystemic shunts using transplenic portal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Federica; Sura, Patricia A; Sharp, Dorothy; Daniel, Gregory B

    2010-01-01

    We describe the scintigraphic patterns observed in 14 patients with confirmed multiple portosystemic shunts imaged via transplenic portal scintigraphy. Parameters evaluated included presence of multiple anomalous vessels, presence of hepatofugal flow caudal to spleen, and/or to cranial margin of the kidneys, slow absorption resulting in longer spleen to heart transit time, and presence of biphasic or fragmented bolus. Twenty-eight additional patients, 14 with a confirmed single portocaval and 14 with a portoazygos shunt, were used for comparison. Nine of 14 (64.3%) patients with multiple shunts had multiple vessels, five (35.7%) had a biphasic bolus, 13 (92.9%) had hepatofugal flow caudal to the cranial margin of the kidneys. In all single portocaval shunts, a single anomalous vessel was identified. None had hepatofugal flow caudal to the border of the kidneys. Among portoazygos shunts, 4/14 (28.6%) had flow caudal to the injection site. Six portoazygos and one portocaval shunts had biphasic bolus. Median transit time from spleen to heart was significantly longer (1.9 s) in patients with multiple shunts than in patients with a portocaval shunt (1.0 s), but not in patients with a portoazygos shunt (1.3 s). Although a distinct plexus of anomalous vessels is not detected in all patients with multiple shunts imaged using transplenic portal scintigraphy, findings of hepatofugal flow caudal to the margin of the kidneys, and longer transit time compared with single portocaval shunts were characteristic. Flow caudal to the splenic injection site but cranial to the kidneys and biphasic bolus can also be seen with a single congenital shunt.

  17. Evaluation of antral motility in humans using manometry and scintigraphy.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K; Edelbroek, M; Horowitz, M; Sun, W M; Dent, J; Roelofs, J; Muecke, T; Akkermans, L

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that scintigraphy can be used to evaluate non-invasively antral motility in humans, although scintigraphic techniques have not yet been compared with more conventional measurements of intraluminal pressures by manometry. Simultaneous scintigraphic and manometric measurements of antral motility were performed in nine healthy volunteers. After intubation with a sleeve/sidehole catheter which incorporated five pressure sideholes located at 1.5 cm intervals spanning the antrum, each subject ingested 100 g minced beef labelled with 100 MBq 99mTc-chicken liver and 150 ml water. Between 40-43, 60-63, 80-83, and 100-103 minutes after meal ingestion, radioisotopic data were acquired in two second frames. Time-activity curves showing antral 'contractions' resulting from wall motion were derived by drawing small regions of interest over the antrum to coincide with the position of the antral manometric sideholes. Scintigraphic contraction rates approximated 3/minute, whereas antral pressure waves that occluded the lumen were less frequent (p < 0.01 for all), particularly in the proximal antrum. The amplitude of wall motion, evaluated scintigraphically, and the amplitude of pressure waves were both inversely related to the distance from the pylorus (r > -0.32, p < 0.05) and antral volume r > -0.29 (p < 0.05). There were significant relationships between the amplitude of contractions assessed scintigraphically and the number of lumen-occlusive antral pressure waves in the distal antrum (r -0.48, p < 0.05) but not in the more proximal antral regions. It is concluded that scintigraphy can detect antral wall motion with greater sensitivity than manometry, particularly in the proximal antrum. As manometry gives information on the amplitude as well as the temporal and spatial organisation of those contractions which result in lumen occlusion, the combination of scintigraphic and manometric techniques in the evaluation of antral motility shows considerable

  18. [Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in pediatric bronchial carcinoid tumor].

    PubMed

    Hervás Benito, I; Bello Arques, P; Loaiza, J L; Vercher, J L; Velasco, R P; Rivas Sánchez, A; Ruiz Llorca, C; Martí Vidal, J F; Mateo Navarro, A

    2010-01-01

    Carcinoid tumor is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm with different locations, the most frequent ones during the pediatric age being the appendix and lung. Scintigraphy with (111)In-DTPA-d-Phe(1)-octreotide has led to an importance advance in the diagnosis of extension in carcinoid tumor patients. We present three pediatric patients with bronchial carcinoid studied with somatostatin analogue scintigraphy (SSRS). The first patient (9 years) was studied using the SSRS after surgery due to carcinoid tumor in the right lower lobe in which tumor remains was observed (this being clearer in the tomography study). The second patient (10 years) presented due to endobronchial tumor in the left lower lobe together with atelectasis of the LUL and emphysema of the LLL. Radiology imaging techniques suggested the differential diagnosis between the endobronchial carcinoid tumor or plasma cells or foreign body gramuloma. The SSRS showed an abnormal deposit of activity in the left hemithorax consisted with carcinoid tumor. No other areas suggesting metastasis were observed. After the surgery (endobronchial resection), new controls with SSRS showed absence of disease. The third patient (12 years) came after a lobectomy (RUL) due to bronchial carcinoid. The SSRS did not show any abnormal areas of activity. In the subsequent control (3 months), a deposit of activity was observed in the middle third of the right hemithorax, after which a lobectomy was performed (RLL and ML) that showed small remains of neuroendocrine carcinoid. Subsequent controls were negative. The SSRS has demonstrated great utility in the diagnosis, follow-up and staging of pediatric patients, carriers of neuroendocrine carcinoid tumors. Copyright 2008 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  19. Thyroid scintigraphy findings in 2096 cats with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mark E; Broome, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is currently the reference standard for diagnosing and staging cats with hyperthyroidism, but few studies describing the scintigraphic characteristics in a large number of cats have been reported. The objective of this study was to better characterize thyroid scintigraphy findings by evaluating 2096 consecutive cats with hyperthyroidism that were referred over a 3.5-year period. Of these cats, 2068 (98.7%) had a high thyroid-to-salivary ratio (>1.5), whereas 2014 (96.1%) were found to have a high thyroid-to-background ratio (>6.1). When the patterns of the cats' thyroid disease were recorded, 665 (31.7%) had unilateral disease, 1060 (50.6%) had bilateral-asymmetric disease (two thyroid lobes unequal in size), 257 (12.3%) had bilateral-symmetric disease (both lobes similar in size), and 81 (3.9%) had multifocal disease (≥3 areas of increased radionuclide uptake). The number of areas of (99m) TcO(-) 4 uptake in the 2096 cats ranged from 1 to 6 (median, 2), located in the cervical area in 2057 (98.1%), thoracic inlet in 282 (13.5%), and in the thoracic cavity in 115 (5.5%). Ectopic thyroid tissue (e.g. lingual or mediastinal) was diagnosed in 81 (3.9%) cats, whereas thyroid carcinoma was suspected in 35 (1.7%) of the cats. The results of this study support conclusions that most hyperthyroid cats have unilateral or bilateral thyroid nodules, but that multifocal disease will develop in a few cats that have ectopic thyroid disease or thyroid carcinoma. Both ectopic thyroid disease and thyroid carcinoma are relatively uncommon in hyperthyroid cats, with a respective prevalence of ∼4% and ∼2% in this study.

  20. Role of red blood cell scintigraphy for determining the localization of gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Sanlı, Yasemin; Ozkan, Zeynep Gözde; Kuyumcu, Serkan; Yanar, Hakan; Balık, Emre; Tokmak, Handan; Türkmen, Cüneyt; Adalet, Işık

    2012-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of Tc-99m labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy for determination of localization of gastrointestinal system (GIS) bleeding. Fifty-seven cases (27 females, 30 males; mean age 43.9±24; range 1 to 91 years) who referred to our clinic between 1995-2010 were evaluated for determination of localization of GIS bleeding with RBC scintigraphy. Prior to scintigraphy, gastroscopy in 51, colonoscopy in 45, and angiography in 9 patients were performed. RBC scintigraphies were positive and negative in 31 and 26 patients, respectively. Positive scintigraphic findings were obtained within the 1st hour of dynamic imaging in 19 patients, within the 1st-4th hour static images in 7, and within the 4th-24th hour images in 5 patients. Fourteen patients underwent surgical exploration. In 13 patients, the surgery confirmed the diagnosis by RBC scintigraphy (accuracy: 92.8%). Of 43 patients without surgical exploration, 12 had anemia due to iron deficiency and their scintigraphic evaluation were negative. Four patients died and in 27 patients, GIS bleeding ceased spontaneously or with conservative measures. Scintigraphy should be the primary tool for accurate diagnosis of patients with active GIS bleeding. Positive dynamic images obtained within the first hour of imaging may be more accurate for demonstrating bleeding localization and a good predictor of requirement of surgical exploration.

  1. Renal anomalies in patients with turner syndrome: Is scintigraphy superior to ultrasound?

    PubMed

    Hamza, Rasha T; Shalaby, Mennatallah H; Hamed, Laith S; Abdulla, Dunya B A; Elfekky, Sahar M; Sultan, Omar M

    2016-02-01

    Renal anomalies are present in up to 30% of patients with Turner syndrome (TS). Renal ultrasound (U/S) detects anatomical renal anomalies only while renal scintigraphy detects anomalies, detects early renal malfunction, and estimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Thus, we aimed to assess frequency of renal abnormalities detected by scintigraphy in comparison to renal U/S in TS patients. Ninety TS patients were subjected to auxological assessment, measurement of serum creatinine; and renal U/S and scintigraphy. Renal U/S detected renal anomalies in 22.22% of patients versus 17.78 % detected by scintigraphy (P = 0.035). Scintigraphy detected renal functional abnormalities in 44.44% of patients in the form of subnormal total GFR, abnormal renogram curve pattern, improper tracer handling and perfusion; and difference in split renal function >10% between both kidneys. Patients with a 45,X karyotype had more renal functional abnormalities (56%) than those with mosaic karyotype (33.33%), P = 0.04. In conclusion, renal scintigraphy is not superior to U/S in detection of renal anomalies but is a reliable method for early detection of renal malfunction in TS patients especially those with 45,X to ensure early management to offer a better quality of life.

  2. [Value of radionuclide lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis and quantitative analysis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Ni, Xin-Hai; He, Jian-Guo; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Xiong, Chang-Ming; He, Zuo-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This study was to assess the reliability of perfusion/ventilation (Q/V) lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis and quantitative analysis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). A total of 78 in-patients with pulmonary hypertension who had no history of congenital heart disease, valvular disease and acute pulmonary embolism were included in this study. All patients underwent Q/V scintigraphy for detecting CTEPH. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Q/V scintigraphy were defined by comparing with the results of pulmonary angiography. Percentage of Perfusion Defect score (PPDs%) was calculated in patients with CTEPH confirmed by pulmonary angiography. The correlations between PPDs% and mPAP, PPDs% and SPAP were analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of a high-probability Q/V scintigraphy interpretation were 96.0%, 81.1% and 86.9%, respectively, compared with 100%, 69.8% and 79.5% for the combination of high- and intermediate- probability Q/V scintigraphy interpretation. PPDs% was significantly correlated with mPAP and SPAP (r = 0.538 for mPAP, P < 0.01 and r = 0.456 for SPAP, P < 0.05). Perfusion/ventilation lung scintigraphy is a valuable technique for diagnosis and quantitative analysis of CTEPH.

  3. A large renal pelvic diverticulum, presenting incomplete excretion during tc-99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and tracer accumulation on tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy; a case report.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Bulent; Erselcan, Taner; Ozdemir, Semra; Hasbek, Zekiye; Tosun, H Bayram; Topaktas, Seher

    2004-12-01

    This case report illustrates the dynamic and static renal scintigraphic images of a patient with an unusual large diverticulum of the renal pelvis. The initial diagnosis by intravenous pyelography (IVP) and ultrasonographic (US) examination was a renal pelvic diverticulum of the left kidney, and the patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department for exploration of the effect of the pelvic diverticulum on renal functions. We performed dynamic renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and static renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). In dynamic renal scintigraphy, bilaterally normal concentration function was observed. While right kidney excretion function was normal, an incomplete excretion pattern was seen on the left side. Complete urinary flow obstruction occurred approximately at the 10th minute of the acquisition, which did not seem to respond to the i.v. furosemide application. However, when only the renal cortex was included in the region of interest, the obstructive pattern disappeared. In static renal scintigraphy, a large renal pelvic diverticulum localized antero-medially was clearly visualized in the left-anterior oblique projection, most probably due to accumulation of radiopharmaceutical inside it. This case showed that a renal pelvic diverticulum should be thought of when an incomplete excretion pattern is seen on dynamic renal scintigraphy. Using only a cortical region of interest may also help to distinguish other types of obstructive pattern from diverticulum. Additionally, Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy may show diverticulum localization with antero-oblique projections in addition to routine projections.

  4. Dysregulation of granulocyte, erythrocyte, and NK cell lineages in Fli-1 gene-targeted mice.

    PubMed

    Masuya, Masahiro; Moussa, Omar; Abe, Takanori; Deguchi, Takao; Higuchi, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Spyropoulos, Demetri D; Watson, Dennis K; Ogawa, Makio

    2005-01-01

    Targeted disruption of the Friend leukemia integration 1 (Fli-1) proto-oncogene results in severe dysmegakaryopoiesis and embryonic lethality. We used morula-stage aggregation as a strategy to further clarify the hematopoietic defects of the Fli-1 gene-targeted mice. Analyses of lineage expression of Fli-1(+/-) and Fli-1(-/-) cells in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of chimeric mice consistently demonstrated reduced numbers of neutrophilic granulocytes and monocytes and increased numbers of natural killer (NK) cells. Transplantation studies using sorted Fli-1 mutant cells produced similar findings. Clonal culture studies of bone marrow cells revealed increased numbers of granulocytic and early erythroid progenitors in the Fli-1(+/-) cells. The sorted Fli-1(-/-) bone marrow cells revealed specific down-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and C/EBPepsilon, and the receptors for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), consistent with their critical roles in granulopoiesis. Collectively, these observations suggest previously unknown physiologic roles for Fli-1 in granulocytic, erythroid, and NK cell proliferation and differentiation. Production of chimeras by morula-stage embryo aggregation is an effective way to unravel cell-autonomous hematopoietic defects in gene-targeted mice.

  5. Granulocyte transfusions for preventing infections in people with neutropenia or neutrophil dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Blanco, Patricia; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Massey, Edwin

    2015-06-29

    Despite modern antimicrobials and supportive therapy, bacterial and fungal infections are still major complications in people with prolonged disease-related or therapy-related neutropenia. Since the late 1990s there has been increasing demand for donated granulocyte transfusions to treat or prevent severe infections in people who lack their own functional granulocytes. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2009. To determine the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic granulocyte transfusions compared with a control population not receiving this intervention for preventing all-cause mortality, mortality due to infection, and evidence of infection due to infection or due to any other cause in people with neutropenia or disorders of neutrophil function. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), theTransfusion Evidence Library (from 1980) and ongoing trial databases to April 20 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing people receiving granulocyte transfusions to prevent the development of infection with a control group receiving no granulocyte transfusions. Neonates are the subject of another Cochrane review and were excluded from this review. There was no restriction by outcomes examined, but this review focuses on mortality, mortality due to infection and adverse events. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Twelve trials met the inclusion criteria. One trial is still ongoing, leaving a total of 11 trials eligible involving 653 participants. These trials were conducted between 1978 and 2006 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. None of the studies included people with neutrophil dysfunction. Ten studies included only adults, and two studies included children and adults. Ten

  6. Granulocyte transfusions for preventing infections in people with neutropenia or neutrophil dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Blanco, Patricia; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Massey, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite modern antimicrobials and supportive therapy, bacterial and fungal infections are still major complications in people with prolonged disease-related or therapy-related neutropenia. Since the late 1990s there has been increasing demand for donated granulocyte transfusions to treat or prevent severe infections in people who lack their own functional granulocytes. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2009. Objectives To determine the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic granulocyte transfusions compared with a control population not receiving this intervention for preventing all-cause mortality, mortality due to infection, and evidence of infection due to infection or due to any other cause in people with neutropenia or disorders of neutrophil function. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980) and ongoing trial databases to April 20 2015. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing people receiving granulocyte transfusions to prevent the development of infection with a control group receiving no granulocyte transfusions. Neonates are the subject of another Cochrane review and were excluded from this review. There was no restriction by outcomes examined, but this review focuses on mortality, mortality due to infection and adverse events. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results Twelve trials met the inclusion criteria. One trial is still ongoing, leaving a total of 11 trials eligible involving 653 participants. These trials were conducted between 1978 and 2006 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. None of the studies included people with

  7. Impact of burden on granulocyte clearance of bacteria in a mouse thigh infection model.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Fregeau, Christine; Liu, Weiguo; Brown, D L; Louie, Arnold

    2010-10-01

    We wished to delineate granulocytes' impact on the clearance of different bacterial burdens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in a granulocyte-replete mouse thigh infection model. A mouse thigh model was employed. Bacterial challenges from 10(5) to 3 × 10(7) CFU (S. aureus) and from 3 × 10(4) to 3 × 10(8) CFU (P. aeruginosa) were injected into murine posterior thighs. Organism quantitation was at baseline, 2 h (Pseudomonas only), and 24 h. A Michaelis-Menten population model was fit to the data for each organism. Breakpoints for microbial containment by granulocytes were identified. Bacterial burdens exceeding that breakpoint value resulted in organism multiplication. The Michaelis-Menten model fit the data well. For P. aeruginosa, the observed-predicted plot had a regression equation that explained over 98% of the variance (P ≪ 0.001). For S. aureus, this relationship explained greater than 94% of the variance (P ≪ 0.001). Maximal growth rate constants, maximal population burdens, and the bacterial loads at which granulocytes killed if half-saturated were not different. The kill rate constant for P. aeruginosa was almost 10 times that of S. aureus. Bacterial kill by granulocytes is saturable. No difference between saturation points of different isolates was seen. A higher bacterial burden means an increasing reliance on chemotherapy to drive bacterial clearance.

  8. In vivo stimulation of granulopoiesis by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.M.; Zsebo, K.M.; Inoue, H.; Hines, D.; Boone, T.C.; Chazin, V.R.; Tsai, L.; Ritch, T.; Souza, L.M.

    1987-04-01

    Osmotic pumps containing Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) were attached to indwelling jugular vein catheters and implanted subcutaneously into Golden Syrian hamsters. Within 3 days, peripheral granulocyte counts had increased > 10-fold with a concomitant 4-fold increase in total leukocytes. Microscopic examination of Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears from rhG-CSF hamsters showed that only the neutrophil subpopulation of granulocytes had increased. After subcutaneous injection at /sup 35/S-labeled rhG-CSF doses of up to 10 ..mu..g x kg/sup -1/ x day/sup -1/ only granulocyte counts were affected. However, at higher dose levels, a transient thrombocytopenia was noted. Erythrocyte and lymphocyte/monocyte counts remained unaffected by rhG-CSF over the entire dose range studied. Total leukocyte counts increased 3-fold within 12 hr after a single s.c. injection of rhG-CSF. This early effect was associated with an increase in the total number of colony-forming cells and the percent of active cycling cells in the marrow. A sustained elevation of peripheral leukocyte and marrow progenitor counts was observed following seven daily s.c. injections of rhG-CSF. The ability of rhG-CSF to increase the production and release of granulocytes from the marrow may underlie the beneficial effect it produced on the restoration of peripheral leukocyte counts in hamsters made leukopenic by treatment with 5-fluorouracil.

  9. Granulocytes of reptilian sauropsids contain beta-defensin-like peptides: a comparative ultrastructural survey.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2013-08-01

    The ability of lizards to withstand infections after wounding or amputation of the tail or limbs has suggested the presence of antimicrobial peptides in their tissues. Previous studies on the lizard Anolis carolinensis have identified several beta-defensin-like peptides that may potentially be involved in protection from infections. The present ultrastructural immunocytochemical study has analyzed tissues in different reptilian species in order to localize the cellular source of one of the more expressed beta-defensins previously sequenced in lizard indicated as AcBD15. Beta-defensin-like immunoreactivity is present in some of the larger, nonspecific granules of granulocytes in two lizard species, a snake, the tuatara, and a turtle. The ultrastructural study indicates that only heterophilic and basophilic granulocytes contain this defensin while other cell types from the epidermis, mesenchyme, and dermis, muscles, nerves, cartilage or bone are immunonegative. The study further indicates that not all granules in reptilian granulocytes contain the beta-defensin peptide, suggesting the presence of granules with different content as previously indicated for mammalian neutrophilic leucocytes. No immunolabeling was instead observed in granulocytes of the alligator and chick using this antibody. The present immunocytochemical observations suggest a broad cross-reactivity and conservation of beta-defensin-like sequence or steric motif across lepidosaurians and likely in turtles while archosaurian granulocytes may contain different beta-defensin-like or other peptides. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Granulocytic nuclear differentiation of lamin B receptor-deficient mouse EPRO cells.

    PubMed

    Zwerger, Monika; Herrmann, Harald; Gaines, Peter; Olins, Ada L; Olins, Donald E

    2008-08-01

    Lamin B receptor (LBR) is an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane. Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic deficiency of LBR during granulopoiesis results in hypolobulation of the mature neutrophil nucleus, as observed in human Pelger-Huët anomaly and mouse ichthyosis (ic). In this study, we utilized differentiated early promyelocytes (EPRO cells) that were derived from the bone marrow of homozygous and heterozygous ichthyosis mice to examine changes to the expression of nuclear envelope proteins and heterochromatin structure that result from deficient LBR expression. Wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/ic), and homozygous (ic/ic) granulocytic forms of EPRO cells were analyzed for the expression of multiple lamins and inner nuclear envelope proteins by immunostaining and immunoblotting techniques. The heterochromatin architecture was also examined by immunostaining for histone lysine methylation. Wild-type (+/+) and heterozygous (+/ic) granulocytic forms revealed ring-shaped nuclei and contained LBR within the nuclear envelope; ic/ic granulocytes exhibited smaller ovoid nuclei devoid of LBR. The pericentric heterochromatin of undifferentiated and granulocytic ic/ic cells was condensed into larger spots and shifted away from the nuclear envelope, compared to +/+ and +/ic cell forms. Lamin A/C, which is normally not present in mature granulocytes, was significantly elevated in LBR-deficient EPRO cells. Our observations suggest roles for LBR during granulopoiesis, which can involve augmenting nuclear membrane growth, facilitating compartmentalization of heterochromatin, and promoting downregulation of lamin A/C expression.

  11. Low-Density Granulocytes Are Elevated in Mycobacterial Infection and Associated with the Severity of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qing; Huang, Zhikun; Peng, Yiping; Xiong, Guoliang; Guo, Yang; Jiang, Hong; Li, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health problem caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Numerous studies have established a close correlation between the development of tuberculosis and the roles of neutrophils. Recently, a distinct population of CD15+ granulocytes was found to be present in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) fraction in humans. This population of granulocytes, termed low-density granulocytes (LDGs), was reported to be elevated and associated with disease activity or severity in a number of different conditions including SLE, asthma and HIV infection. However, both the frequency and clinical significance of LDGs associated with tuberculosis are unclear. Here we determined LDG levels and made comparisons between subjects with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and healthy controls, between PTB patients with mild-to-moderate disease and patients with advanced disease, and among PTB patients following anti-tuberculous therapy of varying durations. The direct correlation between M. tuberculosis infection and LDG levels was confirmed by in vitro infection of whole peripheral blood and isolated granulocytes with mycobacteria. Our results demonstrated that PBMCs in PTB patients contained significantly elevated percentages of LDGs compared with control subjects. LDGs in tuberculosis expressed higher levels of activation markers compared to normal-density granulocytes (NDGs). M. tuberculosis induced the generation of LDGs in both whole blood and isolated NDGs from control subjects, which suggests that LDGs associated with M. tuberculosis infection are likely to originate from in situ activation. Furthermore, our results revealed that the frequency of LDGs is associated with the severity of tuberculosis. PMID:27073889

  12. Gastrointestinal bleeding diagnosed by red blood cell scintigraphy in a patient with aortic stenosis: a case of Heyde syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Patrícia L; Felix, Renata C M; Azevedo, Jader C; Silva, Paulo R D; Oliveira, Amarino C; Cortes, Denise; Dohmann, Hans F R; Mesquita, Cláudio T

    2005-04-01

    The authors report a case of small bowel bleeding diagnosed by Tc-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy during the postoperative period after aortic valve replacement. There is a relationship between aortic valve stenosis and gastrointestinal bleeding in elderly patients, called Heyde syndrome. The described patient had chronic anemia that worsened after surgery. RBC scintigraphy localized the source of bleeding from jejunal angiodysplasia confirmed by mesenteric angiography. This case illustrates the diagnostic information provided by RBC scintigraphy in this syndrome.

  13. Morphometric and Densitometric Analysis of Heterochromatin during Cell Differentiation Using the Leukaemic Granulocytic Lineage as a Convenient Model.

    PubMed

    Smetana, K; Mikulenková, D; Klamová, H

    2017-01-01

    Granulocytic early progenitors and terminally differentiated - mature granulocytes with segmented nuclei were studied using computer-assisted diameter and heterochromatin optical image densitometry to provide more information on the nuclear size and heterochromatin condensation state. Bone marrow smears of patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukaemia untreated as well as treated with "specific" anti-leukaemic therapy with imatinib mesylate are a convenient model for such study because they possess a satisfactory number of cells for diameter and optical density measurements. In addition, the identification of developmental stages of granulocytes is very easy and the morphology is not different from that in not-leukaemic persons. As it was expected, the mean diameter of nuclear segments in fully differentiated and mature granulocytes was much smaller than that in non-segmented nuclei of early granulocytic precursors. Therefore, no wonder that the heterochromatin condensation state in nuclear segments of mature granulocytes was much larger than in non-segmented nuclei of granulocytic progenitors. On the other hand, the sum of mean diameters of all nuclear segments per cell was close to the mean nuclear diameter of early granulocytic progenitors. The heterochromatin condensation state in granulocytic progenitors or fully differentiated mature granulocytes exhibited marked stability and did not change after the anti-leukaemic therapy. In addition, Barr bodies of characteristic drumstick appearance bearing inactive X chromosome in interphase nuclei of mature granulocytes in fertile female patients exhibited a heterochromatin condensation state similar to nuclear segments. This heterochromatin condensation state was also stable and constant, and was not apparently influenced by the anti-leukaemic therapy.

  14. Quantitative bone and 67Ga scintigraphy in the differentiation of necrotizing external otitis from severe external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.; Gips, S.; Front, A.; Meyer, S.W.; Hardoff, R. )

    1991-06-01

    Qualitative technetium Tc 99m bone scintigraphy using phosphate compounds and gallium 67 scintigraphy were described as a helpful means in diagnosing necrotizing external otitis (NEO). They were, however, claimed to be nonspecific. Quantitative Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and gallium 67 scintigraphy were performed in eight patients with NEO and in 20 patients with severe external otitis, in order to prove usefulness of scintigraphy in the diagnosis of NEO. Ratios of lesion to nonlesion for bone scintigraphy were 1.67 {plus minus} 0.16 in patients with NEO and 1.08 {plus minus} 0.09 in patients with severe external otitis, and for gallium 67 scintigraphy they were 1.35 {plus minus} 0.24 in NEO patients and 1.05 {plus minus} 0.03 in patients with severe external otitis. There was no difference in uptake between diabetic patients with severe external otitis and nondiabetic patients. The scintigraphic studies were also evaluated using a qualitative scoring method (scores 0 to +4), according to the intensity of the radiopharmaceutical uptake. This method was found to be inferior in the diagnosis of NEO compared with the quantitative method. We conclude that lesion-to-nonlesion ratios greater than 1.5 and 1.3 on bone and gallium 67 scintigraphy, respectively, are indicative of NEO. Quantitative bone scintigraphy, which is quicker to perform, may be used as a single imaging modality for the diagnosis of NEO.

  15. Evidence of the Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis Agent in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pusterla, Nicola; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Huder, Jon B.; Weber, Rainer; Braun, Ueli; Lutz, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A total of 1,667 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from five regions in Switzerland where there have been sporadic occurrences of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and horses. The ticks were examined for rickettsiae of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila group via nested PCR. Twenty-one ticks (1.3%) were positive; 3 (0.5%) were nymphs, 6 (1.3%) were adult males, and 12 (1.9%) were adult females. The number of positive ticks varied with the stage of development and with the geographical origin. Nucleotide sequencing of the isolated PCR products identified these products as part of the 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia. In addition, these products had 100% homology with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The occurrence of this agent in I. ricinus in Switzerland presents a potential danger of transmission of granulocytic ehrlichiosis to dogs, horses, and humans. PMID:10203481

  16. Flow cytometry evidence of human granulocytes interaction with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes: effect of nanoparticle charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renò, Filippo; Carniato, Fabio; Rizzi, Manuela; Olivero, Francesco; Pittarella, Pamela; Marchese, Leonardo

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) entering the human body are immediately confronted with the innate part of human immune system. In particular, monocyte and neutrophil granulocytes readily clear particles by phagocytosis, even if in the case of NPs the uptake mechanism may be classified as macropinocytosis. Among engineered nanoparticles, in the last years, siliceous materials have emerged as promising materials for several applications ranging from catalysis to biomedical. The polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) are nanodimensional, easily synthesizable molecular compounds and POSS-based systems are promising carriers for biological molecules. In this work, the ability of human granulocytes to uptake positively and negatively charged POSS was measured using a simple flow cytometry analysis based on cell size modifications. The data obtained showed that after a 30 min exposure only positive NPs were uptaken by human granulocyte using both macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated mechanisms as demonstrated by uptake inhibition mediated by amiloride and chlorpromazine.

  17. A recessive defect in lymphocyte or granulocyte function caused by an integrated transgene.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, D.; Quill, H.; Burkly, L.; Scott, B.; Palmiter, R. D.; Brinster, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    A line of transgenic mice has been identified with a recessive defect in lymphocyte or granulocyte function, presumably as a result of insertional mutagenesis by the integrated transgene. Transgenic mice homozygous for the transgene integrant showed nearly complete absence of lymphocytes in peripheral lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, a severely diminished thymus medulla, and a greatly enlarged spleen. These animals also developed a syndrome characterized by granulocyte and mononuclear infiltrates in numerous tissues, including skin, liver, and lung, and immunoglobulin deposits in kidney glomeruli. Lung infiltrates were specifically localized around large blood vessels and bronchi, accompanied in some cases by destruction of arterial walls. The light scatter profile of spleen lymphocytes suggested an extremely high percentage of blast cells. Because tissue development and morphology appears to be normal in all other tissues observed, the genetic lesion appears to specifically affect the regulation of lymphocyte or granulocyte activation. Images Figure 2 p1241-a PMID:1443055

  18. PU.1 regulates both cytokine-dependent proliferation and differentiation of granulocyte/macrophage progenitors.

    PubMed Central

    DeKoter, R P; Walsh, J C; Singh, H

    1998-01-01

    PU.1 is a unique regulatory protein required for the generation of both the innate and the adaptive immune system. It functions exclusively in a cell-intrinsic manner to control the development of granulocytes, macrophages, and B and T lymphocytes. We demonstrate that mutation of the PU.1 gene causes a severe reduction in myeloid (granulocyte/macrophage) progenitors. PU.1 -/- myeloid progenitors can proliferate in vitro in response to the multilineage cytokines interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-6 and stem cell factor but are unresponsive to the myeloid-specific cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), G-CSF and M-CSF. The failure of PU.1 -/- progenitors to respond to G-CSF is bypassed by transient signaling with IL-3. In the presence of IL-3 and G-CSF, PU.1 -/- progenitors can differentiate into granulocytic precursors containing myeloperoxidase-positive granules. Thus PU.1 is not essential for specification of granulocytic precursors, but is required for their further differentiation. The failure of PU.1 -/- progenitors to respond to M-CSF is due to lack of c-fms gene transcription. Transduction of c-fms into PU.1 -/- myeloid progenitors bypasses the block to M-CSF-dependent proliferation but does not induce detectable macrophage differentiation. Therefore, PU. 1 appears to be essential for specification of monocytic precursors. Importantly, retroviral transduction of PU.1 into mutant progenitors restores responsiveness to myeloid-specific cytokines and development of mature granulocytes and macrophages. Thus PU.1 controls myelopoiesis by regulating both proliferation and differentiation pathways. PMID:9687512

  19. Interaction of drug- and granulocyte-mediated killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a murine pneumonia model.

    PubMed

    Drusano, George Louis; Liu, Weiguo; Fikes, Steven; Cirz, Ryan; Robbins, Nichole; Kurhanewicz, Stephanie; Rodriquez, Jaime; Brown, David; Baluya, Dodge; Louie, Arnold

    2014-10-15

    Killing of bacterial pathogens by granulocytes is a saturable process, as previously demonstrated. There is virtually no quantitative information about how granulocytes interact with antimicrobial chemotherapy to kill bacterial cells. We performed a dose-ranging study with the aminoglycoside plazomicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 in a granulocyte-replete murine pneumonia model. Plazomicin was administered in a humanized fashion (ie, administration of decrementing doses 5 times over 24 hours, mimicking a human daily administration profile). Pharmacokinetic profiling was performed in plasma and epithelial lining fluid. All samples were simultaneously analyzed with a population model. Mouse cohorts were treated for 24 hours; other cohorts treated with the same therapy were observed for another 24 hours after therapy cessation, allowing delineation of the therapeutic effect necessary to reduce the bacterial burden to a level below the half-saturation point. The mean bacterial burden (±SD) at which granulocyte-mediated kill was half saturable was 2.45 × 10(6) ± 6.84 × 10(5) colony-forming units of bacteria per gram of tissue (CFU/g). Higher levels of plazomicin exposure reduced the bacterial burden to <5 log10 CFU/g, allowing granulocytes to kill an additional 1.0-1.5 log CFU/g over the subsequent 24 hours. For patients with large bacterial burdens (eg, individuals with ventilator-requiring hospital-acquired pneumonia), it is imperative to kill ≥2 log10 CFU/g early after treatment initiation, to allow the granulocytes to contribute optimally to bacterial clearance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sex differences in creatine kinase after acute heavy resistance exercise on circulating granulocyte estradiol receptors.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Megan R; Fragala, Maren S; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Luk, Hui-Ying; Maresh, Carl M; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kraemer, William J

    2012-09-01

    Previous research has shown reduced tissue disruption and inflammatory responses in women as compared to men following acute strenuous exercise. While the mechanism of this action is not known, estrogen may reduce the inflammatory response through its interaction with granulocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine if estrogen receptor β expression on granulocytes is related to sex differences in tissue disruption in response to an acute heavy resistance exercise protocol. Seven healthy, resistance-trained, eumenorrheic women (23 ± 3 years, 169 ± 9.1 cm, 66.4 ± 10.5 kg) and 8 healthy, resistance-trained men (25 ± 5 years, 178 ± 6.7 cm, 82.3 ± 9.33 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects performed an acute resistance exercise test consisting of six sets of five squats at 90% of the subject's one repetition maximum. Blood samples were obtained pre-, mid-, post-, and 1-, 6-, and 24-h postexercise. Blood samples were analyzed for 17-β-estradiol by ELISA, creatine kinase by colorimetric enzyme immunoassay, and estradiol receptors on circulating granulocytes through flow cytometry. Men had higher CK concentrations than women at baseline/control. Men had significantly higher CK concentrations at 24-h postexercise than women. No significant changes in estradiol β receptors were expressed on granulocytes after exercise or between sexes. While sex differences occur in CK activity in response to strenuous eccentric exercise, they may not be related to estradiol receptor β expression on granulocytes. Thus, although there are sex differences in CK expression following acute resistance exercise, the differences may not be attributable to estrogen receptor β expression on granulocytes.

  1. Angiogenic factors are increased in circulating granulocytes and CD34(+) cells of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Subotički, Tijana; Mitrović Ajtić, Olivera; Beleslin-Čokić, Bojana B; Nienhold, Ronny; Diklić, Miloš; Djikić, Dragoslava; Leković, Danijela; Bulat, Tanja; Marković, Dragana; Gotić, Mirjana; Noguchi, Constance T; Schechter, Alan N; Skoda, Radek C; Čokić, Vladan P

    2017-02-01

    It has been shown that angiogenesis and inflammation play an important role in development of most hematological malignancies including the myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). The aim of this study was to investigate and correlate the levels of key angiogenic molecules such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of MPN patients, along with JAK2V617F mutation allele burden and effects of therapy. HIF-1α and VEGF gene expression were decreased, while eNOS mRNA levels were increased in granulocytes of MPN patients. Furthermore, positively correlated and increased VEGF and eNOS protein levels were in negative correlation with HIF-1α levels in granulocytes of MPN patients. According to immunoblotting, the generally augmented angiogenic factors demonstrated JAK2V617F allele burden dependence only in granulocytes of PMF. The angiogenic factors were largely reduced after hydroxyurea therapy in granulocytes of MPN patients. Levels of eNOS protein expression were stimulated by Calreticulin mutations in granulocytes of essential thrombocythemia. Immunocytochemical analyses of CD34(+) cells showed a more pronounced enhancement of angiogenic factors than in granulocytes. Increased gene expression linked to the proinflammatory TGFβ and MAPK signaling pathways were detected in CD34(+) cells of MPN patients. In conclusion, the angiogenesis is increased in several cell types of MPN patients supported by the transcriptional activation of inflammation-related target genes, and is not limited to bone marrow stroma cells. It also appears that some of the benefit of hydroxyurea therapy of the MPN is mediated by effects on angiogenic factors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol.

  3. Kinetics of phosphofructokinase from granulocytes isolated from patients with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Campos, G; Ryder, E; Morales, L M; Raleigh, X

    1992-06-15

    Phosphofructokinases from granulocytes isolated from insulin-resistant patients, mainly those from type II diabetics where the degree of insulin resistance was more pronounced, exhibit some changes in their kinetic behavior when assayed under allosteric conditions, characterized by an increased affinity for fructose-6-phosphate, being more resistant to ATP inhibition while it became more sensitive to citrate inhibitory effect. Those changes are suggestive of a isozymic modification to a more L-type enriched enzyme with a loss of the F-type component, probably present in the normal granulocyte.

  4. [Testicular granulocytic sarcoma as a form of relapse in a patient with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Sastre, J L; Ulibarrena, C; Armesto, A; del Río, D; Bello, J A; Rodríguez, M; García Torremocha, S; Vázquez, O

    1998-06-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is a rare extramedullary tumor composed of myeloblasts and other granulocytic precursors. GS is mostly associated with myeloproliferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukaemia. These tumors arise in the absence of leukaemia, at its initial diagnosis or at the time of recurrence. The most common sites of involvement are bone, skin, soft tissue and lymph node. Reports of GS in testis are very rare. We report an unusual case of GS in a patient with megakaryoblastic leukaemia arising in the left testis after four months in complete remission attained with low doses of Ara-C and granulomonocytic stimulating factor.

  5. The Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor has a dual role in neuronal and vascular plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Stephanie; Peters, Sebastian; Pitzer, Claudia; Resch, Herbert; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Schneider, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a growth factor that has originally been identified several decades ago as a hematopoietic factor required mainly for the generation of neutrophilic granulocytes, and is in clinical use for that. More recently, it has been discovered that G-CSF also plays a role in the brain as a growth factor for neurons and neural stem cells, and as a factor involved in the plasticity of the vasculature. We review and discuss these dual properties in view of the neuroregenerative potential of this growth factor. PMID:26301221

  6. Granulocytic sarcoma presenting as presenting as monoparesis: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashok; Chanduka, Amit; Sundar, I. Vijay; Verma, Jitender; Chopra, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Granulocytic sarcomas (GSs) or myeloid sarcoma or chloroma are rare, destructive, extramedullary tumor masses that consist of immature granulocytic cells. We present case of a 35-year-old man presenting as monoparesis, diagnosed to have cervical intradural extramedullary mass lesion with an extradural extension. Although the history or physical examination had no symptoms and signs suggestive of leukemia, bone marrow study and blood picture indicated chronic myeloid leukemia. Surgical decompression was done, and histopathological examination was consistent with GS. GSs have been observed in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and other myeloproliferative disorders, but rarely have been reported as first presentation of the disease. PMID:25685232

  7. Production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by carcinomas in a dog and a cat with paraneoplastic leukocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, L C; Rosol, T J; Gröne, A; Ward, H; Steinmeyer, C

    1996-01-01

    A dog with a pulmonary papillary carcinoma and a cat with a dermal tubular adenocarcinoma had profound paraneoplastic neutrophilic leukocytosis with no clinically detectable inflammatory foci. To investigate the mechanism of the leukocytosis, oligonucleotide primers were designed from the cDNA sequences of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) of dogs. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed on tumor tissues, and specific amplification of G-CSF and GM-CSF was obtained with the tumor RNA in the dog. The tumor RNA in the cat demonstrated specific amplification of G-CSF but not GM-CSF. These findings are consistent with the production of G-CSF and/or GM-CSF by neoplasms as a mechanism for paraneoplastic leukocytosis in small animals.

  8. Detection of pulmonary embolism during pregnancy: comparing radiation doses of CTPA and pulmonary scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Astani, Seyed A; Davis, Leah C; Harkness, Beth A; Supanich, Mark P; Dalal, Ishani

    2014-07-01

    In pregnant patients pulmonary embolism is a common occurrence with potentially devastating outcomes, necessitating timely imaging diagnosis. In every patient, especially in pregnant patients, radiation exposure is an important consideration while selecting the best imaging modality. We performed a retrospective analysis comparing radiation doses of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), perfusion scintigraphy, and perfusion/ventilation scintigraphy for suspected pulmonary embolism in 53 pregnant patients at our hospital between 2006 and 2012. Effective dose and breast-absorbed and uterus-absorbed doses for CTPA as well as effective dose and breast and fetus-absorbed doses for pulmonary scintigraphy were estimated using International Commission on Radiological Protection 103 weighting factors. For CTPA and perfusion scintigraphy, average doses were estimated as effective doses of 21 and 1.04 mSv, breast-absorbed doses of 44 and 0.28 mGy, and uterus-absorbed dose of 0.46 mGy and fetal-absorbed dose of 0.25 mGy, respectively. With inclusion of the ventilation component of pulmonary scintigraphy, doses increased to an effective dose of 1.29 mSv, a breast-absorbed dose of 0.37 mGy, and a fetal-absorbed dose of 0.40 mGy. Perfusion nuclear medicine study has a statistically significantly lower effective and breast-absorbed dose (P<0.0001) when compared with CTPA. Similarly, the fetal-absorbed dose for pulmonary scintigraphy has a statistically lower dose (P=0.0010) when compared with CTPA, even if the ventilation component of pulmonary scintigraphy is performed, although these values are so small that they are unlikely to be clinically significant.

  9. The value of scintigraphy in the evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Argon, Murat; Secil, Yaprak; Duygun, Ulkem; Aydogdu, Ibrahim; Kocacelebi, Kenan; Ozkilic, Hayal; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2004-01-01

    Healthy adults can swallow boluses of 20 ml water in a single swallow. Individuals with impaired swallowing, however, may be unable to do so, instead requiring two or more swallows; this phenomenon is called "piecemeal deglutition". The term "dysphagia limit" refers to the volume at which piecemeal deglutition occurs. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential value of scintigraphic evaluation of piecemeal deglutition and dysphagia limit in patients with dysphagia, based on correlation with the results of submental electromyography (SM-EMG) and laryngeal sensor monitoring (LS). The study population comprised 24 patients with dysphagia secondary to neurological disorders and ten normal adults, who formed a control group. In the scintigraphic evaluation, subjects underwent four separate dynamic studies using 5, 10, 15 and 20 ml of water containing 0.5 mCi technetium-99m labelled sulphur colloid, and time-activity curves (TACs) were created for each study. Static thoracic images were also recorded in order to detect airway aspiration Observation of two or more peaks on TACs within the 10-s acquisition period was considered a sign of piecemeal deglutition. If piecemeal deglutition occurred at or below 20 ml, this volume was regarded as the dysphagia limit. Piecemeal deglutition was not found in any normal subjects; by contrast, it was observed in 14 of the 24 (58%) patients on scintigraphy and in 17 (71%) patients on EMG and LS. In three patients, signs of the airway aspiration were observed on static thoracic images. Scintigraphic and electrophysiological findings were in agreement in 19 patients (79%), and the correlation between scintigraphy and the electrophysiological methods for the evaluation of dysphagia was statistically significant (r=0.57, P=0.003). The novel finding of this study is the demonstration of piecemeal deglutition and dysphagia limit on scintigraphic studies in patients with neurogenic dysphagia. Based on this finding we consider that

  10. Efficacy of transfusion with granulocytes from G-CSF/dexamethasone–treated donors in neutropenic patients with infection

    PubMed Central

    Boeckh, Michael; Harrison, Ryan W.; McCullough, Jeffrey; Ness, Paul M.; Strauss, Ronald G.; Nichols, W. Garrett; Hamza, Taye H.; Cushing, Melissa M.; King, Karen E.; Young, Jo-Anne H.; Williams, Eliot; McFarland, Janice; Holter Chakrabarty, Jennifer; Sloan, Steven R.; Friedman, David; Parekh, Samir; Sachais, Bruce S.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Assmann, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    High-dose granulocyte transfusion therapy has been available for 20 years, yet its clinical efficacy has never been conclusively demonstrated. We report here the results of RING (Resolving Infection in Neutropenia with Granulocytes), a multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to address this question. Eligible subjects were those with neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <500/μL) and proven/probable/presumed infection. Subjects were randomized to receive either (1) standard antimicrobial therapy or (2) standard antimicrobial therapy plus daily granulocyte transfusions from donors stimulated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone. The primary end point was a composite of survival plus microbial response, at 42 days after randomization. Microbial response was determined by a blinded adjudication panel. Fifty-six subjects were randomized to the granulocyte arm and 58 to the control arm. Transfused subjects received a median of 5 transfusions. Mean transfusion dose was 54.9 × 109 granulocytes. Overall success rates were 42% and 43% for the granulocyte and control groups, respectively (P > .99), and 49% and 41%, respectively, for subjects who received their assigned treatments (P = .64). Success rates for granulocyte and control arms did not differ within any infection type. In a post hoc analysis, subjects who received an average dose per transfusion of ≥0.6 × 109 granulocytes per kilogram tended to have better outcomes than those receiving a lower dose. In conclusion, there was no overall effect of granulocyte transfusion on the primary outcome, but because enrollment was half that planned, power to detect a true beneficial effect was low. RING was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00627393. PMID:26333778

  11. H2O2 Release from Human Granulocytes during Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Root, Richard K.; Metcalf, Julia A.

    1977-01-01

    Normal and cytochalasin B-treated human granulocytes have been studied to determine some of the interrelationships between phagocytosis-induced respiration and superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation and release into the extracellular medium by intact cells. By using the scopoletin fluorescent assay to continuously monitor extracellular hydrogen peroxide concentrations during contact of cells with opsonized staphylococci, it was demonstrated that the superoxide scavengers ferricytochrome c and nitroblue tetrazolium significantly reduced the amount of H2O2 released with time from normal cells but did not abolish it. This inhibitory effect was reversed by the simultaneous addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD), whereas the addition of SOD alone increased the amount of detectable H2O2 in the medium. The addition of sodium azide markedly inhibited myeloperoxidase-H2O2-dependent protein iodination and more than doubled H2O2 release, including the residual amount remaining after exposure of the cells to ferricytochrome c, suggesting its origin from an intracellular pool shared by several pathways for H2O2 catabolism. When cells were pretreated with cytochalasin B and opsonized bacteria added, reduced oxygen consumption was observed, but this was in parallel to a reduction in specific binding of organisms to the cells when compared to normal. Under the influence of inhibited phagosome formation by cytochalasin B, the cells released an increased amount of superoxide and peroxide into the extracellular medium relative to oxygen consumption, and all detectable peroxide release could be inhibited by the addition of ferricytochrome c. Decreased H2O2 production in the presence of this compound could not be ascribed to diminished bacterial binding, decreased oxidase activity, or increased H2O2 catabolism and was reversed by the simultaneous addition of SOD. Furthermore, SOD and ferricytochrome c had similar effects on another H2O2-dependent reaction, protein iodination, in

  12. Pulmonary embolism during pregnancy: diagnosis with lung scintigraphy or CT angiography?

    PubMed

    Revel, Marie-Pierre; Cohen, Stéphanie; Sanchez, Olivier; Collignon, Marie-Anne; Thiam, Rokhaya; Redheuil, Alban; Meyer, Guy; Frija, Guy

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the rate of positive, negative, and indeterminate results and the agreement between initial and expert readings for lung scintigraphy and computed tomographic (CT) angiography performed in patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism (PE) during pregnancy. Institutional review board approval was obtained. The authors retrospectively analyzed the images from lung scintigraphy and CT angiography performed in pregnant patients during the past 9 years. Images from 46 CT angiographic examinations performed in 43 patients and 91 of 94 lung scintigraphic examinations were reviewed by experts, whose readings were then compared with the initial reports. For CT angiography, the quality of opacification was graded as good, suboptimal, or poor and intraarterial attenuation was measured. The rates of positive findings (seven of 43 patients [16%] with CT angiography and 10 of 91 patients [11%] with scintigraphy, P = .36), negative findings (28 of 43 patients [65%] with CT angiography and 64 of 91 patients [70%] with scintigraphy, P = .54), and indeterminate findings (eight of 43 patients [19%] with CT angiography and 17 of 91 patients [19%] with scintigraphy, P = .99) were similar for CT angiography and lung scintigraphy. There were four discrepancies between initial and expert readings for CT angiography (κ = 0.84; confidence interval: 0.68, 0.99) and 14 for lung scintigraphy (κ = 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.87). Opacification was classified as good for only 23 of the 46 CT angiographic examinations (50%). Attenuation values were significantly different among the groups with good, suboptimal, or poor opacification. Alternative diagnoses unsuspected at chest radiography were demonstrated at CT angiography in five of the 43 patients (12%). The mean maternal radiation dose was 0.9 mSv for lung scintigraphy and 7.3 mSv for CT angiography. Lung scintigraphy and CT angiography have comparable performances for PE diagnosis during pregnancy. Interobserver

  13. Clinical applications of oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy in the study of dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Fattori, B; Grosso, M; Ursino, F; Matteucci, F; Mancini, V; Rizza, E; Mattone, V; Mariani, G; Nacci, A

    2007-01-01

    Summary The diagnostic approach to patients with dysphagia is well established and relies mainly on videofluoroscopy and endoscopy. Oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy permits both a functional and a semi-quantitative study of the various stages of swallowing. Moreover, by means of this investigation, it is possible to estimate the amount of inhaled bolus. Oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy with 99mTc-nanocolloid has been found to be easy to use, economical, well tolerated and, supplying precise indications regarding the extent of the swallowing disorder, then permits a better clinical definition of the patient. The limitations of swallowing scintigraphy are: poor definition in visualizing anatomic structures and low specificity when used as the only diagnostic test. Scintigraphy plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of dysphagia, and its use, together with other diagnostic techniques, increases diagnostic accuracy. In this study, the role of oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy has been analysed in patients with post-surgical, neurological and oesophageal dysphagia. PMID:17957850

  14. Use of thallium-201 redistribution scintigraphy in the preoperative differentiation of reversible and nonreversible myocardial asynergy.

    PubMed

    Rozanski, A; Berman, D S; Gray, R; Levy, R; Raymond, M; Maddahi, J; Pantaleo, N; Waxman, A D; Swan, H J; Matloff, J

    1981-11-01

    Thallium-201 (201Tl) redistribution scintigraphy might differentiate reversibly from nonreversibly asynergic myocardial segments and thus predict the response of these segments to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). To test this hypothesis, 25 consecutive patients undergoing CABG, preoperative stress-redistribution 201Tl scintigraphy, and both pre- and postoperative resting equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography were evaluated. For both types of scintigraphic study, each patient was imaged in the same three views. Because of the effects of CABG on septal motion, this region was considered separately. Postoperative improvement was noted in 54% of 72 preoperative asynergic segments. Improvement was common not only in hypokinetic but also in akinetic and dyskinetic segments, and occurred in a similar proportion of studies performed early (less than 2 weeks) or late (3-6 months) after CABG. Thallium-201 redistribution scintigraphy was highly predictive of the pattern of postoperative asynergy: The redistribution pattern was normal in 90% of segments with reversible asynergy and abnormal in 76% of segments with nonreversible asynergy. The presence or absence of pathologic Q waves was less sensitive in this differentiation. Septal segments, however, frequently demonstrated abnormal wall motion postoperatively, despite normal 201Tl redistribution scintigraphy. Resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was generally unchanged postoperatively, but in some patients with multiple areas of reversible asynergy it did improve. Thus, 201Tl redistribution scintigraphy appears to reliably distinguish viable from nonviable asynergic myocardial zones, and predicts the response of these segments to CABG.

  15. Thallium 201 Exercise Scintigraphy for Detection of Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease After Transmural Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadpour, Hedayatolah; Siegel, Michael E.; Colletti, Patrick; Haywood, L. Julian

    1984-01-01

    Fifty patients with prior transmural myocardial infarction were studied with cardiac catheterization, coronary angiography, and thallium 201 exercise perfusion scintigraphy. Obstructive coronary disease involved two or three vessels in 37 patients. The sensitivity of a positive electrocardiographic test during exercise for detecting multivessel coronary disease was only 40 percent (15/37), and the sensitivity of a reversible defect on 201Tl perfusion scintigraphy was 48 percent (18/37). The combination of exercise testing and 201Tl scintigraphy detected multivessel coronary disease in 75 percent (28/37) (P < .05). New perfusion defects occurred in 61 percent (13/21) of patients with inferior myocardial infarction and multivessel coronary disease whereas it occurred in only 35 percent (5/14) of patients with prior anterior infarction and multivessel coronary disease (P < .05). 201Tl exercise perfusion scintigraphy appears to be more sensitive for detecting significant multivessel coronary disease in the presence of previous inferior infarction compared with previous anterior infarction. Combined graded exercise testing and 201Tl perfusion scintigraphy can reliably detect the presence of significant multivessel coronary disease after transmural myocardial infarction. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:6512876

  16. Prognostic significance of normal quantitative planar thallium-201 stress scintigraphy in patients with chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J.; Russo, D.J.; Russo, D.; Clements, J.P.

    1985-07-01

    The prognostic significance of normal quantitative planar thallium-201 stress scintigraphy was evaluated in patients with a chest pain syndrome. The prevalence of cardiac events during follow-up was related to the pretest (that is, before stress scintigraphy) likelihood of coronary artery disease determined on the basis of symptoms, age, sex and stress electrocardiography. In a consecutive series of 344 patients who had adequate thallium-201 stress scintigrams, 95 had unequivocally normal studies by quantitative analysis. The pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease in the 95 patients had a bimodal distribution. During a mean follow-up period of 22 +/- 3 months, no patient died. Three patients (3%) had a cardiac event: two of these patients (pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease 54 and 94%) had a nonfatal myocardial infarction 8 and 22 months, respectively, after stress scintigraphy, and one patient (pretest likelihood 98%) underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty 16 months after stress scintigraphy for persisting anginal complaints. Three patients were lost to follow-up; all three had a low pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease. It is concluded that patients with chest pain and normal findings on quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy have an excellent prognosis. Cardiac events are rare (infarction rate 1% per year) and occur in patients with a moderate to high pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease.

  17. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected with 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy during Evaluation of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Majstorov, Venjamin; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Kuzmanovska, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR. PMID:27275347

  18. Comparison of dipyridamole-echocardiography with dipyridamole-thallium scintigraphy for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Perin, E.C.; Moore, W.; Blume, M.; Hernandez, G.; Dhekne, R.; DeCastro, C.M. )

    1991-06-01

    After an intravenous infusion of dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg), the authors performed both echocardiography and thallium scintigraphy in 63 patients who were referred for known or suspected coronary artery disease. Of those patients, 25 returned for coronary arteriography within 1 month after the tests, thus forming the study group for this report. Sensitivity for detection of coronary artery disease, when analyzed region-by-region, was 80% for thallium scintigraphy and 57% for echocardiography, whereas specificity was 85% and 98%, respectively. When evaluating individual patients for the presence or absence of ischemia, they found a sensitivity of 95% for scintigraphy and 58% for echocardiography; corresponding specificities were 50% and 100%. By using arteriography as the gold standard for comparison, it appears that thallium scintigraphy has a significantly higher sensitivity but lower specificity for the detection of coronary artery disease than does echocardiography. Echocardiography may, however, be a useful adjunct to thallium scintigraphy in the evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease.

  19. Clinical utility of bone scintigraphy in patients with limb pain of suspected musculoskeletal origin

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinical utility of bone scintigraphy in patients with limb pain of suspected musculoskeletal origin. Material and Methods All patients aged ≥18 years who were referred for diagnosis and management of limb pain were diagnosed on the basis of history, physical examination, and investigations excluding bone scintigraphy. After the presumptive diagnosis was made (the pre-test diagnosis), all subjects underwent bone scintigraphy, or if they had a previous bone scintigram for their pain condition, the results of that scintigram were reviewed. Then, the pre-test diagnosis was reviewed in light of the bone scintigraphy findings and repeat clinical assessment as needed. The post-test diagnosis was considered either as unchanged diagnosis or changed diagnosis for the region or regions of interest. Results There were 118 females (54.8%) and 97 males (45.2%). The mean age of the entire group was 36±8.1 years (range: 18–87 years). The mean duration of the symptoms was 17.4±11.2 months (range: 1–264 months). Of the 215 subjects, 212 had a bone scintigram. Of these 212 subjects, none had a changed diagnosis. Conclusion In the evaluation of limb pain of suspected musculoskeletal origin, scintigraphy is unlikely to alter the pre-test diagnosis or affect treatment decisions after history, physical examination, and non-scintigraphic investigations. The clinical utility of scinitigraphy in this setting is low. PMID:27708914

  20. Applicability of the Appropriate use Criteria for Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Anderson; Rezende, Maria Fernanda; Corrêa, Renato; Mousinho, Rodrigo; Azevedo, Jader Cunha; Miranda, Sandra Marina; Oliveira, Aline Ribeiro; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Mesquita, Cláudio Tinoco

    2014-01-01

    Background Appropriateness Criteria for nuclear imaging exams were created by American College of Cardiology (ACC) e American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) to allow the rational use of tests. Little is known whether these criteria have been followed in clinical practice. Objective To evaluate whether the medical applications of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in a private nuclear medicine service of a tertiary cardiology hospital were suitable to the criteria of indications proposed by the American medical societies in 2005 and 2009 and compare the level of indication of both. Methods We included records of 383 patients that underwent MPS, November 2008 up to February 2009. Demographic characteristics, patient's origin, coronary risk factors, time of medical graduation and appropriateness criteria of medical applications were studied. The criteria were evaluated by two independent physicians and, in doubtful cases, defined by a medical expert in MPS. Results Mean age was 65 ± 12 years. Of the 367 records reviewed, 236 (64.3%) studies were performed in men and 75 (20.4%) were internee. To ACC 2005, 255 (69.5%) were considered appropriate indication and 13 (3.5%) inappropriate. With ACC 2009, 249 (67.8%) were considered appropriate indications and 13 (5.2%) inappropriate. Conclusions We observed a high rate of adequacy of medical indications for MPS. Compared to the 2005 version, 2009 did not change the results. PMID:25252163

  1. Bone marrow scintigraphy and computed tomography in myloproliferative disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.J.; Gilbert, H.S.; Hermann, G.

    1985-05-01

    Peripheral bone marrow (BM) expansion in myeloproliferative disease (MPD) is demonstrated by scintigraphy (scint) with Technetium 99m sulfur colloid (TSC) or Indium III chloride (In). Computed tomography (CT) of the normal adult medullary cavity yields negative attenuation coefficients (AC) which become positive when BM fat is replaced. BM scint and CT of the medullary cavity are obtained in 23 studies in 21 pts: 6 polycythemia vera (PCV), 6 post PCV myeloid metaplasis (MyM), 4 agnogenic MyM, 3 myelodysplasia with refractory anemia, 1 acute myelocytic leukemia and 1 chronic myelocytic with acute leukemic transformation. AC were measured for BM cavity of lower extremities at each third of the femur and tibia. Values ranged from -89 to +289 Hounsfield units. The results are presented in this paper. There was agreement between SCINT and CT in 83% pts and segments. 80% of MB segments with + AC had scint identified BM. BM biopsy of the iliac crest demonstrated fibrosis or blast proliferation in pts with +AC rather than hypercellularity or osteosclerosis. The highest AC values (>200) were seen in pts with blast proliferation and fibrosis. Decreased BM scint visualization and +CT AC correlated with BM fibrosis and may reflect replacement of BM elements or decreased RES function. BM scint and CT are useful to monitor MPD and select BM sites for biopsy.

  2. Nurse exposure doses resulted from bone scintigraphy patient

    SciTech Connect

    Tunçman, Duygu Demir, Bayram; Kovan, Bilal; Poyraz, Leyla; Türkmen, Cüneyt; Çapali, Veli

    2016-03-25

    Bone scintigraphy is used for displaying the radiologic undiagnosed bone lesions in nuclear medicine. It’s general indications are researching bone metastases, detection of radiographically occult fractures, staging and follow-up in primary bone tumors, diagnosis of paget’s disease, investigation of loosening and infection in orthopedic implants. It is applied with using {sup 99m}Tc labeled radiopharmaceuticals (e.g {sup 99m} Tc MDP,{sup 99m}Tc HEDP and {sup 99m}Tc HMDP). 20 -25 mCi IV radiotracer was injected into vein and radiotracer emits gamma radiation. Patient waits in isolated room for about 3 hours then a gamma camera scans radiation area and creates an image. When some patient’s situation is not good, patients are hospitalized until the scanning because of patients’ close contact care need. In this study, measurements were taken from ten patients using Geiger Muller counter. After these measurements, we calculated nurse’s exposure radiations from patient’s routine treatment, examination and emergency station.

  3. Bone scintigraphy elucidates different metabolic stages of melorheostosis

    PubMed Central

    Izadyar, Sina; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Melorheostosis is a rare benign non-hereditary sclerosing dysplasia involving the bone, often in a sclerotomal distribution. we report the case of a 27 years old lady with painful swelling of the left hand and forearm lasting for almost 15 years. The patient experienced aggravation of symptoms and limitation of motion during the past two months. Radiographic assessment revealed hyperostosis involving the left 3rd and 4th metacarpal bones and corresponding digits as well as the left ulna and distal humerus, with no soft tissue ossification. Angiographic and blood pool images of bone scintigraphy showed increased activity of mid-metacarpal region, corresponding to the sclerotom C-8. Delayed static views showed increased radiotracer uptake of the left 4th metacarpal bone and the corresponding digit as well as the left ulna and humerus, but no abnormal osteoblastic activity of the 3rd left metacarpal and digit. Histopathologic assessment confirmed the diagnosis of Melorheostosis. The case confirms that even in the same sclerotomal distribution, the multiple foci of involvement can present in different metabolic stages. In fact, the disease does not progress uniformly and different lesions can be seen in dissimilar stages of activity. Hence, metabolic imaging can be important to unmask which of the radiographically detected bony lesions are metabolically active and have the potential to be the source of current patient's symptoms and which of them are old, metabolically inactive and silent lesions, which are not clinically relevant to the patient's complaints. PMID:22514755

  4. Bone scintigraphy elucidates different metabolic stages of melorheostosis.

    PubMed

    Izadyar, Sina; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Melorheostosis is a rare benign non-hereditary sclerosing dysplasia involving the bone, often in a sclerotomal distribution. we report the case of a 27 years old lady with painful swelling of the left hand and forearm lasting for almost 15 years. The patient experienced aggravation of symptoms and limitation of motion during the past two months. Radiographic assessment revealed hyperostosis involving the left 3(rd) and 4(th) metacarpal bones and corresponding digits as well as the left ulna and distal humerus, with no soft tissue ossification. Angiographic and blood pool images of bone scintigraphy showed increased activity of mid-metacarpal region, corresponding to the sclerotom C-8. Delayed static views showed increased radiotracer uptake of the left 4(th) metacarpal bone and the corresponding digit as well as the left ulna and humerus, but no abnormal osteoblastic activity of the 3(rd) left metacarpal and digit. Histopathologic assessment confirmed the diagnosis of Melorheostosis. The case confirms that even in the same sclerotomal distribution, the multiple foci of involvement can present in different metabolic stages. In fact, the disease does not progress uniformly and different lesions can be seen in dissimilar stages of activity. Hence, metabolic imaging can be important to unmask which of the radiographically detected bony lesions are metabolically active and have the potential to be the source of current patient's symptoms and which of them are old, metabolically inactive and silent lesions, which are not clinically relevant to the patient's complaints.

  5. The molecular heterogeneity of nonspecific cross-reacting antigen synthesized by tumor cells and granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, M; Kuroki, M; Moore, G E; Ichiki, S; Matsuoka, Y

    1988-01-01

    The molecular heterogeneity of nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA) was examined. Metabolically-labeled glycoproteins were precipitated from cell lysates of human tumor cell lines and of normal peripheral granulocytes with antibodies specific for NCA, and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. NCA components synthesized by three tumor cell lines, QGP-1 (pancreas), HLC-1 (lung) and CAOV-2 (ovary) showed slightly different migration patterns on SDS-PAGE, but the molecular weights of their unglycosylated peptides synthesized in the presence of tunicamycin were all found to be 35K. On the other hand, two molecular species of NCA were identified in normal granulocytes: an 80K mature form derived from a 69K precursor peptide and a 58K mature form from a 41K precursor peptide. Upon SDS-PAGE, the migration pattern of the unglycosylated NCA peptides from tumor cells was affected by the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, while that of the peptides of granulocytes was not. All the NCAs identified in this study possessed antigenic determinants common to carcinoembryonic antigen as well as those unique to NCA. These results suggest that the molecular heterogeneity of NCA observed thus far resulted from diverse glycosylation of the three fundamental molecular forms of unglycosylated peptides: one with a molecular weight of 35K produced by tumor cells and two with molecular weights of 69K and 41K produced by granulocytes.

  6. Activated V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells trigger granulocyte functions via MCP-2 release.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Chiara; Cimini, Eleonora; Sacchi, Alessandra; Bordoni, Veronica; Gioia, Cristiana; Casetti, Rita; Turchi, Federica; Tripodi, Marco; Martini, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells display a broad antimicrobial activity by directly killing infected cells and by inducing an effective adaptive immune response. The activation of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells by aminobisphosphonate drugs such as zoledronic acid (ZOL) results in a massive release of cytokines and chemokines that may induce a bystander activation of other immune cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of soluble factors released by ZOL-activated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells to induce granulocyte activation. We showed that soluble factors released by ZOL-stimulated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells activate granulocytes by inducing their chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and alpha-defensins release. Proteomic analysis allowed us to identify a number of cytokines and chemokines specifically released by activated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. Moreover, MCP-2 depletion by neutralizing Ab revealed a critical role of this chemokine in induction of granulocyte alpha-defensins release. Altogether, these data show a Vgamma9Vdelta2-mediated activation of granulocytes through a bystander mechanism, and confirm the wide ability of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-lymphocytes in orchestrating the immune response. In conclusion, an immune modulating strategy targeting Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells may represent a key switch to induce an effective and well-coordinated immune response, and can be proposed as a way to strengthen the immune competence during infectious diseases.

  7. Interleukin 1-induced depression of iron and zinc: role of granulocytes and lactoferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Goldblum, S.E.; Cohen, D.A.; Jay, M.; McClain, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism(s) of stress-induced hypoferremia and hypozincemia remains unclear. The authors studied the role of granulocytes and lactoferrin (LF) in endotoxin and murine interleukin 1 (IL-1)-induced depression of serum Fe and Zn concentrations in both rabbits and rats. Both endotoxin and IL-1 administration induced significant hypoferremia and hypozincemia after 6 h in both species. Granulocyte depletion before IL-1 infusion significantly diminished the hypoferremia but not the hypozincemia. Moreover, infusion of 5 or 15 mg of human LF into rabbits caused significant hypoferremia without hypozincemia. Significant hypozincemia could only be demonstrated after a 75-mg infusion. In contrast, infusions of human transferrin at equivalent doses (5, 15, and 75 mg) induced neither hypoferremia nor hypozincemia. Therefore endotoxin and IL-1-induced hypoferremia and, to a much lesser degree, hypozincemia are granulocyte dependent. Granulocyte released LF is a specific carrier molecule for transport and removal of Fe from the circulation during the acute phase response. The data suggest a mechanistic dissociation of IL-1-induced hypoferremia and hypozincemia with LF-independent mechanisms for Zn. In vitro binding of /sup 59/Fe and /sup 65/Zn to the human LF molecule was also studied.

  8. Chloroma/Granulocytic Sarcoma: Abdominal & Pelvic Presentation of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tsikitis, Vassiliki Liana; Corning, Cybil; Henderson, Jeff; Rose, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    There is limited literature documenting granulocytic sarcoma of the colon. We report a case of a 28 year-old female with a colonic granulocystic sarcoma of the colon as a complication of AML, as it is an important consideration with surgical management of typhilitis. PMID:20842230

  9. Recovery from severe hematopoietic suppression using recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, R.L.; Skelly, R.R.; Taylor, P.; Dubois, A.; Donahue, R.E.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1988-06-01

    The ability of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) to enhance recovery of a radiation-suppressed hematopoietic system was evaluated in a nonuniform radiation exposure model using the rhesus monkey. Recombinant human GM-CSF treatment for 7 days after a lethal, nonuniform radiation exposure of 800 cGy was sufficient to enhance hematopoietic reconstitution, leading to an earlier recovery. Monkeys were treated with 72,000 U/kg/day of rhGM-CSF delivered continuously through an Alzet miniosmotic pump implanted subcutaneously on day 3. Treated monkeys demonstrated effective granulocyte and platelet levels in the peripheral blood, 4 and 7 days earlier, respectively, than control monkeys. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit (CFU-GM) activity in the bone marrow was monitored to evaluate the effect of rhGM-CSF on marrow recovery. Treatment with rhGM-CSF led to an early recovery of CFU-GM activity suggesting that rhGM-CSF acted on an earlier stem cell population to generate CFU-GM. Thus, the effect of rhGM-CSF on hematopoietic regeneration, granulocyte recovery, and platelet recovery are evaluated in this paper.

  10. Leukocyte CD11a expression and granulocyte activation during experimental myocardial ischemia and long lasting reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Lantos, János; Grama, László; Orosz, Tamás; Temes, Gyula; Rőth, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are accompanied by leukocyte activation and expression of surface adhesion molecules, which induce pathological interactions between endothelial cells and circulating neutrophils, leading to tissue damage. While the dynamics of these processes have been well defined during acute reperfusion, there is very little information regarding long lasting reperfusion. OBJECTIVES: To investigate neutrophil granulocyte (PMN) activation and the CD11a expression of leukocytes during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion for four weeks. ANIMALS AND METHODS: The left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 1 h in six dogs, followed by reperfusion for four weeks. Peripheral blood samples were collected before the operation, at the end of ischemia, at 5 and 60 min of reperfusion, and on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Sham operation on four dogs served as control. Leukocyte expression of CD11a was measured by flow cytometry. Superoxide radical production of isolated PMNs was determined spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Granulocyte CD11a expression increased while the superoxide radical-producing capacity decreased significantly by the third postoperative day. Sham operation produced similar alterations in these parameters during the first postoperative week. From the second postoperative week, however, granulocyte radical production and adhesion molecule expression were higher in the ischemic animals. CONCLUSIONS: The exhaustion of PMN radical production and maximal CD11a expression during the first postoperative week are probably due to the surgical trauma caused by thoracotomy, but increased granulocyte function during later reperfusion indicates prolonged healing of injured myocardium. PMID:20428266

  11. Physiology of Continuous Bone Marrow Culture Derived Permanent Granulocyte-Macrophage Progenitor Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-31

    numbers of granulocyte-progenitor cell colonies (GM-CFUc). We have now begun the molecular biology for molecular cloning and isolation of the gene...of the human IL-3 gene. The methods for this attack are described below. Molecular Cloning and Expression of the Gene for Human Interleukin-3 We have

  12. Unexpected Tc-99m labelled erythrocyte scintigraphy finding of a patient with suspicion of active bleeding into renal haematoma.

    PubMed

    Koç, Zehra Pinar; Balci, Tansel Ansal; Celiker, Hüseyin

    2011-08-11

    A 36-year-old male patient with suspicion of active bleeding into renal haematoma loge was sent to our clinic for Tc-99m labelled erythrocyte scintigraphy. Scintigraphy showed no active bleeding to renal haematoma but coexisting active haemorrhage of stomach which was confirmed as erosive bulbitis with further endoscopy.

  13. Traumatic retroperitoneal hematoma illustrated on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy in a patient presenting with a fall.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong Van; Chiam, Quee Li; Dixson, Hugh; Goddard, Kim A

    2007-08-01

    Retroperitoneal haematoma is rarely described in the context of bone scintigraphy, as it is usually an incidental discovery on bone scan carried out for another purpose. We report a case of a right retroperitoneal haematoma detected on Tc-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy taken in an elderly patient presenting with a mechanical fall and a right acetabular fracture.

  14. Indium-111-antimyosin antibody imaging for detecting different stages of myocardial infarction: Comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, N.; Yamada, T.; Matsumori, A.; Yoshida, A.; Fujita, T.; Ohtani, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The diagnostic value of {sup 111}In-antimyosin (AM) imaging for identifying myocardial infarction was evaluated in comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate (PPi) imaging. Twenty-four patients with various stages of myocardial infarction, ranging from three days to nine months after the onset of infarction, underwent both AM and PPi scans. Of 26 infarct lesions AM scan identified 22 (85%), while PPi scans detected 10 (38%) (p less than 0.01). When less than a week had passed since the onset both scans demonstrated all infarct lesions. For seven subacute lesions studied within one to two weeks of onset, AM scans detected (100%), while PPi scans identified only 2 (29%). Furthermore, AM scans showed discrete myocardial uptake in 7 (64%) of those studied more than two weeks after onset. The intensity of AM uptake in the infarcts studied more than seven days after onset was less than that in acute infarcts studied within seven days of onset (p less than 0.05). These preliminary data indicate that the abnormal myocardial uptake of AM persists beyond the first two weeks when PPi no longer accumulates. Thus, AM scans can be considered to provide a sensitive diagnosis of subacute as well as acute myocardial necrosis.

  15. Analysis of indium-111 platelet kinetics and imaging in patients with aortic grafts and abdominal aortic aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, S.R.; Kotze, H.F.; Pieters, H.; Heyns, A.D. )

    1990-11-01

    To quantitatively characterize processes of platelet thrombus formation in vivo, the kinetics and incorporation into thrombus of autologous In-111-labeled platelets were compared in six patients with aortic aneurysms and in seven patients with prosthetic aortic grafts. Although platelet survival was comparably shortened in both patient groups (mean, 5.8 days), the maximum radioactivity as determined by gamma camera imaging was higher in the aneurysms than in the grafts (3.3% +/- 1.6% vs. 1.6% +/- 1.1%, p = 0.05). Maximum In-111 uptake was also attained more quickly in the aneurysm patients (2.3 +/- 0.8 days vs. 3.5 +/- 1.3 days; p = 0.07). The experimental platelet kinetic and imaging data were subsequently evaluated by compartmental analysis to estimate both normal and disease-related components of platelet destruction. This analysis indicated that deposited platelet radioactivity had a longer residence time on grafts (2.9 +/- 1.7 days vs. 1.4 +/- 0.9 days, p = 0.07) but accumulated at a faster rate in aneurysms (5.0% +/- 3.4% per day vs. 1.4% +/- 0.9% per day, p = 0.02). As determined by imaging, only a proportion of increased platelet destruction was specifically due to the aneurysms (55% +/- 38%) or grafts (17% +/- 11%, p = 0.03). This result indicates additional components of platelet destruction unrelated to graft and aneurysm thrombus formation which, in some graft patients, may reflect a greater severity of vascular disease or other mechanisms causing a preferential shortening of platelet survival. Thus, the analytical approach described may be a useful one for discriminating components of in vivo platelet utilization including platelet removal due to normal hemostatic and senescent mechanisms, localized thrombus formation, and more generalized vascular disease.

  16. Detection of diffuse glomerular lesions in rats: II. Comparison of indium-111 cationic small macromolecules with technetium-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.D.; Lyons, B.; Roskopf, M.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Whaley, D.

    1986-04-01

    Dextrans with average molecular weights of 5000, 10,000, and 17,500 and inulin were rendered cationic by amination with 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide. After limited coupling with DTPA cyclic dianhydride, they were labeled with 111In. A good correlation was found between their early renal uptake quantitated by camera-computer techniques and their renal clearance from multiple plasma samples in rats with glomerular damage induced by puromycin aminonucleoside and controls. However, there was poor correlation between the early renal uptake of these agents and the clearance of simultaneously injected (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA. The 2-hr organ distribution and urinary excretion of these agents were compared with the corresponding values of DTPA. The differences in clearance between rats with glomerular damage and controls were greater with aminated dextran (mol wt 5000) than with DTPA, confirming previous work with infusions of nonradioactive charged dextrans and neutral inulin. The cationic dextrans appear to reflect the presence or absence of the normal anionic charge of the glomerular membrane as well as changes in filtration rate. Aminated inulin did not differentiate between controls and rats with glomerular disease any better than DTPA, probably because the number of amino groups conjugated was insufficient to produce the charge effect.

  17. In vivo tracing of indium-111 oxine-labeled human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with lymphatic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.Z.; Zielinski, C.C.; Linkesch, W.; Ludwig, H.; Sinzinger, H.

    1989-06-01

    The in vivo migration of (/sup 111/In)oxine-labeled peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) was studied in 20 patients with various lymphatic malignancies and palpable enlarged lymph nodes. The maximal labeling dose of 10 microCi (0.37 MBq) (/sup 111/In)oxine/10(8) PMNC was found not to adversely influence either cell viability or lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. For in vivo studies, 1.5 X 10(9) PMNC were gained by lymphapheresis and reinjected intravenously after radioactive labeling, 150 microCi (5.55 MBq). The labeling of enlarged palpable lymph nodes was achieved in three out of three patients with Hodgkin's disease and in five out of five with high-malignant lymphoma, whereas three out of seven patients with low malignant lymphoma and no patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia had positive lymph node imaging. We thus conclude that PMNC retain their ability to migrate after (/sup 111/In)oxine labeling and that these cells traffic to involved lymph nodes of some, but not all hematologic malignancies.

  18. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the detection of osteomyelitis complicated by a pre-existing condition.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K; Velchik, M G; Alavi, A; Mandell, G A; Esterhai, J L; Goll, S

    1988-06-01

    Forty-six patients (23M, 23F) ranging in age from 19 to 79 yr with a clinical history of a nonunion fracture, surgery, diabetes or a soft-tissue infection were studied with [111In]oxine WBCs to detect osteomyelitis. There were 27 true-positive, nine true-negative, two false-positive and one false-negative. The false-positives and the false-negative occurred in patients with soft-tissue infections overlying the area of interest. All diagnoses were confirmed by intraoperative bone biopsies and cultures. Bone biopsy and scan were performed within 2 days of each other in 39 patients. The overall sensitivity was 97% (27/28), specificity, 82% (9/11) and the diagnostic accuracy, 92% (36/39). The remaining seven patients had negative [111In]WBC scans several months after positive bone biopsies and definite antibiotic treatment. This suggests that [In]WBC scans become negative after appropriate therapy is undertaken. Interobserver data was obtained from four nuclear physicians of varying experience blinded to clinical information. A high degree of agreement was found in over 90% of the cases. This study demonstrates the utility of [111In]WBC scans in the diagnosis and follow-up of complicated osteomyelitis and a high level of interobserver agreement in scan interpretation.

  19. Indium-111-labeled autologous leukocyte imaging and fecal excretion. Comparison with conventional methods of assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Leddin, D.J.; Paterson, W.G.; DaCosta, L.R.; Dinda, P.K.; Depew, W.T.; Markotich, J.; McKaigney, J.P.; Groll, A.; Beck, I.T.

    1987-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the role of /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte imaging and fecal excretion in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. We compared these tests to various indices of disease activity in Crohn's disease, to Truelove's grading in ulcerative colitis, and to endoscopy, x-ray, and pathology in both diseases. Eleven controls, 16 patients with Crohn's disease, 13 with ulcerative colitis, and 3 with other types of acute bowel inflammation were studied (positive controls). Indium scanning was performed at 1, 4, and 24 hr. Fourteen of 16 patients with active Crohn's disease had positive scans but in only five was localization accurate. One patient had inactive ulcerative colitis, and the scan was negative. Of 12 patients with active ulcerative colitis, 10 had positive scans but disease localization was accurate in only four. Disease extent was correctly defined in 1 of the 3 Positive Controls. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of scanning at 1, 4, or 24 hr. /sup 111/In fecal excretion was significantly higher in patients with inflammatory bowel disease than in controls, and there was correlation between /sup 111/In fecal excretion and most of the indices of disease activity in Crohn's disease. In ulcerative colitis, /sup 111/In fecal excretion did not correlate with Truelove's grading but reflected colonoscopic assessment of severity. In conclusion, /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scanning lacks sensitivity with respect to disease extent, but fecal excretion of /sup 111/In correlates well with disease severity as determined by other methods.

  20. Splenic microenvironment and self recognition as factors in allograft rejection in rats. A study using indium-111-labeled cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pollak, R.; Blanchard, J.M.; Lazda, V.A.

    1986-11-01

    Splenectomy facilitates organ allograft survival in some rat strains, and in weak donor-recipient histoincompatible pairs. We have found using a heart spleen twin graft model, using ACI rats as recipients and Lewis rats as donors, that the transplanted heart will survive in most recipients after delayed host splenectomy. The presence of a viable mass of splenic tissue will allow rejection to proceed only when the transplanted spleen is of host origin, and not when it comes from the donor (i.e., when it is allogeneic). The use of 111In-labeled cells has allowed us to show that lymphocyte traffic and trapping is markedly altered in the transplanted allogeneic spleens, when compared with control transplanted syngeneic spleens. Thus, despite the presence of the splenic ''microenvironment,'' cardiac allograft rejection does not occur in the absence of syngeneic splenic tissue. We conclude that the role of the spleen in the immune response is to facilitate the recognition of self and the acquisition of alloreactivity in weak responder rat strains and donor-recipient pairs.

  1. Biodistribution of indium-111-labeled OC 125 monoclonal antibody after intraperitoneal injection in nude mice intraperitoneally grafted with ovarian carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Thedrez, P.; Saccavini, J.C.; Nolibe, D.; Simoen, J.P.; Guerreau, D.; Gestin, J.F.; Kremer, M.; Chatal, J.F. )

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the biodistribution of 111In-labeled OC 125 monoclonal antibody (MAb) with known affinity for ovarian carcinomas in a nude mouse model grafted i.p. with a human ovarian cancer (NIH:OVCAR-3). Tumor uptake 24 h after i.p. injection was higher with intact 111In-labeled OC 125 MAb than with 111In-nonspecific immunoglobulin. The kinetics of tumor uptake also differed, showing a plateau followed by a drop at Day 7 with 111In-OC 125 MAb and a decrease beginning at 24 h with 111In-nonspecific immunoglobulin. Tumor-to-normal tissue ratios ranged between 29.91 +/- 11.85 and 0.68 +/- 0.15 with 111In-OC 125 MAb and between 4.50 +/- 1.06 and 0.53 +/- 0.04 with 111In-nonspecific immunoglobulin according to the normal tissues and the time points considered. Tumor uptake 2 h after injection was the same for F(ab')2 fragments as for intact MAb, whereas maximum uptake at 24 h was lower and was followed by a decrease at Day 4. Tumor-to-normal tissue ratios were in the same range, except for the tumor to blood ratio which was higher and the tumor to kidney ratio which was lower at 24 and 96 h. Maximum tumor uptake was higher after i.p. than i.v. injection. Instead of attaining the plateau noted after i.p. injection, tumor uptake after i.v. injection remained low at 2 h, reaching its peak only after 96 h. 131I-OC 125 injected i.p., which reached maximum tumor uptake at 2 h, showed tumor-to-tissue ratios ranging between 15.98 +/- 2.63 and 0.96 +/- 0.86, i.e., not very different from those with 111In. After i.p. injection of a radiolabeled colloid solution, maximum tumor uptake was reached at 96 h, but with very high nonspecific uptake in liver and spleen. These results indicate high, selective tumor uptake of 111In-OC 125 after i.p.

  2. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the detection of osteomyelitis complicated by a pre-existing condition

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.; Velchik, M.G.; Alavi, A.; Mandell, G.A.; Esterhai, J.L.; Goll, S.

    1988-06-01

    Forty-six patients (23M, 23F) ranging in age from 19 to 79 yr with a clinical history of a nonunion fracture, surgery, diabetes or a soft-tissue infection were studied with (/sup 111/In)oxine WBCs to detect osteomyelitis. There were 27 true-positive, nine true-negative, two false-positive and one false-negative. The false-positives and the false-negative occurred in patients with soft-tissue infections overlying the area of interest. All diagnoses were confirmed by intraoperative bone biopsies and cultures. Bone biopsy and scan were performed within 2 days of each other in 39 patients. The overall sensitivity was 97% (27/28), specificity, 82% (9/11) and the diagnostic accuracy, 92% (36/39). The remaining seven patients had negative (/sup 111/In)WBC scans several months after positive bone biopsies and definite antibiotic treatment. This suggests that (In)WBC scans become negative after appropriate therapy is undertaken. Interobserver data was obtained from four nuclear physicians of varying experience blinded to clinical information. A high degree of agreement was found in over 90% of the cases. This study demonstrates the utility of (/sup 111/In)WBC scans in the diagnosis and follow-up of complicated osteomyelitis and a high level of interobserver agreement in scan interpretation.

  3. A quantitative method to measure human platelet chemotaxis using indium-111-oxine-labeled gel-filtered platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenhaupt, R.W.; Silberstein, E.B.; Sperling, M.I.; Mayfield, G.

    1982-12-01

    Human blood platelets have been shown to migrate directionally and specifically toward collagen in plasma in vitro. We have developed a new system to monitor this behavior using a linear 7-compartment chamber with /sup 111/In-oxine-labeled gel-filtered platelets. The compartments are separated by various Nuclepore and Millipore filter membranes. Radiolabeled platelets suspended in plasma are placed in the central compartment and the other compartments are filled with platelet-free plasma. When collagen is added to an end compartment, platelets migrate toward that end. The degree of this directed movement or chemotaxis can be measured by counting the radioactivity of the contents of each compartment and then comparing the counts from radiolabeled platelets that have moved to the end that holds the chemotactic inducer with those that have randomly migrated to the opposite end, containing only plasma. This assay system allows quantitative comparisons between the chemotaxis-inducing abilities of different substances and permits the study of soluble materials. Experiments to determine the optimal conditons for the procedure are reported, and the advantages of this new method for the investigation of platelet chemotaxis and the identification of chemotaxins are discussed.

  4. Indium 111-labeled platelet kinetic studies and platelet-associated IgG in hairy cell leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Panzer, S.; Lechner, K.; Neumann, E.; Meryn, S.; Haubenstock, A.

    1986-07-15

    In order to study the pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL), levels of platelet-associated IgG (PAIgG), platelet life span (MLS), and the sequestration site of autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were measured in nine patients with HCL. Splenectomized patients (n = 4) had a higher platelet count (x = 122.5 X 10(9)/l; range, 80-190 X 10(9)/l) as well as higher levels of PAIgG (x = 10.7%; range, 5.8-16.9%), than nonsplenectomized patients (platelets x = 76 X 10(9)/l, range 40-100 X 10(9)/l; PAIgG x = 3.2%, range 2.2-4.2%). A normal recovery of /sup 111/In-labeled platelets was found in splenectomized patients, whereas a very low recovery was observed in the nonsplenectomized group (x = 70.2%, range, 50-82.5%, versus x = 22.4%, range, 15-28.2%). The MLS was borderline normal in all patients. The site of sequestration was the spleen in nonsplenectomized patients. The low recovery of /sup 111/In-labeled platelets in nonsplenectomized patients suggests hypersplenism with pooling as a major cause of thrombocytopenia, in addition to impaired thrombocytopoiesis and possible immune-mediated platelet destruction.

  5. Detection of acute osteomyelitis with indium-111 labeled white blood cells in a patient with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; Vasavada, P.J.; Black, R.R.

    1989-02-01

    A young patient with sickle cell disease (SCD) and multiple hospitalizations for crisis was admitted because of suspected osteomyelitis. Initial laboratory work, radiographs, and bone images were not contributory. An In-111 white blood cell (WBC) study demonstrated two areas of increased radionuclide uptake consistent with osteomyelitis. One of these had associated soft tissue infection. No other areas of active osteomyelitis were visualized, in spite of the presence of several additional infection sites. Imaging with In-111 WBC is probably not justified for routine diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in areas free of previous disease, where conventional bone images are highly efficient. In-111 WBC imaging, however, may be helpful in detecting osteomyelitis in selected patients with SCD in whom Tc-99m bone images and radiographs are usually abnormal and difficult to interpret due to previous bone infarcts. Localization of the infection focus is very important in choosing the aspiration site for bacteriologic studies. A negative study, however, should be interpreted cautiously.

  6. Localization of small-cell lung cancer xenografts with iodine-125-, indium-111-, and rhenium-188-somatostatin analogs.

    PubMed

    Hosono, M; Hosono, M N; Haberberger, T; Zamora, P O; Guhlke, S; Bender, H; Knapp, F F; Biersack, H J

    1996-09-01

    We examined the potential of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs, 125I-Tyr-3-octreotide (125I-octreotide), (111)In-DTPA(diethylenetriaminepentaacetatic acid)-D-Phe-1-octreotide (111In-octreotide), and 188Re-octreotide for targeting small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) in a mouse model. Tyr-3-octreotide was labeled with 125I by the chloramine T method, and (111)In-octreotide was obtained as a kit, while 188Re was eluted from a 188W/188Re generator, and octreotide was directly labeled with 188Re by reducing disulfide bonds. The 125I-, 111In-, and 188Re-octreotides were injected i.v. into athymic mice bearing NCI-H69 tumors, and the biodistributions were determined at 15 min, and 2, 4, 8, and 24 h. Tumor uptakes were 0.5+/-0.2, 0.3+/-0.1, 0.3+/-0.1 %ID/g, and tumor-to-blood ratios were 1.8, 11.9, 1.2 at 8 h for 125I-, 111In-, and 188Re-octreotides, respectively. Accumulations of 111In-octreotide in normal tissues were lower than those of 125I- and 188Re-octreotides. 188Re-octreotide can be used to localize SCLC lesions as efficiently as radioiodinated octreotide. However, 111In-octreotide was the most suitable agent to obtain high tumor-to-normal tissue contrast for localizing SCLC.

  7. Granulocyte transfusion experience in pediatric neutropenic fever: Splitted product can be an alternative?

    PubMed

    Oymak, Yesim; Ayhan, Yüce; Karapinar, Tuba Hilkay; Devrim, Ilker; Ay, Yilmaz; Sarihan, Hafize; Vergin, Canan

    2015-12-01

    The granulocyte transfusion (GTX) has been used for a long time due to uncontrolled neutropenic fever with antimicrobial agents. In some cases, the product needs to be splitted for using in the next 12 hours. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of splitted product and clinical response to GTX. In this study, 15 patients with malignancy with 19 neutropenic fever, who had received 56 GTX, were included. Seventeen of 56 GTX were splitted and used in maximum 12 hours during infections which did not respond to antibacterial and antifungal therapy in 7 days. The patients were divided in to response groups as a complete, partial and progressive. The predictive factors for response group were evaluated. GTX were well tolerated in all patients. The median granulocyte dose was 1.26 (0.38-5.22) × 10(9)/kg. Total response rate was 89.5%. The infection-related mortality rate was 10.5%. Although the granulocyte doses are the same in both of the product groups, an hour later ANC increment of primer product was higher than that of splitted product (p = 0.001). Among the products, 48.7% of primer product and 17.6% of splitted product had induced ≥ 1000/mm(3) ANC increment after an hour (p = 0.039). Granulocyte transfusion is safe and effective in controlling the febrile neutropenia attack. GTX should be applied in a short time to provide effective ANC increment. For now, main granulocyte product instead of splitted product should be preferred in case of uncontrolled neutropenic fever with antibacterial/antifungal agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal leukocyte numbers and granulocyte activation in pulsatile and rotary ventricular assist device patients.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Joshua R; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; Bermudez, Christian A; Bhama, Jay K; Lockard, Kathleen L; Kormos, Robert L; Wagner, William R

    2014-06-01

    Individual ventricular assist device (VAD) design may affect leukocytes and impact immunity. Few studies have presented leukocyte and infection profiles in VAD patients over the course of the implant period. CD11b (MAC-1) expression on granulocytes is an indicator of activation during inflammation, mediating extravasation and the release of reactive oxygen species in tissue. No reported studies have presented MAC-1 expression on circulating granulocytes in VAD patients. Fifty-six patients implanted at a single center with a HeartMate II (HMII; n = 32), HeartWare (HW; n = 12), or Thoratec pneumatic VAD (PVAD; n = 12) between 1999 and 2011 were followed for 120 days of support. The leukocyte profiles and infectious events of all patients were evaluated; additionally, a subset had MAC-1 expression on circulating granulocytes was measured (HMII n = 9; HW n = 7; PVAD n = 4). All groups exhibited a significant peak in leukocyte numbers at postoperative day (POD) 14 while simultaneously experiencing a significant decrease in hematocrit. HMII patients exhibited a 3.2-fold increase in granulocyte MAC-1 expression at POD 14, and the temporal trend over the implant period differed from that experienced by HW patients. Further, HW patients experienced significantly fewer infection events. Alterations in leukocyte profiles and granulocyte activation experienced by VAD patients appear to be device-specific. Elevations in leukocyte activation may be related to an increased risk for infection, although the specific relationship between these phenomena in this patient group is not known.

  9. Differential inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced granulocyte aggregation and prostanoid production by emoxypin.

    PubMed

    Kubatiev, A; Turgiev, A; Smirnov, L; Pomoynetsky, V; Dumaev, K

    1990-01-01

    Emoxypin is known to be an effective membrane-stabilizing 3-oxy-pyridine derivative. We attempted to evaluate its influence on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced granulocyte aggregation and prostanoid production. Granulocytes isolated from rabbit venous blood by dextran sedimentation and Pezcoll gradient centrifugation were stirred in the aggregometer cuvette with emoxypin (5mM), indomethacin (50 microM) or their solvents at 37 degrees C for 2 min. Then S. typhimurium LPS (200 micrograms/ml) was added and the aggregation was traced for 5 min. Thromboxane B2 (TxB2), prostaglandins (PG) E, F2 alpha and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha were determined in supernatants radioimmunochemically. Indomethacin did not affect the pattern of aggregation, whereas emoxypin virtually precluded the response. Granulocytes incubated with LPS produced by the 15th sec and 5th min 1.3 and 2.5 times as much TxB2 respectively as did the intact cells (p less than 0.01). LPS had no effect on PGE production. Fifteen-sec contact of granulocytes with LPS had no significant influence on the formation of PGF2 alpha and its 13,14-dihydro-15-keto metabolite. The amount of PGF2 alpha released into the medium by the end of the 5th min of incubation with LPS was 1.5 times higher than in the control (p less than 0.05); the level of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha was decreased 1.6 times (p less than 0.01). Emoxypin abolished totally LPS-induced TxB2 and PGF2 alpha production. We conclude that aggregation and eicosanoid production are independent manifestations of LPS-induced rabbit granulocyte activation.

  10. Impairment of FOS mRNA stabilization following translation arrest in granulocytes from myelodysplastic syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaomin; Shikama, Yayoi; Shichishima, Tsutomu; Noji, Hideyoshi; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kazuei; Kimura, Hideo; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kimura, Junko

    2013-01-01

    Although quantitative and qualitative granulocyte defects have been described in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the underlying molecular basis of granulocyte dysfunction in MDS is largely unknown. We recently found that FOS mRNA elevation under translation-inhibiting stimuli was significantly smaller in granulocytes from MDS patients than in healthy individuals. The aim of this study is to clarify the cause of the impaired FOS induction in MDS. We first examined the mechanisms of FOS mRNA elevation using granulocytes from healthy donors cultured with the translation inhibitor emetine. Emetine increased both transcription and mRNA stability of FOS. p38 MAPK inhibition abolished the emetine-induced increase of FOS transcription but did not affect FOS mRNA stabilization. The binding of an AU-rich element (ARE)-binding protein HuR to FOS mRNA containing an ARE in 3'UTR was increased by emetine, and the knockdown of HuR reduced the FOS mRNA stabilizing effect of emetine. We next compared the emetine-induced transcription and mRNA stabilization of FOS between MDS patients and healthy controls. Increased rates of FOS transcription by emetine were similar in MDS and controls. In the absence of emetine, FOS mRNA decayed to nearly 17% of initial levels in 45 min in both groups. In the presence of emetine, however, 76.7±19.8% of FOS mRNA remained after 45 min in healthy controls, versus 37.9±25.5% in MDS (P<0.01). To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating attenuation of stress-induced FOS mRNA stabilization in MDS granulocytes.

  11. Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) granulocytes and monocytes display variable responses to in vitro pressure exposures

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura A.; Romano, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    While it is widely known that marine mammals possess adaptations which allow them to make repetitive and extended dives to great depths without suffering ill effects seen in humans, the response of marine mammal immune cells to diving is unknown. Renewed interest in marine mammal dive physiology has arisen due to reports of decompression sickness-like symptoms and embolic damage in stranded and by-caught animals, and there is concern over whether anthropogenic activities can impact marine mammal health by disrupting adaptive dive responses and behavior. This work addresses the need for information concerning marine mammal immune function during diving by evaluating granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis, and granulocyte activation in belugas (n = 4) in comparison with humans (n = 4), with and without in vitro pressure exposures. In addition, the potential for additional stressors to impact immune function was investigated by comparing the response of beluga cells to pressure between baseline and stressor conditions. Granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis, as well as granulocyte activation, were compared between pressure exposed and non-exposed cells for each condition, between different pressure profiles and between conditions using mixed generalized linear models (α = 0.05). The effects of pressure varied between species as well by depth, compression/decompression rates, and length of exposures, and condition for belugas. Pressure induced changes in granulocyte and monocyte function in belugas could serve a protective function against dive-related pathologies and differences in the response between humans and belugas could reflect degrees of dive adaptation. The alteration of these responses during physiologically challenging conditions may increase the potential for dive-related in jury and disease in marine mammals. PMID:25999860

  12. In vitro cytotoxic effect of alpha-hemolytic Escherichia coli on human blood granulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gadeberg, O V; Orskov, I

    1984-01-01

    The cytotoxic effect of Escherichia coli bacteria on human blood granulocytes was measured by recording numbers of nonlysed cells and percentages of viable cells after in vitro incubation with bacteria in the presence of plasma. A total of 179 strains from various sources of infection were tested. Of 117 alpha-hemolytic strains, 59 were cytotoxic. Five nonhemolytic mutant strains, derived from alpha-hemolytic cytotoxic strains, were nontoxic. None of the 62 nonhemolytic strains were toxic. Four spontaneously occurring alpha-hemolytic, nontoxic mutant strains were isolated from cytotoxic ones. Cytotoxicity of bacteria reached a maximum after log-phase growth at 30 to 37 degrees C for 2.5 h, and the toxic capacity was equal after growth in various media, including human urine and plasma. The cytotoxic effect increased with the length of exposure of granulocytes to bacteria and with increasing numbers of bacteria per granulocyte. Cytotoxic strains showed different degrees of toxicity, highly cytotoxic strains lysing about 90% of the granulocytes and killing about one-half of nonlysed cells in 1 h. Bacteria killed by heat, formaldehyde, or UV light were nontoxic. Alpha-hemolytic strains of O groups 2, 4, 6, 25, and 75 originating from various infections in humans were more frequently cytotoxic than alpha-hemolytic strains of other O groups derived from human infections. Culture supernatants containing free alpha-hemolysin were highly cytotoxic to human blood granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes in vitro, whether supernatants originated from cytotoxic or noncytotoxic bacteria. Cytotoxicity to phagocytes, which is mediated by or closely linked genetically to alpha-hemolysin, may be a mechanism by which alpha-hemolytic strains of E. coli strengthen their ability to establish and maintain infections. PMID:6376357

  13. The volatile anesthetic sevoflurane inhibits activation of neutrophil granulocytes during simulated extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Eckhard; Krajewski, Stefanie; Bachmann, Daniel; Kurz, Julia; Wendel, Hans Peter; Rosenberger, Peter; Balkau, Beverley; Peter, Karlheinz; Unertl, Klaus; Straub, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) is an essential tool for the execution of cardiac operations. However, ECC is also associated with undesirable side effects. These include the induction of a systemic inflammatory response associated with leukocyte activation and cytokine release as well as potentially life-threatening complications. The volatile anesthetic sevoflurane has been reported to exert anti-ischemic and anti-inflammatory effects. We therefore investigated whether sevoflurane modulates the ECC-triggered inflammatory response. Heparinized human blood was circulated for 90 min in a normothermic (37°C) ex vivo ECC circuit. An air-oxygen mixture was administered via an oxygenator in controls (n=5). Sevoflurane (2 vol.%) was added to the gas mixture in a second group (n=5). At baseline and after 30, 60 and 90 min of ECC, blood samples were taken. In each sample whole blood counts were determined. Expression of the activation-indicating Mac-1 receptor on granulocytes and monocytes as well as leukocyte-platelet aggregate formation was measured in flow cytometry. Levels of the granulocyte activation marker PMN-elastase and of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α were analyzed using ELISA. ECC induced significant increases in Mac-1 expression on granulocytes (p<0.001) and PMN-elastase release (p<0.001). Sevoflurane decreased granulocyte Mac-1 expression during ECC (p<0.05) and inhibited the ECC-induced PMN-elastase release (p<0.05). Sevoflurane had no effect on whole blood cell counts, leukocyte-platelet aggregate formation and cytokine release during ECC. Sevoflurane inhibits granulocyte activation during ex vivo ECC and therefore has the potential to decrease the ECC-triggered inflammatory response. This promising finding warrants further investigation under clinical conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phospholipase D catalyzes phospholipid metabolism in chemotactic peptide-stimulated HL-60 granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, J.K.; Siegel, M.I.; Egan, R.W.; Billah, M.M.

    1988-09-05

    There exists circumstantial evidence for activation of phospholipase D (PLD) in intact cells. However, because of the complexity of phospholipid remodeling processes, it is essential to distinguish PLD clearly from other phospholipases and phospholipid remodeling enzymes. Therefore, to establish unequivocally PLD activity in dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 granulocytes, to demonstrate the relative contribution of PLD to phospholipid turnover, and to validate the hypothesis that the formation of phosphatidylethanol is an expression of PLD-catalyzed transphosphatidylation, we have developed methodologies to label HL-60 granulocytes in 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-PC) with 32P without labeling cellular ATP. These methodologies involve (a) synthesis of alkyl-lysoPC containing 32P by a combination of enzymatic and chemical procedures and (b) incubation of HL-60 granulocytes with this alkyl-(32P) lysoPC which enters the cell and becomes acylated into membrane-associated alkyl-(32P)PC. Upon stimulation of these 32P-labeled cells with the chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP), alkyl-(32P)phosphatidic acid (alkyl-(32P)PA) is formed rapidly. Because, under these conditions, cellular ATP has not been labeled with 32P, alkyl-(32P)PA must be formed via PLD-catalyzed hydrolysis of alkyl-(32P)PC at the terminal phosphodiester bond. This result conclusively demonstrates fMLP-induced activation of PLD in HL-60 granulocytes. These 32P-labeled HL-60 granulocytes have also been stimulated in the presence of ethanol to produce alkyl-(32P)phosphatidylethanol (alkyl-(32P)PEt). Formation of alkyl-(32P)PEt parallels that of alkyl-(32P)PA with respect to time course, fMLP concentration, inhibition by a specific fMLP antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), and Ca2+ concentration.

  15. Role of opsonins in clinical response to granulocyte transfusion in granulocytopenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Keusch, G.T.; Ambinder, E.P.; Kovacs, I.; Goldberg, J.D.; Phillips, D.M.; Holland, J.F.

    1982-10-01

    Fifty febrile severely granulocytopenic patients were given four daily transfusions of 2.2 X 10(10) normal donor granulocytes. Twenty-three responded clinically, although both responders and nonresponders were similar in clinical characteristics at the outset. This study examines the relation between serum opsonic activity before initiation of granulocyte administration and clinical response. Opsonic activity to three test organisms (Escherichia coli 286 and ON 2, and Staphylococcus aureus) and to 15 blood stream isolates from 14 patients was measured as serum-dependent uptake of heat-killed /sup 14/C-labeled bacteria by normal donor leukopheresis granulocytes in an in vitro assay and compared with results obtained with a standard normal serum in each assay. At a concentration of 8 percent serum, all patient groups were equivalent to standard for the three test organisms. When rate-limiting concentrations of serum were employed, opsonic activity remained similar to standard for S. aureus in all patient groups and for the two E. coli strains in responders. In contrast, opsonins for E. coli decreased to 41 to 50 percent of standard in nonresponders. When patients with proved infection were separately analyzed, opsonin activity for E. coli was significantly greater in responders than nonresponders. Eight of 10 patients with 75 percent or greater of standard for opsonic activity against their own blood stream isolates also responded, whereas zero of four with less than 75 percent of standard had a favorable outcome. These results indicate that serum opsonic activity may be a determinant of clinical response to granulocyte transfusion in infected granulocytopenic patients. We conclude that opsonic activity should be assessed in such patients before granulocyte administration and suggest a trial of plasma infusion in opsonin-deficient patients.

  16. Stress-induced adaptation of neutrophilic granulocyte activity in K and R3 carp lines.

    PubMed

    Pijanowski, L; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L; Irnazarow, I; Chadzinska, M

    2015-12-01

    Both in mammals and fish, stress induces remarkable changes in the immune response. We focused on stress-induced changes in the activity of neutrophilic granulocytes in the R3 and K lines of common carp, which showed differential stress responses. Our study clearly demonstrates that a prolonged restraint stress differentially affects the activity of K and R3 carp neutrophils. In the K line, stress decreased the respiratory burst, while in the R3 line it reduced the release of extracellular DNA. Surprisingly, the stress-induced changes in ROS production and NET formation did not correlate with changes in gene expression of the inflammatory mediators and GR receptors. In neutrophilic granulocytes from K carp, gene expression of the stress-sensitive cortisol GR1 receptor was significantly higher than in neutrophils from R3 fish, which will make these cells more sensitive to high levels of cortisol. Moreover, upon stress, neutrophilic granulocytes of K carp up-regulated gene expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 while this was not observed in neutrophilic granulocytes of R3 carp. Therefore, we can hypothesize that, in contrast to R3 neutrophils, the more cortisol sensitive neutrophils from K carp respond to stress with up-regulation of IL-10 and consequently reduction of ROS production. Most probably the ROS-independent NET formation in K carp is not regulated by this anti-inflammatory cytokine. These data may indicate a predominantly ROS-independent formation of NETs by carp neutrophilic granulocytes. Moreover, they underline the important role of IL-10 in stress-induced immunoregulation.

  17. Pre- and postcaptopril renal scintigraphy as a screening test for renovascular hypertension in children.

    PubMed

    Abdulsamea, Sameh; Anderson, Peter; Biassoni, Lorenzo; Brennan, Eileen; McLaren, Clare A; Marks, Stephen D; Roebuck, Derek J; Selim, Sabry; Tullus, Kjell

    2010-02-01

    We studied the ability of pre- and postcaptopril renal scintigraphy to predict renovascular disease (RVD) in children. Retrospective review of medical notes and radiology reports of all hypertensive children who had had both pre- and postcaptopril renal scintigraphy with [(99m)Tc] dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and/or [(99m)Tc] mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). 81 children aged 1-18 (median 10) years were studied with 62% (51) having a diagnosis of RVD. Main renal artery disease, intrarenal disease, and both main and intrarenal artery disease were present in 25, 14, and 12 patients respectively. The isotope study accurately diagnosed RVD, confirmed by DSA, in 47% (24 of 51) children, with eight false positive studies. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the isotope study to predict RVD were 48%, 73%, 76%, and 51%, respectively. Pre- and postcaptopril renal scintigraphy was unable to predict RVD in children.

  18. Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy for the location of neuroblastoma: preliminary experience in ten cases

    SciTech Connect

    Geatti, O.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.; Hutchinson, R.J.; Mallette, S.; Eyre, P.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Ten patients with histologically proven neuroblastoma were studied by (/sup 131/I)MIBG scintigraphy. Tumor uptake of the radiopharmaceutical showed a spectrum varying from no uptake in one case, to slight uptake in two, moderate uptake in two and intense uptake in five cases. Iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy was more effective in demonstrating the extent of neuroblastoma spread than were conventional bone scan and CT in one patient, equal to these modalities in four cases, almost equal in two cases and significantly inferior in three cases. These preliminary results suggest that (/sup 131/I)MIBG scintigraphy is useful in detecting the presence and delineating the distribution of neuroblastoma and may, in certain cases, have therapeutic potential.

  19. Symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones: findings of Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, N T; Jou, I M; Lee, B F; Yao, W J; Tu, D G; Wu, P S

    2000-05-01

    The accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing symptomatic accessory navicular bones has not been well studied. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the results and use of scintigraphy in symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. Thirteen patients with a total of 13 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic accessory navicular bones were included in the study. We used a scoring system to grade the scintigraphic abnormalities. The patients' symptoms and scintigraphic findings were recorded. Though focally increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was observed in all symptomatic accessory naviculars, half of the asymptomatic accessory navicular bones had the same manifestations. The scoring system was of no value in differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive but not a specific tool for diagnosing a symptomatic accessory navicular. Copyright 2000 The Royal College of Radiologists.

  20. The effect of bevacizumab for bone scintigraphy imaging: A case report.

    PubMed

    Asano, Takamitsu; Takakuwa, Osamu; Maeno, Ken; Oguri, Tetsuya; Niimi, Akio

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old man presented with pulmonary nodules and a right humeral fracture. The 99mTc-hydroxy-methylene-diphosphonate (HMDP) bone scintigraphy showed high-intensity radioisotope (RI) uptake by a tumor of the right arm. Adenocarcinoma of the lung with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation was diagnosed on pathological examination of the computed tomography (CT)-guided needle biopsy of the right humerus. Although, gefitinib therapy was initiated, the tumor progressed. The patient was then treated with second-line chemotherapy including bevacizumab. The CT scan showed a new bone metastasis in the ilium and right sacroiliac articulation. However, this new bone metastasis was not detected by HMDP-bone scintigraphy. Physicians should be wary of the interpretations of the findings of the 99mTc HMDP bone scintigraphy after the bevacizumab treatment.

  1. Gastrointestinal Transit Assessment: Role of Scintigraphy: Where Are We Now? Where Are We Going?

    PubMed

    Ziessman, Harvey A

    2016-12-01

    The diagnostic imaging evaluation of patients with suspected esophagogastrointestinal transit disorders is changing. Anatomical methods, e.g., barium studies, endoscopy, manometry, radiopaque markers, have long been the techniques available and used for diagnosis. The one exception has been gastric emptying, where radionuclide scintigraphy has been the standard for decades. Esophageal transit scintigraphy is an old and reliable methodology but probably underutilized. The diagnostic use of small and large intestinal transit scintigraphy is increasing, in part, because of the limitations of the other methods but, most importantly, because it is truly physiologic, i.e., the transit of radiolabeled food can be imaged and quantified from the mouth to rectum. Limitations to its wider use have been the lack of standardization, general availability, and reimbursement issues. Radionuclide methods are increasingly being used to evaluate esophagogastrointestinal transit in a single study, from top to bottom.

  2. Technetium-99m BIDA biliary scintigraphy in the evaluation of the jaundiced patient

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.W.; Ram, M.D.; Shih, W.J.; Murphy, K.

    1986-09-01

    Biliary scintigraphy using 99mTc p-butyl acetanilidiminodiacetic acid (BIDA) was performed as part of the diagnostic evaluation on 96 patients with jaundice (serum bilirubin greater than 2 mg/dl) to assess its value in this group of patients. The results of scintigraphy revealed no obstruction to the flow of the scintigraphic agent into the duodenum in 54 patients, delayed appearance of the agent (normal upper limit 60 min) in the duodenum indicating partial obstruction in 22 patients, and complete obstruction of the duct demonstrated by absence of agent in the duodenum in 20 patients. The findings were correlated with the final diagnosis and the overall results show accuracy of 92.7%, sensitivity of 97.3%, and specificity of 89.8%. Biliary scintigraphy was thus found to be useful in differentiating nonobstructive, partially obstructive, and completely obstructive causes of jaundice.

  3. Scintigraphy with 99mTc(V)-DMSA in monitoring patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Amiriani, Taghi; Mirkarimi, HoneySadat; Besharat, Sima; Semnani, Shahriar; Abedi, Jamshid; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Assadi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    The clinical significance of pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) scintigraphy in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this prospective paper was to study the above. This study included 54 patients, 22 females and 32 males (mean age: 36.68±11.49; range: 18-63 years) with IBD who came to our clinics for follow-up and were examined clinically by colonoscopy and 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy. On the follow-up studies, five patients (9.25%) relapsed, and 49 (90.74%) remained at a steady condition. There was a good correlation between the scintigraphic results and the clinical and colonoscopy data of the patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that 99mTc(V)DMSA scintigraphy can be complementary to colonoscopy for the diagnostic evaluation of IBD.

  4. Limitations and pitfalls of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd) scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Garai, Ildikó; Barna, Sandor; Nagy, Gabor; Forgacs, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Tektrotyd kit was developed by Polatom company for 99mTc labeling to make an alternative tracer of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy available. Since 2005, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide has been used in clinical imaging and achieved high impact in management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Knowing the limitations and pitfalls is essential to provide ac-curate diagnosis. Therefore, the potential pitfalls associated with the use of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC are reviewed on the basis of own experience. Data were analyzed of 310 patients who underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 99mTc-Tektrotyd. Pitfalls during radiolabeling process or acquisition can worsen the sensitivity of SRS (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy). Recognizing physi-ological and clinical pitfalls, the diagnostic accuracy will improve.

  5. A meta-analysis of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography versus scintigraphy in the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-lin; Zhao, Kui; Liu, Zhen-feng; Dong, Meng-jie; Yang, Shu-ye

    2011-12-01

    Functional nuclear medicine imaging techniques have become particularly important in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. The aim of our study was to perform a meta-analysis to obtain a reliable estimate of the diagnostic performance of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), three-phase bone scintigraphy, leukocyte scintigraphy, and monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (MOAB) scintigraphy in the assessment of suspected osteomyelitis and to perform pairwise comparisons of the diagnostic accuracy between these different imaging modalities. A total of 23 studies representing 851 examinations that were published from January 1980 to October 2010 were reviewed. These studies evaluated the role of FDG-PET, three-phase bone scintigraphy, leukocyte scintigraphy, and MOAB scintigraphy in the assessment of suspected osteomyelitis. Systematic methods were used to identify, select, and evaluate the methodological quality of the studies and to summarize the overall findings of sensitivity and specificity. Two-sample Z-tests were conducted to evaluate for differences in sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and the Q* index between any two diagnostic modalities. The FDG-PET had a pooled sensitivity of 0.923, specificity of 0.920, and AUC of 0.9666, whereas for bone scintigraphy, the corresponding values were 0.827, 0.446, and 0.6514, respectively, for leukocyte scintigraphy, the corresponding values were 0.742, 0.881, and 0.9139, respectively, and for MOAB, the corresponding values were 0.883, 0.705, and 0.8897, respectively. Our meta-analysis did not find statistically significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity, AUC, and Q* index between FDG-PET and leukocyte scintigraphy. Leukocyte scintigraphy can be used with satisfactory diagnostic accuracy for detecting osteomyelitis when positron emission tomography systems are not available. The FDG-PET appears to be superior in terms of accuracy compared with other radionuclide imaging

  6. Relating gastric scintigraphy and symptoms to motility capsule transit and pressure findings in suspected gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Hasler, W L; May, K P; Wilson, L A; Van Natta, M; Parkman, H P; Pasricha, P J; Koch, K L; Abell, T L; McCallum, R W; Nguyen, L A; Snape, W J; Sarosiek, I; Clarke, J O; Farrugia, G; Calles-Escandon, J; Grover, M; Tonascia, J; Lee, L A; Miriel, L; Hamilton, F A

    2017-09-05

    Wireless motility capsule (WMC) findings are incompletely defined in suspected gastroparesis. We aimed to characterize regional WMC transit and contractility in relation to scintigraphy, etiology, and symptoms in patients undergoing gastric emptying testing. A total of 209 patients with gastroparesis symptoms at NIDDK Gastroparesis Consortium centers underwent gastric scintigraphy and WMCs on separate days to measure regional transit and contractility. Validated questionnaires quantified symptoms. Solid scintigraphy and liquid scintigraphy were delayed in 68.8% and 34.8% of patients; WMC gastric emptying times (GET) were delayed in 40.3% and showed 52.8% agreement with scintigraphy; 15.5% and 33.5% had delayed small bowel (SBTT) and colon transit (CTT) times. Transit was delayed in ≥2 regions in 23.3%. Rapid transit was rarely observed. Diabetics had slower GET but more rapid SBTT versus idiopathics (P ≤ .02). GET delays related to greater scintigraphic retention, slower SBTT, and fewer gastric contractions (P ≤ .04). Overall gastroparesis symptoms and nausea/vomiting, early satiety/fullness, bloating/distention, and upper abdominal pain subscores showed no relation to WMC transit. Upper and lower abdominal pain scores (P ≤ .03) were greater with increased colon contractions. Constipation correlated with slower CTT and higher colon contractions (P = .03). Diarrhea scores were higher with delayed SBTT and CTT (P ≤ .04). Wireless motility capsules define gastric emptying delays similar but not identical to scintigraphy that are more severe in diabetics and relate to reduced gastric contractility. Extragastric transit delays occur in >40% with suspected gastroparesis. Gastroparesis symptoms show little association with WMC profiles, although lower symptoms relate to small bowel or colon abnormalities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Tumor-derived G-CSF facilitates neoplastic growth through a granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Waight, Jeremy D; Hu, Qiang; Miller, Austin; Liu, Song; Abrams, Scott I

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are induced under diverse pathologic conditions, including neoplasia, and suppress innate and adaptive immunity. While the mechanisms by which MDSC mediate immunosuppression are well-characterized, details on how they develop remain less understood. This is complicated further by the fact that MDSC comprise multiple myeloid cell types, namely monocytes and granulocytes, reflecting diverse stages of differentiation and the proportion of these subpopulations vary among different neoplastic models. Thus, it is thought that the type and quantities of inflammatory mediators generated during neoplasia dictate the composition of the resultant MDSC response. Although much interest has been devoted to monocytic MDSC biology, a fundamental gap remains in our understanding of the derivation of granulocytic MDSC. In settings of heightened granulocytic MDSC responses, we hypothesized that inappropriate production of G-CSF is a key initiator of granulocytic MDSC accumulation. We observed abundant amounts of G-CSF in vivo, which correlated with robust granulocytic MDSC responses in multiple tumor models. Using G-CSF loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we demonstrated for the first time that: 1) abrogating G-CSF production significantly diminished granulocytic MDSC accumulation and tumor growth; 2) ectopically over-expressing G-CSF in G-CSF-negative tumors significantly augmented granulocytic MDSC accumulation and tumor growth; and 3) treatment of naïve healthy mice with recombinant G-CSF protein elicited granulocytic-like MDSC remarkably similar to those induced under tumor-bearing conditions. Collectively, we demonstrated that tumor-derived G-CSF enhances tumor growth through granulocytic MDSC-dependent mechanisms. These findings provide us with novel insights into MDSC subset development and potentially new biomarkers or targets for cancer therapy.

  8. Enhancement of tendon-bone osteointegration of anterior cruciate ligament graft using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ken; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kazunari; Kubo, Seiji; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Mifune, Yutaka; Kinoshita, Keisuke; Tei, Katsumasa; Akisue, Toshihiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2008-08-01

    Whereas anterior cruciate ligament rupture usually requires reconstruction, the attachment between the tendon and the bone is the weakest region in the early posttransplantation period. In this process, the acquisition of appropriate vascularity is a key for early bone-tendon healing. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has an effect on the maturation of bone-tendon integration of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-eight healthy adult beagle dogs underwent bilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the ipsilateral flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and were divided into 2 groups. A granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-incorporated gelatin surrounded the graft in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor group, and the same gelatin without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was used as the control group. Assessment was done at 2 and 4 weeks. Histological analysis at week 2 demonstrated that, in addition to more Sharpey fibers, microvessels were significantly enhanced in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor group's grafts. Computed tomography at week 4 showed a significantly smaller tibial bone tunnel in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed significantly elevated messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and osteocalcin in the tibial bone tunnel and graft compared with controls. Furthermore, biomechanical testing of force during loading to ultimate failure at week 4 demonstrated a significant increase in strength in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor group. This study demonstrated that a local application of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-incorporated gelatin significantly accelerates bone-tendon interface strength via enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has therapeutic potential in promoting an environment conductive to angiogenesis and

  9. Myocardial Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Cardiac Events in Patients without Typical Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Smanio, Paola Emanuela Poggio; Silva, Juliana Horie; Holtz, João Vitor; Ueda, Leandro; Abreu, Marilia; Marques, Carlindo; Machado, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the world and in Brazil. Myocardial scintigraphy is an important noninvasive method for detecting ischemia in symptomatic patients, but its use in asymptomatic ones or those with atypical symptoms is yet to be defined. Objective To verify the presence of major cardiac events in asymptomatic patients or those with atypical symptoms (atypical chest pain or dyspnea) that underwent myocardial scintigraphy (MS), over a period of 8 years. Secondary objectives were to identify cardiac risk factors associated with myocardial scintigraphy abnormalities and possible predictors for major cardiac events in this group. Methods This was a retrospective, observational study using the medical records of 892 patients that underwent myocardial scintigraphy between 2005 and 2011 and who were followed until 2013 for assessment of major cardiac events and risk factors associated with myocardial scintigraphy abnormalities. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher’s exact test, logistic regression and Kaplan-Meyer survival curves, with statistical significance being set at p ≤ 0.05. Results Of the total sample, 52.1% were men, 86.9% were hypertensive, 72.4% had hyperlipidemia, 33.6% were diabetic, and 12.2% were smokers; 44.5% had known coronary artery disease; and 70% had high Framingham score, 21.8% had moderate and 8% had low risk. Of the myocardial scintigraphies, 58.6% were normal, 26.1% suggestive of fibrosis and 15.3% suggestive of ischemia. At evolution, 13 patients (1.5%) had non-fatal myocardial infarction and six individuals (0.7%) died. The group with normal myocardial scintigraphy showed longer period of time free of major cardiac events, non-fatal myocardial infarction (p = 0.036) and death. Fibrosis in the myocardial scintigraphy determined a 2.4-fold increased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction and five-fold higher risk of death (odds ratio: 2.4 and 5.7, respectively; p = 0.043). Conclusion The

  10. Miscellaneous indications in bone scintigraphy: metabolic bone diseases and malignant bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Cook, Gary J R; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Chua, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The diphosphonate bone scan is ideally suited to assess many global, focal or multifocal metabolic bone disorders and there remains a role for conventional bone scintigraphy in metabolic bone disorders at diagnosis, investigation of complications, and treatment response assessment. In contrast, the role of bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of primary malignant bone tumors has reduced with the improvement of morphologic imaging, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, an increasing role for (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography is emerging as a functional assessment at diagnosis, staging, and neoadjuvant treatment response assessment.

  11. Incidental vesicocolic fistula on routine bone scintigraphy: Value of additional delayed images and direct radionuclide cystography.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myung-Hee; Tae Lim, Seok; Jin Jeong, Young; Wook Kim, Dong; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Yim, Chang-Yeol

    2010-09-01

    An unexpected vesicocolic fistula can be detected incidentally on routine bone scintigraphy. A 55-year-old man who had a radical colectomy for carcinoma of the sigmoid colon 1 year previously underwent bone scintigraphy to evaluate bone metastasis. Whole-body images showed an abnormal accumulation of radioactivity in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, but the radioactivity did not precisely define a structure. Additional delayed images obtained after 15 and 24 hours of the initial image localized a vesicocolic fistula. Subsequent radionuclide cystography confirmed leakage of the radioactivity from the bladder.

  12. Thallium-201 scintigraphy in the diagnosis and management of myocardial sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.L.; Ossorio, M.A.; Roy, T.M.; Denny, D.M.; Varga, D.W. )

    1990-03-01

    We have described three patients with clinical evidence of myocardial sarcoidosis to illustrate the utility of thallium-201 scintigraphy in demonstrating the myocardial lesions. Both the symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals studied showed the characteristic reverse redistribution phenomenon. No abnormalities were seen during the exercise phase of the thallium study, but myocardial defects were detected in each patient when repeat studies were obtained at rest six hours later. Steroid therapy resolved the defects in each case. We propose thallium-201 scintigraphy of the heart as a safe and useful tool for documenting myocardial involvement in sarcoidosis and following the effects of therapy.

  13. Bone scintigraphy in the initial staging of patients with renal-cell carcinoma: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Murphy, K.G.

    1984-03-01

    The records of 40 consecutive patients who received bone scintigraphy in conjunction with the initial evaluation and staging of renal-cell carcinoma were reviewed to determine the role of bone imaging in this clinical context. Bone scintigrams were positive in three out of 40 patients at the time of diagnosis. In view of the low yield of bone imaging, it appears that routine scintigraphy is unwarranted in the absence of skeletal symptoms before the diagnosis of renal lesions. The presence of a positive bone image did not alter the indication for nephrectomy.

  14. Unusual appearance for urinary bladder obstruction detected with 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wright, Chadwick L; Sharma, Akash

    2015-12-01

    Unanticipated but clinically significant nonosseous findings can be detected during routine bone scintigraphy. We present a case of an 83-year-old man who presented with a pathologic fracture of the right femur. Whole-body bone scintigraphy for osseous staging revealed intense radiotracer accumulation in the kidneys and ureters but no activity within the urinary bladder. The patient had not voided for 14 hours. A Foley catheter was inserted, and more than 2000 mL of urine was drained, most consistent with urinary bladder obstruction. Subsequent repeat images demonstrated marked reduction of the renal and ureteral activity with trace activity in the urinary bladder.

  15. An incidental detection of aortic aneurysm on Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Sadic, Murat; Demirel, Koray; Koca, Gökhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old man with newly diagnosed hypertension was referred for Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3) renal scintigraphy to evaluate the recent onset of impairment in renal functions. Dynamic imaging revealed activity flow which was suspicious for aortic aneurysm (AA) with a concurrent decrease in left renal blood flow. CT angiography of the thoracoabdominal aorta confirmed that this area corresponded to AA. The purpose of this report was to present the first case of incidental detection of AA on Tc-99m MAG3 scintigraphy and highlight the importance of correlative imaging for the diagnosis of abnormal radioactivity accumulation in the region of vascular structures.

  16. Pulmonary evaluation of patients with osteosarcoma: roles of standard radiography, tomography, CT, scintigraphy, and tomoscintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Vanel, D.; Henry-Amar, M.; Lumbroso, J.; Lemalet, E.; Couanet, D.; Piekarski, J.D.; Masselot, J.; Boddaert, A.; Kalifa, C.; Le Chevalier, T.

    1984-09-01

    Sixty-one radiologic evaluations were performed on 32 patients with possible pulmonary metastases from osteosarcoma. CT scanning was performed 61 times; standard chest radiography, 58; tomography, 36; scintigraphy, 40; and tomoscintigraphy, 33. Using CT as a reference, the sensitivities of the other examinations were 57% (32% of total metastases) for standard radiography, 88% (48%) for tomography, 21% (5%) for scintigraphy, and 41% (8%) for tomoscintigraphy. Of the 193 metastases, 98 were subpleural and 95 were parenchymatous. The authors' current evaluation of patients with metastases from osteosarcoma includes chest radiography and CT; the other three examinations are performed only before surgery.

  17. Lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: current methods and interpretation criteria in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Skarlovnik, Ajda; Hrastnik, Damjana; Fettich, Jure; Grmek, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Background In current clinical practice lung scintigraphy is mainly used to exclude pulmonary embolism (PE). Modified diagnostic criteria for planar lung scintigraphy are considered, as newer scitigraphic methods, especially single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are becoming more popular. Patients and methods. Data of 98 outpatients who underwent planar ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy and 49 outpatients who underwent V/Q SPECT from the emergency department (ED) were retrospectively collected. Planar V/Q images were interpreted according to 0.5 segment mismatch criteria and revised PIOPED II criteria and perfusion scans according to PISA-PED criteria. V/Q SPECT images were interpreted according to the criteria suggested in EANM guidelines. Final diagnosis of PE was based on the clinical decision of an attending physician and evaluation of a 12 months follow-up period. Results Using 0.5 segment mismatch criteria and revised PIOPED II, planar V/Q scans were diagnostic in 93% and 84% of cases, respectively. Among the diagnostic planar scans readings specificity for 0.5 segment mismatch criteria was 98%, and 99% for revised PIOPED II criteria. V/Q SPECT showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98%, without any non-diagnostic cases. In patients with low pretest probability for PE, planar V/Q scans assessed by 0.5 segment mismatch criteria were diagnostic in 92%, and in 85% using revised PIOPED II criteria, while perfusion scintigraphy without ventilation scans was diagnostic in 80%. Conclusions Lung scintigraphy yielded diagnostically definitive results and is reliable in ruling out PE in patients from ED. V/Q SPECT has excellent specificity and sensitivity without any non-diagnostic results. Percentage of non-diagnostic results in planar lung scintigraphy is considerably smaller when 0.5 segment mismatch criteria instead of revised PIOPED II criteria are used. Diagnostic value of perfusion scintigraphy according to PISA-PED criteria is

  18. Lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: current methods and interpretation criteria in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Skarlovnik, Ajda; Hrastnik, Damjana; Fettich, Jure; Grmek, Marko

    2014-06-01

    In current clinical practice lung scintigraphy is mainly used to exclude pulmonary embolism (PE). Modified diagnostic criteria for planar lung scintigraphy are considered, as newer scitigraphic methods, especially single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are becoming more popular. Data of 98 outpatients who underwent planar ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy and 49 outpatients who underwent V/Q SPECT from the emergency department (ED) were retrospectively collected. Planar V/Q images were interpreted according to 0.5 segment mismatch criteria and revised PIOPED II criteria and perfusion scans according to PISA-PED criteria. V/Q SPECT images were interpreted according to the criteria suggested in EANM guidelines. Final diagnosis of PE was based on the clinical decision of an attending physician and evaluation of a 12 months follow-up period. Using 0.5 segment mismatch criteria and revised PIOPED II, planar V/Q scans were diagnostic in 93% and 84% of cases, respectively. Among the diagnostic planar scans readings specificity for 0.5 segment mismatch criteria was 98%, and 99% for revised PIOPED II criteria. V/Q SPECT showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98%, without any non-diagnostic cases. In patients with low pretest probability for PE, planar V/Q scans assessed by 0.5 segment mismatch criteria were diagnostic in 92%, and in 85% using revised PIOPED II criteria, while perfusion scintigraphy without ventilation scans was diagnostic in 80%. Lung scintigraphy yielded diagnostically definitive results and is reliable in ruling out PE in patients from ED. V/Q SPECT has excellent specificity and sensitivity without any non-diagnostic results. Percentage of non-diagnostic results in planar lung scintigraphy is considerably smaller when 0.5 segment mismatch criteria instead of revised PIOPED II criteria are used. Diagnostic value of perfusion scintigraphy according to PISA-PED criteria is inferior to combined V/Q scintigraphy; the difference is

  19. Complementary roles of brain scintigraphy and computed tomography in multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Brown, J.M.; Waller, S.F.; Lundy, M.M.; Brown, T.J.

    1983-12-01

    Cerebral computed tomography, with and without iodinated contrast, revealed the appearance and evolution of lesions in a 32-year-old man with multiple sclerosis. Two areas were enhanced with contrast, with one showing a mild mass effect and rim of enhancement. Serial brain scintigraphy using technetium-/sub 99m/ glucoheptonate, following the computed tomography, showed the appearance and regression of corresponding regions of increased uptake. Computed tomography one day prior to brain scintigraphy failed to demonstrate a region of increased accumulation of radiotracer. One week later, however, evidence of a corresponding unenhanced defect was noted on computed tomography. Clinical correlation is given additionally.

  20. Radionuclide scintigraphy in the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux in symptomatic and asymptomatic pre-term infants.

    PubMed

    Morigeri, C; Bhattacharya, A; Mukhopadhyay, K; Narang, A; Mittal, B R

    2008-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in pre-term infants. The diagnosis based on symptoms is always questionable. The incidence of GER in symptomatic babies varies from 22% to 85%, but literature regarding the incidence of reflux in asymptomatic pre-term infants is lacking. We used radionuclide scintigraphy to evaluate the incidence of GER in symptomatic as well as asymptomatic pre-term neonates and to assess whether symptoms have any relation with positive scintigraphy. We studied 106 pre-term infants (52 symptomatic, 54 asymptomatic) of less than 34 weeks of gestation, who fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Babies were considered symptomatic in the presence of vomiting, regurgitation, apnea, de-saturations, unexplained bradycardia and recurrent lung collapses. Radionuclide scintigraphy was conducted at post-conceptional age of 32-34 weeks when they were clinically stable for 72 h. Feeding was avoided for 2 h preceding the study. (99m)Tc sulphur colloid was administered in a dose of 1.85 MBq (0.05 mCi) in 1 ml, followed by milk (full feed) through an orogastric tube, prior to imaging under a gamma camera. Reflux was graded as low or high, and reflux episodes during the study were counted. The incidence of GER in the symptomatic group was 71.2% and in asymptomatic babies 61.1% (p = 0.275). High-grade reflux was more common (71.4%) than low-grade (28.6%) in both groups (p = 0.449). Mean number of reflux episodes in 20 min was 4.4 +/- 2.4 in symptomatic babies and 4.9 +/- 2.2 in asymptomatic babies (p = 0.321). Babies with positive scintigraphy were similar in birth weight, gestation, time to achieve full feeds, weight and age at discharge to those with negative scintigraphy. GER is common in pre-term infants of less than 34 weeks gestation. The incidence of positive scintigraphy and grade of reflux is not significantly different in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic babies. Though radionuclide scintigraphy is a simple, quick and non-invasive investigation in

  1. Quinidine-induced neutropenia: report of a case with drug-dependent inhibition of granulocyte colony generation.

    PubMed

    Ascensao, J L; Flynn, P J; Slungaard, A; Wachsman, W; Zanjani, E D; Jacob, H S

    1984-01-01

    We describe a case of quinidine-induced agranulocytosis in which in vitro marrow culture studies suggested immune inhibition of committed human granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (CFU-GM). Autologous, but not allogeneic, inhibition of CFU-GM was seen with 'acute' serum from the patient in the presence of quinidine but not other drugs. Cytotoxic antibodies to mature granulocytes were not found. These studies provide a novel mechanism for drug-induced neutropenia and suggest that a battery of in vitro assays of progenitor and of mature granulocyte cytotoxicity might identify offending agents in suspected drug-induced neutropenias.

  2. Scintigraphy of infected total hip arthroplasty (THA): A canine model

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, K.D.; Brown, M.L.; Fitzgerald, R.H.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    Differentiating low-grade sepsis from aseptic loosening of an orthopedic prosthesis is difficult. This study was designed to compare the ability of Tc-99m-HMDP, Ga-67, and In-111 leukocytes (WC) to differentiate low-grade sepsis from aseptic THA component loosening in a canine model. A canine THA was implanted in 14 dogs. Six dogs were given infected femoral components by injecting 10/sup 5/ colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus into the femoral canal 6y0 to 90 seconds prior to cementing. Four dogs had an aseptic loose femoral component, and four dogs had an aseptic tight femoral component (control). At six months all dogs were evaluated with X-ray, lab scintigraphy, and tissue quantitation of each tracer. Diagnosis was confirmed by histology and quantitative microbiology. White blood cell counts and differentials were normal in all dogs, and in only one out of six infected dogs was the sedimentation rate abnormal. X-rays were interpreted as possible infection in five dogs and probable infection in only one dog. In-111 WBC scans were more accurate than sequential Tc-Ga scans (sensitivity 94% vs 61%, specificity 86% vs 71% accuracy 90% vs 67%). Quantitative counting of gamma camera data and tissue samples demonstrated significantly (P < .01) higher accumulation of In-111 WBC about the infected than the loose or control component. No significant difference was demonstrated between the loose and septic components with TC-HMDP or Ga. These results correlate well and confirm our clinical data that In-111 WBC scanning is accurate and useful in the workup of the painful orthopedic prosthesis.

  3. Superimposed display of coronary artery on gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Fukuchi, Kazuki; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Sagou, Masayoshi; Oka, Hisashi; Ishida, Yoshio; Murase, Kenya

    2004-09-01

    Fusion of images of vascular anatomy and of myocardial perfusion images might be helpful for understanding the relationship between ischemia and the responsible vessels. The aim of this study was to develop a simple means of superimposing the images obtained from coronary angiography and gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Right and left oblique views from conventional coronary angiography and left ventriculography (LVG) were stored as 512 x 512 x 8-bit digital datasets and combined. We reconstructed images from routine gated myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) by using (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin to match the oblique positions between the image from MPI and combined angiographic images. We then generated a 3-dimensional (3D) surface map by using the quantitative gated SPECT (QGS)/quantitative perfusion SPECT (QPS) program. Both the combined angiographic images and the 3D surface map were rescaled and unified by registering the internal landmarks between the 2 images. After subtraction of the LVG image, the coronary angiogram and the 3D surface map were fused into 1 image. All processes were performed with the QGS/QPS program and commercially available graphic software. We applied this method to datasets from a cardiac phantom and from several patients with coronary artery disease. In the phantom study, our technique could obtain a 3D surface map in which the oblique angle was identified as that of radiography and could realize image registration and superimposition of radiography on scintigraphy. The preliminary results from the patients indicated that the markedly stenotic vessels showed good coincidence with the regional myocardial perfusion abnormalities on the unified images. In addition, these images could show the relationship between the coronary artery and regional wall motion in the gated mode. We developed a simple method of superimposing the image of the coronary artery tree on images from gated MPI. The technique yielded useful information about myocardial

  4. Limitations of somatostatin scintigraphy in primary small bowel neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Jessica E; Sherman, Scott K; Menda, Yusuf; Wang, Donghong; O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Howe, James R

    2014-08-01

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS; octreoscan) is used in neuroendocrine tumors to locate the primary tumor site and delineate the extent of disease. SRS has decreased sensitivity for small bowel neuroendocrine tumors (SBNETs). The reasons for SRS nonlocalization are not clear. We sought to determine factors that correlate with successful primary tumor localization by SRS in patients with resected SBNETs, and also identify factors that confound interpretation of SRS reports. Records of patients with resected SBNETs were reviewed for SRS results, tumor size, multifocality, N, and M status. Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) expression was analyzed in resected tumors by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. SRS reports were reviewed and categorized as localizing the primary tumor or not. A nuclear medicine physician independently reviewed available images. Of 37 patients with preoperative SRS, the primary tumor was localized in 37%. Of all the factors tested, only small tumor size correlated significantly with SRS nonlocalization. Overexpression of SSTR2 was not significantly different between tumors that were or were not localized by SRS, regardless of tumor size. There were three instances where the SRS report did not agree with the nuclear medicine physician's interpretation as to whether SRS localized the primary tumor. In each case, uptake in mesenteric nodes was a confounding factor. SBNETs <2 cm are most likely to be missed by SRS. SSTR2 expression did not correlate with SRS nonlocalization of the primary tumor. Uptake in mesenteric nodes may help indicate an SBNET primary but can also interfere with its visualization within the small bowel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tc-99m sestamibi bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Dvora; Krausz, Yodphat; Elstein, Deborah; Hadas-Halpern, Irith; Zimran, Ari

    2002-07-01

    No imaging technique has been found to be adequate to assess the severity and extent of bone involvement in patients with Gaucher disease. Marrow involvement, as determined by Tc-99m sulfur colloid, correlated well with the clinical and radiologic changes of the skeleton, but a normal pattern was found in the early stages of the disease. Subsequently, Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) has been suggested for direct visualization of glycolipid deposits in the bone marrow. This study was initiated as a pilot using MIBI to detect various forms of bone disease in patients with Gaucher disease of varying severity. Eleven patients (9 men; median age, 39.9; age range, 21 to 61 years) were evaluated. The clinical severity of disease was scored at presentation, and four patients with moderate to severe disease were treated with enzyme replacement therapy. Each patient underwent a radiographic skeletal survey, bone densitometry, and MIBI scintigraphy. The scan included static images of the lower limbs, with a whole-body scan acquired between the early and late acquisition. Tracer uptake in the bone marrow was graded and correlated with clinical and objective variables. All but one patient had increased MIBI uptake in the bone marrow. No correlation was noted between MIBI uptake and severity score, radiographic changes, densitometry z score, or treatment status. MIBI scanning is a sensitive technique for detecting bone marrow deposits in Gaucher disease, but it is inadequate for early identification of patients at high risk for skeletal complications or for the follow-up of patients treated with enzyme replacement.

  6. Granulocyte transfusions for treating infections in people with neutropenia or neutrophil dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Hopewell, Sally; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Massey, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite modern antimicrobials and supportive therapy bacterial and fungal infections are still major complications in people with prolonged disease-related or treatment-related neutropenia. Transfusions of granulocytes have a long history of usage in clinical practice to support and treat severe infection in high-risk groups of patients with neutropenia or neutrophil dysfunction. However, there is considerable current variability in therapeutic granulocyte transfusion practice, and uncertainty about the beneficial effect of transfusions given as an adjunct to antibiotics on mortality. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. Objectives To determine the effectiveness and safety of granulocyte transfusions compared to no granulocyte transfusions as adjuncts to antimicrobials for treating infections in people with neutropenia or disorders of neutrophil function aimed at reducing mortality and other adverse outcomes related to infection. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 2). MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980) and ongoing trial databases to 11 February 2016. Selection criteria RCTs comparing people with neutropenia or disorders of neutrophil dysfunction receiving granulocyte transfusions to treat infection with a control group receiving no granulocyte transfusions. Neonates are the subject of another Cochrane review and were excluded from this review. There was no restriction by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We identified 10 trials that met the inclusion criteria with a total of 587 participants. We also identified another ongoing trial. These trials were conducted between 1975 and 2015. None of

  7. [Expression characteristics of differentiation antigens on granulocytes in patients with megaloblastic anemia].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai-Tao; Ke, Pei-Feng; Shen, Wen-Hong; Chen, Su-Ning; Wang, Guo-Zheng

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed to explore the change characteristics of cell differentiation antigen (CD) on bone marrow (BM) granulocytes in patients,with megaloblastic anemia (MA). In combination with BM cell morphology, hemogram, level of blood serum folic acid, level of Vit B(12), cell genetics and biological examination data, the BM granulocytes differentiation antigens in 13 patients with MA were detected by flow cyto metry and analyzed retrospectively, in order to summarize the variation characteristics of CD13, CD33 and CD15 expressed on myeloid cells in patient with MA, including forward scatter light (FSC) and side scatter light (SSC) signal intensity, then these findings were compared with that in normal healthy persons. The results showed that the expression rates of CD13, CD15 and CD33 on granulocytic in patients with MA and normal healthy persons were (44.53 ± 16)%, (96.16 ± 2.67)%, (80.81 ± 14.71)% and (62.33 ± 11.02)%, (99.53 ± 0.46)%, (70.00 ± 7.81)% respectively, in which the expression rate of CD13 and CD15 in patients with MA decreased (P < 0.01), while the expression rate of CD33 increased (P < 0.01). The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD13, CD15, CD33, SSC and FSC in MA patients and normal healthy persons were 3.39 ± 1.41, 14.29 ± 6.59, 1.95 ± 0.94, 478.78 ± 70.43, 633.46 ± 75.53 and 5.12 ± 1.15, 20.67 ± 5.13, 1.04 ± 0.17, 332.00 ± 38.16, 537.00 ± 16.70 respectively, in which the MFI of CD13 and CD15 on granulocytes in MA patients decreased (P < 0.01),while the MFI of FSC,SSC and CD33 increased (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). It is concluded that not only the morphology of BM granulocytes in patents with MA shows dysmaturity, but the expressing feature of differentiation antigens on BM granulocytes in MA patients also displays dysmaturity.These findings will contribute to the clinical diagnosis of MA patients.

  8. Applying preoperative dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy for preventing cardiac mortality and complications for patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shih-Min; Chou, Fong-Fu; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chi, Shun-Yu

    2017-07-06

    To evaluate the value of preoperative dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy for reducing cardiovascular complication in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPTH) patients. Thallium scintigraphy was arranged for all dialysis patients who underwent parathyroidectomy from Jan 2011 to July 2015. Management of defects on thallium scintigraphy included cardiac catheterization and ultrasonography. Analysis includes 30-day mortality, morbidity and the predicting factors for thallium scintigraphy defect. Of 249 patients with SHPTH, 19 (7.6%) had defects on thallium scintigraphy, 15 (88%) of whom had coronary artery disease on angiography. History of acute coronary syndrome (ACS, p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (DM, p = 0.03), male sex (p = 0.03), and higher body mass index (BMI, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of positive thallium scintigraphy results. History of ACS was the most significant predictor after adjustment in the multivariate logistic analysis (odds ratio, 22.56; 95% confidence interval, 7.02-72.53). All the patients survived the 30-day postoperative period, with minimal cardiovascular morbidity. Preoperative dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy is useful for SHPTH patients to minimized surgical mortality and morbidity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  9. Dynamic scintigraphy with thallium-201 chloride (Tl-201) for the diagnosis of tumors of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Indo, H; Kawabata, Y; Iwashita, Y; Morita, Y; Noikura, T; Sugihara, K; Mimura, T

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to differentiate between malignant tumors and benign tumors of the head and neck by means of thallium-201 chloride scintigraphy. Thallium-201 chloride (Tl-201) scintigraphy and Ga-67 citrate (Ga-67) scintigraphy were performed in 10 patients with a benign tumor and in 90 patients with a malignant tumor. The blood flow index and the tumor retention index were obtained by means of Tl-201 scintigraphy. The blood flow index = the count of tumor/the count of control in the early dynamic scan from 30 to 120 seconds after injection, and the tumor retention index = (the count of tumor/the count of control in the delayed dynamic scan 2.5 hours after injection)/(the count of tumor/the count of control in the early dynamic scan from 4 to 5 minutes after injection). The early and delayed scans with Tl-201 demonstrated a very high correlation with the blood flow index. The tumor retention index had a tendency to increase in malignant tumors, especially in the poorly differentiated tumors and the severely invasive tumors. Likewise, the tumor retention index decreased in benign tumors. These results proved to be statistically significant, and in turn Tl-201 scintigraphy was deemed superior to Ga-67 scintigraphy. Tl-201 scintigraphy was also useful in detecting small-size tumors. The tumor retention index of Tl-201 was useful for the differentiation of malignant tumors of the head and neck from benign tumors of the same areas.

  10. A novel granulocyte-specific α integrin is essential for cellular immunity in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Tan, Juan; Xu, Man; Su, Jingjing; Hu, Renjian; Chen, Yibiao; Xuan, Fan; Yang, Rui; Cui, Hongjuan

    2014-12-01

    Haemocytes play crucial roles in immune responses and survival in insects. Specific cell markers have proven effective in clarifying the function and haematopoiesis of haemocytes. The silkworm Bombyx mori is a good model for studying insect haemocytes; however, little is known about haemocyte-specific markers or their functions in silkworm. In this study, we identified the α subunit of integrin, BmintegrinαPS3, as being specifically and highly expressed in silkworm haemocytes. Immunofluorescence analysis validated the specificity of BmintegrinαPS3 in larval granulocytes. Further analyses indicated that haemocytes dispersed from haematopoietic organs (HPOs) into the circulating haemolymph could differentiate into granulocytes. In addition, the processes of encapsulation and phagocytosis were controlled by larval granulocytes. Our work demonstrated that BmintegrinαPS3 could be used as a specific marker for granulocytes and could be applied to future molecular cell biology studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Routine application of fractionated HMPAO stored at -70 degrees C for WBC scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, G J; Powe, J E

    1993-01-01

    The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-HMPAO prepared from fractions of reconstituted HMPAO stored at -70 degrees C and its application in the radiolabeling of human granulocytes was investigated. Upon reconstitution of a vial of HMPAO with 1 ml of saline and subsequent freezing at -70 degrees C, small fractions were obtained on each of four consecutive days with the vial being refrozen after each dispensing. Following radiolabeling of the HMPAO fractions with pertechnetate, mean radiochemical purity results met or exceeded manufacturers' specifications for the radiopharmaceutical on each of the four days. Imaging with radiolabeled granulocytes using 99mTc-HMPAO prepared by this technique resulted in high quality clinical studies. These results demonstrate that a vial of HMPAO can be fractionated, after storage at -70 degrees C with no loss of clinical utility for radiolabeling granulocytes and considerable cost savings.

  12. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-based stem cell mobilization in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Cara; Peace, David; Rich, Elizabeth; Van Besien, Koen

    2008-06-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported to exacerbate vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell disease. It has been recommended to avoid its use for stem cell mobilization in this population, yet autologous transplant is the standard of care and at times a life-saving treatment for patients with various hematologic malignancies such as relapsed aggressive lymphoma or multiple myeloma. We report 5 cases of patients with sickle cell disease and related hemoglobinopathies who underwent granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). Three of them developed manageable vaso-occlusive pain symptoms requiring parenteral narcotics alone. The 2 others had no complications. These cases demonstrate that stem cell mobilization using G-CSF, although complicated and not without risk, is feasible in patients with sickle cell syndromes.

  13. Lack of effect of a granulocyte proliferation inhibitor or their committed precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Lord, B I; Testa, N G; Wright, E G; Banerjee, R K

    1977-05-01

    Using the agar culture technique, we have measured the effect of granulocyte extracts GCE (and of erythrocyte-RCE and lymph node extracts-LNE) on the growth and proliferation of the committed granulocytic precursor cells, CFU-C. In addition we have determined their effects on the proliferation of the developing colony cells and on the ultimate cell production in the colonies. The results show that GCE has no effect on the growth or proliferative activity on the CFU-C. It does, however, reduce both the autoradiographic labelling indices of the developing colony cells and the net colony cellularities, acting as a cell cycle modulator. These are effects specific to the GCE since at the dose levels used, neither RCE nor LNE affected these measurements.

  14. Transdiaphragmatic peritoneal hernia complicating peritoneal dialysis: demonstration with spiral computed tomography peritoneography and peritoneal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Coche, Emmanuel; Lonneux, Max; Goffin, Eric

    2005-08-01

    The authors describe a rare case of peritoneal transdiaphragmatic hernia discovered immediately after a car accident in a young male patient on peritoneal dialysis. The potential role of CT peritoneography and peritoneal scintigraphy to demonstrate and understand thoracic complications of ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is discussed.

  15. Early detection of restenosis after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty by exercise-redistribution thallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wijns, W.; Serruys, P.W.; Reiber, J.H.; de Feyter, P.J.; van den Brand, M.; Simoons, M.L.; Hugenholtz, P.G.

    1985-02-01

    The value of exercise testing and thallium scintigraphy in predicting recurrence of angina pectoris and restenosis after a primary successful transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was prospectively evaluated. In 89 patients, a symptom-limited exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) and thallium scintigraphy were performed 4 weeks after they had undergone successful PTCA. Thereafter, the patients were followed for 6.4 +/- 2.5 months (mean +/- standard deviation) or until recurrence of angina. They all underwent a repeat coronary angiography at 6 months or earlier if symptoms recurred. PTCA was considered successful if the patients had no symptoms and if the stenosis was reduced to less than 50% of the luminal diameter. Restenosis was defined as an increase of the stenosis to more than 50% luminal diameter. The ability of the thallium scintigram (presence of a reversible defect) to predict recurrence of angina was 66%, vs 38% for the exercise ECG (ST-segment depression or angina at peak workload). Restenosis was predicted in 74% of patients by thallium scintigraphy, but only in 50% of patients by the exercise ECG. Thus, thallium scintigraphy was highly predictive but the exercise ECG was not (p less than 0.005). These results suggest that restenosis had occurred to some extent already at 4 weeks after the PTCA in most patients in whom it was going to occur.

  16. Levodopa challenge test and (123) I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy for diagnosing Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Asayama, S; Wate, R; Kaneko, S; Asayama, T; Oki, M; Tsuge, A; Nagashima, M; Morita, J; Nakamura, S; Nakamura, M; Nishii, M; Fujita, K; Saito, A; Nakano, S; Ito, H; Kusaka, H

    2013-09-01

    To explore the possibility of a generally applicable tool for the immediate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) in its early stage, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of an acute levodopa challenge test with that of (123) I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. A consecutive series of 45 patients with extrapyramidal symptoms were recruited to the acute levodopa challenge and evaluated for improvement by use of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores. Of these patients, 32 of them were also examined by MIBG scintigraphy. The patients were followed up for at least 24 months, and 22 patients were diagnosed as having clinically definite PD. The sensitivity and specificity of the acute levodopa challenge test to predict clinical diagnosis of PD were 81.8% and 81.8%, respectively, which were better than those obtained by MIBG scintigraphy (62.5% and 62.5%). In both early- and middle-stages of PD, the test gave better sensitivity than MIBG scintigraphy. Considering that the well-established and frequently referred clinical diagnostic criteria require longitudinal observation for at least 24 months, the acute levodopa challenge test can be used as an immediate diagnostic tool for PD with sensitivity and specificity comparable to those of MIBG. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Evaluation of soft tissue injury by Tc-99m bone agent scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Delpassand, E.S.; Dhekne, R.D.; Barron, B.J.; Moore, W.H. )

    1991-05-01

    Six patients with soft tissue injury secondary to different etiologic factors are presented. The degree and extent of tissue necrosis was precisely identified by scintigraphy. In two of these, radionuclide imaging helped to establish accurately the level of amputation that resulted in appropriate wound healing.

  18. Leucocyte scintigraphy or computed tomography for the febrile post-operative patient?

    PubMed

    Bearcroft, P W; Miles, K A

    1996-09-01

    The optimal initial investigation for the post-operative patient with suspected occult intra-abdominal sepsis is controversial, although the diagnostic accuracy of a variety of techniques is known. Our objective is to determine which investigation has the greatest positive effect on patient management. We reviewed 67 consecutive post-operative patients investigated for suspected occult sepsis retrospectively and analysed the sequence of investigations required to achieve the diagnosis depending on the choice of initial investigation, and the interval between between initiating investigations and performing definitive percutaneous drainage. Forty patients had scintigraphy as the initial investigation and 21 of these went on to require CT. None of the 27 patients who had CT as the initial investigation required any other imaging (chi 2 = 20.6, P < 0.0001) and appropriate percutaneous drainage was offered immediately. Conversely, the average interval to drainage in those who had scintigraphy first was 3.1 days. Fourteen out of 20 patients (70%) who had scintigraphy as the initial investigation following recent surgery, and 7 of 20 (35%) following old surgery, needed subsequent CT. None of the 20 and 7 patients in the recent and old surgery groups respectively who had CT initially required further imaging. Our results suggest recommending CT as the initial investigation in the early post-operative period as this will reduce the total number of investigations required to achieve the diagnosis and the time to definitive drainage. In the late post-operative period, scintigraphy will resolve the majority of problems.

  19. Exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy in the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kotler, T.S.; Diamond, G.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the discriminant accuracy of exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. This is a survey of the National Library of Medicine MEDLINE database. The key medical subject headings used were coronary disease, myocardial infarction, radionuclide imaging, and thallium. A total of 122 retrieved studies were considered relevant and were reviewed in depth. Only studies reporting both the sensitivity and specificity of thallium scintigraphy were analyzed. Discriminant accuracy for diagnosis and prognosis was summarized in terms of pooled sensitivity and specificity. Exercise thallium scintigraphy is useful in the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease, especially in patients with abnormal resting electrocardiograms, restricted exercise tolerance, and intermediate probability of having disease at the time of testing as well as of defining the prognosis of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease, especially in those with previous myocardial infarction. Because of various shortcomings in the published record, however, the marginal discriminant accuracy and cost effectiveness of thallium scintigraphy compared with conventional clinical assessment and exercise electrocardiography remain controversial. 193 references.

  20. Thallium-201 scintigraphy for the assessment of long-term prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Inaki, Anri; Taki, Junichi; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Sumiya, Hisashi; Zen, Yoh; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm the prognostic value of (201)Tl scintigraphy in the midcourse of preoperative chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma. The 28 patients with biopsy-proven osteosarcoma were enrolled retrospectively in this study. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 min after injection of 111 MBq (201)Tl before preoperative chemotherapy and after third course (midcourse) of chemotherapy in all patients. The (201)Tl uptake ratio was calculated by dividing the count density of the lesion by that of the contralateral normal area. The percentage reduction of the (201)Tl uptake ratio calculated by 100 × [(pre-chemotherapy ratio - mid-chemotherapy ratio)/pre-chemotherapy ratio] was compared with the histopathological response and long-term survival rate. Good histopathological response was observed in 16 patients. Mean follow-up period was 58.0 ± 41 months. Both overall and event-free survival rates of histopathologically good responders were significantly higher than that of poor responders (P = 0.018 and P = 0.0076). There was also significant correlation between pre-chemotherapeutic effect evaluated with (201)Tl scintigraphy and overall and event-free survival rate in all patients (P = 0.045 and P = 0.017, respectively), and in patients without metastasis at initial diagnosis (P = 0.043 and P = 0.031, respectively). (201)Tl scintigraphy performed in the middle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy can predict overall survival and event-free survival in patients with osteosarcoma.