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Sample records for individual arabidopsis metallothioneins

  1. Overexpression of Nelumbo nucifera metallothioneins 2a and 3 enhances seed germination vigor in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuliang; Chu, Pu; Chen, Huhui; Li, Yin; Liu, Jun; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-03-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich and metal-binding proteins which are involved in metal homeostasis and scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Although plant MTs have been intensively studied, their roles in seeds remain to be clearly established. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of NnMT2a, NnMT2b and NnMT3 from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) and their roles in seed germination vigor. The transcripts of NnMT2a, NnMT2b and NnMT3 were highly expressed in developing and germinating sacred lotus seeds, and were dramatically up-regulated in response to high salinity, oxidative stresses and heavy metals. Analysis of transformed Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that NnMT2a-YFP and NnMT3-YFP were localized in cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis seeds overexpressing NnMT2a and NnMT3 displayed improved resistance to accelerated aging (AA) treatment, indicating their significant roles in seed germination vigor. These transgenic seeds also exhibited higher superoxide dismutase activity compared to wild-type seeds after AA treatment. In addition, we showed that NnMT2a and NnMT3 conferred improved germination ability to NaCl and methyl viologen on transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Taken together, these data demonstrate that overexpression of NnMT2a and NnMT3 in Arabidopsis significantly enhances seed germination vigor after AA treatment and under abiotic stresses.

  2. Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein-like protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shumei; Sun, Dan; Wang, Ji; Li, Ying; Wang, Xinwang; Liu, Shenkui

    2014-12-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins of low molecular weight with many attributed functions, such as providing protection against metal toxicity, being involved in regulation of metal ions uptake that can impact plant physiology and providing protection against oxidative stress. However, the precise function of the metallothionein-like proteins such as the one coded for rgMT gene isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) is not completely understood. The whole genome analysis of rice (O. sativa) showed that the rgMT gene is homologue to the Os11g47809 on chromosome 11 of O. sativa sp. japonica genome. This study used the rgMT coding sequence to create transgenic lines to investigate the subcellular localization of the protein, as well as the impact of gene expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Arabidopsis thaliana under heavy metal ion, salt and oxidative stresses. The results indicate that the rgMT gene was expressed in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. Yeast cells transgenic for rgMT showed vigorous growth compared to the nontransgenic controls when exposed to 7 mM CuCl2, 10 mM FeCl2, 1 M NaCl, 24 mM NaHCO3 and 3.2 mM H2O2, but there was no significant difference for other stresses tested. Similarly, Arabidopsis transgenic for rgMT displayed significantly improved seed germination rates over that of the control when the seeds were stressed with 100 μM CuCl2 or 1 mM H2O2. Increased biomass was observed in the presence of 100 μM CuCl2, 220 μM FeCl2, 3 mM Na2CO3, 5 mM NaHCO3 or 1 mM H2O2. These results indicate that the expression of the rice rgMT gene in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis is implicated in improving their tolerance for certain salt and peroxide stressors.

  3. Copper metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Jenifer; Jung, Hunmin; Meloni, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a class of low molecular weight and cysteine-rich metal binding proteins present in all the branches of the tree of life. MTs efficiently bind with high affinity several essential and toxic divalent and monovalent transition metals by forming characteristic polynuclear metal-thiolate clusters within their structure. MTs fulfil multiple biological functions related to their metal binding properties, with essential roles in both Zn(II) and Cu(I) homeostasis as well as metal detoxification. Depending on the organism considered, the primary sequence, and the specific physiological and metabolic status, Cu(I)-bound MT isoforms have been isolated, and their chemistry and biology characterized. Besides the recognized role in the biochemistry of divalent metals, it is becoming evident that unique biological functions in selectively controlling copper levels, its reactivity as well as copper-mediated biochemical processes have evolved in some members of the MT superfamily. Selected examples are reviewed to highlight the peculiar chemical properties and biological functions of copper MTs. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 69(4):236-245, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Metallothioneins and renal ageing.

    PubMed

    Leierer, Johannes; Rudnicki, Michael; Braniff, Susie-Jane; Perco, Paul; Koppelstaetter, Christian; Mühlberger, Irmgard; Eder, Susanne; Kerschbaum, Julia; Schwarzer, Christoph; Schroll, Andrea; Weiss, Günter; Schneeberger, Stefan; Wagner, Silvia; Königsrainer, Alfred; Böhmig, Georg A; Mayer, Gert

    2016-09-01

    Human lifespan is increasing continuously and about one-third of the population >70 years of age suffers from chronic kidney disease. The pathophysiology of the loss of renal function with ageing is unclear. We determined age-associated gene expression changes in zero-hour biopsies of deceased donor kidneys without laboratory signs of impaired renal function, defined as a last serum creatinine >0.96 mg/dL in females and >1.18 mg/dL in males, using microarray technology and the Significance Analysis of Microarrays routine. Expression changes of selected genes were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for localization of respective mRNA and protein. Functional aspects were examined in vitro. Donors were classified into three age groups (<40, 40-59 and >59 years; Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively). In Group 3 especially, genes encoding for metallothionein (MT) isoforms were more significantly expressed when compared with Group 1; localization studies revealed predominant staining in renal proximal tubular cells. RPTEC/TERT1 cells overexpressing MT2A were less susceptible towards cadmium chloride-induced cytotoxicity and hypoxia-induced apoptosis, both models for increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Increased expression of MTs in the kidney with ageing might be a protective mechanism against increased oxidative stress, which is closely related to the ageing process. Our findings indicate that MTs are functionally involved in the pathophysiology of ageing-related processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  5. Metallothionein protection of cadmium toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, Curtis D. Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2009-08-01

    The discovery of the cadmium (Cd)-binding protein from horse kidney in 1957 marked the birth of research on this low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich protein called metallothionein (MT) in Cd toxicology. MT plays minimal roles in the gastrointestinal absorption of Cd, but MT plays important roles in Cd retention in tissues and dramatically decreases biliary excretion of Cd. Cd-bound to MT is responsible for Cd accumulation in tissues and the long biological half-life of Cd in the body. Induction of MT protects against acute Cd-induced lethality, as well as acute toxicity to the liver and lung. Intracellular MT also plays important roles in ameliorating Cd toxicity following prolonged exposures, particularly chronic Cd-induced nephrotoxicity, osteotoxicity, and toxicity to the lung, liver, and immune system. There is an association between human and rodent Cd exposure and prostate cancers, especially in the portions where MT is poorly expressed. MT expression in Cd-induced tumors varies depending on the type and the stage of tumor development. For instance, high levels of MT are detected in Cd-induced sarcomas at the injection site, whereas the sarcoma metastases are devoid of MT. The use of MT-transgenic and MT-null mice has greatly helped define the role of MT in Cd toxicology, with the MT-null mice being hypersensitive and MT-transgenic mice resistant to Cd toxicity. Thus, MT is critical for protecting human health from Cd toxicity. There are large individual variations in MT expression, which might in turn predispose some people to Cd toxicity.

  6. Yeast metallothionein function in metal ion detoxification.

    PubMed

    Ecker, D J; Butt, T R; Sternberg, E J; Neeper, M P; Debouck, C; Gorman, J A; Crooke, S T

    1986-12-25

    A genetic approach was taken to test the function of yeast metallothionein in metal ion detoxification. A yeast strain was constructed in which the metallothionein locus was deleted (cup1 delta). The cup1 delta strain was complemented with normal or mutant metallothionein genes under normal or constitutive regulatory control on high copy episomal plasmids. Metal resistance of the cup1 delta strain with and without the metallothionein-expressing vectors was analyzed. The normally regulated metallothionein gene conferred resistance only to copper (1000-fold); constitutively expressed metallothionein conferred resistance to both copper (500-fold) and cadmium (1000-fold), but not to mercury, zinc, silver, cobalt, nickel, gold, platinum, lanthanum, uranium, or tin. Two mutant versions of the metallothionein gene were constructed and tested for their ability to confer metal resistance in the cup1 delta background. The first had a deletion of a highly conserved amino acid sequence (Lys-Lys-Ser-Cys-Cys-Ser). The second was a hybrid gene consisting of the sequences coding for the first 20 amino acids of the yeast protein fused to the monkey metallothionein gene. Expression of these genes under the CUP1 promoter provided significant protection from copper, but none of the other metals tested. These results demonstrate that there is significant flexibility in the structural requirements for metallothionein to function in copper detoxification and that yeast metallothionein is also capable of detoxifying cadmium under conditions of constitutive expression.

  7. Multiscale digital Arabidopsis predicts individual organ and whole-organism growth

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Yin Hoon; Wenden, Bénédicte; Flis, Anna; Mengin, Virginie; Taylor, Jasper; Davey, Christopher L.; Tindal, Christopher; Thomas, Howard; Ougham, Helen J.; de Reffye, Philippe; Stitt, Mark; Williams, Mathew; Muetzelfeldt, Robert; Halliday, Karen J.; Millar, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how dynamic molecular networks affect whole-organism physiology, analogous to mapping genotype to phenotype, remains a key challenge in biology. Quantitative models that represent processes at multiple scales and link understanding from several research domains can help to tackle this problem. Such integrated models are more common in crop science and ecophysiology than in the research communities that elucidate molecular networks. Several laboratories have modeled particular aspects of growth in Arabidopsis thaliana, but it was unclear whether these existing models could productively be combined. We test this approach by constructing a multiscale model of Arabidopsis rosette growth. Four existing models were integrated with minimal parameter modification (leaf water content and one flowering parameter used measured data). The resulting framework model links genetic regulation and biochemical dynamics to events at the organ and whole-plant levels, helping to understand the combined effects of endogenous and environmental regulators on Arabidopsis growth. The framework model was validated and tested with metabolic, physiological, and biomass data from two laboratories, for five photoperiods, three accessions, and a transgenic line, highlighting the plasticity of plant growth strategies. The model was extended to include stochastic development. Model simulations gave insight into the developmental control of leaf production and provided a quantitative explanation for the pleiotropic developmental phenotype caused by overexpression of miR156, which was an open question. Modular, multiscale models, assembling knowledge from systems biology to ecophysiology, will help to understand and to engineer plant behavior from the genome to the field. PMID:25197087

  8. Multiscale digital Arabidopsis predicts individual organ and whole-organism growth.

    PubMed

    Chew, Yin Hoon; Wenden, Bénédicte; Flis, Anna; Mengin, Virginie; Taylor, Jasper; Davey, Christopher L; Tindal, Christopher; Thomas, Howard; Ougham, Helen J; de Reffye, Philippe; Stitt, Mark; Williams, Mathew; Muetzelfeldt, Robert; Halliday, Karen J; Millar, Andrew J

    2014-09-30

    Understanding how dynamic molecular networks affect whole-organism physiology, analogous to mapping genotype to phenotype, remains a key challenge in biology. Quantitative models that represent processes at multiple scales and link understanding from several research domains can help to tackle this problem. Such integrated models are more common in crop science and ecophysiology than in the research communities that elucidate molecular networks. Several laboratories have modeled particular aspects of growth in Arabidopsis thaliana, but it was unclear whether these existing models could productively be combined. We test this approach by constructing a multiscale model of Arabidopsis rosette growth. Four existing models were integrated with minimal parameter modification (leaf water content and one flowering parameter used measured data). The resulting framework model links genetic regulation and biochemical dynamics to events at the organ and whole-plant levels, helping to understand the combined effects of endogenous and environmental regulators on Arabidopsis growth. The framework model was validated and tested with metabolic, physiological, and biomass data from two laboratories, for five photoperiods, three accessions, and a transgenic line, highlighting the plasticity of plant growth strategies. The model was extended to include stochastic development. Model simulations gave insight into the developmental control of leaf production and provided a quantitative explanation for the pleiotropic developmental phenotype caused by overexpression of miR156, which was an open question. Modular, multiscale models, assembling knowledge from systems biology to ecophysiology, will help to understand and to engineer plant behavior from the genome to the field.

  9. Voltammetric Methods in Metallothionein Research

    PubMed Central

    Navrátil, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    The application of voltammetric methods using different rates of polarisation on HMDE reveal inert or labile behaviour of Cd- or Zn- complexes in the presence of excessive cadmium or zinc ions in solution. This phenomenon was demonstrated first on the simplest phytochelatin – complex of peptide (γ-Glu-Cys)2 Gly with cadmium, later on rabbit liver metallothioneins – Cd7 MT in the presence of cadmium and Cd5 Zn2 MT in the presence of zinc. Voltammetric methods can distinguish between labile and inert complexes present simultaneously and therefore could elucidate their role in reactions of metal ion transfer. Another method using different rates of polarisation – elimination voltammetry with linear scan – proved that S-tetracoordinated complexes of Cd(II) or Zn(II) in the above-mentioned metallothioneins on HMDE are reduced in the adsorbed state. This implies the possibility of increasing the sensitivity of identification or determination of the above complexes. On carbon composite electrode, similar behaviour of Cd-complexes as on HMDE was observed using differential pulse voltammetry. PMID:18365088

  10. Individual and joint activity of terpenoids, isolated from Calamintha nepeta extract, on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Graña, Elisa; Reigosa, Manuel J; Sánchez-Moreiras, Adela M; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Four terpenoids, camphor, pulegone, trans-caryophyllene and farnesene, previously found in Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi methanolic extract and essential oils were assayed on germination and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. None of the terpenes, singularly or in combination, was able to inhibit the germination process. Farnesene and trans-caryophyllene caused a strong inhibitory effect on root growth, and pulegone, at the highest concentrations, reduced lateral root formation. Although the mixture of camphor-trans-caryophyllene with or without farnesene did not cause any effect on root growth, the addition of pulegone induced a marked synergistic activity. Moreover, the addition, at low concentration, of farnesene to pulegone-camphor-trans-caryophyllene mixture further increased the inhibitory effect on root elongation. These results suggested that the inhibitory effects caused by C. nepeta methanolic extract may depend on the combined action of different molecules.

  11. Arsenic binding to Fucus vesiculosus metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Maureen E; Ngu, Thanh; Stillman, Martin J

    2004-11-05

    The seaweed Fucus vesiculosus is a member of the brown algae family. Kille and co-workers [Biochem. J. 338 (1999) 553] reported that this species contains the gene for metallothionein. Metallothionein is a metalloprotein having low molecular weight, and high cysteine content, which binds a range of metals. F. vesiculosus bioaccumulates arsenic from the aquatic environment [Mar. Chem. 18 (1986) 321]. In this paper we describe arsenic binding to F. vesiculosus metallothionein, characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Five arsenic-MT species were detected with increasing As to protein ratios. These results provide important information about the metal-chelation behaviour of this novel algal metallothionein which is a putative model for arsenic binding to F. vesiculosus in vivo.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies against metallothioneins and metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Talbot, B G; Bilodeau, G; Thirion, J P

    1986-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against rabbit metallothioneins (MT) were prepared by in vitro immunization of mouse lymphocytes with a mixture of the two forms of metallothionein MT1 and MT2. Six IgM antibodies (TN1,3,4,5,6,7) which bind to metallothionein were characterized. Antibody TN3 is specific for rabbit MT1 and does not react with any other MT's tested. TN5 is specific for both rabbit MT1 and MT2. TN7 is specific for rabbit MT2 but not MT1 and cross-reacts also with Chinese hamster, mouse and rat metallothioneins. The antibodies TN1, TN4 and TN6 bind not only to rabbit MT1 and MT2 but also to other metal binding proteins like alcohol dehydrogenase and carbonic anhydrase.

  13. Dietary cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene increased intestinal metallothionein expression in the fish Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Rezvankhah, Saeid; Perez-Matus, Alejandro; Mitelberg, A.; Torruellas, K.; Van Veld, P. A.

    2008-10-17

    To test the effect of dietary exposure to cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene on induction of metallothionein mRNA in the Fundulus heteroclitus, fish were individually fed a pelletized gel food containing cadmium, benzo(a)pyrene, or a combination of the two over a period of seven days, then analyzed for relative levels of metallothionein mRNA in the intestine, liver, and gill using real-time RT-qPCR. An initial experiment with only cadmium exposure showed an apparent 10-fold induction in the intestine, but no induction in liver or gill. Ingestion of contaminated pellets varied in individual fish, and because it was possible to monitor individual ingestion rates with our method, individual cadmium doses were estimated from the amount of ingested cadmium. When the levels of metallothionein mRNA were related to the dose to each fish, a linear dose-response relationship was observed for the intestine, but not the other organs, which showed no induction. In a second experiment, dose was controlled by placing the entire daily cadmium dose into a single contaminated pellet that was fed first (thereby, effectively controlling the effect of variable ingestion rates), and the interaction between cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene was also investigated. The intestine was again the primary organ for metallothionein induction by cadmium, with a 20-fold increase in metallothionein mRNA over control levels. When benzo(a)pyrene was administered together with cadmium, induction of metallothionein was potentiated by the presence of benzo(a)pyrene, with the main effect seen in the intestine, where already high levels of induction by cadmium alone increased by 1.74-fold when benzo(a)pyrene was present.

  14. The precise regulation of different COR genes by individual CBF transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yihao; Huang, Jiaying; Sun, Tianshu; Wang, Xuefei; Zhu, Chenqi; Ai, Yuxi; Gu, Hongya

    2017-02-01

    The transcription factors CBF1/2/3 are reported to play a dominant role in the cold responsive network of Arabidopsis by directly regulating the expression levels of cold responsive (COR) genes. In this study, we obtained CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function mutants of cbf1∼3. Over 3,000 COR genes identified by RNA-seq analysis showed a slight but significant change in their expression levels in the mutants compared to the wild-type plants after being treated at 4 °C for 12 h. The C-repeat (CRT) motif (5'-CCGAC-3') was enriched in promoters of genes that were up-regulated by CBF2 and CBF3 but not in promoters of genes up-regulated by CBF1. These data suggest that CBF2 and CBF3 play a more important role in directing the cold response by regulating different sets of downstream COR genes. More than 2/3 of COR genes were co-regulated by two or three CBFs and were involved mainly in cellular signal transduction and metabolic processes; less than 1/3 of the genes were regulated by one CBF, and those genes up-regulated were enriched in cold-related abiotic stress responses. Our results indicate that CBFs play an important role in the trade-off between cold tolerance and plant growth through the precise regulation of COR genes in the complicated transcriptional network. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Arsenic Induction of Metallothionein and Metallothionein Induction Against Arsenic Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur; De Ley, Marc

    Human exposure to arsenic (As) can lead to oxidative stress that can become evident in organs such as the skin, liver, kidneys and lungs. Several intracellular antioxidant defense mechanisms including glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) have been shown to minimize As cytotoxicity. The current review summarizes the involvement of MT as an intracellular defense mechanism against As cytotoxicity, mostly in blood. Zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) supplements are also proposed as a possible remediation of As cytotoxicity. In vivo and in vitro studies on As toxicity were reviewed to summarize cytotoxic mechanisms of As. Intracellular antioxidant defense mechanisms of MT are linked in relation to As cytotoxicity. Arsenic uses a different route, compared to major metal MT inducers such as Zn, to enter/exit blood cells. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies showed that upregulated MT biosynthesis in blood components are related to toxic levels of As. Despite the cysteine residues in MT that aid to bind As, MT is not the preferred binding protein for As. Nonetheless, intracellular oxidative stress due to As toxicity can be minimized, if not eliminated, by MT. Thus MT induction by essential metals such as Zn and Se supplementation could be beneficial to fight against As toxicity.

  16. Null Mutants of Individual RABA Genes Impact the Proportion of Different Cell Wall Components in Stem Tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lunn, Daniel; Gaddipati, Sanyasi R.; Tucker, Gregory A.; Lycett, Grantley W.

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, and other plants, the RABA GTPases (orthologous to the Rab11a of mammals) have expanded in number and diversity and have been shown to belong to eight sub clades, some of which have been implicated in controlling vesicles that traffic cell wall polymers and enzymes that synthesise or modify them to the cell wall. In order to investigate this, we have investigated whether T-DNA insertion knockouts of individual RABA genes belonging to different sub clades, impact on the composition of the plant cell wall. Single gene knockouts of the RABA1, RABA2 and RABA4 sub clades primarily affected the percentage composition of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose within the cell wall, respectively, despite having no obvious phenotype in the whole plant. We hypothesise that vesicles carrying specific types of cargoes from the Golgi to the cell surface may be regulated by particular sub types of RABA proteins, a finding that could have wider implications for how trafficking systems work and could be a useful tool in cell wall research and other fields of plant biology. PMID:24124508

  17. Molecular cloning and sequencing of metallothionein in squamates: new insights into the evolution of the metallothionein genes in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Trinchella, Francesca; Riggio, Marilisa; Filosa, Silvana; Parisi, Elio; Scudiero, Rosaria

    2008-10-15

    Metallothioneins are cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins ubiquitously expressed in living organisms. In the last past years, a plethora of vertebrate metallothionein sequences have become available, but so far there has been an almost absolute lack of data about sequences of metallothionein of non-avian diapsida. In the framework of the investigations on structural and functional properties of non-mammalian metallothioneins, we have cloned and sequenced the cDNAs encoding for metallothioneins of 10 squamate reptiles, belonging to 5 different infraorders. These sequences have been used to gain insight into the evolutionary history of metallothioneins in reptiles. Phylogenetic analysis shows that reptilian metallothionein phylogeny is inconsistent with the species phylogeny. Such findings allow us to hypothesize that the identified metallothionein in each squamate species used for this study might be considered a paralogous gene derived from more events of gene duplication and losses occurred during the diversification of the squamate species. Finally, through vertebrate metallothionein comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, we also add a novel contribution to the understanding of the evolution of metallothionein genes along the major vertebrate lineages.

  18. Arsenic metalation of seaweed Fucus vesiculosus metallothionein: the importance of the interdomain linker in metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Ngu, Thanh T; Lee, Janice A; Rushton, Moira K; Stillman, Martin J

    2009-09-22

    The presence of metallothionein in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus has been suggested as the protecting agent against toxic metals in the contaminated waters it can grow in. We report the first kinetic pathway data for A3+ binding to an algal metallothionein, F. vesiculosus metallothionein (rfMT). The time and temperature dependence of the relative concentrations of apo-rfMT and the five As-containing species have been determined following mixing of As3+ and apo-rfMT using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS). Kinetic analysis of the detailed time-resolved mass spectral data for As3+ metalation allows the simulation of the metalation reactions showing the consumption of apo-rfMT, the formation and consumption of As1- to As4-rfMT, and subsequent, final formation of As5-rfMT. The kinetic model proposed here provides a stepwise analysis of the metalation reaction showing time-resolved occupancy of the Cys7 and the Cys9 domain. The rate constants (M(-1) s(-1)) calculated from the fits for the 7-cysteine gamma domain are k1gamma, 19.8, and k2gamma, 1.4, and for the 9-cysteine beta domain are k1beta, 16.3, k2beta, 9.1, and k3beta, 2.2. The activation energies and Arrhenius factors for each of the reaction steps are also reported. rfMT has a long 14 residue linker, which as we show from analysis of the ESI MS data, allows each of its two domains to bind As3+ independently of each other. The analysis provides for the first time an explanation of the differing metal-binding properties of two-domain MTs with linkers of varying lengths, suggesting further comparison between plant (with long linkers) and mammalian (with short linkers) metallothioneins will shed light on the role of the interdomain linker.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a hepatic metallothionein from mice.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, M; Nordberg, G F; Piscator, M

    1975-01-01

    Mice were given cadmium chloride orally for 18 weeks, after which they were given two subcutaneous injections of cadmium chloride. Cadmium-and zinc-containing proteins were obtained from livers by ultracentrifugation, Sephadex chromatography and isoelectric focusing. Metallothionein with apI of 4.2 at 8 degrees C was separated from other proteins (possibly including other forms of metallothionein) by the isoelectric procedure. The metallothionein with pI = 4.2 had a high E250, reflecting abundant Cd-SH bonds, in accord with amino acid analysis, which gave a cysteine content of 34.6 residues % and showed an absence of aromatic amino acids. These results indicated a very high purity of the form of metallothionein isolated after isoelectric focusing.

  20. Over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana carotenoid hydroxylases individually and in combination with a beta-carotene ketolase provides insight into in vivo functions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M; Craft, Neal E; Hamberger, Björn; Douglas, Carl J

    2010-02-01

    Carotenoids represent a group of widely distributed pigments derived from the general isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway that possess diverse functions in plant primary and secondary metabolism. Modification of alpha- and beta-carotene backbones depends in part on ring hydroxylation. Two ferredoxin-dependent non-heme di-iron monooxygenases (AtB1 and AtB2) that mainly catalyze in vivo beta-carotene hydroxylations of beta,beta-carotenoids, and two heme-containing cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases (CYP97A3 and CYP97C1) that preferentially hydroxylate the epsilon-ring of alpha-carotene or the beta-ring of beta,epsilon-carotenoids, have been characterized in Arabidopsis by analysis of loss-of-function mutant phenotypes. We further investigated functional roles of both hydroxylase classes in modification of the beta- and epsilon-rings of alpha-carotene and beta-carotene through over-expression of AtB1, CYP97A3, CYP97C1, and the hydroxylase candidate CYP97B3. Since carotenoid hydroxylation is required for generation of ketocarotenoids by the bkt1(CrtO) beta-carotene ketolase, all hydroxylase constructs were also introduced into an Arabidopsis line expressing the Haematococcus pluvalis bkt1 beta-carotene ketolase. Analysis of foliar carotenoid profiles in lines overexpressing the individual hydroxylases indicate a role for CYP97B3 in carotenoid biosynthesis, confirm and extend previous findings of hydroxylase activities based on knock-out mutants, and suggest functions of the multifunctional enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis. Hydroxylase over-expression in combination with bkt1 did not result in ketocarotenoid accumulation, but instead unexpected patterns of alpha-carotene derivatives, accompanied by a reduction of alpha-carotene, were observed. These data suggest possible interactions between the beta-carotene ketolase bkt1 and the hydroxylases that impact partitioning of carbon flux into different carotenoid branch pathways. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mammalian Metallothionein-2A and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xue-Bin; Wei, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jun; Kong, Yue-Qiong; Wu, Yu-You; Guo, Jun-Li; Li, Tian-Fa; Li, Ji-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian metallothionein-2A (MT2A) has received considerable attention in recent years due to its crucial pathophysiological role in anti-oxidant, anti-apoptosis, detoxification and anti-inflammation. For many years, most studies evaluating the effects of MT2A have focused on reactive oxygen species (ROS), as second messengers that lead to oxidative stress injury of cells and tissues. Recent studies have highlighted that oxidative stress could activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and MT2A, as a mediator of MAPKs, to regulate the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, the molecule mechanism of MT2A remains elusive. A deeper understanding of the functional, biochemical and molecular characteristics of MT2A would be identified, in order to bring new opportunities for oxidative stress therapy. PMID:27608012

  2. Different redox states of metallothionein/thionein in biological tissue

    PubMed Central

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian metallothioneins are redox-active metalloproteins. In the case of zinc metallothioneins, the redox activity resides in the cysteine sulfur ligands of zinc. Oxidation releases zinc, whereas reduction re-generates zinc-binding capacity. Attempts to demonstrate the presence of the apoprotein (thionein) and the oxidized protein (thionin) in tissues posed tremendous analytical challenges. One emerging strategy is differential chemical modification of cysteine residues in the protein. Chemical modification distinguishes three states of the cysteine ligands (reduced, oxidized and metal-bound) based on (i) quenched reactivity of the thiolates when bound to metal ions and restoration of thiol reactivity in the presence of metal-ion-chelating agents, and (ii) modification of free thiols with alkylating agents and subsequent reduction of disulfides to yield reactive thiols. Under normal physiological conditions, metallothionein exists in three states in rat liver and in cell lines. Ras-mediated oncogenic transformation of normal HOSE (human ovarian surface epithelial) cells induces oxidative stress and increases the amount of thionin and the availability of cellular zinc. These experiments support the notion that metallothionein is a dynamic protein in terms of its redox state and metal content and functions at a juncture of redox and zinc metabolism. Thus redox control of zinc availability from this protein establishes multiple methods of zinc-dependent cellular regulation, while the presence of both oxidized and reduced states of the apoprotein suggest that they serve as a redox couple, the generation of which is controlled by metal ion release from metallothionein. PMID:17134375

  3. Expression of mouse metallothionein genes in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, I.B.; Yeargan, R.; Wagner, G.J.; Hunt, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    We have expressed a mouse metallothionein (NT) gene in tobacco under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and a pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS) gene promoter. Seedlings in which MT gene expression is driven by the 35S promoter are resistant to toxic levels of cadmium. Mature plants carrying the 35S-MT gene accumulate less Cd in their leaves when exposed to low levels of Cd in laboratory growth conditions. Plants with the rbcS-MT construction express this gene in a light-regulated and tissue-specific manner, as expected. Moreover, the MT levels in leaves in these plants are about 20% of those seen in 35S-MT plants. These plants are currently being tested for Cd resistance. In addition, a small field evaluation of 35S-MT lines for Cd levels is being evaluated. These experiments will address the possibility of using MTs to alter Cd levels in crop species.

  4. Metallothionein immunolocalization in actinic skin nonmelanoma carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Borges Júnior, Paulo C; Ribeiro, Rosy I M A; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Berbet, Alceu L C; Rocha, Ademir; Espindola, Foued S; Loyola, Adriano M

    2007-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most frequent skin cancer. Its pathogeny is linked to genotoxic effects of actinic radiation exposure, especially to ultraviolet wavelength. Metallothionein (MT) is a low-molecular weight protein with high affinity for heavy metal. Its intracellular function has been related to heavy metals and free-radical detoxification, although many studies linked MT to protective action against actinic mutagenesis. In other way, overexpression in malignant tumors has been related to worse prognosis. We aimed to evaluate MT immunohistochemical expression in skin cancer associated to actinic radiation. Twenty-six BCC cases, 20 SCC, and 6 normal skin fragments were investigated. Immunohistochemical assay were performed by streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase technique with standard monoclonal antibody (E9). In normal skin, immunostaining was observed in basal layer of the epithelium. In the epithelium adjacent to tumors, suprabasal layer was also intensely labeled. Mean MT immunostaining indices were 18.5+21.2% for BCC and 69.1+14.4% for SCC. This difference was statistically significant. Higher MT expression in SCC as compared with BCC suggests association with tumoral aggressiveness.

  5. Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein genes: Selection for duplications

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    The metallothionein genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Mtn and Mto, may play an important role in heavy-metal detoxification. In order to investigate the possibility of increased selection for duplications of these genes in natural populations exposed to high levels of heavy metals, I compared the frequencies of such duplications among flies collected from metal-contaminated and non-contaminated orchards in Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Georgia. Contaminated of collection sites and of local flies was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrosphotometry. Six-nucleotide-recognizing restriction enzyme analysis was used to screen 1666 wild third chromosomes for Mtn duplications. A subset (327) of these lines was screened for Mto duplications: none were found. Cadmium tolerance test performed on F{sub 2} progeny of wild females failed to detect a difference in tolerance levels between flies from contaminated orchards and flies from control orchards. Estimates of sequence diversity among a subsample (92) of the chromosomes used in the duplication survey, including all 27 Mtn duplication chromosomes, were obtained using four-nucleotide-recognizing restriction enzyme analysis.

  6. Metallothionein in rabbit kidneys preserved for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Elinder, C G; Lundgren, G; Nordberg, M; Palm, B; Piscator, M

    1984-03-01

    Thirteen rabbits were given repeated cadmium injections to achieve cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex ranging from 0.05 to 1 mmole Cd/kg wet weight. Another four animals served as controls. One kidney from each animal was frozen directly to -70 degrees C whereas the other kidney was kept for 24 hr at +4 degrees C in a preservative (Sachs' solution) to simulate conditions for preservation of human donor kidneys before transplantation. Protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper in kidney homogenates and the concentration of metallothionein (MT) were measured in the kidney that was frozen directly and in the kidney that had been preserved. No gross differences in either the protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper or in the MT content were seen between the directly frozen and preserved kidneys from the same animal. This indicates that MT is not rapidly broken down in rabbit kidneys which have been preserved similarly to human donor kidneys for 24 hr in a standard preservative solution prior to a transplantation.

  7. Metallothionein dimers studied by nano-spray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Yetrib; Reynolds, Kristy J; Szilagyi, Zoltan; Fenselau, Catherine

    2002-01-15

    Both transient and stable dimers of metallothionein have been characterized, based on earlier studies using NMR, circular dichroism and size-exclusion chromatography. Here additional characterization is provided by nanospray mass spectrometry. Rapid redistribution of metal ions between monomeric Cd7- and Zn7-metallothionein 2a is monitored by nanospray. An experiment in which theses two forms of the monomeric protein are separated by a dialysis membrane, which will pass metal ions but not proteins, confirms that a transient dimer must form for metal ions to be redistributed. On the other hand, size-exclusion chromatography of reconstituted Zn7- or Cd7-metallothionein revealed the presence of monomeric and dimeric species. These dimers do not equilibrate readily to form monomers and they are shown to be covalent.

  8. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Cuprous-Thiolate Clusters in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Metallothionein

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Pickering, I.J.; Winge, D.R.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-28

    Copper (Cu) metallothioneins are cuprous-thiolate proteins that contain multimetallic clusters, and are thought to have dual functions of Cu storage and Cu detoxification. We have used a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density-functional theory (DFT) to investigate the nature of Cu binding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae metallothionein. We found that the XAS of metallothionein prepared, containing a full complement of Cu, was quantitatively consistent with the crystal structure, and that reconstitution of the apo-metallothionein with stoichiometric Cu results in the formation of a tetracopper cluster, indicating cooperative binding of the Cu ions by the metallothionein.

  9. Critical exposure level of cadmium for elevated urinary metallothionein-An occupational population study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liang; Jin Taiyi . E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn; Huang, Bo; Nordberg, Gunnar; Nordberg, Monica

    2006-08-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxic agent with extremely long biological half-time of 15-30 years in humans. To prevent nephrotoxicity induced by cadmium, it is necessary to identify specific and sensitive biomarkers of cadmium exposure and renal damage, and to define critical exposure levels related to minimal nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, urinary cadmium (UCd) and blood cadmium (BCd) were used as cadmium exposure indicators, urinary {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin (UB2M), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and albumin (UALB) were applied as the effect biomarkers of tubular and glomerular dysfunction. The relationship between urinary metallothionein (UMT) and cadmium exposure biomarkers as well as effect biomarkers was examined. Significant correlations were found between the UMT and BCd, and UCd. At the same time, UB2M, UALB and UNAG showed positive correlation with UMT as well. According to this result, cadmium-exposed individuals with renal dysfunction excreted more metallothionein than those without. Dose-response relationships between UCd and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction were studied. The critical concentration of UCd was quantitatively estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The lower confidence limit of the BMD-10 (BMDL) of UCd (3.1 {mu}g/g Cr) related to increased excretion of urinary metallothionein was slightly higher than that for UNAG (2.7 {mu}g/g Cr), but lower than those of UB2M (3.4 {mu}g/g Cr) and UALB (4.2 {mu}g/g Cr). The results demonstrate that UMT may be used as a sensitive biomarker of renal tubular dysfunction in cadmium-exposed populations.

  10. Metallothionein function and genetic regulation in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, D.J.; Butt, T.R.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Copper resistance in yeast is mediated by the CUP1 locus which codes for yeast metallothionein (MT). A genetic approach was taken to study yeast MT gene regulation and to test the function of MT in the detoxification of metal ions other than copper. A yeast strain was constructed (cup1/sup ..delta../) in which the MT structural and regulatory sequences were deleted. The deleted gene was then replaced with the following genetically modified forms of MT on high copy episomal plasmid (YE/sup p/ 13): 1) the intact yeast gene with normal structural and regulatory sequences; 2) a constitutively expressed yeast promoter (TDH) running the yeast MT structural gene. Metal resistance in the cup1/sup ..delta../ strain and the cup1/sup ..delta../ strain transformed with the MT plasmid constructions was compared on metal-supplemented agar plates. Both of the high copy MT plasmids conferred in excess of 500-fold greater copper resistance to the cup1/sup ..delta../ strain. Increased cadmium resistance was not observed in any of the strains that had MT under normal regulatory control. However, the strain with constitutively expressed MT was in excess of 1000-fold more resistant to cadmium. Neither of the MT constructions conferred resistance to Hg,Zn,Co,Ni,Ag,Au,Pt,La,U or Sn. MT gene induction measured by the analysis of MT mRNA on northern blots showed that the yeast MT promoter is not induced by Cd, Zn, Au, Hg, Ag, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, steroid hormones or heat shock.

  11. Monitoring metal ion flux in reactions of metallothionein and drug-modified metallothionein by electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Zaia, J.; Fabris, D.; Wei, D.; Karpel, R. L.; Fenselau, C.

    1998-01-01

    The capabilities of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry are demonstrated for monitoring the flux of metal ions out of and into the metalloprotein rabbit liver metallothionein and, in one example, chlorambucil-alkylated metallothionein. Metal ion transfers may be followed as the reactions proceed in situ to provide kinetic information. More uniquely to this technique, metal ion stoichiometries may be determined for reaction intermediates and products. Partners used in these studies include EDTA, carbonic anhydrase, a zinc-bound hexamer of insulin, and the core domain of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein, a binding protein for single-stranded DNA. PMID:9828006

  12. Difference in hepatic metallothionein content in Antarctic red-blooded and haemoglobinless fish: undetectable metallothionein levels in haemoglobinless fish is accompanied by accumulation of untranslated metallothionein mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Scudiero, R; Carginale, V; Riggio, M; Capasso, C; Capasso, A; Kille, P; di Prisco, G; Parisi, E

    1997-01-01

    Icefish (family Channichthyidae, suborder Nothothenioidei) are a group of Antarctic fish that have evolved unique phenotypes in order to adapt to the environment in which they live. Besides the lack of haemoglobin and the drastic reduction in the number of erythrocyte-like cells, another striking feature of the icefish is that their liver is devoid of metallothionein. These cysteine-rich heavy-metal-binding proteins are usually present in large amounts in a large variety of organisms, from bacteria to mammals. Despite the failure to detect appreciable levels of metallothionein in icefish liver, a cDNA encoding metallothionein was produced from total RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. The icefish metallothionein showed high percentage identity with metallothionein from Trematomus bernachii, a red-blooded Antarctic fish in which a normal content of hepatic metallothionein was found. Steady-state mRNA levels were assessed in fish liver by high-stringency hybridization of the metallothionein probe with total RNA. The results showed that icefish livers retain large amounts of untranslated metallothionein mRNA. The stability of the icefish transcript might be correlated with the lack of specific motifs in the untranslated 3' ends of mRNA. PMID:9078263

  13. Label-free bead-based metallothionein electrochemical immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Nejdl, Lukas; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Richtera, Lukas; Krizkova, Sona; Guran, Roman; Masarik, Michal; Hynek, David; Heger, Zbynek; Lundberg, Karin; Erikson, Kristofer; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-08-01

    A novel microfluidic label-free bead-based metallothionein immunosensors was designed. To the surface of superparamagnetic agarose beads coated with protein A, polyclonal chicken IgY specifically recognizing metallothionein (MT) were immobilized via rabbit IgG. The Brdicka reaction was used for metallothionein detection in a microfluidic printed 3D chip. The assembled chip consisted of a single copper wire coated with a thin layer of amalgam as working electrode. Optimization of MT detection using designed microfluidic chip was performed in stationary system as well as in the flow arrangement at various flow rates (0-1800 μL/min). In stationary arrangement it is possible to detect MT concentrations up to 30 ng/mL level, flow arrangement allows reliable detection of even lower concentration (12.5 ng/mL). The assembled miniature flow chip was subsequently tested for the detection of MT elevated levels (at approx. level 100 μg/mL) in samples of patients with cancer. The stability of constructed device for metallothionein detection in flow arrangement was found to be several days without any maintenance needed.

  14. Cadmium and copper metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, D.W.; Brouwer, M.

    1986-03-01

    Lobsters were fed cadmium-rich oysters for 28 days, and the induction of cadmium metallothionein and its relation to concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the digestive gland and gills was determined. A portion of the tissues also was retained for determining the cytosolic distribution of these metals by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The digestive gland contained a majority of the cadmium, copper, and zinc, and both cadmium and zinc were actively accumulated from the oysters. Gel chromatography of the digestive gland cytosol showed that initially only copper was bound to a protein with a molecular weight in the range of metallothionein (i.e., 10,000-7000). However, after feeding on cadmium-laden oysters for 28 days, both cadmium and copper were bound to the metallothioneinlike protein. Further purification of the cadmium/copper protein by ion-exchange chromatography showed that a large portion of the copper and all of the cadmium did not bind to DEAE-Sephacel. The induction of cadmium metallothionein in the digestive gland is correlated with tissue cadmium concentration. Coincident with the induction of the cadmium metallothionein was a cytosolic redistribution of copper. The distribution of zinc was not affected.

  15. Obesity and metabolomics: metallothioneins protect against high-fat diet-induced consequences in metallothionein knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Lindeque, Jeremie Z; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J; Louw, Roan; van der Westhuizen, Francois H; Florit, Sergi; Ramírez, Lorena; Giralt, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Juan

    2015-02-01

    Obesity continues to rise as an alarming global epidemic. System level mechanisms, diagnostics, and therapeutics are sorely needed so as to identify at risk individuals and design appropriate population scale interventions. The present study evaluated the protective role of metallothioneins (MTs) against obesity and high-fat diet-induced effects such as insulin resistance in both male and female MT-1+2 knockout and MT-3 knockout mice. As the metabolome is closest to the functional phenotype, changes in metabolite levels were also evaluated, and the direct or indirect involvement of MTs in metabolism examined. MT-1+2-, MT-3 knockout, and wild-type mice were given a high-fat diet for 2 months. Variation in body weight gain, tissue weight, and response to oral glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were determined and compared to mice that received the control diet. Effect of the high-fat diet on the knockout mice were investigated on the metabolome level in specific tissues using metabolomics. Both knockout mice strains were more susceptible to high-fat diet-induced effects, such as weight gain and moderate insulin resistance, with the MT-3 knockout mice most susceptible. Brain tissue of the knockout mice showed most metabolic variation and pointed to possible impairment of mitochondrial function. The protective effect of MTs against high-fat diet and obesity-induced effects such as insulin resistance was evident from our observations. The putative role MTs play in mitochondrial function is possibly the main contributor to the lack of these effects in wild-type mice. Considering the expression profiles of the MT isoforms and similarity in brain metabolic variation in the knockout strains, it appears that they promote mitochondrial function in the hypothalamus, thereby limiting weight gain and insulin resistance. Furthermore, metabolomics research in preclinical models of obesity and in the clinic is warranted in the near future.

  16. Increased metallothionein content in rat liver induced by x irradiation and exposure to high oxygen tension

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, N.; Aono, K.; Utsumi, K.

    1983-08-01

    X irradiation and exposure to high oxygen tension are known to induce lipid peroxidation. The effects of these stresses on hepatic content of metallothionein, which may be involved in the regulation of zinc and copper metabolism, have been studied. The amount of metallothionein in rat liver was increased 11-fold by a high dose of X irradiation (1000 R). Increased metallothionein content (about 15 times) was also observed in liver of rats exposed to high oxygen tension for 3 days.

  17. Sheep have an unusual variant of the brain-specific metallothionein, metallothionein-III.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Roger S; Holloway, Adele F; Eckhardt, Bedrich L; Harris, Julie A; Vickers, James C; Chuah, Meng Inn; West, Adrian K

    2002-01-01

    Sheep metallothionein-III (MT-III) cDNA was isolated from a brain cDNA library and characterized. In contrast with MT-III from other species, sheep MT-III cDNA is predicted to encode a protein with significantly different metal-binding properties, owing to the loss of three of its cysteine residues. RT-PCR from other sheep confirmed that this aberrant structure is ubiquitous in this species. MT-III was successfully isolated from sheep brain, demonstrating that the cDNA does give rise to a protein product of the predicted structure. Sheep MT-III is similar to other mammalian MT-IIIs in that it retains the Cys-Pro-Cys-Pro motif which is thought to encode growth-inhibitory activity, and we show that it is likewise able to inhibit neuron survival in vitro. This is the first naturally occurring variant of MT-III (or any other major mammalian MT gene) which gives rise to a protein product. These findings are discussed in light of proposed roles of MT in the mammalian brain. PMID:11931634

  18. Immunochemical Detection of Metallothionein in Specific Epithelial Cells of Rat Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Keith G.; Ohi, Seigo; Huang, P. C.

    1982-04-01

    The distribution of a heavy metal binding protein, metallothionein, was studied immunocytochemically by using antimetallothionein antibody and the immunoperoxidase staining technique on histological sections of liver, kidney, intestine, lung, and testis from cadmium-treated rats. These tissues either accumulate heavy metals (e.g., liver, kidney, and testis) or are exposed to metal by ingestion or inhalation (intestine and lung). Staining for metallothionein was observed intracellularly in epithelial parenchymal cells of the liver and kidney; all hepatocytes and most renal tubular cells stained for the protein. Accumulation of metallothionein was not seen in connective tissue cells surrounding either blood vessels or renal tubules. Extracellular localization of metallothionein was also observed in the liver sinusoids and within the lumina of the renal tubules, suggesting a metal transport or excretory function for this protein. Surface columnar epithelial cells of the intestinal villi indicated the presence of metallothionein but connective tissue cells of the lamina propria were negative for the protein. The granular secretory Paneth cells of the small intestine also stained strongly for metallothionein as did respiratory epithelial cells of the lung. In the testis, metallothionein was detected in the Sertoli cells and interstitial cells but not within the spermatogonia. Sertoli cells are closely associated with the developing spermatogonia and appear to serve a nutritive role in spermatogenesis. Because of the secretory, absorptive, or nutritive function of the metallothionein-localizing cells in the organs studied, we suggest that metallothionein may be involved in metal storage or transport in addition to its commonly proposed detoxification role.

  19. Inheritance of a functional mouse metallothionein gene in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, I.B.; Wagner, G.J.; Yeargan, R.; Hunt, A.G. )

    1989-04-01

    Morphologically normal plants were obtained from progeny (Ro, R1 and R2) originating from tobacco leaf tissue transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing a chimeric gene for kanamycin resistance an the mouse metallothionein cDNA gene directed by the constitutive promote 35S from CaMV. Integration and expression in R1 progeny was demonstrated by Southern, Northern blot analysis and metallothionein assay. Kanamycin resistance analysis of R1 and R2 progeny showed inheritance to be as a dominant Mendelian trait. Seedlings obtained from self-fertilized transgenic tobacco are more tolerant to cadmium stress than nontransformed controls. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of transgenic seedlings exposed to a low, field-like Cd concentration was about 20% lower than that in nontransformed controls.

  20. Metallothionein – Immunohistochemical Cancer Biomarker: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gumulec, Jaromir; Raudenska, Martina; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Masarik, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) has been extensively investigated as a molecular marker of various types of cancer. In spite of the fact that numerous reviews have been published in this field, no meta-analytical approach has been performed. Therefore, results of to-date immunohistochemistry-based studies were summarized using meta-analysis in this review. Web of science, PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL databases were searched (up to April 30, 2013) and the eligibility of individual studies and heterogeneity among the studies was assessed. Random and fixed effects model meta-analysis was employed depending on the heterogeneity, and publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots and Egger's tests. A total of 77 studies were included with 8,015 tissue samples (4,631 cases and 3,384 controls). A significantly positive association between MT staining and tumors (vs. healthy tissues) was observed in head and neck (odds ratio, OR 9.95; 95% CI 5.82–17.03) and ovarian tumors (OR 7.83; 1.09–56.29), and a negative association was ascertained in liver tumors (OR 0.10; 0.03–0.30). No significant associations were identified in breast, colorectal, prostate, thyroid, stomach, bladder, kidney, gallbladder, and uterine cancers and in melanoma. While no associations were identified between MT and tumor staging, a positive association was identified with the tumor grade (OR 1.58; 1.08–2.30). In particular, strong associations were observed in breast, ovarian, uterine and prostate cancers. Borderline significant association of metastatic status and MT staining were determined (OR 1.59; 1.03–2.46), particularly in esophageal cancer. Additionally, a significant association between the patient prognosis and MT staining was also demonstrated (hazard ratio 2.04; 1.47–2.81). However, a high degree of inconsistence was observed in several tumor types, including colorectal, kidney and prostate cancer. Despite the ambiguity in some tumor types, conclusive results are provided in the tumors of

  1. Urinary metallothionein as a biological indicator of occupational cadmium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tohyama, C.; Shaikh, Z.A.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay and neutron activation data indicate that the urinary metallothionein concentration is related to the liver Cd concentration in occupational Cd exposure. It is also related to the kidney Cd content - but only before the onset of renal dysfunction. Further epidemiological studies are needed to establish a dose-response relationship, which may be useful in minimizing the hazard of Cd-induced renal dysfunction.

  2. Metal thiolate clusters in cobalt(II)-metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Vasák, M; Kägi, J H

    1981-11-01

    Rabbit liver metallothionein-1 in which all seven metal-binding sites are occupied by cobalt(II) exhibits spectral features typical of tetrathiolate coordination with approximate Td microsymmetry [Vasák, M. (1980) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 3953-3955]. With a total of 20 cysteine residues per molecule, this mode of metal binding implies that some of the thiolate ligands are shared by neighboring Co(II) ions, resulting in clustered structures. In this study, evidence for the existence of thiolate-linked Co(II) clusters is presented and their mode of formation is explored by comparing the optical and magnetic properties of forms of Co(II)-metallothionein containing 1-7 equivalents of Co(II). Preparations with up to 4 Co(II) equivalents display electronic spectra in the d-d and charge-transfer regions that resemble those of isolated tetrahedral Co(II)-tetrathiolate complexes. Upon binding of more than four Co(II) ions, however, the spectrum changes progressively and approaches in the fully saturated Co(II)-metallothionein an absorption profile similar to that of crystallographically defined model (Co)II-tetrathiolate clusters [Dance, I. G. (1979) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 6264-6273]. These effects are closely paralleled by changes in the ESR spectrum. Above 4 Co(II) equivalents per thionein, the ESR signal at gx approximately 5.9 measured at 4 K decreases progressively in intensity, until in the fully occupied protein the complex is nearly diamagnetic. These changes, which were confirmed by measurements of paramagnetic susceptibility, establish the existence of Co(II) thiolate clusters in Co(II)-metallothionein. The loss of paramagnetism reflects most likely antiferromagnetic coupling of neighboring Co(II) ions brought about by a superexchange mechanism via the thiolate bridging ligands.

  3. Metal thiolate clusters in cobalt(II)-metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    Vasák, M; Kägi, J H

    1981-01-01

    Rabbit liver metallothionein-1 in which all seven metal-binding sites are occupied by cobalt(II) exhibits spectral features typical of tetrathiolate coordination with approximate Td microsymmetry [Vasák, M. (1980) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 3953-3955]. With a total of 20 cysteine residues per molecule, this mode of metal binding implies that some of the thiolate ligands are shared by neighboring Co(II) ions, resulting in clustered structures. In this study, evidence for the existence of thiolate-linked Co(II) clusters is presented and their mode of formation is explored by comparing the optical and magnetic properties of forms of Co(II)-metallothionein containing 1-7 equivalents of Co(II). Preparations with up to 4 Co(II) equivalents display electronic spectra in the d-d and charge-transfer regions that resemble those of isolated tetrahedral Co(II)-tetrathiolate complexes. Upon binding of more than four Co(II) ions, however, the spectrum changes progressively and approaches in the fully saturated Co(II)-metallothionein an absorption profile similar to that of crystallographically defined model (Co)II-tetrathiolate clusters [Dance, I. G. (1979) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 6264-6273]. These effects are closely paralleled by changes in the ESR spectrum. Above 4 Co(II) equivalents per thionein, the ESR signal at gx approximately 5.9 measured at 4 K decreases progressively in intensity, until in the fully occupied protein the complex is nearly diamagnetic. These changes, which were confirmed by measurements of paramagnetic susceptibility, establish the existence of Co(II) thiolate clusters in Co(II)-metallothionein. The loss of paramagnetism reflects most likely antiferromagnetic coupling of neighboring Co(II) ions brought about by a superexchange mechanism via the thiolate bridging ligands. PMID:6273885

  4. Assessment of metallothionein and antibodies to metallothionein in normal and autistic children having exposure to vaccine-derived thimerosal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijendra K; Hanson, Jeff

    2006-06-01

    Allergic autoimmune reaction after exposure to heavy metals such as mercury may play a causal role in autism, a developmental disorder of the central nervous system. As metallothionein (MT) is the primary metal-detoxifying protein in the body, we conducted a study of the MT protein and antibodies to metallothionein (anti-MT) in normal and autistic children whose exposure to mercury was only from thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by immunoassays revealed that the serum level of MT did not significantly differ between normal and autistic children. Furthermore, autistic children harboured normal levels of anti-MT, including antibodies to isoform MT-I (anti-MT-I) and MT-II (anti-MT-II), without any significant difference between normal and autistic children. Our findings indicate that because autistic children have a normal profile of MT and anti-MT, the mercury-induced autoimmunity to MT may not be implicated in the pathogenesis of autism.

  5. Evidence of an altered protective effect of metallothioneins after cadmium exposure in the digenean parasite-infected cockle (Cerastoderma edule).

    PubMed

    Baudrimont, M; de Montaudouin, X

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the relation between parasitism and subsequent metallothioneins (MT) in the case of metal contamination. Experimental exposure of parasitized and unparasitized cockles (Cerastoderma edule) to cadmium (Cd) was performed, with the cockle as first or second intermediate host of 2 digenean species. After 7 days of Cd exposure in microcosms, cockles infected as first intermediate host by Labratrema minimus exhibited metal concentrations in tissues double that in uninfected cockles. Jointly, MT concentrations of parasitized cockles were not modified in comparison with uninfected individuals in which concentrations were increased 4.3-fold compared with controls. In cockles experimentally infected as the second intermediate host by Himasthla elongata, cadmium concentrations significantly increased again in parasitized cockles compared with uninfected individuals in contaminated conditions. Simultaneously, MT concentrations in healthy cockles increased, whereas they significantly decreased in parasitized individuals. Therefore, the presence of digenean parasites in Cd-exposed cockles leads to a maintenance or a decrease in MT concentrations compared with healthy individuals, whereas Cd accumulation in tissues is significantly increased. These experiments indicate a significant alteration of the protective effect of metallothioneins towards metals which could consequently enhance cockle vulnerability. Moreover, these results highlight the limit of the use of MT as a biomarker of metal pollution in field monitoring if parasitism is not taken into account.

  6. Age-related changes of metallothionein 1/2 and metallothionein 3 expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, Rosaria; Cigliano, Luisa; Verderame, Mariailaria

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is one of the main physiological consequences of aging on brain. Metallothioneins (MTs), low molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins that bind heavy-metal ions and oxygen-free radicals, are commonly expressed in various tissues of mammals. MTs are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and protection, and may be engaged in aging. Expression of the ubiquitous MTs (1 and 2) and the brain specific MT3 have been studied in many neurodegenerative disorders. The research results indicate that MTs may play important, although not yet fully known, roles in brain diseases; in addition, data lack the ability to identify the MT isoforms functionally involved. The aim of this study was to analyse the level of gene expression of selected MT isoforms during brain aging. By using real-time PCR analysis, we determined the MT1/2 and MT3 expression profiles in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of adolescent (2months), adult (4 and 8months), and middle-aged (16months) rats. We show that the relative abundance of all types of MT transcripts changes during aging in both hippocampus and cortex; the first effect is a generalized decrease in the content of MTs transcripts from 2- to 8-months-old rats. After passing middle age, at 16months, we observe a huge increase in MT3 transcripts in both cortical and hippocampal areas, while the MT1/2 mRNA content increases slightly, returning to the levels measured in adolescent rats. These findings demonstrate an age-related expression of the MT3 gene. A possible link between the increasing amount of MT3 in brain aging and its different metal-binding behaviour is discussed.

  7. Anchoring plant metallothioneins to the inner face of the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells leads to heavy metal accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Kissen, Ralph; Nicolau, Ioana; Neagoe, Aurora Daniela; Ghenea, Simona; Bones, Atle M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we engineered yeast cells armed for heavy metal accumulation by targeting plant metallothioneins to the inner face of the yeast plasma membrane. Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins involved in the buffering of excess metal ions, especially Cu(I), Zn(II) or Cd(II). The cDNAs of seven Arabidopsis thaliana MTs (AtMT1a, AtMT1c, AtMT2a, AtMT2b, AtMT3, AtMT4a and AtMT4b) and four Noccaea caerulescens MTs (NcMT1, NcMT2a, NcMT2b and NcMT3) were each translationally fused to the C-terminus of a myristoylation green fluorescent protein variant (myrGFP) and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The myrGFP cassette introduced a yeast myristoylation sequence which allowed directional targeting to the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane along with direct monitoring of the intracellular localization of the recombinant protein by fluorescence microscopy. The yeast strains expressing plant MTs were investigated against an array of heavy metals in order to identify strains which exhibit the (hyper)accumulation phenotype without developing toxicity symptoms. Among the transgenic strains which could accumulate Cu(II), Zn(II) or Cd(II), but also non-canonical metal ions, such as Co(II), Mn(II) or Ni(II), myrGFP-NcMT3 qualified as the best candidate for bioremediation applications, thanks to the robust growth accompanied by significant accumulative capacity. PMID:28562640

  8. METALLOTHIONEIN GENE TRANSCRIPTION AS AN INDICATOR OF METAL EXPOSURE IN FATHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metallothionein is a cysteine rich, low molecular weight, metal binding protein. Basal levels of endogenous metallothioneins (MT) have been reported in all eucaryotes. MT has been shown to play an essential role in regulating physiological requirements of essential metals such a...

  9. Metallothionein turnover, cytosolic distribution and the uptake of Cd by the green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Ng, T Y-T; Rainbow, P S; Amiard-Triquet, C; Amiard, J C; Wang, W-X

    2007-08-30

    We examined the relationship between Cd kinetics (uptake from solution and diet, and efflux), metallothionein turnover, and changes in the cytosolic distribution of accumulated Cd between protein fractions in the green mussel Perna viridis. We pre-exposed the mussels to 5, 20, 50 and 200 microg l(-1) of Cd for 1 week and determined the biokinetics of Cd uptake and efflux in the mussels. The dietary assimilation efficiency of Cd increased by 2 times following exposure to 20-200 microg l(-1) Cd, but the dissolved uptake rate was unchanged by pre-exposure to any Cd concentrations. The efflux rate of Cd was also similar among control and Cd pre-exposed mussels. The cytosolic distribution of Cd in the mussels that had been exposed to dissolved Cd, showed that besides metallothionein (7000 - 20,000 Da), high molecular weight proteins (>20,000 Da) were important for Cd binding and depuration. In general, the Cd pre-exposed mussels had higher metallothionein turnover with a higher metallothionein synthesis rate, but similar metallothionein breakdown rates as the control mussels. Metallothionein synthesis rate was correlated to the dietary assimilation of Cd, whereas metallothionein breakdown and Cd efflux rate were independent of each other. This study provides important new information for the role of metallothionein turnover on Cd kinetics in an aquatic invertebrate.

  10. Storage of Hg in the ileum of Blatella germanica: biochemical characterization of metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Bouquegneau, J M; Ballan-Dufrancais, C; Jeantet, A Y

    1985-01-01

    Cockroach ileum has a high capability to concentrate mercury compared with other tissues. Part of the mercury contained in the soluble phase of this organ is bound to metallothionein. It is suggested that mercury of the insoluble phase is stored in lysosomes under a polymerized metallothionein form.

  11. METALLOTHIONEIN GENE TRANSCRIPTION AS AN INDICATOR OF METAL EXPOSURE IN FATHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metallothionein is a cysteine rich, low molecular weight, metal binding protein. Basal levels of endogenous metallothioneins (MT) have been reported in all eucaryotes. MT has been shown to play an essential role in regulating physiological requirements of essential metals such a...

  12. Liver metallothionein of fish in rivers of Taiwan -- a field study on Erh-jen river

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Tsong, H.A.

    1994-12-31

    Erh-jen river in southern Taiwan is contaminated especially down stream with heavy metal effluent from nearby electroplate, metal surface treatment and used metal reclamation plants. Liver metallothionein content of five species of fish caught at 6 stations along the river was analyzed using silver saturation method. The most often found species down stream include Tilapia sp., Megalops cyprinoids and Liza macrolepis. The possibility of using fish liver metallothionein content to indicate heavy metal exposure was investigated in this study. Liver metallothionein content of 47 tilapia caught at 3 stations down stream is 81 + 8 {mu}g/g. Compared to the average of 10 + 1 {mu}g/g and 10 + 2 {mu}g/g of 6 and 9 tilapia caught at 2 control sites, this shows an increase of tilapia liver metallothionein content in Erh-jen river. 6 tilapia caught at pond beside Erh-jen river had significantly (p < 0.05) lower liver metallothionein content, which is 36 + 15 {mu}g/g. Liver metallothionein content of 33 Liza macrolepis caught at 3 stations down stream was 151 + 22 {mu}g/g, compared to 15 + 2 {mu}g/g of 9 samples caught at control site, this difference was also significant (p < 0.05). These results show the induction of liver metallothionein in fish of Erh-jen river. This study shows the applicability of fish liver metallothionein as a biomarker of heavy metal contamination in rivers in Taiwan.

  13. Immunological characterization of metallothioneins in mouse LMTK cells and in a variant resistant to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti; I.; Mbikay, M.; Marengo, C.; Thirion, J.-P.

    1982-07-01

    A cadmium-resistant variant isolated from mouse fibroblast LMTK cells can grow in the presence of 40 ..mu..M Cd/sup 2 +/. This variant retained its properties in the absence of selecting agent. Induction of metallothionein was measured in cell extracts by radioimmunoassay. The maximum amount of metallothioneins in the cells was reached after 36 hours. The cadmium resistant variant produced two times more metallothionein than the wild-type when exposed to 10-20 ..mu..MCd/sup 2 +/. By Ouchterlony double diffusion, the metallothioneins from cultured cells formed a line of partial identity with the mouse liver serotype and a line of complete identity with one of the two mouse kidney serotypes. These observations raise the possibility of a tissue-specific expression of metallothionein genes.

  14. One-step purification of metallothionein extracted from two different sources.

    PubMed

    Honda, Rubens T; Araújo, Roziete Mendes; Horta, Bruno Brasil; Val, Adalberto L; Demasi, Marilene

    2005-06-25

    We describe a one-step purification of hepatic metallothionein from the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum injected with cadmium and from the copper-loaded metallothionein from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, performed by affinity chromatography through metal-chelating columns. Yeast metallothionein was purified from Cu2+-loaded resin and eluted by a continuous EDTA gradient whereas hepatic metallothionein extracted from fishes was purified by Ni2+-loaded resin and eluted by a continuous imidazol gradient. Purified metallothioneins were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and characterized by UV spectra of the apo- and Cd2+-loaded protein. This method allowed high purity and yield as well as rapid one-step extraction of both metal-loaded and apoprotein.

  15. Cadmium induces a novel metallothionein and phytochelatin 2 in an aquatic fungus

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeckel, Petra; Krauss, Gudrun; Menge, Sieglinde; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim . E-mail: krauss@biochemtech.uni-halle.de

    2005-07-22

    Cadmium stress response was measured at the thiol peptide level in an aquatic hyphomycete (Heliscus lugdunensis). In liquid culture, 0.1mM cadmium increased the glutathione (GSH) content and induced the synthesis of additional thiol peptides. HPLC, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and Edman degradation confirmed that a novel small metallothionein as well as phytochelatin (PC2) were synthesized. The metallothionein has a high homology to family 8 metallothioneins (http://www.expasy.ch/cgi-bin/lists?metallo.txt). The bonding of at least two cadmium ions to the metallothionein was demonstrated by mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). This is the first time that simultaneous induction of metallothionein and phytochelatin accompanied by an increase in GSH level has been shown in a fungus under cadmium stress, indicating a potential function of these complexing agents for in vivo heavy metal detoxification. The method presented here should be applicable as biomarker tool. ol.

  16. Blockade of Metallothioneins 1 and 2 Increases Skeletal Muscle Mass and Strength

    PubMed Central

    Summermatter, Serge; Bouzan, Anais; Pierrel, Eliane; Melly, Stefan; Stauffer, Daniela; Gutzwiller, Sabine; Nolin, Erin; Dornelas, Christina; Fryer, Christy; Leighton-Davies, Juliet; Glass, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metallothioneins are proteins that are involved in intracellular zinc storage and transport. Their expression levels have been reported to be elevated in several settings of skeletal muscle atrophy. We therefore investigated the effect of metallothionein blockade on skeletal muscle anabolism in vitro and in vivo. We found that concomitant abrogation of metallothioneins 1 and 2 results in activation of the Akt pathway and increases in myotube size, in type IIb fiber hypertrophy, and ultimately in muscle strength. Importantly, the beneficial effects of metallothionein blockade on muscle mass and function was also observed in the setting of glucocorticoid addition, which is a strong atrophy-inducing stimulus. Given the blockade of atrophy and the preservation of strength in atrophy-inducing settings, these results suggest that blockade of metallothioneins 1 and 2 constitutes a promising approach for the treatment of conditions which result in muscle atrophy. PMID:27956698

  17. Blockade of Metallothioneins 1 and 2 Increases Skeletal Muscle Mass and Strength.

    PubMed

    Summermatter, Serge; Bouzan, Anais; Pierrel, Eliane; Melly, Stefan; Stauffer, Daniela; Gutzwiller, Sabine; Nolin, Erin; Dornelas, Christina; Fryer, Christy; Leighton-Davies, Juliet; Glass, David J; Fournier, Brigitte

    2017-03-01

    Metallothioneins are proteins that are involved in intracellular zinc storage and transport. Their expression levels have been reported to be elevated in several settings of skeletal muscle atrophy. We therefore investigated the effect of metallothionein blockade on skeletal muscle anabolism in vitro and in vivo We found that concomitant abrogation of metallothioneins 1 and 2 results in activation of the Akt pathway and increases in myotube size, in type IIb fiber hypertrophy, and ultimately in muscle strength. Importantly, the beneficial effects of metallothionein blockade on muscle mass and function was also observed in the setting of glucocorticoid addition, which is a strong atrophy-inducing stimulus. Given the blockade of atrophy and the preservation of strength in atrophy-inducing settings, these results suggest that blockade of metallothioneins 1 and 2 constitutes a promising approach for the treatment of conditions which result in muscle atrophy.

  18. Cd-metallothioneins in three additional tetrahymena species: intragenic repeat patterns and induction by metal ions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yue; Liu, Guanglong; Guo, Lina; Liu, Hongbo; Yuan, Dongxia; Xiong, Jie; Ning, Yingzhi; Fu, Chengjie; Miao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Ciliate metallothioneins (MTs) possess many unique features compared to the "classic" MTs in other organisms, but they have only been studied in a small number of species. In this study, we investigated cDNAs encoding subfamily 7a metallothioneins (CdMTs) in three Tetrahymena species (T. hegewischi, T. malaccensis, and T. mobilis). Four CdMT genes (ThegMT1, ThegMT2, TmalMT1, and TmobMT1) were cloned and characterized. They share high sequence similarity to previously identified subfamily 7a MT members. Tetrahymena CdMTs exhibit a remarkably regular intragenic repeat homology. The CdMT sequences were divided into two main types of modules, which had been previously described, and which we name "A" and "B". ThegMT2 was identified as the first MT isoform solely composed of module "B". A phylogenetic analysis of individual modules of every characterized Tetrahymena CdMT rigorously documents the conclusion that modules are important units of CdMT evolution, which have undergone frequent and rapid gain/loss and shuffling. The transcriptional activity of the four newly identified genes was measured under different heavy metal exposure (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb) using real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that these genes were differentially induced after short (1 h) or long (24 h) metal exposure. The evolutionary diversity of Tetrahymena CdMTs is further discussed with regard to their induction by metal ions. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  19. Role of metallothionein in the zinc metabolism of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kraker, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The reactions of zinc and zinc, cadmium metallothioneins with apocarbonic anhydrase have been studied. Apo-carbonic anhydrase abstracts zinc from zinc metallothionein and zinc, cadmium metallothionein in second-order processes which are two to three orders of magnitude more rapid than those of EDTA abstraction of zinc and are similar to the rate of reconstitution of the apo-enzyme by unligated Zn. In comparison with other proteins, zinc metallothionein contains unusually reactive metal binding sites suggesting this protein may be a physiological donor of Zn to zinc requiring sites in cells. When limiting amounts of dietary zinc stimulate the deficient cells to divide, zinc is not observed in metallothionein. A non-limiting amount of dietary zinc supports both proliferation and the steady state presence of zinc in this protein. Zinc metallothionein is shown to be the principal donor of zinc to added apo-carbonic anhydrase in Ehrlich cell cytosol. Treatment of cells with a copper ligand known to possess anti-tumor activity, with the toxic metal Cd, or with cis-dichlorodiamine Pt(II) which is another anti-tumor agent, all cause cells to cease proliferation at levels of each agent which result in the displacement of zinc from metallothionein. These results are used to construct a model of zinc metabolism in which Zn metallothionein is a central, biochemically active form of zinc. The finding in a number of tumors other than Ehrlich ascites carcinoma of the existence of metal binding protein with characteristics similar to metallothionein suggests that the significantly elevated levels of metallothionein-like protein may be a general feature of many tumors and that it may play a vital role in rapidly proliferating tissue in general.

  20. Shaping mechanisms of metal specificity in a family of metazoan metallothioneins: evolutionary differentiation of mollusc metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The degree of metal binding specificity in metalloproteins such as metallothioneins (MTs) can be crucial for their functional accuracy. Unlike most other animal species, pulmonate molluscs possess homometallic MT isoforms loaded with Cu+ or Cd2+. They have, so far, been obtained as native metal-MT complexes from snail tissues, where they are involved in the metabolism of the metal ion species bound to the respective isoform. However, it has not as yet been discerned if their specific metal occupation is the result of a rigid control of metal availability, or isoform expression programming in the hosting tissues or of structural differences of the respective peptides determining the coordinative options for the different metal ions. In this study, the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) Cu-loaded and Cd-loaded isoforms (HpCuMT and HpCdMT) were used as model molecules in order to elucidate the biochemical and evolutionary mechanisms permitting pulmonate MTs to achieve specificity for their cognate metal ion. Results HpCuMT and HpCdMT were recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ or Cu2+ and corresponding metal complexes analysed by electrospray mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD) and ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry. Both MT isoforms were only able to form unique, homometallic and stable complexes (Cd6-HpCdMT and Cu12-HpCuMT) with their cognate metal ions. Yeast complementation assays demonstrated that the two isoforms assumed metal-specific functions, in agreement with their binding preferences, in heterologous eukaryotic environments. In the snail organism, the functional metal specificity of HpCdMT and HpCuMT was contributed by metal-specific transcription programming and cell-specific expression. Sequence elucidation and phylogenetic analysis of MT isoforms from a number of snail species revealed that they possess an unspecific and two metal-specific MT isoforms, whose metal specificity was achieved exclusively by

  1. Characterization of a novel rice metallothionein gene promoter: its tissue specificity and heavy metal responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Wang, Yun; Yu, Shi-Shi; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2010-10-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) metallothionein gene OsMT-I-4b has previously been identified as a type I MT gene. To elucidate the regulatory mechanism involved in its tissue specificity and abiotic induction, we isolated a 1 730 bp fragment of the OsMT-I-4b promoter region. Histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining indicated a precise spacial and temporal expression pattern in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher GUS activity was detected in the roots and the buds of flower stigmas, and relatively lower GUS staining in the shoots was restricted to the trichomes and hydathodes of leaves. No activity was observed in the stems and seeds. Additionally, in the root of transgenic plants, the promoter activity was highly upregulated by various environmental signals, such as abscisic acid, drought, dark, and heavy metals including Cu²(+) , Zn²(+) , Pb²(+) and Al³(+) . Slight induction was observed in transgenic seedlings under salinity stress, or when treated with Co²(+) and Cd²(+) . Promoter analysis of 5'-deletions revealed that the region -583/-1 was sufficient to drive strong GUS expression in the roots but not in the shoots. Furthermore, deletion analysis indicated important promoter regions containing different metal-responsive cis-elements that were responsible for responding to different heavy metals. Collectively, these findings provided important insight into the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of the OsMT-I-4b promoter, and the results also gave us some implications for the potential application of this promoter in plant genetic engineering.

  2. Promiscuity and preferences of metallothioneins: the cell rules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Metalloproteins are essential for many cellular functions, but it has not been clear how they distinguish between the different metals to bind the correct ones. A report in BMC Biology finds that preferences of two metallothionein isoforms for two different cations are due to inherent properties of these usually less discriminating proteins. Here these observations are discussed in the context of the cellular mechanisms that regulate metal binding to proteins. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/9/4 PMID:21527046

  3. Metallothionein expression in benign and malignant canine mammary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Erginsoy, S D; Sozmen, M; Caldin, M; Furlanello, T

    2006-08-01

    The presence of metallothioneins (MTs) were demonstrated immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody (E9) against a conserved epitope of I and II isoforms in canine mammary tumours. In a semiquantitative analysis MT expression in the tumour cells was observed in 54/54 cases of benign and 32/40 malignant mammary neoplasms. A statistically significant difference at the level of P<0.01 was observed for MT expression between benign and malign mammary tumours in terms of immunoreactivity score. It is concluded that immunohistochemically demonstrated MT expression is significantly associated with benign canine mammary tumours.

  4. Metallothionein-like protein in lobsters (Homarus americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.; White, M.

    1981-12-01

    A metallothionein-like protein (MLP) was isolated from naturally cadmium-contaminated lobster hepatopancreas, gills, and green glands. Between 76-99% of the total cadmium was associated with this protein (molecular weight 9,500 daltons) while the remainder was associated with both high (>68,000 daltons) and low (<6,000 daltons) molecular weight proteins. MLP was not present in uncontaminated lobster hepatopancreas and only 1% of the total cadmium was associated with the gel filtration fraction corresponding to the protein.

  5. Inheritance and expression of the mouse metallothionein gene in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, I.B.; Wagner, G.J.; Yeargan, R.; Hunt, A.G. )

    1989-11-01

    Genetically engineered seedlings obtained from self-fertilized transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) contained and expressed the mouse metallothionein and kanamycin resistance marker genes and were more tolerant to cadmium stress than untransformed controls. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of transgenic seedlings exposed to a low, field-like Cd concentration (0.02 micromolar) was about 20% lower than that in untransformed controls. Genetic analysis of R1 and R2 progeny showed inheritance of the marker gene to be as a dominant Mendelian trait. These results suggest the possibility of developing transgenic plants with modified tolerance to heavy metal stress and food crops having lower Cd content.

  6. Effect of metallothionein core promoter region polymorphism on cadmium, zinc and copper levels in autopsy kidney tissues from a Turkish population

    SciTech Connect

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Mergen, Goerkem; Soeylemezoglu, Tuelin

    2010-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding, low molecular weight proteins and are involved in pathophysiological processes like metabolism of essential metals, metal ion homeostasis and detoxification of heavy metals. Metallothionein expression is induced by various heavy metals especially cadmium, mercury and zinc; MTs suppress toxicity of heavy metals by binding themselves to these metals. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the - 5 A/G metallothionein 2A (MT2A) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in the renal cortex from autopsy cases. MT2A core promoter region - 5 A/G SNP was analyzed by PCR-RFLP method using 114 autopsy kidney tissues and the genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were found as 87.7% homozygote typical (AA), 11.4% heterozygote (AG) and 0.9% homozygote atypical (GG). In order to assess the Cd, Zn and Cu levels in the same autopsy kidney tissues, a dual atomic absorption spectrophotometer system was used and the average levels of Cd, Zn and Cu were measured as 95.54 {+-} 65.58 {mu}g/g, 181.20 {+-} 87.72 {mu}g/g and 17.14 {+-} 16.28 {mu}g/g, respectively. As a result, no statistical association was found between the - 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene and the Zn and Cu levels in the renal cortex (p > 0.05), but considerably high accumulation of Cd was monitored for individuals having AG (151.24 {+-} 60.21 {mu}g/g) and GG genotypes (153.09 {mu}g/g) compared with individuals having AA genotype (87.72 {+-} 62.98 {mu}g/g) (p < 0.05). These results show that the core promoter region polymorphism of metallothionein 2A increases the accumulation of Cd in human renal cortex.

  7. Quantifying protein synthesis and degradation in Arabidopsis by dynamic 13CO2 labeling and analysis of enrichment in individual amino acids in their free pools and in protein.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hirofumi; Obata, Toshihiro; Sulpice, Ronan; Fernie, Alisdair R; Stitt, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation represent substantial costs during plant growth. To obtain a quantitative measure of the rate of protein synthesis and degradation, we supplied (13)CO2 to intact Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Columbia-0 plants and analyzed enrichment in free amino acids and in amino acid residues in protein during a 24-h pulse and 4-d chase. While many free amino acids labeled slowly and incompletely, alanine showed a rapid rise in enrichment in the pulse and a decrease in the chase. Enrichment in free alanine was used to correct enrichment in alanine residues in protein and calculate the rate of protein synthesis. The latter was compared with the relative growth rate to estimate the rate of protein degradation. The relative growth rate was estimated from sequential determination of fresh weight, sequential images of rosette area, and labeling of glucose in the cell wall. In an 8-h photoperiod, protein synthesis and cell wall synthesis were 3-fold faster in the day than at night, protein degradation was slow (3%-4% d(-1)), and flux to growth and degradation resulted in a protein half-life of 3.5 d. In the starchless phosphoglucomutase mutant at night, protein synthesis was further decreased and protein degradation increased, while cell wall synthesis was totally inhibited, quantitatively accounting for the inhibition of growth in this mutant. We also investigated the rates of protein synthesis and degradation during leaf development, during growth at high temperature, and compared synthesis rates of Rubisco large and small subunits of in the light and dark. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Metallothionein metabolism in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-03-05

    Earlier reports from their laboratory showed the induction of the insulin-deficient diabetic state in adult rats was associated with an accumulation of zinc, copper, and a metallothionein-like zinc and copper binding protein in the soluble fraction of liver and kidney. Based upon chromatographic and electrophoretic properties, -SH to metal ratio and amino acid composition, they now report that elevated concentrations of metallothioneins (MT)-I and -II are indeed present in diabetic rat liver and kidney cytosol. The relative rates of MT synthesis in tissues from diabetic and control rats were measured by comparing incorporation of /sup 35/S-cysteine into MT vs. total cytoplasmic proteins at 5 h after injection of the precursor. The relative rates of MT synthesis in livers from rats diabetic for 10 d and fed either chow or purified diet containing 13 or 35 ppm copper were 1.4, 2.3 and 2.8 times greater, respectively, than control rats fed the same diets. Higher relative rates of MT synthesis were also observed in kidneys from diabetic rats fed purified diets compared to controls. Maximal relative rates of MT synthesis in diabetic liver and kidney were observed at 4 and 10 d, respectively, after onset of diabetes. The half-lives of cytoplasmic MT in liver and kidney from diabetic (10 d) rats were 1.3 and 2.6 days, respectively; half-lives of MT in control liver and kidney were 5.0 and 2.1 days, respectively.

  9. Metallothionein expression in the rat brain following KA and PTZ treatment.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Rebollar, Daniel; Manjarrez, Joaquín; Nava-Ruíz, Concepción; Zaga-Clavellina, Verónica; Flores-Espinosa, Pilar; Heras-Romero, Yesica; Díaz-Ruíz, Araceli; Méndez-Armenta, Marisela

    2015-09-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that has been associated with oxidative stress therefore epilepsy models have been develop such as kainic acid and pentylenetetrazol are usually used to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. We examined the metallothionein expression in rat brains of treated with kainic acid and pentylenetetrazol. Increase in metallothionein and nitrotirosyne immunoreactivity of both seizures epilepsy models was observed. Moreover, we show a significant increase on levels of MT expression. These results suggest that the increase of metallothionein expression is related with kainic acid and pentylenetetrazol treatments as response to damage mediated by oxidative stress.

  10. Single domain metallothioneins: supermetalation of human MT 1a.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Duncan E K; Willans, Mathew J; Stillman, Martin J

    2012-02-15

    Metallothioneins are a family of small, cysteine rich proteins that have been implicated in a range of roles including toxic metal detoxification, protection against oxidative stress, and as metallochaperones involved in the homeostasis of both essential zinc and copper. We report that human metallothionein 1a, well-known to coordinate 7 Zn(2+) or Cd(2+) ions with 20 cysteinyl thiols, will bind 8 structurally significant Cd(2+) ions, leading to the formation of the supermetalated Cd(8)-βα-rhMT 1a species, for which the structure is a novel single domain. ESI-mass spectrometry was used to determine the exact metalation status of the βα-rhMT. The derivative-shaped CD envelope of Cd(7)-βα-rhMT [peak extrema (+) 260 and (-) 239 nm] changed drastically upon formation of the Cd(8)-βα-rhMT with the appearance of a sharp monophasic CD band centered on 252 nm, a feature indicative of the loss of cluster symmetry. The structural significance of the eighth Cd(2+) ion was determined from a combination of direct and indirect (113)Cd nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. In the case of Cd(8)-βα-rhMT, only four peaks were observed in the direct (113)Cd NMR spectrum. Significantly, while both of the isolated domains can be supermetalated forming Cd(4)-β-rhMT and Cd(5)-α-rhMT, Cd(8)-βα-rhMT and not Cd(9)-βα-rhMT was observed following addition of excess Cd(2+). We propose that both domains act in concert to coordinate the eighth Cd(2+) atom, and furthermore that this interaction results in a coalescence of the two domains leading to collapse of the two-domain structure. This is the first report of a possible single-"superdomain" metallothionein structure for Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) binding mammalian proteins. A computational model of a possible single-domain structure of Cd(8)-βα-rhMT is described.

  11. Bivalve vulnerability is enhanced by parasites through the deficit of metallothionein synthesis: A field monitoring on cockles (Cerastoderma edule)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudrimont, M.; de Montaudouin, X.; Palvadeau, A.

    2003-05-01

    The effect of the parasite Labratrema minimus (digenean trematode) on metallothioneins (MTs) biosynthesis by the cockle Cerastoderma edule (bivalve) was investigated. An in situ monitoring allowed to describe and compare monthly variations of MTs concentrations in cockles with and without L. minimus in a site free of metai pollution (Banc d'Arguin, Arcachon Bay, France). These concentrations are correlated with the reproductive cycle of the bivalve: (I) in spent cockles, MTs concentrations are higher in infected cockles. probably due to host tissue lysis: (2) during maturation, MTs biosynthesis increases in all cockles. However, concentrations are lower in parasitized individuals in relation with castration by parasites. Therefore, parasite infection in cockles, which can affect 100% of individuals, may contribute to a higher vulnerability of organisms to metal contamination.

  12. Impact of digenean parasite infection on metallothionein synthesis by the cockle (Cerastoderma edule): a multivariate field monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baudrimont, Magalie; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Palvadeau, Audrey

    2006-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are proteins that play an important role in metabolism of essential metals and detoxification of trace metals from living organisms. Their synthesis is induced by metal pollution but can also be exacerbated by other factors such as reproduction processes. In this context, we monitored MT concentrations in a cockle Cerastoderma edule (marine bivalve) population and highlighted the effect of a castrating digenean parasite, Labratrema minimus. In spent cockles, MT levels were low (ca. 5 nmol sites g(-1), fresh weight) but slightly higher in parasitized individuals. During gametogenesis, MT synthesis increased in all cockles, but concentrations were lower in parasitized individuals (18 against 27 nmol sites g(-1), fw in unparasitized cockles) in relation with gonad damage by parasites. Therefore, it is suggested that parasite infection in cockles can modulate MT synthesis that could consequently interfere with the response of these protective proteins in case of metal contamination.

  13. Differential Hepatic Metal and Metallothionein Levels in Three Feral Fish Species along a Metal Pollution Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Bervoets, Lieven; Knapen, Dries; De Jonge, Maarten; Van Campenhout, Karen; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc and the induction of metallothioneins (MT) in liver of three freshwater fish species was studied. Gudgeon (Gobio gobio), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were captured at 6 sampling sites along a cadmium and zinc gradient and one reference site in a tributary of the Scheldt River in Flanders (Belgium). At each site up to 10 individuals per species were collected and analyzed on their general condition factor (K), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI). From each individual fish the liver was dissected and analyzed on Cd, Cu and Zn and MT-content. Although not all species were present at each site, hepatic Cd and Zn levels generally followed the pollution gradient and highest levels were measured in perch, followed by roach and gudgeon. Nevertheless also an effect of site was observed on this order. MT-levels appeared to be the highest in gudgeon although differences with the other species were not very pronounced and depended on the site. Significant relationships were found between hepatic zinc accumulation and MT levels. For each species the ratio MTtheoretical/ MTmeasured was calculated, which gives an indication of the relative capacity to induce MTs and thus immobilize the metals. Perch had the lowest capacity in inducing MTs (highest ratio). Relationships between hepatic metal levels and fish condition indices were absent or very weak. PMID:23556004

  14. Covalent sequestration of the nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine by metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Antoine, M; Fabris, D; Fenselau, C

    1998-09-01

    The research reported here demonstrates covalent binding to the metal-binding protein metallothionein (MT) by the therapeutic nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine. The most surprising aspect of this interaction is the selectivity of the alkylating agent for specific residues of MT. A combination of MS and proteolytic and enzymatic methods was used to deduce specific locations of mechlorethamine alkylation. These experiments indicated that alkylation occurs predominantly in the carboxyl domain of MT, with one molecule of mechlorethamine covalently cross-linking two cysteine residues. Electrospray MS revealed the retention of all seven metal ions in the cross-linked MT/mechlorethamine adducts, highlighting the uniqueness of this protein. Computerized docking experiments supported the hypothesis that selective binding precedes selective alkylation, and the structure of the drug indicates the minimal structural requirements for this binding. These results support the idea that MT overexpressed in tumor cells contributes to the inactivation of anticancer drugs.

  15. Identification of a Copper-Binding Metallothionein in Pathogenic Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Ben; Deng, Haiteng; Bryk, Ruslana; Vargas, Diana; Eliezer, David; Roberts, Julia; Jiang, Xiuju; Nathan, Carl

    2009-01-01

    A screen of a genomic library from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) identified a small, unannotated open reading frame (MT0196) that encodes a 4.9-kDa, cysteine-rich protein. Despite extensive nucleotide divergence, the amino acid sequence is highly conserved among mycobacteria that are pathogenic in vertebrate hosts. We synthesized the protein and found that it preferentially bound up to 6 Cu(I) ions in a solvent-shielded core. Copper, cadmium and compounds that generate nitric oxide or superoxide induced the gene’s expression in Mtb up to a thousand-fold. The native protein bound copper within Mtb and partially protected Mtb from copper toxicity. We propose that the product of the MT0196 gene be named mycobacterial metallothionien (MymT). To our knowledge, MymT is the first metallothionein of a Gram-positive bacterium with a demonstrated function. PMID:18724363

  16. Metallothionein genes in Drosophila melanogaster constitute a dual system.

    PubMed Central

    Mokdad, R; Debec, A; Wegnez, M

    1987-01-01

    We have selected a metallothionein (MT) cDNA clone from a cadmium-resistant Drosophila melanogaster cell line. This clone includes an open reading frame coding for a 43-amino acid protein whose characteristics are a high cysteine content (12 cysteines, 28% of all residues) and a lack of aromatic amino acids. This protein differs markedly from the Drosophila MT (Mtn gene) previously reported [Lastowski-Perry, D., Otto, E. & Maroni, G. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 1527-1530). The MT system of Drosophila thus consists of at least two distantly related genes, in sharp contrast with vertebrate MT systems, in which the different members of MT gene families display high similarity. The gene corresponding to our MT cDNA (Mto) is inducible in Drosophila cell lines and in both larval and adult flies. Images PMID:3106973

  17. Isolation and characterization of Mytilus edulis metallothionein genes.

    PubMed

    Leignel, Vincent; Laulier, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are crucial proteins in all organisms for the regulation of essential metals and the detoxification of heavy metals. Many studies have estimated MT levels in mussel tissues to detect marine metal pollution. In this study, we investigated the MT gene structures of the forms present in Mytilus edulis (blue mussel). One MT-10 (2413 bp) gene and one MT-20 (1906 bp) gene were obtained. These MT genes contain three exons and two long introns. The splicing signals for MT-10 and MT-20 were GTA(T/A)GT-(C/T)AG. The structural organization (length of intron, splicing signals, AT content) of MT-10 and MT-20 is compared with other MT genes.

  18. Separation of two forms of rabbit metallothionein by isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, G F; Nordberg, M; Piscator, M; Vesterberg, O

    1972-02-01

    Rabbits were given repeated injections of cadmium chloride. Cadmium- and zinc-containing protein fractions were obtained from the livers of these animals by precipitation procedures and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The protein thus obtained showed several characteristics similar to those of the earlier described protein metallothionein. Further separation by isoelectric focusing showed two main protein peaks with isoelectric points at 3.9 and 4.5 respectively. Amino acid analysis of these two forms showed similar content of most amino acids [residues per cent.: cysteine (28%), aspartate (8%), threonine (5-6%), serine (12%), glycine (7%), alanine (13%), methionine (2%), isoleucine (2%)] but with a small difference in content of lysine (12 and 13% respectively), proline (9 and 5% respectively) and glutamate (2 and 4% respectively). The two forms of the protein both contained cadmium, but only the one with pI4.5 contained also significant amounts of zinc.

  19. Metallothionein gene activation in the earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus).

    PubMed

    Höckner, M; Dallinger, R; Stürzenbaum, S R

    2015-05-08

    In order to cope with changing environmental conditions, organisms require highly responsive stress mechanisms. Heavy metal stress is handled by metallothioneins (MTs), the regulation of which is evolutionary conserved in insects and vertebrates and involves the binding of metal transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) to metal responsive elements (MREs) positioned in the promoter of MT genes. However, in most invertebrate phyla, the transcriptional activation of MTs is different and the exact mechanism is still unknown. Interestingly, although MREs are typically present also in invertebrate MT gene promoters, MTF-1 is notably absent. Here we use Lumbricus rubellus, the red earthworm, to study the elusive mechanism of wMT-2 activation in control and Cd-exposed conditions. EMSA and DNase I footprinting approaches were used to pinpoint functional binding sites within the wMT-2 promoter region, which revealed that the cAMP responsive element (CRE) is a promising candidate which may act as a transcriptional activator of invertebrate MTs.

  20. Characterization of calf liver Cu,Zn-metallothionein: naturally variable Cu and Zn stoichiometries.

    PubMed

    Chen, P; Onana, P; Shaw, C F; Petering, D H

    1996-07-15

    Cu,Zn-metallothioneins were purified from bovine calf liver in order to examine the stoichiometry of metal binding to the protein. Copper and zinc analyses were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Consistent quantitative thiolate analyses were obtained spectrophotometrically with Ellman's reagent and amperometrically with phenylmercuric acetate. These were used to define protein concentration. A complementary method to assess the sum of the thiol and Cu(I) content of metallothionein involved titration of the reducing equivalents of the protein with ferricyanide. The stoichiometry of reaction was consistent with the oxidation of all the sulphydryl groups to disulphides and all of the bound Cu from the cuprous to the cupric oxidation state. Accordingly to these methods, total numbers of zinc plus copper ions bound to metallothionein isolated from a number of calf livers centred on about 7, 10-12, or 15 g-atoms of metal per mol of protein. The reactivity of ferricyanide and 4,7-phenylsulphonyl-2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (BCS) with Cu,Zn-metallothioneins of various metal ratios was assessed. Zinc metallothionein reacted almost entirely in two slow steps with ferricyanide. As the Cu content of the protein increased, the fraction of reaction occurring in the time of mixing increased in parallel. BCS was able to remove 70-80% of metallothionein-bound Cu as Cu(I). The rest was resistant to reaction.

  1. The relationship between fish liver metallothionein concentrations and community responses in a copper contaminated stream

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, K.J.; Schienk, D.

    1995-12-31

    The use of biomarkers, biochemical and morphological indices of toxicant exposure and effect, is currently receiving considerable attention as an alternative to quantitative community level analyses. The Walker Mine produces an effluent containing approximately 200 {micro}g Cu/L. This effluent enters Dolly Creek, which flows through the mine tailings and converges with Little Grizzly Creek. This preliminary investigation compared fish liver metallothionein concentrations with a long-term quantitative assessment of the fish community in the Dolly Creek and Little Grizzly Creek ecosystems. Fish liver samples were collected from a reference and five downstream sites in 1994 and metallothionein concentrations determined using a metallothionein specific ribonuclease detection assay. Quantitative analyses of the fish communities at the same Sites were conducted annually from 1991 to 1994 using standard electrofishing methods. Fish populations were significantly reduced (compared to the reference site) immediately downstream of the mine portal and tailings pile and increased further downstream. These population changes were positively correlated with environmental copper concentrations. Fish liver metallothionein concentrations were significantly elevated at the downstream sites (> 2X), compared to the reference site. However, the observed changes in fish populations were not correlated with changes in liver metallothionein concentrations. These preliminary results indicate that fish liver metallothionein concentrations do not correlate well to long-term alterations in fish communities resulting from copper contamination.

  2. Metallothionein expression in chloroplasts enhances mercury accumulation and phytoremediation capability.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Oscar N; Alvarez, Derry; Torres, Cesar; Roman, Laura; Daniell, Henry

    2011-06-01

    Genetic engineering to enhance mercury phytoremediation has been accomplished by expression of the merAB genes that protects the cell by converting Hg[II] into Hg[0] which volatilizes from the cell. A drawback of this approach is that toxic Hg is released back into the environment. A better phytoremediation strategy would be to accumulate mercury inside plants for subsequent retrieval. We report here the development of a transplastomic approach to express the mouse metallothionein gene (mt1) and accumulate mercury in high concentrations within plant cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that up to 1284 copies of the mt1 gene were found per cell when compared with 1326 copies of the 16S rrn gene, thereby attaining homoplasmy. Past studies in chloroplast transformation used qualitative Southern blots to evaluate indirectly transgene copy number, whereas we used real-time PCR for the first time to establish homoplasmy and estimate transgene copy number and transcript levels. The mt1 transcript levels were very high with 183,000 copies per ng of RNA or 41% the abundance of the 16S rrn transcripts. The transplastomic lines were resistant up to 20 μm mercury and maintained high chlorophyll content and biomass. Although the transgenic plants accumulated high concentrations of mercury in all tissues, leaves accumulated up to 106 ng, indicating active phytoremediation and translocation of mercury. Such accumulation of mercury in plant tissues facilitates proper disposal or recycling. This study reports, for the first time, the use of metallothioneins in plants for mercury phytoremediation. Chloroplast genetic engineering approach is useful to express metal-scavenging proteins for phytoremediation.

  3. Hepcidin and metallothioneins as molecular base for sex-dependent differences in clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in chronic iron overload.

    PubMed

    Ćurko-Cofek, Božena; Grubić Kezele, Tanja; Barac-Latas, Vesna

    2017-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterised by inflammatory and degenerative changes. It is considered that disease arises from the influence of environmental factors on genetically susceptible individuals. Recent researches, using magnetic resonance imaging, connected iron deposits in different brain regions with demyelinating process in multiple sclerosis patients. Although iron is an essential trace element important for many biological functions it could be harmful because iron excess can induce the production of reactive oxygen species, development of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation which leads to demyelination. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, the most common experimental animal model for multiple sclerosis, we recently found that chronic iron overload influences the clinical course of disease in Dark Agouti rats. In female rats iron overload accelerated the onset of disease, while in male rats it accelerated the progression of disease and increased mortality rate. We hypothesize that those differences arise on molecular level in different expression of stress response proteins hepcidin and metallothioneins in male and female iron overloaded rats. They are both upregulated by metal ions in both sexes. Hepcidin is additionally upregulated by estrogen in female rats and therefore causes higher degradation of iron exporter ferroportin and sequestration of iron in the cells, lowering the possibility for the development of oxidative stress. Antioxidative effect of metallothioneins could be increased in female rats because of their ability to reversibly exchange metal ions with the estrogen receptor. In case of iron excess metallothioneins release zinc, which is normally bound to them. Zinc binds to estrogen receptor and leaves metallothioneins binding domains free for iron, causing at least provisional cytoprotective effect. To test this hypothesis, we propose to determine and compare

  4. Metallothionein-1 and nitric oxide expression are inversely correlated in a murine model of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Mejia, Martha Elba; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Porchia, Leonardo M; Salgado, Hilda Rosas; Totolhua, José-Luis; Ortega, Arturo; Hernández-Kelly, Luisa Clara Regina; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, represents an endemic among Latin America countries. The participation of free radicals, especially nitric oxide (NO), has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of seropositive individuals with T. cruzi. In Chagas disease, increased NO contributes to the development of cardiomyopathy and megacolon. Metallothioneins (MTs) are efficient free radicals scavengers of NO in vitro and in vivo. Here, we developed a murine model of the chronic phase of Chagas disease using endemic T. cruzi RyCH1 in BALB/c mice, which were divided into four groups: infected non-treated (Inf), infected N-monomethyl-L-arginine treated (Inf L-NAME), non-infected L-NAME treated and non-infected vehicle-treated. We determined blood parasitaemia and NO levels, the extent of parasite nests in tissues and liver MT-I expression levels. It was observed that NO levels were increasing in Inf mice in a time-dependent manner. Inf L-NAME mice had fewer T. cruzi nests in cardiac and skeletal muscle with decreased blood NO levels at day 135 post infection. This affect was negatively correlated with an increase of MT-I expression (r = -0.8462, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, we determined that in Chagas disease, an unknown inhibitory mechanism reduces MT-I expression, allowing augmented NO levels. PMID:24676665

  5. Polymorphism of Metallothionein 2A Modifies Lead Body Burden in Workers Chronically Exposed to the Metal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Kelly Christine Marques; Martins, Airton Cunha; Oliveira, Andréia Ávila Soares de; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Cólus, Ilce Mara de Syllos; Barbosa, Fernando; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a metal that accumulates in the human body, inducing several adverse health effects. One of the proteins responsible for the distribution of metal in the body is metallothionein (MT), which is expressed by different genes, and it is supposed that genetic variation in the genes that encode MTs may affect the Pb body burden. The present study aimed to evaluate the genetic effects of the polymorphism of MT2A (single nucleotide polymorphism rs10636; Cx2192;G) on blood Pb levels (BLL) of workers from car battery factories who are chronically exposed to the metal. In total, 221 men participated in the study; genomic DNA from whole blood was extracted, and genotyping of MT2A was performed by TaqMan assays; BLL were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). BLL were 25 ± 14 µg/dl (range 1.9-68); BLL were positively correlated with duration of work and smoking status. Individuals who carried at least one C allele had higher BLL than those with the GG genotype (β = -0.45; p = 0.025, multivariable linear regression analyses). Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in genes related to the transport of Pb, such as MTs, may modulate the concentrations of the metal in the body and, consequently, adverse health effects induced by Pb exposure.

  6. Metallothionein induction as a measure of response to metal exposure in aquatic animals.

    PubMed Central

    Roesijadi, G

    1994-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are considered central in the intracellular regulation of metals such as copper, zinc, and cadmium. Increased MT synthesis is associated with increased capacity for binding these metals and protection against metal toxicity. Recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of MTs have facilitated research on MTs in aquatic species. For the bivalve mollusc Crassostrea virginica, a species frequently used in studies on the toxicology and environmental monitoring of metals, the primary structure for MT has been deduced from analysis of the proteins and cDNA. Procedures for analysis of MT synthesis and MT gene expression have been applied in studies of response to metal exposure. Induction of specific MT forms by Cd is concentration- and time-dependent. The levels of MT-bound metals exhibit a strong relationship with the cytosolic metal concentrations in a metal-exposed natural population of oysters. Ribonuclease protection assays using sequence-specific antisense RNA probes have shown that the MT mRNA structure in this natural population exhibits considerable individual variability in the 3'-untranslated region. Although yet to be substantiated, the possibility exists that the distribution of this variability may be related to the level of environmental metal contamination. One probe derived from the coding region is suitable for use in quantitative RPAs for oyster MT mRNAs. PMID:7713043

  7. Tissue-specific accumulation of hepatic zinc metallothionein following parenteral iron loading

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    The synthesis in various tissues of the unique metal-binding protein, metallothionein, can be influenced by the administration of certain trace elements. Zinc and cadmium, both of which bind to metallothionein, are most widely recognized as potent inducers. Preliminary results in our laboratory suggested that iron loading causes a marked accumulation of hepatic zinc metallothionein. In this report the effects of parenteral iron administration on metallothionein concentration in various tissues are presented. Male chicks (300-350 g) received (ip) either a single injection (+1 Fe) of iron (10 mg Fe/kg, as FeCl/sub 3/), two injections (+2 Fe) given 24-hr apart, three injections (+3 Fe) each given 24-hr apart, or an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline (control). Twenty-four hours following the final injection, chicks were killed and tissues analyzed for cytoplasmic zinc and metallothionein (Zn-MT). The parenteral administration of ferric iron, FeCl/sub 3/, resulted in a marked tissue-specific accumulation of zinc as metallothionein. In chicks given +2 Fe, hepatic Zn-MT increased more than 10-fold with a third injection (+3 Fe) causing no further change. The concentration of Zn-MT in renal and pancreatic tissue was unaffected by iron loading. An increase in hepatic Zn-MT was evident prior to detectable changes in total hepatic iron. The administration of other ferrous iron compounds at a similar rate produced comparable changes in hepatic Zn-MT. Feeding excess dietary iron, however, had no effect on liver Zn-MT levels even though similar hepatic iron concentrations were attained. Results indicated that parenteral administration, but not feeding, of various iron compounds causes a marked increase in zinc metallothionein, specifically in liver tissue.

  8. THE EMBRYOLETHALITY OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE IN CD-1 AND METALLOTHIONEIN I-II NULL MICE: LACK OF A ROLE FOR INDUCED ZINC DEFICIENCY OR METALLOTHIONEIN INDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is embryolethal in CD-1 mice. LPS induces metallothionein (MT) via cytokines, including TNF-, IL-1 and IL-6, which initiate and maintain the acute phase response. Maternal hepatic MT induction in pregnant rats, by diverse toxicants, can ...

  9. Characterisation and genetic polymorphism of metallothionein gene CgMT4 in experimental families of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas displaying summer mortality.

    PubMed

    David, Elise; Tanguy, Arnaud; Moraga, Dario

    2012-02-01

    Summer mortality events have been observed in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas for several decades. This paper examines the selective pressure exerted by summer mortality on the polymorphism of a newly identified oyster metallothionein gene. CgMT4 cDNA and genomic sequences were obtained. CgMT4 was studied in two generations of oysters reared in three sites on the French Atlantic coast, using single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Four alleles were detected. Individuals carrying genotype MT4-CD seem to have higher susceptibility to summer risk conditions. The MT4 gene could be a potential new genetic marker for susceptibility; further validation studies are recommended.

  10. Metallothioneins 2 and 3 contribute to the metal-adapted phenotype but are not directly linked to Zn accumulation in the metal hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens

    PubMed Central

    Hassinen, V. H.; Tuomainen, M.; Peräniemi, S.; Schat, H.; Kärenlampi, S. O.; Tervahauta, A. I.

    2009-01-01

    To study the role of metallothioneins (MTs) in Zn accumulation, the expression of TcMT2a, TcMT2b, and TcMT3 was analysed in three accessions and 15 F3 families of two inter-accession crosses of the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, with different degrees of Zn accumulation. The highest expression levels were found in the shoots of a superior metal-accumulating calamine accession from St Laurent le Minier, with >10-fold TcMT3 expression compared with another calamine accession and a non-metallicolous accession. Moreover, F3 sibling lines from the inter-accession crosses that harboured the MT2a or MT3 allele from St Laurent le Minier had higher expression levels. However, there was no co-segregation of TcMT2a or TcMT3 expression and Zn accumulation. To examine the functions of TcMTs in plants, TcMT2a and TcMT3 were ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis. The transformant lines had reduced root length in control medium but not at high metal concentrations, suggesting that the ectopically expressed proteins interfered with the physiological availability of essential metals under limited supply. The Arabidopsis transformant lines did not show increased tolerance to Cd, Cu, or Zn, nor increased Cd or Zn accumulation. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that in roots, MT2 protein is localized in the epidermis and root hairs of both T. caerulescens and Arabidopsis thaliana. The results suggest that TcMT2a, TcMT2b, and TcMT3 are not primarily involved in Zn accumulation as such. However, the elevated expression levels in the metallicolous accessions suggests that they do contribute to the metal-adapted phenotype, possibly through improving Cu homeostasis at high Zn and Cd body burdens. Alternatively, they might function as hypostatic enhancers of Zn or Cd tolerance. PMID:19033549

  11. Metallothioneins 2 and 3 contribute to the metal-adapted phenotype but are not directly linked to Zn accumulation in the metal hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Hassinen, V H; Tuomainen, M; Peräniemi, S; Schat, H; Kärenlampi, S O; Tervahauta, A I

    2009-01-01

    To study the role of metallothioneins (MTs) in Zn accumulation, the expression of TcMT2a, TcMT2b, and TcMT3 was analysed in three accessions and 15 F(3) families of two inter-accession crosses of the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, with different degrees of Zn accumulation. The highest expression levels were found in the shoots of a superior metal-accumulating calamine accession from St Laurent le Minier, with >10-fold TcMT3 expression compared with another calamine accession and a non-metallicolous accession. Moreover, F(3) sibling lines from the inter-accession crosses that harboured the MT2a or MT3 allele from St Laurent le Minier had higher expression levels. However, there was no co-segregation of TcMT2a or TcMT3 expression and Zn accumulation. To examine the functions of TcMTs in plants, TcMT2a and TcMT3 were ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis. The transformant lines had reduced root length in control medium but not at high metal concentrations, suggesting that the ectopically expressed proteins interfered with the physiological availability of essential metals under limited supply. The Arabidopsis transformant lines did not show increased tolerance to Cd, Cu, or Zn, nor increased Cd or Zn accumulation. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that in roots, MT2 protein is localized in the epidermis and root hairs of both T. caerulescens and Arabidopsis thaliana. The results suggest that TcMT2a, TcMT2b, and TcMT3 are not primarily involved in Zn accumulation as such. However, the elevated expression levels in the metallicolous accessions suggests that they do contribute to the metal-adapted phenotype, possibly through improving Cu homeostasis at high Zn and Cd body burdens. Alternatively, they might function as hypostatic enhancers of Zn or Cd tolerance.

  12. Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Functionally Substitute for Yeast Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, Katherine T.; Gralla, Edith B.; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Valentine, Joan S.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    1993-09-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen and is thought to play an important role in protecting cells from oxygen toxicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, which is encoded by the SOD1 gene, are sensitive to oxidative stress and exhibit a variety of growth defects including hypersensitivity to dioxygen and to superoxide-generating drugs such as paraquat. We have found that in addition to these known phenotypes, SOD1-deletion strains fail to grow on agar containing the respiratory carbon source lactate. We demonstrate here that expression of the yeast or monkey metallothionein proteins in the presence of copper suppresses the lactate growth defect and some other phenotypes associated with SOD1-deletion strains, indicating that copper metallothioneins substitute for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in vivo to protect cells from oxygen toxicity. Consistent with these results, we show that yeast metallothionein mRNA levels are dramatically elevated under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrate that yeast metallothionein, purified or from whole-cell extracts, exhibits copper-dependent antioxidant activity. Taken together, these data suggest that both yeast and mammalian metallothioneins may play a direct role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by functioning as antioxidants.

  13. Sulfide ions as modulators of metal-thiolate cluster size in a plant metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Huber, Tamara; Freisinger, Eva

    2013-06-28

    Metallothioneins are small cysteine-rich proteins coordinating various transition metal ions preferably with the electron configuration d(10). They are ubiquitously present in all phyla, and next to phytochelatins they represent a successful molecular concept for high-capacity metal ion binding. Recent studies showed the incorporation of sulfide ions into the metal-thiolate cluster of metallothionein 2 from the plant Cicer arietinum (cicMT2) increasing the cadmium binding capacity and stability of the cluster. In the present work, the sulfide-induced structural changes accompanying the cluster formation and the sulfide-modulated increase in cluster size are analyzed in detail with a variety of analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Evaluation of the mechanism of sulfide containing Cd(II)-thiolate cluster formation in cicMT2 reveals a strong dependence on the sequence of metal and sulfide additions for successful sulfide incorporation. To probe the general ability of metallothioneins to form sulfide containing larger metal-thiolate clusters, analogous experiments were performed with a mammalian metallothionein. The observation that the cadmium binding ability of rabbit liver MT2A was only slightly increased led to the development of a hypothesis in which the long cysteine-free linker regions present in certain plant metallothioneins may contribute to the accommodation of the respective larger cluster assemblies.

  14. A highly sensitive fluorescence probe for metallothioneins based on tiron-copper complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xilin; Xue, Jinhua; Liao, Lifu; Huang, Mingyang; Zhou, Bin; He, Bo

    2015-06-01

    The fabrication of tiron-copper complex as a novel fluorescence probe for the sensitive directly detection of metallothioneins at nanomolar levels was demonstrated. In Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer (pH 7.50), the interaction of bis(tiron)copper(II) complex cation [Cu(tiron)2]2+ and metallothioneins enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the system. The fluorescence enhancement at 347 nm was proportional to the concentration of metallothioneins. The mechanism was studied and discussed in terms of the fluorescence spectra. Under the optimal experimental conditions, at 347 nm, there was a linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the concentration of the metallothioneins in the range of 8.80 × 10-9-7.70 × 10-7 mol L-1, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.995 and detection limit 2.60 × 10-9 mol L-1. The relative standard deviation was 0.77% (n = 11), and the average recovery 94.4%. The method proposed was successfully reliable, selective and sensitive in determining of trace metallothioneins in fish visceral organ samples with the results in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC.

  15. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Pikula, Jiri; Hubalek, Jaromir; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2007-01-01

    Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metals and in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Excepting humans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animal species. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transfer stripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records were obtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), while other interesting records were observed in samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus) and the Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used, well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica) and showing a very low signal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). The highest levels of metallothionein reaching over 20 µM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in the Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus). The lowest values of about 1-3 µM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates. PMID:28903235

  16. Regulation of metallothionein gene expression and cellular zinc accumulation in a rat small intestinal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.M.; Cousins, R.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The effects of extracellular zinc concentration on metallothionein gene expression and cellular zinc accumulation were studied in IRD-98 cells. This is a non-transformed clonal line established by Negrel, et al. from fetal rat small intestine which possess characteristics of small bowel epithelial cells. Cells were maintained in DMEM and grown to confluent monolayers. The response to media zinc concentrations over the range of 5-150 {mu}mol/L was assessed. After 24 h in culture, cell zinc and metallothionein protein concentrations were significantly increased in cells provided higher levels of media zinc. Subsequent time course experiments showed that cells exposed to higher zinc levels had significant elevations in both metallothionein mRNA, peaking at 24 h, and metallothionein protein increasing through 48 h. Furthermore, cell zinc concentrations were significantly increased. At 48 h of culture, greater than 50% of the additional cellular zinc accumulated could be attributed to elevated metallothionein protein levels. These cells represent a zinc-responsive model to examine the mechanism of zinc uptake and transcellular transport by intestinal cells and the regulatory factors involved.

  17. Induction of metallothionein-I mRNA in cultured cells by heavy metals and iodoacetate: evidence for gratuitous inducers.

    PubMed Central

    Durnam, D M; Palmiter, R D

    1984-01-01

    A mouse hepatocyte cell line selected for growth in 80 microM CdSO4 (Cdr80 cells) was used to test the role of metallothioneins in heavy metal detoxification. The cadmium-resistant (Cdr80) cells have double minute chromosomes carrying amplified copies of the metallothionein-I gene and accumulate ca. 20-fold more metallothionein-I mRNA than unselected cadmium-sensitive (Cds) cells after optimal Cd stimulation. As a consequence, the amount of Cd which inhibits DNA synthesis by 50% is ca. 7.5-fold higher in Cdr80 cells than in Cds cells. Cds and Cdr80 cells were compared in terms of their resistance to other heavy metals. The results indicate that although Zn, Cu, Hg, Ag, Co, Ni, and Bi induce metallothionein-I mRNA accumulation in both Cdr80 and Cds cells, the Cdr80 cells show increased resistance to only a subset of these metals (Zn, Cu, Hg, and Bi). This suggests that not all metals which induce metallothionein mRNA are detoxified by metallothionein and argues against autoregulation of metallothionein genes. Metallothionein-I mRNA is also induced by iodoacetate, suggesting that the regulatory molecule has sensitive sulfhydryl groups. Images PMID:6717431

  18. Immunohistochemical expression of metallothionein in pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands: a role in the control of apoptosis?

    PubMed

    Miranda Viana, Alessandra de Castro; Ribeiro, Daniela Cotta; Florêncio, Taynara Nunes Guedes; Santos, Vanessa Torres; Sousa, Alexandre Andrade; Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira

    2013-07-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign neoplasm of both the major and minor salivary glands. The histological features are diverse and are characterized by the involvement of epithelial-myoepithelial structures. Metallothionein is a cysteine-rich protein present in myoepithelial cells of several benign and malignant neoplasms. The function of metallothionein is associated with DNA protection, oxidative stress and apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of metallothionein in pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary glands. Additionally, we investigated the association of the clinicopathological features of the lesions with metallothionein, specifically its association with Bcl-2, in an attempt to evaluate the role of metallothionein in the control of apoptosis. Thirty-five cases of pleomorphic adenoma were selected and immunohistochemistry was performed for metallothionein and Bcl-2 proteins. The proteins were quantified by the Quickscore method. The samples showed epidemiological characteristics similar to those described in the literature. We did not find an association between the clinicopathological characteristics of pleomorphic adenomas and the proteins studied, but an association between metallothionein and Bcl-2 was demonstrated. The results suggest that metallothionein may have a role in the control of apoptosis in pleomorphic adenoma.

  19. Protective role of metallothionein in chemical and radiation carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Satoh, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight metal-binding protein induced by endogenous and exogenous stimuli such as cytokines and heavy metals. In 1993 and 1994, two research groups (Choo et al. and Palmiter et al., respectively) produced MT-I/II double-knockout mice (MT-I/II null mice) with null mutations of the MT-I and MT-II genes. Subsequently, MT-I/II null mice have been used to clarify the biological function, physiological role, and pathophysiological relevance of MT by many research groups. Recent studies using MT-I/II null mice to investigate the role of MT in metal toxicity and distribution, oxidative stress, and some disease were reviewed. In addition, several research groups including our laboratory have reported that MT-I/II null mice are highly susceptible to several carcinogenesis caused by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, X-ray, benzo[a]pyrene, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine, lead, and cisplatin. These results suggest that MT is an important protective factor against not only metal toxicity and oxidative stress but also chemical and radiation carcinogenesis. In this review, we present the findings of MT-I/II null mice with regard to the protective role of MT in carcinogenesis and mutagenesis caused by chemical agents and X-ray.

  20. Some factors influencing liver metallothionein levels in rats and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, T.; Lee, M.

    1981-06-01

    Liver metallothionein (MT) was measured by the 203-mercury binding method of Piotrowski in the livers of rats and mice subjected to bilateral adrenalectomy or to sham adrenalectomy. Sham operation was followed by an increase in the level of MT at 24 hours; this immediately began to decrease, reaching control levels by 7 days. Adrenalectomy was also followed by an increase in MT, but the levels remained elevated for several days before beginning to decline. Mice which were adrenalectomized and allowed to recover for 28 days showed an increase in MT when subjected to sham operation. Ether anaesthesia without an incision did not increase the level of MT. Hypophysectomized mice had higher levels of MT than did controls, and these levels were further increased by sham adrenalectomy. Sprague-Dawley rats showed a similar response to adrenalectomy and to sham operation. It is concluded that the sham operation-induced increase in MT is probably not a result of a stress-induced release of adrenal hormones, but that adrenal hormones may play some role in the degradation or turnover of MT. The pituitary may also have some role in MT turnover.

  1. Correlation of metallothionein expression with apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jayasurya, A; Bay, B H; Yap, W M; Tan, N G

    2000-01-01

    The expression of metallothionein (MT), an intracellular ubiquitous low molecular weight protein thiol with antioxidant properties, was studied in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and correlated with the apoptotic index. Immunohistochemical staining of randomly selected, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded normal and malignant nasopharyngeal tissues were analysed for the expression of MT using the commercially available E9 antibody directed against MT I and MT II isoforms. The corresponding apoptosis labelling indices were evaluated by the TUNEL method. Localization of MT at the ultrastructural level was studied by immunogold labelling. All the tumour sections (17 specimens) showed MT-immunopositivity. A direct correlation between the percentage of MT-positive cells and the staining intensity was noted (P< 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.95). There was absence of cytoplasmic staining and only nuclear staining (with localization in the nucleoplasm) was demonstrated in the tumour cells. In normal epithelium of the nasopharynx, the basal layer was stained. An inverse relationship was observed between the level of MT expression and the apoptotic index in the NPC tissues (P = 0.0059; Pearson's r = –0.6380). The results suggest that overexpression of MT in NPC may protect the tumour cells from entering into the apoptotic process and thereby contribute to tumour expansion. Preferential localization of MT in the nuclei of NPC cells may possibly enhance radioresistance since radiotherapy is known to eradicate tumour cells by free radical-induced apoptosis. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10735506

  2. A mercury saturation assay for measuring metallothionein in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, M.D. . Dept. of Zoology); Stephenson, M. . Environmental Science Branch); Klaverkamp, J.F. )

    1993-07-01

    An accurate, rapid, sensitive, and simple method using mercury saturation for quantifying metallothionein (MT) is described. A complex solution of enzymatic and nonenzymatic thiols, including rabbit liver MT-2, and supernatants from homogenized samples of rainbow trout liver were incubated in the presence of [sup 203]Hg in 10% trichloroacetic acid. Excess Hg was bound to an removed by chicken egg albumin, which denatured on contact with the acidic assay medium. After centrifugation, MT labeled with [sup 203]Hg remained in the TCA supernatant and was estimated using known stoichiometry for Hg-MT binding. A dilution series was used to establish that nonspecific metal binding, a common problem with other metal saturation assays, is negligible. Analysis of hepatic MT with high Cu content from rainbow trout demonstrated virtually complete displacement of Cu, Cd, and Zn by Hg. When compared to other metal-saturation assays developed for vertebrates, this method requires the least number of technical steps, and one-third or less of total preparatory and analytical time.

  3. Prognostic impact of metallothionein on oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sérgio V; Barbosa, Hugo M; Candellori, Ignez M; Loyola, Adriano M; Aguiar, Maria Cássia F

    2002-08-01

    Metallothionein (MT), a low-molecular-weight protein with high cysteine content, seems to be related to neoplastic resistance to oncologic treatment and therefore has been studied as a prognostic factor for a variety of human malignant tumors. MT overexpression in neoplasms of ectodermal origin is usually associated with a poor prognosis. MT expression was evaluated in 60 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma by immunohistochemistry to study its prognostic influence on oral cancer. Possible associations of MT immunoexpression were also investigated with respect to clinical stage (TNM), histological grading, and proliferation index (Ki-67) of the lesions. No significant statistical correlation was observed among these variables. The impact on overall survival was assessed by uni and multivariate statistical tests. Mean MT labeling index was 60%. High MT labeling indexes (over 76%) predicted shorter survival in univariate statistical analysis. In multivariate analysis, MT labeling index and clinical stage were independent prognostic factors. MT overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma seems to be related to a worse prognosis for patients.

  4. Influence of metallothionein-1 localization on its function.

    PubMed Central

    Levadoux-Martin, M; Hesketh, J E; Beattie, J H; Wallace, H M

    2001-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) have a major role to play in metal metabolism, and may also protect DNA against oxidative damage. MT protein has been found localized in the nucleus during S-phase. The mRNA encoding the MT-1 isoform has a perinuclear localization, and is associated with the cytoskeleton; this targeting, due to signals within the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), facilitates nuclear localization of MT-1 during S-phase [Levadoux, Mahon, Beattie, Wallace and Hesketh (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 34961-34966]. Using cells transfected with MT gene constructs differing in their 3'-UTRs, the role of MT protein in the nucleus has been studied. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with either the full MT gene (MTMT cells) or with the MT 5'-UTR and coding region linked to the 3'-UTR of glutathione peroxidase (MTGSH cells). Cell survival following exposure to oxidative stress and chemical agents was higher in cells expressing the native MT gene than in cells where MT localization was disrupted, or in untransfected cells. Also, MTMT cells showed less DNA damage than MTGSH cells in response to either hydrogen peroxide or mutagen. After exposure to UV light or mutagen, MTMT cells showed less apoptosis than MTGSH cells, as assessed by DNA fragmentation and flow cytometry. The data indicate that the perinuclear localization of MT mRNA is important for the function of MT in a protective role against DNA damage and apoptosis induced by external stress. PMID:11284736

  5. Zinc and dexamethasone induce metallothionein accumulation by endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Briske-Anderson, M.; Bobilya, D.J.; Reeves, P.G. )

    1991-03-11

    Several tissues increase their metallothionein (MT) concentration when exposed to elevated amounts of plasma Zn. Endothelial cells form the blood vessels that supply all tissues and constitute a barrier between cells of tissues and the blood. This study examined the ability of endothelial cells to synthesize MT and accumulate Zn in response to high amounts of Zn and dexamethasone. Bovine pulmonary endothelial cells were grown to confluence in Minimum Essential Medium with Earle's salts and 10% fetal calf serum. The monolayer was maintained for 2 d prior to use in medium containing EDTA-dialyzed serum. This low Zn medium was replaced with one containing 1, 6, 25, 50, 100, 150, or 200 {mu}M Zn and incubated for 24 hr before harvesting the cells. MT was quantified by the cadmium binding assay. Cellular Zn concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption after a nitric acid digestion. The MT concentration was elevated in response to Zn concentrations of 100 {mu}M or more. Cellular Zn concentration was elevated when media Zn was 25 {mu}M or more. MT and cellular Zn concentrations were positively correlated. In another study, inclusion of 0.1 {mu}M dexamethasone in the media increased concentration at all Zn concentrations studied. However, the inclusion of 0.3 {mu}M cis-platinum had no effect. In conclusion, endothelial cells in culture respond to elevated amounts of Zn and dexamethasone in the media by accumulating Zn and MT.

  6. Amino acid sequence and comparative antigenicity of chicken metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, C C; Fullmer, C S; Garvey, J S

    1988-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of metallothionein (MT) from chicken liver is reported. The primary structure was determined by automated sequence analysis of peptides produced by limited acid hydrolysis and by trypsin digestion. The comparative antigenicity of chicken MT was determined by radioimmunoassay using rabbit anti-rat MT polyclonal antibody. Chicken MT consists of 63 amino acids as compared to 61 found in MTs from mammals. One insertion (and two substitutions) occurs in the amino-terminal region, a region considered invariant among mammalian MTs. Eighteen of the 20 cysteines in chicken MT were aligned with cysteines from other mammalian sequences. Two cysteines near the carboxyl terminus are shifted by one residue due to the insertion of proline in that region. Overall, the chicken protein showed approximately equal to 68% sequence identity in a comparison with various mammalian MTs. The affinity of the polyclonal antibody for chicken MT was decreased by 2 orders of magnitude in comparison to that of a mammalian MT (rat MT isoforms). This reduced affinity is attributed to major substitutions in chicken MT in the regions of the principal determinants of mammalian MTs. Theoretical analysis of the primary structure predicted the secondary structure to consist of reverse turns and random coils with no stable beta or helix conformations. There is no evidence that chicken MT differs functionally from mammalian MTs. PMID:2448773

  7. Production of metallothionein polyclonal antibodies using chickens as model.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bueno, Angélica María; León-Chávez, Bertha Alicia; Ruiz-Tagle, Alejandro; Lozano-Zarain, Patricia; Castro-Caballero, Leopoldo; Achanzar, William E; Brambila, Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    The production of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against metallothioneins (MT) has been done in mammals. In this work, we describe a model where pAbs against rat liver MT were produced in chickens. Liver MT-1 and MT-2 isoforms isolated from rats were used as immunogens. MT was purified by exclusion chromatography and MT isoforms isolated by ionic exchange chromatography. Chickens were immunized with each isoform emulsified with Freund adjuvant over 6 weeks. MT-pAbs obtained from egg yolk were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by thiophilic interaction chromatography. MT-pAbs were characterized by ELISA, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and Western blot assays. Results showed significant titers (1:1,000) of MT-1 and MT-2 IgY in the eggs collected 30 days after the first immunization as determined by a direct ELISA assay; results also show a cross-reaction between MT-1 and MT-2 isoforms: however, the Abs obtained did not react with other non-MT proteins in hepatic homogenates. Sensitivity assays showed that MT-pAbs detected MT-1 and MT-2 at nanogram levels. These data suggest that chickens are an alternative model for producing pAbs against mammal high-homology proteins such as MT.

  8. Metallothionein protects against oxidative stress-induced lysosomal destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Sarah K.; Kurz, Tino; Brunk, Ulf T.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of apo-ferritin or the iron chelator DFO (desferrioxamine) conjugated to starch into the lysosomal compartment protects cells against oxidative stress, lysosomal rupture and ensuing apoptosis/necrosis by binding intralysosomal redox-active iron, thus preventing Fenton-type reactions and ensuing peroxidation of lysosomal membranes. Because up-regulation of MTs (metallothioneins) also generates enhanced cellular resistance to oxidative stress, including X-irradiation, and MTs were found to be capable of iron binding in an acidic and reducing lysosomal-like environment, we propose that these proteins might similarly stabilize lysosomes following autophagocytotic delivery to the lysosomal compartment. Here, we report that Zn-mediated MT up-regulation, assayed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry, results in lysosomal stabilization and decreased apoptosis following oxidative stress, similar to the protection afforded by fluid-phase endocytosis of apo-ferritin or DFO. In contrast, the endocytotic uptake of an iron phosphate complex destabilized lysosomes against oxidative stress, but this was suppressed in cells with up-regulated MT. It is suggested that the resistance against oxidative stress, known to occur in MT-rich cells, may be a consequence of autophagic turnover of MT, resulting in reduced iron-catalysed intralysosomal peroxidative reactions. PMID:16236025

  9. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes; Camats, Jordi; Molinero, Amalia; Campbell, Iain L; Palmiter, Richard D; Hidalgo, Juan

    2003-06-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area surrounding the lesioned tissue, along with signs of increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. There was also significant upregulation of cytokines/growth factors such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 alpha/beta, and IL-6 as measured by ribonuclease protection assay. Mt3-null mice did not differ from control mice in these responses, in sharp contrast to results obtained in Mt1- Mt2-null mice. In contrast, Mt3-null mice showed increased expression of several neurotrophins as well as of the neuronal sprouting factor GAP-43. Thus, unlike MT-I and MT-II, MT-III does not affect the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process.

  10. Metallothionein-I induction by stress in specific brain areas.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, J; Campmany, L; Martí, O; Armario, A

    1991-10-01

    The distribution of metallothionein-I (MT) in several areas of the brain and its induction by immobilization stress has been studied in the rat. MT content was highest in hippocampus and midbrain and lowest in frontal cortex and pons plus medulla oblongata. Immobilization stress for 18 hours (which was accompanied by food and water deprivation) significantly increased MT levels in the frontal cortex, pons plus medulla oblongata and hypothalamus, but not in midbrain and hippocampus. The effect of stress on MT levels was specific as food and water deprivation along had no significant effect on MT levels in any of the brain areas studied. The effect of stress on MT levels was independent of changes in cytosolic Zn content; this was generally unaffected by stress or food and water deprivation but decreased in pons plus medulla oblongata from stressed rats. The results suggest that MT is induced more significantly in the brain areas that are usually involved in the response of animals to stress.

  11. The Functions of Metamorphic Metallothioneins in Zinc and Copper Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Recent discoveries in zinc biology provide a new platform for discussing the primary physiological functions of mammalian metallothioneins (MTs) and their exquisite zinc-dependent regulation. It is now understood that the control of cellular zinc homeostasis includes buffering of Zn2+ ions at picomolar concentrations, extensive subcellular re-distribution of Zn2+, the loading of exocytotic vesicles with zinc species, and the control of Zn2+ ion signalling. In parallel, characteristic features of human MTs became known: their graded affinities for Zn2+ and the redox activity of their thiolate coordination environments. Unlike the single species that structural models of mammalian MTs describe with a set of seven divalent or eight to twelve monovalent metal ions, MTs are metamorphic. In vivo, they exist as many species differing in redox state and load with different metal ions. The functions of mammalian MTs should no longer be considered elusive or enigmatic because it is now evident that the reactivity and coordination dynamics of MTs with Zn2+ and Cu+ match the biological requirements for controlling—binding and delivering—these cellular metal ions, thus completing a 60-year search for their functions. MT represents a unique biological principle for buffering the most competitive essential metal ions Zn2+ and Cu+. How this knowledge translates to the function of other families of MTs awaits further insights into the specifics of how their properties relate to zinc and copper metabolism in other organisms. PMID:28598392

  12. Purification of human brain metallothionein by organic and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Cartel, N J

    1996-02-09

    A simplified high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the detection of metallothioneins, notably metallothionein-III, has been developed. In order to purify metallothionein, differential acetone precipitation at 50% (v/v) and at 80% (v/v) was employed on a 20% normal human brain homogenate. The reconstituted pellet was injected into a C18 microbore reversed-phase HPLC column, equilibrated with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid, and developed at a flow-rate of 800 microliter/min with a linear gradient from 0% to 60% acetonitrile in 0.094% trifluoroacetic acid for 60 min. Western blots indicated that metallothioneins-I and II eluted at 16% acetonitrile and metallothionein-III eluted at 37% acetonitrile.

  13. Identification and cloning of first cadmium metallothionein like gene from locally isolated ciliate, Paramecium sp.

    PubMed

    Shuja, Rukhsana Nighat; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2009-03-01

    First cadmium metallothionein like gene PMCd1 of a ciliate, Paramecium sp., isolated from industrial wastewater has been cloned and sequenced. PMCd1 is an intronless gene, encoding 612 nucleotides, with TAA coding for glutamine. The coding region of PMCd1 comprises 203 amino acids, including 37 cysteine residues with a conserved structural pattern in the form of recurring structural motifs, arranged in 17 x-cys-x-y-cys-x, 1 x-cys-cys-x and x-cys-x contexts. Both, the deduced amino acids and nucleotide sequence differ, not only from other animal metallothioneins (MTs), but also from the previously characterized Tetrahymena Cu and Cd-MTs. The translated protein of PMCd1 contains conserved cysteine residues, peculiar characteristic of stress inducible metallothionein genes of ciliates and other groups of organisms.

  14. A synthetic cadmium metallothionein gene (PMCd1syn) of Paramecium species: expression, purification and characteristics of metallothionein protein.

    PubMed

    Dar, Saira; Shuja, Rukhsana N; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2013-02-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal binding proteins that are rich in cysteine residues constituting 10-30 % of the total protein, and in which the thiol groups bind to the metal ions. The increasing amount of metal ions in the medium have shown increased production of MTs by different organisms such as bacteria, protozoa and mammals like humans. PMCd1 is the first gene ever discovered in Paramecium, a ciliated protozoan, that could produce this MT in response to cadmium. In this study the PMCd1syn gene has been cloned in pET41a expression vector and expressed in an Escherichia coli BL21-codonplus strain for the first time. Since the gene PMCd1 amplified from Paramecium contained 10 codons, which could act as stop codons during expression in E. coli, this gene of 612 bps was synthesized to substitute these (stop) codons for the Paramecium sp. specific amino acids. For stability of the expressed protein, glutathione-S-transferase gene was fused with PMCd1syn gene and coexpressed. The cells expressing PMCd1syn demonstrated increased accumulation of cadmium. This is the first report of cadmium MT protein expressed from Paramecium species, particularly from synthetic MT gene (PMCd1syn). This fusion protein, the molecular weight of which has been confirmed to be 53.03 kDa with MALDI analysis, is rich in cysteine residues, and has been shown for the first time in this ciliate to bind to and sequester Cd(2+)-ions.

  15. Red blood cell metallothionein as an indicator of zinc status during pregnancy RBC metallothionein, zinc status and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Laura E.; Donangelo, Carmen M.; Chen, Ping; Junco, Jorge; Merialdi, Mario; Zavaleta, Nelly

    2008-01-01

    Objective to describe the levels and patterns of change in red blood cell (RBC) metallothionein (MT) during pregnancy and the neonate, and relate RBCMT to other indicators of zinc and iron status. Research Methods & Procedures As part of a double-masked controlled trial of prenatal zinc supplementation among 242 Peruvian pregnant women, we determined RBCMT at enrollment (10–16 wk), 28 and 36 wk gestation, and in the cord blood at delivery in 158 women (86 who received daily supplements containing 60 mg iron and 250 ug folic acid, and 72 whose supplements also contained 25 mg zinc). In addition we measured plasma and urinary zinc concentrations, and hemoglobin and serum ferritin, and on a limited sample, we measured RBC zinc and placental MT. Results RBCMT increased during pregnancy, and levels in the cord blood approximated maternal values at 36 wk. Only RBC zinc at 36 wk differed by supplement type (P <0.05). Increases in RBCMT over pregnancy were however, related to early pregnancy RBC zinc and inversely with the decline in plasma zinc from baseline to 36 weeks gestation. Conclusion Changes in RBCMT throughout pregnancy were consistent with the hypothesized role of MT in regulating zinc homeostasis. RBCMT appears to not be responsive during pregnancy to changes in zinc status achieved with supplements. PMID:18602250

  16. Enhanced effectiveness of copper ion buffering by CUP1 metallothionein compared with CRS5 metallothionein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L T; Howard, W R; Strain, J J; Winge, D R; Culotta, V C

    1996-08-02

    The bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a metallothionein (MT) gene family comprised of the amplified CUP1 locus and the single copy CRS5 gene. We demonstrate that CUP1 plays the dominant role in copper detoxification. A single copy of CUP1 was far more effective in conferring copper resistance than was CRS5. The CUP1 promoter contributes to this resistance; in a promoter exchange experiment, the Crs5 MT conferred strong copper resistance when its expression was driven by the CUP1 promoter, and conversely, the CRS5 promoter reduced the effectiveness of Cup1 MT. Unlike CUP1, the CRS5 promoter appears to be refractory to high concentrations of copper. The CUP1 coding sequences also contribute to copper tolerance, presumably reflecting the enhanced binding avidity of Cup1 MT for Cu(I) ions. In studies with the bathocuproine Cu(I) chelator, the Cu(I) ions bound to Crs5 were kinetically more labile than the Cu(I) binding to Cup1. Our findings are consistent with the assembly of Crs5 into two metal-binding clusters, similar to mammalian MTs, but unlike Cup1. Overall, the striking differences in gene structure, regulation, and function of CUP1 and CRS5 are remarkably reminiscent of the MTI and MTII genes of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata.

  17. Cardiac-specific overexpression of metallothionein rescues nicotine-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Guo, Rui; Han, Xuefeng; Zhu, Baocheng; Ren, Jun

    2011-04-10

    Cigarette smoking is a devastating risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and nicotine is believed the main toxin component responsible for the toxic myocardial effects of smoking. Nonetheless, neither the precise mechanism of nicotine-induced cardiac dysfunction nor effective treatment is elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cardiac-specific overexpression of heavy metal scavenger metallothionein on myocardial geometry and mechanical function following nicotine exposure. Adult male friend virus B (FVB) wild-type and metallothionein mice were injected with nicotine (2 mg/kg/d) intraperitoneally for 10 days. Mechanical and intracellular Ca²+ properties were examined. Myocardial histology (cross-sectional area and fibrosis) was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome staining, respectively. Oxidative stress and apoptosis were measured by fluoroprobe 5-(6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-H₂DCFDA) fluorescence and caspase-3 activity, respectively. Nicotine exposure failed to affect the protein abundance of metallothionein. Our data revealed reduced echocardiographic contractile capacity (fractional shortening), altered cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca²+ properties including depressed peak shortening amplitude, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, resting and electrically-stimulated rise in intracellular Ca²+, as well as prolonged duration of relengthening and intracellular Ca²+ clearance in hearts from nicotine-treated FVB mice, the effect of which was ameliorated by metallothionein. Biochemical and histological findings depicted overt accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis without any change in myocardial cross-sectional area following nicotine treatment, which was mitigated by metallothionein. Taken together, our findings suggest the antioxidant metallothionein may reconcile short-term nicotine exposure

  18. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes

    PubMed Central

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation. PMID:21825128

  19. Metal release in metallothioneins induced by nitric oxide: X-ray absorption spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Casero, Elena; Martín-Gago, José A; Pariente, Félix; Lorenzo, Encarnación

    2004-12-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight proteins that include metal ions in thiolate clusters. The capability of metallothioneins to bind different metals has suggested their use as biosensors for different elements. We study here the interaction of nitric oxide with rat liver MTs by using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. We univocally show that the presence of NO induces the release of Zn atoms from the MT structure to the solution. Zn ions transform in the presence of NO from a tetrahedral four-fold coordinated environment in the MT into a regular octahedral six-fold coordinated state, with interatomic distances compatible with those of Zn solvated in water.

  20. Differential metallothionein expression in earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) tissues.

    PubMed

    Morgan, A J; Stürzenbaum, S R; Winters, C; Grime, G W; Aziz, Nor Azwady Abd; Kille, P

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the immunoperoxidase localization of metallothionein (MT) in the major organs and tissues of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus sampled from a mine soil heavily polluted with Pb, Zn, and Cd. The polyclonal antiserum used was raised against the MT isoform (wMT2), the molecular characteristics and focal subcellular distribution of which indicate a primary role for it in the sequestration of certain nonessential metals, such as Cd. Intense MT immunostaining was detectable in chloragogenous tissue throughout the body: around the intestine, in the typhlosolar infolding, around blood vessels anterior and posterior to the crop/gizzard, and around the calciferous gland. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of neutral red-labeled vesicular structures in the chloragogenous tissue indicated that this acidic compartment, probably lysosomal, yielded the strong Cd and S signals associated with Cd-MT. MT expression was also detected in the apical cytoplasm of intestinal epithelial cells; in coelomocytes contiguous with chloragocytes attached to the gut; within the narrow tubular region of nephridia, in the secretory epithelia of the calciferous gland, but not anywhere in the body wall. We concluded that (a) the main route of Cd uptake is probably via absorptive alimentary surfaces, and not across the external epidermal layer; (b) nephridia are involved with Cd excretion and/or are a major target of Cd-induced pathological damage; (c) tentatively, a combination of immunohistochemistry and proton-induced X-ray emission analysis indicated that the calciferous gland is probably not a major "heavy metal" excretory route.

  1. Mechanism of protection by metallothionein against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Chieko; Yan, H.-M.; Artigues, Antonio; Villar, Maria T.; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2010-01-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure in the US. Metallothionein (MT) expression attenuates APAP-induced liver injury. However, the mechanism of this protection remains incompletely understood. To address this issue, C57BL/6 mice were treated with 100 mumol/kg ZnCl{sub 2} for 3 days to induce MT. Twenty-four hours after the last dose of zinc, the animals received 300 mg/kg APAP. Liver injury (plasma ALT activities, area of necrosis), DNA fragmentation, peroxynitrite formation (nitrotyrosine staining), MT expression, hepatic glutathione (GSH), and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels were determined after 6 h. APAP alone caused severe liver injury with oxidant stress (increased GSSG levels), peroxynitrite formation, and DNA fragmentation, all of which were attenuated by zinc-induced MT expression. In contrast, MT knockout mice were not protected by zinc. Hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury in primary hepatocytes was dependent only on the intracellular GSH levels but not on MT expression. Thus, the protective effect of MT in vivo was not due to the direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Zinc treatment had no effect on the early GSH depletion kinetics after APAP administration, which is an indicator of the metabolic activation of APAP to its reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). However, MT was able to effectively trap NAPQI by covalent binding. We conclude that MT scavenges some of the excess NAPQI after GSH depletion and prevents covalent binding to cellular proteins, which is the trigger for the propagation of the cell injury mechanisms through mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear DNA damage.

  2. Role of Metallothionein in Post-Burn Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yongjun; Liu, Weihua; Xu, Xuefeng; Chen, Xuelian; Liu, Hairong; Liu, Yueming

    2016-04-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low molecular-weight and cysteine-rich metalloproteins that regulate metal metabolism and protect cells from oxygen free radicals. Recent studies suggested that MTs have some anti-inflammatory effects. However, the role of MTs in post-burn inflammation remains unclear. This study is designed to investigate the role of MTs in post-burn inflammation in a mouse burn model. MT-I/II null (-/-) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice were randomly divided into sham burn, burn, Zn treated, and Zn-MT-2 treated groups. The inflammatory cytokines levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was determined by spectrophotometry. In in vitro study, exogenous MT-2 was added to macrophages that were stimulated with burn serum in the presence or absence of a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. The IL-6 and TNF-α messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The levels of p38 expression were determined by Western blot. Burn induced increased inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factors-α, and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 production in burn wound and serum. The MPO activities in the lung and heart were also increased after burn. These effects were significantly more prominent in MT (-/-) mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, these effects were inhibited by administration of exogenous MT-2 to both WT and MT (-/-) mice. Exogenous MT-2 inhibited the p38 expression and abrogated the increase of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression from macrophages that were stimulated with burn serum. The effect of MT-2 was not further strengthened in the presence of SB203580. MTs may have a protective role against post-burn inflammation and inflammatory organ damage, at least partly through inhibiting the p38 MAPK signaling.

  3. SPINK1 promotes colorectal cancer progression by downregulating Metallothioneins expression

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, R; Pandey, S K; Goel, S; Bhatia, V; Shukla, S; Jing, X; Dhanasekaran, S M; Ateeq, B

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world, and second leading cause of cancer deaths in the US. Although, anti-EGFR therapy is commonly prescribed for CRC, patients harboring mutations in KRAS or BRAF show poor treatment response, indicating an ardent demand for new therapeutic targets discovery. SPINK1 (serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 1) overexpression has been identified in many cancers including the colon, lung, breast and prostate. Our study demonstrates the functional significance of SPINK1 in CRC progression and metastases. Stable knockdown of SPINK1 significantly decreases cell proliferation, invasion and soft agar colony formation in the colon adenocarcinoma WiDr cells. Conversely, an increase in these oncogenic phenotypes was observed on stimulation with SPINK1-enriched conditioned media (CM) in multiple benign models such as murine colonic epithelial cell lines, MSIE and YAMC (SPINK3-negative). Mechanistically, SPINK1 promotes tumorigenic phenotype by activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathways, and the SPINK1-positive WiDr cells are sensitive to AKT and MEK inhibitors. Importantly, SPINK1 silencing mediated upregulation of various Metallothionein isoforms, considered as tumor suppressors in CRC, confer sensitivity to doxorubicin, which strengthens the rationale for using the combinatorial treatment approach for the SPINK1-positive CRC patients. Furthermore, in vivo studies using chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay, murine xenograft studies and metastasis models further suggest a pivotal role of SPINK1 in CRC progression and metastasis. Taken together, our study demonstrates an important role for the overexpressed SPINK1 in CRC disease progression, a phenomenon that needs careful evaluation towards effective therapeutic target development. PMID:26258891

  4. Metallothionein-induced zinc partitioning exacerbates hyperoxic acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Min; McLaughlin, Joseph N.; Frederick, Daniel R.; Zhu, Lin; Thambiayya, Kalidasan; Wasserloos, Karla J.; Kaminski, Iris; Pearce, Linda L.; Peterson, Jim; Li, Jin; Latoche, Joseph D.; Peck Palmer, Octavia M.; Stolz, Donna Beer; Fattman, Cheryl L.; Alcorn, John F.; Oury, Tim D.; Angus, Derek C.; Pitt, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypozincemia, with hepatic zinc accumulation at the expense of other organs, occurs in infection, inflammation, and aseptic lung injury. Mechanisms underlying zinc partitioning or its impact on extrahepatic organs are unclear. Here we show that the major zinc-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), is critical for zinc transmigration from lung to liver during hyperoxia and preservation of intrapulmonary zinc during hyperoxia is associated with an injury-resistant phenotype in MT-null mice. Particularly, lung-to-liver zinc ratios decreased in wild-type (WT) and increased significantly in MT-null mice breathing 95% oxygen for 72 h. Compared with female adult WT mice, MT-null mice were significantly protected against hyperoxic lung injury indicated by reduced inflammation and interstitial edema, fewer necrotic changes to distal airway epithelium, and sustained lung function at 72 h hyperoxia. Lungs of MT-null mice showed decreased levels of immunoreactive LC3, an autophagy marker, compared with WT mice. Analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the lungs revealed similar levels of manganese-SOD activity between strains under normoxia and hyperoxia. Lung extracellular SOD activity decreased significantly in both strains at 72 h of hyperoxia, although there was no difference between strains. Copper-zinc-SOD activity was ∼4× higher under normoxic conditions in MT-null compared with WT mice but was not affected in either group by hyperoxia. Collectively the data suggest that genetic deletion of MT-I/II in mice is associated with compensatory increase in copper-zinc-SOD activity, prevention of hyperoxia-induced zinc transmigration from lung to liver, and hyperoxia-resistant phenotype strongly associated with differences in zinc homeostasis during hyperoxic acute lung injury. PMID:23275622

  5. Prognostic significance of metallothionein expression in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulos, Dionisios; Kyroudi-Voulgari, Aspasia; Theocharis, Stamatis; Serafetinides, Efraim; Moraitis, Epaminondas; Zervas, Anastasios; Kittas, Christos

    2005-01-01

    Background Metallothionein (MT) protein expression deficiency has been implicated in carcinogenesis while MT over expression in tumors is indicative of tumor resistance to anti-cancer treatment. The purpose of the study was to examine the expression of MT expression in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to correlate MT positivity, the pattern and extent of MT expression with tumor histologic cell type and nuclear grade, pathologic stage and patients' survival. Patients and methods The immunohistochemical expression of MT was determined in 43 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded RCC specimens, using a mouse monoclonal antibody that reacts with both human MT-I and MT-II. Correlation was sought between immunohistochemical (MT positivity, intensity and extension of staining) and clinico-pathological data (histological cell type, tumor nuclear grade, pathologic stage and patients' survival). Results Positive MT staining was present in 21 cases (49%), being mild/moderate and intense in 8 and 13 cases, respectively. The pattern was cytoplasmic in 7 cases and was both cytoplasmic and nuclear in 14 cases. MT expression in a percentage of up to 25% of tumor cells (negative MT staining included) was observed in 31 cases, in a percentage 25–50% of tumor cells in 7 cases, and in a percentage of 50–75% of tumor cells in 5 cases. There was no significant correlation of MT intensity of staining to histological type, stage and patients' survival, while it was inversely correlated to higher tumor nuclear grade. MT extent of staining did not correlate with histological type, nuclear grade, and pathologic stage while a statistically significant association was found with patients' survival. Conclusions The inverse correlation between MT staining intensity and tumor nuclear grade in RCC suggests a role of MT in tumor differentiation process. Since extent of MT expression is inversely correlated with survival it may be possibly used as a clinical prognostic parameter. PMID

  6. Cadmium modulates adipocyte functions in metallothionein-null mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Takashige; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Sato, Masao; Inoue, Masahisa; Suzuki, Shinya

    2013-11-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes a reduction of adipocyte size and the modulation of adipokine expression. To further investigate the significance of the Cd action, we studied the effect of Cd on the white adipose tissue (WAT) of metallothionein null (MT{sup −/−}) mice, which cannot form atoxic Cd–MT complexes and are used for evaluating Cd as free ions, and wild type (MT{sup +/+}) mice. Cd administration more significantly reduced the adipocyte size of MT{sup −/−} mice than that of MT{sup +/+} mice. Cd exposure also induced macrophage recruitment to WAT with an increase in the expression level of Ccl2 (MCP-1) in the MT{sup −/−} mice. The in vitro exposure of Cd to adipocytes induce triglyceride release into culture medium, decrease in the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid hydrolysis at 24 h, and at 48 h increase in phosphorylation of the lipid-droplet-associated protein perilipin, which facilitates the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes. Therefore, the reduction in adipocyte size by Cd may arise from an imbalance between lipid synthesis and lipolysis. In addition, the expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin decreased in adipocytes. Taken together, exposure to Cd may induce unusually small adipocytes and modulate the expression of adipokines differently from the case of physiologically small adipocytes, and may accelerate the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Cd causes a marked reduction in adipocyte size in MT-null mice. • Cd enhances macrophage migration into adipose tissue and disrupt adipokine secretion. • MT gene alleviates Cd-induced adipocyte dysfunctions. • Cd enhances the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes, mediated by perilipin. • Cd induces unusually small adipocytes and the abnormal expression of adipokines.

  7. Phylogenetic Analysis of Molluscan Metallothioneins: Evolutionary Insight from Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Matthew J; Payton, Samantha L; Baltzegar, David A; Lozier, Jeffrey D

    2016-10-01

    Mechanisms by which organisms genetically adapt to environmental conditions are of fundamental importance to studies of evolutionary biology and environmental physiology. Natural selection acts on existing genetic variation leading to adaptation through selection of new mutations that confer beneficial advantages to populations. The American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is an excellent model to investigate interactions between environmental and ecological factors as driving forces for natural selection. A great example of this is represented by the diversity of C. virginica metallothioneins (CvMT), metal-binding proteins involved in homeostasis and tolerance, that have resulted from a series of duplication events to produce the greatest structural diversity of MT proteins found in a single species. We present phylogenetic evidence of two distinct ancestral β-domain MTs that gave rise to a variety of ββ and αβ CvMT proteins, as well as CvMT-II proteins consisting solely of one to four α-domains. Furthermore, we annotate the complete locus containing the paralogous CvMT-I, -II, and -IV genes, providing supporting evidence of a hypothesized series of exon and gene duplication events that gave rise to the various CvMT-I and -II isoforms. We also highlight unique MT expression profiles from four separate C. virginica populations to demonstrate differences in gene diversity and copy number which appear to be enriched in southeastern U.S. oyster populations. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to adaptation in organisms that experience substantial environmental stress, with a specific focus on evolutionary adaptations of gene structure.

  8. Tissue-specific metallothionein gene expression in liver and intestine by dexamethasone, interleukin-1. alpha. and elevated zinc status

    SciTech Connect

    Hempe, J.M.; Carlson, J.M.; Cousins, R.J. )

    1990-02-26

    Intestinal metallothionein has been implicated in the regulation of zinc absorption. Glucocorticoids and cytokines mediate hepatic metallothionein gene expression but the effects of these hormones in the small intestine are unclear. In this experiment, rats were injected ip with dexamethasone (DEX), recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (ILK-1), or ZnSO{sub 4}. Data collected 0. 3, 6,9, or 12 hour post-injection showed tissue specific regulation of metallothionein gene expression. Liver metallothionein mRNA (determined by hybridization analysis) were increased by DEX, IL-1 and ZnSO{sub 4}. In contrast, the intestine was completely refractory to IL-1. DEX did not affect intestinal metallothionein but did enhance mucosal accumulation of {sup 65}Zn by ligated duodenal loops. Absorption of {sup 65}Zn was not affected by IL-1 or DEX but was inversely related to elevated intestinal metallothionein protein induced in response to ZnSO. Plasma zinc was depressed by DEX and IL-1 and elevated in rats injected with ZnSO{sub 4} but was not related to {sup 54}Zn absorption. Tissue-specific induction of metallothionein may constitute a mechanism for independently regulating both tissue zinc distribution and zinc absorption.

  9. The Cd(II)-binding abilities of recombinant Quercus suber metallothionein: bridging the gap between phytochelatins and metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Domènech, Jordi; Orihuela, Rubén; Mir, Gisela; Molinas, Marisa; Atrian, Sílvia; Capdevila, Mercè

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we have analyzed both at stoichiometric and at conformational level the Cd(II)-binding features of a type 2 plant metallothionein (MT) (the cork oak, Quercus suber, QsMT). To this end four peptides, the wild-type QsMT and three constructs previously engineered to characterize its Zn(II)- and Cu(I)-binding behaviour, were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II), and the corresponding complexes were purified up to homogeneity. The Cd(II)-binding ability of these recombinant peptides was determined through the chemical, spectroscopic and spectrometric characterization of the recovered clusters. Recombinant synthesis of the four QsMT peptides in cadmium-rich media rendered complexes with a higher metal content than those obtained from zinc-supplemented cultures and, consequently, the recovered Cd(II) species are nonisostructural to those of Zn(II). Also of interest is the fact that three out of the four peptides yielded recombinant preparations that included S(2-)-containing Cd(II) complexes as major species. Subsequently, the in vitro Zn(II)/Cd(II) replacement reactions were studied, as well as the in vitro acid denaturation and S(2-) renaturation reactions. Finally, the capacity of the four peptides for preventing cadmium deleterious effects in yeast cells was tested through complementation assays. Consideration of all the results enables us to suggest a hairpin folding model for this typical type 2 plant Cd(II)-MT complex, as well as a nonnegligible role of the spacer in the detoxification function of QsMT towards cadmium.

  10. Metallothionein disulfides are present in metallothionein-overexpressing transgenic mouse heart and increase under conditions of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenke; Benz, Frederick W; Cai, Jian; Pierce, William M; Kang, Y James

    2006-01-13

    Metallothionein (MT) releases zinc under oxidative stress conditions in cultured cells. The change in the MT molecule after zinc release in vivo is unknown although in vitro studies have identified MT disulfide bond formation. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that MT disulfide bond formation occurs in vivo. A cardiac-specific MT-overexpressing transgenic mouse model was used. Mice were administered saline as a control or doxorubicin (20 mg/kg), which is an effective anticancer drug but with severe cardiac toxicity at least partially because of the generation of reactive oxygen species. A differential alkylation of cysteine residues in MT of the heart extracts was performed. Free and metal-bound cysteines were first trapped by N-ethylmaleimide and the disulfide bonds were reduced by dithiothreitol followed by alkylation with radiolabeled iodoacetamide. Analyses of the differentially alkylated MTs in the heart extract by high performance liquid chromatography, SDS-PAGE, Western blot, and mass spectrometry revealed that disulfide bonds were present in MT in vivo under both physiological and oxidative stress conditions. More disulfide bonds were found in MT under the oxidative stress conditions. The MT disulfide bonds were likely intramolecular and both alpha- and beta-domains were involved in the disulfide bond formation, although the alpha-domain appeared to be more easily oxidized than the beta-domain. The results suggest that under physiological conditions, the formation of MT disulfide bonds is involved in the regulation of zinc homeostasis. Additional zinc release from MT under oxidative stress conditions is accompanied by more MT disulfide bond formation.

  11. Expression, purification of metallothionein genes from freshwater crab (Sinopotamon yangtsekiense) and development of an anti-metallothionein ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Using the phoA-fusion technology, the recombinant metallothionein (MT) from freshwater crab (Sinopotamon yangtsekiense) has been successfully produced in Escherichia coli. MT purified from the bacterial suspension showed one polypeptide with a molecular weight of 7 kDa by tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Tricine-SDS-PAGE). Western-blotting confirmed the polypeptides had a specific reactivity with mouse polyclonal MT anti-serum. Based on the purified MT and MT anti-serum, the reaction parameters for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed. The direct coating ELISA showed a higher linear relationship compared to antibody sandwich coating ELISA. The optimal dilution rates of purified MT anti-serum and coating period were shown to be 1:160,000 and 12 hours at 4°C. At 37°C, the appropriate reaction duration of the first antibody and the second antibody were 2 hours and 1 hour, respectively. According to these optimal parameters, the standard linear equation, y = 0.0032x + 0.1769 (R2 = 0.9779, x, y representing MT concentration and OD450 value), was established for the determination of MT concentration with a valid range of 3.9–500 ng/ml. In verification experiments, the mean coefficients of variation of the intra-assay and inter-assay were 3.260% and 3.736%, respectively. According to the result of MT recovery, ELISA with an approaching 100% MT recovery was more reliable and sensitive than the Cd saturation assay. In conclusion, the newly developed ELISA of this study was precise, stable and repeatable, and could be used as a biomarker tool to monitor pollution by heavy metals. PMID:28350826

  12. The Arabidopsis Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    McClung, C. Robertson; Salomé, Patrice A.; Michael, Todd P.

    2002-01-01

    Rhythms with periods of approximately 24 hr are widespread in nature. Those that persist in constant conditions are termed circadian rhythms and reflect the activity of an endogenous biological clock. Plants, including Arabidopsis, are richly rhythmic. Expression analysis, most recently on a genomic scale, indicates that the Arabidopsis circadian clock regulates a number of key metabolic pathways and stress responses. A number of sensitive and high-throughput assays have been developed to monitor the Arabidopsis clock. These assays have facilitated the identification of components of plant circadian systems through genetic and molecular biological studies. Although much remains to be learned, the framework of the Arabidopsis circadian system is coming into focus. Dedication This review is dedicated to the memory of DeLill Nasser, a wonderful mentor and an unwavering advocate of both Arabidopsis and circadian rhythms research. PMID:22303209

  13. Structural and functional analysis of the rat metallothionein III genomic locus.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G A; Kay, J; Kille, P

    1999-06-09

    Metallothionein III (MT III) has been reported to suppress neuronal growth in a rat in vitro model system. The protein and its specific mRNA are detected predominantly in the brain, differentiating MT III from the well-characterised archetypal metallothioneins. Isolation, sequencing and functional analysis of the rat MT III genomic locus indicated that, although the organisation of the gene was conserved between MT III and the more conventional metallothioneins, the 5' flanking region of the MT III gene was distinct. Within this region, a number of putative regulatory elements were identified, including the metal regulatory elements (MREs) characteristic of metallothionein promoters. However, despite their conservation in sequence with active elements, the MREs of MT III were unresponsive to zinc. A 'silencing element' was revealed within a 250 bp section of the MT III promoter which suppressed gene expression in two brain cell lines. The operation of this silencing region in conjunction with the inactive MREs may explain the distinct expression profile observed for MT III within the central nervous system and during neuronal development.

  14. GENETIC BACKGROUND BUT NOT METALLOTHIONEIN PHENOTYPE DICTATES SENSITIVITY TO CADMIUM-INDUCED TESTICULAR INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic Background but not Metallothionein Phenotype Dictates Sensitivity to
    Cadmium-Induced Testicular Injury in Mice

    Jie Liu1,2, Chris Corton3, David J. Dix4, Yaping Liu1, Michael P. Waalkes2
    and Curtis D. Klaassen1

    ABSTRACT

    Parenteral administrati...

  15. Unexpected Interactions of the Cyanobacterial Metallothionein SmtA with Uranium.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Celin; Blindauer, Claudia A

    2016-02-15

    Molecules for remediating or recovering uranium from contaminated environmental resources are of high current interest, with protein-based ligands coming into focus recently. Metallothioneins either bind or redox-silence a range of heavy metals, conferring protection against metal stress in many organisms. Here, we report that the cyanobacterial metallothionein SmtA competes with carbonate for uranyl binding, leading to formation of heterometallic (UO2)(n)Zn4SmtA species, without thiol oxidation, zinc loss, or compromising secondary or tertiary structure of SmtA. In turn, only metalated and folded SmtA species were found to be capable of uranyl binding. (1)H NMR studies and molecular modeling identified Glu34/Asp38 and Glu12/C-terminus as likely adventitious, but surprisingly strong, bidentate binding sites. While it is unlikely that these interactions correspond to an evolved biological function of this metallothionein, their occurrence may offer new possibilities for designing novel multipurpose bacterial metallothioneins with dual ability to sequester both soft metal ions including Cu(+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), and Pb(2+) and hard, high-oxidation state heavy metals such as U(VI). The concomitant protection from the chemical toxicity of uranium may be valuable for the development of bacterial strains for bio-remediation.

  16. Induction and characterization of hepatic metallothionein in the channel catfish following exposure to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenk, D.; Zhang, Y.S.

    1994-12-31

    The channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is a commercially important fish found throughout the United States. Thus, understanding how this organism responds to environmental contaminants is of critical concern. The stress protein, metallothionein allows organisms to cope with excessive exposures of heavy metals, such as cadmium. Following a 5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of cadmium chloride, two metal binding proteins of approximately 8 kilodaltons and two MRNA bands of approximately 400 base pairs were induced in liver homogenates of juvenile channel catfish. Spectrophotometric examination of the purified proteins indicated that each protein was an isoform of metallothionein. Static aqueous exposures of 7 day duration to varied doses of cadmium chloride increased expression of metallothionein mRNA in a dose dependent manner. Significant (p {<=} 0.5) expression of MRNA was observed following exposures to cadmium chloride of 50/{mu}g/L or higher, but expression was unaltered by exposure to 10 {mu}g/L. Future studies will examine the time course of hepatic metallothionein expression in channel catfish following cadmium chloride exposure.

  17. GENETIC BACKGROUND BUT NOT METALLOTHIONEIN PHENOTYPE DICTATES SENSITIVITY TO CADMIUM-INDUCED TESTICULAR INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic Background but not Metallothionein Phenotype Dictates Sensitivity to
    Cadmium-Induced Testicular Injury in Mice

    Jie Liu1,2, Chris Corton3, David J. Dix4, Yaping Liu1, Michael P. Waalkes2
    and Curtis D. Klaassen1

    ABSTRACT

    Parenteral administrati...

  18. Protective effect of metallothionein on cadmium toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Din, W S; Frazier, J M

    1985-01-01

    An isolated rat hepatocyte preparation was used to study the cellular toxicity of cadmium and the protective effects of metallothionein on cadmium-induced toxicity. Exposure of primary suspension cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes to Cd2+ (0-35.7 microM) for 15 min resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the synthesis of cellular proteins during a subsequent 6 h incubation. Such inhibition could not be correlated with cellular lethality or gross membrane damage. Pre-induction of metallothionein in hepatocytes by zinc treatment in vivo of donor rats protected hepatocytes in vitro from cadmium-induced inhibition of protein synthesis. The protective effects in zinc-pre-induced hepatocytes are not due to alterations in the level of total cellular cadmium, but could be accounted for by the redistribution of intracellular cadmium in the presence of high levels of zinc-metallothionein. The data suggest that metallothionein exerts its protective effect by a kinetic detoxification mechanism, i.e. a decrease in reactive intracellular cadmium. PMID:4052053

  19. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Komai, Michio

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

  20. Metallothionein deficiency aggravates depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Ren, Jiong; Yang, Zhangyou; Peng, Shuangqing; Wang, Weidong; Li, Rong

    2015-09-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities, and the kidney is the main target organ of DU during acute high-dose exposures. In this study, the nephrotoxicity caused by DU in metallothionein-1/2-null mice (MT −/−) and corresponding wild-type (MT +/+) mice was investigated to determine any associations with MT. Each MT −/− or MT +/+ mouse was pretreated with a single dose of DU (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivalent volume of saline. After 4 days of DU administration, kidney changes were assessed. After DU exposure, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in MT −/− mice significantly increased than in MT +/+ mice, with more severe kidney pathological damage. Moreover, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde increased in MT −/− mice. The apoptosis rate in MT −/− mice significantly increased, with a significant increase in both Bax and caspase 3 and a decrease in Bcl-2. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) were significantly reduced after DU exposure, and the change of SGLT was more evident in MT −/− mice. Finally, exogenous MT was used to evaluate the correlation between kidney changes induced by DU and MT doses in MT −/− mice. The results showed that, the pathological damage and cell apoptosis decreased, and SOD and SGLT levels increased with increasing dose of MT. In conclusion, MT deficiency aggravated DU-induced nephrotoxicity, and the molecular mechanisms appeared to be related to the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased SGLT expression. - Highlights: • MT −/− and MT +/+ mice were used to evaluate nephrotoxicity of DU. • Renal damage was more evident in the MT −/− mice after exposure to DU. • Exogenous MT also protects against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. • MT deficiency induced more ROS and apoptosis after exposure to

  1. Clinical significance of metallothioneins in cell therapy and nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sushil; Rais, Afsha; Sandhu, Ranbir; Nel, Wynand; Ebadi, Manuchair

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight (6–7 kDa) cysteine-rich proteins that are specifically induced by metal nanoparticles (NPs). MT induction in cell therapy may provide better protection by serving as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic agents, and by augmenting zinc-mediated transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Liposome-encapsulated MT-1 promoter has been used extensively to induce growth hormone or other genes in culture and gene-manipulated animals. MTs are induced as a defensive mechanism in chronic inflammatory conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and infections, hence can serve as early and sensitive biomarkers of environmental safety and effectiveness of newly developed NPs for clinical applications. Microarray analysis has indicated that MTs are significantly induced in drug resistant cancers and during radiation treatment. Nutritional stress and environmental toxins (eg, kainic acid and domoic acid) induce MTs and aggregation of multilamellar electron-dense membrane stacks (Charnoly body) due to mitochondrial degeneration. MTs enhance mitochondrial bioenergetics of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex-1), a rate-limiting enzyme complex involved in the oxidative phosphorylation. Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors (eg, selegiline) inhibit α-synuclein nitration, implicated in Lewy body formation, and inhibit 1-methyl 4-phenylpyridinium and 3-morpholinosydnonimine-induced apoptosis in cultured human dopaminergic neurons and mesencephalic fetal stem cells. MTs as free radical scavengers inhibit Charnoly body formation and neurodegenerative α-synucleinopathies, hence Charnoly body formation and α-synuclein index may be used as early and sensitive biomarkers to assess NP effectiveness and toxicity to discover better drug delivery and surgical interventions. Furthermore, pharmacological

  2. Determination of the Cd/S cluster stoichiometry in Fucus vesiculosus metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Maureen E; Chaseley, Jennifer; Kille, Peter; Stillman, Martin J

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Fucus vesiculosus is unusual when compared with other algal species, in that it can survive in toxic-metal-contaminated aquatic environments. The metallothionein gene has been identified in F. vesiculosus by Kille and co-workers (Morris, C. A., Nicolaus, B., Sampson, V., Harwood, J. L., and Kille, P. (1999) Biochem. J. 338, 553), which suggests a possible protective mechanism against toxic metals for this species. We report the first detailed study of the metal binding properties of F. vesiculosus metallothionein using UV absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and electrospray mass spectral techniques. The overall metal-to-sulfur ratios of this novel algal protein when bound to divalent cadmium and zinc were determined to be Cd(6)S(16) and Zn(6)S(16), respectively. Mixed Cd/Zn species were also formed when Cd(2+) was added to the Zn-containing Fucus metallothionein. Only one conformation was identified at low pH for the native protein. Analysis of the UV absorption, CD, and ESI-MS spectral data recorded during stepwise, acid-induced demetalation supports a two-domain structure for the protein, with two 3-metal binding sites. The data suggest that one of the domains is significantly less stable than the other, and we tentatively propose from the arrangement of cysteines in the sequence that the two domains are M(3)S(7) and M(3)S(9) (where M = Cd(2+) or Zn(2+)). While the M(3)S(9) cluster is known in the beta clusters of crab, lobster, and mammalian metallothioneins, the M(3)S(7) is a hitherto unknown cluster structure. Metallothionein in F. vesiculosus is thought to act as a protective mechanism against incoming toxic metals. The metal binding studies reported are a putative model for metal binding in vivo.

  3. Expression of the zinc transporters genes and metallothionein in obese women.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Rocha, Paula Beatriz Krebsky; de Castro Amorim, Amanda; de Sousa, Artemizia Francisca; do Monte, Semíramis Jamil Hadad; da Mata Sousa, Luiz Claudio Demes; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; Neto, José Machado Moita; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2011-11-01

    Research has investigated the participation of zinc transport proteins and metallothionein in the metabolism of this mineral. However, studies about the genetic expression of these proteins in obese patients are scarce. The study determined the expression of zinc transporter protein codifying genes (ZnT-1, Zip-1 and Zip-3) and of metallothionein in 55 obese women, aged between 20 and 56 years. The assessment of body composition was carried out using anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance. Zinc intake was obtained by recording diet over a 3-day period, and the nutritional analysis was carried out using NutWin software version 1.5. The plasmatic and erythrocytary zinc were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (λ=213. 9 nm). The determination of mRNA expression of the zinc transporter proteins and metallothionein was carried out using blood, using the RT-PCR method. The mean values of body mass index were 37.9±5.5 kg/m2. The average intake of zinc was 9.4±2.3 mg/day. The analysis of the zinc plasma concentrations showed values of 58.4±10.9 μg/dL. The mean values of zinc in the erythroytes were 38.7±9.1 μg/g Hb. The metallothionein gene had a higher expression in the blood, when compared to zinc transporters ZnT-1, Zip-1, and Zip-3 (p=0.01). The study shows that there are alterations in the biochemical parameters of zinc in obese patients assessed, as well as higher expression of the codifying gene metallothionein, when compared to the investigated zinc transporters.

  4. A streptavidin-metallothionein chimera that allows specific labeling of biological materials with many different heavy metal ions.

    PubMed Central

    Sano, T; Glazer, A N; Cantor, C R

    1992-01-01

    We have designed a streptavidin-metallothionein chimeric protein in which the streptavidin moiety provides a means of binding the metallothionein moiety tightly to specific biological targets. A gene fusion of streptavidin with mouse metallothionein I was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli, and the expressed chimeric protein was purified to homogeneity by a simple procedure. The purified chimera, consisting of four identical subunits, bound one biotin and approximately seven Cd2+ ions per subunit (19.5 kDa). This indicates that both the streptavidin and the metallothionein moieties are fully functional. The high binding affinity of the chimera both for biotin and for heavy metal ions allows the specific labeling or conjugation of any biological material containing unhindered biotin with a variety of different heavy metal ions and their isotopes, thereby opening the way for simultaneous assay systems for a large number of biological targets. Images PMID:1542645

  5. Transfer of copper and zinc from ionic and metallothionein-bound forms to Cu, Zn--superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K T; Kuroda, T

    1995-03-01

    Reactivity in transfer of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) to their binding sites of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was examined in vitro by the HPLC/atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Ionic Cu (cuprous and cupric ions) were incorporated more efficiently than the metal bound to metallothionein. Cu binds not only to the Cu-binding site but also to the Zn-binding site. Although Zn in the reaction medium and the metal bound to the Zn-binding site of SOD affected little the reactivity in binding of ionic Cu, they disturbed the reactivity of Cu bound to metallothionein to the Cu-binding site. Both ionic and metallothionein-bound Zn were transferred at a comparable efficiency to the Zn-binding site but not to the Cu-binding site. Co-existing ionic Cu but not metallothionein-bound Cu in the medium inhibited the binding of Zn to SOD. The results indicate that ionic Cu can be transferred to both Cu- and Zn-binding sites of SOD more efficiently than metallothionein-bound Cu, while both ionic and metallothionein-bound Zn are transferred only to Zn-binding site at a comparable efficiency.

  6. Metallothionein-mediated neuroprotection in genetically engineered mouse models of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Manuchair; Brown-Borg, Holly; Refaey, Hesham El; Singh, Brij B.; Garrett, Scott; Shavali, Shaik; Sharma, Sushil K.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra zona compacta, and in other sub-cortical nuclei associated with a widespread occurrence of Lewy bodies. The cause of cell death in Parkinson's disease is still poorly understood, but a defect in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and enhanced oxidative and nitrative stresses have been proposed. We have studied controlwt (C57B1/6), metallothionein transgenic (MTtrans), metallothionein double gene knock (MTdko), α-synuclein knock out (α-synko), α-synuclein–metallothionein triple knock out (α-syn–MTtko), weaver mutant (wv/wv) mice, and Ames dwarf mice to examine the role of peroxynitrite in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and aging. Although MTdko mice were genetically susceptible to 1, methyl, 4-phenyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Parkinsonism, they did not exhibit any overt clinical symptoms of neurodegeneration and gross neuropathological changes as observed in wv/wv mice. Progressive neurodegenerative changes were associated with typical Parkinsonism in wv/wv mice. Neurodegenerative changes in wv/wv mice were observed primarily in the striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum. Various hallmarks of apoptosis including caspase-3, TNFα, NFκB, metallothioneins (MT-1, 2) and complex-1 nitration were increased; whereas glutathione, complex-1, ATP, and Ser(40)-phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase, and striatal 18F-DOPA uptake were reduced in wv/wv mice as compared to other experimental genotypes. Striatal neurons of wv/wv mice exhibited age-dependent increase in dense cored intra-neuronal inclusions, cellular aggregation, proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun, caspase-3, and GAPDH) induction, inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and neuro-apoptosis. MTtrans and α-Synko mice were genetically resistant to MPTP-Parkinsonism and Ames dwarf mice possessed significantly higher concentrations of striatal coenzyme Q10 and metallothioneins (MT 1, 2

  7. The potential effect of metallothionein 2A -5A/G single nucleotide polymorphism on blood cadmium, lead, zinc and copper levels.

    PubMed

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Aliyev, Vugar; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2011-10-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins. Because of their rich thiol groups, MTs bind to the biologically essential metals and perform these metals' homeostatic regulations; absorb the heavy metals and assist with their transportation and extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the metallothionein 2A (MT2A) core promoter region -5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu levels in the blood samples. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the standard polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique using the 616 blood samples and the genotype frequencies were found as 86.6% homozygote typical (AA), 12.8% heterozygote (AG) and 0.6% homozygote atypical (GG). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrophotometer system and the average levels of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in the blood samples were 1.69±1.57 ppb, 30.62±14.13 ppb, 0.98±0.49 ppm and 1.04±0.45 ppm, respectively. As a result; highly statistically significant associations were detected between the -5 A/G core promoter region SNP in the MT2A gene and Cd, Pb and Zn levels (p=0.004, p=0.012 and p=0.002, respectively), but no association was found with Cu level (p=0.595). Individuals with the GG genotype had statistically lower Zn level and higher Cd and Pb levels in the blood samples than individuals with AA and AG genotypes. This study suggests that having the GG genotype individuals may be more sensitive for the metal toxicity and they should be more careful about protecting their health against the toxic effects of the heavy metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Incorporation of sulfide ions into the cadmium(II) thiolate cluster of Cicer arietinum metallothionein2.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoqiong; Freisinger, Eva

    2013-01-18

    The plant metallothionein2 from Cicer arietinum (chickpea), cic-MT2, is known to coordinate five divalent metal ions such as Zn(II) or Cd(II), which are arranged in a single metal thiolate cluster. When the Zn(II) form of the protein is titrated with Cd(II) ions in the presence of sulfide ions, an increased Cd(II) binding capacity and concomitant incorporation of sulfide ions into the cluster are observed. The exact stoichiometry of this novel cluster, its spectroscopic properties, and the significantly increased pH stability are analyzed with different techniques, including UV and circular dichroism spectroscopy and colorimetric assays. Limited proteolytic digestion provides information about the spacial arrangement of the cluster within the protein. Increasing the Cd(II) scavenging properties of a metallothionein by additionally recruiting sulfide ions might be an economic and very efficient detoxification strategy for plants.

  9. Increased radioresistance of tumor cells exposed to metallothionein-inducing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Renan, M.J.; Dowman, P.I. )

    1989-12-01

    In this study, we have determined the radiosensitivity parameters of cells exposed in vitro to metallothionein-inducing agents. Three well-characterized tumor cell lines were chosen for investigation: HeLa, B16, and WHFIB. We have shown that exposure of cells in vitro to a heavy metal (cadmium), followed by irradiation, enhances cell survival for two out of three cell lines studied. As measured by the mean inactivation dose, the radioresistance increases by a factor of 1.6 for HeLa cells, 1.4 for WHFIB, and a negligible factor for B16 cells. An additional effect was noted when different classes of metallothionein inducers (such as serum factors, cadmium, and dexamethasone) were allowed to act together. Also, we found that the increase in radioresistance exhibits a peak at exposure times of approximately 10 h; longer exposure to inducing agents results in a reduction in radioresistance.

  10. Identification of a functional homolog of the yeast copper homeostasis gene ATX1 from Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Himelblau, E.; Amasino, R.M.; Mira, H.; Penarrubia, L.; Lin, S.J.; Culotta, V.C.

    1998-08-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a homolog of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) gene Anti-oxidant 1 (ATX1) has been identified from Arabidopsis. This gene, referred to as Copper CHaperone (CCH), encodes a protein that is 36% identical to the amino acid sequence of ATX1 and has a 48-amino acid extension at the C-terminal end, which is absent from ATX1 homologs identified in animals. ATX1-deficient yeast (atx1) displayed a loss of high-affinity iron uptake. Expression of CCH in the atx1 strain restored high-affinity iron uptake, demonstrating that CCH is a functional homolog of ATX1. When overexpressed in yeast lacking the superoxide dismutase gene SOD1, both ATX1 and CCH protected the cell from the reactive oxygen toxicity that results from superoxide dismutase deficiency. CCH was unable to rescue the sod1 phenotype in the absence of copper, indicating that CCH function is copper dependent. In Arabidopsis CCH mRNA is present in the root, leaf, and in fluorescence and is up-regulated 7-fold in leaves undergoing senescence. In plants treated with 800 nL/L ozone for 30 min, CCH mRNA levels increased by 30%. In excised leaves and whole plants treated with high levels of exogenous CuSO{sub 4}, CCH mRNA levels decreased, indicating that CCH is regulated differently than characterized metallothionein proteins in Arabidopsis.

  11. Identification of a Functional Homolog of the Yeast Copper Homeostasis Gene ATX1 from Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Himelblau, Edward; Mira, Helena; Lin, Su-Ju; Cizewski Culotta, Valeria; Peñarrubia, Lola; Amasino, Richard M.

    1998-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a homolog of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) gene Anti-oxidant 1 (ATX1) has been identified from Arabidopsis. This gene, referred to as Copper CHaperone (CCH), encodes a protein that is 36% identical to the amino acid sequence of ATX1 and has a 48-amino acid extension at the C-terminal end, which is absent from ATX1 homologs identified in animals. ATX1-deficient yeast (atx1) displayed a loss of high-affinity iron uptake. Expression of CCH in the atx1 strain restored high-affinity iron uptake, demonstrating that CCH is a functional homolog of ATX1. When overexpressed in yeast lacking the superoxide dismutase gene SOD1, both ATX1 and CCH protected the cell from the reactive oxygen toxicity that results from superoxide dismutase deficiency. CCH was unable to rescue the sod1 phenotype in the absence of copper, indicating that CCH function is copper dependent. In Arabidopsis CCH mRNA is present in the root, leaf, and inflorescence and is up-regulated 7-fold in leaves undergoing senescence. In plants treated with 800 nL/L ozone for 30 min, CCH mRNA levels increased by 30%. In excised leaves and whole plants treated with high levels of exogenous CuSO4, CCH mRNA levels decreased, indicating that CCH is regulated differently than characterized metallothionein proteins in Arabidopsis. PMID:9701579

  12. Metallothionein of the terrestrial mollusc Helix pomatia as a possible biomarker for environmental stressors

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.; Dallinger, R.; Moore, C.

    1995-12-31

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding proteins believed to function in homeostasis and detoxification of metals. MT synthesis is induced by various metals and chemical and physical stressors. MTs can therefore be considered as part of the cellular stress response. To test the effects of stressors on MT levels in the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) the authors exposed 8 individuals each to cadmium, copper, low temperature and X-ray radiation. MT concentrations were measured by a Thiomolybdate-Cd-Chelex assay in midgut gland and mantle tissues. This method allows to determine both the Cu-containing and the Cd,Zn-containing MT pool. The basal levels of MT in midgut gland and mantle of controls were about 2 mg MT g{sup {minus}1} fresh weight. In both organs about 80% of MT belongs to the Cu-MT pool indicating their importance for the metabolism of essential metals in non-stressed snails. As expected, changes of MT concentrations were most pronounced after cadmium exposure, MT levels in midgut glands rising to 4.2 mg MT g{sup {minus}1} f.w. and the proportion of Cd,Zn-MT increasing from 20% (controls) to 55%. This is an indication for the switching of MT function from the homeostatic control of metals towards their detoxification, Cadmium exposure as well as most of the other stressors did not affect MT concentrations in the mantle. MT levels in this organ decreased due to X-ray radiation, showing the ability of MT to function as a radical scavenger. There exists a complex pattern of increase and decrease of MT concentrations depending on the kind of stressor and the type of organ. By means of statistical methods it was possible to distinguish between the control and stressed MT status of the tissue. Moreover, the results prove that MTs should be measured in metabolically different organs and that different MT pools (Cu-MT, Cd,Zn-MT) should be considered, if these proteins are used as biomarkers for environmental stress.

  13. Quantitation of Human Metallothionein Isoforms: A Family of Small, Highly Conserved, Cysteine-rich Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Mehus, Aaron A.; Muhonen, Wallace W.; Garrett, Scott H.; Somji, Seema; Sens, Donald A.; Shabb, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Human metallothioneins (MTs) are important regulators of metal homeostasis and protectors against oxidative damage. Their altered mRNA expression has been correlated with metal toxicity and a variety of cancers. Current immunodetection methods lack the specificity to distinguish all 12 human isoforms. Each, however, can be distinguished by the mass of its acetylated, cysteine-rich, hydrophilic N-terminal tryptic peptides. These properties were exploited to develop a bottom-up MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS-based method for their simultaneous quantitation. Key features included enrichment of N-terminal acetylated peptides by strong cation exchange chromatography, optimization of C18 reversed-phase chromatography, and control of methionine oxidation. Combinations of nine isoforms were identified in seven cell lines and two tissues. Relative quantitation was accomplished by comparing peak intensities of peptides generated from pooled cytosolic proteins alkylated with 14N- or 15N-iodoacetamide. Absolute quantitation was achieved using 15N-iodoacetamide-labeled synthetic peptides as internal standards. The method was applied to the cadmium induction of MTs in human kidney HK-2 epithelial cells expressing recombinant MT-3. Seven isoforms were detected with abundances spanning almost 2 orders of magnitude and inductions up to 12-fold. The protein-to-mRNA ratio for MT-1E was one-tenth that of other MTs, suggesting isoform-specific differences in protein expression efficiency. Differential expression of MT-1G1 and MT-1G2 suggested tissue- and cell-specific alternative splicing for the MT-1G isoform. Protein expression of MT isoforms was also evaluated in human breast epithelial cancer cell lines. Estrogen-receptor-positive cell lines expressed only MT-2 and MT-1X, whereas estrogen-receptor-negative cell lines additionally expressed MT-1E. The combined expression of MT isoforms was 38-fold greater in estrogen-receptor-negative cell lines than in estrogen-receptor-positive cells. These

  14. Metallothionein deficiency in the injured peripheral nerves of complex regional pain syndrome as revealed by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Oki, Gosuke; Wada, Takuro; Iba, Kosuke; Aiki, Hikono; Sasaki, Kouichi; Imai, Shin-ichi; Sohma, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Kayo; Yamaguchi, Mami; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Kokai, Yasuo

    2012-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by persistent and severe pain after trauma or surgery; however, its molecular mechanisms in the peripheral nervous system are poorly understood. Using proteomics, we investigated whether injured peripheral nerves of CRPS patients have altered protein profiles compared with control nerves. We obtained nerve samples from 3 patients with CRPS-2 who underwent resection of part of an injured peripheral nerve. Sural nerves from fresh cadavers with no history of trauma or neuropathic pain served as controls. Proteomic analysis showed that the number and functional distribution of proteins expressed in CRPS and control nerves was similar. Interestingly, metallothionein was absent in the injured nerves of CRPS-2, although it was readily detected in control nerves. Western blotting further confirmed the absence of metallothionein in CRPS-2 nerves, and immunohistochemistry corroborated the deficiency of metallothionein expression in injured nerves from 5 of 5 CRPS patients and 2 of 2 patients with painful neuromas. In contrast, all control nerves, including 5 sural nerves from fresh cadavers and 41 nerves obtained from surgically resected tumors, expressed MT. Furthermore, expression of S100 as a marker for Schwann cells, and neurofilament M as a marker of axons was comparable in both CRPS-2 and controls. Metallothioneins are zinc-binding proteins that are probably involved in protection against injury and subsequent regeneration after CNS damage. Their absence from the injured peripheral nerves of patients with CRPS-2 suggests a potential pathogenic role in generating pain in the damaged peripheral nerves. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in metallothionein level in rat hepatic tissue after administration of natural mouldy wheat.

    PubMed

    Vasatkova, Anna; Krizova, Sarka; Adam, Vojtech; Zeman, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2009-03-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. This work was aimed at investigation of influence of mouldy wheat contaminated by pathogenic fungi producing mycotoxins on metallothionein levels in hepatic tissue of rats. The rats were administrating feed mixtures with different contents of vitamins or naturally mouldy wheat for 28 days. It was found that the wheat contained deoxynivalenol (80 +/- 5 microg per kg of mouldy wheat), zearalenone (56 +/- 3 microg/kg), T2-toxin (20 +/- 2 microg/kg) and aflatoxins as a sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2 (3.9 +/- 0.2 microg/kg). Rats were fed diets containing 0, 33, 66 and 100% naturally moulded wheat. Control group 0, 33, 66 and 100% contained vitamins according to Nutrient Requirements of Rats (NRC). Other four groups (control group with vitamins, vit33, vit66 and vit100%) were fed on the same levels of mouldy wheat, also vitamins at levels 100% higher than the previous mixtures. We determined weight, feed conversion and performed dissection to observe pathological processes. Changes between control group and experimental groups exposed to influence of mouldy wheat and experimental groups supplemented by higher concentration of vitamins and mouldy wheat were not observed. Livers were sampled and did not demonstrate significant changes in morphology compared to control either. In the following experiments the levels of metallothionein as a marker of oxidative stress was determined. We observed a quite surprising trend in metallothionein levels in animals supplemented with increased concentration of vitamins. Its level enhanced with increasing content of mouldy wheat. It was possible to determine a statistically significant decline (p<0.05) between control group and groups of animals fed with 33, 66 and 100% mouldy wheat. It is likely that some mycotoxins presented in mouldy wheat are able to block the mechanism of metallothionein synthesis.

  16. Protective effects of selenium on cadmium toxicity in rats: Role of altered toxicokinetics and metallothionein

    SciTech Connect

    Wahba, Z.Z.; Coogan, T.P.; Rhodes, S.W.; Waalkes, M.P. )

    1993-02-01

    Selenium prevents the toxicity of the carcinogenic metal cadmium through undefined mechanisms. In this study, the authors determined the effects of selenium on cadmium toxicokinetics and on the ability of cadmium to induce metallothionein, a metal-binding protein that is thought to confer tolerance to cadmium toxicity. To assess the acute protective effects of selenium, male Wistar (WF/NCr) rats were given selenium (as SeO[sub 2]; 10 [mu]mol/kg, sc) at [minus]24, 0, and +24 h relative to cadmium (as CdCl[sub 2]; 45 [mu]mol/kg, sc). Over a 14-d period this dose of cadmium killed 6 out of 10 rats, while 100% of the cadmium-treated rats given concurrent selenium treatments survived. The acute increases in testicular weight that were seen with cadmium, indicative of edematous damage, were also prevented by concurrent selenium treatments. Further studies assessed the distribution and excretion of cadmium and its ability to induce metallothionein in rats given 40 [mu]mol Cd/kg, sc, at time 0 and selenium (10 [mu]mol/kg, sc) at [minus]24 and 0 h. Selenium treatments enhanced cadmium accumulation at 24 h in the liver (23%), testes (145%), and epididymis (35%) but reduced renal accumulation by more than half. Urine samples, collected at 0-3, 3-6, and 6-24 h following cadmium administration, indicted a markedly reduced excretion of cadmium in selenium treated rats during all time periods. The synthesis of metallothionein was stimulated to a much lesser extent by cadmium in selenium-treated rat kidney (41% decrease) but was unaffected in liver. The levels of cadmium-binding proteins within the testes were markedly reduced by cadmium treatment, an effect unmodified by selenium treatments. These results suggest selenium prevents acute cadmium toxicity through a mechanism that does not involve induction of metallothionein and in spite of a markedly enhanced retention of cadmium. 50 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Quantitative immunodetection of metallothioneins in relation to metals concentration in spiders from variously polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Wilczek, Grażyna; Szulińska, Elżbieta; Franiel, Izabella

    2011-09-01

    Spiders inhabiting post industrial environments, such as waste heaps or ore-bearing areas, are exposed to high concentrations of metals, accumulated in the body of their prey and transferred along food chains. Therefore spiders are pressed to develop metal-neutralization strategies. Low-molecular, multifunction proteins: metallothioneins (MTs), often postulated as biomarkers of metal exposure, are known to bind metals and thus protect organisms against their toxic effects. Yet the proteins are still not well recognized in spiders. The aim of this study was to assess, by immunodetection method, ELISA, the concentration of metallothioneins in adult females of three web building spider species: Araneus diadematus (Araneidae), Agelena labyrinthica (Agelenidae) and Linyphia triangularis (Linyphiidae) from three variously polluted areas in southern Poland: Olkusz, ore-bearing post industrial site; Katowice-WeŁnowiec: post metallurgic waste heap, Pilica: the reference, rural, area. The concentration of metallothioneins has been analyzed in relation to the metal concentration in spiders body. The study gives the evidence that metallothioneins are reliably detectable by means of ELISA technique. The analysis of results obtained shows a strong species-dependence of the MTs level. Positive correlations between MTs concentration and metal body burden (mainly Zn and Pb) were found. This suggests that the proteins play an important role in the neutralization and regulation of metal ions in spiders. The same correlation indicate the possibility to consider MTs in spiders as biomarkers of metal exposure and effects. However, the species specificity as well as metal characteristics should be taken under account. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in Metallothionein Level in Rat Hepatic Tissue after Administration of Natural Mouldy Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Vasatkova, Anna; Krizova, Sarka; Adam, Vojtech; Zeman, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. This work was aimed at investigation of influence of mouldy wheat contaminated by pathogenic fungi producing mycotoxins on metallothionein levels in hepatic tissue of rats. The rats were administrating feed mixtures with different contents of vitamins or naturally mouldy wheat for 28 days. It was found that the wheat contained deoxynivalenol (80 ± 5 μg per kg of mouldy wheat), zearalenone (56 ± 3 μg/kg), T2-toxin (20 ± 2 μg/kg) and aflatoxins as a sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2 (3.9 ± 0.2 μg/kg). Rats were fed diets containing 0, 33, 66 and 100% naturally moulded wheat. Control group 0, 33, 66 and 100% contained vitamins according to Nutrient Requirements of Rats (NRC). Other four groups (control group with vitamins, vit33, vit66 and vit100%) were fed on the same levels of mouldy wheat, also vitamins at levels 100% higher than the previous mixtures. We determined weight, feed conversion and performed dissection to observe pathological processes. Changes between control group and experimental groups exposed to influence of mouldy wheat and experimental groups supplemented by higher concentration of vitamins and mouldy wheat were not observed. Livers were sampled and did not demonstrate significant changes in morphology compared to control either. In the following experiments the levels of metallothionein as a marker of oxidative stress was determined. We observed a quite surprising trend in metallothionein levels in animals supplemented with increased concentration of vitamins. Its level enhanced with increasing content of mouldy wheat. It was possible to determine a statistically significant decline (p<0.05) between control group and groups of animals fed with 33, 66 and 100% mouldy wheat. It is likely that some mycotoxins presented in mouldy wheat are able to block the mechanism of metallothionein synthesis. PMID:19399242

  19. Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

    2000-04-01

    The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

  20. Proteomic High Affinity Zn2+ Trafficking: Where Does Metallothionein Fit in?

    PubMed Central

    Petering, David H.; Mahim, Afsana

    2017-01-01

    The cellular constitution of Zn-proteins and Zn-dependent signaling depend on the capacity of Zn2+ to find specific binding sites in the face of a plethora of other high affinity ligands. The most prominent of these is metallothionein (MT). It serves as a storage site for Zn2+ under various conditions, and has chemical properties that support a dynamic role for MT in zinc trafficking. Consistent with these characteristics, changing the availability of zinc for cells and tissues causes rapid alteration of zinc bound to MT. Nevertheless, zinc trafficking occurs in metallothionein-null animals and cells, hypothetically making use of proteomic binding sites to mediate the intracellular movements of zinc. Like metallothionein, the proteome contains a large concentration of proteins that strongly coordinate zinc. In this environment, free Zn2+ may be of little significance. Instead, this review sets forth the basis for the hypothesis that components of the proteome and MT jointly provide the platform for zinc trafficking. PMID:28629147

  1. The liver in itai-itai disease (chronic cadmium poisoning): pathological features and metallothionein expression.

    PubMed

    Baba, Hayato; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Yazaki, Megumi; Nagata, Kohei; Minamisaka, Takashi; Tsuda, Tatsuhiro; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Shinichi; Miwa, Shigeharu; Nakajima, Takahiko; Nakanishi, Yuko; Aoshima, Keiko; Imura, Johji

    2013-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly hepatotoxic heavy metal, which is widely dispersed in the environment. Acute Cd hepatotoxicity has been well studied in experimental animals; however, effects of prolonged exposure to Cd doses on the liver remain unclear. In the present study, to evaluate chronic Cd hepatotoxicity, we examined specimens from cases of itai-itai disease, the most severe form of chronic Cd poisoning. We compared 89 cases of itai-itai disease with 27 control cases to assess Cd concentration in organs. We also examined 80 cases of itai-itai disease and 70 control cases for histopathological evaluation. In addition, we performed immunohistochemistry for metallothionein, which binds and detoxifies Cd. Hepatic Cd concentration was higher than Cd concentration in all other organs measured in the itai-itai disease group, whereas it was second highest following renal concentration in the control group. In the liver in the itai-itai disease group, fibrosis was observed at a significantly higher rate than that in the control group. Metallothionein expression was significantly higher in the itai-itai disease group than that in the control group. Prolonged exposure to low doses of Cd leads to high hepatic accumulation, which can then cause fibrosis; however, it also causes high expression of metallothionein, which is thought to reduce Cd hepatotoxicity.

  2. Behaviour of the oxidant scavenger metallothionein in hypoxia-induced neotropical fish.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Bastos, Frederico Freire; Dantas, Rafael Ferreira; Tobar, Santiago Alonso Leitão; da Cunha Bastos Neto, Jayme; da Cunha Bastos, Vera Lucia Freire; Ziolli, Roberta Lourenço; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2014-05-01

    The pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is a hypoxia-tolerant neotropical fish species. There is little or no information in this species regarding biochemical adaptations to waters with different oxygen concentrations, such as the production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavengers, which might be of interest in the study of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Metallothioneins (MT) have been widely applied as biomarkers for metal exposure in fish liver, and, recently, in bile. These metalloproteins, however, have also been reported as free radical scavengers, although studies in this regard are scarce in fish. In this context, normoxic and hypoxic controlled experiments were conducted with pacu specimens and MT levels were quantified in both liver and bile. Reduced glutathione (GSH) indicative of oxidative stress, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), indicative of lipid peroxidation, were also determined in liver. The results demonstrate that hypoxic fish present significantly lower metallothionein levels in liver and bile and lower reduced glutathione levels in liver, whereas lipid peroxidation was not significantly different between hypoxic and normoxic fish. The results of the present study seem to suggest that metallothioneins may actively participate in redox regulation in hypoxic fish in both bile and liver. MT levels in these organs may be temporarily suppressed, supporting the notion that down-regulation of oxidant scavengers during the oxidative burst is important in defense signaling in these adapted organisms.

  3. Production of a bifunctional hybrid molecule B72.3/metallothionein-1 by protein engineering.

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, J; Koropatnick, J; Qi, Y; Luo, X; Moyana, T; Li, K; Chen, Y

    1993-01-01

    A hybrid anti-tumour B72.3 antibody/metallothionein protein B72.3MT-1 was produced by the construction of the expression vector mpSV2neo-EP1-B72.3MT-1. This vector contained the neo gene as a selection marker, the murine immunoglobulin promoter and enhancer, and the hybrid B72.3 heavy chain gene fragment with mouse metallothionein-1 cDNA gene ligated into its CH2 domain. The expression vector was transfected to the heavy chain loss mutant B72.3Mut(K) cell line. The hybrid protein B72.3MT-1 was purified from transfectant supernates using a Protein G column. We showed that the hybrid protein retained the binding reactivity for the TAG72 antigen as the original B72.3 antibody, and the metal-binding capacity of the native metallothionein molecule. Therefore, the bifunctional hybrid protein B72.3MT-1 may be very useful in cancer imaging when labelled with radionuclides such as 99mTc. Images Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8495976

  4. Freezing of body fluids induces metallothionein gene expression in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra).

    PubMed

    Fisker, Karina Vincents; Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms activated by environmental contaminants and natural stressors such as freezing need to be investigated in order to better understand the mechanisms of interaction and potential effects that combined stressors may have on organisms. Using the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra as model species, we exposed worms to freezing and exposure to sublethal copper in a factorial design and investigated the transcription of candidate genes for metal and cold stress. We hypothesised that both freezing and copper would induce transcription of genes coding for heat shock proteins (hsp10 and hsp70), metallothioneins (mt1 and mt2), and glutathione-S-transferase (gst), and that the combined effects of these two stressors would be additive. The gene transcripts hsp10, hsp70, and gst were significantly upregulated by freezing, but only hsp10 was upregulated by copper. We found that copper at the time of sampling had no effect on transcription of two metallothionein genes whereas transcription was strongly upregulated by freezing. Moreover, there was a significant interaction causing more than additive transcription rates of mt1 in the copper/freezing treatment suggesting that freeze-induced cellular dehydration increases the concentration of free copper ions in the cytosol. This metallothionein response to freezing is likely adaptive and possibly provides protection against freeze-induced elevated metal concentrations in the cytosol and excess ROS levels due to hypoxia during freezing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does Variation of the Inter-Domain Linker Sequence Modulate the Metal Binding Behaviour of Helix pomatia Cd-Metallothionein?

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Moreno, Selene; Jiménez-Martí, Elena; Palacios, Òscar; Zerbe, Oliver; Dallinger, Reinhard; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    Snail metallothioneins (MTs) constitute an ideal model to study structure/function relationships in these metal-binding polypeptides. Helix pomatia harbours three MT isoforms: the highly specific CdMT and CuMT, and an unspecific Cd/CuMT, which represent paralogous proteins with extremely different metal binding preferences while sharing high sequence similarity. Preceding work allowed assessing that, although, the Cys residues are responsible for metal ion coordination, metal specificity or preference is achieved by diversification of the amino acids interspersed between them. The metal-specific MT polypeptides fold into unique, energetically-optimized complexes of defined metal content, when binding their cognate metal ions, while they produce a mixture of complexes, none of them representing a clear energy minimum, with non-cognate metal ions. Another critical, and so far mostly unexplored, region is the stretch linking the individual MT domains, each of which represents an independent metal cluster. In this work, we have designed and analyzed two HpCdMT constructs with substituted linker segments, and determined their coordination behavior when exposed to both cognate and non-cognate metal ions. Results unequivocally show that neither length nor composition of the inter-domain linker alter the features of the Zn(II)- and Cd(II)-complexes, but surprisingly that they influence their ability to bind Cu(I), the non-cognate metal ion. PMID:26703589

  6. Metallothionein and heavy metals in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Linde, A R; Sánchez-Galán, S; Klein, D; García-Vázquez, E; Summer, K H

    1999-10-01

    The levels and the cellular distribution of heavy metals, and the extent by which the metals binds to metallothionein (MT) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla), were analyzed in order to assess the natural conditions of MT and heavy metals in these two fish species. There were no differences in heavy metals and MT concentrations between males and females of brown trout in a nonreproductive status and between adult brown trout individuals. Brown trout presented higher Cu content than European eel. The cellular distribution of Cu was also different between the two fish species; while in brown trout most of the Cu was in the noncytosolic fraction, Cu was mainly located in the cytosol in European eel. However, the cellular distribution of Zn, Cd, and Pb was similar in the two fish species. There was also an important difference in the metal content of MT between both species. Whereas, in brown trout, Cu-binding MT represented 75% of total metal-binding MT, this value was 25% in European eel. The between-species differences found in this study are intrinsic characteristics not associated with environmental factors. These results establish the basis to use MT as a bioindicator.

  7. Zinc sulphate induces metallothionein in pancreatic islets of mice and protects against diabetes induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Ohly, P; Dohle, C; Abel, J; Seissler, J; Gleichmann, H

    2000-08-01

    Diabetes is induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) in male mice of susceptible strains. In this model beta-cell injury and T-cell-mediated inflammatory reactions are induced. Probably, reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in the destruction of beta cells. The effects of ROS can be counterbalanced by several antioxidant systems. One of these is metallothionein (MT), cytosolic proteins that are induced by zinc ions (Zn2+) and scavenge hydroxyl radicals (OH). The effect of Zn2+ on MLD-STZ-diabetes was studied. We gave C57BL/6 and (C57BL/6 x SJL)F1 hybrid mice either MLD-STZ or in addition Zn2+-enriched drinking water. We analysed metallothionein ex vivo in pancreatic islets for protein and mRNA concentration for the isoforms 1 and 2. Pancreatic sections were examined by immunohistochemistry for metallothionein and histologically for insulitis. In both strains, Zn2+-enriched drinking water significantly up-regulated metallothionein and prevented MLD-STZ-diabetes and loss of beta-cell function. In the F1 hybrid mice a variant of MLD-STZ-diabetes was observed. These mice developed hyperglycaemia 10 weeks after the first injection of STZ (in contrast to 2 weeks observed in other mouse strains) and pronounced insulitis. The mRNA of the metallothionein isoforms 1 and 2 were constitutively expressed and slightly up-regulated by Zn2+-enriched drinking water. All islets cells stained for metallothionein. Drinking water enriched with Zn2+ significantly up-regulated metallothionein production in pancreatic islets of mice and prevented diabetes induced with MLD-STZ.

  8. Metagenomics analysis reveals a new metallothionein family: Sequence and metal-binding features of new environmental cysteine-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Ziller, Antoine; Yadav, Rajiv Kumar; Capdevila, Mercè; Reddy, Mondem Sudhakara; Vallon, Laurent; Marmeisse, Roland; Atrian, Silvia; Palacios, Òscar; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence

    2017-02-01

    Metallothioneins are cysteine-rich proteins, which function as (i) metal carriers in basal cell metabolism and (ii) protective metal chelators in conditions of metal excess. Metallothioneins have been characterized from different eukaryotic model and cultivable species. Presently, they are categorized in 15 families but evolutionary relationships between these metallothionein families remain unresolved. Several cysteine-rich protein encoding genes that conferred Cd-tolerance in Cd-sensitive yeast mutants have previously been isolated from soil eukaryotic metatranscriptomes. They were called CRPs for "cysteine-rich proteins". These proteins, of unknown taxonomic origins, share conserved cysteine motifs and could be considered as metallothioneins. In the present work, we analyzed these CRPs with respect to their amino acid sequence features and their metal-binding abilities towards Cd, Zn and Cu metal ions. Sequence analysis revealed that they share common features with different known metallothionein families, but also exhibit unique specific features. Noticeably, CRPs display two separate cysteine-rich domains which, when expressed separately in yeast, confer Cd-tolerance. The N-terminal domain contains some conserved atypical Cys motifs, such as one CCC and two CXCC ones. Five CRPs were expressed and purified as recombinant proteins and their metal-binding characteristics were studied. All these CRPs chelated Cd(II), Zn(II) and Cu(I), although displaying a better capacity for Zn(II) coordination. All CRPs are able to confer Cd-tolerance, and four of them confer Zn-tolerance in the Zn-sensitive zrc1Δ yeast mutant. We designated these CRPs as environmental metallothioneins belonging to a new formerly undescribed metallothionein family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of metallothionein subisoforms in HPLC using accurate mass and online sequencing by electrospray hybrid linear ion trap-orbital ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mounicou, Sandra; Ouerdane, Laurent; L'Azou, Béatrice; Passagne, Isabelle; Ohayon-Courtès, Céline; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2010-08-15

    A comprehensive approach to the characterization of metallothionein (MT) isoforms based on microbore HPLC with multimodal detection was developed. MTs were separated as Cd(7) complexes, detected by ICP MS and tentatively identified by molecular mass measured with 1-2 ppm accuracy using Orbital ion trap mass spectrometry. The identification was validated by accurate mass of the corresponding apo-MTs after postcolumn acidification and by their sequences acquired online by higher-energy collision dissociation MS/MS. The detection limits down to 10 fmol and 45 fmol could be obtained by ESI MS for apo- and Cd(7)-isoforms, respectively, and were lower than those obtained by ICP MS (100 fmol). The individual MT isoforms could be sequenced at levels as low as 200 fmol with the sequence coverage exceeding 90%. The approach was successfully applied to the identification of MT isoforms induced in a pig kidney cell line (LLC-PK(1)) exposed to CdS nanoparticles.

  10. Experimental exposure to cadmium affects metallothionein-like protein levels but not survival and growth in wolf spiders from polluted and reference populations.

    PubMed

    Eraly, Debbie; Hendrickx, Frederik; Bervoets, Lieven; Lens, Luc

    2010-06-01

    Both local adaptation and acclimation in tolerance mechanisms may allow populations to persist under metal pollution. However, both mechanisms are presumed to incur (energetic) costs and to trade-off with other life-history traits. To test this hypothesis, we exposed Pardosa saltans (Lycosidae) spiderlings originating from metal-polluted and unpolluted sites to a controlled cadmium (Cd) treatment, and compared contents of metal-binding metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs), internal metal concentrations, and individual survival and growth rates with a reference treatment. While increased MTLP concentrations in offspring originating from both polluted and unpolluted populations upon exposure indicates a plastic tolerance mechanism, survival and growth rates remain largely unaffected, independent of the population of origin. However, MTLP and Cd concentrations were not significantly correlated. We suggest that MTLP production may be an important mechanism enabling P. saltans populations to persist in ecosystems polluted with heavy metals above a certain level.

  11. Vascular development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zheng-Hua; Freshour, Glenn; Hahn, Michael G; Burk, David H; Zhong, Ruiqin

    2002-01-01

    Vascular tissues, xylem and phloem, form a continuous network throughout the plant body for transport of water, minerals, and food. Characterization of Arabidopsis mutants defective in various aspects of vascular formation has demonstrated that Arabidopsis is an ideal system for investigating the molecular mechanisms controlling vascular development. The processes affected in these mutants include initiation or division of procambium or vascular cambium, formation of continuous vascular cell files, differentiation of procambium or vascular cambium into vascular tissues, cell elongation, patterned secondary wall thickening, and biosynthesis of secondary walls. Identification of the genes affected by some of these mutations has revealed essential roles in vascular development for a cytokinin receptor and several factors mediating auxin transport or signaling. Mutational studies have also identified a number of Arabidopsis mutants defective in leaf venation pattern or vascular tissue organization in stems. Genetic evidence suggests that the vascular tissue organization is regulated by the same positional information that determines organ polarity.

  12. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Belkhadir, Youssef; Wang, Xuelu; Chory, Joanne

    2006-12-05

    Plants control their size through the action of several phytohormones. One class of growth-promoting hormones is the brassinosteroids (BRs), the polyhydroxylated steroid hormones of plants. Here, we present the Arabidopsis-specific proteins that are the founding members of key BR signaling pathway components found in all plants. The genetic studies that identified these components are unique to Arabidopsis owing to its rapid generation time, sophisticated genetics, and facile transformation protocols, thereby highlighting the importance of a reference plant for understanding fundamental processes in all land plants.

  13. Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the major non-structural carbohydrate in plants. It serves as an important store of carbon that fuels plant metabolism and growth when they are unable to photosynthesise. This storage can be in leaves and other green tissues, where it is degraded during the night, or in heterotrophic tissues such as roots, seeds and tubers, where it is stored over longer time periods. Arabidopsis accumulates starch in many of its tissues, but mostly in its leaves during the day. It has proven to be a powerful genetic system for discovering how starch is synthesised and degraded, and new proteins and processes have been discovered. Such work has major significance for our starch crops, whose yield and quality could be improved by the application of this knowledge. Research into Arabidopsis starch metabolism has begun to reveal how its daily turnover is integrated into the rest of metabolism and adapted to the environmental conditions. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mutant lines deficient in starch metabolism have been employed as tools to study other biological processes ranging from sugar sensing to gravitropism and flowering time control. This review gives a detailed account of the use of Arabidopsis to study starch metabolism. It describes the major discoveries made and presents an overview of our understanding today, together with some as-yet unresolved questions. PMID:23393426

  14. Quantifying Protein Synthesis and Degradation in Arabidopsis by Dynamic 13CO2 Labeling and Analysis of Enrichment in Individual Amino Acids in Their Free Pools and in Protein1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation represent substantial costs during plant growth. To obtain a quantitative measure of the rate of protein synthesis and degradation, we supplied 13CO2 to intact Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Columbia-0 plants and analyzed enrichment in free amino acids and in amino acid residues in protein during a 24-h pulse and 4-d chase. While many free amino acids labeled slowly and incompletely, alanine showed a rapid rise in enrichment in the pulse and a decrease in the chase. Enrichment in free alanine was used to correct enrichment in alanine residues in protein and calculate the rate of protein synthesis. The latter was compared with the relative growth rate to estimate the rate of protein degradation. The relative growth rate was estimated from sequential determination of fresh weight, sequential images of rosette area, and labeling of glucose in the cell wall. In an 8-h photoperiod, protein synthesis and cell wall synthesis were 3-fold faster in the day than at night, protein degradation was slow (3%–4% d−1), and flux to growth and degradation resulted in a protein half-life of 3.5 d. In the starchless phosphoglucomutase mutant at night, protein synthesis was further decreased and protein degradation increased, while cell wall synthesis was totally inhibited, quantitatively accounting for the inhibition of growth in this mutant. We also investigated the rates of protein synthesis and degradation during leaf development, during growth at high temperature, and compared synthesis rates of Rubisco large and small subunits of in the light and dark. PMID:25810096

  15. Relationship between expression of HSP70 and metallothionein and oxidative stress during mercury chloride induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Reus, Isabel Sánchez; Bando, Inmaculada; Andrés, David; Cascales, María

    2003-01-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic metal which induces oxidative stress. Metallothionein and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) are stress proteins involved in response to different stimuli. In the present study rats were administered per oral application by gavage, a single daily dose (0.1 mg/kg) of HgCl(2) for 3 consecutive days. To find a relation between these two stress proteins and mercury, parameters of liver injury, redox state of the cells, and the expression and protein levels of HSP70 and metallothionein by Northern and Western blot analysis were assayed either in blood or in liver. HgCl(2) at the doses of 0.1 mg/kg induced liver injury detected by a slight increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and by the enhanced levels of bilirubin. Oxidative stress was detected by a significant decrease in protein-SH and an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver following one dose of mercury. mRNA and protein levels of both metallothionein and HSP70 increased progressively from first to third doses of mercury. We conclude that against low doses of mercury that produce a slight liver injury and oxidative stress, the liver rapidly responds by inducing the expression of metallothionein and HSP70. We suggest that metallothionein induction attenuates the decrease in protein-SH induced by the first dose of mercury, since metallothionein increases the pool of thiol groups in the cytosol eliminating oxygen radicals and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. From these results we can suggest that the changes observed in these stress proteins by the effect of mercury appear to be a response rapidly induced at transcriptional and at translational levels. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:161-168, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.10074

  16. Cadium pathways during gestation and lactation in control vs. metallothionein 1,2-knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Brako, E. E.; Wilson, A. K.; Jonah, M. M.; Blum, C. A.; Cerny, E. A.; Williams, K. L.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Winona State Univ.; Benedictine Univ.; Dominican Univ.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of metallothionein (MT) on cadmium absorption and transfer pathways during gestation and lactation in mice were investigated. Female 129/SvJ metallothionein-knockout (MT1,2KO) and metallothionein-normal (MTN) mice received drinking water containing trace amounts of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} (0.15 ng Cd/ml; 0.074 {mu}Ci {sup 109}Cd/ml). {sup 109}Cd and MT in maternal, fetal, and pup tissues were measured on gestation days 7, 14, and 17 and lactation day 11. In dams, MT influenced both the amount of {sup 109}Cd transferred from intestine into body (two- to three-fold higher in MT1,2KO than MTN dams) and tissue-specific {sup 109}Cd distribution (higher liver/kidney ratio in MT1,2KO dams). Placental {sup 109}Cd concentrations in MT1,2KO dams were three- and seven-fold higher on gestation days 14 and 17, respectively, than in MTN dams. Fetal {sup 109}Cd levels were low in both mouse types, but at least 10-fold lower in MTN fetuses. MT had no effect on the amount of {sup 109}Cd transferred to pups via milk; furthermore, 85--90% of total pup {sup 109}Cd was recovered in gastrointestinal tracts of both types, despite high duodenal MT only in MTN pups. A relatively large percentage of milk-derived intestinal {sup 109}Cd was transferred to other pup tissues in both MT1,2KO and MTN pups (14 and 10%, respectively). These results demonstrate that specific sequestration of cadmium by both maternal and neonatal intestinal tract does not require MT. Although MT decreased oral cadmium transfer from intestine to body tissues at low cadmium exposure levels, MT did not play a major role in restricting transfer of cadmium from dam to fetus via placenta and to neonate via milk.

  17. A cadmium metallothionein gene of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis, 1950) and its expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-11-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins capable of binding heavy metal ions. A cadmium metallothionein ( EcMT — Cd) cDNA with a 189 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 62 amino acid protein was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda. Seventeen cysteines were in the deduced amino acid sequence, and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was revealed in different metallothioneins in other species. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence did not contain any aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp), and phenylalanine (Phe). EcMT—Cd mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues (the ovary, muscle, stomach, and hepatopancreas), and its expression profiles in the hepatopancreas were very different when shrimps were exposed to seawater containing either 50 μmol/L CuSO4 or 2.5 μmol/L CdCl 2. The expression of EcMT-Cd was significantly up-regulated in shrimp exposed to CuSO4 for 12 h and down-regulated in shrimps exposed to CdCl2 for 12 h. After 24 h exposure to both metals, its expression was down-regulated. By contrast, at 48 h the EcMT-Cd was up-regulated in test shrimps exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cd was very low or even absent before the zoea stage, and the expression of EcMT-Cd was detected from mysis larvae-I, then its expression began to rise. In conclusion, a cadmium MT exists in E. carinicauda that is expressed in different tissues and during different developmental stages, and responds to the challenge with heavy metal ions, which provides a clue to understanding the function of cadmium MT.

  18. Cucumber Metallothionein-Like 2 (CsMTL2) Exhibits Metal-Binding Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yu; Pan, Yanglu; Zhai, Junpeng; Xiong, Yan; Li, Jinhua; Du, Xiaobing; Su, Chenggang; Zhang, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    We identified a novel member of the metallothionein (MT) family, Cucumis sativus metallothionein-like 2 (CsMTL2), by screening a young cucumber fruit complementary DNA (cDNA) library. The CsMTL2 encodes a putative 77-amino acid Class II MT protein that contains two cysteine (Cys)-rich domains separated by a Cys-free spacer region. We found that CsMTL2 expression was regulated by metal stress and was specifically induced by Cd2+ treatment. We investigated the metal-binding characteristics of CsMTL2 and its possible role in the homeostasis and/or detoxification of metals by heterologous overexpression in Escherichia coli cells. Furthermore, we produced a deletion mutant form of the protein, CsMTL2m, that contained the two Cys-rich clusters but lacked the spacer region, in E. coli. We compared the metal-binding properties of CsMTL2 with those of CsMTL2m, the β domain of human metallothionein-like protein 1 (HsMTXb), and phytochelatin-like (PCL) heterologously expressed in E. coli using metal-binding assays. We found that E. coli cells expressing CsMTL2 accumulated the highest levels of Zn2+ and Cd2+ of the four transformed cell types, with levels being significantly higher than those of control cells containing empty vector. E. coli cells expressing CsMTL2 had a higher tolerance for cadmium than for zinc ions. These findings show that CsMTL2 improves metal tolerance when heterologously expressed in E. coli. Future studies should examine whether CsMTL2 improves metal tolerance in planta. PMID:27916887

  19. Separation and quantitation of metallothioneins by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, L.D.; Klaassen, C.D.

    1986-03-01

    A rapid, reproducible, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of the concentrations of metallothionein-I (MT-I) and metallothionein-II (MT-II) in rat liver has been developed. Metallothioneins (MTs) were separated and quantitated by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Purified rat liver MT-I and MT-II, used as standards for developing the method, were easily resolved, eluting at 7.5 and 10.4 min, respectively. To establish standard curves, protein concentrations of solutions of the purified MTs were determined by the Kjeldahl method for the determination of nitrogen, after which the standards were saturated with Cd (final concentration of 50 ppm Cd). Rat liver cytosols obtained from untreated and Cd- or Zn-treated rats were prepared for HPLC-AAS analysis by saturation with Cd (50 ppm Cd) followed by heat denaturation (placing in a boiling water bath for 1 min). Based on the method of standard additions, recovery of MTs exceeded 95% and repeated injection of a sample yielded a coefficient of variance of approximately 2%. A detection limit of 5 ..mu..g MT/g liver was established for the method. Only MT-II was detected in untreated rats, whereas following exposure to Cd or Zn, both forms of MTs were detected. Concentrations of total MTs in liver of untreated and Cd- or Zn-treated rats were also determined by the Cd/hemoglobin radioassay (which fails to distinguish MT-I from MT-II) and indicated that results obtained with the HPLC-AAS method compared favorably to the Cd/hemoglobin radioassay.

  20. The major function of a metallothionein from the aquatic fungus Heliscus lugdunensis is cadmium detoxification.

    PubMed

    Loebus, Jens; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meissner, Diana; Braha, Bianca; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Freisinger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    A spring from a former copper shale mine in the area of Mansfelder Land, Germany, shows extremely high transition metal ion concentrations, i.e. 40mM Zn(II), 208μM Cu(II), 61μM As(V), and 25μM Cd(II). This makes it a challenging habitat for living organisms as they have to cope with metal ion concentrations that by far exceed the values usually observed in spring water. One of the surviving species found is the aquatic fungus Heliscus lugdunensis (teleomorph: Nectria lugdunensis). Investigation of its redox related heavy metal tolerance revealed the presence of small thiol containing compounds as well as a small metallothionein, Neclu_MT1 (MT1_NECLU: P84865). While Cd(II)-induction of metallothioneins is observed in many species, the fact that exclusively Cd(II), but not Zn(II), Cu(I), As(III) or oxidative stress can induce Neclu_MT1 protein synthesis is unparalleled. To complement the physiological studies performed in the fungus H. lugdunensis, the Cd(II) and Zn(II) binding characteristics of the recombinantly expressed protein were spectroscopically analysed in vitro aiming to demonstrate the observed Cd(II) specificity also on the protein level. Stoichiometric analyses of the recombinant protein in combination with photospectrometric metal ion titrations and (113)Cd-NMR experiments reveal that metal ion binding capacities and consequently the structures formed at physiological Neclu_MT1 concentrations differ from each other. Concluding, we describe the first solely Cd(II)-inducible metallothionein, Neclu_MT1, from H. lugdunensis, featuring a difference in the structure of the Cd(II)versus the Zn(II) metalated protein in a physiologically relevant concentration range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Highly selective and rapid arsenic removal by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli cells expressing Fucus vesiculosus metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2008-05-01

    An arsenic-chelating metallothionein (fMT) from the arsenic-tolerant marine alga Fucus vesiculosus was expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in 30- and 26-fold-higher As(III) and As(V) binding, respectively. Coexpression of the As(III)-specific transporter GlpF with fMT further improved arsenic accumulation and offered high selectivity toward As. Resting E. coli cells coexpressing fMT and GlpF completely removed trace amounts (35 ppb) of As(III) within 20 min, providing a promising technology for compliance with the As limit of 10 ppb newly recommended by the U.S. EPA.

  2. Metal accumulation and metallothionein concentrations in tree swallow nestlings near acidified lakes

    SciTech Connect

    St. Louis, V.; Breebaart, L. . Dept. of Zoology); Barlow, J.C. . Dept. of Zoology Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario . Dept. of Ornithology); Klaverkamp, J.F. . Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans)

    1993-07-01

    The authors studied metal accumulation in hepatic and renal tissues of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings at acidified and nonacid reference lakes in northwestern Ontario. Hepatic concentrations of metallothionein (metal-binding proteins, MT) in tree swallow nestlings were negatively correlated with pH of the nest-site lake. Combined concentrations of Cu and Zn in the liver were correlated with liver MT concentrations, but Cd was not. Although no overt signs of metal toxicity were observed in nestlings near acid lakes, the results clearly provided evidence that metals are transferred from acid lakes to birds and that these metals are correlated with increases in hepatic MT production.

  3. Metallothionein blocks oxidative DNA damage induced by acute inorganic arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Wei Waalkes, Michael P.

    2015-02-01

    We studied how protein metallothionein (MT) impacts arsenic-induced oxidative DNA damage (ODD) using cells that poorly express MT (MT-I/II double knockout embryonic cells; called MT-null cells) and wild-type (WT) MT competent cells. Arsenic (as NaAsO{sub 2}) was less cytolethal over 24 h in WT cells (LC{sub 50} = 11.0 ± 1.3 μM; mean ± SEM) than in MT-null cells (LC{sub 50} = 5.6 ± 1.2 μM). ODD was measured by the immuno-spin trapping method. Arsenic (1 or 5 μM; 24 h) induced much less ODD in WT cells (121% and 141% of control, respectively) than in MT-null cells (202% and 260%). In WT cells arsenic caused concentration-dependent increases in MT expression (transcript and protein), and in the metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), which is required to induce the MT gene. In contrast, basal MT levels were not detectable in MT-null cells and unaltered by arsenic exposure. Transfection of MT-I gene into the MT-null cells markedly reduced arsenic-induced ODD levels. The transport genes, Abcc1 and Abcc2 were increased by arsenic in WT cells but either showed no or very limited increases in MT-null cells. Arsenic caused increases in oxidant stress defense genes HO-1 and GSTα2 in both WT and MT-null cells, but to much higher levels in WT cells. WT cells appear more adept at activating metal transport systems and oxidant response genes, although the role of MT in these responses is unclear. Overall, MT protects against arsenic-induced ODD in MT competent cells by potential sequestration of scavenging oxidant radicals and/or arsenic. - Highlights: • Metallothionein blocks arsenic toxicity. • Metallothionein reduces arsenic-induced DNA damage. • Metallothionein may bind arsenic or radicals produced by arsenic.

  4. Metallothionein as bioindicator of freshwater metal pollution: European eel and brown trout.

    PubMed

    Linde, A R; Sánchez-Galán, S; Vallés-Mota, P; García-Vázquez, E

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of metallothionein (MT) as a bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in brown trout and European eel in the field situation. River Ferrerias (North Spain) provided a good gradient of metal contamination: concentrations of heavy metals were elevated both in water and in sediments at the downstream (polluted) site and were low at the upstream (unpolluted) site. MT levels of brown trout exhibited statistically significant differences between sites. Although European eel at the polluted site had a higher MT content, differences were not significant. It is concluded that MT is a good bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in brown trout.

  5. Metallothionein induction, growth, and survival of chinook salmon exposed to zinc, copper, and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Roch, M.; McCarter, J.A.

    1984-04-01

    Resident salmon in the Campbell River are exposed to heavy metal contamination which originates from the Westmin Resources Ltd. mine along Myra Creek near the south end of Buttle Lake. In addition, salmon raised by the Quinsam River hatchery must pass through the Campbell River during their migration to salt water. In order to assess the hazards of metal contamination in the Campbell River to resident and transitory salmonids, chinook salmon eggs obtained from the Quisam hatchery were exposed to varying degrees of metal contamination to determine survival, effects on growth and hepatic metallothionein concentrations after long term exposure.

  6. Comparative oxidative stress, metallothionein induction and organ toxicity following chronic exposure to arsenic, lead and mercury in rats.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S; Flora, G; Bhatnagar, P; Flora, S J S

    2014-06-22

    Globally, arsenic, mercury and lead constitutes as the three most hazardous environmental toxicants perturbing imbalance in pro—oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis. Individual toxicity of these environmental toxicants is well known but there is lack of comparative data on variables indicative of oxidative stress. We thus investigated the effects of chronic exposure to sodium arsenite, mercuric chloride and lead acetate on blood and tissue oxidative stress, metal concentration and metallothionein (MT) contents. Male rats were exposed to sodium arsenite, mercuric chloride and lead acetate (0.05 mg/kg each, orally, once daily) for 6 months. Arsenic, mercury and lead exposure led to a significant inhibition of blood δ—aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and glutathione level supported by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). The level of inhibition was more pronounced in case of lead followed by mercury and arsenic. These metals/ metalloid significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity accompanied by a decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) levels in blood and tissues. Mercury alone produced a significant induction of hepatic and renal MT concentrations. Serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased significantly on exposure to arsenic and mercury exposure suggesting liver injury which was less pronounced in case of lead exposure. These biochemical alterations were supported by increased arsenic, mercury and lead concentrations in blood and soft tissues. The present study suggests that exposure to sodium arsenite and mercuric chloride lead to more pronounced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity while lead acetate caused significant alterations in haem synthesis pathway compared to two other thiol binding metal/metalloid.

  7. Arabidopsis assay for mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Gichner, T; Badayev, S A; Demchenko, S I; Relichová, J; Sandhu, S S; Usmanov, P D; Usmanova, O; Velemínský, J

    1994-10-16

    Four laboratories, two in the Czech Republic (Brno and Prague) and two in the CIS (Moscow and Duschanbe), participated in the International Programme on Chemical Safety's (IPCS) collaborative study to evaluate the utility of the most commonly used plant test systems, including the Arabidopsis thaliana assay, for assessing the mutagenic potential of environmental agents. Out of the five compounds evaluated in the Arabidopsis assay, three compounds, i.e., ethyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, and azidoglycerol, were reported to be mutagenic by all four participating laboratories. Sodium azide (NaN3) demonstrated a negative response in all four laboratories, whereas maleic hydrazide was reported to be weakly mutagenic by one laboratory and nonmutagenic by the other three laboratories.

  8. The potential effect of metallothionein 2A - 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism on blood cadmium, lead, zinc and copper levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kayaalti, Zeliha Aliyev, Vugar; Soeylemezoglu, Tuelin

    2011-10-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins. Because of their rich thiol groups, MTs bind to the biologically essential metals and perform these metals' homeostatic regulations; absorb the heavy metals and assist with their transportation and extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the metallothionein 2A (MT2A) core promoter region - 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu levels in the blood samples. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the standard polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique using the 616 blood samples and the genotype frequencies were found as 86.6% homozygote typical (AA), 12.8% heterozygote (AG) and 0.6% homozygote atypical (GG). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrophotometer system and the average levels of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in the blood samples were 1.69 {+-} 1.57 ppb, 30.62 {+-} 14.13 ppb, 0.98 {+-} 0.49 ppm and 1.04 {+-} 0.45 ppm, respectively. As a result; highly statistically significant associations were detected between the - 5 A/G core promoter region SNP in the MT2A gene and Cd, Pb and Zn levels (p = 0.004, p = 0.012 and p = 0.002, respectively), but no association was found with Cu level (p = 0.595). Individuals with the GG genotype had statistically lower Zn level and higher Cd and Pb levels in the blood samples than individuals with AA and AG genotypes. This study suggests that having the GG genotype individuals may be more sensitive for the metal toxicity and they should be more careful about protecting their health against the toxic effects of the heavy metals. - Highlights: > MT2A -5A/G SNP has strong effect on the Cd, Pb and Zn levels in the blood. > MT2A GG individuals should be more careful for their health against metal toxicity. > This SNP might be considered as a biomarker for risk of disease related to metals.

  9. Metal ion trafficking in earthworms. Identification of a cadmium-specific metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Stürzenbaum, S R; Winters, C; Galay, M; Morgan, A J; Kille, P

    2001-09-07

    Exposure to cadmium poses a considerable risk to human health and environmental safety. Earthworms reside in the most contaminated sites on earth, displaying a phenomenal tolerance to toxic heavy metals. They exhibit a distinct metabolic pathway that allows the bio-accumulation of cadmium to yield body burdens in excess of 1/1000th of total dry body weight, a most impressive figure by any standard. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be unraveled. This study meets this challenge by fully characterizing the major metal-binding protein in earthworms, namely the two isoforms of metallothionein. Chemical analysis of recombinant protein showed that although both isoforms bind equimolar amounts of cadmium (6 mol), wMT-2 is more stable during proton competition. Furthermore, isoform-specific transcript analysis demonstrated that only wMT-2 is responsive to cadmium in a dose and temporal manner. The specific sequestration of cadmium to wMT-2 protein was confirmed in situ using polyclonal antisera. The latter also provided the means for mapping the cellular and intracellular distribution of metallothionein, thus yielding a holistic insight into its involvement in cadmium transit during absorption, storage, and excretion. The structure-function relationship of wMT-2 and its role in cadmium detoxification through sequestration and compartmentalization is discussed.

  10. Effect of melamine toxicity on Tetrahymena thermophila proliferation and metallothionein expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Hua; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Xuewen

    2015-06-01

    Melamine is a raw material in the chemical industry. Because of its high nitrogen content, melamine has been utilized by unscrupulous businessmen as a food additive to enhance the indices of protein content in food and feed testing. Tetrahymena has long been used as an excellent model organism in toxicological studies. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of melamine on Tetrahymena. In the present study, the effects of melamine on the proliferation and mating rate of Tetrahymena were examined by microscopic counting of the cell numbers. The comet assay and DAPI nuclear staining were performed to analyze the changes in the Tetrahymena genome. Flow cytometric analysis was conducted to detect apoptosis. Furthermore, RT-PCR was performed to determine the changes in the expression of the metallothionein gene in Tetrahymena that underwent stress treatment with varying concentrations of melamine. The results indicated that melamine affected the proliferation and sexual reproduction of Tetrahymena. High melamine concentrations damaged the Tetrahymena genome to a certain extent and induced apoptosis in the organism. Expression of the metallothionein gene was upregulated in Tetrahymena exposed to melamine stress to ameliorate melamine-induced damage. These results indicated that melamine displayed significant toxicity to Tetrahymena cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of α-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23554912

  12. Determination and Evaluation of Metallothionein and Metals in Mugil cephalus (Mullet) from Pontal Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Clissiane Soares Viana; da Silva, Erik Galvão Paranhos; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Dias, Fábio; Amorim, Fábio Alan Carqueija; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; Novaes, Cleber Galvão; Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg

    2017-01-01

    To assess environmental contamination, studies have been increasingly carried out using biomarkers to diagnose the effects of toxic metal exposure, such as metallothionein (MT). In this context, the aims of the present study were to determine Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb concentrations, by ICP-MS, in liver samples from Mugil cephalus from the municipality of Ilhéus, located in North-Southeastern Brazil, in the state of Bahia, which has been increasingly suffering from anthropogenic pressure, and to quantify total MT in liver and gills. Among essential metals, copper (199.2 μg g(-1)) presented concentrations approximately 7 times higher than allowed by the World Health Organization (30 μg g(-1)). Liver samples showed higher concentrations than gills. Metallothionein concentrations indicate differential contamination along the study area. The first sampling showed higher induction of MT synthesis overall. Differences between liver and gill MT concentration trends were relatively minor, which may indicate the adequacy of analyzing gills in an environmental monitoring context.

  13. [Metallothioneins in Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae): seasonal variation and its relation to reproductive biology].

    PubMed

    Lemus, Mairin; Rojas, Nilis; Rojas-Astudillo, Luisa; Chung, Kyung

    2013-06-01

    Metallothionein is a cytosolic protein found in a variety of tissues and have been involved in the regulation of essential trace metals such as copper and zinc, and in the detoxification of essential and nonessential metals. With the aim to study their seasonal variation and their possible role in reproductive behavior, we evaluated metallothioneins (Mts) in Perna viridis, taken from Rio Caribe and Chacopata localities in the North coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. A total of 325 samples were obtained from February to December 2003. We determined the following biometric indices in bivalves: Condition Index (CI), meat yield (RC) and dry weight-length relationship (PSL). Besides, Mts in whole tissue were separated by molecular exclusion chromatography, Sephadex G-50 and quantified by saturation with cadmium. Our results showed that the biometric indices (RC and PSL) had seasonal variations between localities and maturity stages, with the exception of IC. No significant differences were found between sexes. Mts showed seasonal variations between localities, with the highest concentrations between February and March, and minimum ones between September and December, coinciding with the respectively high and low productivity periods in the area. The mussels from Rio Caribe had higher Mts concentration than those from Chacopata. Furthermore, immature mussels showed the highest Mts concentration while the lowest was found in spawned specimens. We found a significant negative relationship between Mts and CI. Our results demonstrated that MTs in Perna viridis are influenced by the condition index and reproductive status, as well as physico-chemical factors in the marine environment.

  14. Identification and expression of an atypical isoform of metallothionein in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, Rosaria; Tussellino, Margherita; Carotenuto, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    Exploiting the annotation of the western clawed frog Silurana tropicalis genome, we identified a new metallothionein (MT) gene, exhibiting all the features to be considered an active gene, but with an atypical coding region, showing only 17 cysteine residues instead of the canonical 20 cysteines of vertebrate metallothioneins and two anomalous cysteine triplets. However, the presence of a gene in the genome does not ensure its effective expression. By using conventional and Real-Time PCR analyses, we demonstrated that this atypical MT is constitutively expressed throughout the life cycle of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis; moreover, this gene is highly expressed in the adult liver, the major site of MT expression and synthesis in vertebrates. To our knowledge, the X. laevis MT described in this paper is the first sequence of a vertebrate MT showing only 17 cysteine residues, arranged in two Cys-Cys-Cys motifs. Phylogenetic analyses also demonstrated that the atypical X. laevis MT merges in the anuran clade, but is the most derived sequence among tetrapods MTs. Finally, Tajima's Relative Rate Test suggested a different evolutionary rate between the canonical X. laevis MT and this novel isoform.

  15. The two distinctive metal ion binding domains of the wheat metallothionein Ec-1.

    PubMed

    Peroza, Estevão A; Kaabi, Ali Al; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Wellenreuther, Gerd; Freisinger, Eva

    2009-03-01

    Metallothioneins are small cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role, among others, in the homeostasis of essential metal ions such as Zn(II) and Cu(I). Recently, we could show that wheat E(c)-1 is coordinating its six Zn(II) ions in form of metal-thiolate clusters analogously to the vertebrate metallothioneins. Specifically, two Zn(II) ions are bound in the N-terminal and four in the C-terminal domain. In the following, we will present evidence for the relative independence of the two domains from each other with respect to their metal ion binding abilities, and uncover three intriguing peculiarities of the protein. Firstly, one Zn(II) ion of the N-terminal domain is relative resistant to complete replacement with Cd(II) indicating the presence of a Zn(II)-binding site with increased stability. Secondly, the C-terminal domain is able to coordinate an additional fifth metal ion, though with reduced affinity, which went undetected so far. Finally, reconstitution of apoE(c)-1 with an excess of Zn(II) shows a certain amount of sub-stoichiometrically metal-loaded species. The possible relevance of these finding for the proposed biological functions of wheat E(c)-1 will be discussed. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on both, the full-length and the truncated protein, provide final evidence for His participation in metal ion binding.

  16. Chemically and biologically harmless versus harmful ferritin/copper-metallothionein couples.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Fernando; Mendoza, Daniela; Kord, Scheghajegh; Asperti, Michela; Arosio, Paolo; Atrian, Sílvia; Capdevila, Mercè; Dominguez-Vera, Jose M

    2015-01-07

    The simultaneous measurement of the decrease of available Fe(II) ions and the increase of available Fe(III) ions allowed the analysis of the ferroxidase activity of two distinct apoferritins. Although recombinant human apoferritin (HuFtH) rapidly oxidizes Fe(II) to Fe(III) , this iron is not properly stored in the ferritin cavity, as otherwise occurs in horse-spleen H/L-apoferritin (HsFt; H=heavy subunit, L=light subunit). Iron storage in these apoferritins was also studied in the presence of two copper-loaded mammalian metallothioneins (MT2 and MT3), a scenario that occurs in different brain-cell types. For HuFtH, unstored Fe(III) ions trigger the oxidation of Cu-MT2 with concomitant Cu(I) release. In contrast, there is no reaction with Cu-MT2 in the case of HsFt. Similarly, Cu-MT3 does not react during either HuFtH or HsFt iron reconstitution. Significantly, the combination of ferritin and metallothionein isoforms reported in glia and neuronal cells are precisely those combinations that avoid a harmful release of Fe(II) and Cu(I) ions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A Simple Metallothionein-Based Biosensor for Enhanced Detection of Arsenic and Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Gordon W.; Tan, Swee Ngin; Stillman, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of cysteine-rich proteins whose biological roles include the regulation of essential metal ions and protection against the harmful effects of toxic metals. Due to its high affinity for many toxic, soft metals, recombinant human MT isoform 1a was incorporated into an electrochemical-based biosensor for the detection of As3+ and Hg2+. A simple design was chosen to maximize its potential in environmental monitoring and MT was physically adsorbed onto paper discs placed on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). This system was tested with concentrations of arsenic and mercury typical of contaminated water sources ranging from 5 to 1000 ppb. The analytical performance of the MT-adsorbed paper discs on SPCEs demonstrated a greater than three-fold signal enhancement and a lower detection limit compared to blank SPCEs, 13 ppb for As3+ and 45 ppb for Hg2+. While not being as low as some of the recommended drinking water limits, the sensitivity of the simple MT-biosensor would be potentially useful in monitoring of areas of concern with a known contamination problem. This paper describes the ability of the metal binding protein metallothionein to enhance the effectiveness of a simple, low-cost electrochemical sensor. PMID:28335390

  18. The metallothionein gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii confers Cd2+ tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Boru; Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Shengji; Wang, Xinwang; Jiang, Tingbo

    2014-06-10

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys)-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress.

  19. Mercury accumulation and metallothionein expression from aquafeeds by Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 under intensive aquaculture conditions.

    PubMed

    Soares, T M; Coutinho, D A; Lacerda, L D; Moraes, M O; Rebelo, M F

    2011-02-01

    This study describes the accumulation of Hg and metallothionein gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 with aquafeeds as the major source of Hg. Trials were conducted under controlled conditions in experimental tank facilities with high (indoor tanks) and low (outdoor tanks) Hg aquafeeds concentrations. Aquafeeds were the sole source of Hg for the shrimps and concentrations varied from 5.4 to 124 ng.g-1 d.w.. In the three animal fractions analysed; muscle (6,3 - 15,9 ng.g-1); hepatopancreas (5,1 - 22,0 ng.g-1) and exoskeleton (3,0 - 16,2 ng.g-1), Hg concentrations were significantly lower in the outdoor trials submitted to Hg-poor aquafeeds. Maximum shrimp muscle Hg concentrations were low (36.4 ng.g-1 w.w.) relative to maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption and Hg content in muscle and hepatopancreas were significantly correlated with Hg content in aquafeeds. Highest Hg concentrations in the exoskeleton of animals exposed to Hg-richer aquafeed, suggested that a detoxification mechanism is taking place. On the other hand the metallothionein suffered no variation in its relative expression in any of the experiments, meaning that the contact with feed containing the observed Hg concentrations were not sufficient to activate gene transcription. It was not possible, under the experimental design used, to infer Hg effects on the biological performance of the animals.

  20. [Metallothionein-I/II in brain injury repair mechanism and its application in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Li, Ru-bo; Lin, Ju-li

    2013-10-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a kind of metal binding protein. As an important member in metallothionein family, MT-I/II regulates metabolism and detoxication of brain metal ion and scavenges free radicals. It is capable of anti-inflammatory response and anti-oxidative stress so as to protect the brain tissue. During the repair process of brain injury, the latest study showed that MT-I/II could stimulate brain anti-inflammatory factors, growth factors, neurotrophic factors and the expression of the receptor, and promote the extension of axon of neuron, which makes contribution to the regeneration of neuron and has important effect on the recovery of brain injury. Based on the findings, this article reviews the structure, expression, distribution, adjustion, function, mechanism in the repair of brain injury of MT-I/II and its application prospect in forensic medicine. It could provide a new approach for the design and manufacture of brain injury drugs as well as for age estimation of the brain injury.

  1. Metallothionein 2A genetic polymorphisms and risk of prostate cancer in a Polish population.

    PubMed

    Forma, Ewa; Krzeslak, Anna; Wilkosz, Jacek; Jozwiak, Pawel; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Rozanski, Waldemar; Brys, Magdalena

    2012-09-01

    Metallothionein 2A (MT2A) is the most expressed metallothionein (MT) isoform in prostate cells. A number of studies have demonstrated altered MT2A expression in various human tumors, including prostate cancer. We conducted an association study to examine whether MT2A gene polymorphisms are associated with a risk of prostate cancer. Genotyping was conducted using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs28366003, rs1610216, and rs10636, were genotyped in 358 prostate cancer cases and 406 population controls. One SNP in MT2A (rs28366003) showed a positive association with prostate cancer. Compared to homozygous common allele carriers, heterozygosity for the G variant (odds ratio (OR)=2.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.50-3.47, P-trend<0.0001; the OR assuming a dominant model 2.43 (95% CI: 1.62-3.61, P(dominant)=0.001) after adjustment for age) had a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer in a Polish population. Our data suggest that the rs28366003 SNP in MT2A is associated with the risk of prostate cancer in a Polish population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Simple Metallothionein-Based Biosensor for Enhanced Detection of Arsenic and Mercury.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gordon W; Tan, Swee Ngin; Stillman, Martin J

    2017-03-13

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of cysteine-rich proteins whose biological roles include the regulation of essential metal ions and protection against the harmful effects of toxic metals. Due to its high affinity for many toxic, soft metals, recombinant human MT isoform 1a was incorporated into an electrochemical-based biosensor for the detection of As(3+) and Hg(2+). A simple design was chosen to maximize its potential in environmental monitoring and MT was physically adsorbed onto paper discs placed on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). This system was tested with concentrations of arsenic and mercury typical of contaminated water sources ranging from 5 to 1000 ppb. The analytical performance of the MT-adsorbed paper discs on SPCEs demonstrated a greater than three-fold signal enhancement and a lower detection limit compared to blank SPCEs, 13 ppb for As(3+) and 45 ppb for Hg(2+). While not being as low as some of the recommended drinking water limits, the sensitivity of the simple MT-biosensor would be potentially useful in monitoring of areas of concern with a known contamination problem. This paper describes the ability of the metal binding protein metallothionein to enhance the effectiveness of a simple, low-cost electrochemical sensor.

  3. Metallothionein immunoexpression in non-syndromic and syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Johann, Aline-Cristina-Batista-Rodrigues; Caliari, Marcelo-Vidigal; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Aguiar, Maria-Cássia-Ferreira; Mesquita, Ricardo-Alves

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the metallothionein (MT) immunoexpression in non-syndromic and syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KOT), to correlate MT with cellular proliferation, and to evaluate the influence of inflammation in MT. Material and Methods Fourteen cases of KOT were submitted to immunohistochemistry for MT and Ki-67 analysis. The lesions were grouped according to their grade of inflammation, and statistical analysis was performed. Results MT was higher in non-syndromic KOT than in syndromic KOT (p<0.05). No statistical difference in Ki-67 could be identified; however, an inverse correlation was observed between MT and Ki-67 in both lesions. When analysing inflammation, non-syndromic KOT showed no differences in either MT or Ki-67. Conclusions The MT immunophenotype of syndromic KOT was different from non-syndromic KOT. MT might not be involved in the proliferation control of both KOT. MT and Ki-67 immunoexpressions proved to be unaffected by inflammation in non-syndromic KOT. Key words: Odontogenic tumours, basal cell nevus syndrome, metallothionein, Ki-67 Antigen, immunohistoche-mistry. PMID:25858080

  4. Metallothionein modulation in relation to cadmium bioaccumulation and age-dependent sensitivity of Chironomus riparius larvae.

    PubMed

    Toušová, Zuzana; Kuta, Jan; Hynek, David; Adam, Vojtěch; Kizek, René; Bláha, Luděk; Hilscherová, Klára

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to contribute to understanding of the mechanisms behind sensitivity differences between early and late instar larvae of Chironomus riparius and to address the influence of the differences in standard testing approaches on the toxicity evaluation. A 10-day contact sediment toxicity test was carried out to assess sensitivity to cadmium exposure in relation to different age and laboratory culture line origin of test organisms. Chironomid larvae of early (OECD 218 method) and late instar (US-EPA600/R-99/064 method) differed substantially in sensitivity of traditional endpoints (OECD: LOEC 50 and 10 μg Cd/g dry weight (dw); US-EPA: LOEC > 1000 and 100 μg Cd/g dw for survival and growth, respectively). Bioaccumulated cadmium and metallothioneins (MTs) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the role of MTs in reduced sensitivity to cadmium in late instar larvae. Metallothioneins were induced after treatment to greater Cd concentrations, but their levels in relation to cadmium body burdens did not fully explain low sensitivity of late instars to cadmium, which indicates some other effective way of detoxification in late instars. This study brings new information related to the role of MTs in age-dependent toxicant sensitivity and discusses the implications of divergence in data generated by chironomid sediment toxicity tests by standardized methods using different instars.

  5. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Gonzalez, Frank J; Komai, Michio

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein-protein interactions with GR.

  6. Interprotein metal ion exchange between cadmium-carbonic anhydrase and apo- or zinc-metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Ejnik, J; Muñoz, A; Gan, T; Shaw, C F; Petering, D H

    1999-12-01

    The ligand substitution reactions of cadmium-carbonic anhydrase with EDTA and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid were compared with one in which rabbit apometallothionein was the competing metal-binding agent. This last reaction occurred more rapidly than the other two at a much smaller ratio of competing ligand to Cd-carbonic anhydrase. It was characterized as a second-order reaction, first-order in Cd-carbonic anhydrase and in apometallothionein, having a rate constant of 5.8 +/- 0.1 M-1 s-1 at 25 degrees C and pH 7.4 in Tris.HCl buffer and 0.1 M KCl. At 25 degrees C, Zn7-metallothionein also exchanged metal ions with Cd-carbonic anhydrase with a rate constant of 0.33 +/- 0.02 M-1 s-1 to reconstitute enzymatically active protein. Cd-carbonic anhydrase reacted within the time of mixing with the peptide sequence 49-61 of rabbit metallothionein 2 which contains four cysteinyl residues, leading to the exchange of most of the Cd2+ into the peptide. At pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C, Cd2+ has higher affinity for apometallothionein than for the apo-peptide.

  7. A Determination of Metallothionein in Larvae of Freshwater Midges (Chironomus riparius) Using Brdicka Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fabrik, Ivo; Ruferova, Zuzana; Hilscherova, Klara; Adam, Vojtech; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Among wide spectrum of biomolecules induced by various stress factors low molecular mass protein called metallothionein (MT) is suitable for assessment of the heavy metal environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to determine the metallothionein and total thiols content in larvae of freshwater midges (Chironomus riparius) sampled from laboratory exposure to cadmium(II) ions and from field studies using differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. Unique electrochemical instrument, stationary electrochemical analyser Autolab coupled with autosampler, was utilized for the analysis of the samples. The detection limit for MT was evaluated as 5 nM. The larvae exposed to two doses (50 ng/g or 50 μg/g) of cadmium(II) ions for fifteen days under laboratory controlled conditions were at the end of the exposure killed, homogenized and analysed. MT content in control samples was 1.2 μM, in larvae exposed to 50 ng Cd/g it was 2.0 μM and in larvae exposed to 50 μg Cd/g 2.9 μM. Moreover at field study chironomid larvae as well as sediment samples have been collected from eight field sites with different levels of pollution by heavy. The metals content (chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead) in the sediment and or MT content in the chironomid larvae were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or Brdicka reaction, respectively. PMID:27879923

  8. Involvement of metallothionein in cadmium accumulation and elimination in the clam ruditapes decussata

    SciTech Connect

    Bebianno, M.J.; Serafim, M.A.P.; Rita, M.F. )

    1994-11-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic pollutants in seawater because of its persistence, toxicity and potential for bioaccumulation. It is included on the [open quotes]black list[close quotes] of several international agreements established to regulate the input of pollutants into the marine environment. The deleterious effects of cadmium contamination in marine organisms result from its accumulation within specific tissues. However, most of these organisms have developed subcellular detoxification processes, including the synthesis of metallothioneins, low-molecular weight, metal-binding proteins. Bivalves have the ability to accumulate and concentrate cadmium to levels several orders of magnitude above those found in their environment. The present study was designed to examine the involvement of metallothionein synthesis in cadmium accumulation and elimination in the bivalve Ruditapes decussata when exposed to a sublethal cadmium concentration (100 [mu]g/l) and to a mixture of cadmium (100 [mu]g/1), copper (50 [mu]g/l) and zinc (50 [mu]g/1). 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. GLUTATHIONE AND METALLOTHIONEIN STATUS IN AN ACUTE RESPONSE BY MERCENARIA MERCENARIA BROWN CELLS TO COPPER IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Red glands of Mercenaria mercenaria comprise brown cells that accumulate, detoxify, and excrete copper. Brown cell involvement in metal detoxification is due in part to endogenous glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT).The intent of this study was to test the hypotheses that ...

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of metallothionein in normal human colorectal mucosa, in adenomas and in adenocarcinomas and their associated metastases.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, G; Barresi, G; Sturniolo, G C; Sarnelli, R; D'Incà, R; Tuccari, G

    1996-10-01

    The immunohistochemical distribution pattern of metallothionein, a low molecular weight protein with strong affinity for divalent heavy metal ions, has been investigated in normal and neoplastic conditions of the large bowel. Utilizing a monoclonal mouse antibody the following formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical or biopsy samples were studied: tubulo-villous adenomas (8 cases); adenocarcinomas with various degree of differentiation (85), nine of which were mucinous-type; synchronous tubular or tubulo-villous adenomas separate from carcinomas (30); transitional mucosa (45); metastases in lymph nodes (43); and distant metastases (45). Twenty biopsies from the right and left colon of 10 patients affected by irritable bowel syndrome were also analyzed. Normal colonic mucosa as well as transitional mucosa showed metallothionein immunopositivity in enterocytes at the luminal surface and crypts. Evident nuclear and cytoplasmic staining was encountered in tubulo-villous adenomas; the same reactivity was noted in the basal glandular component of colorectal carcinomas-synchronous adenomas, while less intense staining was noted in the apical villous portions. A variable metallothionein immunostaining was observed in adenocarcinomas (62.3%), in lymph node (55.8%) and distant hepatic (17.2%) and omental (43.8%) metastases, although it was not always concordant with that reported in the corresponding primary tumour. Whether the metallothionein positivity observed in normal and neoplastic cells is the result of expression of a stable form of the protein or an accumulation in the nucleus and cytoplasm remains to be clarified.

  11. Survival and hepatic metallothionein in developing rainbow trout exposed to a mixture of zinc, copper, and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Roch, M.; McCarter, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Buttle Lake on Vancouver Island, B.C. are exposed to metal contamination originating from a copper and zinc mining operation at Myra Falls near the head of the lake. In order to properly assess the risk to a population of rainbow trout in Buttle Lake, the authors initiated a long-term exposure of rainbow trout from hatch including the swim-up stage. Copper, zinc or cadmium are known to induce metallothionein in mammals and as a mixture of metals, induce hepatic metallothionein in rainbow trout. Investigation of hepatic metallothionein concentrations in wild rainbow trout from Buttle Lake and in lakes of the Campbell River downstream showed a correlation with metal concentrations in the water. Rainbow trout held in situ for 4 weeks showed the same correlation. In this report they determined whether or not the degree of contamination was correlated with concentrations of metallothionein in the livers of rainbow trout exposed to the mixture of metals during the early life stages.

  12. Subcellular targets of cadmium nephrotoxicity: cadmium binding to renal membrane proteins in animals with or without protective metallothionein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Nordberg, G F; Jin, T; Nordberg, M

    1994-01-01

    Nephrotoxic effects of cadmium exposure are well established in humans and experimental animals. An early manifestation of such toxicity is calciuria a few hours after injection of CdMT in rats. Protection against calciuria and other adverse effects such as proteinuria (occurring later) is offered by pretreatment with Cd, which effectively induces metallothionein synthesis. In the present experiment, one group of animals was given pretreatment with CdCl2 to induce metallothionein synthesis. The comparison group was left without pretreatment. The distribution of Cd from a normally nephrotoxic dose of 109CdMT was studied by gel chromatography in subcellular fractions of kidney cortex in both groups. In the pretreated animals, 109Cd in the plasma membrane and microsome fractions of renal cortical cells was mainly bound to metallothionein and other low molecular weight proteins at 4 hr. In nonpretreated animals the major part of 109Cd was bound to high molecular weight proteins. These findings indicate that membrane proteins may be important targets for Cd when inducing nephrotoxicity and that sequestering of Cd by metallothionein (and other low molecular weight proteins) may be a mechanism of protection. PMID:7843096

  13. Genetic definition and sequence analysis of Arabidopsis centromeres.

    PubMed

    Copenhaver, G P; Nickel, K; Kuromori, T; Benito, M I; Kaul, S; Lin, X; Bevan, M; Murphy, G; Harris, B; Parnell, L D; McCombie, W R; Martienssen, R A; Marra, M; Preuss, D

    1999-12-24

    High-precision genetic mapping was used to define the regions that contain centromere functions on each natural chromosome in Arabidopsis thaliana. These regions exhibited dramatic recombinational repression and contained complex DNA surrounding large arrays of 180-base pair repeats. Unexpectedly, the DNA within the centromeres was not merely structural but also encoded several expressed genes. The regions flanking the centromeres were densely populated by repetitive elements yet experienced normal levels of recombination. The genetically defined centromeres were well conserved among Arabidopsis ecotypes but displayed limited sequence homology between different chromosomes, excluding repetitive DNA. This investigation provides a platform for dissecting the role of individual sequences in centromeres in higher eukaryotes.

  14. Contribution of hepatic cytochrome CYP1A and metallothionein mRNA abundance to biomonitoring-A case study with European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Gulf of Gdańsk.

    PubMed

    Kopecka-Pilarczyk, Justyna; Schirmer, Kristin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the research was to explore the contribution of hepatic cytochrome CYP1A and metallothionein (MT) mRNA expression to biological effect monitoring. The study was conducted in the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Gulf of Gdańsk. mRNA abundance was measured using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in liver RNA of fish sampled from three coastal stations and from one offshore station in the inner Gulf. The contribution of the mRNA-based biomarkers to the assessment of the environment was determined in conjunction with a selection of commonly applied biochemical markers: 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), metallothioneins (MT), fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), all measured in the same individual fish. The mRNA biomarkers contributed to the separation between the sampling sites, but no correlations between CYP1A mRNA and EROD nor between MT mRNA and MT proteins were found, which should be attributed to the different levels these biomarkers correspond to and to the differences in factors that may affect them. One case of strong correlation between CYP1A mRNA and FACs was encountered. The overall results of this study suggest that biomarkers measured at the mRNA abundance level constitute a valuable addition to biomonitoring studies by providing additional information and contributing to the differentiation of results.

  15. Metal and metallothionein concentrations in Scoter (Melanitta spp.) from the Pacific northwest of Canada, 1989-1994.

    PubMed

    Barjaktarovic, L; Elliott, J E; Scheuhammer, A M

    2002-11-01

    Eighty-six surf ( Melanitta perspicillata) and nine white winged (M. fusca) scoters were collected from 1989-1994 at 11 locations in British Columbia and the Yukon. Their kidney and liver tissues were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and metallothionein (MT) concentrations. Individual kidney Cd values ranged from 2.4 microg/g dry weight (DW) in birds from northern Vancouver Island to 390.2 microg/g (DW) in birds from the Queen Charlotte Islands, which is in the range of values potentially associated with kidney damage. Birds from the Queen Charlotte Islands also had high kidney Zn concentrations, which were significantly higher than values in birds from Naniamo and Westham Island on the south coast of BC. Cd values were significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with both Zn and MT concentrations in kidney tissue (r = 0.66 and 0.62, respectively). Male surf scoters had significantly higher kidney Cd and Zn levels than females, with mean Cd values of 47.3 and 19.7 microg/g DW (p < 0.002) for males and females, respectively. Mean Zn values were 120.8 and 108.0 microg/g DW (p < 0.05) for males and females, respectively. However, no sex differences were observed for either Cu or MT concentrations in kidney tissue. Individual MT values ranged from 2.7 to 416.8 microg/g wet weight (WW). Individual kidney Cu values ranged from 15.1 to 48.4 microg/g DW for both sexes. Kidney and liver Cd concentrations were significantly correlated (r = 0.90, p < 0.05) with kidney levels almost always higher than liver values. Although Cd accumulation by the Skidegate scoters was high, comparable tissue Cd values have been documented in other seabirds collected from the same general area, indicating elevated Cd concentrations in marine food chains around the Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii) region of the Pacific coast.

  16. Primary structure and tissue-specific expression of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) metallothionein isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, M; Enghild, J; Hoexum-Brouwer, T; Thogersen, I; Truncali, A

    1995-01-01

    In aquatic animals, synthesis of the metal-binding protein metallothionein (MT) can be induced through exposure to elevated levels of metals in food or water. Whether the different routes of exposure lead to expression of different metallothionein isoforms in different tissues in unknown. In this study we examined the induction of metallothionein isoforms in the hepatopancreas and gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. When blue crabs are exposed to cadmium in their diet, the metal accumulates in the hepatopancreas. Size-exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography show the presence of five low-molecular-mass cadmium-binding proteins. All of the observed cadmium-binding proteins belong to the class I MT family. They are designated as MT-Ia, MT-Ib, MT-Ic, MT-IIa and MT-IIb. All purified proteins run as single peaks upon rechromatography on anion-exchange HPLC, except for MT-Ic, which segregates into two peaks corresponding to MT-Ia and MT-Ic. The amino acid sequence of MT-Ia and MT-Ic is identical. MT-Ib differs from MT-Ia and MT-Ic only in having an extra N-terminal methionine. The 18 cysteine residues in MT-Ia and MT-IIa occur in identical positions; however, of the remaining 40 amino acids, 15 are found to be different. MT-IIb is identical with MT-IIa, except for an extra methionine residue at its N-terminal position. It appears therefore that, of the five observed CdMTs, only two are the products of distinct genes. CdMT-Ia and -IIa are posttranslationally modified forms of Ib and IIb, respectively, and CdMT-Ia and -Ic appear to be conformational isomers. Cadmium-induced expression of the two genes is tissue-specific. When crabs are exposed to cadmium in water, the metal accumulates in the gills, where it is bound to MT-II. MT-I is virtually absent. PMID:7487904

  17. The comparison of mouse full metallothionein-1 versus alpha and beta domains and metallothionein-1-to-3 mutation following traumatic brain injury reveals different biological motifs.

    PubMed

    Manso, Yasmina; Serra, Montserrat; Comes, Gemma; Giralt, Mercedes; Carrasco, Javier; Cols, Neus; Vasák, Milan; González-Duarte, Pilar; Hidalgo, Juan

    2010-06-01

    Traumatic injury to the brain is one of the leading causes of injury-related death or disability, but current therapies are limited. Previously it has been shown that the antioxidant proteins metallothioneins (MTs) are potent neuroprotective factors in animal models of brain injury. The exogenous administration of MTs causes effects consistent with the roles proposed from studies in knock-out mice. We herewith report the results comparing full mouse MT-1 with the independent alpha and beta domains, alone or together, in a cryoinjury model. The lesion of the cortex caused the mice to perform worse in the horizontal ladder beam and the rota-rod tests; all the proteins showed a modest effect in the former test, while only full MT-1 improved the performance of animals in the rota-rod, and the alpha domain showed a rather detrimental effect. Gene expression analysis by RNA protection assay demonstrated that all proteins may alter the expression of host-response genes such as GFAP, Mac1 and ICAM, in some cases being the beta domain more effective than the alpha domain or even the full MT-1. A MT-1-to-MT-3 mutation blunted some but not all the effects caused by the normal MT-1, and in some cases increased its potency. Thus, splitting the two MT-1 domains do not seem to eliminate all MT functions but certainly modifies them, and different motifs seem to be present in the protein underlying such functions.

  18. A polymorphism in metallothionein 1A (MT1A) is associated with cadmium-related excretion of urinary beta 2‐microglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Lijian; Chang, Xiuli; Rentschler, Gerda; Tian, Liting; Zhu, Guoying; Chen, Xiao; Jin, Taiyi; Broberg, Karin

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: Cadmium (Cd) toxicity of the kidney varies between individuals despite similar exposure levels. In humans Cd is mainly bound to metallothioneins (MT), which scavenge its toxic effects. Here we analyzed whether polymorphisms in MT genes MT1A and MT2A influence Cd-related kidney damage. Methods: In a cross-sectional study N = 512 volunteers were selected from three areas in South-Eastern China, which to varying degree were Cd-polluted from a smelter (control area [median Cd in urine U-Cd = 2.67 μg/L], moderately [U-Cd = 4.23 μg/L] and highly [U-Cd = 9.13 μg/L] polluted areas). U-Cd and blood Cd (B-Cd) concentrations were measured by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. MT1A rs11076161 (G/A), MT2A rs10636 (G/C) and MT2A rs28366003 (A/G) were determined by Taqman assays; urinary N-Acetyl-beta-(D)-Glucosaminidase (UNAG) by spectrometry, and urinary β2-microglobulin (UB2M) by ELISA. Results: Higher B-Cd (natural log-transformed) with increasing number of MT1A rs11076161 A-alleles was found in the highly polluted group (p-value trend = 0.033; all p-values adjusted for age, sex, and smoking). In a linear model a significant interaction between rs11076161 genotype and B-Cd was found for UNAG (p = 0.001) and UB2M concentrations (p = 0.001). Carriers of the rs11076161 AA genotype showed steeper slopes for the associations between Cd in blood and natural log-transformed UB2M (β = 1.2, 95% CI 0.72–1.6) compared to GG carriers (β = 0.30, 95% CI 0.15–0.45). Also for UNAG (natural log-transformed) carriers of the AA genotype had steeper slopes (β = 0.55, 95% CI 0.27–0.84) compared to GG carriers (β = 0.018, 95% CI − 0.79–0.11). Conclusions: MT1A rs11076161 was associated with B-Cd concentrations and Cd-induced kidney toxicity at high exposure levels. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium is toxic to the kidney but the susceptibility differs between individuals. ► The toxic effect of cadmium is scavenged by metallothioneins. ► A common variant of

  19. [The protective effects of zinc metallothionein against erythrocyte membrane damage induced by methylmercury].

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Wang, Y; Qiu, B; Wang, Z

    2000-03-30

    The influences of zinc metallothionein(ZnMT) induced by Zn on mice erythrocyte membrane configuration, membrane sulfhydryl content, membrane fluidity, membrane permeability and so on after methylmercury (MeHg) treatment were studied, the protection of ZnMT against the membrane damage of MeHg was studied. The results showed that Zn could induce the production of ZnMT in the liver of mice. With the increase of Zn content, the level of ZnMT increased and had dose-effect relationship between them (r = 0.996). ZnMT could protect membrane configuration and -SH and prevent the damage of MeHg on the membrane fluidity and permeability. The results also showed that the dose of Zn administered to mice should be appropriate. High doses of Zn could cause damages.

  20. Structure and origin of a tandem duplication of a Drosophila metallothionein gene

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, E.; Maroni, G.

    1987-01-01

    A strain of cadmium-resistant Drosophila was isolated that contained a chromosomal duplication of the metallothionein gene, Mtn. This duplication was a direct, tandem repeat of 2.2 kilobases of DNA: 228 bases of 5' flanking DNA, the entire transcription unit, and 1.4 kilobases of 3' flanking DNA. The entire duplication was cloned and DNA sequences of the regions relevant to the duplication process were determined. Comparison of the sequences of the 5' and 3' boundaries revealed no extensive regions of similarity, thus indicating that this duplication was formed by nonhomologous breakage and reunion. Recently, results of similar analyses by other investigators have suggested that this process was involved in the origin of three other eukaryotic duplications. The authors have observed a chi-like sequence near one of the boundaries of each duplication, and therefore suggest that this sequence may be important in generating one of the breaks required for duplication formation.

  1. Metallothionein gene expression in peripheral lymphocytes and renal dysfunction in a population environmentally exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Jian; Jin Taiyi . E-mail: tyjin@smhu.edu.cn; Nordberg, Gunnar; Nordberg, Monica . E-mail: monica.nordberg@imm.ki.se

    2005-08-07

    In order to study the validity of metallothionein (MT) gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) as a biomarker of cadmium exposure and susceptibility to renal dysfunction, MT mRNA levels were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in PBLs from residents living in a cadmium-contaminated area. MT mRNA levels were found to increase with the increase of blood cadmium (BCd) and urinary cadmium (UCd) levels. Basal MT mRNA levels were significantly correlated with the logarithm of BCd levels and the logarithm of UCd levels confirming that MT expression in PBLs is a biomarker of cadmium exposure and internal dose. An inverse relationship was observed between in vitro induced MT-mRNA level in PBLs and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase (UNAG) suggesting that MT gene expression in PBLs may be used as a biomarker of susceptibility to renal toxicity of cadmium.

  2. Primary structures of decapod crustacean metallothioneins with special emphasis on freshwater and semi-terrestrial species.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, S N; Pedersen, K L; Højrup, P; Depledge, M H; Knudsen, J

    1996-11-01

    Cadmium injections induced only a single form of metallothionein (MT) in the midgut gland of Potamon potamios, whereas the same treatment induced two isoforms in Astacus astacus. The only difference between the two latter isoforms was that one had an extra N-terminal methionine residue. MT from P. potamios showed structural differences from other decapod crustacean MTs. It contained a Gly-Thr motif at positions 8 and 8a, which had previously been found only in certain vertebrate and molluscan MTs. Furthermore P. potamios MT contained two to three times as many glutamic acid residues as normally found in decapod crustacean MT. The primary structure of MT from the freshwater crayfish A. astacus showed a high degree of sequence identity with MT from other decapod crustaceans, especially the marine astacidean Homarus americanus, although two valine residues were unexpectedly found at positions 8 and 21, where lysine residues are normally found.

  3. Metal concentrations and metallothionein levels in Mytilus galloprovincialis from Elefsis bay (Saronikos gulf, Greece).

    PubMed

    Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Angelidis, Michael O; Christides, Anastassios; Papathanassiou, Evangelos

    2012-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn and metallothionein (MT) concentrations were determined in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from Elefsis bay (Saronikos gulf, Greece). Higher concentrations of both metal concentrations and MTs were recorded in mussels inhabiting industrial locations (steelworks and shipyard), indicating a markedly higher metal bioavailability. However at these sites, located at the eastern part of the bay, mussel metal concentrations were not always correlated with both seawater metal concentrations and MTs possibly due to different time scales of integration of the metal sources into mussels and/or the participation of other metal regulatory mechanisms except MT induction. The pattern of the temporal variation of mussel metal concentrations and the MT levels was similar among stations with higher values during the winter-spring season and lower during the summer-autumn period. The inverse relationship of flesh condition index with mussel metal concentrations was attributed to the influence of mussel annual reproductive cycle.

  4. Metallothioneins, Unconventional Proteins from Unconventional Animals: A Long Journey from Nematodes to Mammals †

    PubMed Central

    Isani, Gloria; Carpenè, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins characterized by high affinity for d10 electron configuration metals, including essential (Zn and Cu) and non-essential (Cd and Hg) trace elements. The biological role of these ancient and well-conserved multifunctional proteins has been debated since MTs were first discovered in 1957. Their main hypothesized functions are: (1) homeostasis of Zn and Cu; (2) detoxification of Cd, and Hg; and (3) free radical scavenging. This review will focus on MTs in unconventional animals, those not traditionally studied in veterinary medicine but of increasing interest in this field of research. Living in different environments, these animals represent an incredible source of physiological and biochemical adaptations still partly unexplored. The study of metal-MT interactions is of great interest for clinicians and researchers working in veterinary medicine, food quality and endangered species conservation. PMID:24970224

  5. Blood cadmium and metallothionein concentrations in females of two sympatric pinnipeds species.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, P; Romero, M B; Chiodi Boudet, L N; Ponce de León, A; Medici, S; Costas, A; Rodríguez, D; Gerpe, M

    2017-09-15

    Otaria flavescens (SASL) and Arctocephalus australis (SAFS) are endemic of South America. The aims were to assess Cd concentrations in red blood cells (RBC) and plasma from free living females of both species; and to establish metallothioneins (MT) levels in blood fractions and the possible relationship between MTs and Cd. Blood of fifteen SASL and eight SAFS females from Isla de Lobos were analyzed (years 2010-2011). All animals showed Cd levels above the detection limit. Cd concentrations on SAFS were higher than those of SASL, however, no significant differences were observed on metal concentrations between cell fractions by species. Metal levels were associated with a natural presence and ecological-trophic habits of the prey items. On SASL the MT concentrations between fractions were similar; whereas, SAFS plasma concentrations were higher than RBC. The results reported constitute the first information on Cd and MT blood levels in these species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling metallothionein induction in the liver of Sparus aurata exposed to metal-contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Costa, P M; Repolho, T; Caeiro, S; Diniz, M E; Moura, I; Costa, M H

    2008-09-01

    Metallothionein (MT) in the liver of gilthead seabreams (Sparus aurata L., 1758) exposed to Sado estuary (Portugal) sediments was quantified to assess the MT induction potential as a biomarker of sediment-based contamination by copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As). Sediments were collected from two control sites and four sites with different levels of contamination. Sediment Cu, Cd, Pb, As, total organic matter (TOM) and fine fraction (FF) levels were determined. Generalized linear models (GLM) allowed integration of sediment parameters with liver Cu, Cd, Pb, As and MT concentrations. Although sediment metal levels were lower than expected, we relate MT with liver Cd and also with interactions between liver and sediment Cu and between liver Cu and TOM. We suggest integrating biomarkers and environmental parameters using statistical models such as GLM as a more sensitive and reliable technique for sediment risk assessment than traditional isolated biomarker approaches.

  7. Early effects of surgery on zinc and metallothionein levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Brambila, E; Muñoz-Sánchez, J L; Albores, A; Waalkes, M

    1999-11-01

    Time-response effects of experimental surgery on zinc (Zn) and metallothionein (MT) homeostasis were investigated in female rats up to 24 h. Hepatic Zn content increased at 20 and 24 h postsurgery, whereas serum Zn levels decreased. Hepatic MT increased significantly by 9 h postsurgery and peaked at up to twofold of control at 12 h after surgery. Following the peak at 12 h, hepatic MT content decreased with time but did not reach control levels at the end of this study. When MT isoforms were evaluated, MT-II levels were elevated to the highest extent by 12 h after surgery, whereas MT-I levels started to decrease after 3 h postsurgery but then increased by 20 h. The early increases in MT content are probably mediated by nonmetallic mediators released during the postsurgical inflammatory process, favoring the plasma/tissue mobilization of Zn. This process might be part of the overall mechanisms occurring in the inflammation.

  8. The concentration-specific response of metallothioneins in copper-loading freshwater bivalve Anodonta cygnea.

    PubMed

    Stolyar, O B; Myhayliv, R L; Mischuk, O V

    2005-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) from digestive gland of freshwater bivalve mollusc Anodonta cygnea, exposed to 10 or to 200 microg x l(-1) copper ions during 14 days, were resolved using subsequent gel-permeation and ion-exchange chromatography on MT-1 and MT-2. In both groups of treated molluscs the content of copper in MT-2 was elevated twice. The significant elevation of this isoform, which is minor in control animals, and the increasing of the zinc level in it were also observed after treatment with 10 microg copper x l(-1). It was accompanied with Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) activation. Under the treatment with the 200 microg copper x l(-1) the zinc in MT-2 was at the control level, the inhibition of Cu,Zn-SOD but activation of Mn-SOD was revealed. The properties of MT-1 in all cases were similar.

  9. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog- dependent

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P.; Colbourne, John K.; De Schamphelaere, Karel AC.

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

  10. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog-dependent.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R; Glaholt, Stephen P; Colbourne, John K; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2013-10-15

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1-mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiological, Diurnal and Stress-Related Variability of Cadmium-Metallothionein Gene Expression in Land Snails.

    PubMed

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Niederwanger, Michael; Kopp, Renate; Schnegg, Raimund; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial Roman snail Helix pomatia has successfully adapted to strongly fluctuating conditions in its natural soil habitat. Part of the snail's stress defense strategy is its ability to express Metallothioneins (MTs). These are multifunctional, cysteine-rich proteins that bind and inactivate transition metal ions (Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(+)) with high affinity. In Helix pomatia a Cadmium (Cd)-selective, inducible Metallothionein Isoform (CdMT) is mainly involved in detoxification of this harmful metal. In addition, the snail CdMT has been shown to also respond to certain physiological stressors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological and diurnal variability of CdMT gene expression in snails exposed to Cd and non-metallic stressors such as desiccation and oxygen depletion. CdMT gene expression was upregulated by Cd exposure and desiccation, whereas no significant impact on the expression of CdMT was measured due to oxygen depletion. Overall, Cd was clearly more effective as an inducer of the CdMT gene expression compared to the applied non-metallic stressors. In unexposed snails, diurnal rhythmicity of CdMT gene expression was observed with higher mRNA concentrations at night compared to daytime. This rhythmicity was severely disrupted in Cd-exposed snails which exhibited highest CdMT gene transcription rates in the morning. Apart from diurnal rhythmicity, feeding activity also had a strong impact on CdMT gene expression. Although underlying mechanisms are not completely understood, it is clear that factors increasing MT expression variability have to be considered when using MT mRNA quantification as a biomarker for environmental stressors.

  12. Genetic Incorporation of Human Metallothionein into the Adenovirus Protein IX for Non-Invasive SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, J. Michael; Bhatia, Shilpa; Khandelwal, Alok; Kovesdi, Imre; Lokitz, Stephen J.; Odaka, Yoshi; Takalkar, Amol M.; Terry, Tracee; Curiel, David T.

    2011-01-01

    As the limits of existing treatments for cancer are recognized, clearly novel therapies must be considered for successful treatment; cancer therapy using adenovirus vectors is a promising strategy. However tracking the biodistribution of adenovirus vectors in vivo is limited to invasive procedures such as biopsies, which are error prone, non-quantitative, and do not give a full representation of the pharmacokinetics involved. Current non-invasive imaging strategies using reporter gene expression have been applied to analyze adenoviral vectors. The major drawback to approaches that tag viruses with reporter genes is that these systems require initial viral infection and subsequent cellular expression of a reporter gene to allow non-invasive imaging. As an alternative to conventional vector detection techniques, we developed a specific genetic labeling system whereby an adenoviral vector incorporates a fusion between capsid protein IX and human metallothionein. Our study herein clearly demonstrates our ability to rescue viable adenoviral particles that display functional metallothionein (MT) as a component of their capsid surface. We demonstrate the feasibility of 99mTc binding in vitro to the pIX-MT fusion on the capsid of adenovirus virions using a simple transchelation reaction. SPECT imaging of a mouse after administration of a 99mTc-radiolabeled virus showed clear localization of radioactivity to the liver. This result strongly supports imaging using pIX-MT, visualizing the normal biodistribution of Ad primarily to the liver upon injection into mice. The ability we have developed to view real-time biodistribution in their physiological milieu represents a significant tool to study adenovirus biology in vivo. PMID:21347423

  13. Metallobiological necklaces: mass spectrometric and molecular modeling study of metallation in concatenated domains of metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jayna; Huang, Zuyun; Watt, Ian; Kille, Peter; Stillman, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitous protein metallothionein (MT) has proven to be a major player not only in the homeostasis of Cu(I) and Zn(II), but also binds all the Group 11 and 12 metals. Metallothioneins are characterised by the presence of numerous cys-x-cys and cys-cys motifs in the sequence and are found naturally with either one domain or two, linked, metal-binding domains. The use of chains of these metal-thiolate domains offers the possibility of creating chemically tuneable and, therefore, chemically dependent electrochemical or photochemical surface modifiers or as nanomachinery with nanomechanical properties. In this work, the metal-binding properties of the Cd(4)-containing domain of alpha-rhMT1a assembled into chains of two and three concatenated domains, that is, "necklaces", have been studied by spectrometric techniques, and the interactions within the structures modelled and interpreted by using molecular dynamics. These chains are metallated with 4, 8 or 12 Cd(II) ions to the 11, 22, and 33 cysteinyl sulfur atoms in the alpha-rhMT1a, alphaalpha-rhMT1a, and alphaalphaalpha-rhMT1a proteins, respectively. The effect of pH on the folding of each protein was studied by ESI-MS and optical spectroscopy. MM3/MD simulations were carried out over a period of up to 500 ps by using force-field parameters based on the reported structural data. These calculations provide novel information about the motion of the clustered metallated, partially demetallated, and metal-free peptide chains, with special interest in the region of the metal-binding site. The MD energy/time trajectory conformations show for the first time the flexibility of the metal-sulfur clusters and the bound amino acid chains. We report unexpected and very different sizes for the metallated and demetallated proteins from the combination of experimental data, with molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. Metal, metallothionein and glutathione levels in blue crab (Callinectes sp.) specimens from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lavradas, Raquel Teixeira; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lavandier, Ricardo Cavalcanti; Rocha, Rafael Christian Chávez; Saint' Pierre, Tatiana D; Seixas, Tércia; Kehrig, Helena Amaral; Moreira, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    Metal concentrations (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) were determined in muscle, gills, soft tissues and eggs in male, non-ovigerous and ovigerous female Callinectes sp. specimens from a reference site in Southeastern Brazil. Metallothionein (MT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were also determined. Results demonstrate that sex has a significant influence on metal, MT and GSH concentrations. Significant maternal transfer of Pb and Zn from ovigerous females to eggs was verified, while female crabs, both ovigerous and non-ovigerous, showed elevated GSH and MT in viscera when compared to males, indicating possible MT role in excreting metals to eggs in ovigerous females of this species. Several strong statistical correlations between metals and MT indicate MTs role in detoxification of both toxic and essential elements in different organs. Pb and Zn were significantly correlated to GSH, indicating oxidative stress caused by the former and a direct link between Zn and GSH in maintaining homeostasis. Regarding human consumption, metal concentrations were lower than the maximum permissible levels established by international and Brazilian regulatory agencies, indicating that this species is safe for human consumption concerning this parameter. The presence of metals in Callinectes sp., however, is still of importance considering that this is a key species within the studied ecosystem and, therefore, plays a major role in the transference of pollutants to higher trophic levels. In addition, the presence of significant metal concentrations found in eggs must be considered in this context, since crab eggs are eaten by several other species, such as shorebirds, seabirds, and fish. Also, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study regarding both MT and GSH levels in Callinectes sp. eggs and is of interest in the investigation of molecular mechanisms regarding metal exposure in these crustaceans. Data reported in this study support the conclusions from previous reports

  15. Role of metallothioneins as danger signals in the pathogenesis of colitis.

    PubMed

    Devisscher, Lindsey; Hindryckx, Pieter; Lynes, Michael A; Waeytens, Anouk; Cuvelier, Claude; De Vos, Filip; Vanhove, Christian; Vos, Martine De; Laukens, Debby

    2014-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are recurrent intestinal pathologies characterized by a compromised epithelial barrier and an exaggerated immune activation. Mediators of immune cell infiltration may represent new therapeutic opportunities. Metallothioneins (MTs) are stress-responsive proteins with immune-modulating functions. Metallothioneins have been linked to IBDs, but their role in intestinal inflammation is inconclusive. We investigated MT expression in colonic biopsies from IBDs and acute infectious colitis patients and healthy controls and evaluated MT's role in experimental colitis using MT knockout mice and anti-MT antibodies. Antibody potential to target extracellular MT and its mechanism was tested in vitro. Biopsies of patients with active colitis showed infiltration of MT-positive cells in a pattern that correlated with the grade of inflammation. MT knockout mice displayed less severe acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis compared to congenic wild-type mice based on survival, weight loss, colon length, histological inflammation and leukocyte infiltration. Chronic DSS-colitis confirmed that Mt1 and Mt2 gene disruption enhances clinical outcome. Blockade of extracellular MT with antibodies reduced F4/80-positive macrophage infiltration in DSS- and trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-colitis, with a tendency towards a better outcome. Whole-body single-photon emission computer tomography of mice injected with radioactive anti-MT antibodies showed antibody accumulation in the colon during colitis and clearance during recovery. Necrotic and not apoptotic cell death resulted in western blot MT detection in HT29 cell supernatant. In a Boyden chamber migration assay, leukocyte attraction towards the necrotic cell supernatant could be abolished with anti-MT antibody, indicating the chemotactic potential of endogenous released MT. Our results show that human colitis is associated with infiltration of MT-positive inflammatory cells. Since antibody

  16. Metal binding of metallothioneins in human astrocytomas (U87 MG, IPDDC-2A).

    PubMed

    Znidaric, Magda Tusek; Pucer, Anja; Fatur, Tanja; Filipic, Metka; Scancar, Janez; Falnoga, Ingrid

    2007-10-01

    Astroglia cells structurally and nutritionally support neurons in the central nervous system. They play an important role in guiding the construction of the nervous system and controlling the chemical and ionic environment of neurons. They also represent the major sites for accumulation and immobilisation of toxic metal ions most probably connected with metallothioneins. For this reason astroglia cells possess high cytosolic levels of metallothioneins I, II and III (MT-I,II,III). Our aim was to establish the inducibility and metal binding of MTs in two human astrocytoma cell lines, U87 MG (astrocytoma-glioblastoma, grade IV) and IPDDC-2A (astrocytoma, grade II), on exposure to cadmium chloride (1 microM). MTs were identified by molecular weight (size exclusion chromatography) and their metal content (Cd, Zn and Cu) to follow the interactions between metals. We showed that MTs are constitutively expressed in both human astrocytoma cell lines. In accordance with the higher malignancy grade of U87 MG, the amount of MTs was higher in U87 MG than in IPDDC-2A cells. After 24 hours of exposure to Cd their expression greatly increased in both cell lines and they were capable of immobilising almost all water soluble Cd. Induction of MTs in U87 MG cells was additionally followed up to 48 hours with exposure to different concentrations of CdCl(2) (1, 10 microM). Induction was a time dependent process throughout the period. Isoform III (identified by chromatographic separation of isoform III from I/II) was present at all exposure times, but only in traces with respect to the prevailing amounts of MT-I/II isoforms. So induction can be attributed to isoform I/II only.

  17. Physiological, Diurnal and Stress-Related Variability of Cadmium-Metallothionein Gene Expression in Land Snails

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Niederwanger, Michael; Kopp, Renate; Schnegg, Raimund; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial Roman snail Helix pomatia has successfully adapted to strongly fluctuating conditions in its natural soil habitat. Part of the snail’s stress defense strategy is its ability to express Metallothioneins (MTs). These are multifunctional, cysteine-rich proteins that bind and inactivate transition metal ions (Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu+) with high affinity. In Helix pomatia a Cadmium (Cd)-selective, inducible Metallothionein Isoform (CdMT) is mainly involved in detoxification of this harmful metal. In addition, the snail CdMT has been shown to also respond to certain physiological stressors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological and diurnal variability of CdMT gene expression in snails exposed to Cd and non-metallic stressors such as desiccation and oxygen depletion. CdMT gene expression was upregulated by Cd exposure and desiccation, whereas no significant impact on the expression of CdMT was measured due to oxygen depletion. Overall, Cd was clearly more effective as an inducer of the CdMT gene expression compared to the applied non-metallic stressors. In unexposed snails, diurnal rhythmicity of CdMT gene expression was observed with higher mRNA concentrations at night compared to daytime. This rhythmicity was severely disrupted in Cd-exposed snails which exhibited highest CdMT gene transcription rates in the morning. Apart from diurnal rhythmicity, feeding activity also had a strong impact on CdMT gene expression. Although underlying mechanisms are not completely understood, it is clear that factors increasing MT expression variability have to be considered when using MT mRNA quantification as a biomarker for environmental stressors. PMID:26935042

  18. Metallothionein gene expression is altered in oral cancer and may predict metastasis and patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brazão-Silva, Marco T; Rodrigues, Maria Fernandes S; Eisenberg, Ana Lúcia A; Dias, Fernando L; de Castro, Luciana M; Nunes, Fábio D; Faria, Paulo R; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Loyola, Adriano M; de Sousa, Suzana C O M

    2015-09-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are proteins associated with the carcinogenesis and prognosis of various tumours. Previous studies have shown their potential as biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Aiming to understand more clearly the function of MTs in OSCC we evaluated, for the first time, the gene expression profile of MTs in this neoplasm. Tissue samples from 35 cases of tongue and/or floor of mouth OSCC, paired with their corresponding non-neoplastic oral mucosa (NNOM), were retrieved (2007-09). All tissues were analysed for the following genes using TaqMan(®) reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays: MT1A, MT1B, MT1E, MT1F, MT1G, MT1H, MT1X, MT2A, MT3 and MT4. The expression of MT1B and MT1H was seldom detected in both OSCC and NNOM. A significant loss of MT1A, MT1X, MT3 and MT4 expression and gain of MT1F expression was observed in OSCC, compared to NNOM. Cases with MT1G down-regulation exhibited the worst prognoses. The up-regulation of MT1X was restricted to non-metastatic cases, whereas up-regulation of MT3 was related to cases with lymph node metastasis. Metallothionein mRNA expression is altered significantly in oral squamous cell carcinomas. The expression of MT1G, MT1X and MT3 may aid in the prognostic discrimination of OSCC cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Functional GFP-metallothionein fusion protein from Tetrahymena thermophila: a potential whole-cell biosensor for monitoring heavy metal pollution and a cell model to study metallothionein overproduction effects

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Francisco; Turkewitz, Aaron P.; Martín-González, Ana; Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The significance of metal(oid)s as environmental pollutants has made them a priority in ecotoxicology, with the aim of minimizing exposure to animals or humans. Therefore, it is necessary to develop sensitive and inexpensive methods that can efficiently detect and monitor these pollutants in the environment. Conventional analytical techniques suffer from the disadvantages of high cost and complexity. Alternatively, prokaryotic or eukaryotic whole-cell biosensors (WCB) are one of the newest molecular tools employed in environmental monitoring that use the cell as an integrated reporter incorporating a reporter gene fused to a heavy metal responsive promoter. In the present paper, we report results from expressing, in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, constructs consisting of the reporter gfp gene fused to the complete MTT1 or MTT5 protein coding regions under the transcriptional control of the MTT1 metallothionein promoter, which plays a critical role in heavy metal stress in this ciliate. When exposed to Cd2+, such cells overexpress both the GFP reporter transgene and the linked metallothionein gene. We report that, for the GFPMTT5 strain, this metallothionein overexpression results in marked resistance to cadmium toxicity (24h LC50 ~ 15 µM of Cd2+), compared to wild type cells (24h LC50 ~ 1.73 µM of Cd2+). These results provide the first experimental evidence that ciliate metallothioneins, like in other organisms, function to protect the cell against toxic metal ions. Because these strains may have novel advantages as WCBs, we have compared their properties to those of other previously reported Tetrahymena WCBs. PMID:24430977

  20. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  1. Cadmium-induced differential accumulation of metallothionein isoforms in the Antarctic icefish, which exhibits no basal metallothionein protein but high endogenous mRNA levels.

    PubMed Central

    Carginale, V; Scudiero, R; Capasso, C; Capasso, A; Kille, P; di Prisco, G; Parisi, E

    1998-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR has been used to isolate two distinct metallothionein (MT) cDNA species from RNA extracted from icefish liver, namely MT-I and MT-II. Northern blot analysis with these cDNA species revealed that significant endogenous levels of MT mRNA were present in liver tissues of normal animals despite the fact that no MT protein could be found accumulating in the same tissue. However, multiple injections of CdCl2 induced high levels of both MT mRNA and MT protein. Sequence analysis of the cDNA species that were present after cadmium injection revealed the presence of both isoforms. Quantification of the MT-I and MT-II transcripts from normal and heavy-metal-treated fish showed an alteration in the ratio of the MT isoform transcripts. Endogenous transcripts consisted mostly of MT-II, whereas the MT-I transcript was preferentially accumulated only in response to the cadmium salt. The protein encoded by each cDNA isoform was isolated from the heavy-metal-treated fish and the availability of the specific MT mRNA for translation was demonstrated by translation in vitro. These results show that: (1) there is a discrepancy between the significant endogenous levels of MT mRNA and the absence of MT protein; (2) the accumulation of MT in icefish liver can be triggered by heavy metals; (3) genes encoding distinct MT isoforms are differentially regulated by heavy metals. PMID:9601077

  2. Two new members of the Tetrahymena multi-stress-inducible metallothionein family: characterization and expression analysis of T. rostrata Cd/Cu metallothionein genes.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Francisco; del Pilar de Lucas, María; Martín-González, Ana; Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2008-10-15

    We report the cloning and characterization of two new metallothionein (MT) genes (TrosMTT1 and TrosMTT2), isolated as cDNAs, from the ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena rostrata. The TrosMTT1 inferred protein has been identified as a CdMT and included into the 7a subfamily of Tetrahymena MTs, while TrosMTT2 has been identified as a CuMT (including it into 7b subfamily), due to its similarity to TpigMT-2 and its significant induction by copper. TrosMTT1 protein sequence reveals a remarkably regular and hierarchical modular organization, as it is known for other Tetrahymena CdMTs, showing a bi-modular structure. TrosMTT2 presents a structural organization based on CKCX(2-5)CKC repeats, like it occurs in other Tetrahymena CuMTs, indicating that an evolutionary history based on intra-gene duplications might be also possible. Both are also multi-stress-inducible genes because they are induced by other heavy metals and stressors, as it has been shown by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. It is the first time that the gene expression of a putative Tetrahymena CuMT is analyzed by quantitative PCR, confirming it as a CuMT. These two new Tetrahymena MTs complete, at present, the actual view of this protein superfamily, and corroborate the unique features of ciliate MTs. Furthermore, both, a comparative analysis of relative gene expression values obtained by quantitative RT-PCR on other Tetrahymena MT genes and an analysis of the different Tetrahymena MTs based on the different Cys clusters of these proteins are carried out, which show an update view of Tetrahymena MT gene family.

  3. Induction by mercury compounds of metallothioneins in mouse tissues: inorganic mercury accumulation is not a dominant factor for metallothionein induction in the liver.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Akira; Nakamura, Masaaki

    2011-06-01

    Among the naturally occurring three mercury species, metallic mercury (Hg(0)), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and methylmercury (MeHg), Hg(II) is well documented to induce metallothionein (MT) in tissues of injected animals. Although Hg(0) and MeHg are considered to be inert in terms of directly inducing MT, MT can be induced by them after in vivo conversion to Hg(II) in an animal body. In the present study we examined accumulations of inorganic mercury and MT inductions in mouse tissues (brain, liver and kidney) up to 72 hr after treatment by one of three mercury compounds of sub-lethal doses. Exposure to mercury compounds caused significant mercury accumulations in mouse tissues examined, except for the Hg(II)-treated mouse brain. Although MeHg caused the highest total mercury accumulation in all tissues among mercury compounds, the rates of inorganic mercury were less than 10% through the experimental period. MT inductions that depended on the inorganic mercury accumulation were observed in kidney and brain. However, MT induction in the liver could not be accounted for by the inorganic mercury accumulation, but by plasma IL6 levels, marked elevation of which was observed in Hg(II) or MeHg-treated mouse. The present study demonstrated that MT was induced in mouse tissues after each of three mercury compounds, Hg(0), Hg(II) and MeHg, but the induction processes were different among tissues. The induction would occur directly through accumulation of inorganic mercury in brain and kidney, whereas the hepatic MT might be induced secondarily through mercury-induced elevation in the plasma cytokines, rather than through mercury accumulation in the tissue.

  4. Distribution of mercury in metallothionein-null mice after exposure to mercury vapor: amount of metallothionein isoform does not affect accumulation of mercury in the brain.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Akira; Yoshida, Minoru; Honda, Akiko; Watanabe, Chiho; Satoh, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    To examine the contribution of metallothionein (MT) to mercury accumulation in mouse tissues, 129 strain female mice and MT null mice were exposed to metallic mercury vapor at a sub-toxic level, and Hg levels in the brain, kidney and liver were determined on 1, 3 and 7 days after the exposure. After exposure to mercury vapor, significant Hg accumulation was observed in the brains of wild-type and MT-I/II null and MT-III null mice, as well as in the liver and kidneys. No strain difference was observed in the tissue Hg accumulations 24 hr after the exposure except for the kidneys, where the highest accumulation was found in MT-III null mice. Although the brains of MT-III null mice showed slightly higher Hg accumulation than the other two strains, no significant difference was observed except in the cerebrum on Day 7. Gel chromatograms of cerebrum soluble fractions revealed that a significant amount of Hg existed as an MT-bound form in all the mouse strains. On the other hand, MT-bound Hg was found as a minor fraction in soluble fractions of the kidneys and livers in wild-type and MT-III null mice. Despite a significant strain difference in total MT levels in the cerebrum, there was no difference among the three strains in the amount of Hg accumulated in the cerebrum and its distribution rates in MT fractions. The present study demonstrated that brain uptake of Hg(0) and its accumulation as Hg(2+) did not depend on the amount of MT isoform in the tissue, at least in the early phase.

  5. Metallothionein, oxidative stress and trace metals in gills and liver of demersal and pelagic fish species from Kuwaits' marine area.

    PubMed

    Beg, M U; Al-Jandal, N; Al-Subiai, S; Karam, Q; Husain, S; Butt, S A; Ali, A; Al-Hasan, E; Al-Dufaileej, S; Al-Husaini, M

    2015-11-30

    Two fish species yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) were collected from two locations in Kuwait's territorial waters in non-reproductive periods and used as bio-indicator organism for the assessment of metals in the marine environment. Species variation in fish was observed; seabream contained high metal content and metallothionein in liver and gill tissues compared to tonguesole, especially from Kuwait Bay area. Oxidative injury was registered in the gills of both species, but in tonguesole liver was also involved. Consequently, antioxidant enzyme catalase was elevated in tonguesole enabling bottom dwelling fish to combat oxidative assault. The study provided information about the current status of metals in marine sediment and levels of metals accumulated in representative species along with oxidative damage in exposed tissues and the range of biomarker protein metallothionein and enzymes of antioxidant defence mechanism enhancing our understanding about the biological response to the existing marine environment in Kuwait.

  6. Tissue expression analysis of FeMT3, a drought and oxidative stress related metallothionein gene from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Samardzić, Jelena T; Nikolić, Dragana B; Timotijević, Gordana S; Jovanović, Zivko S; Milisavljević, Mira Đ; Maksimović, Vesna R

    2010-11-01

    Metallothionein type 3 (MT3) expression has previously been detected in leaves, fruits, and developing somatic embryos in different plant species. However, specific tissular and cellular localization of MT3 transcripts have remained unidentified. In this study, in situ RNA-RNA analysis revealed buckwheat metallothionein type 3 (FeMT3) transcript localization in vascular elements, mesophyll and guard cells of leaves, vascular tissue of roots and throughout the whole embryo. Changes in FeMT3 mRNA levels in response to drought and oxidative stress, as well as ROS scavenging abilities of the FeMT3 protein in yeast were also detected, indicating possible involvement of FeMT3 in stress defense and ROS related cellular processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Copper and the ACE1 Regulatory Protein Reversibly Induce Yeast Metallothionein Gene Transcription in a Mouse Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizewski Culotta, Valeria; Hsu, Tsao; Hu, Stella; Furst, Peter; Hamer, Dean

    1989-11-01

    We describe a cell-free system in which the transcription of the yeast metallothionein gene is inducible by the addition of metal ions plus a specific regulatory protein. Efficient transcription requires the complete yeast ACE1 metalloregulatory protein, including both its DNA-binding and transactivation domains; a mouse nuclear extract providing RNA polymerase and general transcription factors; a template containing the ACE1 binding site; and Cu(I). Because the binding of ACE1 to DNA is dependent on Cu, it is possible to inhibit transcription by the use of Cu-complexing agents such as CN-. We have used this specific inhibition to show that the ACE1 regulatory protein is required for the maintenance as well as the formation of a functional preinitiation complex. The ability to reversibly induce yeast metallothionein gene transcription in vitro provides a powerful system for determining the molecular mechanism of a simple eukaryotic regulatory circuit.

  8. Accumulated Metals and Metallothionein Expression in Organs of Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) Within Natural Gas Fields of Podravina, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tota, Marin; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Milin, Čedomila

    2015-01-01

    Environmental impact of natural gas facility near Molve (Podravina, Croatia) was assessed using hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) as biomonitors. Elevated levels of heavy metals in the environment lead to their accumulation in different tissues of hares. The authors have tested accumulation and distribution of several metals in hare liver, kidney, and muscle tissues. The accumulation of copper in hare liver and kidneys with concomitant decrease of zinc was observed in animals from Podravina region as opposed to the control group of animals (Island Krk, Croatia). Secondly, the expression of metallothioneins was assessed because of their crucial role in metal homeostasis. Observed elevation of metallothionein expression in tested organs emphasizes the possible prolonged negative effects of heavy metals in the surroundings as well as a state of oxidative stress in animals. Further monitoring of the area is necessary for better control of hydrocarbon processing to diminish the possible negative environmental effects.

  9. Cloning, characterization, and expression of cadmium-induced metallothionein-2 gene from earthworm Pheretima aspergillum (E. Perrier).

    PubMed

    Gong, L; Li, W; Li, J; Li, W E; Wu, W R; Yu, L W

    2015-12-14

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous metal-binding, cysteine-rich proteins, associated with metal accumulation and thus providing protection against toxic heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd). To investigate the mechanisms of enrichment of Cd in the earthworm Pheretima aspergillum, we isolated and cloned metallothionein-2 (MT-2) cDNA (538 bp) from P. aspergillum, analyzed its sequence, and examined MT-2 transcription levels by relative quantitative real-time PCR under different concentrations of Cd. The sequence of P. aspergillum MT-2 cDNA and its putative amino acid sequence were highly similar to sequences from other earthworms. The induction with Cd increased the MT-2 gene transcription level in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, earthworm recombinant MT-2 exhibited high Cd bioaccumulation ability in vitro. These results suggested that MT-2 plays an important role in tolerance and accumulation of Cd in P. aspergillum.

  10. Differential Expression of Metallothionein Isoforms in Terrestrial Snail Embryos Reflects Early Life Stage Adaptation to Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; de Vaufleury, Annette; Niederwanger, Michael; Capelli, Nicolas; Scheifler, Renaud; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of three metallothionein (MT) isoform genes (CdMT, CuMT and Cd/CuMT), already known from adults, in the Early Life Stage (ELS) of Cantareus aspersus. This was accomplished by detection of the MT isoform-specific transcription adopting Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification and quantitative Real Time (qRT)-PCR of the three MT genes. Freshly laid eggs were kept for 24 hours under control conditions or exposed to three cadmium (Cd) solutions of increasing concentration (5, 10, and 15 mg Cd/L). The transcription of the three MT isoform genes was detected via PCR in 1, 6 and 12-day-old control or Cd-exposed embryos. Moreover, the transcription of this isoform genes during development was followed by qRT-PCR in 6 and 12-day-old embryos. Our results showed that the CdMT and Cd/CuMT genes, but not the CuMT gene, are expressed in embryos at the first day of development. The transcription of the 3 MT genes in control embryos increased with development time, suggesting that the capacities of metal regulation and detoxification may have gradually increased throughout embryogenesis. However in control embryos, the most highly expressed MT gene was that of the Cd/CuMT isoform, whose transcription levels greatly exceeded those of the other two MT genes. This contrasts with the minor significance of this gene in adult snails and suggests that in embryos, this isoform may play a comparatively more important role in metal physiology compared to adult individuals. This function in adult snails appears not to be related to Cd detoxification. Instead, snail embryos responded to Cd exposure by over-expression of the CdMT gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the expression of the Cd/CuMT gene remained unaffected. Moreover, our study demonstrates the ability of snail embryos to respond very early to Cd exposure by up-regulation of the CdMT gene. PMID:25706953

  11. Differential expression of metallothionein isoforms in terrestrial snail embryos reflects early life stage adaptation to metal stress.

    PubMed

    Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; de Vaufleury, Annette; Niederwanger, Michael; Capelli, Nicolas; Scheifler, Renaud; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of three metallothionein (MT) isoform genes (CdMT, CuMT and Cd/CuMT), already known from adults, in the Early Life Stage (ELS) of Cantareus aspersus. This was accomplished by detection of the MT isoform-specific transcription adopting Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification and quantitative Real Time (qRT)-PCR of the three MT genes. Freshly laid eggs were kept for 24 hours under control conditions or exposed to three cadmium (Cd) solutions of increasing concentration (5, 10, and 15 mg Cd/L). The transcription of the three MT isoform genes was detected via PCR in 1, 6 and 12-day-old control or Cd-exposed embryos. Moreover, the transcription of this isoform genes during development was followed by qRT-PCR in 6 and 12-day-old embryos. Our results showed that the CdMT and Cd/CuMT genes, but not the CuMT gene, are expressed in embryos at the first day of development. The transcription of the 3 MT genes in control embryos increased with development time, suggesting that the capacities of metal regulation and detoxification may have gradually increased throughout embryogenesis. However in control embryos, the most highly expressed MT gene was that of the Cd/CuMT isoform, whose transcription levels greatly exceeded those of the other two MT genes. This contrasts with the minor significance of this gene in adult snails and suggests that in embryos, this isoform may play a comparatively more important role in metal physiology compared to adult individuals. This function in adult snails appears not to be related to Cd detoxification. Instead, snail embryos responded to Cd exposure by over-expression of the CdMT gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the expression of the Cd/CuMT gene remained unaffected. Moreover, our study demonstrates the ability of snail embryos to respond very early to Cd exposure by up-regulation of the CdMT gene.

  12. Vitamin E confers cytoprotective effects on cardiomyocytes under conditions of heat stress by increasing the expression of metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowu; Dong, Wenpeng; Yuan, Binbin; Yang, Yongchao; Yang, Dongpeng; Lin, Xi; Chen, Changfu; Zhang, Weida

    2016-05-01

    Heat stress (HS) is commonly used to refer to the heat load that an individual is subjected to due to either metabolic heat, or environmental factors, including high temperatures and high humidity levels. HS has been reported to affect and even damage the functioning of various organs; overexposure to high temperatures and high humidity may lead to accidental deaths. It has been suggested that the cardiovascular system is primarily targeted by exposure to HS conditions; the HS-induced dysfunction of cardiomyocytes, which is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, may result in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also participates in mitochondrial dysfunction. However, effective methods for the prevention and treatment of mitochondrial and cardiovascular dysfunction induced by exposure to HS are lacking. In the present study, we hypothesized that vitamin E (VE), an antioxidant, is capable of preventing oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury in cardiomyocytes induced by exposure to HS. The results revealed that pre‑treatment with VE increased the expression of metallothionein (MT), which has previously been reported to confer cytoprotective effects, particularly on the cardiovascular system. Pre-treatment with VE restored mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes under conditions of HS by increasing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and by increasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Furthermore, pre-treatment with VE decreased the production of ROS, which was induced by exposure to HS and thus exerted antioxidant effects. In addition, pre-treatment with VE attenuated oxidative stress induced by exposure to HS, as demonstrated by the increased levels of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)], and by the decreased levels

  13. Brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, S; Noguchi, T; Yokota, T; Takatsuto, S; Yoshida, S

    1998-06-01

    From the seeds and siliques of Arabidopsis thaliana, six brassinosteroids, brassinolide, castasterone, typhasterol, 6-deoxocastasterone, 6-deoxotyphasterol and 6-deoxoteasterone, were identified by GC-mass spectrometry or GC-selected ion monitoring. As the occurrence of castasterone, typhasterol, 6-deoxocastasterone and 6-deoxotyphasterol in the shoots of A. thaliana has already been reported, this study provides evidence for the occurrence of the above four brassinosteroids in different organs, seeds and siliques, and the first evidence for the occurrence of brassinolide and 6-deoxoteasterone in A. thaliana. All brassinosteroids identified in this study belong to important components of both the early and late C-6 oxidation pathways, which were established in the cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus. This suggests that both pathways are operating in A. thaliana to produce the most biologically active brassinosteroid, brassinolide, which is responsible for growth and development of the plant.

  14. Metallothionein 2A expression and its relation to different clinical stages and grades of breast cancer in Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Noha A; Zidan, Haidy E; Riad, Mohamed; Mansy, Wael; Mohamad, Samya A

    2015-10-15

    To assess the relation of blood MT-2A expression, serum zinc, copper, Cu/Zn ratio, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidant status index (OSI) with benign and malignant breast tumors, also, their relation to different clinical stages and grades of breast cancer. Unrelated 199 female patients with breast tumor and 120 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Metallothionein-2A (MT-2A) expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Serum MT-2A levels were measured by ELISA. Serum copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Serum TOS and TAS levels were measured colorimetrically. Our study demonstrated that blood metallothionein-2A mRNA level, serum MT-2A, copper, Cu/Zn ratio, total oxidant status and oxidant status index were significantly increased, while, serum zinc level and total antioxidant status were significantly decreased in patients with breast cancer and benign breast disease as compared to controls and in breast cancer group as compared to the benign one. Blood metallothionein-2A expression and serum MT-2A levels could be important prognostic indices of less differentiated, more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. Disturbance of copper, zinc and oxidative stress status might contribute to the pathogenesis of breast tumor and could be useful biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring such disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphostructural and immunohistochemical study on the role of metallothionein in the detoxification of heavy metals in Apis mellifera L., 1758.

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, Antonio; Pecoraro, Roberta; Scalisi, Elena Maria; Tibullo, Daniele; Lombardo, Bianca Maria; Messina, Giuseppina; Loreto, Francesco; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Avola, Roberto; D'amante, Giusi; Genovese, Claudia; Raccuia, Salvatore Antonino; Brundo, Maria Violetta

    2017-08-22

    Honey is a valuable food produced by bees from sugary substances that they gather in nature. The transformation the nectar into honey, by bees, is long and complex. Except for honey, where heavy metals are absent or are found only in traces, the bees and their products have always been considered excellent biomarkers of such contaminants. We have assumed that the absence of heavy metals in honey is due to the presence of a detoxification system in the digestive system of bees, which involves metallothioneins, proteins that have a role in the homeostatic control of essential and non-essential metals. We have placed the beehives in three different zones: industrial, urban and rural. Investigations were carried out with ICP-MS method for the detection of heavy metals in the guts of honey bees and honey. The metallothioneins have been identified by Immunohistochemical and Western-blotting analisys. The investigations have shown the presence of heavy metals only in bees guts but not in honey, while the presence of metallothionein has been highlighted only in epithelium of the honey sac, demonstrating the existence of an efficient system of detoxification of heavy metals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. trans Repression of the Human Metallothionein IIA Gene Promoter by PZ120, a Novel 120-Kilodalton Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chih-Min; Westling, Jennifer; Seto, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Metallothioneins are small, highly conserved, cysteine-rich proteins that bind a variety of metal ions. They are found in virtually all eukaryotic organisms and are regulated primarily at the transcriptional level. In humans, the predominant metallothionein gene is hMTIIA, which accounts for 50% of all metallothioneins expressed in cultured human cells. The hMTIIA promoter is quite complex. In addition to cis-acting DNA sequences that serve as binding sites for trans-acting factors such as Sp1, AP1, AP2, AP4, and the glucocorticoid receptor, the hMTIIA promoter contains eight consensus metal response element sequences. We report here the cloning of a novel zinc finger protein with a molecular mass of 120 kDa (PZ120) that interacts specifically with the hMTIIA transcription initiation site. The PZ120 protein is ubiquitously expressed in most tissues and possesses a conserved poxvirus and zinc finger (POZ) motif previously found in several zinc finger transcription factors. Intriguingly, we found that a region of PZ120 outside of the zinc finger domain can bind specifically to the hMTIIA DNA. Using transient-transfection analysis, we found that PZ120 repressed transcription of the hMTIIA promoter. These results suggest that the hMTIIA gene is regulated by an additional negative regulator that has not been previously described. PMID:9858591

  17. Copper-metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus: potential role as Cu(I) donors to apohemocyanin

    SciTech Connect

    Brouwer, M.; Whaling, P.; Engel, D.W.

    1986-03-01

    The physiological function of copper(I)-metallothionein is not well understood. The respiratory function of hemocyanin, a copper(I)-containing respiratory protein found in the hemolymph of many invertebrates, has been known a long time. However, the mechanism by which Cu(I) is inserted into the oxygen-binding site of apohemocyanin is completely unknown. This investigation tests that hypothesis that copper(I)-metallothionein may act as a Cu(I) donor to apohemocyanin. To this end, copper-binding proteins and hemocyanin were purified from the digestive gland and hemolymph of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. In the presence of ..beta..-mercaptoethanol, the copper-binding proteins can be resolved into three components of DEAE-cellulose. The first two have been characterized as metallothioneins. The cysteine content of the third component is half of that of components I and II. The purified proteins are not capable of transferring Cu(I) to the active sites of completely copper-free apohemocyanin. They are capable, however, of transferring Cu(I) to active sites of hemocyanin containing reduced amounts of Cu(I), suggesting that the conformational state of hemocyanin is the determining factor in the Cu(I) transfer mechanism.

  18. Use of metallothioneins as biomarkers for environmental quality assessment in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Ladhar-Chaabouni, Rim; Machreki-Ajmi, Monia; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2012-04-01

    Detection and assessment of the impact of pollution on biological resources imply increasing research on early-warning markers such as metallothioneins (MTs) in metal exposure. In this paper, we have collated published information on the use of metallothioneins and metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) as biomarkers for environmental quality assessment in the Gulf of Gabès. In this area, some species of fish and bivalve were used as bioindicators of pollution. In these species, an induction of MTs/MTLPs by the essential metals such as Cu and Zn and the non-essential metals such as Cd was observed by different authors who suggest the potential use of these proteins as biomarkers. However, MT concentrations can be influenced by many biotic (sex, maturity stages, and tissues) and abiotic factors (temperature, salinity, and pH). This is essentially the case in field studies where many parameters can randomly affect MT levels, so the endogeneous regulation of MTs must be considered before using MTs as an indicator of heavy metal exposure. Moreover, the use of biomarker cannot be examined independently of the evaluation of techniques that enable its quantification. Therefore, the approach to the use of MTs/MTLP as biomarkers of exposure for an assessment of the physiological status of aquatic organisms is discussed in this paper.

  19. Expression of metallothionein and α-tubulin in heavy metal-tolerant Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mireji, Paul O.; Keating, Joseph; Hassanali, Ahmed; Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Mbogo, Charles M.; Njeri, Martha; Nyambaka, Hudson; Kenya, Eucharia; Githure, John I; Beier, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes have been shown to adapt to heavy metals in their natural habitats. In this study we explored the possibility of using Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto as bio-reporters for environmental heavy metal pollution through expressions of their metal responsive metallothionein and α-tubulin genes. The study was undertaken with third instar larvae after selection by cadmium, copper, or lead at LC30 through five successive generations. Expression levels were determined in the fifth generation by semi quantitative RT-PCR on the experimental and control populations. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The highest metallothionein (F3, 11= 4.574, P = 0.038) and α-tubulin (F3,11= 12.961, P = 0.002) responses were observed in cadmium-tolerant treatments. There was significantly higher expression of metallothionein in cadmium or copper treatments relative to the control (P = 0.012), and in cadmium than in lead treatments (P = 0.044). Expressions of α-tubulin were significantly higher in cadmium than in control treatments (P = 0.008). These results demonstrate capacity of An. gambiae s.s. to develop tolerance to increased levels of heavy metal challenge. The results also confirm the potential of heavy metal responsive genes in mosquitoes as possible bio-indicators of heavy metal environmental pollution. How the tolerance and expressions relate to An. gambiae s.s. fitness and vectorial capacity in the environment remains to be elucidated. PMID:19735939

  20. Molecular Characterization of a Copper Metallothionein Gene From a Ciliate Tetrahymena farahensis.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Muhammad Tariq; Shakoori, Farah Rauf; Zulifqar, Soumble; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Al-Ghanim, Khalid; Mehboob, Shahid; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2016-08-01

    A new copper metallothionein (TfCuMT) gene has been identified from a locally isolated ciliate Tetrahymena farahensis. It contains 327 nucleotides encoding a peptide chain of 108 amino acids and belongs to class MTT2 and subfamily 7b. Amplification from both gDNA and mRNA confirmed the intronless nature of this gene. Like most of the metallohtioneins, cysteine residues contribute nearly 30% content with the specific CKC motifs. Structural repeats present in peptide sequence of TfCuMT indicate internal duplication of gene at some stage of gene evolution. The predicted model of copper metallothionein protein showed that copper ions are mainly chelated by thiol sulfur of cysteine residues and are embedded in the folds of polypeptide chain. For in vivo expression of TfCuMT in Escherichia coli host cells the classical stop codons, which coded for glutamine in the ciliate were mutated to CAA and CAG through site directed mutagenesis. The mutated gene showed higher expression in pET28a expression vector compared with pET21a. Optimum expression was obtained after 6-8 h of 0.1 mM IPTG induction. Stability of His tagged TfCuMT in 5% SDS was low, with half-life of about 104 min. Presence of 1.0 μM copper increased the expression level by 1.65-fold. Presence of 100 μM Cysteine in culture medium caused 2.4-fold increase in expression level. His tagged TfCuMT was purified through affinity chromatography using NTN-His binding resin in the presence of 0.1 M imidazole and NaCl. The modeled structure of the TfCuMT showed a cleft for Cu binding with correct orientation of Cys residues in the motif CKC. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1843-1854, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Metallothionein as a compensatory component prevents intermittent hypoxia-induced cardiomyopathy in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Xia; Zhou, Shanshan; Zheng, Yang; Tan, Yi; Kong, Maiying; Wang, Bo; Feng, Wenke; Epstein, Paul N.; Cai, Jun; Cai, Lu

    2014-05-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) to induce cardiovascular disease, which may be related to oxidative damage. Metallothionein (MT) has been extensively proved to be an endogenous and highly inducible antioxidant protein expressed in the heart. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that oxidative stress plays a critical role in OSA induced cardiac damage and MT protects the heart from OSA-induced cardiomyopathy. To mimic hypoxia/reoxygenation events that occur in adult OSA patients, mice were exposed to IH for 3 days to 8 weeks. The IH paradigm consisted of alternating cycles of 20.9% O{sub 2}/8% O{sub 2} F{sub I}O{sub 2} (30 episodes per hour) with 20 s at the nadir F{sub I}O{sub 2} for 12 h a day during daylight. IH significantly increased the ratio of heart weight to tibia length at 4 weeks with a decrease in cardiac function from 4 to 8 weeks. Cardiac oxidative damage and fibrosis were observed after 4 and 8 weeks of IH exposures. Endogenous MT expression was up-regulated in response to 3-day IH, but significantly decreased at 4 and 8 weeks of IH. In support of MT as a major compensatory component, mice with cardiac overexpression of MT gene and mice with global MT gene deletion were completely resistant, and highly sensitive, respectively, to chronic IH induced cardiac effects. These findings suggest that chronic IH induces cardiomyopathy characterized by oxidative stress-mediated cardiac damage and the antioxidant MT protects the heart from such pathological and functional changes. - Highlights: • The effect of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on cardiac metallothionein (MT) • Cardiac MT expression was up-regulated in response to 3-day IH. • Exposure to 4- or 8-week IH downregulated cardiac MT expression. • Overexpression of cardiac MT protects from IH-induced cardiac damage. • Global deletion of MT gene made the heart more sensitive to IH damage.

  2. Induction of hepatic metallothioneins determined at isoprotein and messenger RNA levels in glucocorticoid-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Lehman-McKeeman, L D; Andrews, G K; Klaassen, C D

    1988-01-01

    Induction of metallothionein-I (MT-I) and metallothionein-II (MT-II) by glucocorticoids was determined by h.p.l.c. analysis of proteins and Northern-blot analysis of MT mRNAs. Rats were injected with dexamethasone (0.03-10 mumol/kg) and hepatic concentrations of MTs were determined 24 h later. In control rats, only MT-II was detected (9.4 +/- 2.5 micrograms/g of liver), whereas the hepatic concentration of MT-I was below the detection limit (5 micrograms of MT/g). Dexamethasone did not increase MT-I above the detection limit at any dosage tested, but MT-II increased to 2.5 times control values at dosages of 0.30 mumol/kg and higher. Time-course experiments indicated that MT-II reached a maximum at 24 h after a single dosage of dexamethasone and returned to control values by 48 h. To determine whether dexamethasone increased MT-I in liver, samples were saturated with 109Cd, after which the amount of 109Cd in MT-I and MT-II was determined. Results indicated that, by this approach, MT-I and MT-II could be detected in control rats, and there was approx. 1.8 times more 109Cd in MT-II than in MT-I. At 24 h after administration of dexamethasone (1 mumol/kg), there was a small increase in the amount of 109Cd bound to MT-I, whereas the amount of 109Cd bound to MT-II increased to more than 2 times control values. Northern-blot hybridization with mouse cRNA probes indicated that MT-I and MT-II mRNAs increased co-ordinately after administration of dexamethasone. Thus, although glucocorticoids increase both MT-I and MT-II mRNAs, MT-II preferentially accumulates after administration of dexamethasone. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3342021

  3. Multiplex micro-respiratory measurements of Arabidopsis tissues.

    PubMed

    Sew, Yun Shin; Ströher, Elke; Holzmann, Cristián; Huang, Shaobai; Taylor, Nicolas L; Jordana, Xavier; Millar, A Harvey

    2013-11-01

    Researchers often want to study the respiratory properties of individual parts of plants in response to a range of treatments. Arabidopsis is an obvious model for this work; however, because of its size, it represents a challenge for gas exchange measurements of respiration. The combination of micro-respiratory technologies with multiplex assays has the potential to bridge this gap, and make measurements possible in this model plant species. We show the adaptation of the commercial technology used for mammalian cell respiration analysis to study three critical tissues of interest: leaf sections, root tips and seeds. The measurement of respiration in single leaf discs has allowed the age dependence of the respiration rate in Arabidopsis leaves across the rosette to be observed. The oxygen consumption of single root tips from plate-grown seedlings shows the enhanced respiration of root tips and their time-dependent susceptibility to salinity. The monitoring of single Arabidopsis seeds shows the kinetics of respiration over 48 h post-imbibition, and the effect of the phytohormones gibberellic acid (GA3 ) and abscisic acid (ABA) on respiration during seed germination. These studies highlight the potential for multiplexed micro-respiratory assays to study oxygen consumption in Arabidopsis tissues, and open up new possibilities to screen and study mutants and to identify differences in ecotypes or populations of different plant species.

  4. Co-exposure to aluminum and acrylamide disturbs expression of metallothionein, proinflammatory cytokines and induces genotoxicity: Biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Nesrine; Jamoussi, Kamel; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-09-01

    The individual toxic effects of aluminum and acrylamide are known but there is no data on their combined effects. The present study investigates the toxic effects after combined exposure to these toxicants on: (i) oxidative stress during combined chronic exposure to aluminum and acrylamide on kidney function (ii) correlation of oxidative stress with metallothionein (MT) and inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage, and histopathological changes. Rats were exposed to aluminum (50 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage either individually or in combination for 3 weeks. Exposure rats to aluminum chloride or acrylamide alone and in combination induced nephrotoxicity, as evidenced by a decrease in the 24-h urine volume and uric acid levels in plasma and an increase of plasma creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen levels. Nephrotoxicity was objectified by a significant increase in malondialdehyde level, advanced oxidation protein, and protein carbonyl contents, whereas reduced glutathione, nonprotein thiol, vitamin C levels, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities showed a significant decline. Superoxide dismutase activity and its gene expression were increased. Aluminum and acrylamide co-exposure exhibited synergism in various biochemical variables and also in DNA damage. Kidney total MT levels and genes expression of MT1, MT2, and proinflammatory cytokines were increased. All these changes were supported by histopathological observations. Co-exposure to aluminum and acrylamide exhibited synergism and more pronounced toxic effects compared with their individual effects based on various biochemical variables, genotoxic, and histopathological changes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1044-1058, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Role of ARF6 in internalization of metal-binding proteins, metallothionein and transferrin, and cadmium-metallothionein toxicity in kidney proximal tubule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Natascha A.; Lee, Wing-Kee; Abouhamed, Marouan

    2008-07-01

    Filtered metal-protein complexes, such as cadmium-metallothionein-1 (CdMT-1) or transferrin (Tf) are apically endocytosed partly via megalin/cubilin by kidney proximal tubule (PT) cells where CdMT-1 internalization causes apoptosis. Small GTPase ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor) proteins regulate endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. We investigated roles of ARF6, which has been shown to be involved in internalization of ligands and endocytic trafficking in PT cells, following MT-1/CdMT-1 and Tf uptake by PT cells. WKPT-0293 Cl.2 cells derived from rat PT S1 segment were transfected with hemagglutinin-tagged wild-type (ARF6-WT) or dominant negative (ARF6-T27N) forms of ARF6. Using immunofluorescence, endogenous ARF6 was associated with the plasma membrane (PM) as well as juxtanuclear and co-localized with Rab5a and Rab11 involved in early and recycling endosomal trafficking. Immunofluorescence staining of megalin showed reduced surface labelling in ARF6 dominant negative (ARF6-DN) cells. Intracellular Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated MT-1 uptake was reduced in ARF6-DN cells and CdMT-1 (14.8 {mu}M for 24 h) toxicity was significantly attenuated from 27.3 {+-} 3.9% in ARF6-WT to 11.1 {+-} 4.0% in ARF6-DN cells (n = 6, P < 0.02). Moreover, reduced Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated Tf uptake was observed in ARF-DN cells (75.0 {+-} 4.6% versus 3.9 {+-} 3.9% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.01) and/or remained near the PM (89.3 {+-} 5. 6% versus 45.2 {+-} 14.3% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the data support roles for ARF6 in receptor-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of MT-1/Tf to endosomes/lysosomes and CdMT-1 toxicity of PT cells.

  6. A predicted interactome for Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Geisler-Lee, Jane; O'Toole, Nicholas; Ammar, Ron; Provart, Nicholas J; Millar, A Harvey; Geisler, Matt

    2007-10-01

    The complex cellular functions of an organism frequently rely on physical interactions between proteins. A map of all protein-protein interactions, an interactome, is thus an invaluable tool. We present an interactome for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) predicted from interacting orthologs in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster), and human (Homo sapiens). As an internal quality control, a confidence value was generated based on the amount of supporting evidence for each interaction. A total of 1,159 high confidence, 5,913 medium confidence, and 12,907 low confidence interactions were identified for 3,617 conserved Arabidopsis proteins. There was significant coexpression of genes whose proteins were predicted to interact, even among low confidence interactions. Interacting proteins were also significantly more likely to be found within the same subcellular location, and significantly less likely to be found in conflicting localizations than randomly paired proteins. A notable exception was that proteins located in the Golgi were more likely to interact with Golgi, vacuolar, or endoplasmic reticulum sorted proteins, indicating possible docking or trafficking interactions. These predictions can aid researchers by extending known complexes and pathways with candidate proteins. In addition we have predicted interactions for many previously unknown proteins in known pathways and complexes. We present this interactome, and an online Web interface the Arabidopsis Interactions Viewer, as a first step toward understanding global signaling in Arabidopsis, and to whet the appetite for those who are awaiting results from high-throughput experimental approaches.

  7. Identification of ATF-7 and the insulin signaling pathway in the regulation of metallothionein in C. elegans suggests roles in aging and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Hall, Julie A; McElwee, Matthew K; Freedman, Jonathan H

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that aging results from the lifelong accumulation of intracellular damage via reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Metallothioneins are conserved cysteine-rich proteins that function as efficient ROS scavengers and may affect longevity. To better understand mechanisms controlling metallothionein expression, the regulatory factors and pathways that controlled cadmium-inducible transcription of the C. elegans metallothionein gene, mtl-1, were identified. The transcription factor ATF-7 was identified in both ethylmethanesulfonate mutagenesis and candidate gene screens. PMK-1 and members of the insulin signaling pathway, PDK-1 and AKT-1/2, were also identified as mtl-1 regulators. Genetic and previous results support a model for the regulation of cadmium-inducible mtl-1 transcription based on the derepression of the constitutively active transcription factor ELT-2. In addition, knockdown of the mammalian homologs of PDK1 and ATF7 in HEK293 cells resulted in changes in metallothionein expression, suggesting that this pathway was evolutionarily conserved. The insulin signaling pathway is known to influence the aging process; however, various factors responsible for affecting the aging phenotype are unknown. Identification of portions of the insulin signaling pathway as regulators of metallothionein expression supports the hypothesis that longevity is affected by the expression of this efficient ROS scavenger.

  8. Identification of ATF-7 and the insulin signaling pathway in the regulation of metallothionein in C. elegans suggests roles in aging and reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    McElwee, Matthew K.; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that aging results from the lifelong accumulation of intracellular damage via reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Metallothioneins are conserved cysteine-rich proteins that function as efficient ROS scavengers and may affect longevity. To better understand mechanisms controlling metallothionein expression, the regulatory factors and pathways that controlled cadmium-inducible transcription of the C. elegans metallothionein gene, mtl-1, were identified. The transcription factor ATF-7 was identified in both ethylmethanesulfonate mutagenesis and candidate gene screens. PMK-1 and members of the insulin signaling pathway, PDK-1 and AKT-1/2, were also identified as mtl-1 regulators. Genetic and previous results support a model for the regulation of cadmium-inducible mtl-1 transcription based on the derepression of the constitutively active transcription factor ELT-2. In addition, knockdown of the mammalian homologs of PDK1 and ATF7 in HEK293 cells resulted in changes in metallothionein expression, suggesting that this pathway was evolutionarily conserved. The insulin signaling pathway is known to influence the aging process; however, various factors responsible for affecting the aging phenotype are unknown. Identification of portions of the insulin signaling pathway as regulators of metallothionein expression supports the hypothesis that longevity is affected by the expression of this efficient ROS scavenger. PMID:28632756

  9. Influence of Cadmium(II) Ions and Brewery Sludge on Metallothionein Level in Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) – Bio-transforming of Toxic Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Huska, Dalibor; Krizkova, Sona; Beklova, Miroslava; Havel, Ladislav; Zehnalek, Josef; Diopan, Vaclav; Adam, Vojtech; Zeman, Ladislav; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Metallothioneins belong to a group of intracellular, high molecular and cysteine-rich proteins whose content in an organism increase with increasing concentration of a heavy metal. The aim of this work was to apply the electrochemical analysis for the analysis of metallothioneins in earthworms exposed to cadmium ions and brewery sludge. Here we utilized adsorptive transfer technique coupled with differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction to determine metallothionein in different biological samples. By means this very sensitive technique it was possible to analyze metallothionein in concentrations below 1 μmol.l−1 with the standard deviation of 4-5%. We found out that the average MT level in the non-treated earthworms oscillated between 19 and 48 μmol.l−1. When we analysed samples of earthworms treated by cadmium, we observed that the MT content increased with the exposition length and increase dose of cadmium ions. Finally, we attempted to study and compare the toxicity of the raw sludge and its leach by using of earthworms. The raw brewery sludge caused the death of the earthworms quickly. Earthworms held in the presence of leach from brewery sludge increased their weight of 147 % of their original weight because they ingested the nutrients from the sludge. The metallothionein level changes markedly with increasing time of exposition and applied dose of toxic compound. It clearly follows from the obtained results that the MT synthesis is insufficient in the first hours of the exposition and increases after more than 24 h. PMID:27879751

  10. Metal stoichiometry of isolated and arsenic substituted metallothionein: PIXE and ESI-MS study.

    PubMed

    Garla, Roobee; Mohanty, Biraja P; Ganger, Renuka; Sudarshan, M; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L

    2013-12-01

    The stoichiometric analysis of the metal induced Metallothionein (MT) is pertinent for understanding the metal-MT interactions. Despite innumerable publications on MT, the literature addressing these aspects is limited. To bridge this gap, PIXE and ESI-MS analysis of the commercial rabbit liver MT1 (an isoform of MT), zinc induced isolated rat liver MT1, apo and Arsenic substituted rabbit liver MT1 have been carried out. These techniques in combination provide information about number and the signature of all the metal ions bound to MT. By using ESI-MS in the rabbit MT1, ions of Zn n MT1 (n = 0, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7) whereas, in rat MT1, the Zn1MT1 and Zn5MT1 ions are observed. PIXE analysis shows that some copper along with zinc is also present in the rabbit as well as rat MT1 which could not be assessed with ESI-MS. During As metallation reaction with rabbit MT1, with increase in arsenic concentration, the amount of arsenic bound to MT1 also increases, though not proportionally. The presence of both Zn and Cu in MT1 on Zn supplementation can be related to the role of MT in Zn and Cu homeostasis. Further, the presence of partially metallated MT1 suggests that MT1 may donate fractional amount of metal from it's fully metallated form to other proteins where Zn acts as a cofactor.

  11. Characterization of the role of metallothionein-3 in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Manso, Yasmina; Carrasco, Javier; Comes, Gemma; Meloni, Gabriele; Adlard, Paul A; Bush, Ashley I; Vašák, Milan; Hidalgo, Juan

    2012-11-01

    Among the dementias, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most commonly diagnosed, but there are still no effective drugs available for its treatment. It has been suggested that metallothionein-3 (MT-3) could be somehow involved in the etiology of AD, and in fact very promising results have been found in in vitro studies, but the role of MT-3 in vivo needs further analysis. In this study, we analyzed the role of MT-3 in a mouse model of AD, Tg2576 mice, which overexpress human Amyloid Precursor Protein (hAPP) with the Swedish mutation. MT-3 deficiency partially rescued the APP-induced mortality of females, and mildly affected APP-induced changes in behavior assessed in the hole-board and plus-maze tests in a gender-dependent manner. Amyloid plaque burden and/or hAPP expression were decreased in the cortex and hippocampus of MT-3-deficient females. Interestingly, exogenously administered Zn(7)MT-3 increased soluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 and amyloid plaques and gliosis, particularly in the cortex, and changed several behavioral traits (increased deambulation and exploration and decreased anxiety). These results highlight that the control of the endogenous production and/or action of MT-3 could represent a powerful therapeutic target in AD.

  12. Crambescin C1 Exerts a Cytoprotective Effect on HepG2 Cells through Metallothionein Induction

    PubMed Central

    Roel, María; Rubiolo, Juan A.; Ternon, Eva; Thomas, Olivier P.; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean marine sponge Crambe crambe is the source of two families of guanidine alkaloids known as crambescins and crambescidins. Some of the biological effects of crambescidins have been previously reported while crambescins have undergone little study. Taking this into account, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis to examine the effect of crambescin-C1 (CC1) on human tumor hepatocarcinoma cells HepG2 followed by validation experiments to confirm its predicted biological activities. We report herein that, while crambescin-A1 has a minor effect on these cells, CC1 protects them against oxidative injury by means of metallothionein induction even at low concentrations. Additionally, at high doses, CC1 arrests the HepG2 cell cycle in G0/G1 and thus inhibits tumor cell proliferation. The findings presented here provide the first detailed approach regarding the different effects of crambescins on tumor cells and provide a basis for future studies on other possible cellular mechanisms related to these bioactivities. PMID:26225985

  13. Molecular characterization and expression of metallothionein from freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis schlegelii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengyuan; Sheng, Junqing; Hong, Yijiang; Peng, Kou; Wang, Junhua; Wu, Di; Shi, Jianwu; Hu, Beijuan

    2016-07-01

    Two metallothionein genes (HsMT1 and HsMT2) were first identified and described from Hyriopsis schlegelii. The open reading frame of HsMT1 and HsMT2 were 216 and 222 bp, encoding a protein of 71 and 73 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences showed they contained parts of typical MT characteristics, apart from HsMT2 lacked Cys-Cys motifs. The phylogenetic tree showed HsMT1 shared a high similarity with that of other molluscs, but HsMT2 was split into a distinct group separated from known molluscan MTs. HsMT1 exhibited constitutive expression in all examined tissues and the highest expression occurred in hepatopancreas, however, nearly all HsMT2 was just detected in gonad. After Cd exposure, their mRNA levels presented similar expression patterns. The transgenic bacteria of HsMT1 showed higher tolerance than HsMT2 in Cd environment. It was implied that HsMT1 and HsMT2 were involved in metal response but HsMT2 might have other physiological functions.

  14. Identification and characterization of a recombinant metallothionein protein from a marine alga, Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Morris, C A; Nicolaus, B; Sampson, V; Harwood, J L; Kille, P

    1999-03-01

    A cDNA library was constructed from macroalgae adapted to prolonged elevated environmental copper levels. To investigate the possible existence of a metallothionein (MT) gene, the library was screened with degenerate probes designed using plant MT cysteine-rich motifs. A gene was identified (1229 bp) with a putative open reading frame (204 bp) encoding a 67-amino-acid protein exhibiting several characteristic features of MT proteins, including 16 cysteine residues (24%) and only one aromatic residue. Although the protein sequence showed high identity with plant and invertebrate MTs, it contained a unique 'linker' region (14 amino acid residues) between the two putative metal-binding domains which contained no cysteine residues. This extended linker is larger than the tripeptide found in archetypal vertebrate MTs, but does not conform either with the 40-amino-acid linkers commonly found in plant MT sequences. An S-peptide Fucus MT fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited a relative molecular mass of approximately 14 kDa. The recombinant fusion bound seven Cd ions, of which 50% were dissociated at pH 4.1. Under anaerobic conditions, the Cd ions were displaced by Cu(I), which associated with the protein at a ratio of 13:1. Laboratory exposure of F. vesiculosus to elevated copper resulted in induction of the MT gene. Thus this paper describes, for the first time, an MT gene identified from macroalgae which is induced by copper exposure and whose encoded protein product binds cadmium and copper.

  15. Metallothionein-like multinuclear clusters of mercury(II) and sulfur in peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagy, K.L.; Manceau, A.; Gasper, J.D.; Ryan, J.N.; Aiken, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    Strong mercury(II)-sulfur (Hg-SR) bonds in natural organic matter, which influence mercury bioavailability, are difficult to characterize. We report evidence for two new Hg-SR structures using X-ray absorption spectroscopy in peats from the Florida Everglades with added Hg. The first, observed at a mole ratio of organic reduced S to Hg (Sred/Hg) between 220 and 1140, is a Hg4Sx type of cluster with each Hg atom bonded to two S atoms at 2.34 ?? and one S at 2.53 ??, and all Hg atoms 4.12 ?? apart. This model structure matches those of metal-thiolate clusters in metallothioneins, but not those of HgS minerals. The second, with one S atom at 2.34 ?? and about six C atoms at 2.97 to 3.28 ??, occurred at S red/Hg between 0.80 and 4.3 and suggests Hg binding to a thiolated aromatic unit. The multinuclear Hg cluster indicates a strong binding environment to cysteinyl sulfur that might impede methylation. Along with a linear Hg(SR)2 unit with Hg - S bond lengths of 2.34 ?? at Sred/Hg of about 10 to 20, the new structures support a continuum in Hg-SR binding strength in natural organic matter. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Metal contamination in harbours impacts life-history traits and metallothionein levels in snails.

    PubMed

    Bighiu, Maria Alexandra; Gorokhova, Elena; Carney Almroth, Bethanie; Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Harbours with limited water exchange are hotspots of contaminant accumulation. Antifouling paints (AF) contribute to this accumulation by leaching biocides that may affect non-target species. In several leisure boat harbours and reference areas in the Baltic Sea, chronic exposure effects were evaluated using caging experiments with the snail Theodoxus fluviatilis. We analysed variations in ecologically relevant endpoints (mortality, growth and reproduction) in concert with variation in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) levels. The latter is a biomarker of exposure to metals, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), which are used in AF paints as active ingredient and stabilizer, respectively. In addition, environmental samples (water, sediment) were analysed for metal (Cu and Zn) and nutrient (total phosphorous and nitrogen) concentrations. All life-history endpoints were negatively affected by the exposure, with higher mortality, reduced growth and lower fecundity in the harbours compared to the reference sites. Metal concentrations were the key explanatory variables for all observed adverse effects, suggesting that metal-driven toxicity, which is likely to stem from AF paints, is a source of anthropogenic stress for biota in the harbours.

  17. Prevention of gastrointestinal lead poisoning using recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing human metallothionein-I fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Changbin; Liu, Dajun; Bai, Weibin; Zhang, Qihao; Xiang, Qi; Huang, Yadong; Su, Zhijian

    2016-04-05

    Low-level lead poisoning is an insidious disease that affects millions of children worldwide, leading to biochemical and neurological dysfunctions. Blocking lead uptake via the gastrointestinal tract is an important prevention strategy. With this in mind, we constructed the recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain pGSMT/MG1363, which constitutively expressed the fusion protein glutathione S-transferase (GST)-small molecule ubiquitin-like modifier protein (SUMO)-metallothionein-I (GST-SUMO-MT). The thermodynamic data indicated that the average number of lead bound to a GST-SUMO-MT molecule was 3.655 and this binding reaction was a spontaneous, exothermic and entropy-increasing process. The total lead-binding capacity of pGSMT/MG1363 was 4.11 ± 0.15 mg/g dry mass. Oral administration of pGSMT/MG1363 (1 × 10(10) Colony-Forming Units) to pubertal male rats that were also treated with 5 mg/kg of lead acetate daily significantly inhibited the increase of blood lead levels, the impairment of hepatic function and the decrease of testosterone concentration in the serum, which were all impaired in rats treated by lead acetate alone. Moreover, the administration of pGSMT/MG1363 for 6 weeks did not affect the serum concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium ions. This study provides a convenient and economical biomaterial for preventing lead poisoning via the digestive tract.

  18. Expression of metallothionein type 2 and 3 genes in Prosopis glandulosa leaves treated with copper.

    PubMed

    Michel-Lopez, C; Zapata-Pérez, O; González-Mendoza, D; Grimaldo-Juarez, O; Ceceña-Duran, C; Tzintzun-Camacho, O

    2017-03-16

    For a better understanding of the strategies that are used by Prosopis glandulosa in heavy metal tolerance, the present study evaluated the gene expression of three metallothioneins (MTs; PgMt2-1, PgMt2, and PgMt3) in plants exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of copper. The PgMt2-1, PgMt2, and PgMt3 sequences were homologous to the MT type 2 (isoform 1), Mt2, and Mt3 sequences of other plant species found in GenBank. A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that treatment with 100 mM Cu(2+) induced a significant increase in PgMt2 and PgMt3 expression during the first 4 h of exposure compared to that of PgMt2-1. However, after 8 h of exposure, the expression levels of PgMt2 and PgMt3 were significantly lower than those of PgMt2-1. PgMt transcript levels only increased significantly during the first hour after exposure to copper, suggesting that PgMts could play a key role in the plant's detoxification mechanism. However, additional studies are required to confirm MTs as a mechanism of heavy metal tolerance and accumulation in this species.

  19. The effects of cadmium of the growth and metallothionein expression of the bivalve larvae, crassostrea virginica

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, K.D.; Burnett, K.; Ringwood, A.; MacDougal, K.; Kendall, L.

    1994-12-31

    Oyster larvae, Crassostrea virginica, were exposed to 20 ppb of cadmium (Cd) and fed (mixture of Isochrysis galbana & Chaetoceros gracilis, 40mL) in the laboratory for 10 days. On the 0, 4, 7 and 10 day the larvae samples were taken and frozen. Then they were homogenized, centrifuged, ultrafiltered through a membrane separation technique used to segregate substances according to the molecular weight and size. The cytosolic protein was first partially purified by gel permeation, then by PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis). The controls and metal exposed larvae were evaluated on total wet weight and the metallothioneins (MT) were identified from the preparations using silver staining techniques. No significant changes could be detected in the controls. However, there was a great number dead at the beginning of the experiment. Cd accumulation began at the time of exposure. This suggests that surface area may play a role in determining short-term accumulation rates. Cd effects on growth (wet weight) was slightly different, the exposed weighed less than or equal to the controls. In addition, the Cd uptake via food played an insignificant role compared to direct uptake from sea water. Between day 0 and 7 there was a number of mortalities for the controls and exposed. In addition, there was a major weight change with the exposed, they appeared to weigh less than the controls on day 7, whereas on day 4 they weighed more. So weight is a very sensitive indicator of toxic stress.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of metallothionein against rotenone-induced myenteric neurodegeneration in parkinsonian mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinki; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Sogawa, Norio; Miyoshi, Ko; Asanuma, Masato

    2014-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with motor symptoms as well as non-motor symptoms that precede the onset of motor symptoms. Mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, rotenone, has been widely used to reproduce PD pathology in the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS). We reported previously that metallothioneins (MTs) released from astrocytes can protect dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress. The present study examined the changes in MT expression by chronic systemic rotenone administration in the striatum and colonic myenteric plexus of C57BL mice. In addition, we investigated the effects of MT depletion on rotenone-induced neurodegeneration in CNS and ENS using MT-1 and MT-2 knockout (MT KO) mice, or using primary cultured neurons from MT KO mice. In normal C57BL mice, subcutaneous administration of rotenone for 6 weeks caused neurodegeneration, increased MT expression with astrocytes activation in the striatum and myenteric plexus. MT KO mice showed more severe myenteric neuronal damage by rotenone administration after 4 weeks than wild-type mice, accompanied by reduced astroglial activation. In primary cultured mesencephalic neurons from MT KO mice, rotenone exposure induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons, which was complemented by addition of recombinant protein. The present results suggest that MT seems to provide protection against neurodegeneration in ENS of rotenone-induced PD model mice.

  1. Crambescin C1 Exerts a Cytoprotective Effect on HepG2 Cells through Metallothionein Induction.

    PubMed

    Roel, María; Rubiolo, Juan A; Ternon, Eva; Thomas, Olivier P; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2015-07-27

    The Mediterranean marine sponge Crambe crambe is the source of two families of guanidine alkaloids known as crambescins and crambescidins. Some of the biological effects of crambescidins have been previously reported while crambescins have undergone little study. Taking this into account, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis to examine the effect of crambescin-C1 (CC1) on human tumor hepatocarcinoma cells HepG2 followed by validation experiments to confirm its predicted biological activities. We report herein that, while crambescin-A1 has a minor effect on these cells, CC1 protects them against oxidative injury by means of metallothionein induction even at low concentrations. Additionally, at high doses, CC1 arrests the HepG2 cell cycle in G0/G1 and thus inhibits tumor cell proliferation. The findings presented here provide the first detailed approach regarding the different effects of crambescins on tumor cells and provide a basis for future studies on other possible cellular mechanisms related to these bioactivities.

  2. Metallothionein-3 Increases Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cell Invasiveness via Induction of Metalloproteinase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Suchanski, Jaroslaw; Olbromski, Mateusz; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Owczarek, Tomasz; Kruczak, Anna; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Rys, Janusz; Ugorski, Maciej; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently found that metallothionein-3 (MT3) enhances the invasiveness and tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells. This finding is in contrast to those of earlier studies, which indicated that overexpression of MT3 in breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines inhibits their growth in vitro. Therefore, to clarify the role of MT3 in breast cancer progression, we analyzed the effect of MT3-overexpression on proliferation, invasiveness, migration, and tumorigenesis of breast cancer MDA-MB-231/BO2 cells. It was found that MDA-MB-231/BO2 cells overexpressing MT3 were characterized by increased invasiveness in vitro, compared to the control cells. Interestingly, this increased invasiveness correlated with a highly increased concentration of MMP3 in the culture supernatants (p<0.0001). Our data suggest that MT3 may regulate breast cancer cell invasiveness by modulating the expression of MMP3. These experimental results, obtained using triple-negative MDA-MB-231/BO2 cells, were further supported by clinical data. It was found that, in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), nuclear MT3 immunoreactivity in cancer cells tended to be associated with patients’ shorter disease-specific survival, suggesting that nuclear MT3 expression may be a potential marker of poor prognosis of triple-negative TNBC cases. PMID:25933064

  3. Effect of zinc supplementation on type 2 diabetes parameters and liver metallothionein expressions in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Li, Hongyan; Fan, Zhe; Liu, Ya

    2012-12-01

    Zinc is a trace metal and acts as an active component of various enzymes. Zinc deficiency has been suggested to be associated with the development of diabetes. The present study investigated the role of zinc supplementation on prevention of diabetic conditions. A double-disease model mimicking hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes was created by applying high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) to Wistar rats. We demonstrated that zinc supplementation improved symptoms of diabetes such as polydipsia and increased serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, indicating that zinc supplementation has a potential beneficial effect on diabetic conditions. The level of maldondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative stress marker, was reduced in liver by zinc supplementation in high fat-fed rats with or without STZ injection. Meanwhile, we observed an increase in the expression of metallothioneins (MTs) in liver of rats treated with zinc. This suggests that the induction of MTs in liver, which has been shown to be important in scavenging free radicals, could be one of the underlying mechanisms of zinc supplementation on reducing MDA levels in liver. Finally, we found that zinc levels in liver were increased while there was no change in serum zinc levels, indicating that local zinc level might be a critical factor for the induction of MTs. Also, the level of MTs could potentially be an index of zinc bioavailability. Taken together, these results suggest that both zinc and MT could play an important role in balancing nutrition and metabolism to prevent diabetic development.

  4. Cadmium, zinc, and copper in horse liver and in horse liver metallothionein: comparisons with kidney cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Elinder, C.G.; Nordberg, M.; Palm, B.; Piscator, M.

    1981-10-01

    Cadmium, zinc, and copper were determined in liver and in kidney cortex samples obtained from 33 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in liver ranged from 0.002 to 0.165 mmole/kg and in kidney from 0.01 to 2.15 mmole/kg. There was a significant correlation between liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium. The average kidney concentration of cadmium was about 15 times that of liver. Zinc concentrations increased with increasing cadmium concentrations in both liver and kidney. The relative increase of zinc with cadmium was more pronounced in liver than in kidney. However, the absolute increase of zinc was larger in kidney due to the much higher concentration of cadmium in kidney compared to liver. Any significant correlation between copper and cadmium, or copper and zinc, could not be revealed. Sephadex gel filtration was performed on supernatants from homogenates of kidney and liver from 19 of the horses. In both organs the major part of cadmium was recovered in protein fractions corresponding to metallothionein (MT), in which the increase of zinc also took place. The molar ratio between zinc and cadmium was higher in MT fractions obtained from liver than in MT fractions obtained from kidney.

  5. Metallothioneins and trace elements dyshomeostasis induced by exposure to gasoline vapor in mice.

    PubMed

    Grebić, Damir; Tota, Marin; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Broznić, Dalibor; Marinić, Jelena; Canadi, Gordana; Milin, Cedomila; Radosević-Stasić, Biserka

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of air pollution related with the gasoline/petrochemical industry the expression of metallothionein I (MT-I) mRNA and tissue metals were analyzed in organs of mice, exposed to gasoline (G) vapor in laboratory conditions. Control groups consisted of intact mice and of those exposed in the metabolic chamber to fresh air. The data obtained by RT-PCR and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry have shown that exposure to G vapor leads to upregulation of MT-I mRNA in organs that receive a strong respiratory and olfactory input or participate in gasoline degradation and elimination (lungs, brain, kidney and liver). Besides, in the brain and in the lungs, kidney and liver a decreased tissue content of Zn²⁺ or Cu²⁺ and Mg²⁺ was found (p<0.001). Some of these changes were obtained also in mice closed in the metabolic chamber, pointing to the involvement of stress-induced mechanisms in the transcriptional regulation of MTs.

  6. Metal-induced hydroxyl radical generation by Cu(+)-metallothioneins from LEC rat liver.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Nakayama, K; Shishido, N; Yumino, K; Ohyama, T

    1997-02-24

    Reactions of LEC (Long-Evans rats with a cinnamonlike coat color) rat liver Cu(I)-metallothioneins (MTs) with HgCl2 or K3Fe(CN)6 were investigated by ESR spectroscopy and generation of hydroxyl radicals was demonstrated using the ESR spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). When Cu(I)-MTs were incubated with more than one equivalent mole HgCl2 or K3Fe(CN)6 to Cu+ bound to MTs, strong signals due to Cu2+ appeared. ESR spectra, which were a combination of the DMPO-OH adduct signal and a six-line signal, were observed in the reaction of Cu(I)-MTs with HgCl2, whereas no oxygen radical signal was seen with K3Fe(CN)6. The DMPO-OH signal intensity was greater in the presence of SOD while the signal disappeared in the presence of catalase. The results suggest that addition of HgCl2 causes the liberation of cuprous ions from MTs followed by a reaction with oxygen, leading to hydroxyl radical formation through a Fenton-type Haber-Weiss reaction.

  7. Gene expression analysis of metallothionein and mineral elements uptake in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Kısa, Dursun; Öztürk, Lokman; Tekin, Şaban

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals such as Cd are considered to be the most important pollutants in soil contamination. Cd is a non-essential element adversely affecting plant growth and development, and it has caused some physiological and molecular changes. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, and metal binding proteins. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the MT gene expression levels and minerals uptake in the tissues of Solanum lycopersicum exposed to Cd. The transcriptional expression of the MT genes was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The MT genes were regulated by the Cd and the mineral elements uptake changed tissue type and applied doses. The MT1 and MT2 transcript levels increased in the roots, the leaves and the fruits of the tomato. The MT3 and MT4 transcript pattern changed according to the tissue types. The Cd treatment on the growth medium increased the Mg, Ca, and Fe content in both the leaves and fruits of the tomato. However, the Cd affected the mineral levels in the roots depending on the mineral types and doses. Also, the Cd content increased in the roots, the leaves, and the fruits of the tomato, respectively. The results presented in this study show that Cd has synergistic and/or antagonistic effects on minerals depending on the tissue types. These results indicate that the MT1 and MT2 expression pattern increased together with the Mg, Ca, and Fe content in both the leaves and the fruits of the tomato.

  8. Influence of zinc on the ontogeny of hepatic metallothionein in the fetal rat

    SciTech Connect

    Charles-Shannon, V.L.; Sasser, L.B.; Burbank, D.K.; Kelman, B.J.

    1981-10-01

    The ontogeny of hepatic metallothioneins (Mt) in fetal tissue as related to dietary and hepatic Zn was investigated. Sixty 6-month-old female rats were divided into two groups and given either double-distilled water or water containing 700 )g of Zn per milliliter. Dams from each group were killed on 16, 19, or 21 days of gestation, and maternal and fetal livers were removed. Mt content of the tissue was estimated by Piotrowski's Hg-saturation method. Results established the presence of an endogenous hepatic Mt in the fetal rat as early as 16 days of gestation. We further demonstrated a marked progressive increase in fetal Mt from Day 16 through gestation accompanied by a decrease in maternal hepatic Mt. It is suggested that Zn increased fetal Mt by inducing fetal synthesis, redistributing fetal Mt, or increasing Mt transport to the fetus, because both fetal and maternal hepatic Mt were increased. Fetal hepatic Mt concentration was several times greater than maternal Mt at corresponding stages of gestation. Mt may serve to either ensure adequate storage of Zn or Cu for fetal development or protect the fetus against metal toxicity, but the significance of these high endogenous levels of fetal Mt are not clear at this time.

  9. Preparation and reactivity of a tetranuclear Fe(II) core in the metallothionein α-domain.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yohei; Onoda, Akira; Sakurai, Rie; Kitagishi, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small cysteine-rich proteins which exhibit high affinities for various metal ions and play roles in storage of essential metals and detoxification of toxic metals. Studies on the redox properties of MTs have been quite limited. Recently, we focused on the α-domain of MT (MTα) as a protein matrix and incorporated a tetranuclear metal cluster as a reductant. UV-visible, CD and MS data indicate the formation of the stable tetranuclear metal-cysteine cluster in the MTα matrix with Fe(II)(4)-MTα and Co(II)(4)-MTα species existing in water. Furthermore, the Fe(II)(4)-MTα species was found to promote the reduction of met-myoglobin and azobenzene derivatives under mild conditions. Particularly, the stoichiometric reduction of methyl red with Fe(II)(4)-MTα (1:1) was found to proceed with a conversion of 98% over a period of 6h at 25°C. This indicates that all of the four Fe(II) cores contribute to the reduction. In this paper, we describe the preparation and reactivity of the tetranuclear iron cluster in the protein matrix.

  10. The Balance between Life and Death of Cells: Roles of Metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Allan Evald; Bohr, Adam; Penkowa, Milena

    2006-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a highly conserved, low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich protein that occurs in 4 isoforms (MT-I to MT-IV), of which MT-I+II are the major and best characterized proteins. This review will focus on mammalian MT-I+II and their functional impact upon cellular survival and death, as seen in two rather contrasting pathological conditions: Neurodegeneration and neoplasms. MT-I+II have analogous functions including: 1) Antioxidant scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS); 2) Cytoprotection against degeneration and apoptosis; 3) Stimulation of cell growth and repair including angiogenesis/revascularization, activation of stem/progenitor cells, and neuroregeneration. Thereby, MT-I+II mediate neuroprotection, CNS restoration and clinical recovery during neurodegenerative disorders. Due to the promotion of cell survival, increased MT-I+II levels have been associated with poor tumor prognosis, although the data are less clear and direct causative roles of MT-I+II in oncogenesis remain to be identified. The MT-I+II molecular mechanisms of actions are not fully elucidated. However, their role in metal ion homeostasis might be fundamental in controlling Zn-dependent transcription factors, protein synthesis, cellular energy levels/metabolism and cell redox state. Here, the neuroprotective and regenerative functions of MT-I+II are reviewed, and the presumed link to oncogenesis is critically perused. PMID:19690641

  11. Expression of metallothionein mRNAs on mouse cerebellum microglia cells by thimerosal and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Minami, Takeshi; Miyata, Eriko; Sakamoto, Yamato; Kohama, Azusa; Yamazaki, Hideo; Ichida, Seiji

    2009-06-30

    Effects of thimerosal and its metabolites, ethyl mercury and thiosalicylate, on the expression of metallothionein (MT) mRNAs in mouse cerebellum microglia cell line, C8-B4 cells, were studied. The level of MT-1 mRNA significantly decreased at early hours and recovered time-dependently 24h after thimerosal was added to the C8-B4 cells. However, MT-2 and MT-3 mRNA expressions did not change from the control group. In contrast, the expression of MT-1 mRNA increased in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line 6h after incubation with thimerosal. In addition, the level of MT-1 mRNA decreased in C8-B4 cells 6h after the addition of thiosalicylate, but ethyl mercury induced MT-1 mRNA expression. When cell viability was compared with thimerosal, thiosalicylate, and ethyl mercury, the viability of C8-B4 cells decreased dose-dependently 24h after either thimerosal or ethyl mercury was added; however, the viability increased dose-dependently until 15 microM thiosalicylate was added. From the present results, it is concluded that the expression of MT-1 mRNA may be mediated by different factors than the expression of MT-2 mRNA in C8-B4 cells. The reduction of MT-1 mRNA level by thiosalicylate may affect the proliferation of C8-B4 cells.

  12. Functional characterization of four metallothionein genes in Daphnia pulex exposed to environmental stressors

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, J.; Glaholt, S.P.; Smith, Z.; Smagghe, G.; Janssen, C.R.; Colbourne, J.K.; Shaw, J.R.; De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the metallothionein genes (Mt1, Mt2, Mt3, and Mt4) in Daphnia pulex on both molecular and ecotoxicological level. We therefore conducted a bioinformatical analysis of the gene location and predicted protein sequence, and screened the upstream flanking region for regulatory elements. The number of these elements and their positions relative to the start codon varied strongly among the four genes and even among two gene duplicates (Mt1A and Mt1B), suggesting different roles of the four proteins in the organisms’ response to stress. We subsequently conducted a chronic 16-day exposure of D. pulex to different environmental stressors (at sublethal levels causing approximately 50% reduction in reproduction). Based on prior knowledge, we exposed them to the metals Cd, Cu, and Ni, the moulting hormone hydroxyecdysone (20E), and the oxidative stressors cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), and paraquat (Pq). We then compared mRNA expression levels of the four Mt genes under these stress conditions with control conditions in “The Chosen One” clone (TCO), for which the full genome was sequenced and annotated. All together, the mRNA expression results under the different stress regimes indicate that different Mt genes may play different and various roles in the response of D. pulex to stress and that some (but not all) of the differences among the four genes could be related to the pattern of regulatory elements in their upstream flanking region. PMID:22266576

  13. Metallothionein Gene Family in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus: Gene Structure, Differential Expression and Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ragusa, Maria Antonietta; Nicosia, Aldo; Costa, Salvatore; Cuttitta, Angela; Gianguzza, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are small and cysteine-rich proteins that bind metal ions such as zinc, copper, cadmium, and nickel. In order to shed some light on MT gene structure and evolution, we cloned seven Paracentrotus lividus MT genes, comparing them to Echinodermata and Chordata genes. Moreover, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of 32 MTs from different classes of echinoderms and 13 MTs from the most ancient chordates, highlighting the relationships between them. Since MTs have multiple roles in the cells, we performed RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization experiments to understand better MT functions in sea urchin embryos. Results showed that the expression of MTs is regulated throughout development in a cell type-specific manner and in response to various metals. The MT7 transcript is expressed in all tissues, especially in the stomach and in the intestine of the larva, but it is less metal-responsive. In contrast, MT8 is ectodermic and rises only at relatively high metal doses. MT5 and MT6 expression is highly stimulated by metals in the mesenchyme cells. Our results suggest that the P. lividus MT family originated after the speciation events by gene duplications, evolving developmental and environmental sub-functionalization. PMID:28417916

  14. Identification of quantum dots labeled metallothionein by fast scanning laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konecna, Marie; Novotny, Karel; Krizkova, Sona; Blazkova, Iva; Kopel, Pavel; Kaiser, Jozef; Hodek, Petr; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2014-11-01

    The technique described in this paper allows detection of quantum dots (QDs) specifically deposited on the polystyrene surface by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Using LIBS, the distribution of QDs or their conjugates with biomolecules deposited on the surface can be observed, regardless of the fact if they exhibit fluorescence or not. QDs deposited on the specific surface of polystyrene microplate in the form of spots are detected by determination of the metal included in the QDs structure. Cd-containing QDs (CdS, CdTe) stabilized with mercaptopropionic (MPA) or mercaptosuccinic (MSA) acid, respectively, alone or in the form of conjugates with metallothionein (MT) biomolecule are determined by using the 508.58 nm Cd emission line. The observed absolute detection limit for Cd in CdTe QDs conjugates with MT in one spot was 3 ng Cd. Due to the high sensitivity of this technique, the immunoanalysis in combination with LIBS was also investigated. Cd spatial distribution in sandwich immunoassay was detected.

  15. Levels of heavy metals and their binding protein metallothionein in type 2 diabetics with kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Raudenska, Martina; Dvorakova, Veronika; Pacal, Lukas; Chalasova, Katarina; Kratochvilova, Monika; Gumulec, Jaromir; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Zitka, Ondrej; Kankova, Katerina; Adam, Vojtech; Masarik, Michal

    2017-01-06

    Hyperglycemia, a major metabolic disturbance present in diabetes, promotes oxidative stress. Activation of antioxidant defense is an important mechanism to prevent cell damage. Levels of heavy metals and their binding proteins can contribute to oxidative stress. Antiradical capacity and levels of metallothionein (MT), metals (zinc and copper), and selected antioxidants (bilirubin, cysteine, and glutathione) were determined in 70 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects and 80 healthy subjects of Caucasian origin. Single nucleotide polymorphism (rs28366003) in MT gene was detected. Antiradical capacity, conjugated bilirubin, and copper were significantly increased in diabetics, whereas MT and glutathione were decreased. Genotype AA of rs28366003 was associated with higher zinc levels in the diabetic group. The studied parameters were not influenced by renal function. This is the first study comprehensively investigating differences in MT and metals relevant to oxidative stress in T2DM. Ascertained differences indicate increased oxidative stress in T2DM accompanied by abnormalities in non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems.

  16. The relationship between serum and urine metallothionein, renal function, protein excretion patterns and occupational cadmium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Falck, F.Y. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between renal function, metallothionein (MT), protein excretion patterns, and chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure. Two groups (A and B) of Cd-exposed workers were studied.Group A (n = 33) was exposed to Cd fume from silver brazing and Group B (n = 20) was exposed to Cd fume, Cd oxide dust and Cd sulfate mist refining Cd. MT excretion was significantly higher in abnormal renal function subjects in Groups A and B. Serum MT and serum creatinine levels were also significantly higher in abnormal renal function subjects in Group A. The findings suggest that MT is better predictor of dose than Cd of ..beta../sub 2/-M excretion and that MT is related to Cd nephrotoxicity. MT is a potential biological monitor for Cd-exposed humans which may be useful for preventing Cd nephropathy. It is not known if MT is a specific indicator for Cd-induced proximal tubule dysfunction. The renal status of Group A subjects was examined since this group had been exposed to Cd fume at and below the current permissible exposure level (PEL) of 100..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for at least 21 years. The prevalence of renal dysfunction was 21% (7) after adjustment for confounding factors. The findings suggest that the PEL does not protect against renal dysfunction for a working lifetime.

  17. Metal and metallothionein concentrations in Paracentrotus lividus from Amvrakikos gulf (Ionian Sea-Greece).

    PubMed

    Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Pancucci-Papadopoulou, Maria-Antonietta; Papadopoulos, Giorgio L

    2014-09-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and metallothioneins (MTs) were measured in the gonads of Paracentrotus lividus from Amvrakikos gulf (Ionian Sea, Greece). Three natural populations were selected; two of them, growing inside the gulf (Agios Thomas and Koronisia), presented higher density and smaller body size than the population living in a coastal area just outside the gulf (Mytikas). Metal and MT levels were not elevated, with the exception of Zn, showing high values related to the reproduction stage of the sea urchins. Significant geographical variations were recorded in the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and MTs. The highest mean and maximum values of Cu, Zn and MTs were recorded in Agios Thomas while Cd and Cr were higher in Mytikas population. Copper, Zn, Fe and MT concentrations were negatively correlated to the sea urchin body size, while a positive concentration-size relationship was observed for Cd. Although all studied populations grow in a low metal level marine environment, urchins with smaller body size living in a food limited marine environment showed higher gonadosomatic index, metal concentrations and MT levels in their gonads (Agios Thomas and Koronisia) than larger specimens growing in a food unlimited area (Mytikas).

  18. Stress to cadmium monitored by metallothionein gene induction in Paracentrotus lividus embryos

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Roberta; Bonaventura, Rosa; Zito, Francesca; Schröder, Heinz-C.; Müller, Isabel; Müller, Werner E. G.; Matranga, Valeria

    2003-01-01

    We used sea urchin embryos as bioindicators to study the effects of exposure to sublethal cadmium concentrations on the expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene stress marker. For this purpose, the complete complementary deoxyribonucleic acid of the species Paracentrotus lividus (Pl) was cloned and sequenced. Northern blot analysis showed that basal levels of Pl-MT messenger ribonucleic acid, having an apparent size of 700 bases, are expressed in all developmental stages analyzed, from early cleavage to pluteus. However, when embryos were continuously cultured in sublethal CdCl2 concentrations and harvested at cleavage, swimming blastula, late gastrula, and pluteus stages (6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after fertilization, respectively), a time- and dose-dependent increase in the transcription levels of the Pl-MT gene was observed. Interestingly, although microscopical inspection revealed the occurrence of abnormalities only after 24 hours of exposure to the pollutant, Northern blot and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed significant increases in Pl-MT expression levels already after 12 and 6 hours of exposure, respectively. Therefore, this study confirms the validity of MT as marker of exposure and provides evidence that Pl-MT and sea urchin embryos can be a potentially valuable and sensitive model for testing in very short periods of time seawaters heavily contaminated with cadmium. PMID:14984056

  19. Purification and characterization of metallothionein-like cadmium binding protein from Asian periwinkle Littorina brevicula.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sung; Chung, Soohee; Park, Il-Seon; Kim, Yangsun; Koh, Chul- Hwan; Lee, In-Sook

    2002-04-01

    Although mussels and oysters in the ocean are known to act as bioconcentrators for contaminants such as heavy metals, their ability to survive in heavily polluted water is relatively limited. The Asian periwinkle, Littorina brevicula, is one species that can accumulate a variety of environmental heavy metals, and the expression of its metal binding protein (MBP) is induced by cadmium. To better characterize this protein and its detoxification mechanism against cadmium, the present work examined the induction of a cadmium binding protein (Cd-BP) in Littorina brevicula exposed to 400 microg/l CdCl(2) for 30 days. The induced Cd-BP was purified by chromatography from the supernatants of homogenized organs (digestive gland, gonad, gill and kidney). This Cd-BP was found to consist of 103 amino acids, was rich in Cys (21 residues), and partial C-terminal sequence obtained by MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed a Cys-XXX-Cys motif, which resembles a typical feature of mollusc metallothionein (MT). The Cd-BP molecular weight of 9.8 kDa is a little larger than that of other MTs.

  20. Heavy metal pollution in sediments and mussels: assessment by using pollution indices and metallothionein levels.

    PubMed

    Okay, Oya S; Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Yılmaz, Atilla; Yakan, Sevil D; Karacık, Burak; Tutak, Bilge; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, the concentration of eight metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined in the sediments and transplanted and native mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The study was conducted in Turkish marinas, shipyards, and shipbreaking yards. The effect of metal pollution was evaluated by determining the levels of metallothionein (MT) in the mussels. The extent of contamination for each single metal was assessed by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo) and enrichment factor (EF). Whereas, to evaluate the overall metal pollution and effect, the pollution load index (PLI), modified contamination degree (mC d), potential toxicity response index (RI), mean effects range median (ERM) quotient (m-ERM-Q), and mean PEL quotient (m-PEL-Q) were calculated. The influence of different background values on the calculations was discussed. The results indicated a significant metal pollution caused by Cu, Pb, and Zn especially in shipyard and shipbreaking sites. Higher concentrations of MT were observed in the ship/breaking yard samples after the transplantation.

  1. Shark (Scyliorhinus torazame) metallothionein: cDNA cloning, genomic sequence, and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Sun; Choi, Buyl Nim; Ha, En-Mi; Kim, Ki Hong; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Dong Soo; Nam, Yoon Kwon

    2005-01-01

    Novel metallothionein (MT) complementary DNA and genomic sequences were isolated from a cartilaginous shark species, Scyliorhinus torazame. The full-length open reading frame (ORF) of shark MT cDNA encoded 68 amino acids with a high cysteine content (29%). The genomic ORF sequence (932 bp) of shark MT isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) comprised 3 exons with 2 interventing introns. Shark MT sequence shared many conserved features with other vertebrate MTs: overall amino acid identities of shark MT ranged from 47% to 57% with fish MTs, and 41% to 62% with mammalian MTs. However, in addition to these conserved characteristics, shark MT sequence exhibited some unique characteristics. It contained 4 extra amino acids (Lys-Ala-Gly-Arg) at the end of the beta-domain, which have not been reported in any other vertebrate MTs. The last amino acid residue at the C-terminus was Ser, which also has not been reported in fish and mammalian MTs. The MT messenger RNA levels in shark liver and kidney, assessed by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and RNA blot hybridization, were significantly affected by experimental exposures to heavy metals (cadmium, copper, and zinc). Generally, the transcriptional activation of shark MT gene was dependent on the dose (0-10 mg/kg body weight for injection and 0-20 microM for immersion) and duration (1-10 days); zinc was a more potent inducer than copper and cadmium.

  2. Coordinate regulation of mouse metallothionein I and II genes by heavy metals and glucocorticoids.

    PubMed Central

    Yagle, M K; Palmiter, R D

    1985-01-01

    Regulation of the endogenous mouse metallothionein I and II (MT-I and MT-II) genes by heavy metals and glucocorticoids was studied in cultured mouse cells. Both mRNAs were measured simultaneously by solution hybridization with [3H]MT-I cDNA and [32P]MT-II cDNA, and the absolute amount of each mRNA was calculated by using a single-stranded M13 standard that contained both mRNA sequences. Both genes responded identically to different concentrations of metals (zinc, cadmium, and copper) and dexamethasone. Furthermore, the time courses of induction of both mRNAs were the same. However, under all conditions there was 1.2- to 1.9-fold more MT-I mRNA than MT-II mRNA. We conclude that both genes are regulated identically by receptors for glucocorticoids and metals but that the rate of transcription from the MT-I gene is slightly higher than from the MT-II gene. PMID:3838360

  3. Zinc and N-acetylcysteine modify mercury distribution and promote increase in hepatic metallothionein levels.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Vitor Antunes; Oliveira, Cláudia Sirlene; Mesquita, Mariana; Pedroso, Taise Fonseca; Costa, Lidiane Machado; Fiuza, Tiago da Luz; Pereira, Maria Ester

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the ability of zinc (Zn) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in preventing the biochemical alterations caused by mercury (Hg) and the retention of this metal in different organs. Adult female rats received ZnCl2 (27mg/kg) and/or NAC (5mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) subcutaneously and after 24h they received HgCl2 (5mg/kg) or saline (0.9%). Twenty-four hours after, they were sacrificed and analyses were performed. Hg inhibited hepatic, renal, and blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity, decreased renal total thiol levels, as well as increased serum creatinine and urea levels and aspartate aminotransferase activity. HgCl2-exposed groups presented an important retention of Hg in all the tissues analyzed. All pre-treatments demonstrated tendency in preventing hepatic δ-ALA-D inhibition, whereas only ZnCl2 showed this effect on blood enzyme. Moreover, the combination of these compounds completely prevented liver and blood Hg retention. The exposure to Zn and Hg increased hepatic metallothionein levels. These results show that Zn and NAC presented promising effects against the toxicity caused by HgCl2. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. The cytotoxicity of mercury chloride to the keratinocytes is associated with metallothionein expression.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsann-Long; Chen, Hsiao-Ying; Changchien, Tzu-Tsung; Wang, Chee-Chan; Wu, Chi-Ming

    2013-05-01

    There are trace amounts of heavy metals in cosmetics. Heavy metals such as mercury (Hg), which is added to skin-whitening cosmetics, may cause acute or chronic damage to human cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of mercury chloride (HgCl2) to human keratinocytes. The keratinocytes were treated with various concentrations of HgCl2 and the cell survival fractions were found to be 38.08, 17.59, 12.76, 3.29 and 0.77% when the cells were treated with 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 μM of HgCl2, respectively. Moreover, we observed that the greatest damage was to the cell membrane. The metallothionein (MT) protein expression was also investigated. MT expression levels increased with increasing concentrations of HgCl2. The results indicated that MT protects the keratinocytes against HgCl2-induced toxicity.

  5. Cloning metallothionein gene in Zacco platypus and its potential as an exposure biomarker against cadmium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Woo-Keun; Shin, Hyun Suk; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Ki-Tae; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Cheol Young; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-07-01

    Zacco platypus, pale chub, is an indigenous freshwater fish of East Asia including Korea and has many useful characteristics as indicator species for water pollution. While utility of Z. platypus as an experimental species has been recognized, genetic-level information is very limited and warrants extensive research. Metallothionein (MT) is widely used and well-known biomarker for heavy metal exposure in many experimental species. In the present study, we cloned MT in Z. platypus and evaluated its utility as a biomarker for metal exposure. For this purpose, we sequenced complete complementary DNA (cDNA) of MT in Z. platypus and carried out phylogenetic analysis with its sequences. The transcription-level responses of MT gene following the exposure to CdCl2 were also assessed to validate the utility of this gene as an exposure biomarker. Analysis of cDNA sequence of MT gene demonstrated high conformity with those of other fish. MT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and enzymatic MT content significantly increased following CdCl2 exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The level of CdCl2 that resulted in significant MT changes in Z. platypus was within the range that was reported from other fish. The MT gene of Z. platypus sequenced in the present study can be used as a useful biomarker for heavy metal exposure in the aquatic environment of Korea and other countries where this freshwater fish species represents the ecosystem.

  6. Localization and Spectroscopic Analysis of the Cu(I) Binding Site in Wheat Metallothionein Ec-1

    PubMed Central

    Tarasava, Katsiaryna; Loebus, Jens; Freisinger, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The early cysteine-labeled metallothionein (MT) from Triticum aestivum (common wheat), denoted Ec-1, features two structurally well-defined domains, γ and βE, coordinating two and four Zn(II) ions, respectively. While the protein is currently assumed to function mainly in zinc homeostasis, a low amount of copper ions was also recently detected in a native Ec-1 sample. To evaluate the observed copper binding in more detail, the recombinant Zn6Ec-1 form was exposed to different amounts of Cu(I) ions and the resulting species characterized with spectroscopic methods. Data reveal that the first Cu(I) equivalent coordinates exclusively to the N-terminal γ-domain of the protein and replaces one Zn(II) ion. To analyze the ability of the γ-domain for coordination of monovalent metal ions in more detail, the γ-Ec-1 peptide fragment was incubated with increasing amounts of Cu(I) and the process monitored with UV–VIS, circular dichroism, and luminescence spectroscopy. Closely similar spectra are observed regardless if the apo- or the metal ion-loaded and, hence, pre-folded forms, were used for the titration experiments with Cu(I). The results indicate that low amounts of Cu(I) ions displace the two metal ions subsequently and stoichiometrically, despite the different coordination geometry requirements of Cu(I) and Zn(II). PMID:26978358

  7. Allelic diversity of metallothionein in Orchesella cincta (L.): traces of natural selection by environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, M J T N; Ellers, J; Van Straalen, N M

    2007-05-01

    The advances made in statistical methods to detect selection from DNA sequence variation has resulted in an enormous increase in the number of studies reporting positive selection. However, a disadvantage of such statistical tests is that often no insight into the actual source of selection is obtained. Finer understanding of evolution can be obtained when those statistical tests are combined with field observations on allele frequencies. We assessed whether the metallothionein (mt) gene of Orchesella cincta (Collembola), which codes for a metal-binding protein, is subject to selection, by investigating alleles and allele frequencies among European metal-stressed and reference populations. Eight highly divergent alleles were resolved in Northwest Europe. At the nucleotide level, a total of 51 polymorphic sites (five of them implying amino-acid changes) were observed. Although statistical tests applied to the sequences alone showed no indication of selection, a G-test rejected the null hypothesis that alleles are homogeneously distributed over metal-stressed and reference populations. Analysis of molecular variance assigned a small, but significant amount of the total variance to differences between metal-stressed and non-stressed populations. In addition, it was shown that metal-stressed populations tend to be more genetically diversified at this locus than non-stressed ones. These results suggest that the mt gene and its surrounding DNA region are affected by environmental metal contamination. This study illustrates that, in addition to statistical tests, field observations on allele frequencies are needed to gain understanding of selection and adaptive evolution.

  8. Transcriptional Induction of Metallothionein by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)stibane in Cultured Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujie, Tomoya; Murakami, Masaki; Yoshida, Eiko; Yasuike, Shuji; Kimura, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Chika; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells cover the luminal surface of blood vessels and contribute to the prevention of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding, inducible protein, which protects cells from the toxicity of heavy metals and active oxygen species. Endothelial MT is not induced by inorganic zinc. Adequate tools are required to investigate the mechanisms underlying endothelial MT induction. In the present study, we found that an organoantimony compound, tris(pentafluorophenyl)stibane, induces gene expression of MT-1A and MT-2A, which are subisoforms of MT in bovine aortic endothelial cells. The data reveal that MT-1A is induced by activation of both the MTF-1–MRE and Nrf2–ARE pathways, whereas MT-2A expression requires only activation of the MTF-1–MRE pathway. The present data suggest that the original role of MT-1 is to protect cells from heavy metal toxicity and oxidative stress in the biological defense system, while that of MT-2 is to regulate intracellular zinc metabolism. PMID:27563876

  9. Metallothionein, a marker of antiapoptosis, is associated with clinical forms of oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Allon, Irit; Ofir, Merav; Vered, Hanna; Hirshberg, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the expression of anti- and proapoptosis markers, metallothionein (MT), and caspase-2, in the epithelial and inflammatory cells of oral lichen planus (OLP) patients, and to investigate the association with clinical parameters. Included were biopsies of 70 OLP patients. The clinical data were collected from patients' charts. The expression of MT and caspase-2 was immunomorphometrically analyzed in the epithelial and inflammatory cells, and the results were correlated with the clinical presentation. The epithelial and inflammatory cells expressed MT (10.2 ± 5.75 and 0.68 ± 0.86) and caspase-2 (1.54 ± 2.6 and 0.98 ± 1.15) which show a trend toward an inverse expression. The expression of MT in the epithelium was significantly higher in patients presenting with keratotic lichen planus than in patients with the atrophic and erosive forms (P = 0.0008). In the inflammatory cells, the expression of MT was inversely correlated with increasing age (R = 0.34, P = 0.0069). The pattern of expression of MT and caspase-2 in OLP suggests an extensive antiapoptotic response in the keratotic form of the disease. Symptomatic patients may benefit from therapy targeted to apoptosis in the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Isolation and characterization of metallothioneins in calves ingesting Zn toxic diets

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T.W.; Clegg, M.S.; Lonnerdal, B.; Thurmond, M.C.; Keen, C.L.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have recently described an outbreak of Zn toxicosis in 95 Holstein bull calves which occurred as a result of an accidental over-supplementation of the diet with Zn. Signs of Zn toxicosis including anorexia, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyurea and diarrhea, began to appear 23 days after initiation of the diet. Liver, kidney, muscle and brain were collected from animals that died or were euthanized. Multielement analysis indicated that liver had the highest concentration of Zn (362 ..mu..g Zn/g wet wt.) followed by kidney (233 ..mu..g Zn/g wet wt.), muscle (22 ..mu..g Zn/g wet wt.) and brain (10 ..mu..g Zn/g wet wt.). To examine the toxic effects of Zn at the molecular level, liver was fractionated by conventional molecular sieve (Sephadex G75) and anion exchange chromatography (DEAE Sephadex A-25). In addition, Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) was used to verify the results obtained by conventional methods. The principle advantages of FPLC are that the molecular sieve (Superose 12) and anion (Mono Q) steps are performed in 1 h as opposed to several hours, thus substantially minimizing artifacts resulting from oxidative degradation of labile proteins. Zn was primarily associated with two peaks, designated metallothionein (MT) I and MT II, in a ratio of 10 to 1. The results show that one effect of Zn toxicity in calves can be a preferential induction of MT I.

  11. Metallothionein transfers zinc to mitochondrial aconitase through a direct interaction in mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenke; Cai, Jian; Pierce, William M; Franklin, Renty B; Maret, Wolfgang; Benz, Frederick W; Kang, Y James

    2005-07-08

    Previous studies have shown that in a cell-free system, metallothionein (MT) releases zinc when the environment becomes oxidized and the released zinc is transferred to a zinc-binding protein if such a protein is present. However, it is unknown whether and how zinc transfers from MT to other proteins in vivo. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that if zinc transfer from MT to other proteins occurs in vivo, the transfer would proceed through a direct interaction between MT and a specific group of proteins. The heart extract obtained from MT-null mice was incubated with 65Zn-MT or 65ZnCl2 and the proteins receiving 65Zn were separated by blue-native PAGE (BN-PAGE) or sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE (SDS-PAGE), and detected by autoradiography. A unique 65Zn-binding band was observed from the 65Zn-MT-incubated, but not the 65ZnCl2-incubated preparation. The analysis using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed that mitochondrial aconitase (m-aconitase) was among the proteins accepting Zn directly from Zn-MT. The m-aconitase, not the cytosolic aconitase (c-aconitase), was co-immunoprecipitated with MT. This study demonstrates that MT transfers zinc to m-aconitase through a direct interaction.

  12. Waterborne ethynylestradiol induces vitellogenin and alters metallothionein expression in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Werner, Julieta; Wautier, Kerry; Evans, Robert E; Baron, Christopher L; Kidd, Karen; Palace, Vince

    2003-02-26

    Estrogenic contaminants isolated from waters receiving sewage treatment plant effluents are known to induce the egg yolk precursor vitellogenin (VTG) in male fish. Levels of the metal binding protein metallothionein (MT) have also been shown to be affected by estrogens in fish. It has been postulated that MT declines in estrogen exposed fish to facilitate transfer of the essential metal Zn to cellular components required for VTG synthesis. To examine the changes in MT and VTG concentrations in fish exposed to an estrogen contaminant, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed to waterborne ethynylestradiol at 0, 4, 40 or 400 ng/l(-1) for 21 days. Blood and tissues were collected after 21 days of exposure to measure circulating levels of VTG as well as MT concentrations in liver and kidney. VTG increased in male and female fish from all three exposure groups compared to control fish. MT in liver significantly decreased in males and females compared to the controls, in the two highest exposures. MT in kidney was significantly higher in both sexes of fish exposed to the two highest concentrations of ethynylestradiol. These data are supportive of a relationship between estrogen exposure and the regulation of MT. Further studies to examine the specific links between estrogen exposure, VTG induction and regulation of essential metals like Zn are required.

  13. Metallothionein does not sequester arsenic(III) ions in condition of acute arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Garla, Roobee; Ganger, Renuka; Mohanty, Biraja P; Verma, Shivcharan; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L

    2016-07-29

    The major cause of toxicity of trivalent arsenicals is due to their interaction with the sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Because of its high content, Metallothionein (MT) provides one of the most favorable conditions for the binding of As(III) ions to it. MT has long been anticipated for providing resistance in case of arsenic (As) toxicity with similar mechanism as in case of cadmium toxicity. The present study investigates whether the sequestration of As ions by MT is one of the mechanisms in providing protection against acute arsenic toxicity. A rat model study on the metal stoichiometric analysis of MT1 isoform isolated from the liver of arsenic treated, untreated and zinc treated animals has been carried out using the combination of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results revealed the absence of arsenic bound MT1 in the samples isolated from arsenic treated animals. Although, both Cu and Zn ions were present in MT1 samples isolated from all the treatment groups. Moreover, only partially metallated MT1 with varying number of Zn ions were observed in all the groups. These results suggest that the role of MT during acute arsenic toxicity is different from its already established role in case of cadmium toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Localization of metallothionein in the genital organs of the male rat.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, H; Nishimura, N; Tohyama, C

    1990-07-01

    We studied the immunohistological localization of metallothionein (MT), a low molecular weight metal binding protein, in male rat genital organs (testis, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicle, coagulating gland, and prostate) by use of the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. MT concentrations in testis, seminal vesicle, and prostate ranged from 15-30 micrograms/g tissue. In testis, seminiferous tubules with mature spermatozoa exhibited weak MT staining, whereas the tubules containing differentiating spermatogenic cells but not containing spermatozoa showed strong MT staining. No MT immunostaining was observed in Leydig cells. In growing rat testes, the pattern of MT immunostaining was found to change with development: MT was found in supporting cells only on Day 7, spermatogonia adjacent to basement membrane on Day 14, and spermatocytes localized in the central part of the tubules on Day 21. Strong MT immunostaining in the basal cells was a common feature in other genital tissues, except the ductus efferentes. In prostate, the strongest MT staining was found in the lateral lobe, and MT was localized in apocrine secretions in the dorsal lobe. The present results suggest a close association of MT with cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as possible involvement of MT in supply or storage of zinc ions.

  15. Induction of metallothionein synthesis with preservation of testicular function in rats following long term renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Deng, D X; Jiang, J; Chen, S; Zhong, R; Cherian, M G; Chakrabarti, S

    2000-04-01

    Metallothionein (MT), as an acute phase or stress-response protein and free radical scavenger, is related to inflammation and cellular protection from oxidative damage. In order to evaluate long-term testicular damage and the role of MT following renal transplant, nine allogenic (Fisher 344 --> Lewis) and seven isogenic (Lewis --> Lewis) renal transplants were performed and the recipient rats were followed for 140 days when allografts develop chronic transplant rejection. Testicular weight, light microscopic morphology, and lactate dehydrogenase-X enzyme activity were assessed. Testicular MT was determined by Cd-heme assay, and was localized immunocytochemically using a polyclonal rabbit antibody. No differences in testis weight, morphology, or LDH-X enzyme activity were found between allograft and isograft recipients. Testicular MT level was significantly increased in the testis of allograft recipients. Testicular zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) levels, but not iron (Fe) level, were significantly higher in testis with allograft kidney than that with isograft kidney. In addition, Cu/Zn ratio was also significantly high in the allograft group. However, the MT level did not show any significant correlation either with Cu and Zn alone or with Cu/Zn and Fe/Zn ratios. These data suggest that allogenic stimuli may induce MT synthesis in the recipient testis. The increased MT level in an allograft may offer a protective action from oxidative damage in the testis.

  16. Metallothionein expression and tissue metal kinetics after partial hepatectomy in mice.

    PubMed

    Jakovac, Hrvoje; Grebić, Damir; Mrakovcić-Sutić, Ines; Tota, Marin; Broznić, Dalibor; Marinić, Jelena; Tomac, Jelena; Milin, Cedomila; Radosević-Stasić, Biserka

    2006-01-01

    To better elucidate previous results showing that partial hepatectomy noticeably changes the tissue content of zinc, calcium, magnesium, and iron(II) ions in regenerating the liver, thymus, and spleen, we report on the correlation of these metal tissue kinetics in these organs with the expression of metallothionein-I+II (MT-I+II) proteins and MT-I mRNA in early postoperative period (1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h) after one-third hepatectomy (pHx). The results showed that 2 h after pHx the regenerating liver accumulated Zn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+ ions while decreasing the concentration of all these metals in the spleen and of Zn2+ in the thymus. On the 24th h, a new high accumulation of Zn2+ and Ca2+ was seen in the regenerating liver and of Zn2+, Ca2+, and Fe2+ in the spleen. Simultaneously, MT-I mRNA increased in the liver and spleen. In hepatocytes and on several spleen and thymus mononuclear lymphatic cells, the increased expression of MT proteins was found mainly in the cytoplasm and nuclei. The areas expressing MTs in regenerating liver inversely correlated with those containing apoptotic cells, suggesting that these proteins participate in tissue restoration through reduction or increase of metal ions after injury to the liver.

  17. Resonance light scattering determination of metallothioneins using levofloxacin-palladium complex as a light scattering probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jin-Hua; Qian, Qiu-Mei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Meng, Xia-Ling; Liu, Lu

    2013-02-01

    A novel method of resonance light scattering (RLS) was developed for the analysis of trace metallothioneins (MTs) in human urine. In a CH3COOH-CH3COONa buffer solution of pH 4.5, the formation of a complex between levofloxacin (LEV)-Pd and MTs led to enhance the RLS intensity of the system, and the enhanced RLS intensity at 468 nm was proportional to the concentration of MTs in the range of 0.059-22.4 μg mL-1. The linear regression equation was ΔI = 127.5 ρ (μg mL-1)-88.02 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992, and the detection limit of 17.8 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation and the average recovery were 3.8-5.4% (n = 11) and 92.15%, respectively. The proposed method is convenient, reliable and sensitive, and has been used successfully for the determination of trace MTs in human urine samples.

  18. Cell specificity and an effect of ras on human metallothionein gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, C J; Hamer, D H

    1986-01-01

    The expression of three human metallothionein (hMT) genes has been compared in various established cell lines and primary liver. The single gene for hMT isoform II is ubiquitously expressed in all cell types in response to cadmium. In contrast, two genes encoding hMT-I isoforms are expressed in a highly specific, reciprocal fashion that correlates with the embryonic germ layer origin of the cells. In one cell line that failed to express detectable amounts of hMT-IE, treatment with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine led to cadmium-inducible expression of this subtype. The genes for both MT-I isoforms are coordinately inducible by heavy metals but differ in their response to glucocorticoids. Surprisingly, cells transformed with the Ha-ras oncogene contain elevated basal levels of both MT-I and MT-II RNA. The implications of these results for growth-related and developmental functions of MT are discussed. Images PMID:3517857

  19. Zn tolerance of novel Colocasia esculenta metallothionein and its domains in Escherichia coli and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ok; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Patel, Darshan H; Kim, Ho Myeong; Ahn, Sung-Ju; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2012-11-01

    Contrary to extensive researches on the roles of metallothioneins (MTs) in metal tolerance of animals, the roles of plant MTs in metal tolerance are largely under investigation. In this study, we evaluated the functional role of type 2 MT from Colocasia esculenta (CeMT2b) in Zn tolerance of tobacco and E. coli cells. Under Zn-stress conditions, transgenic tobacco overexpressing CeMT2b displayed much better seedling growth, a significant decrease in the levels of H(2)O(2) and an increase in Zn accumulation compared with the wild type. Overexpression of CeMT2b in E. coli greatly enhanced Zn tolerance and Zn accumulation under Zn stresses compared with control cells. CeMT2b bound 5.38 ± 0.29 atoms of Zn per protein. To identify a structural domain of CeMT2b for Zn binding, we investigated the growth of E. coli expressing each of the N-terminal, C-terminal, and central linker domains or a CNC motif deletion from the C-terminus of full-length CeMT2b. The results showed that the CNC motif is required for Zn tolerance, and the N-terminal domain is more effective in Zn tolerance than the C-terminal domain. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence for functional contributions of CeMT2b in Zn tolerance of tobacco and E. coli cells.

  20. Preservation of Intestinal Structural Integrity by Zinc Is Independent of Metallothionein in Alcohol-Intoxicated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Jason C.; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Wang, Lipeng; Song, Zhenyuan; McClain, Craig J.; Kang, Y. James

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal-derived endotoxins are importantly involved in alcohol-induced liver injury. Disruption of intestinal barrier function and endotoxemia are common features associated with liver inflammation and injury due to acute ethanol exposure. Zinc has been shown to inhibit acute alcohol-induced liver injury. This study was designed to determine the inhibitory effect of zinc on alcohol-induced endotoxemia and whether the inhibition is mediated by metallothionein (MT) or is independent of MT. MT knockout (MT-KO) mice were administered three oral doses of zinc sulfate (2.5 mg zinc ion/kg body weight) every 12 hours before being administered a single dose of ethanol (6 g/kg body weight) by gavage. Ethanol administration caused liver injury as determined by increased serum transaminases, parenchymal fat accumulation, necrotic foci, and an elevation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Increased plasma endotoxin levels were detected in ethanol-treated animals whose small intestinal structural integrity was compromised as determined by microscopic examination. Zinc supplementation significantly inhibited acute ethanol-induced liver injury and suppressed hepatic TNF-α production in association with decreased circulating endotoxin levels and a significant protection of small intestine structure. As expected, MT levels remained undetectable in the MT-KO mice under the zinc treatment. These results thus demonstrate that zinc preservation of intestinal structural integrity is associated with suppression of endotoxemia and liver injury induced by acute exposure to ethanol and the zinc protection is independent of MT. PMID:15161632

  1. Effects of cadmium on metallothionein levels in human peripheral blood leukocytes: a comparison with zinc.

    PubMed

    Yurkow, E J; DeCoste, C J

    1999-11-12

    Metallothioneins (MT) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins that are induced in response to a variety of chemical stresses and therefore can be used to assess human exposure to environmental agents. In the current study, flow cytometry was used to characterize the basal and cadmium-induced expression of MT in the three major leukocyte populations of human peripheral blood. In the analysis, monocytes were the most sensitive leukocytes to this toxic metal, with significant increases in cellular MT levels being detected at concentrations of cadmium as low as 0.1 microM (24 h). The lymphocyte population also exhibited pronounced treatment-associated elevations in cellular MT, while the granulocyte population was found to be nonresponsive. Although both CdCl2 (3 microM) and ZnCl2 (50 microM) induced MT expression in monocytes to a similar degree and did not affect the expression of this protein in granulocytes, cadmium but not zinc treatment induced dramatic increases in MT levels of lymphocytes. Our results indicate that cellular MT protein levels, as determined by this flow cytometric method, may be used to characterize the differential responsiveness of the major human leukocyte subpopulations to transitional metals. It is evident from the current work that the responsiveness of all peripheral blood leukocyte populations should be analyzed in exposure assessment studies.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase and metallothionein in oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis) from a subtropical Mexican Pacific estuary.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Hernández, Y Y; Medina-Díaz, I M; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Velázquez-Fernández, J B; Girón-Pérez, M I; Ortega-Cervantes, L; Maldonado-Vázquez, W A; Rojas-García, A E

    2010-04-01

    Substantial efforts have been devoted to developing and applying biomarkers for ecological risk assessment. Bivalve mollusks, such as mussels and oysters, are commonly used in environmental monitoring programs because of their wide geographical distribution, great sensitivity to environmental pollutants, and ability to accumulate anthropogenically derived chemicals at a high rate. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and metallothionein (MT's) content are representative specific biomarkers that indicate the presence of anticholinesterasic compounds (like organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides) and metals, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate AChE activity and MT's content in Crassostrea corteziensis from Boca de Camichín estuary. The results obtained here showed that AChE activity was 65% lower in oysters from Boca de Camichín than in control organisms. In contrast, MT's content in collected organisms was not statistically different from that in control organisms. AChE activity and MT's content in oysters could be used as early biomarkers of effects and exposure to pesticides and heavy metals, respectively, in aquatic environments.

  3. Differential protein expression in metallothionein protection from depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Zeng, Yiping; Yang, Zhangyou; Li, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanism of metallothionein (MT) protection from depleted uranium (DU) using a proteomics approach to search for a DU toxicity-differential protein. MT−/− and MT+/+ mice were administrated with a single dose of DU (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or equal volume of saline. After 4 days, protein changes in kidney tissues were evaluated using a proteomics approach. A total of 13 differentially expressed proteins were identified using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The validating results showed that the expression of aminoacylase-3 (ACY-3) and the mitochondrial ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1 (ETHE1) decreased significantly after DU exposure; in addition, the reduction in MT−/− mice was more significant than that in MT+/+ mice. The results also showed that exogenous ETHE1 or ACY-3 could increase the survival rate of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells after DU exposure. A specific siRNA of ETHE1 significantly increased cell apoptosis rates after DU exposure, whereas exogenous ETHE1 significantly decreased cell apoptosis rates. In summary, ACY-3 and ETHE1 might involve in protection roles of MT. ETHE1 could be a new sensitive molecular target of DU-induced cell apoptosis. PMID:27966587

  4. Effects of chitosan on oxidative stress and metallothioneins in aquatic worm Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae).

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Ahmed, Mohamed T; Mahmoud, F M; Osman, M A; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie

    2007-02-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer which has the property to elicit the natural defenses mechanism in plant and which can be an interesting biopesticides. It is then necessary to investigate the potential toxicity of chitosan for aquatic animal health. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight proteins, mainly implicated in metal ion detoxification. Increase in MTs contents had been considered as a specific biomarker of metal exposure. However recently it has been demonstrated that MTs participate in several cellular functions such as regulation of growth and anti-oxidative defenses. Therefore, the induction of MTs has been investigated in the aquatic worms Tubifex tubifex exposed to chitosan. MTs levels in exposed worm increased significantly (p > 0.05) after 2, 4, and 7 days of exposure to different concentrations of chitosan (maximum + 158.19 +/- 10.2% after 2 days of exposure to 125 mgl(-1) of chitosan). Several antioxidant parameters including glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) were quantified in T. tubifex after 2, 4, and 7 days of exposure to chitosan. Exposure to chitosan had a negative effect on T. tubifex growth (maximum effect -6.11 +/- 1.6% after 7 days with 125 mgl(-1)) demonstrating the toxic effect of the pesticide. This growth rate decrease was accompanied by a reduction in protein contents. The activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in response to the chitosan demonstrating an oxidative stress in the worms.

  5. A Mediator Role For Metallothionein in Tumor Necrosis Factor–induced Lethal Shock

    PubMed Central

    Waelput, Wim; Broekaert, Daniël; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Brouckaert, Peter; Tavernier, Jan; Libert, Claude

    2001-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which is centrally involved in several inflammatory disorders. Administration of TNF leads to a potentially lethal systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We observed that (a) mice lacking functional genes for metallothionein 1 and 2 (MT-null) were protected compared with wild-type controls (P = 0.0078), and (b) mice overexpressing MT-1 (MT-TG) were more sensitized for the lethal effect of TNF than control mice (P = 0.0003), indicating a mediating role for MT in TNF induced SIRS. As MT is involved in the body zinc homeostasis, we tested whether zinc-deprivation or -supplementation alters the response to TNF. Although zinc-depletion strongly sensitized (P = 0.036), and pretreatment with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) conferred protection against the deleterious effects of TNF (P < 0.0002), it was also found that the protection provided by zinc is independent of MT. Our observation that hsp70 is strongly induced in jejunum after ZnSO4 treatment, suggests a contribution of hsp70 in the protection against TNF. In addition, ZnSO4 cotreatment allowed complete regression of inoculated tumors with TNF and interferon γ, leading to a significantly better survival (P = 0.0045). PMID:11733576

  6. Prevention of gastrointestinal lead poisoning using recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing human metallothionein-I fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Changbin; Liu, Dajun; Bai, Weibin; Zhang, Qihao; Xiang, Qi; Huang, Yadong; Su, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Low-level lead poisoning is an insidious disease that affects millions of children worldwide, leading to biochemical and neurological dysfunctions. Blocking lead uptake via the gastrointestinal tract is an important prevention strategy. With this in mind, we constructed the recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain pGSMT/MG1363, which constitutively expressed the fusion protein glutathione S-transferase (GST)–small molecule ubiquitin-like modifier protein (SUMO)–metallothionein-I (GST-SUMO-MT). The thermodynamic data indicated that the average number of lead bound to a GST-SUMO-MT molecule was 3.655 and this binding reaction was a spontaneous, exothermic and entropy-increasing process. The total lead-binding capacity of pGSMT/MG1363 was 4.11 ± 0.15 mg/g dry mass. Oral administration of pGSMT/MG1363 (1 × 1010 Colony-Forming Units) to pubertal male rats that were also treated with 5 mg/kg of lead acetate daily significantly inhibited the increase of blood lead levels, the impairment of hepatic function and the decrease of testosterone concentration in the serum, which were all impaired in rats treated by lead acetate alone. Moreover, the administration of pGSMT/MG1363 for 6 weeks did not affect the serum concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium ions. This study provides a convenient and economical biomaterial for preventing lead poisoning via the digestive tract. PMID:27045906

  7. Metals and metallothioneins in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from a transboundary river between Mexico and Belize.

    PubMed

    Buenfil-Rojas, A M; Álvarez-Legorreta, T; Cedeño-Vázquez, J R

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium [Cd] and mercury [Hg]) and metallothioneins (MTs) in blood plasma and caudal scutes of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from Rio Hondo, a river and natural border between Mexico and Belize. Three transects of the river (approximately 20 km each) were surveyed in September 2012 and April 2013, and samples were collected from 24 crocodiles from these areas. In blood plasma, Cd (7.6 ± 9.6 ng/ml) was detected in 69 % of samples (n = 9); Hg (12.2 ± 9.2 ng/ml) was detected in 46 % of samples (n = 6); and MTs (10,900 ± 9,400 ng/ml) were detected in 92 % of samples (n = 12). In caudal scutes samples, Cd (31.7 ± 39.4 ng/g) was detected in 84 % of samples (n = 12) and Hg (374.1 ± 429.4 ng/g) in 83 % of samples (n = 20). No MTs were detected in caudal scutes. Hg concentrations in scutes from the Rio Hondo were 2- to 5-fold greater than those previously reported in scutes from other localities in northern Belize. In blood plasma, a significant positive relationship between Hg and body size was observed. Mean concentrations of Cd and MTs in size classes suggest that MTs may be related to Cd exposure. This is the first report of MT presence in crocodile blood.

  8. The Functions of Metallothionein and ZIP and ZnT Transporters: An Overview and Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tomoki; Kambe, Taiho

    2016-01-01

    Around 3000 proteins are thought to bind zinc in vivo, which corresponds to ~10% of the human proteome. Zinc plays a pivotal role as a structural, catalytic, and signaling component that functions in numerous physiological processes. It is more widely used as a structural element in proteins than any other transition metal ion, is a catalytic component of many enzymes, and acts as a cellular signaling mediator. Thus, it is expected that zinc metabolism and homeostasis have sophisticated regulation, and elucidating the underlying molecular basis of this is essential to understanding zinc functions in cellular physiology and pathogenesis. In recent decades, an increasing amount of evidence has uncovered critical roles of a number of proteins in zinc metabolism and homeostasis through influxing, chelating, sequestrating, coordinating, releasing, and effluxing zinc. Metallothioneins (MT) and Zrt- and Irt-like proteins (ZIP) and Zn transporters (ZnT) are the proteins primarily involved in these processes, and their malfunction has been implicated in a number of inherited diseases such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. The present review updates our current understanding of the biological functions of MTs and ZIP and ZnT transporters from several new perspectives. PMID:26959009

  9. Cadmium accumulation and metallothionein biosynthesis in cadmium-treated freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongquan; Yang, Huizhen; Liu, Na; Luo, Jixian; Wang, Qian; Wang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of cadmium (Cd) and the protein level of metallothionein (MT) and examined the relationship of Cd accumulation and the MT concentration in different tissues of freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana following Cd treatment. The mussels were exposed to Cd (4.21, 8.43, 16.86, 33.72 and 67.45 mg L-1) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. After Cd treatment, the gills, mantle, foot, visceral mass and digestive gland tissues were collected for analysis. We found that, in the controls, Cd distributed in all tissues in the concentration order of gills>mantle>foot>visceral mass>digestive gland. Upon Cd treatment, Cd concentration significantly increased in all tissues. The highest Cd accumulation was found in the digestive gland, which was 0.142 mg g-1 (P<0.05). MT levels in the gills and mantle of the mussels increased significantly (P<0.05), which were in positive correlation with Cd accumulation in the tissues (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results demonstrated a correlation between Cd accumulation and MT up-regulation in gills and mantle of the mussels after Cd treatment. It is suggested that the protein level of MT in gills and mantle of Anodonta woodiana is a good biomarker for Cd contamination.

  10. Cadmium Accumulation and Metallothionein Biosynthesis in Cadmium-Treated Freshwater Mussel Anodonta woodiana

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongquan; Yang, Huizhen; Liu, Na; Luo, Jixian; Wang, Qian; Wang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of cadmium (Cd) and the protein level of metallothionein (MT) and examined the relationship of Cd accumulation and the MT concentration in different tissues of freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana following Cd treatment. The mussels were exposed to Cd (4.21, 8.43, 16.86, 33.72 and 67.45 mg L-1) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. After Cd treatment, the gills, mantle, foot, visceral mass and digestive gland tissues were collected for analysis. We found that, in the controls, Cd distributed in all tissues in the concentration order of gills>mantle>foot>visceral mass>digestive gland. Upon Cd treatment, Cd concentration significantly increased in all tissues. The highest Cd accumulation was found in the digestive gland, which was 0.142 mg g-1 (P<0.05). MT levels in the gills and mantle of the mussels increased significantly (P<0.05), which were in positive correlation with Cd accumulation in the tissues (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results demonstrated a correlation between Cd accumulation and MT up-regulation in gills and mantle of the mussels after Cd treatment. It is suggested that the protein level of MT in gills and mantle of Anodonta woodiana is a good biomarker for Cd contamination. PMID:25647043

  11. Metallothionein response to stress in rats: role in free radical scavenging.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, J; Campmany, L; Borras, M; Garvey, J S; Armario, A

    1988-10-01

    The possibility that liver metallothionein (MT) can function as an antioxidant in vivo has been studied in the rat. It was found that the stress of food and water deprivation with or without physical immobilization consistently increased liver lipid peroxidation (LLP), suggesting that liver MT induction by stress might be related to the stress-induced LLP. This was supported by results with the lipid peroxidation promoter dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and the natural antioxidant vitamin E. Whereas DMSO administration increased LLP levels in basal and stress situations, vitamin E decreased them. Liver MT levels were increased by DMSO in basal and stress situations, whereas they were decreased by vitamin E during stress. These in vivo results are consistent with an antioxidant role of liver MT suggested by previous in vitro results. However, liver MT preinduction by Zn treatment did not result in a lower MT response to stress. Instead a positive synergistic effect between Zn and stress appeared to be present. This result indicates that the mechanism of action of MT as antioxidant remains unclear.

  12. Protective Effects of Metallothionein on Isoniazid and Rifampicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peiyu; Wang, Yimei; Zhao, Jun; Jia, Li; Fu, Ze; Jing, Li; Liu, Gang; Peng, Shuangqing

    2013-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RFP) are widely used in the world for the treatment of tuberculosis, but the hepatotoxicity is a major concern during clinical therapy. Previous studies showed that these drugs induced oxidative stress in liver, and several antioxidants abated this effect. Metallothionein (MT), a member of cysteine-rich protein, has been proposed as a potent antioxidant. This study attempts to determine whether endogenous expression of MT protects against INH and RFP-induced hepatic oxidative stress in mice. Wild type (MT+/+) and MT-null (MT−/−) mice were treated intragastrically with INH (150 mg/kg), RFP (300 mg/kg), or the combination (150 mg/kg INH +300 mg/kg RFP) for 21 days. The results showed that MT−/− mice were more sensitive than MT+/+ mice to INH and RFP-induced hepatic injuries as evidenced by hepatic histopathological alterations, increased serum AST levels and liver index, and hepatic oxidative stress as evidenced by the increase of MDA production and the change of liver antioxidant status. Furthermore, INH increased the protein expression of hepatic CYP2E1 and INH/RFP (alone or in combination) decreased the expression of hepatic CYP1A2. These findings clearly demonstrate that basal MT provides protection against INH and RFP-induced toxicity in hepatocytes. The CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 were involved in the pathogenesis of INH and RFP-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:23967274

  13. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Yu; Ma, Yanhua; Zhuo, Renying; Jin, Liang

    2011-12-01

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhiza affects nickel translocation and expression of ABC transporter and metallothionein genes in Festuca arundinacea.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Leila; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Mostafavi pour, Sodabeh

    2016-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are key microorganisms for enhancing phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. In this study, the effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae (=Glomus mosseae) on physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in the nickel (Ni) tolerance of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea = Schedonorus arundinaceus) were investigated. Nickel addition had a pronounced negative effect on tall fescue growth and photosynthetic pigment contents, as well as on AMF colonization. Phosphorus content increased markedly in mycorrhizal plants (M) compared to non-inoculated (NM) ones. However, no significant difference was observed in root carbohydrate content between AMF-inoculated and non-inoculated plants. For both M and NM plants, Ni concentrations in shoots and roots increased according to the addition of the metal into soil, but inoculation with F. mosseae led to significantly lower Ni translocation from roots to the aboveground parts compared to non-inoculated plants. ABC transporter and metallothionein transcripts accumulated to considerably higher levels in tall fescue plants colonized by F. mosseae than in the corresponding non-mycorrhizal plants. These results highlight the importance of mycorrhizal colonization in alleviating Ni-induced stress by reducing Ni transport from roots to shoots of tall fescue plants.

  15. Metallothionein in the central nervous system: roles in protection, regeneration and cognition

    PubMed Central

    West, Adrian K.; Hidalgo, Juan; Eddins, Donnie; Levin, Edward D.; Aschner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is an enigmatic protein, and its physiological role remains a matter of intense study and debate fifty years after its discovery. This is particularly true of its function in the central nervous system (CNS), where the challenge remains to link its known biochemical properties of metal binding and free radical scavenging to the intricate workings of brain. In this compilation of four reports, first delivered at the 11th International Neurotoxicology Association (INA-11) meeting, June 2007, the authors present the work of their laboratories, each of which gives an important insight into the actions of MT in the brain. What emerges is that MT has the potential to contribute to a variety of processes, including neuroprotection, regeneration, and even cognitive functions. In this article, the properties and CNS expression of MT are briefly reviewed before Dr Juan Hidalgo describes his pioneering work using transgenic models of MT expression to demonstrate how this protein plays a major role in the defence of the CNS against neurodegenerative disorders and other CNS injuries. His group’s work leads to two further questions, what are the mechanisms at the cellular level by which MT acts, and does this protein influence higher order issues of architecture and cognition. These topics are addressed in the second and third sections of this review by Dr Adrian West, and Drs Edward Levin and Donnie Eddins, respectively. Finally, Dr Michael Aschner examines the ability of MT to protect against a specific toxicant, methymercury, in the CNS. PMID:18313142

  16. Arabidopsis thaliana—Aphid Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Joe; Singh, Vijay; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are important pests of plants that use their stylets to tap into the sieve elements to consume phloem sap. Besides the removal of photosynthates, aphid infestation also alters source-sink patterns. Most aphids also vector viral diseases. In this chapter, we will summarize on recent significant findings in plant-aphid interaction, and how studies involving Arabidopsis thaliana and Myzus persicae (Sülzer), more commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), are beginning to provide important insights into the molecular basis of plant defense and susceptibility to aphids. The recent demonstration that expression of dsRNA in Arabidopsis can be used to silence expression of genes in GPA has further expanded the utility of Arabidopsis for evaluating the contribution of the aphid genome-encoded proteins to this interaction. PMID:22666177

  17. Survival, growth, metallothionein and glycogen levels of Nucella lapillus (L.) exposed to subchronic cadmium stress: the influence of nutritional state and prey type.

    PubMed

    Leung, K M; Furness, R W

    2001-08-01

    Dogwhelks Nucella lapillus feed mainly on mussels and barnacles, and may experience periods of starvation. We report effects of nutritional state and prey type on the survival, growth, cadmium (Cd) accumulation, metallothionein (MT) induction and glycogen stores in N. lapillus exposed to Cd in water. Adult dogwhelks, with similar shell length (30.0+/-1.5 mm), were either starved or fed to satiation with barnacles Semibalanus balanoides, mussels Mytilus edulis or Cd-dosed M. edulis, and kept in filtered natural seawater (< 0.01 microg Cd 1(-1)) or Cd-contaminated (400 microg Cd 1(-1)) seawater for 80 days. Mortality and individual growth rate were determined. Cd, MT and glycogen were measured in different tissues. Prolonged starvation and exposure to Cd significantly reduced the survivorship of N. lapillus, but feeding could help dogwhelks to combat Cd toxicity and minimise mortality. Extended starvation also caused tissue wastage, leading to higher concentrations of Cd and MT in tissues, whereas fed animals increased in weight and had lower Cd and MT concentrations because of the tissue dilution effect. Prey type significantly affected growth rate of dogwhelks and indirectly influenced Cd accumulation, MT induction and glycogen stores. Eating mussels promoted better growth and higher glycogen reserves than eating barnacles. Individual growth rate decreased with increasing Cd accumulation. Cd-exposed survivors grew faster and consumed more than control animals, implying that these survivors may have better fitness and greater tolerance to Cd toxicity. The use of growth, condition index, MT and glycogen as biomarkers of environmental pollution are discussed. These results indicate a need to incorporate biological data including growth (or at least condition index) and prey type into biomonitoring programmes to allow sound interpretation.

  18. Phenotypic consequences of aneuploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle M; Dilkes, Brian P; Miller, Eric S; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Comai, Luca

    2010-12-01

    Aneuploid cells are characterized by incomplete chromosome sets. The resulting imbalance in gene dosage has phenotypic consequences that are specific to each karyotype. Even in the case of Down syndrome, the most viable and studied form of human aneuploidy, the mechanisms underlying the connected phenotypes remain mostly unclear. Because of their tolerance to aneuploidy, plants provide a powerful system for a genome-wide investigation of aneuploid syndromes, an approach that is not feasible in animal systems. Indeed, in many plant species, populations of aneuploid individuals can be easily obtained from triploid individuals. We phenotyped a population of Arabidopsis thaliana aneuploid individuals containing 25 different karyotypes. Even in this highly heterogeneous population, we demonstrate that certain traits are strongly associated with the dosage of specific chromosome types and that chromosomal effects can be additive. Further, we identified subtle developmental phenotypes expressed in the diploid progeny of aneuploid parent(s) but not in euploid controls from diploid lineages. These results indicate long-term phenotypic consequences of aneuploidy that can persist after chromosomal balance has been restored. We verified the diploid nature of these individuals by whole-genome sequencing and discuss the possibility that trans-generational phenotypic effects stem from epigenetic modifications passed from aneuploid parents to their diploid progeny.

  19. Phenotypic Consequences of Aneuploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Isabelle M.; Dilkes, Brian P.; Miller, Eric S.; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Comai, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Aneuploid cells are characterized by incomplete chromosome sets. The resulting imbalance in gene dosage has phenotypic consequences that are specific to each karyotype. Even in the case of Down syndrome, the most viable and studied form of human aneuploidy, the mechanisms underlying the connected phenotypes remain mostly unclear. Because of their tolerance to aneuploidy, plants provide a powerful system for a genome-wide investigation of aneuploid syndromes, an approach that is not feasible in animal systems. Indeed, in many plant species, populations of aneuploid individuals can be easily obtained from triploid individuals. We phenotyped a population of Arabidopsis thaliana aneuploid individuals containing 25 different karyotypes. Even in this highly heterogeneous population, we demonstrate that certain traits are strongly associated with the dosage of specific chromosome types and that chromosomal effects can be additive. Further, we identified subtle developmental phenotypes expressed in the diploid progeny of aneuploid parent(s) but not in euploid controls from diploid lineages. These results indicate long-term phenotypic consequences of aneuploidy that can persist after chromosomal balance has been restored. We verified the diploid nature of these individuals by whole-genome sequencing and discuss the possibility that trans-generational phenotypic effects stem from epigenetic modifications passed from aneuploid parents to their diploid progeny. PMID:20876566

  20. Isolation and characterization of a novel copper-inducible metallothionein gene of a ciliate, Tetrahymena tropicalis lahorensis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Raheela; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2010-06-01

    The two isoforms of copper metallothionein (CuMT) gene of a copper resistant ciliate, Tetrahymena tropicalis lahorensis (Ttl), have been isolated and characterized. The molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of cDNAs coding for the two CuMT isoforms revealed that TtlCuMT1 gene has 300, while TtlCuMT2 has 327 nucleotides, both with ATG as the initiation codon and TGA as the translational termination codon. TAG codes for glutamine in TtlCuMT2 gene which is peculiar to Tetrahymena. The deduced or translated TtlCuMT1 and TtlCuMT2 peptide sequences contain 100 and 108 amino acid residues including 28 and 32 cysteine residues, respectively. The amino acid sequences of TtlCuMT1 and TtlCuMT2 have special features of two and three CXCXXCXCXXCXC intragenic tandem repeats with a conserved structural pattern of cysteine, respectively. The predicted tertiary structures of these two isoforms indicate two domains. Domain I and the initial part of domain II showed >98% homology with other Tetrahymena CuMT. On the basis of the differences in the domain II, the metallothionein subfamily 7b can be divided into two groups, one (TtlCuMT1) comprising >100 amino acids and the other (TtlCuMT2) comprising <100 amino acids. This is a novel finding of the present study as no such report on this type of classification exists at the moment. TtlCuMT1 has 95%, while TtlCuMT2 has 97% resemblance with the previously reported CuMT genes of Tetrahymena spp. SDS-PAGE analysis using fluorescent probe as well as coomassie brilliant blue staining also confirmed the presence of metallothionein. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Jóźwiak, Paweł; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Bryś, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved, small molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and protection against cytotoxicity of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the − 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs28366003) in core promoter region and expression of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene and metal concentration in prostate cancer tissues. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP) using 412 prostate cancer tissue samples. MT2A gene expression analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR method. A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level was found. The average mRNA level was found to be lower among minor allele carriers (the risk allele) than average expression among homozygotes for the major allele. Metal levels were analyzed by flamed atomic absorption spectrometer system. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that the expressions of MT2A and Cu, Pb and Ni concentrations were negatively correlated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we suggest that SNP polymorphism may affect the MT2A gene expression in prostate and this is associated with some metal accumulation. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cu, Pb and Ni levels.

  2. Cadmium induces alpha(1)collagen (I) and metallothionein II gene and alters the antioxidant system in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    del Carmen, Escobar Ma; Souza, Verónica; Bucio, Leticia; Hernández, Elizabeth; Damián-Matsumura, Pablo; Zaga, Verónica; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Ma Concepción

    2002-01-15

    The mechanism of cadmium-mediated hepatotoxicity has been the subject of numerous investigations, principally in hepatocytes. Although, some uncertainties persist, sufficient evidence has emerged to provide a reasonable account of the toxic process in parenchymal cells. However, there is no information about the effect of cadmium in other hepatic cell types, such as stellate cells (fat storing cells, Ito cells, perisinusoidal cells, parasinusoidal cells, lipocytes). Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) express a quiescent phenotype in a healthy liver and acquire an activated phenotype in liver injury. These cells play an important role in the fibrogenic process. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 24 h treatment of low Cd concentrations in glutathione content, lipid peroxidation damage, cytosolic free Ca, antioxidant enzyme activities: glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase along with the capacity of this heavy metal to induce metallothionein II and alpha(1)collagen (I) in an hepatic stellate cell line (CFSC-2G). Cd-treated cells increased lipid peroxidation and the content of cytosolic free calcium, decreased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. Cd was able to induce the expression of the metallothionein II and alpha(1)collagen (I) gene, that was not described in this cell type. Cadmium may act as a pro-fibrogenic agent in the liver probably by inducing oxidative damage by enhancing lipid peroxidation and altering the antioxidant system of the cells. Although, the exact role metallothionein induction plays in this process is unknown, it probably, provides a cytosolic pool of potential binding sites to sequester ionic Cd, thereby decreasing its toxicity.

  3. Multiple forms of metallothionein from the digestive gland of naturally occurring and cadmium-exposed mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanković, Dušica; Pavičić, Jasenka; Kozar, Sonja; Raspor, Biserka

    2002-06-01

    Polymorphism of metallothioneins in the digestive gland of naturally occurring (control) and experimentally Cd-exposed mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (200 µg Cd l-1; 14 days) was studied by applying the conventional methods of Sephadex column liquid chromatography (G-75 and DEAE A-25), and by an electrochemical method (DPASV) for determination of Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations in chromatographic fractions. In both control and Cd-exposed mussels, two distinct molecular mass components of the metallothioneins, monomeric (MT-10) and dimeric (MT-20), were resolved by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. In control mussels, the MT-10 component was predominantly expressed as containing markedly higher constitutive levels of Zn (100×) and Cu (10×) than of Cd. Each of these two molecular mass components was further resolved into seven metal-rich peaks by anion-exchange chromatography. In Cd-exposed mussels the larger proportion of Cd was bound to the MT-20 than to the MT-10 component, suggesting that the dimeric component may be considered as a primarily inducible metallothionein. The elution positions of metal-binding maxima of Cd-exposed and control mussels on the respective DEAE chromatographic profiles were comparable. A great similarity in elution positions of Cd maxima between the composite and single-specimen samples was also observed. Our study confirms a high multiplicity of MT forms in mussels from the Mytilus genus not only under the laboratory high-level metal exposure conditions, but also at a natural seawater metal exposure level. The ecotoxicological significance of dimeric and monomeric MT forms, as well as their possible application in the biomonitoring of seawater for trace metals, has been considered.

  4. Handling Arabidopsis plants: growth, preservation of seeds, transformation, and genetic crosses.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Luz; Scholl, Randy; Holomuzki, Nicholas; Crist, Deborah; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Growing healthy plants is essential for the advancement of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) research. Over the last 20 years, the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC) has collected and developed a series of best-practice protocols, some of which are presented in this chapter. Arabidopsis can be grown in a variety of locations, growth media, and environmental conditions. Most laboratory accessions and their mutant or transgenic derivatives flower after 4-5 weeks and set seeds after 7-8 weeks, under standard growth conditions (soil, long day, 23 ºC). Some mutant genotypes, natural accessions, and Arabidopsis relatives require strict control of growth conditions best provided by growth rooms, chambers, or incubators. Other lines can be grown in less-controlled greenhouse settings. Although the majority of lines can be grown in soil, certain experimental purposes require utilization of sterile solid or liquid growth media. These include the selection of primary transformants, identification of homozygous lethal individuals in a segregating population, or bulking of a large amount of plant material. The importance of controlling, observing, and recording growth conditions is emphasized and appropriate equipment required to perform monitoring of these conditions is listed. Proper conditions for seed harvesting and preservation, as well as seed quality control, are also described. Plant transformation and genetic crosses, two of the methods that revolutionized Arabidopsis genetics, are introduced as well.

  5. Araport: the Arabidopsis information portal.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Vivek; Hanlon, Matthew R; Contrino, Sergio; Ferlanti, Erik S; Karamycheva, Svetlana; Kim, Maria; Rosen, Benjamin D; Cheng, Chia-Yi; Moreira, Walter; Mock, Stephen A; Stubbs, Joseph; Sullivan, Julie M; Krampis, Konstantinos; Miller, Jason R; Micklem, Gos; Vaughn, Matthew; Town, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis Information Portal (https://www.araport.org) is a new online resource for plant biology research. It houses the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence and associated annotation. It was conceived as a framework that allows the research community to develop and release 'modules' that integrate, analyze and visualize Arabidopsis data that may reside at remote sites. The current implementation provides an indexed database of core genomic information. These data are made available through feature-rich web applications that provide search, data mining, and genome browser functionality, and also by bulk download and web services. Araport uses software from the InterMine and JBrowse projects to expose curated data from TAIR, GO, BAR, EBI, UniProt, PubMed and EPIC CoGe. The site also hosts 'science apps,' developed as prototypes for community modules that use dynamic web pages to present data obtained on-demand from third-party servers via RESTful web services. Designed for sustainability, the Arabidopsis Information Portal strategy exploits existing scientific computing infrastructure, adopts a practical mixture of data integration technologies and encourages collaborative enhancement of the resource by its user community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Araport: the Arabidopsis Information Portal

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, Vivek; Hanlon, Matthew R.; Contrino, Sergio; Ferlanti, Erik S.; Karamycheva, Svetlana; Kim, Maria; Rosen, Benjamin D.; Cheng, Chia-Yi; Moreira, Walter; Mock, Stephen A.; Stubbs, Joseph; Sullivan, Julie M.; Krampis, Konstantinos; Miller, Jason R.; Micklem, Gos; Vaughn, Matthew; Town, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis Information Portal (https://www.araport.org) is a new online resource for plant biology research. It houses the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence and associated annotation. It was conceived as a framework that allows the research community to develop and release ‘modules’ that integrate, analyze and visualize Arabidopsis data that may reside at remote sites. The current implementation provides an indexed database of core genomic information. These data are made available through feature-rich web applications that provide search, data mining, and genome browser functionality, and also by bulk download and web services. Araport uses software from the InterMine and JBrowse projects to expose curated data from TAIR, GO, BAR, EBI, UniProt, PubMed and EPIC CoGe. The site also hosts ‘science apps,’ developed as prototypes for community modules that use dynamic web pages to present data obtained on-demand from third-party servers via RESTful web services. Designed for sustainability, the Arabidopsis Information Portal strategy exploits existing scientific computing infrastructure, adopts a practical mixture of data integration technologies and encourages collaborative enhancement of the resource by its user community. PMID:25414324

  7. Systemic endopolyploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, D.W.; Harkins, K.R. ); Knapp, S. )

    1991-07-01

    Microfluorometric analysis of the nuclear DNA contents of the somatic tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana has revealed extensive endoreduplication, resulting in tissues that comprise mixtures of polypoloid cells. Endoreduplication was found in all tissues except those of the inflorescences and was developmentally regulated according to the age of the tissues and their position within the plant.

  8. The salty tale of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sanders, D

    2000-06-29

    High concentrations of sodium chloride are toxic to most plant species. New insights into the mechanisms by which plants tolerate salt have emerged from the identification of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana that play a critical part in physiological resistance to salt.

  9. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Christopher M.; Chapple, Clint

    2011-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway serves as a rich source of metabolites in plants, being required for the biosynthesis of lignin, and serving as a starting point for the production of many other important compounds, such as the flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans. In spite of the fact that the phenylpropanoids and their derivatives are sometimes classified as secondary metabolites, their relevance to plant survival has been made clear via the study of Arabidopsis and other plant species. As a model system, Arabidopsis has helped to elucidate many details of the phenylpropanoid pathway, its enzymes and intermediates, and the interconnectedness of the pathway with plant metabolism as a whole. These advances in our understanding have been made possible in large part by the relative ease with which mutations can be generated, identified, and studied in Arabidopsis. Herein, we provide an overview of the research progress that has been made in recent years, emphasizing both the genes (and gene families) associated with the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis, and the end products that have contributed to the identification of many mutants deficient in the phenylpropanoid metabolism: the sinapate esters. PMID:22303276

  10. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas. PMID:20862200

  11. Effect of chronic non-lethal doses of non-metals and metals on hepatic metallothionein in Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Dalal, R; Bhattacharya, S

    1991-07-01

    Compared to non-metal toxicants (ammonia, 1.56 ppm; and phenol, 10 ppm), the metals (CdCl2, 30 ppm; HgCl2, 16.7 ppb; and ZnCl2, 6 ppm) significantly induced hepatic metallothionein (MT) concentrations in C. punctatus, exposed independently to non-lethal doses of these toxicants for 28 days. It is suggested that hepatic MT serves as a metal-sequestering protein and is involved in the detoxication of metals only and ensures protection from toxic chemicals in ambience.

  12. Occurrence of metallothionein gene smtA in synechococcus Tx-20 and other blue-green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, N.J.; Gupta, A.; Huckle, J.W.; Jackson, P.; Whitton, B.A. )

    1990-06-01

    Blue-green algae are often abundant at Zn- and Cd-contaminated sites. In order to understand the mechanisms associated with Zn- and Cd-tolerance, we have isolated a metallothionein gene, designated smtA, in Synechococcus Tx-20 (- Pcc 6301 - Anacystis nidulans), a strain apparently obtained from an unpolluted site. The gene was cloned and sequenced, and its expression investigated in a range of heavy-metal-tolerant strains of the same organism obtained by stepwise adaptation. The polymerase chain reaction was used to probe for the possible presence of the homologous gene in a range of other strains (especially Synechococcus) isolated from sites without and with heavy metal contamination.

  13. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas.

  14. Effect of Maotai liquor in inducing metallothioneins and on hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming-Liang; Wu, Jun; Wang, Hai-Qin; Xue, Lie-Ming; Tan, Ying-Zhi; Ping, Liu; Li, Cheng-Xiu; Huang, Neng-Hui; Yao, Yu-Mei; Ren, Lan-Zheng; Ye, Lan; Li, Ling; Jia, Mei-Lin

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possible mechanism why drinking Maotai liquor dose not cause hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: After being fed with Maotai for 56 days consecutively, the male SD rats were decollated for detecting the biological indexes, and the livers were harvested to examine the liver indexes and the level of hepatic metallothioneins (MT). Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) proliferation and collagen generation were also observed. RESULTS: Hepatic MT contents were 216.0 ng·g-1 ± 10.8 ng·g-1 in the rats of Maotai group and 10.0 ng·g-1 ± 2.8 ng·g-1 in the normal control group, which was increased obviously in Maotain group (P < 0.05). In the rats with grade CCL2 poisoning induced by Maotai, hepatic MT content was 304.8 ng·g-1 ± 12.1 ng·g-1 whereas in the controls with grade CCL4 poisoning, it was 126.4 ng·g-1 ± 4.8 ng·g-1 (P < 0.05). MDA was 102.0 nmol·g-1 ± 3.4 nmol·g-1 in Maotai group and 150.8 nmol·g-1 ± 6.7 nmol·g-1 in the control group (P < 0.05). When both of the groups were suffering from grade CCL4 poisoning, hepatic MT contents was negatively correlated with MDA (r = -0.8023, n = 20, P < 0.01). The 570 nmA values of each tube with HSC regeneration at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 g·L-1 of Maotai were 0.818, 0.742, 0.736, 0.72, 0.682, and 0.604, respectively. From the concentration of 10 g·L-1, Maotai began to show obvious inhibitory effects against HSC, and the inhibition was concentration-dependent (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Type I collagen contents in HSC were 61.4, 59.9, 50.1, 49.2, 48.7, 34.4 μg·g-1 at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 g·L-1 of Maotai. At the concentration of 100-200 g·L-1, Maotai had obvious inhibitory effect against the secretion of type I collagen (P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis was conducted on cells with Maotai concentrations of 0, 50, 100 g·L-1 respectively and the ash values of β-actin gene expression were 0.88, 0.74, and 0.59, respectively, suggesting that at the concentration of 100 g·L-1

  15. A reference map of the Arabidopsis thaliana mature pollen proteome

    SciTech Connect

    Noir, Sandra; Braeutigam, Anne; Colby, Thomas; Schmidt, Juergen; Panstruga, Ralph . E-mail: panstrug@mpiz-koeln.mpg.de

    2005-12-02

    The male gametophyte (or pollen) plays an obligatory role during sexual reproduction of higher plants. The extremely reduced complexity of this organ renders pollen a valuable experimental system for studying fundamental aspects of plant biology such as cell fate determination, cell-cell interactions, cell polarity, and tip-growth. Here, we present the first reference map of the mature pollen proteome of the dicotyledonous model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight, and electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we reproducibly identified 121 different proteins in 145 individual spots. The presence, subcellular localization, and functional classification of the identified proteins are discussed in relation to the pollen transcriptome and the full protein complement encoded by the nuclear Arabidopsis genome.

  16. Functional overlap of the Arabidopsis leaf and root microbiota.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Müller, Daniel B; Srinivas, Girish; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Potthoff, Eva; Rott, Matthias; Dombrowski, Nina; Münch, Philipp C; Spaepen, Stijn; Remus-Emsermann, Mitja; Hüttel, Bruno; McHardy, Alice C; Vorholt, Julia A; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-12-17

    Roots and leaves of healthy plants host taxonomically structured bacterial assemblies, and members of these communities contribute to plant growth and health. We established Arabidopsis leaf- and root-derived microbiota culture collections representing the majority of bacterial species that are reproducibly detectable by culture-independent community sequencing. We found an extensive taxonomic overlap between the leaf and root microbiota. Genome drafts of 400 isolates revealed a large overlap of genome-encoded functional capabilities between leaf- and root-derived bacteria with few significant differences at the level of individual functional categories. Using defined bacterial communities and a gnotobiotic Arabidopsis plant system we show that the isolates form assemblies resembling natural microbiota on their cognate host organs, but are also capable of ectopic leaf or root colonization. While this raises the possibility of reciprocal relocation between root and leaf microbiota members, genome information and recolonization experiments also provide evidence for microbiota specialization to their respective niche.

  17. Analysis of the Small GTPase Gene Superfamily of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Vernoud, Vanessa; Horton, Amy C.; Yang, Zhenbiao; Nielsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Small GTP-binding proteins regulate diverse processes in eukaryotic cells such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and intracellular membrane trafficking. These proteins function as molecular switches that cycle between “active” and “inactive” states, and this cycle is linked to the binding and hydrolysis of GTP. The Arabidopsis genome contains 93 genes that encode small GTP-binding protein homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes shows that plants contain Rab, Rho, Arf, and Ran GTPases, but no Ras GTPases. We have assembled complete lists of these small GTPases families, as well as accessory proteins that control their activity, and review what is known of the functions of individual members of these families in Arabidopsis. We also discuss the possible roles of these GTPases in relation to their similarity to orthologs with known functions and localizations in yeast and/or animal systems. PMID:12644670

  18. Identification and characterization of a recombinant metallothionein protein from a marine alga, Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, C A; Nicolaus, B; Sampson, V; Harwood, J L; Kille, P

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed from macroalgae adapted to prolonged elevated environmental copper levels. To investigate the possible existence of a metallothionein (MT) gene, the library was screened with degenerate probes designed using plant MT cysteine-rich motifs. A gene was identified (1229 bp) with a putative open reading frame (204 bp) encoding a 67-amino-acid protein exhibiting several characteristic features of MT proteins, including 16 cysteine residues (24%) and only one aromatic residue. Although the protein sequence showed high identity with plant and invertebrate MTs, it contained a unique 'linker' region (14 amino acid residues) between the two putative metal-binding domains which contained no cysteine residues. This extended linker is larger than the tripeptide found in archetypal vertebrate MTs, but does not conform either with the 40-amino-acid linkers commonly found in plant MT sequences. An S-peptide Fucus MT fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited a relative molecular mass of approximately 14 kDa. The recombinant fusion bound seven Cd ions, of which 50% were dissociated at pH 4.1. Under anaerobic conditions, the Cd ions were displaced by Cu(I), which associated with the protein at a ratio of 13:1. Laboratory exposure of F. vesiculosus to elevated copper resulted in induction of the MT gene. Thus this paper describes, for the first time, an MT gene identified from macroalgae which is induced by copper exposure and whose encoded protein product binds cadmium and copper. PMID:10024535

  19. Metallothionein-like proteins in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus: effect of water salinity and ions.

    PubMed

    De Martinez Gaspar Martins, Camila; Bianchini, Adalto

    2009-03-01

    The effect of water salinity and ions on metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) concentration was evaluated in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. MTLP concentration was measured in tissues (hepatopancreas and gills) of crabs acclimated to salinity 30 ppt and abruptly subjected to a hypo-osmotic shock (salinity 2 ppt). It was also measured in isolated gills (anterior and posterior) of crabs acclimated to salinity 30 ppt. Gills were perfused with and incubated in an isosmotic saline solution (ISS) or perfused with ISS and incubated in a hypo-osmotic saline solution (HSS). The effect of each single water ion on gill MTLP concentration was also analyzed in isolated and perfused gills through experiments of ion substitution in the incubation medium. In vivo, MTLP concentration was higher in hepatopancreas than in gills, being not affected by the hypo-osmotic shock. However, MTLP concentration in posterior and anterior gills significantly increased after 2 and 24 h of hypo-osmotic shock, respectively. In vitro, it was also increased when anterior and posterior gills were perfused with ISS and incubated in HSS. In isolated and perfused posterior gills, MTLP concentration was inversely correlated with the calcium concentration in the ISS used to incubate gills. Together, these findings indicate that an increased gill MTLP concentration in low salinity is an adaptive response of the blue crab C. sapidus to the hypo-osmotic stress. This response is mediated, at least in part, by the calcium concentration in the gill bath medium. The data also suggest that the trigger for this increase is purely branchial and not systemic.

  20. Metallothionein-3 regulates lysosomal function in cultured astrocytes under both normal and oxidative conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Jeong; Park, Mi-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Jae; Koh, Jae-Young

    2010-08-01

    Cellular zinc plays a key role in lysosomal change and cell death in neurons and astrocytes under oxidative stress. Here, using astrocytes lacking metallothionein-3 (MT3), a potential source of labile zinc in the brain, we studied the role of MT3 in oxidative stress responses. H(2)O(2) induced a large increase in labile zinc in wild-type (WT) astrocytes, but stimulated only a modest rise in MT3-null astrocytes. In addition, H(2)O(2)-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cell death were comparably attenuated in MT3-null astrocytes. Expression and glycosylation of Lamp1 (lysosome-associated membrane protein 1) and Lamp2 were increased in MT3-null astrocytes, and the activities of several lysosomal enzymes were significantly reduced, indicating an effect of MT3 on lysosomal components. Consistent with lysosomal dysfunction in MT3-null cells, the level of LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3), a marker of early autophagy, was increased by oxidative stress in WT astrocytes, but not in MT3-null cells. Similar changes in Lamp1, LC3, and cathepsin-D were induced by the lysosomal inhibitors bafilomycin A1, chloroquine, and monensin, indicating that lysosomal dysfunction may lie upstream of changes observed in MT3-null astrocytes. Consistent with this idea, lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and lipofuscin were augmented in MT3-null astrocytes. Similar to the results seen in MT3-null cells, MT3 knockdown by siRNA inhibited oxidative stress-induced increases in zinc and LMP. These results indicate that MT3 may play a key role in normal lysosomal function in cultured astrocytes.

  1. Identification of two metallothioneins as novel inhalative coffee allergens cof a 2 and cof a 3.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ulrike; Frenzel, Karsten; Brettschneider, Reinhold; Oldenburg, Marcus; Bittner, Cordula

    2015-01-01

    Dust of green coffee beans is known to be a relevant cause for occupational allergic disorders in coffee industry workers. Recently, we described the first coffee allergen (Cof a 1) establishing an allergenic potential of green coffee dust. Our aim was to identify allergenic components of green coffee in order to enhance inhalative coffee allergy diagnosis. A Coffea arabica pJuFo cDNA phage display library was created and screened for IgE binding with sera from allergic coffee workers. Two further coffee allergens were identified by sequence analysis, expressed in E. coli, and evaluated by Western blots. The prevalence of sensitization to recombinant Cof a 1, Cof a 2, and Cof a 3 and to commercially available extract was investigated by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) respectively CAP (capacity test) screening in 18 sera of symptomatic coffee workers. In addition to the previously described chitinase Cof a 1, two Coffea arabica cysteine-rich metallothioneins of 9 and 7 kDa were identified and included in the IUIS Allergen Nomenclature as Cof a 2 and Cof a 3. Serum IgE antibodies to at least one of the recombinant allergens were found in 8 out of 18 symptomatic coffee workers (44%). Only 2 of the analysed sera (11%) had reacted previously to the commercial allergy test. In addition to the previously described Cof a 1 we have identified two further coffee proteins to be type I coffee allergens (Cof a 2 and Cof a 3) which may have a relevant potential for the specific diagnosis and/or therapy of coffee allergy.

  2. Identification of Two Metallothioneins as Novel Inhalative Coffee Allergens Cof a 2 and Cof a 3

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ulrike; Frenzel, Karsten; Brettschneider, Reinhold; Oldenburg, Marcus; Bittner, Cordula

    2015-01-01

    Background Dust of green coffee beans is known to be a relevant cause for occupational allergic disorders in coffee industry workers. Recently, we described the first coffee allergen (Cof a 1) establishing an allergenic potential of green coffee dust. Objective Our aim was to identify allergenic components of green coffee in order to enhance inhalative coffee allergy diagnosis. Methods A Coffea arabica pJuFo cDNA phage display library was created and screened for IgE binding with sera from allergic coffee workers. Two further coffee allergens were identified by sequence analysis, expressed in E. coli, and evaluated by Western blots. The prevalence of sensitization to recombinant Cof a 1, Cof a 2, and Cof a 3 and to commercially available extract was investigated by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) respectively CAP (capacity test) screening in 18 sera of symptomatic coffee workers. Results In addition to the previously described chitinase Cof a 1, two Coffea arabica cysteine-rich metallothioneins of 9 and 7 kDa were identified and included in the IUIS Allergen Nomenclature as Cof a 2 and Cof a 3. Serum IgE antibodies to at least one of the recombinant allergens were found in 8 out of 18 symptomatic coffee workers (44%). Only 2 of the analysed sera (11%) had reacted previously to the commercial allergy test. Conclusions In addition to the previously described Cof a 1 we have identified two further coffee proteins to be type I coffee allergens (Cof a 2 and Cof a 3) which may have a relevant potential for the specific diagnosis and/or therapy of coffee allergy. PMID:25962169

  3. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of zinc, cadmium, and copper metallothioneins: evidence for metal-binding cooperativity.

    PubMed Central

    Gehrig, P. M.; You, C.; Dallinger, R.; Gruber, C.; Brouwer, M.; Kägi, J. H.; Hunziker, P. E.

    2000-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra of both well-characterized and novel metallothioneins (MTs) from various species were recorded to explore their metal-ion-binding modes and stoichiometries. The ESI mass spectra of the zinc- and cadmium-binding MTs showed a single main peak corresponding to metal-to-protein ratios of 4, 6, or 7. These findings combined with data obtained by other methods suggest that these MTs bind zinc or cadmium in a single predominant form and are consistent with the presence of three- and four-metal clusters. An unstable copper-specific MT isoform from Roman snails (Helix pomatia) could be isolated intact and was shown to preferentially bind 12 copper ions. To obtain additional information on the formation and relative stability of metal-thiolate clusters in MTs, a mass spectrometric titration study was conducted. One to seven molar equivalents of zinc or of cadmium were added to metal-free human MT-2 at neutral pH, and the resulting complexes were measured by ESI mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed that the formation of the four-metal cluster and of the thermodynamically less stable three-metal cluster is sequential and largely cooperative for both zinc and cadmium. Minor intermediate forms between metal-free MT, Me4MT, and fully reconstituted Me7MT were also observed. The addition of increasing amounts of cadmium to metal-free blue crab MT-I resulted in prominent peaks whose masses were consistent with apoMT, Cd3MT, and Cd6MT, reflecting the known structure of this MT with two Me3Cys9 centers. In a similar reconstitution experiment performed with Caenorhabditis elegans MT-II, a series of signals corresponding to apoMT and Cd3MT to Cd6MT species were observed. PMID:10716192

  4. Metal accumulation and metallothionein induction in the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, G; Eyckmans, M; Lardon, I; Bobbaers, R; Sinha, A K; Blust, R

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that elasmobranch fish respond differently to metal exposure than marine teleosts. Accumulation rates can be high, which despite the fact that normal background levels for metals in the marine environment are low, is worrying due to the long life span and late fecundity of most shark. The goals of the present study were to examine differences in accumulation rates and toxicity of a range of metals at equimolar concentrations (10microM) in the Mediterranean or spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. For this purpose, we exposed the dogfish to Ni (587microg/L), Cd (1124microg/L), Pb (2072microg/L), Cu (635microg/L), and Ag (1079microg/L and two additional exposures at 10microg/L and 1microg/L) for one week and measured total metal accumulation, metallothionein induction, and parameters related to osmoregulation. Our study confirms the high toxicity and accumulation rates of Ag for elasmobranch fish, even at levels 100 to 1000 times lower than exposure levels of other metals. Also Pb accumulated readily in all organs, but did not cause any osmoregulatory disturbance at the exposure levels used. Ni and Cd seem to accumulate primarily in the kidney while Cu mainly accumulated in liver. In contrast to Ni and Cd, the three other metals Ag, Cu and Pb accumulated in the rectal gland, an important organ for osmoregulation and possible target organ for metal toxicity. Only Cu succeeded in initiating a protective response by inducing MT synthesis in liver and gills.

  5. Molecular evolution and functional divergence of the metallothionein gene family in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Serén, Nina; Glaberman, Scott; Carretero, Miguel A; Chiari, Ylenia

    2014-04-01

    The metallothionein (MT) gene superfamily consists of metal-binding proteins involved in various metal detoxification and storage mechanisms. The evolution of this gene family in vertebrates has mostly been studied in mammals using sparse taxon or gene sampling. Genomic databases and available data on MT protein function and expression allow a better understanding of the evolution and functional divergence of the different MT types. We recovered 77 MT coding sequences from 20 representative vertebrates with annotated complete genomes. We found multiple MT genes, also in reptiles, which were thought to have only one MT type. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicate the existence of a eutherian MT1 and MT2, a tetrapod MT3, an amniote MT4, and fish MT. The optimal gene-tree/species-tree reconciliation analyses identified the best root in the fish clade. Functional analyses reveal variation in hydropathic index among protein domains, likely correlated with their distinct flexibility and metal affinity. Analyses of functional divergence identified amino acid sites correlated with functional divergence among MT types. Uncovering the number of genes and sites possibly correlated with functional divergence will help to design cost-effective MT functional and gene expression studies. This will permit further understanding of the distinct roles and specificity of these proteins and to properly target specific MT for different types of functional studies. Therefore, this work presents a critical background on the molecular evolution and functional divergence of vertebrate MTs to carry out further detailed studies on the relationship between heavy metal metabolism and tolerances among vertebrates.

  6. Expression analysis of metallothioneins and mineral contents in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) under heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Kısa, Dursun; Öztürk, Lokman; Doker, Serhat; Gökçe, İsa

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals are considered to be the most important pollutants in the contamination of soils; they adversely affect plant growth and development and cause some physiological and molecular changes. The contamination of agricultural soils by heavy metals has changed the mineral element content of vegetables. Plant metallothioneins (MTs) are thought to have the functional role in heavy metal homeostasis, and they are used as the biomarkers for evaluating environmental pollution. We aimed to evaluate the expression of MT isoforms (MT1, 2, 3 and 4) and some mineral element composition of tomato roots, leaves and fruits exposed to copper and lead. Heavy metal applications increased MT1 and MT2 gene expressions compared to the control in the tissues of tomato. The highest level of MT1 and MT2 transcripts was found in roots and leaves, respectively. The expression of MT3 is induced in roots, leaves and fruits except for Pb treatment in roots. MT4 expression increased in fruits; however, other tissues did not show a clear change. Our results indicated that Cu content was higher than Pb in all tissues of tomato. The lower doses of Cu (10 ppm) increased the content of Mg, Fe, Ca and Mn in roots. Pb generally increased the level of minerals in leaves and fruits, but it decreased Mg, Mn and Fe contents in roots. Both heavy metals not only moved to aerial parts but also caused alterations to mineral element levels. These results show that MT transcripts are regulated by Cu and Pb, and expression pattern changes to MT isoforms and tissue types. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Metallothionein Blocks Oxidative DNA Damage Induced by Acute Inorganic Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Wei; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    We studied how the protein metallothionein (MT) impacts arsenic-induced oxidative DNA damage (ODD) using cells that poorly express MT (MT-I/II double knockout embryonic cells; called MT-null cells) and wild-type (WT) MT competent cells. Arsenic (as NaAsO2) was less cytolethal over 24 h in WT cells (LC50 = 11.0 ± 1.3 µM; mean ± SEM) than in MT-null cells (LC50 = 5.6 ± 1.2 µM). ODD was measured by the immuno-spin trapping method. Arsenic (1 or 5 µM; 24 h) induced much less ODD in WT cells (121% and 141% of control, respectively) than in MT-null cells (202% and 260%). In WT cells arsenic caused concentration-dependent increases in MT expression (transcript and protein), and in the metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), which is required to induce the MT gene. In contrast, basal MT levels were not detectable in MT-null cells and unaltered by arsenic exposure. Transfection of MT-I into the MT-null cells markedly reduced arsenic-induced ODD levels. The transport genes, Abcc1 and Abcc2 were increased by arsenic in WT cells but either showed no or very limited increases in MT-null cells. Arsenic caused increases in oxidant stress defense genes HO-1 and GSTa2 in both WT and MT-null cells, but to much higher levels in WT cells. WT cells appear more adept at activating metal transport systems and oxidant response genes, although the role of MT in these responses is unclear. Overall, MT protects against arsenic-induced ODD in MT competent cells by potentially sequestration of scavenging oxidant radicals and/or arsenic. PMID:25485709

  8. Production of hydroxyl radicals by copper-containing metallothionein: roles as prooxidant.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K T; Rui, M; Ueda, J; Ozawa, T

    1996-11-01

    Production of hydroxyl radicals by copper (Cu)-containing metallothionein (MT) and its relation to zinc (Zn) bound to MT were studied in vitro with reference to the mechanism of the Cu toxicity in the liver of LEC rats. Zn-MT prepared from the liver of Zn-injected rats was reacted with cupric ions at various Cu/Zn ratios, and the concentrations of the two metals bound to MT and in the solution, valence states of Cu in the solution, production of hydroxyl radicals were determined. Cupric ions replaced Zn in MT after being reduced by thiol groups, and MT, worked as an antioxidant. Cupric ions added to MT that did not contain Zn were reduced to cuprous ions by thiol groups in Cu-MT, and the Cu bound to MT was liberated in a form of cuprous ions. Hydroxyl radicals were produced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in proportion to the amount of cuprous ions liberated from MT. Cu-containing MT was proposed to work as a prooxidant until all thiol groups in MT were oxidized when Zn was not present in MT. The results indicate that MT works as an antioxidant as long as Zn is present in Cu-containing MT, while it works as a prooxidant when Zn is not present by liberating 1.5 M equivalents of cuprous ions relative to cupric ions added, and hydroxyl radicals are produced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, MT not bound by Cu does not work as a prooxidant throughout.

  9. Metallothionein Is Downstream of Nrf2 and Partially Mediates Sulforaphane Prevention of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junlian; Cheng, Yanli; Wu, Hao; Kong, Lili; Wang, Shudong; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Tan, Yi; Keller, Bradley B; Zhou, Honglan; Wang, Yuehui; Xu, Zhonggao; Cai, Lu

    2017-02-01

    We have reported that sulforaphane (SFN) prevented diabetic cardiomyopathy in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) animal models via the upregulation of nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and metallothionein (MT). In this study, we tested whether SFN protects the heart from T2DM directly through Nrf2, MT, or both. Using Nrf2-knockout (KO), MT-KO, and wild-type (WT) mice, T2DM was induced by feeding a high-fat diet for 3 months followed by a small dose of streptozotocin. Age-matched controls were given a normal diet. Both T2DM and control mice were then treated with or without SFN for 4 months by continually feeding a high-fat or normal diet. SFN prevented diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction as well as diabetes-associated cardiac oxidative damage, inflammation, fibrosis, and hypertrophy, with increases in Nrf2 and MT expressions in the WT mice. Both Nrf2-KO and MT-KO diabetic mice exhibited greater cardiac damage than WT diabetic mice. SFN did not provide cardiac protection in Nrf2-KO mice, but partially or completely protected the heart from diabetes in MT-KO mice. SFN did not induce MT expression in Nrf2-KO mice, but stimulated Nrf2 function in MT-KO mice. These results suggest that Nrf2 plays the indispensable role for SFN cardiac protection from T2DM with significant induction of MT and other antioxidants. MT expression induced by SFN is Nrf2 dependent, but is not indispensable for SFN-induced cardiac protection from T2DM.

  10. Zinc supplementation of young men alters metallothionein, zinc transporter, and cytokine gene expression in leukocyte populations

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Tolunay Beker; Blanchard, Raymond K.; Cousins, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    An effective measure to assess zinc status of humans has remained elusive, in contrast to iron, where a number of indicators of metabolism/function are available. Using monocytes, T lymphocytes, and granulocytes isolated by magnetic sorting and dried blood spots (DBS) derived from 50 μl of peripheral blood, we evaluated the response of metallothionein (MT), zinc transporter, and cytokine genes to a modest (15 mg of Zn per day) dietary zinc supplement in human subjects. Transcript abundance was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (QRT-PCR). Zinc supplementation increased MT mRNA abundance by up to 2-fold in RNA from leukocyte subsets, and 4-fold in RNA from DBS. Transcript levels for the zinc transporter genes ZnT1 and Zip3 were increased and decreased, respectively, by zinc supplementation. Expression of the ZnT and Zip genes among leukocyte subsets differ by up to 270-fold. Monocytes and granulocytes from supplemented subjects were activated by LPS, whereas T lymphocytes were activated by mimicking antigen presentation. With zinc consumption, TNF-α and IL-1β expression was greater in activated monocytes and granulocytes, and IFN-γ mRNA levels were higher in activated T lymphocytes. These studies show that QRT-PCR is a tool to reliably measure transcript abundance for nutritionally responsive genes in human subjects, and that a small sample of whole dried blood, when appropriately collected, can be used as the source of total RNA for QRT-PCR analysis. The results obtained also show that zinc supplementation of human subjects programs specific leukocytic subsets to show enhanced cytokine expression upon activation by stimulators of immunity. PMID:16434472

  11. Metallothionein (MT) response after chronic palladium exposure in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Sabrina N.; Singer, Christoph

    2008-11-15

    The effects of different exposure concentrations of palladium (Pd) on relative metallothionein (MT) response and bioaccumulation were investigated in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). The mussels were exposed to 0.05, 5, 50, and 500 {mu}g/L Pd{sup 2+} for 10 weeks under controlled temperature and fasting conditions. Relative MT contents were assessed by a modified Ag-saturation method, which allows to discriminate between MT bound to Pd (Pd-MT) and MT bound to unidentified metals (Ag-MT). Determination of metal contents resulted from atomic absorption spectrometry following a microwave digestion. For unexposed mussels and mussels exposed to 0.05 {mu}g/L Pd no metal accumulation could be detected. All other exposure concentrations resulted in detectable Pd accumulation in mussels with final tissue concentrations of 96 {mu}g/g (500 {mu}g/L), 45 {mu}g/g (50 {mu}g/L), and 9 {mu}g/g (5 {mu}g/L). Compared with initial levels Pd-MT concentrations at the end of the exposure period were 600 (500 {mu}g/L), 160 (50 {mu}g/L), and 27 (5 {mu}g/L) times higher. These results show that an increase in MTs in D. polymorpha already occurs at relatively low aqueous Pd concentrations indicating that there is the need for detoxification of Pd in the mussel. Furthermore, correlations between Ag-MT and Pd accumulation indicate that higher exposure concentrations are associated with adverse effects on the mussels. Thus, harmful effects of chronic Pd exposure of organisms even in lowest concentrations cannot be excluded in the environment.

  12. Metallothionein isoform 3 overexpression is associated with breast cancers having a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sens, M A; Somji, S; Garrett, S H; Beall, C L; Sens, D A

    2001-07-01

    The third isoform (MT-3) of the metallothionein gene family is unique in that it has a limited tissue distribution, is not induced by metals, has a neuronal growth inhibitory activity, and sequesters zinc more effectively under zinc-depleted conditions. The goal of the present study was to determine whether MT-3 was absent in normal breast tissue, was overexpressed in breast cancers, and if MT-3 overexpression would be associated with disease outcome. A combination of immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to demonstrate that the normal breast had no detectable expression of MT-3 mRNA or protein. Using immunohistochemistry, it was shown that MT-3 was overexpressed in 25 of 34 cases of breast cancer. In all cases of positive staining, MT-3 was diffusely localized to the cytoplasm. The tumors from these 34 cases were divided as to outcome based on known 5-year survival, with 20 patients being disease free at 5 years (good outcome) and the other 14 having recurring disease within 5 years (bad outcome). When analyzed for MT-3 staining, it was shown that there was a trend for increased MT-3 immunoreactivity in the group having bad outcomes. However, when the tumor subgrouping was further defined on the basis of carcinoma in situ (CIS), there was a marked significant difference in MT-3 staining between patients with good and bad outcomes. Limited to DCIS, MT-3 staining was significantly increased in patients with bad outcomes compared to those with good outcomes. Thus, these studies demonstrate that MT-3 is overexpressed in selected breast cancers and that overexpression is associated with tumors having a poor prognosis.

  13. Dietary zinc and metallothionein on small intestinal disaccharidases activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuong D; Cool, Johanna; Xian, Cory J

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of increasing dietary zinc (Zn) intake and the lack of metallothionein (MT) expression on activity of small intestinal disaccharidases. METHODS: MT-I and II knockout (MT-/-) and wild-type (MT+/+) female mice at 3.5 wk of age were randomly fed with a diet containing 2 (2 Zn), 15 (15 Zn) or 50 (50 Zn) mg Zn/kg (n = 8/group/genotype) for 5 wk. Small intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) were collected and either fixed in 10% formalin for histological analysis or snap frozen in liquid nitrogen for sucrase, lactase and maltase activity analyses. RESULTS: Plasma Zn was significantly (P < 0.05) lower (33%) in MT-/- compared with MT+/+ mice fed the 2 Zn diet. Villus height and crypt depth were increased by approximately 15% in MT+/+ mice compared with MT-/- mice. Duodenal disaccharidase activities were significantly higher in MT+/+ compared with MT-/- mice particularly in those fed the 2 Zn diet. For the 50 Zn diet, jejunal sucrase and lactase activities were significantly higher in MT-/- (13 313 ± 2314; 4107 ± 364 μmol glucose/well/min/g tissue, respectively) compared with MT+/+ mice (7054 ± 608; 1818 ± 174). Similarly, ileal lactase activities were higher in MT-/- (1480 ± 192) compared with MT+/+ (629 ± 353) mice particularly those fed the 2 Zn diet. CONCLUSION: Increasing dietary Zn has little effect on disaccharidases activity in MT wild-type mice. The presence of MT may enhance morphological and functional development of the gut. PMID:21253395

  14. Mutation at Glu23 eliminates the neuron growth inhibitory activity of human metallothionein-3

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Zhichun; Teng Xinchen; Cai Bin; Wang Hui; Zheng Qi; Wang Yang; Zhou Guoming; Zhang Mingjie; Wu Houming; Sun Hongzhe . E-mail: hsun@hku.hk; Huang Zhongxian . E-mail: zxhuang@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-10-20

    Human metallothionein-3 (hMT3), first isolated and identified as a neuronal growth inhibitory factor (GIF), is a metalloprotein expressed predominantly in brain. However, untill now, the exact mechanism of the bioactivity of hMT3 is still unknown. In order to study the influence of acid-base catalysis on S-nitrosylation of hMT3, we constructed the E23K mutant of hMT3. During the course of bioassay, we found out unexpectedly that mutation at E23 of hMT3 eliminates the neuronal growth inhibitory activity completely. To the best of our knowledge, it is First report that other residues, besides the TCPCP motif, in the {beta}-domain can alter the bioactivity of hMT3. In order to figure out the causes for the loss of bioactivity of the E23K mutant, the biochemical properties were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, CD spectroscopy, pH titration, DTNB reaction, EDTA reaction, and SNOC reaction. All data demonstrated that stability of the metal-thiolate cluster and overall structure of the E23K mutant were not altered too much. However, the reaction of the E23K mutant with SNOC exhibited biphasic kinetics and the mutant protein released zinc ions much faster than hMT3 in the initial step, while hMT3 exhibited single kinetic process. The 2D [{sup 1}H-{sup 15}N] HSQC was also employed to characterize structural changes during the reaction of hMT3 with varying mounts of nitric oxide. It was shown that the resonance of Glu23 disappeared at a molar ratio of NO to protein of 4. Based on these results, we suggest that mutation at Glu23 may alter the NO metabolism and/or affect zinc homeostasis in brain, thus altering the neuronal growth inhibitory activity.

  15. Induction and characterization of metallothionein in chicken epiphyseal growth plate cartilage chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sauer, G R; Nie, D; Wu, L N; Wuthier, R E

    1998-01-01

    Following exposure to cadmium or zinc, chickens were sacrificed and the liver, kidney, and bone epiphyseal growth plates harvested. When cytosolic extracts of the growth plate cartilage were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography, a protein with high metal-binding capacity and low ultraviolet (UV) absorbance eluted in the same position as liver metallothionein (MT) and a MT standard. Cd or Zn treatment resulted in a 25-fold or 5-fold induction in growth plate MT, respectively. In liver the greatest level of MT induction was seen with short-term Cd exposures. In contrast, MT levels in the growth plate increased as the duration of Cd exposure increased. Induction of MT in growth plate chondrocyte cell cultures was observed for media Cd concentrations of > or = 0.1 microM and Zn concentrations of > or = 100 microM. Basal and inducible levels of MT declined through the culture period and were lowest in the terminally differentiated mineralized late stages of the culture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also lowest in the late-stage cultures, while total cellular protein increased throughout the culture period. Treatment of chondrocytes with Zn prior to Cd exposure resulted in a protective induction of MT. Pre-treatment of chondrocytes with dexamethasone resulted in suppressed synthesis of MT upon Cd exposure and greater Cd toxicity. Both Cd and Zn resulted in significantly increased levels of MT mRNA in chondrocyte cell cultures. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in an approximate 2- to 3-fold increase in MT mRNA. This is contrary to the finding that MT protein levels were decreased by dexamethasone. The findings suggest that an increased rate of MT degradation in dexamethasone-treated and late-stage chondrocyte cultures may be associated with the terminally differentiated phenotype.

  16. Metallothionein-I/II Promotes Axonal Regeneration in the Central Nervous System*

    PubMed Central

    Siddiq, Mustafa M.; Hannila, Sari S.; Carmel, Jason B.; Bryson, John B.; Hou, Jianwei; Nikulina, Elena; Willis, Matthew R.; Mellado, Wilfredo; Richman, Erica L.; Hilaire, Melissa; Hart, Ronald P.; Filbin, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    The adult CNS does not spontaneously regenerate after injury, due in large part to myelin-associated inhibitors such as myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), Nogo-A, and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein. All three inhibitors can interact with either the Nogo receptor complex or paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B. A conditioning lesion of the sciatic nerve allows the central processes of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to spontaneously regenerate in vivo after a dorsal column lesion. After a conditioning lesion, DRG neurons are no longer inhibited by myelin, and this effect is cyclic AMP (cAMP)- and transcription-dependent. Using a microarray analysis, we identified several genes that are up-regulated both in adult DRGs after a conditioning lesion and in DRG neurons treated with cAMP analogues. One gene that was up-regulated under both conditions is metallothionein (MT)-I. We show here that treatment with two closely related isoforms of MT (MT-I/II) can overcome the inhibitory effects of both myelin and MAG for cortical, hippocampal, and DRG neurons. Intrathecal delivery of MT-I/II to adult DRGs also promotes neurite outgrowth in the presence of MAG. Adult DRGs from MT-I/II-deficient mice extend significantly shorter processes on MAG compared with wild-type DRG neurons, and regeneration of dorsal column axons does not occur after a conditioning lesion in MT-I/II-deficient mice. Furthermore, a single intravitreal injection of MT-I/II after optic nerve crush promotes axonal regeneration. Mechanistically, MT-I/II ability to overcome MAG-mediated inhibition is transcription-dependent, and MT-I/II can block the proteolytic activity of α-secretase and the activation of PKC and Rho in response to soluble MAG. PMID:25947372

  17. Metallothioneins 1 and 2 Modulate Inflammation and Support Remodeling in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dewald, Daniela; Schmitz, Eva J.; Verfuerth, Luise; Keppel, Katharina; Peigney, Christine; Ghanem, Alexander; Welz, Armin; Dewald, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Repetitive brief ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is associated with left ventricular dysfunction during development of ischemic cardiomyopathy. We investigated the role of zinc-donor proteins metallothionein MT1 and MT2 in a closed-chest murine model of I/R. Methods. Daily 15-minute LAD-occlusion was performed for 1, 3, and 7 days in SV129 (WT)- and MT1/2 knockout (MT−/−)-mice (n = 8–10/group). Hearts were examined with M-mode echocardiography and processed for histological and mRNA studies. Results. Expression of MT1/2 mRNA was transiently induced during repetitive I/R in WT-mice, accompanied by a transient inflammation, leading to interstitial fibrosis with left ventricular dysfunction without infarction. In contrast, MT−/−-hearts presented with enhanced apoptosis and small infarctions leading to impaired global and regional pump function. Molecular analysis revealed maladaptation of myosin heavy chain isoforms and antioxidative enzymes in MT1/2−/−-hearts. Despite their postponed chemokine induction we found a higher total neutrophil density and macrophage infiltration in small infarctions in MT−/−-hearts. Subsequently, higher expression of osteopontin 1 and tenascin C was associated with increased myofibroblast density resulting in predominately nonreversible fibrosis and adverse remodeling in MT1/2−/−-hearts. Conclusion. Cardioprotective effects of MT1/2 seem to be exerted via modulation of contractile elements, antioxidative enzymes, inflammatory response, and myocardial remodeling. PMID:27403038

  18. Effect of naturally mouldy wheat or fungi administration on metallothioneins level in brain tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Vasatkova, Anna; Krizova, Sarka; Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Zeman, Ladislav; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine level of metallothioneins (MTs) in brain tissues of rats administered by feed mixtures with different content of mouldy wheat or fungi. Selected male laboratory rats of Wistar albino at age of 28 days were used in our experiments. The rats were administered by feed mixtures with different content of vitamins, naturally mouldy wheat or fungi for 28 days. At the very end of the experiment, the animals were put to death and brains were sampled. MT level was determined by differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. We found that MTs' level in brain tissues from rats administered by standard feed mixtures was significantly higher compared to the level of MTs in rats supplemented by vitamins. Further we studied the effect of supplementation of naturally mouldy wheat on MTs level in rats. In mouldy wheat we detected the presence of following fungi species: Mucor spp., Absidia spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. Moreover we also identified and quantified following mycotoxins - deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T2-toxin and aflatoxins. Level of MTs determined in rats treated with 33 or 66% of mouldy wheat was significantly lower compared to control ones. On the other hand rats treated with 100% of mouldy wheat had less MTs but not significantly. Supplementation of vitamins to rats fed by mouldy wheat had adverse effect on MTs level compared to rats with no other supplementation by vitamins. Moreover vitamins supplementation has no effect on MTs level in brain tissues of rats treated or non-treated with Ganoderma lucidum L. Both mycotoxins and vitamins have considerable effect on level of MTs in brain tissues. It can be assumed that the administered substances markedly influence redox metabolism, which could negatively influence numerous biochemical pathways including those closely related with MTs.

  19. Different patterns of regulation for the copper and cadmium metallothioneins of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, G; Podila, G K; Gay, G; Marmeisse, R; Reddy, M S

    2009-04-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small cysteine-rich peptides involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification. We have characterized two MT genes, HcMT1 and HcMT2, from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum in this study. Expression of HcMT1 and HcMT2 in H. cylindrosporum under metal stress conditions was studied by competitive reverse transcription-PCR analysis. The full-length cDNAs were used to perform functional complementation in mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As revealed by heterologous complementation assays in yeast, HcMT1 and HcMT2 each encode a functional polypeptide capable of conferring increased tolerance against Cd and Cu, respectively. The expression levels of HcMT1 were observed to be at their maximum at 24 h, and they increased as a function of Cu concentration. HcMT2 was also induced by Cu, but the expression levels were lower than those for HcMT1. The mRNA accumulation of HcMT1 was not influenced by Cd, whereas Cd induced the transcription of HcMT2. Zn, Pb, and Ni did not affect the transcription of HcMT1 or of HcMT2. Southern blot analysis revealed that both of these genes are present as a single copy in H. cylindrosporum. While the promoters of both HcMT1 and HcMT2 contained the standard stress response elements implicated in the metal response, the numbers and varieties of potential regulatory elements were different in these promoters. These results show that ectomycorrhizal fungi encode different MTs and that each of them has a particular pattern of expression, suggesting that they play critical specific roles in improving the survival and growth of ectomycorrhizal trees in ecosystems contaminated by heavy metals.

  20. Gene response profiles for Daphnia pulex exposed to the environmental stressor cadmium reveals novel crustacean metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Joseph R; Colbourne, John K; Davey, Jennifer C; Glaholt, Stephen P; Hampton, Thomas H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2007-01-01

    Background Genomic research tools such as microarrays are proving to be important resources to study the complex regulation of genes that respond to environmental perturbations. A first generation cDNA microarray was developed for the environmental indicator species Daphnia pulex, to identify genes whose regulation is modulated following exposure to the metal stressor cadmium. Our experiments revealed interesting changes in gene transcription that suggest their biological roles and their potentially toxicological features in responding to this important environmental contaminant. Results Our microarray identified genes reported in the literature to be regulated in response to cadmium exposure, suggested functional attributes for genes that share no sequence similarity to proteins in the public databases, and pointed to genes that are likely members of expanded gene families in the Daphnia genome. Genes identified on the microarray also were associated with cadmium induced phenotypes and population-level outcomes that we experimentally determined. A subset of genes regulated in response to cadmium exposure was independently validated using quantitative-realtime (Q-RT)-PCR. These microarray studies led to the discovery of three genes coding for the metal detoxication protein metallothionein (MT). The gene structures and predicted translated sequences of D. pulex MTs clearly place them in this gene family. Yet, they share little homology with previously characterized MTs. Conclusion The genomic information obtained from this study represents an important first step in characterizing microarray patterns that may be diagnostic to specific environmental contaminants and give insights into their toxicological mechanisms, while also providing a practical tool for evolutionary, ecological, and toxicological functional gene discovery studies. Advances in Daphnia genomics will enable the further development of this species as a model organism for the environmental sciences

  1. Autophagy of metallothioneins prevents TNF-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ullio, Chiara; Brunk, Ulf T; Urani, Chiara; Melchioretto, Pasquale; Bonelli, Gabriella; Baccino, Francesco M; Autelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) induced by oxidative stress has recently emerged as a prominent mechanism behind TNF cytotoxicity. This pathway relies on diffusion of hydrogen peroxide into lysosomes containing redox-active iron, accumulated by breakdown of iron-containing proteins and subcellular organelles. Upon oxidative lysosomal damage, LMP allows relocation to the cytoplasm of low mass iron and acidic hydrolases that contribute to DNA and mitochondrial damage, resulting in death by apoptosis or necrosis. Here we investigate the role of lysosomes and free iron in death of HTC cells, a rat hepatoma line, exposed to TNF following metallothionein (MT) upregulation. Iron-binding MT does not normally occur in HTC cells in significant amounts. Intracellular iron chelation attenuates TNF and cycloheximide (CHX)-induced LMP and cell death, demonstrating the critical role of this transition metal in mediating cytokine lethality. MT upregulation, combined with starvation-activated MT autophagy almost completely suppresses TNF and CHX toxicity, while impairment of both autophagy and MT upregulation by silencing of Atg7, and Mt1a and/or Mt2a, respectively, abrogates protection. Interestingly, MT upregulation by itself has little effect, while stimulated autophagy alone depresses cytokine toxicity to some degree. These results provide evidence that intralysosomal iron-catalyzed redox reactions play a key role in TNF and CHX-induced LMP and toxicity. The finding that chelation of intralysosomal iron achieved by autophagic delivery of MT, and to some degree probably of other iron-binding proteins as well, into the lysosomal compartment is highly protective provides a putative mechanism to explain autophagy-related suppression of death by TNF and CHX. PMID:26566051

  2. DNA damage and metallothionein synthesis in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Fatur, T; Tusek, M; Falnoga, I; Scancar, J; Lah, T T; Filipic, M

    2002-08-01

    Cadmium is an important heavy metal environmental toxicant, which is classified as a human carcinogen. The comet assay was used to evaluate the levels of DNA damage in a metabolically competent HepG2 cell line after treatment with low, non-cytotoxic and physiologically relevant concentrations of cadmium, alone and in combination with the dietary mutagen 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and with the environmental mutagen benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P). After exposure of the cells to 10, 100 and 1000 nM CdCl(2), a dose- and time-dependent increase of DNA damage was detected. Maximal damage was found after 12 h of treatment, but declined with further incubation with CdCl(2). The increased synthesis of metallothioneins on exposure to CdCl(2) up to 12 h suggests that they are responsible for the adaptation of HepG2 cells to the DNA damaging effects of CdCl(2). Co-treatment of the cells with CdCl(2) (10-1000 nM) and IQ (300 microM) induced a dose-dependent increase of DNA damage compared to cells treated with IQ alone. Co-genotoxic activity was also observed by increased formation of micronuclei in cells exposed to IQ and 1000 nM CdCl(2); at this concentration, CdCl(2) alone also induced micronuclei in HepG2 cells. Our results support the hypothesis that direct and indirect mechanisms are involved in cadmium-induced DNA damage.

  3. Metallothionein and bioaccumulation of cadmium in juvenile bluegills exposed to aqueous and sediment-associated cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The author evaluated metallothionein (MT), free (unbound) hepatic cadmium and whole body cadmium as indicators of cadmium exposure in juvenile bluegills Lepomis macrochirus in laboratory tests. Two types of cadmium exposure were tested; aqueous and sediment-associated. In the aqueous tests, fish were exposed to cadmium (0.0 to 32.3 [mu]g/L) in an intermittent-flow diluter. In the sediment-associated cadmium test, fish were exposed to resuspended river sidment containing 1.3 to 21.4 [mu]g Cd/g (dry weight) at a nominal total suspended solids concentration of 1,000 mg/L in revolving, circular glass exposure chambers. Total cadmium concentrations were measured in various bluegill liver fractions, whole bluegill, water, and resuspended sediment to assess the partitioning and bioaccumulation of cadmium after the tests. Mean concentrations of MT and free cadmium in bluegill livers and concentrations of cadmium in whole bluegills were positively correlated with aqueous cadmium concentration and were equally suitable as indicators of aqueous cadmium exposure. Sediment-associated cadmium was biologically available, but to a lesser extent than aqueous cadmium. Cadmium concentrations in whole bluegills exposed to resuspended river sediment were 1.5- to 3.5-fold the concentrations in bluegills in sediment-free controls. Free cadmium and MT concentrations in bluegill liver and whole-body cadmium concentrations in bluegills were positively correlated with the cadmium concentrations in filtered water, resuspended sediment, and bulk river sediment; however, whole-body cadmim concentrations were a more sensitive indicator of exposure to sediment-associated cadmium than either free cadmium or MT concentratons in liver.

  4. Transcriptional responses of metallothionein gene to different stress factors in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Nam, Yoon Kwon

    2016-11-01

    A novel metallothionein (MT) gene from the Pacific abalone H. discus hannai was characterized and its mRNA expression patterns (tissue distribution, developmental expression and differential expression in responsive to various in vivo stimulatory treatments) were examined. Abalone MT shares conserved structural features with previously known gastropod orthologs at both genomic (i.e., tripartite organization) and amino acid (conserved Cys motifs) levels. The 5'-flanking regulatory region of abalone MT gene displayed various transcription factor binding motifs particularly including ones related with metal regulation and stress/immune responses. Tissue distribution and basal expression patterns of MT mRNAs indicated a potential association between ovarian MT expression and sexual maturation. Developmental expression pattern suggested the maternal contribution of MT mRNAs to embryonic and early larval developments. Abalone MT mRNAs could be significantly induced by various heavy metals in different tissues (gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and hemocyte) in a tissue- and/or metal-dependent fashion. In addition, the abalone MT gene was highly modulated in responsive to other non-metal, stimulatory treatments such as immune challenge (LPS, polyI:C and bacterial injections), hypoxia (decrease from normoxia 8 ppm-2 ppm), thermal elevation (increase from 20 °C to 30 °C), and xenobiotic exposure (250 ppb of 17α-ethynylestradiol and 0.25 ppb of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin) where differential expression patterns were toward either up- or down-regulation depending on types of stimulations and tissues examined. Taken together, our results highlight that MT is a multifunctional effector playing in wide criteria of cellular pathways especially associated with development and stress responses in this abalone species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protection against UVA-induced photooxidative damage in mammalian cell lines expressing increased levels of metallothionein

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, E.J. Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL . Dept. of Biology); Peak, J.G.; Peak, M.J. ); Roth, R.M. . Dept. of Biology)

    1990-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is an endogenous low molecular weight protein that is inducible in a variety of eukaryotic cells and has the ability to selectivity bind heavy metal ions such as zinc and the cadmium. Although the exact physiological role of MT is still not understood, there is strong evidence that MT is involved in providing cellular resistance against the damaging effects of heavy metals and in the regulation of intracellular zinc and copper. Recently, it has been demonstrated that MT can scavenge radiation-induced reactive oxygen intermediates in vitro, specifically hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and because of these observations it has been suggested that MT may provide protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo. Cell lines expressing increased levels of MT have demonstrated resistance to ionizing radiation, to ultraviolet radiation, and also to various DNA damaging agents including melphalan and cis-diaminedichloroplatinum. It is therefore important to gain some insight into the relationship between cellular MT content and cellular resistance to radiation and other DNA damaging agents. In this study we investigated the role of MT in providing protection against monochromatic 365-nm UVA radiation, which is known to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species that are involved in both DNA damage and cell killing. For this purpose, we used zinc acetate, a potent inducer of MT, to elevate MT levels in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts prior to UVA exposure and determined cell survival for uninduced and induced cultures. In order to eliminate any zinc effects other than MT induction, we also isolated and characterized cadmium chloride-resistant clones of V79 cells that have increased steady-state levels of both MT mRNA and protein, and we examined their survival characteristics against 365-nm radiation in the absence of zinc acetate. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Modulation of cytochrome C oxidase-va is possibly involved in metallothionein protection from doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Merten, Kevyn E; Feng, Wenke; Zhang, Li; Pierce, William; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Kang, Y James

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies using a cardiac-specific metallothionein (MT)-overexpressing transgenic (MT-TG) mouse model have demonstrated that MT protects from doxorubicin (DOX)-induced oxidative heart injury. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this cardioprotection, however, have yet to be defined. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MT overexpression activates cytoprotective mechanisms, leading to cardiac protection from DOX toxicity. MT-TG mice and nontransgenic wild-type (WT) controls were treated i.p. with DOX at a single dose of 20 mg/kg and sacrificed on the third day after the treatment. An expression proteomic analysis involving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to identify MT-induced changes in cytoprotection-related proteins. We identified 18 proteins that were modified by DOX treatment in the heart. These proteins included those involved in cellular antioxidant defense, enzymes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, enzymes involved in beta-oxidation of fatty acids and glycolysis, and proteins involved in regulation of cardiac muscle contraction. However, the most dominant modification by MT is the cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va (CCO-Va). In response to DOX treatment, a specific isoform of CCO-Va was enhanced in the MT-TG but not in the WT mouse hearts. Because CCO-Va is a critical component in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, the results suggest that the cardioprotective effect of MT may be related to an increased expression or a differential modification of CCO-Va.

  7. Metallothionein 1G promotes the differentiation of HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga, Juan Martín; Bravo, Alicia Inés; Mordoh, José; Bianchini, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low- molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins involved in zinc and redox metabolism, that are epigenetically downregulated during colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, but may be re-induced with a variety of agents. Since loss of MT expression is associated with a worse prognosis, in the present study we investigated the effects of overexpression of the most significantly downregulated isoform in CRC, namely MT1G, on the HT-29 cell line. Overexpression of MT1G resulted in xenograft tumors with an aberrant morphology, characterized by an evident increase in mucin-containing cells that were identified as goblet cells under electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical detection of CDX2 and cytokeratin 20 was also increased, as were goblet-cell and enterocyte-specific genes by qRT-PCR. Microarray analysis of gene expression confirmed the alteration of several differentiation signaling pathways, including the Notch pathway. Using sodium butyrate and post-confluent growth as inducers of differentiation, we demonstrated that MT1G does indeed play a functional role in promoting goblet over enterocyte differentiation in vitro. Labile zinc is also induced upon differentiation of CRC cells, functionally contributing to enterocyte over goblet differentiation, as revealed using zinc-specific chelating agents. Overall, our results uncover a new tumor-suppressor activity of MT1G in promoting the differentiation of at least some CRC tumors, and implicate MTs and zinc signaling as new players in colorectal differentiation. This further contributes to the hypothesis that re-induction of MTs may have therapeutic value by diminishing the aggressiveness of CRC tumors. PMID:28393194

  8. Effects of cadmium and environmental pollution on metallothionein and cytochrome P450 in Tilapia

    SciTech Connect

    Ueng, Y.F.; Meng, L.M.; Hung, Y.Y.; Ueng, T.H.; Liu, C.; Lai, C.F.

    1996-07-01

    Tilapia are widely distributed freshwater fish frequently used for environmental toxicology, comparative biochemistry and physiology studies. Tilapia can persist in a highly polluted habitat and have the potential for the development as a biological monitor of environmental pollution. Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of small-molecular-weight cytoplasmic proteins induced in many animals including fish, following exposure to metals such as cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury. An increasing number of reports have indicated that fish MT induction is a sensitive measure of metal contamination in the environment. Fish cytochrome (P450)-dependent monooxygenases are inducible by many environmental pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Extensive studies have suggested that fish monooxygenase can serve as a biochemical marker for exposure to PAH- and PCB-types of pollutants. Tilapia P450 is highly responsive to the inductive effects of PAH and PCBs. Tilapia collected from a polluted section of a river showed higher levels of P450 and dependent monooxygenase activities than tilapia collected from an unpolluted section. Previous studies showed that pretreatment with Cd decreased microsomal monooxygenase activities in fish such as plaice, bass, and trout. However, direct information regarding the effects of heavy metals on tilapia P450 are not available. Reports concerning the effect of heavy metal on tilapia MT are scarce. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of cadmium to modulate P450 and MT in tilapia liver and gill. In addition, we have extended our study to feral tilapia collected from Er-Jen Stream, a polluted river in Taiwan. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. The changes of heavy metal and metallothionein distribution in testis induced by cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Kusakabe, Takahiko; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Keiji; Nakazato, Kyoumi; Takada, Hisashi; Satoh, Takahiro; Oikawa, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Kenji; Koyama, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Kazuo; Nagamine, Takeaki

    2008-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to cause various disorders in the testis, and metallothionein (MT) is known as a protein, which has a detoxification function for heavy metals. However, the changes of Fe, Cu, and Zn distribution in the testis induced by Cd exposure have not been well examined. Moreover, only a few studies have been reported on the localization of MT after Cd exposure. In this study, we have investigated the changes of Fe, Cu, and Zn distribution in Cd-exposed testis by a newly developed in air micro-Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method. Also, we examined the distribution of MT expression in testis. In the testis of Cd-treated rats with significant increases of lipid peroxidation, the sertoli cell tight junction was damaged by Cd exposure, resulting from disintegration of the blood testis barrier (BTB). Evaluation by in air micro-PIXE method revealed that Cd and Fe distribution were increased in the interstitial tissues and seminiferous tubules. The histological findings indicated that the testicular tissue damage was advanced, which may have been caused by Fe flowing into seminiferous tubules followed by disintegration of the BTB. As a result, Fe was considered to enhance the tissue damage caused by Cd exposure. MT was detected in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and Sertoli's cells in the testis of Cd-treated rats, but was not detected in interstitial tissues. These results suggested that MT was induced by Cd in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and Sertoli's cells, and was involved in the resistance to tissue damage induced by Cd.

  10. Modification of neurobehavioral effects of mercury by genetic polymorphisms of metallothionein in children.

    PubMed

    Woods, James S; Heyer, Nicholas J; Russo, Joan E; Martin, Michael D; Pillai, Pradeep B; Farin, Federico M

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic, and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is the identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic disposition. We examined the hypothesis that genetic variants of metallothionein (MT) that are reported to affect Hg toxicokinetics in adults would modify the neurotoxic effects of Hg in children. Five hundred seven children, 8-12 years of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of Hg from dental amalgam tooth fillings. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and at 7 subsequent annual intervals for neurobehavioral performance and urinary Hg levels. Following the completion of the clinical trial, we performed genotyping assays for variants of MT isoforms MT1M (rs2270837) and MT2A (rs10636) on biological samples provided by 330 of the trial participants. Regression modeling strategies were employed to evaluate associations between allelic status, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes. Among girls, few significant interactions or independent main effects for Hg exposure and either of the MT gene variants were observed. In contrast, among boys, numerous significant interaction effects between variants of MT1M and MT2A, alone and combined, with Hg exposure were observed spanning multiple domains of neurobehavioral function. All dose-response associations between Hg exposure and test performance were restricted to boys and were in the direction of impaired performance. These findings suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children with relatively common genetic variants of MT, and may have important public health implications for future strategies aimed at protecting children and adolescents from the potential health risks associated with Hg exposure. We note that because urinary Hg reflects a composite exposure index that cannot be attributed to a specific

  11. Tissue-specific accumulation of metallothionein as influenced by route of zinc administration

    SciTech Connect

    Fleet, J.C.; McCormick, C.C.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of route of administration of zinc (Zn) on the induction of metallothionein (MT) in the liver, kidney and pancreas of chicks was examined. Four-week-old chicks were assigned to one of four treatments: 5 mg Zn/kg intraperitoneal (IP) injection, 5 mg Zn/kg intravenous (IV) injection, 16 mg Zn oral (O) dose, or an appropriate control (C). Zn was administered as Zn acetate dissolved in distilled deionized water, except for the IV solution, which was made isotonic by addition of 0.9% NaCl and 0.1% glucose. Chicks were fasted for 12 hours, treated, sacrificed 24 hours later and tissues removed. Analysis of tissues was conducted using the modified Cd/sup 109//hemaglobin affinity assay of Eaton and Toal (1982). All tissues, within each treatment, were significantly induced relative to control levels. Kidney was consistently the least induced tissue across all treatments (IP, 137.0 +/- 27.4 ..mu..g MT/g tissue above saline control level; O, 83.8 +/- 18.0; IV 18.2 +/- 3.71). A comparison of tissue MT accumulation with treatments showed that liver was induced to a greater extent than pancreas for the IP treatment (pancreas/liver ratio = 0.68 +/- 0.03). In contrast, the reverse trend was seen for both O (1.52 +/- 0.40) and IV (1.92 +/- 0.37), indicating greater pancreatic accumulation. Their results suggest that route of administration has a marked effect on the tissue-specific accumulation of MT, perhaps through factors independent of the metal, zinc.

  12. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of Portunus trituberculatus exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dong-Fang; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Jin, Shan; Hu, Yan-Jun; Tan, Fu-Qing; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2013-09-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) possess a unique molecular structure that provides metal-binding and redox capabilities. These capabilities include the maintenance of metal equilibria that protect against heavy metals (especially cadmium) and oxidative damage. Past studies have focused on the function of MTs in vertebrates. However, the functions of MTs during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the function of MTs during spermiogenesis in Portunus trituberculatus, we used RT-PCR and RACE to identify two MT complete cDNA sequences in the total RNA from the P. trituberculatus testis. The 450 bp MT-1 cDNA consists of a 77 bp 5' untranslated region, a 196 bp 3' untranslated region, and a 177 bp open reading frame that encodes 58 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The 581 bp MT-2 cDNA consists of 73 bp 5' untranslated region, a 328 bp 3' untranslated region, and a 180 bp open reading frame that encodes 59 amino acids including 18 cysteines. MT-1 and MT-2 of P. trituberculatus more closely resemble invertebrate (especially crab) MT homologues than vertebrate MT homologues as indicated by protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic tree analysis. MT-1 and MT-2 were detected in the heart, testis, muscle, hepatopancreas, and gill of P. trituberculatus by tissue expression analysis. In addition, MT-1 and MT-2 are present during the entire process of spermiogenesis in P. trituberculatus as indicated by H&E staining and in situ hybridization. MT-1 and MT-2 expression levels significantly increase after cadmium (Cd) exposure as measured by real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Therefore, we suggest that MT-1 and MT-2 perform important functions in spermiogenesis and testis detoxification in P. trituberculatus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Heavy Metal-induced Metallothionein Expression Is Regulated by Specific Protein Phosphatase 2A Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liping; Ma, Lu; Bai, Qing; Zhu, Xiaonian; Zhang, Jinmiao; Wei, Qing; Li, Daochuan; Gao, Chen; Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhengbao; Liu, Caixia; He, Zhini; Zeng, Xiaowen; Zhang, Aihua; Qu, Weidong; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Chen, Wen; Xiao, Yongmei

    2014-01-01

    Induction of metallothionein (MT) expression is involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification. To identify the key pathways that regulate metal-induced cytotoxicity, we investigate how phosphorylated metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) contributed to induction of MT expression. Immortal human embryonic kidney cells (HEK cells) were treated with seven kinds of metals including cadmium chloride (CdCl2), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), copper sulfate(CuSO4), lead acetate (PbAc), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), and potassium bichromate (K2Cr2O7). The MT expression was induced in a dose-response and time-dependent manner upon various metal treatments. A cycle of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation was required for translocation of MTF-1 from cytoplasm to nucleus, leading to the up-regulation of MTs expression. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) participated in regulating MT expression through dephosphorylation of MTF-1. A loss-of-function screen revealed that the specific PP2A complexes containing PR110 were involved in metal-induced MT expression. Suppression of PP2A PR110 in HEK cells resulted in the persistent MTF-1 phosphorylation and the disturbance of MTF-1 nuclear translocation, which was concomitant with a significant decrease of MT expression and enhanced cytotoxicity in HEK cells. Notably, MTF-1 was found in complex with specific PP2A complexes containing the PR110 subunit upon metal exposure. Furthermore, we identify that the dephosphorylation of MTF-1 at residue Thr-254 is directly regulated by PP2A PR110 complexes and responsible for MTF-1 activation. Taken together, these findings delineate a novel pathway that determines cytotoxicity in response to metal treatments and provide new insight into the role of PP2A in cellular stress response. PMID:24962574

  14. How does the metallothionein induction in bivalves meet the criteria for biomarkers of metal exposure?

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Zimmermann, Sonja; Sures, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Metallothionein (MT) concentrations in the whole soft tissue or in a particular tissue of bivalves have widely been used in ecotoxicological studies and biomonitoring programmes. This approach is based on the reported results on the enhancement of MT induction in bivalves in response to metal exposure. The validity of using MT induction as a biomarker is briefly assessed in the present study. The sensitivity of MT induction in these organisms is questionable due to the high basal MT level as well as the high natural variability related to the effects of a number of biotic and abiotic factors, which are not well described yet. Moreover, the relationship between exposure to metals, the toxic effects of that exposure, and the appearance of MT in soft tissue, is not well characterized. A variety of factors may influence the appearance and distribution of MT: 1) the uneven distribution of metals in particular portions of the soft tissue and in particular subcellular compartments; 2) pre-exposure to metals, perhaps at non-toxic levels; 3) metal-metal competition and metal-protein interactions; and 4) tissue-specific induction, functions, and isoforms of MT. Therefore, attention is required when using MT induction in bivalves for assessment of metal exposure or consequent toxic effects. The MT concentration can be a reliable indicator only when it is considered in relation with metal uptake kinetics and subcellular partitioning while specifying the isoform of MT synthesised and considering various confounding factors. The kinetic turnover of MT may provide useful information on metal exposure and biological effects since it covers both the synthesis and breakdown of MT as well as the chemical species of metals accumulated and MT.

  15. Increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and metallothionein in varicocele and varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-D; Lai, C-H; Yang, W-K; Lee, T-H

    2012-12-01

    The increased blood stasis and venous volume pressure causing tissue hypoxia are observed in both varicocele and varicose veins. Metallothionein (MT), a metal-binding protein, protects against cell apoptosis under hypoxic stress. It also plays an important role in collateral flow recovery and angiogenesis. We studied the distribution of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and MT in varicocele and varicose veins. The study specimens consisted of 1 cm venous segments that were obtained from 12 male patients during vascular stripping surgery for varicose veins and 1 cm of internal spermatic vein (ISV) obtained from 12 patients during left varicocele repair. The control samples of 1 cm ISV were obtained from 10 male patients who underwent left inguinal herniorrhaphy. All vascular specimens were analysed for HIF-1α and MT expression by immunoblotting, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and confocal microscopy. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey's comparison test. In both venous diseases, the increased expression of HIF-1α and MT compared with the control group (P < 0.05) and most of the proteins distributed over smooth muscle layers were detected by IHC staining; HIF-1α and MT in the muscle layer with co-localization, and MT overexpression especially located in the endothelium of both venous diseases under confocal microscopy. Our results revealed the higher expression of HIF-1α and MT in varicocele and varicose veins than in the control group; MT overexpression in the muscle layer of both diseased vessels and especially located in the endothelium under confocal microscopy. MT has the function to protect vascular cells from apoptosis under hypoxia. Thus, this MT function may cause a decreased vascular cell apoptosis and then contribute to the dilated and thickened walls of varicocele and varicose veins.

  16. Effects of metallothionein on zinc metabolism in lethal-milk mutant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Grider, A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The lethal-milk mice (C57BL/6J-Im) exhibit various pleiotropic effects, including a congenital otolith defect, production of zinc-deficient milk, and clinical signs of a systemic Zn deficiency by one year of age. The clinical signs include alopecia, dermatitis, and skin lesions. The systemic zinc deficiency may be due to increased levels of metallothionein (MT) in the intestine and/or liver of Im mice. The untreated Im mice contain twice as much intestinal MT as do C57BL/6J-(+/sup im//+ /sup Im/) (B6) controls. This was determined by a sulfhydryl assay, by the /sup 109/Cd-saturation/hemolysate method, and by the /sup 65/Zn-binding assay. Various concentrations of Cd or Zn were added to the drinking water three days before assaying for MT. Compared to B6 mice, the Im mice exhibited more MT in their liver by the /sup 65/Zn-MT binding assay (3-fold) and by the /sup 109/Cd-saturation/hemolysate method (18-fold). The effects of the two zinc treatments did not differ significantly between Im and B6 mice. The retention and excretion of /sup 65/Zn (administered intraperitoneally) were determined over a 14-day period, but the results did not different between the Im and B6 mice. The increased concentrations of MT within the Im mice was not significantly different for the intestine and liver. Based on these data and other studies, the Im mice may exhibit alterations in zinc homeostasis due to some deregulation of MT metabolism, including the inner ear of the fetus, the lactating mammary gland, and the intestine and liver of adults by one year of age.

  17. Metallothionein-1 as a biomarker of altered redox metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma cells exposed to sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Houessinon, Aline; François, Catherine; Sauzay, Chloé; Louandre, Christophe; Mongelard, Gaelle; Godin, Corinne; Bodeau, Sandra; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Saidak, Zuzana; Gutierrez, Laurent; Régimbeau, Jean-Marc; Barget, Nathalie; Barbare, Jean-Claude; Ganne, Nathalie; Chauffert, Bruno; Coriat, Romain; Galmiche, Antoine

    2016-05-16

    Sorafenib, a kinase inhibitor active against various solid tumours, induces oxidative stress and ferroptosis, a new form of oxidative necrosis, in some cancer cells. Clinically-applicable biomarkers that reflect the impact of sorafenib on the redox metabolism of cancer cells are lacking. We used gene expression microarrays, real-time PCR, immunoblot, protein-specific ELISA, and gene reporter constructs encoding the enzyme luciferase to study the response of a panel of cancer cells to sorafenib. Tumour explants prepared from surgical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples and serum samples obtained from HCC patients receiving sorafenib were also used. We observed that genes of the metallothionein-1 (MT1) family are induced in the HCC cell line Huh7 exposed to sorafenib. Sorafenib increased the expression of MT1G mRNA in a panel of human cancer cells, an effect that was not observed with eight other clinically-approved kinase inhibitors. We identified the minimal region of the MT1G promoter that confers inducibility by sorafenib to a 133 base pair region containing an Anti-oxidant Response Element (ARE) and showed the essential role of the transcription factor NRF2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2-Related Factor 2). We examined the clinical relevance of our findings by analysing the regulation of MT1G in five tumour explants prepared from surgical HCC samples. Finally, we showed that the protein levels of MT1 increase in the serum of some HCC patients receiving sorafenib, and found an association with reduced overall survival. These findings indicate that MT1 constitute a biomarker adapted for exploring the impact of sorafenib on the redox metabolism of cancer cells.

  18. Oxidative stress biomarkers and metallothionein in Folsomia candida--responses to Cu and Cd.

    PubMed

    Maria, Vera L; Ribeiro, Maria João; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2014-08-01

    Folsomia candida (Collembola) is a standard soil ecotoxicological species; effect assessment includes survival and reproduction as endpoints. In the present study, and for the first time, a range of oxidative stress biomarkers measurement was optimized and validated. The antioxidant capacity was measured by the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and content of total glutathione (TG). The oxidative damage in the lipid membranes was estimated by lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothionein (MT) levels. The exposure included the essential and non-essential metals Cu and Cd, in LUFA 2.2 natural standard soil, using a series of sampling times along a 10 days period (0, 2, 4, 6 and 10 days). Exposure concentrations were selected based on their reproduction EC50 values, 60 and 1000 mg/kg soil DW, for Cd and Cu respectively. The protocols were optimized and results show that oxidative stress biomarkers can be successfully used in F. candida, this being highly relevant as complementary information to the mechanistic level. The selected sampling times gave a good indication of the markers dynamic and can be reduced/adapted in future testing. Results showed that both metals caused an increase in the MT levels after 6 days but Cd acted as a stronger oxidant agent compared to Cu, i.e. causing higher damage. In sum, Cd mobilized/activated more antioxidant enzymes, but the increased activities were not enough to prevent LPO. This study confirms that the oxidative stress caused by Cd is higher despite the use of same reproduction EC50 indicating that toxicity seems more reversible for Cu than for Cd. Among others, GST and MT would be a good selection of biomarkers for Cd effect.

  19. Metallothionein 2A core promoter region genetic polymorphism and its impact on the risk, tumor behavior, and recurrences of sinonasal inverted papilloma (Schneiderian papilloma).

    PubMed

    Starska, Katarzyna; Bryś, Magdalena; Forma, Ewa; Olszewski, Jurek; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Lewy-Trenda, Iwona; Stasikowska-Kanicka, Olga; Danilewicz, Marian; Krześlak, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Inverted papillomas are a unique group of locally aggressive benign epithelial neoplasms in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses arising from the Schneiderian mucosa. Metallothioneins are sulfhydryl-rich heavy metal-binding proteins required for metal toxicity protection and regulation of biological mechanisms including proliferation and invasion. The goal of this study was to identify three SNPs at loci -5 A/G (rs28366003) and -209 A/G (rs1610216) in the core promoter region and at locus +838 C/G (rs10636) in 3'UTR region of the MT2A gene with IP risk and with tumor invasiveness according to Krouse staging. Genotyping was performed using the PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism technique in 130 genetically unrelated IP individuals, and 418 randomly selected healthy volunteers. The presence of the rs28366003 SNP was significantly related to the risk of IP within the present population-based case-control study. Compared to homozygous common allele carriers, heterozygosity and homozygosity for the G variant had a significantly increased risk of IP (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 7.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.01-14.91, p(dominant) < 0.001). Moreover, risk allele carriers demonstrated higher Krouse stage (pT1 vs. pT2-4) (OR = 19.32; 95% CI, 2.30-173.53; p < 0.0001), diffuse tumor growth (OR = 4.58; 95% CI, 1.70-12.11; p = 0.0008), bone destruction (OR = 4.13; 95% CI, 1.50-11.60; p = 0.003), and higher incidence of tumor recurrences (OR = 5.11; 95% CI, 1.68-15.20; p = 0.001). The findings suggest that MT2A gene variation rs28366003 may be implicated in the etiology of sinonasal inverted papilloma in a Polish population.

  20. The physiological role and toxicological significance of the non-metal-selective cadmium/copper-metallothionein isoform differ between embryonic and adult helicid snails.

    PubMed

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Schnegg, Raimund; Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; deVaufleury, Annette; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2017-09-01

    Metal regulation is essential for terrestrial gastropods to survive. In helicid snails, two metal-selective metallothionein (MT) isoforms with different functions are expressed. A cadmium-selective isoform (CdMT) plays a major role in Cd(2+) detoxification and stress response, whereas a copper-selective MT (CuMT) is involved in Cu homeostasis and hemocyanin synthesis. A third, non-metal-selective isoform, called Cd/CuMT, was first characterized in Cantareus aspersus. The aim of this study was to quantify the transcriptional activity of all three MT genes in unexposed and metal-exposed (Cd, Cu) embryonic Roman snails. In addition, the complete Cd/CuMT mRNA of the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) was characterized, and its expression quantified in unexposed and Cd-treated adult individuals. In embryos of Helix pomatia, the Cd/CuMT gene was induced upon Cu exposure. Its transcription levels were many times higher than that of the other two MT genes, and also exceeded by far the Cd/CuMT mRNA concentrations of adult snails. In the hepatopancreas of adult Roman snails, no Cd/CuMT could be detected at the protein level, irrespective of whether the snails had been exposed to Cd or not. This contrasts with the situation in the near relative, Cantareus aspersus. It appeared that the 3'-UTR of the Cd/CuMT mRNA differed largely between Cantareus aspersus and Helix pomatia, being larger in the latter species, with a number of putative binding sites for proteins and miRNAs known to inhibit mRNA translation. We suggest this as a possible mechanism responsible for the lack of Cd/CuMT protein expression in adult Roman snails. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metallothionein 1A polymorphisms may influence urine uric acid and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion in chronic lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-I; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2013-04-05

    Lead is a renal toxin, and susceptibility to lead varies between individuals. Metallothionein (MT) is known for its metal scavenging role. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of blood lead levels, urinary uric acid (UA) and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) in chronic occupational lead-exposed workers, and to study whether the association was influenced by MT1A gene polymorphisms. In this cross-sectional study, 412 lead-exposed workers participated. Their annual health examination data and renal function markers were collected after the Institutional Review Broad of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital approved the study and consent letters were obtained. From the blood samples, DNA was extracted and used for real-time PCR typing of 2 MT1A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs11640851 and rs8052394 on exons 2 and 3. Descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regressions were performed. There was a significant inverted relationship of creatinine-adjusted urine UA concentrations and the time-weighted index of cumulative blood lead levels (TWICL) that may be significantly influenced by the AC genotypes of rs11640851 in exon 2 and rs8052394 in exon 3. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the creatinine-adjusted urine NAG concentrations were shown to be influenced by the GG genotype of rs8052394 in exon 3, and were weakly increased with TWICL. Therefore, we concluded that the variations of MT1A SNPs may influence urine UA and NAG excretion in chronic lead-exposed workers, and urine creatinine-adjusted urine UA as a biomarker of lead toxicity should be considered.

  2. Coordinated responses of phytochelatin synthase and metallothionein genes in black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, exposed to cadmium and copper.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mendoza, Daniel; Moreno, Adriana Quiroz; Zapata-Perez, Omar

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the role of phytochelatins and metallothioneins in heavy metal tolerance of black mangrove Avicennia germinans, 3-month-old seedlings were exposed to cadmium or copper for 30 h, under hydroponic conditions. Degenerate Mt2 and PCS primers were synthesized based on amino acid and nucleotide alignment sequences reported for Mt2 and PCS in other plant species found in GenBank. Total RNA was isolated from A. germinans leaves and two partial fragments of metallothionein and phytochelatin synthase genes were isolated. Gene expression was evaluated with reverse transcripatase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification technique. Temporal analysis showed that low Cd2+ and Cu2+ concentrations caused a slight (but not significant) increase in AvMt2 expression after a 16 h exposure time, while AvPCS expression showed a significant increase under the same conditions but only after 4h. Results strongly suggest that the rapid increase in AvPCS expression may contribute to Cd2+ and Cu2+ detoxification. Moreover, we found that A. germinans has the capacity to over-express both genes (AvMt2 and AvPCS), which may constitute a coordinated detoxification response mechanism targeting non-essential metals. Nonetheless, our results confirm that AvPCS was the most active gene involved in the regulation of essential metals (e.g., Cu2+) in A. germinans leaves.

  3. Expression of metallothioneins I and II related to oxidative stress in the liver of aluminium-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Imen; Chaabane, Mariem; Elwej, Awatef; Boudawara, Ons; Abdelhedi, Sameh; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahya; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-10-01

    Hepatotoxicity, induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl3), has been well studied but there are no reports about liver metallothionein (MT) genes induction. Therefore, it is of interest to establish the mechanism involving the relation between MT gene expression levels and the oxidative stress status in hepatic cells of aluminium-treated rats. Aluminium (Al) was administered to rats in their drinking water at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for three weeks. AlCl3 provoked hepatotoxicity objectified by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyls (PCO) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), non-protein thiols (NPSH) and vitamin C. CAT and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were decreased while Mn-SOD gene expression, total Metallothionein content and MT I and MT II genes induction were increased. There are changes in plasma of some trace elements, albumin levels, transaminases, LDH and ALP activities. All these changes were supported by histopathological observations.

  4. An optimization procedure for determination of metallothionein by square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry: application to marine worms.

    PubMed

    El Hourch, Mohamed; Dudoit, Arnaud; Amiard, Jean-Claude

    2004-02-01

    Electrochemical determination of metallothionein (MT) is widely used for environmental studies. This article describes the development and optimization of the procedure for the quantification of metallothionein by square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry. The determination is based on the complexation of cisplatin and MT and the subsequent reduction of the complexes at the electrode. In order to achieve the highest possible sensitivity and resolution of the peak, an optimization of the experimental parameters has been carried out using experimental design methodology (response surface). Seven chemical and physical parameters, namely, pH, cisplatin concentration, buffer concentration, deposition potential, square wave frequency, amplitude of pulse, and step potential, have been optimized to give 9.0, 5.9 microM, 0.65 M, -0.2 mV, 229 Hz, 46 mV, and 2 mV, respectively. Method characterization has been performed, leading to a detection limit of 0.1 microg L(-1). Quantification of MT in polychaetes and comparison with the modified Brdicka procedure were also carried out.

  5. Cell Surface Display of Four Types of Solanum nigrum Metallothionein on Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Biosorption of Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qinguo; Zhang, Honghai; Guo, Dongge; Ma, Shisheng

    2016-05-28

    We displayed four types of Solanum nigrum metallothionein (SMT) for the first time on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using an α-agglutinin-based display system. The SMT genes were amplified by RT-PCR. The plasmid pYES2 was used to construct the expression vector. Transformed yeast strains were confirmed by PCR amplification and custom sequencing. Surface-expressed metallothioneins were indirectly indicated by the enhanced cadmium sorption capacity. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to examine the concentration of Cd(2+) in this study. The transformed yeast strains showed much higher resistance ability to Cd(2+) compared with the control. Strikingly, their Cd(2+) accumulation was almost twice as much as that of the wild-type yeast cells. Furthermore, surface-engineered yeast strains could effectively adsorb ultra-trace cadmium and accumulate Cd(2+) under a wide range of pH levels, from 3 to 7, without disturbing the Cu(2+) and Hg(2+). Four types of surfaceengineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were constructed and they could be used to purify Cd(2+)-contaminated water and adsorb ultra-trace cadmium effectively. The surface-engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains would be useful tools for the bioremediation and biosorption of environmental cadmium contaminants.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain WI-1 from Mandovi estuary possesses metallothionein to alleviate lead toxicity and promotes plant growth.

    PubMed

    Naik, Milind Mohan; Pandey, Anju; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2012-05-01

    A bacterial isolate from Mandovi estuary Goa, India, which can resist 0.6mM lead nitrate in Tris-buffered minimal medium was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and designated as strain WI-1. PCR amplification clearly revealed presence of bmtA gene encoding bacterial metallothionein responsible for metal sequestration and AAS analysis proved intracellular bioaccumulation of 26.5mg lead/gram dry weight of cells. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed lead induced bacterial metallothionein with molecular weight 11 kDa, which corresponds to the predicted bmtA gene. Significant growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum NCIM 1008 by siderophore-rich culture supernatant was also observed. Pot experiment with Pisum sativum L inoculated with this strain revealed higher seed germination percentage and significant growth promotion than uninoculated seeds in a soil amended with 7.704 g/kg lead, which indicates amelioration of lead toxicity. This lead resistant strain showed cross tolerance to cadmium, mercury and Tributyltin chloride (TBTC) along with resistance to multiple antibiotics.

  7. Characterization of calcineurin-dependent response element binding protein and its involvement in copper-metallothionein gene expression in Neurospora

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Kalari Satish; Ravi Kumar, B.; Siddavattam, Dayananda; Subramanyam, Chivukula . E-mail: csubramanyam@hotmail.com

    2006-07-07

    In continuation of our recent observations indicating the presence of a lone calcineurin-dependent response element (CDRE) in the -3730 bp upstream region of copper-induced metallothionein (CuMT) gene of Neurospora [K.S. Kumar, S. Dayananda, C. Subramanyam, Copper alone, but not oxidative stress, induces copper-metallothionein gene in Neurospora crassa, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 242 (2005) 45-50], we isolated and characterized the CDRE-binding protein. The cloned upstream region of CuMT gene was used as the template to specifically amplify CDRE element, which was immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B for use as the affinity matrix to purify the CDRE binding protein from nuclear extracts obtained from Neurospora cultures grown in presence of copper. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the affinity purified protein revealed the presence of a single 17 kDa protein, which was identified and characterized by MALDI-TOF. Peptide mass finger printing of tryptic digests and analysis of the 17 kDa protein matched with the regulatory {beta}-subunit of calcineurin (Ca{sup 2+}-calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase). Parallel identification of nuclear localization signals in this protein by in silico analysis suggests a putative role for calcineurin in the regulation of CuMT gene expression.

  8. Effects of pergolide mesilate on metallothionein mRNAs expression in a mouse model for Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shin-ichi; Hirai, Kohji; Tokuda, Ei-ichi

    2009-10-01

    Dopamine agonists have neuroprotective properties in addition to their original pharmacologic function. We examined the effects of pergolide mesilate (PM) on the levels of metallothionein mRNA expression and lipid peroxidation in the corpus striata of 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsonian mice. Mice were administered normal saline (vehicle as a control), PM, or MPTP. A consecutive 7-d administration of MPTP via a gastric tube at a dose of 30 mg/kg significantly decreased metallothionein (MT)-I mRNA expression but did not influence MT-III mRNA expression. Lipid peroxidation, measured as the production of malondialdehyde reactive substances, did not increase after MPTP treatment. Although PM administration alone did not effect MT-I expression, an additional consecutive 7-d administration of PM (30 mug/kg) following MPTP treatment recovered the decreased MT-I level and increased MT-III expression. Lipid peroxidation was significantly suppressed. These results suggest that PM exerts an antioxidative property through the induction of MT-I and MT-III mRNAs simultaneously in response to cellular and/or tissue injury.

  9. Expression pattern of a type-2 metallothionein gene in a wild population of the psammophyte Silene nicaeensis.

    PubMed

    Cozza, Radiana; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Silene nicaeensis is a wild Mediterranean grass often restricted to sandy sea shore and exhibiting an excellent tolerance to drought and salinity. Within Silene genus, several heavy metal-tolerant ecotypes have been identified, but information on molecular basis of such metal tolerance is still limited. Conceivably, salt-tolerant plants may represent a powerful tool for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites in saline environment. Here, a gene encoding a metallothionein protein was isolated from S. nicaeensis. Sequence analysis identified the motifs characteristic of type II metallothionein and designated as SnMT2. SnMT2 expression was investigated in plants collected from two sites differing in Metal Pollution Index (MPI). SnMT2 expression by polymerase chain reaction-based semi-quantitative transcript analysis showed a high accumulation in the leaves; in situ hybridization showed a steady localization of SnMT2 mRNA in the vascular bundle and in proliferating tissues. Moreover, an increase of SnMT2 was observed in the root of plants collected from area with higher MPI. The putative role of SnMT2 in metal tolerance is discussed.

  10. Cadmium binding studies to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus metallothionein by electrospray mass spectrometry and circular dichroism spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ngu, Thanh T.; Sturzenbaum, Stephen R.; Stillman, Martin J. . E-mail: Martin.Stillman@uwo.ca

    2006-12-08

    The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus has been found to inhabit cadmium-rich soils and accumulate cadmium within its tissues. Two metallothionein (MT) isoforms (1 and 2) have been identified and cloned from L. rubellus. In this study, we address the metalation status, metal coordination, and structure of recombinant MT-2 from L. rubellus using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), UV absorption, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. This is the first study to show the detailed mass and CD spectral properties for the important cadmium-containing earthworm MT. We report that the 20-cysteine L. rubellus MT-2 binds seven Cd{sup 2+} ions. UV absorption and CD spectroscopy and ESI-MS pH titrations show a distinct biphasic demetalation reaction, which we propose results from the presence of two metal-thiolate binding domains. We propose stoichiometries of Cd{sub 3}Cys{sub 9} and Cd{sub 4}Cys{sub 11} based on the presence of 20 cysteines split into two isolated regions of the sequence with 11 cysteines in the N-terminal and 9 cysteines in the C-terminal. The CD spectrum reported is distinctly different from any other metallothionein known suggesting quite different binding site structure for the peptide.

  11. Cloning, characterization and gene expression of a metallothionein isoform in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule after cadmium or mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Paul-Pont, Ika; Gonzalez, Patrice; Montero, Natalia; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Baudrimont, Magalie

    2012-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) genes encode crucial metal-binding proteins ubiquitously expressed in living organisms and which play important roles in homeostasis of essential metals and detoxification processes. Here, the molecular organization of the first metallothionein gene of the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule and its expression after cadmium (Cd) or mercury (Hg) exposures were determined. The resulting sequence (Cemt1) exhibits unusual features. The full length cDNA encodes a protein of 73 amino acids with nine classical Cys-X((1-3))-Cys motifs, but also one Cys-Cys not generally found in molluscan MT. Moreover, characterization of the molecular organization of the Cemt1 gene revealed two different alleles (A1 and A2) with length differences due to large deletion events in their intronic sequences involving direct Short Interspersed repeated Elements (SINE), while their exonic sequences were identical. To our knowledge, such large excision mechanisms have never before been reported in a bivalve gene sequence. After 10 days of Cd exposure at environmentally relevant doses, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a strong induction of Cemt1 in gills of C. edule. Surprisingly, neither induction of the Cemt1 gene nor of MT protein was shown after Hg exposure, despite the fact that this organism is able to bioaccumulate a high amount of this trace metal which is theoretically one of the most powerful inducers of MT biosynthesis.

  12. Whole‐cell biosensors for detection of heavy metal ions in environmental samples based on metallothionein promoters from Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Francisco; Turkewitz, Aaron P.; Martín‐González, Ana; Gutiérrez, Juan‐Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Summary Heavy metals are among the most serious pollutants, and thus there is a need to develop sensitive and rapid biomonitoring methods for heavy metals in the environment. Critical parameters such as bioavailability, toxicity and genotoxicity cannot be tested using chemical analysis, but only can be assayed using living cells. A whole‐cell biosensor uses the whole cell as a single reporter incorporating both bioreceptor and transducer elements. In the present paper, we report results with two gene constructs using the Tetrahymena thermophila MTT1 and MTT5 metallothionein promoters linked with the eukaryotic luciferase gene as a reporter. This is the first report of a ciliated protozoan used as a heavy metal whole‐cell biosensor. T. thermophila transformed strains were created as heavy metal whole‐cell biosensors, and turn on bioassays were designed to detect, in about 2 h, the bioavailable heavy metals in polluted soil or aquatic samples. Validation of these whole‐cell biosensors was carried out using both artificial and natural samples, including methods for detecting false positives and negatives. Comparison with other published cell biosensors indicates that the Tetrahymena metallothionein promoter‐based biosensors appear to be the most sensitive eukaryotic metal biosensors and compare favourably with some prokaryotic biosensors as well. PMID:21366892

  13. High cadmium-binding ability of a novel Colocasia esculenta metallothionein increases cadmium tolerance in Escherichia coli and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ok; Patel, Darshan H; Lee, Dae-Seok; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence in vivo as to the functional roles and binding properties to cadmium (Cd) of type-2 plants metallothionein (MT) has been limited thus far. We investigated the biological role of metallothionein from Colocasia esculenta (CeMT2b) in Escherichia coli and tobacco, and developed a new model for the relationship between Cd tolerance and Cd-binding ability. Heterologous expression of CeMT2b in Escherichia coli greatly enhanced Cd tolerance and accumulated Cd content as compared to control cells. The molecular weight of CeMT2b increased with Cd, and CeMT2b bound up to 5.96±1 molar ratio (Cd/protein). Under Cd stress, transgenic tobacco plants displayed much better seedling growth and high Cd accumulation than the wild type. The presence of an extra CXC motif in CeMT2b contributed to the enhanced Cd-tolerance. The present study provides the first insight into the ability of type-2 plant MT to bind physiological Cd.

  14. Influence of cadmium on metallothionein expression and products of lipid peroxidation in the organs of hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas).

    PubMed

    Linšak, Dijana Tomić; Linšak, Zeljko; Spirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Glad, Marin; Cenov, Arijana; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Milin, Cedomila

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium occurs naturally in the environment and as an anthropogenic pollutant. Exposure to low concentrations of cadmium is inevitable and may produce toxic effects. Another important aspect of cadmium toxicity is its interaction, often antagonistic, with essential elements such as selenium. The aim of this study was to highlight the risks of long-term exposure to low cadmium concentrations, using a scientific and chemical approach and hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) as model organisms in a field study. Two study areas were monitored. Levels of cadmium and selenium were quantified in the organs of hares, the expression of metallothioneins I + II and the products of lipid peroxidation were determined. The median cadmium concentrations (wet weight) in the muscle, liver, kidney and brain of hares from an exposed group ranged from 0.033 to 0.037, 0.763 to 1.054, 3.090 to 16.594 and 0.016 to 0.087 µg g(-1), respectively; whereas, the median selenium concentrations (wet weight) ranged from 0.100 to 0.108, 0.153 to 0.332, 0.677 to 0.701 and 0.078 to 0.116 µg g(-1), respectively. Expression of the metallothioneins I + II proteins was observed in tissues. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents, increased with the cadmium concentration. Further research on long-term exposure to low concentrations of cadmium in the environment is needed.

  15. Evaluation of metallothionein formation as a proxy for zinc absorption in an in vitro digestion/caco-2 cell culture model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Caco-2 cell metallothionein (MT) formation was studied to determine if MT could be used as a proxy for zinc (Zn) absorption in a cell culture model. MT intracellular concentration was determined by using a cadmium/hemoglobin affinity assay. Cellular Zn uptake was determined in acid digests (5% HNO3)...

  16. A comparison of the effects of penicillamine, trientine, and trithiomolybdate on ( sup 35 S)-labeled metallothionein in vitro; implications for Wilson's disease therapy

    SciTech Connect

    McQuaid, A.; Mason, J. )

    1991-02-01

    The synthesis of radiolabeled metallothionein was induced in rats in vivo by the injection of CuSO{sub 4} and ({sup 35}S)-cysteine. Treatment of 'cold' rat liver cytosol 'spiked' with purified ({sup 35}S) metallothionein with Penicillamine and Trientine showed that even at relatively high concentrations (up to 50 mg/g liver, wet weight), these compounds had no effect on the copper peak or the position of the ({sup 35S}) label in the cytosol eluate after Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. By contrast, incubation of the 'spiked' liver cytosol with Trithiomolybdate, even at relatively low concentrations (0.5 mg/g liver, wet weight), resulted in a transfer of metallothionein copper to high molecular weight protein fractions; the position of the ({sup 35}S) apoprotein was unaffected. This copper 'stripping' effect on metallothionein supports clinical and other evidence that thiomolybdates have a genuine decoppering effect in vivo whereas Penicillamine and Trientine have another mode of action and indicates that thiomolybdates might provide a more rational alternate therapy for Wilson's disease patients.

  17. Assessing Gravitropic Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Barker, Richard; Cox, Benjamin; Silber, Logan; Sangari, Arash; Assadi, Amir; Masson, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was the first higher organism to have its genome sequenced and is now widely regarded as the model dicot. Like all plants, Arabidopsis develops distinct growth patterns in response to different environmental stimuli. This can be seen in the gravitropic response of roots. Methods to investigate this particular tropism are presented here. First, we describe a high-throughput time-lapse photographic analysis of root growth and curvature response to gravistimulation allowing the quantification of gravitropic kinetics and growth rate at high temporal resolution. Second, we present a protocol that allows a quantitative evaluation of gravitropic sensitivity using a homemade 2D clinostat. Together, these approaches allow an initial comparative analysis of the key phenomena associated with root gravitropism between different genotypes and/or accessions.

  18. Asparagine Metabolic Pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gaufichon, Laure; Rothstein, Steven J; Suzuki, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Inorganic nitrogen in the form of ammonium is assimilated into asparagine via multiple steps involving glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and asparagine synthetase (AS) in Arabidopsis. The asparagine amide group is liberated by the reaction catalyzed by asparaginase (ASPG) and also the amino group of asparagine is released by asparagine aminotransferase (AsnAT) for use in the biosynthesis of amino acids. Asparagine plays a primary role in nitrogen recycling, storage and transport in developing and germinating seeds, as well as in vegetative and senescence organs. A small multigene family encodes isoenzymes of each step of asparagine metabolism in Arabidopsis, except for asparagine aminotransferase encoded by a single gene. The aim of this study is to highlight the structure of the genes and encoded enzyme proteins involved in asparagine metabolic pathways; the regulation and role of different isogenes; and kinetic and physiological properties of encoded enzymes in different tissues and developmental stages.

  19. Cold tolerance in Arabidopsis kamchatica.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jessica J; Takebayashi, Naoki; Sformo, Todd; Wolf, Diana E

    2015-03-01

    • Cold tolerance is a critically important factor determining how plants will be influenced by climate change, including changes in snowcover and extreme weather events. Although a great deal is known about cold tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is not highly cold tolerant. This study examined cold tolerance and its genetic diversity in an herbaceous subarctic relative, Arabidopsis kamchatica, which generally occurs in much colder climates.• Thermal analysis and electrolyte leakage were used to estimate supercooling points and lethal temperatures (LT50) in cold-acclimated and nonacclimated families from three populations of A. kamchatica.• Arabidopsis kamchatica was highly cold tolerant, with a mean LT50 of -10.8°C when actively growing, and -21.8°C when cold acclimated. It also was able to supercool to very low temperatures. Surprisingly, actively growing plants supercooled more than acclimated plants (-14.7 vs. -12.7°C). There was significant genetic variation for cold tolerance both within and among populations. However, both cold tolerance and genetic diversity were highest in the midlatitude population rather than in the far north, indicating that adaptations to climate change are most likely to arise in the center of the species range rather than at the edges.• Arabidopsis kamchatica is highly cold tolerant throughout its range. It is far more freeze tolerant than A. thaliana, and supercooled to lower temperatures, suggesting that A. kamchatica provides a valuable complement to A. thaliana for cold tolerance research. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. LEAFDATA: a literature-curated database for Arabidopsis leaf development.

    PubMed

    Szakonyi, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, biological databases provide an easy access to a wide variety of scientific data. The vast quantity of literature calls for curated databases where existing knowledge is carefully organized in order to aid novel discoveries. Leaves, the main photosynthetic organs are not only vital for plant growth but also essential for maintaining the global ecosystem by producing oxygen and food. Therefore, studying and understanding leaf formation and growth are key objectives in biology. Arabidopsis thaliana to this date remains the prime experimental model organism in plant science. LEAFDATA was created as an easily accessible and searchable web tool to assemble a relevant collection of Arabidopsis leaf literature. LEAFDATA currently contains 13,553 categorized statements from 380 processed publications. LEAFDATA can be searched for genes of interest using Arabidopsis Genome Initiative identifiers, for selected papers by means of PubMed IDs, authors and specific keywords. The results page contains details of the original publications, text fragments from the curated literature grouped according to information types and direct links to PubMed pages of the original papers. The LEAFDATA database offers access to searchable entries curated from a large number of scientific publications. Due to the unprecedented details of annotations and the fact that LEAFDATA already provides records about approximately 1600 individual loci, this database is useful for the entire plant research community.

  1. Two Metallothionein Genes in Oxya chinensis: Molecular Characteristics, Expression Patterns and Roles in Heavy Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Kou, Lihua; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jianzhen; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2014-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. In the present study, we cloned two MT genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) from Oxya chinensis, analyzed the expression patterns of the OcMT transcripts in different tissues and at varying developmental stages using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), evaluated the functions of these two MTs using RNAi and recombinant proteins in an E. coli expression system. The full-length cDNAs of OcMT1 and OcMT2 encoded 40 and 64 amino acid residues, respectively. We found Cys-Cys, Cys-X-Cys and Cys-X-Y-Z-Cys motifs in OcMT1 and OcMT2. These motifs might serve as primary chelating sites, as in other organisms. These characteristics suggest that OcMT1 and OcMT2 may be involved in heavy metal detoxification by capturing the metals. Two OcMT were expressed at all developmental stages, and the highest levels were found in the eggs. Both transcripts were expressed in all eleven tissues examined, with the highest levels observed in the brain and optic lobes, followed by the fat body. The expression of OcMT2 was also relatively high in the ovaries. The functions of OcMT1 and OcMT2 were explored using RNA interference (RNAi) and different concentrations and treatment times for the three heavy metals. Our results indicated that mortality increased significantly from 8.5% to 16.7%, and this increase was both time- and dose-dependent. To evaluate the abilities of these two MT proteins to confer heavy metal tolerance to E. coli, the bacterial cells were transformed with pET-28a plasmids containing the OcMT genes. The optical densities of both the MT-expressing and control cells decreased with increasing concentrations of CdCl2. Nevertheless, the survival rates of the MT-overexpressing cells were higher than those of the controls. Our results suggest that these two genes play important roles in heavy metal detoxification in O. chinensis. PMID:25391131

  2. Combined nephrotoxicity of methylmercury, lead, and cadmium in Pekin ducks: Metallothionein, metal interactions, and histopathology

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.V.V.P.; Jordan, S.A.; Bhatnagar, M.K. )

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the metallothionein (MT) levels and accumulation of mercury, lead, and cadmium, as well as their interaction with tissue zinc, copper, and iron, and the histopathological changes in kidneys of ducks exposed to methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl), lead acetate (PbAc), and cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}), singly or in combination for 13 wk. Forty-eight female Pekin ducks, divided into 8 groups of 6 birds each, were fed diets containing no added metals (control), 8 mg MeHgCl/kg feed, 80 mg PbAc/kg feed, 80 mg CdCl{sub 2}/kg feed, 8 mg MeHgCl + 80 mg PbAc/kg feed, 8 mg MeHgCl + 80 mg CdCL{sub 2}/kg feed, 80 mg PbAc + 80 mg CdCl{sub 2}/kg feed, and 8 mg MeHgCl + 80 mg PbAc/kg feed + 80 mg CdCl{sub 2}/kg feed. Cadmium (Cd) when administered alone or in combination caused a 60-fold increase in kidney MT levels, while methyl-mercury (MeHg) or lead (Pb) administration caused a threefold increase in kidney MT levels. No significant changes in kidney MT levels were observed when metals were administered concurrently when compared with single-treatment groups. Residue analysis revealed accumulation of administered metals in kidney tissue. However, lead administration resulted in accumulation of small amounts of this element in kidney tissue. Simultaneous administration of MeHgCl and PbAc significantly increased the accumulation of lead in kidney when compared with PbAc-treated group. Cadmium when administered alone or in combination caused an increase in the levels of zinc and copper in kidney. Administration of MeHgCl or PbAc either alone or in combination caused increased iron levels in kidney, while cadmium administration either alone or in combination caused decreased iron levels. Administration of cadmium either alone or in combination caused degenerative changes in kidney proximal tubules.

  3. Effects of organism preparation in metallothionein and metal analysis in marine invertebrates for biomonitoring marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Oaten, J F P; Hudson, M D; Jensen, A C; Williams, I D

    2015-06-15

    Metallothionein (MT) is established as a potentially useful biomarker for monitoring aquatic pollution. This paper addresses widespread inconsistencies in storage conditions, tissue type selection and pre-treatment of samples before MT and metal analysis in biomarker studies. This variation hampers comparability and so the widespread implementation of this monitoring approach. Actively sampled Mytilus edulis in Southampton Water, UK were exposed to different storage temperatures, a variety of tissue types were analysed, and various pre-treatments of transportation on ice, transportation in seawater, depuration, and rapid dissection in the field were examined. Storage temperatures of -20 °C were found to be adequate for periods of at least ten weeks, as MT was not reduced by protein degradation compared with samples kept at -80 °C. Whole tissue and digestive gland concentrations of MT and metals were significantly positively correlated and directly relatable. MT in the digestive gland appeared to be more responsive to metals than in whole tissue, where it may be diluted, masking MT responses. However, longer study periods may suffer the effects of mass changes to the digestive gland, which alters MT concentration, and it may therefore be advisable to measure whole tissue. Depuration and transportation in seawater reduced both MT and metal concentrations in the digestive gland, and few correlations between MT and metals were identified for these treatments. It is therefore recommended that: i) samples are transported to the laboratory on ice and dissected as soon as possible thereafter, ii) depuration should not be used when examining MT response to metal exposure until further research clarifying its utility is reported, iii) either whole tissue or the digestive gland can be used to measure MT, though whole tissue may be preferable on long-term studies, and iv) organisms can be stored at -20 °C before analysis for up to ten weeks. These practices can be applied

  4. Induction of metallothionein in mouse cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose thimerosal injection.

    PubMed

    Minami, Takeshi; Miyata, Eriko; Sakamoto, Yamato; Yamazaki, Hideo; Ichida, Seiji

    2010-04-01

    Thimerosal, an ethyl mercury compound, is used worldwide as a vaccine preservative. We previously observed that the mercury concentration in mouse brains did not increase with the clinical dose of thimerosal injection, but the concentration increased in the brain after the injection of thimerosal with lipopolysaccharide, even if a low dose of thimerosal was administered. Thimerosal may penetrate the brain, but is undetectable when a clinical dose of thimerosal is injected; therefore, the induction of metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was observed in the cerebellum and cerebrum of mice after thimerosal injection, as MT is an inducible protein. MT-1 mRNA was expressed at 6 and 9 h in both the cerebrum and cerebellum, but MT-1 mRNA expression in the cerebellum was three times higher than that in the cerebrum after the injection of 12 microg/kg thimerosal. MT-2 mRNA was not expressed until 24 h in both organs. MT-3 mRNA was expressed in the cerebellum from 6 to 15 h after the injection, but not in the cerebrum until 24 h. MT-1 and MT-3 mRNAs were expressed in the cerebellum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MT-1 protein was detected from 6 to 72 h in the cerebellum after 12 microg/kg of thimerosal was injected and peaked at 10 h. MT-2 was detected in the cerebellum only at 10 h. In the cerebrum, little MT-1 protein was detected at 10 and 24 h, and there were no peaks of MT-2 protein in the cerebrum. In conclusion, MT-1 and MT-3 mRNAs but not MT-2 mRNA are easily expressed in the cerebellum rather than in the cerebrum by the injection of low-dose thimerosal. It is thought that the cerebellum is a sensitive organ against thimerosal. As a result of the present findings, in combination with the brain pathology observed in patients diagnosed with autism, the present study helps to support the possible biological plausibility for how low-dose exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines may be associated with autism.

  5. Toxicity, silver accumulation and metallothionein induction in freshwater rainbow trout during exposure to different silver salts

    SciTech Connect

    Hogstrand, C.; Galvez, F.; Wood, C.M.

    1996-07-01

    Static-renewal 168-h toxicity tests of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}), silver chloride (AgCl{sub n}), and silver thiosulfate (Ag(S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub n}) with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) were performed by standard methods. Because of low solubility of AgCl(s), bioassays for AgCl{sub n} were performed in two separate ways. In one test series, AgCl(s) was added to freshwater and in another, AgCl{sub n}(aq) was generated by adding AgNO{sub 3} to freshwater supplemented with 50 mM NaCl. Concentrations of Ag and metallothionein (MT) were analyzed in gills and livers of fish that survived the exposures. Although Ag added as AgNO{sub 3} was found to be highly toxic to rainbow trout (168-h LC50 = 9.1 {micro}g Ag L{sup {minus}1}), the toxicities of the other Ag salts were low. The 168-h LC50 for Ag(S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub n} was 137,000 {micro}g Ag L{sup {minus}1} and no mortality was observed in AgCl{sub n} (100,000 {micro}g Ag L{sup {minus}1}). Exposure to AgNO{sub 3}, Ag(S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub n}, or AgCl{sub n} caused accumulation of Ag and induction of MT. Highest Ag levels were found in livers of trout exposed to 164,000 {micro}g Ag L{sup {minus}1} as Ag(S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub n}. In these fish, the hepatic Ag concentration was increased 335 times from the control value. The MT levels in gills and liver increased with the water Ag concentration and the highest level of MT was found in liver of fish exposed to Ag(S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub n}.

  6. Fine-tuning metallothionein as a biomarker for arsenic exposure in feral juvenile winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Jessen-Eller, K.; Crivello, J.

    1995-12-31

    Metallothionein (MT) is a promising biomarker for assessing metal bioavailability and synergism impact on commercially important species such as the winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus). The authors investigated whether arsenic induces in juvenile winter flounder from the Long Island Sound because these fish showed high levels of hepatic arsenic (up to 270 ppm; mean 15 ppm). Hepatic arsenic concentrations increased in a dose dependent manner 24 hr. after juveniles (mean length of 120 mm) were subcutaneously implanted with silastic tubing containing sodium arsenite (1.5, 3.0, 6.0 and 16.0 umols/g fish). Death occurred when hepatic arsenic levels exceeded 18 ppm with 0%, 18%, 20%, and 40% mortality at each respective treatment. Both the MT message and protein were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) above baseline (7.5 fold and 2 fold respective increase) across all four treatments. However, total arsenic levels did not significantly differ from the controls at the 1.5 umols/g fish level. This suggested that MT is a more sensitive indicator of arsenic exposure than the total liver arsenic burden when the level of exposure is environmentally realistic (e.g. near baseline). It also showed that the MT cellular response had reached its maximum at the 1.5 umols/g fish sodium arsenite level. When the experiment was repeated with a lower dose regime (0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 umols/g fish) and smaller fish (mean length of 80 mm), the baseline MT message level was the same as in the previous experiment. Also, as in the previous experiment, arsenic accumulated up to 100 ppm and 21% mortality occurred at the 3.0 umols/g fish treatment. The two experiments differed that the MT levels of the vector control were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than baseline. This resulted in a respective dose dependent increase MT message of 8, 100 and 1,000 fold above the vector control and vastly improved MT`s sensitivity as a biomarker.

  7. Metal binding and antioxidant properties of chimeric tri- and tetra-domained metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Jean-Luc; Baudrimont, Magalie; Carrier, Patrick; Peltier, Gilles; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2008-05-01

    An unusual tri-domained (alpha-beta-beta) natural oyster metallothionein (MT) is known, and non-oxidative MT dimers occur in vivo in mollusk species and in mammals. To assess the respective role of the MT domains, two chimeric MTs were constructed: a tetra-domained oyster MT corresponding to the alpha-beta-alpha-beta structure, in order to mimic the natural non-oxidative dimeric form, and a tri-domained alpha-beta-alpha oyster MT. Metal binding and putative antioxidant properties of these two chimeric MTs were investigated using expression of the related genes in the bacteria Escherichia coli. In a wild-type strain these MTs could efficiently bind Cd. In a superoxide dismutase (sodA sodB) null mutant, the tri-domained MT was found to exacerbate Cd toxicity whereas the tetra-domained MT efficiently protected bacteria from Cd. The paradoxical toxicity displayed by the tri-domained MT upon Cd contamination was linked to the generation of superoxide radicals generated by a mechanism which most probably involves a copper-redox cycling reaction, since a Cd-contaminated sodA sodB strain expressing this MT produced 4 times more O2(-) than the control bacteria, and MT toxicity disappeared in the presence of bathocuproine disulfonic acid, a copper chelator. In contrast, the tetra-domained form did not. Interestingly, in bacteria producing superoxide dismutase but hypersensitive to oxidative stress due to either mutations in thioredoxin and glutathione reductase pathways (WM104 mutant) or to a lack of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gshA mutant), both chimeric MTs were protecting against Cd toxicity. However, an unexpected lack of antioxidant function was observed for both chimeric MTs, which were found to enhance the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide in WM104, or that of menadione in QC1726. Altogether, our results suggest that superoxide dismutase activity counteracts the potential prooxidative effect of the tri-domained MT mediated by Cu ions and that the tetra

  8. The Fungus Tremella mesenterica Encodes the Longest Metallothionein Currently Known: Gene, Protein and Metal Binding Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Weiyu; Calatayud, Sara; Palacios, Òscar; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Fungal Cu-thioneins, and among them, the paradigmatic Neurospora crassa metallothionein (MT) (26 residues), were once considered as the shortest MTs -the ubiquitous, versatile metal-binding proteins- among all organisms, and thus representatives of their primeval forms. Nowadays, fungal MTs of diverse lengths and sequence features are known, following the huge heterogeneity of the Kingdom of Fungi. At the opposite end of N. crassa MT, the recently reported Cryptococcus neoformans CnMT1 and CnMT2 (122 and 186 aa) constitute the longest reported fungal MTs, having been identified as virulence factors of this pathogen. CnMTs are high-capacity Cu-thioneins that appear to be built by tandem amplification of a basic unit, a 7-Cys segment homologous to N. crassa MT. Here, we report the in silico, in vivo and in vitro study of a still longer fungal MT, belonging to Tremella mesenterica (TmMT), a saprophytic ascomycete. The TmMT gene has 10 exons, and it yields a 779-bp mature transcript that encodes a 257 residue-long protein. This MT is also built by repeated fragments, but of variable number of Cys: six units of the 7-Cys building blocks-CXCX3CSCPPGXCXCAXCP-, two fragments of six Cys, plus three Cys at the N-terminus. TmMT metal binding abilities have been analyzed through the spectrophotometric and spectrometric characterization of its recombinant Zn-, Cd- and Cu-complexes. Results allow it to be unambiguous classified as a Cu-thionein, also of extraordinary coordinating capacity. According to this feature, when the TmMT cDNA is expressed in MT-devoid yeast cells, it is capable of restoring a high Cu tolerance level. Since it is not obvious that T. mesenterica shares the same physiological needs for a high capacity Cu-binding protein with C. neoformans, the existence of this peculiar MT might be better explained on the basis of a possible role in Cu-handling for the Cu-enzymes responsible in lignin degradation pathways. PMID:26882011

  9. The Fungus Tremella mesenterica Encodes the Longest Metallothionein Currently Known: Gene, Protein and Metal Binding Characterization.

    PubMed

    Iturbe-Espinoza, Paul; Gil-Moreno, Selene; Lin, Weiyu; Calatayud, Sara; Palacios, Òscar; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Fungal Cu-thioneins, and among them, the paradigmatic Neurospora crassa metallothionein (MT) (26 residues), were once considered as the shortest MTs--the ubiquitous, versatile metal-binding proteins--among all organisms, and thus representatives of their primeval forms. Nowadays, fungal MTs of diverse lengths and sequence features are known, following the huge heterogeneity of the Kingdom of Fungi. At the opposite end of N. crassa MT, the recently reported Cryptococcus neoformans CnMT1 and CnMT2 (122 and 186 aa) constitute the longest reported fungal MTs, having been identified as virulence factors of this pathogen. CnMTs are high-capacity Cu-thioneins that appear to be built by tandem amplification of a basic unit, a 7-Cys segment homologous to N. crassa MT. Here, we report the in silico, in vivo and in vitro study of a still longer fungal MT, belonging to Tremella mesenterica (TmMT), a saprophytic ascomycete. The TmMT gene has 10 exons, and it yields a 779-bp mature transcript that encodes a 257 residue-long protein. This MT is also built by repeated fragments, but of variable number of Cys: six units of the 7-Cys building blocks--CXCX3CSCPPGXCXCAXCP-, two fragments of six Cys, plus three Cys at the N-terminus. TmMT metal binding abilities have been analyzed through the spectrophotometric and spectrometric characterization of its recombinant Zn-, Cd- and Cu-complexes. Results allow it to be unambiguous classified as a Cu-thionein, also of extraordinary coordinating capacity. According to this feature, when the TmMT cDNA is expressed in MT-devoid yeast cells, it is capable of restoring a high Cu tolerance level. Since it is not obvious that T. mesenterica shares the same physiological needs for a high capacity Cu-binding protein with C. neoformans, the existence of this peculiar MT might be better explained on the basis of a possible role in Cu-handling for the Cu-enzymes responsible in lignin degradation pathways.

  10. Intracellular sequestration of zinc, cadmium and silver in Hebeloma mesophaeum and characterization of its metallothionein genes.

    PubMed

    Sácký, Jan; Leonhardt, Tereza; Borovička, Jan; Gryndler, Milan; Briksí, Aleš; Kotrba, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    Sequestration of intracellular heavy metals in eukaryotes involves compartmentalization and binding with cytosolic, cysteine-rich metallothionein (MT) peptides. We examined the roles of these processes in handling of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and silver (Ag) in sporocarps and a metal-exposed extraradical mycelium of Hebeloma mesophaeum, the Zn-accumulating ectomycorrhizal (EM) species frequently associated with metal disturbed sites. Size exclusion chromatography revealed that the majority of Zn and Cd in the sporocarps and mycelium was contained in a low molecular mass fraction attributable to compartmentalized metal. The staining of hyphal cells with the Zn-specific Zinquin and Cd-specific Leadmium fluorescent tracers labeled Zn and Cd in small, punctuated vesicles and vacuoles, respectively. By contrast, the sporocarp and mycelium Ag was associated with cysteine-rich, 5-kDa peptides. The peptides of the same size were also identified in minor Zn and Cd complexes from the metal-exposed mycelium. We have further isolated and characterized HmMT1, HmMT2 and HmMT3 genes coding for different 5-kDa MTs of H. mesophaeum collected at a lead smelter site. Heterologous complementation assays in metal-sensitive yeast mutants indicated that HmMTs encode functional, metal-specific peptides: only HmMT1 was able to complement sensitivity to Zn; HmMT1 conferred higher tolerance to Cd and Cu than HmMT2 or HmMT3; and both HmMT2 and HmMT3, but not HmMT1, conferred increased tolerance to Ag. The presence of HmMT1 and HmMT3, but not HmMT2, was also confirmed in a H. mesophaeum isolate from an unpolluted site. Gene expression analysis in the extraradical mycelium of this isolate revealed that the transcription of HmMT1 was preferentially induced in the presence of Zn and Cd, while Ag was a stronger inducer of HmMT3. Altogether, these results improve our understanding of the handling of intracellular Zn, Cd and Ag in Hebeloma and represent the first evidence suggesting involvement of MTs

  11. Large-scale atlas of microarray data reveals biological landscape of gene expression in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transcriptome datasets from thousands of samples of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been collectively generated by multiple individual labs. Although integration and meta-analysis of these samples has become routine in the plant research community, it is often hampered by the lack of metad...

  12. Variability and Constancy in Cellular Growth of Arabidopsis Sepals.

    PubMed

    Tauriello, Gerardo; Meyer, Heather M; Smith, Richard S; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Roeder, Adrienne H K

    2015-12-01

    Growth of tissues is highly reproducible; yet, growth of individual cells in a tissue is highly variable, and neighboring cells can grow at different rates. We analyzed the growth of epidermal cell lineages in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sepal to determine how the growth curves of individual cell lineages relate to one another in a developing tissue. To identify underlying growth trends, we developed a continuous displacement field to predict spatially averaged growth rates. We showed that this displacement field accurately describes the growth of sepal cell lineages and reveals underlying trends within the variability of in vivo cellular growth. We found that the tissue, individual cell lineages, and cell walls all exhibit growth rates that are initially low, accelerate to a maximum, and decrease again. Accordingly, these growth curves can be represented by sigmoid functions. We examined the relationships among the cell lineage growth curves and surprisingly found that all lineages reach the same maximum growth rate relative to their size. However, the cell lineages are not synchronized; each cell lineage reaches this same maximum relative growth rate but at different times. The heterogeneity in observed growth results from shifting the same underlying sigmoid curve in time and scaling by size. Thus, despite the variability in growth observed in our study and others, individual cell lineages in the developing sepal follow similarly shaped growth curves.

  13. An International Bioinformatics Infrastructure to Underpin the Arabidopsis Community

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The future bioinformatics needs of the Arabidopsis community as well as those of other scientific communities that depend on Arabidopsis resources were discussed at a pair of recent meetings held by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC) and the North American Arabidopsis Steering C...

  14. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR…

  15. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR…

  16. Interaction of light and gravitropism with nutation of hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orbovic, V.; Poff, K. L.

    1997-01-01

    Etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana nutated under conditions of physiological darkness while about ten percent of monitored individuals exhibited regular elliptical nutation, circumnutation. Pre-irradiation with red light prevented occurrence of circumnutation without having an effect on the average rate of the nutational movement. Phototropic response of seedlings to unilateral blue light appeared to be superimposed over nutation. Throughout gravitropism, some seedlings continued to exhibit nutation suggesting that these two processes are independently controlled. Based on these results, we suggest that nutation in Arabidopsis probably is not controlled by the mechanism predicted by the theory of gravitropic overshoots.

  17. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  18. Genome Sequencing Reveals the Origin of the Allotetraploid Arabidopsis suecica.

    PubMed

    Novikova, Polina Yu; Tsuchimatsu, Takashi; Simon, Samson; Nizhynska, Viktoria; Voronin, Viktor; Burns, Robin; Fedorenko, Olga M; Holm, Svante; Säll, Torbjörn; Prat, Elisa; Marande, William; Castric, Vincent; Nordborg, Magnus

    2017-04-01

    Polyploidy is an example of instantaneous speciation when it involves the formation of a new cytotype that is incompatible with the parental species. Because new polyploid individuals are likely to be rare, establishment of a new species is unlikely unless polyploids are able to reproduce through self-fertilization (selfing), or asexually. Conversely, selfing (or asexuality) makes it possible for polyploid species to originate from a single individual-a bona fide speciation event. The extent to which this happens is not known. Here, we consider the origin of Arabidopsis suecica, a selfing allopolyploid between Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa, which has hitherto been considered to be an example of a unique origin. Based on whole-genome re-sequencing of 15 natural A. suecica accessions, we identify ubiquitous shared polymorphism with the parental species, and hence conclusively reject a unique origin in favor of multiple founding individuals. We further estimate that the species originated after the last glacial maximum in Eastern Europe or central Eurasia (rather than Sweden, as the name might suggest). Finally, annotation of the self-incompatibility loci in A. suecica revealed that both loci carry non-functional alleles. The locus inherited from the selfing A. thaliana is fixed for an ancestral non-functional allele, whereas the locus inherited from the outcrossing A. arenosa is fixed for a novel loss-of-function allele. Furthermore, the allele inherited from A. thaliana is predicted to transcriptionally silence the allele inherited from A. arenosa, suggesting that loss of self-incompatibility may have been instantaneous.

  19. Environmental History Modulates Arabidopsis Pattern-Triggered Immunity in a HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE1-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant; Yekondi, Shweta; Chen, Po-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Hong; Yu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Keqiang; Zimmerli, Laurent

    2014-06-01

    In nature, plants are exposed to a fluctuating environment, and individuals exposed to contrasting environmental factors develop different environmental histories. Whether different environmental histories alter plant responses to a current stress remains elusive. Here, we show that environmental history modulates the plant response to microbial pathogens. Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to repetitive heat, cold, or salt stress were more resistant to virulent bacteria than Arabidopsis grown in a more stable environment. By contrast, long-term exposure to heat, cold, or exposure to high concentrations of NaCl did not provide enhanced protection against bacteria. Enhanced resistance occurred with priming of Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)-responsive genes and the potentiation of PTI-mediated callose deposition. In repetitively stress-challenged Arabidopsis, PTI-responsive genes showed enrichment for epigenetic marks associated with transcriptional activation. Upon bacterial infection, enrichment of RNA polymerase II at primed PTI marker genes was observed in environmentally challenged Arabidopsis. Finally, repetitively stress-challenged histone acetyltransferase1-1 (hac1-1) mutants failed to demonstrate enhanced resistance to bacteria, priming of PTI, and increased open chromatin states. These findings reveal that environmental history shapes the plant response to bacteria through the development of a HAC1-dependent epigenetic mark characteristic of a primed PTI response, demonstrating a mechanistic link between the primed state in plants and epigenetics.

  20. Functional analysis of the buckwheat metallothionein promoter: tissue specificity pattern and up-regulation under complex stress stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bratić, Ana M; Majić, Dragana B; Samardzić, Jelena T; Maksimović, Vesna R

    2009-06-01

    To shed light on expression regulation of the metallothionein gene from buckwheat (FeMT3), functional promoter analysis was performed with a complete 5' regulatory region and two deletion variants, employing stably transformed tobacco plants. Histochemical GUS assay of transgenic tobacco lines showed the strongest signals in vascular elements of leaves and in pollen grains, while somewhat weaker staining was observed in the roots of mature plants. This tissue specificity pattern implies a possible function of buckwheat MT3 in those tissues. Quantitative GUS assay showed strong up-regulation of all three promoter constructs (proportional to the length of the regulatory region) in leaves submerged in liquid MS medium containing sucrose, after a prolonged time period. This represented a complex stress situation composed of several synergistically related stress stimuli. These findings suggest complex transcriptional regulation of FeMT3, requiring interactions among a number of different factors.

  1. Trace-elements, methylmercury and metallothionein levels in Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) found stranded on the Southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Kehrig, Helena A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Seixas, Tércia G; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2015-07-15

    Magellanic penguins have been reported as good biomonitors for several types of pollutants, including trace-elements. In this context, selenium (Se), total mercury, methylmercury, inorganic mercury (Hg(inorg)), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), as well as metallothionein (MT) levels, were evaluated in the feathers, liver and kidney of juvenile Magellanic penguins found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil. The highest concentrations of all trace-elements and methylmercury were found in internal organs. Concentrations of Cd and Se in feathers were extremely low in comparison with their concentrations in soft tissues. The results showed that both Se and MT are involved in the detoxification of trace-elements (Cd, Pb and Hg(inorg)) since statistically significant relationships were found in liver. Conversely, hepatic Se was shown to be the only detoxifying agent for methylmercury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of metallothioneins, selenium and transfer to offspring in mercury detoxification in Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei).

    PubMed

    Romero, M B; Polizzi, P; Chiodi, L; Das, K; Gerpe, M

    2016-08-15

    The concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and metallothioneins (MT) were evaluated in fetuses, calves, juveniles and adults of the endangered coastal Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) from Argentina. Mercury concentrations varied among analyzed tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and brain), with liver showing the higher concentrations in all specimens. An age-dependent accumulation was found in liver, kidney and brain. No significant relationship between Hg and MT concentrations was found for all tissues analyzed. Hepatic Hg molar concentrations were positively correlated with those of Se, indicating a great affinity between these two elements. Furthermore, dark granules of HgSe were observed in Kupffer cells in the liver by electron microscopy, suggesting the role of this macrophage in the detoxification of Hg. A transfer of Hg through placenta was proved. The presence of Hg in brain in all age classes did not show concentrations associated with neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cloning and detection of metallothionein mRNA by RT-PCR in mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae).

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Mauro F; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang C; da Silva, Hamilton; Moraes, Milton O

    2003-08-20

    A semi-quantitative RT-PCR protocol was developed to directly evaluate metallothionein (MT) mRNA expression in different tissues of mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae), using beta-Actin (ACT) as a normalizing gene. Clones with high degree of identity from partial coding sequences were obtained for both MT and ACT. Although not statistically significant, high relative accumulation of MT mRNA was observed in the digestive gland (DGG), but not in the gills, from samples collected from both control and contaminated sites. Nevertheless, MT expression was not comparable to the high levels of metal in the contaminated oysters. Results indicate that the variation in relative MT mRNA levels from different samples of the same site could be due to multiple gene copies or different MT isoform induction.

  4. Vermicomposting of Tea Factory Coal Ash: metal accumulation and metallothionein response in Eisenia fetida (Savigny) and Lampito mauritii (Kinberg).

    PubMed

    Goswami, L; Sarkar, S; Mukherjee, S; Das, S; Barman, S; Raul, P; Bhattacharyya, P; Mandal, N C; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, S S

    2014-08-01

    Earthworms can accumulate heavy metals in their intestines to a great extent. Impact of feed materials and duration of metal exposure on natural activity of earthworms are rather unclear; this investigation therefore addresses the impact of metal rich Tea Factory Coal Ash (TFCA) on reproduction, composting and metal accumulation ability of Eisenia fetida and Lampito mauritii. Earthworm count and cocoon production increased significantly during vermicomposting. pH of the vermicomposted mixtures shifted toward neutrality, total organic C decreased substantially and total N enhanced significantly compared to composting. High heavy metal (Mn, Zn, Cu, As) accumulation was recorded in the intestine of both the earthworm species. Moreover, gradual increase in the metal-inducible metallothionein concentration indicated the causal mechanism of metal accumulation in these species. TFCA+cow dung (CD) (1:1) were most favorable feed mixture for E. fetida and TFCA+CD (1:2) were good for L. mauritii in regard to metal accumulation and compost quality.

  5. Metallothionein 2A affects the cell respiration by suppressing the expression of mitochondrial protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit II.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Olga; Gurjanova, Karina; Krishtal, Jekaterina; Kulp, Maria; Karro, Niina; Tõugu, Vello; Palumaa, Peep

    2015-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are involved in a broad range of cellular processes and play a major role in protection of cells towards various stressors. Two functions of MTs, namely the maintaining of the homeostasis of transition metal ions and the redox balance, are directly linked to the functioning of mitochondria. Dyshomeostasis of MTs is often related with malfunctioning of mitochondria; however, the mechanism by which MTs affect the mitochondrial respiratory chain is still unknown. We demonstrated that overexpression of MT-2A in HEK cell line decreased the oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the cells. HEK cells overexpressing MT-2A demonstrated reduced oxygen consumption and lower cellular ATP levels. MT-2A did not affect the number of mitochondria, but reduced specifically the level of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II protein, which resulted in lower activity of the complex IV.

  6. Metals in squid, Loligo forbesi, adults, eggs and hatchlings. No evidence for a role for Cu- or Zn-metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Craig, Stephen; Overnell, Julian

    2003-03-01

    An adult squid Loligo forbesi had the following metals in its liver/digestive gland: Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, As, Cd, Ba and Pb in the range of 1-110 ppm wet wt. Adult mantle muscle, adult eyes, eggs and hatchlings contained a lesser number of these metals at concentrations above 1 ppm. Chromatographic analysis of non-heat-treated cytosols (in the presence of 5 mM 2-mercaptoethanol) gave no evidence for the presence of copper- or zinc-containing fractions with the molecular weights of mollusc metallothioneins in any of the above tissues. Copper and Zn were bound to either the particulate fraction or to very low molecular weight species.

  7. Effect of thermal processing and canning on cadmium and lead levels in California market squid: the role of metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Galitsopoulou, A; Georgantelis, D; Kontominas, M G

    2013-01-01

    The effects of two common seafood preparation practices (roasting and industrial canning) on the heavy metal content--cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)--of various tissues of California market squid were studied. Emphasis was placed on the role of metallothioneins (MT) in Cd and Pb behaviour during processing. Cd and Pb analysis was conducted by a Zeeman GTA-AAS atomic absorption spectrometry system; MT analysis was performed by a mercury saturation assay. Results showed that Cd levels in the mantle and whole squid were considerably affected by both processing practices, reaching a 240% increase in mantle and a 40% increase in whole squid. Interestingly, Cd behaviour was associated with MT changes during squid processing. On the other hand, Pb content was not affected from either processing or associated with MT content in the raw or processed squid. Therefore, processing operations may affect Cd and Pb content differently due to the specific metal bioaccumulation and chemical features of each heavy metal type.

  8. Role of pCeMT, a putative metallothionein from Colocasia esculenta, in response to metal stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ok; Jung, Sera; Kim, Kyounghyoun; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2013-03-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) play a major role in metal homeostasis and/or detoxification in plants. In this study, a novel gene, pCeMT, was isolated from Colocasia esculenta and characterized. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli cells expressing pCeMT exhibited enhanced Cd, Cu, and Zn tolerance and accumulation compared with control cells. Furthermore, pCeMT-overexpressing tobacco seedlings displayed better growth under Cd, Cu, and Zn stresses and accumulated more Cd and Zn compared with the wild type. Interestingly, transgenic tobacco displayed markedly decreased hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and lipid peroxidation levels under Cd, Cu, and Zn treatments. These results suggest that pCeMT could play an important role in the protection of plant cells from oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and in the detoxification of free metals by metal binding, leading to improved plant metal tolerance.

  9. Insight on trace element detoxification in the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) through genetic, enzymatic and metallothionein analyses.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Cosson, Richard P; Churlaud, Carine; Robin, Frédéric; Bustamante, Paco

    2012-04-15

    Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidneys, muscle and feathers of 31 black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa) accidentally killed during catches by mist net in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers in order to elucidate dietary patterns and to determine whether differences in diet explained the variation in elemental uptake. This study also aimed to have a preliminary assessment of sub-lethal effects triggered by trace elements through the investigation of gene expressions by quantitative real-time PCR, antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase), and metallothionein (MT) levels. The results showed that Cr and Ni concentrations in tissues of adults were lower than in juveniles in part because adults may have eliminated these trace elements through moulting. Except for Cd and Ni, trace element concentrations were negatively correlated to the body mass of godwits. Ag, As, Hg and Se concentrations were positively linked with the trophic position of birds. The diet could be considered as a fundamental route of exposure for these elements demonstrating therefore the qualitative linkage between dietary habits of godwits and their contaminant concentrations. Our results strongly suggest that even though trace element concentrations were mostly below toxicity threshold level, the elevated concentrations of As, Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe and Se may however trigger sub-lethal effects. Trace elements appear to enhance expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defence, which indicates the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, birds with the highest concentrations appeared to have an increased mitochondrial metabolism suggesting that the fight against trace element toxicity requires additional energetic needs notably to produce detoxification

  10. Resonant X-Ray Scattering and Absorption for the Global and Local Structures of Cu-modified Metallothioneins in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meiyi; Huang, Yu-Shan; Jeng, U-Ser; Hsu, I-Jui; Sermon Wu, YewChung; Lai, Ying-Huang; Su, Chiu-Hun; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Wang, Yu; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2009-01-01

    Abstract With Cd and Zn metal ions removed from the native rabbit-liver metallothionein upon unfolding, Cu-modified metallothioneins (Cu-MTs) were obtained during refolding in solutions containing CuI or CuII ions. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopic results confirm the respectively assigned oxidation states of the copper ions in CuI-MT and CuII-MT. Global and local structures of the Cu-MTs were subsequently characterized by anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering (ASAXS) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure. Energy-dependent ASAXS results indicate that the morphology of CuII-MT resembles that of the native MT, whereas CuI-MT forms oligomers with a higher copper content. Both dummy-residue simulation and model-shape fitting of the ASAXS data reveal consistently rodlike morphology for CuII-MT. Clearly identified Cu-S, Cu-O, and Cu-Cu contributions in the extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicate that both CuI and CuII ions are bonded with O and S atoms of nearby amino acids in a four-coordination environment, forming metal clusters smaller than metal thiolate clusters in the native MT. It is demonstrated that a combination of resonant x-ray scattering and x-ray absorption can be particularly useful in revealing complementary global and local structures of metalloproteins due to the atom specific characteristics of the two techniques. PMID:19619476

  11. Analysis of the effects of overexpression of metallothionein-I in transgenic mice on the reproductive toxicology of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, T.; Kai Fu; Andrews, G.K.; Enders, G.C.; Palmiter, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to low levels of cadmium reduces fertility. In male mice spermatogensis is highly sensitive to cadmium, whereas in females the peri-implantation period of pregnancy is sensitive. To examine the potential roles of the cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), in the reproductive toxicology of cadmium, we examined a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses metallothionein-I (MT-I). These mice had dramatically increased steady-state levels of MT-I mRNA and MT in the testes and in the female reproductive tract during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy, and this overexpression occurred in a cell-specific and temporally regulated manner similar to that of the endogenous MT-I gene. Transgenic and control males were injected with cadmium, and the histology of the testes was examined. An injection of 7.5 {mu}mol Cd/Kg had no effect on histology of the testes in either transgenic or control mice. In contrast, an injection of 10 {mu}mol Cd/kg caused rapid changes in the histology of the testes and resulted in pronounced testicular necrosis in both control and transgenic mice. Female transgenic and control mice were mated and then injected with cadmium (30-45 {mu}mol Cd/kg) on the day of blastocyst implantation (day 4). In both of these groups, injection of cadmium reduced pregnancy rate, and no dramatic protection was afforded by maternal and/or embryonic overexpression of MT. Thus, overexpression of MT-I does not significantly protect against either of these cadmium-induced effects on fertility. 65 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Metallothioneins are required for formation of cross-adaptation response to neurobehavioral toxicity from lead and mercury exposure in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Boping; Rui, Qi; Wu, Qiuli; Wang, Dayong

    2010-11-18

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich polypeptides, but the role of MTs in inducing the formation of adaptive response is still largely unknown. We investigated the roles of metallothionein genes (mtl-1 and mtl-2) in the formation of cross-adaptation response to neurobehavioral toxicity from metal exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans. Pre-treatment with mild heat-shock at L2-larva stage effectively prevented the formation of the neurobehavioral defects and the activation of severe stress response in metal exposed nematodes at concentrations of 50 and 100 µM, but pre-treatment with mild heat-shock did not prevent the formation of neurobehavioral defects in 200 µM of metal exposed nematodes. During the formation of cross-adaptation response, the induction of mtl-1 and mtl-2 promoter activity and subsequent GFP gene expression were sharply increased in 50 µM or 100 µM of metal exposed Pmtl-1::GFP and Pmtl-2::GFP transgenic adult animals after mild heat-shock treatment compared with those treated with mild heat-shock or metal exposure alone. Moreover, after pre-treatment with mild heat-shock, no noticeable increase of locomotion behaviors could be observed in metal exposed mtl-1 or mtl-2 mutant nematodes compared to those without mild heat-shock pre-treatment. The defects of adaptive response to neurobehavioral toxicity induced by metal exposure formed in mtl-1 and mtl-2 mutants could be completely rescued by the expression of mtl-1 and mtl-2 with the aid of their native promoters. Furthermore, over-expression of MTL-1 and MTL-2 at the L2-larval stage significantly suppressed the toxicity on locomotion behaviors from metal exposure at all examined concentrations. Therefore, the normal formation of cross-adaptation response to neurobehavioral toxicity induced by metal exposure may need the enough accumulation of MTs protein in animal tissues.

  13. Deleterious Effects of Minocycline after in vivo Target Deprivation of Thalamocortical Neurons in the Immature, Metallothionein-Deficient Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Emily G.; Cheng, Ying; Natale, JoAnne E.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to adults, immature metallothionein I & II knockout (MT−/−) mice incur greater neuronal loss and a more rapid rate of microglia accumulation following target deprivation-induced injury. Since minocycline has been proposed to inhibit microglial activation and associated production of neuroinflammatory factors, we investigated its ability to promote neuronal survival in the immature, metallothionein-deficient brain. Following ablation of the visual cortex, 10-day-old MT−/− mice were treated with minocycline or saline and sacrificed 24 or 48 hours after injury. Using stereological methods, the number of microglia and neurons were estimated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) by an investigator blinded to the treatment. No effect on neuronal survival was observed at 24 hours, but 48 hours after injury an unanticipated but significant minocycline-mediated increase in neuronal loss was detected. Further, while failing to inhibit microglial accumulation, minocycline treatment increased the proportion of amoeboid microglia in the ipsilateral dLGN. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this neurotoxic response, we identified minocycline-mediated changes in the expression of three potentially pro-apoptotic/ inflammatory genes: growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 45γ (GADD45γ); interferon-inducible protein 1 (IFI1) and cytokine induced growth factor (CTGF). We also observed increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 phosphorylation with minocycline treatment. Although minocycline inhibited calpain activity at 12 hours post-injury, this effect was not sustained at 24 hours. Together, these results help to explain how minocycline has a deleterious effect on neuronal survival in this injury model. PMID:19115404

  14. A metallothionein containing a zinc finger within a four-metal cluster protects a bacterium from zinc toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Blindauer, Claudia A.; Harrison, Mark D.; Parkinson, John A.; Robinson, Andrea K.; Cavet, Jennifer S.; Robinson, Nigel J.; Sadler, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Zinc is essential for many cellular processes, including DNA synthesis, transcription, and translation, but excess can be toxic. A zinc-induced gene, smtA, is required for normal zinc-tolerance in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942. Here we report that the protein SmtA contains a cleft lined with Cys-sulfur and His-imidazole ligands that binds four zinc ions in a Zn4Cys9His2 cluster. The thiolate sulfurs of five Cys ligands provide bridges between the two ZnCys4 and two ZnCys3His sites, giving two fused six-membered rings with distorted boat conformations. The inorganic core strongly resembles the Zn4Cys11 cluster of mammalian metallothionein, despite different amino acid sequences, a different linear order of the ligands, and presence of histidine ligands. Also, SmtA contains elements of secondary structure not found in metallothioneins. One of the two Cys4-coordinated zinc ions in SmtA readily exchanges with exogenous metal (111Cd), whereas the other is inert. The thiolate sulfur ligands bound to zinc in this site are buried within the protein. Regions of β-strand and α-helix surround the inert site to form a zinc finger resembling the zinc fingers in GATA and LIM-domain proteins. Eukaryotic zinc fingers interact specifically with other proteins or DNA and an analogous interaction can therefore be anticipated for prokaryotic zinc fingers. SmtA now provides structural proof for the existence of zinc fingers in prokaryotes, and sequences related to the zinc finger motif can be identified in several bacterial genomes. PMID:11493688

  15. Effect of quercetin on metallothionein, nitric oxide synthases and cyclooxygenase-2 expression on experimental chronic cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Ana I.; Vicente-Sanchez, Cesar; Jerkic, Mirjana; Santiago, Jose M.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Penelope D.; Perez-Barriocanal, Fernando; Lopez-Novoa, Jose M. . E-mail: jmlnovoa@usal.es

    2006-01-15

    Inflammation can play a key role in Cd-induced dysfunctions. Quercetin is a potent oxygen free radical scavenger and a metal chelator. Our aim was to study the effect of quercetin on Cd-induced kidney damage and metallothionein expression. The study was performed in Wistar rats that were administered during 9 weeks with either cadmium (1.2 mg Cd/kg/day, s.c.), quercetin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or cadmium + quercetin. Renal toxicity was evaluated by measuring blood urea nitrogen concentration and urinary excretion of enzymes marker of tubular damage. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) renal expression were assessed by Western blot. Renal expression of metallothionein 1 and 2 (MT-1, MT-2) and eNOS mRNA was assessed by Northern blot. Our data demonstrated that Cd-induced renal toxicity was markedly reduced in rats that also received quercetin. MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA levels in kidney were substantially increased during treatment with Cd, being even higher when the animals received Cd and quercetin. Renal eNOS expression was significantly higher in rats receiving Cd and quercetin than in animals receiving Cd alone or in control rats. In the group that received Cd, COX-2 and iNOS expression was markedly higher than in control rats. In the group Cd + quercetin, no changes in COX-2 and iNOS expression were observed compared with the control group. Our results demonstrate that quercetin treatment prevents Cd-induced overexpression of iNOS and COX-2, and increases MT expression. These effects can explain the protection by quercetin of Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  16. Enhanced metallothionein gene expression is associated with protection from cadmium-induced genotoxity in cultured rat liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Coogan, T.P.; Bare, R.M.; Bjornson, E.J.; Waalkes, M.P. )

    1994-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins that appear to play an important role in the cellular defense system against cadmium toxicity. Although substantial evidence exists demonstrating a reduction in cadmium toxicity concomitant with MT induction, little is known about the possible effects of stimulation of MT synthesis on cadmium-induced genotoxicity. Thus, the alkaline elution technique was used to assess single-strand DNA damage (SSD) in TRL-1215 cells, a liver-derived cell line shown to have inducible MT Gene expression. The SSD accumulated over a 2-h time period in a time-dependent manner following exposure to 500 [mu]M CdCl[sub 2]. Low concentration cadmium pretreatment (10 [mu]M CdCl[sub 2], 24 h) provided protection against the genotoxicity of high-concentration cadmium (500 [mu]M CdCl[sub 2], 2 h). A 2-h exposure to 500 [mu]M CdCl[sub 2], had no effect on viability, as assessed using a tetrazolium-dye based assay, in cells from either the pretreated or nonpretreated group. Metallothionein was induced in a time-dependent manner by low-concentration cadmium pretreatment: Exposure for 24 and 48 h resulted in 3.3- and 6.4-fold increases, respectively. In addition, a 24-h exposure to low-concentration cadmium resulted in an increase in MT-I gene expression. Cadmium accumulation was 2.6-fold greater in low-concentration cadmium-pretreated cells as compared to non-pretreated cells. These data demonstrate that low-concentration cadmium pretreatment provides protection against cadmium-induced single-strand DNA damage and support the hypothesis that this protection is due to stimulation of MT gene expression. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana as Bioindicator of Fungal VOCs in Indoor Air

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Richard; Yin, Guohua; Klich, Maren A.; Grimm, Casey; Bennett, Joan W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to detect different mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by the common indoor fungus, Aspergillus versicolor, and demonstrate the potential usage of the plant as a bioindicator to monitor fungal VOCs in indoor air. We evaluated the volatile production of Aspergillus versicolor strains SRRC 108 (NRRL 3449) and SRRC 2559 (ATCC 32662) grown on nutrient rich fungal medium, and grown under conditions to mimic the substrate encountered in the built environment where fungi would typically grow indoors (moist wallboard and ceiling tiles). Using headspace solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we analyzed VOC profiles of the two strains. The most abundant compound produced by both strains on all three media was 1-octen-3-ol. Strain SRRC 2559 made several terpenes not detected from strain SRRC 108. Using a split-plate bioassay, we grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a shared atmosphere with VOCs from the two strains of Aspergillus versicolor grown on yeast extract sucrose medium. The VOCs emitted by SRRC 2559 had an adverse impact on seed germination and plant growth. Chemical standards of individual VOCs from the Aspergillus versicolor mixture (2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol, limonene, and β-farnesene), and β-caryophyllene were tested one by one in seed germination and vegetative plant growth assays. The most inhibitory compound to both seed germination and plant growth was 1-octen-3-ol. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis is a useful model for monitoring indoor air quality as it is sensitive to naturally emitted fungal volatile mixtures as well as to chemical standards of individual compounds, and it exhibits relatively quick concentration- and duration-dependent responses. PMID:27790067

  19. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A.; O'Kane, Steve L.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed taxonomic, cytological, and phylogenetic accounts of Arabidopsis are presented. As currently delimited, the genus consists of nine species all of which are indigenous to Europe, with the ranges of two species extending into northern and eastern Asia and North American into central United States. A survey of chromosome numbers in the genus is presented, and the country of origin for each count is given. Detailed descriptions of all species and subspecies and keys to all taxa are provided. Generic assignments are updated for the 50 species previously included in Arabidopsis. A cladogram of the species of Arabidopsis based on molecular phylogenetic studies by the authors is given. PMID:22303187

  20. Sulfenome mining in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Waszczak, Cezary; Akter, Salma; Eeckhout, Dominique; Persiau, Geert; Wahni, Khadija; Bodra, Nandita; Van Molle, Inge; De Smet, Barbara; Vertommen, Didier; Gevaert, Kris; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Montagu, Marc; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be potent signaling molecules. Today, oxidation of cysteine residues is a well-recognized posttranslational protein modification, but the signaling processes steered by such oxidations are poorly understood. To gain insight into the cysteine thiol-dependent ROS signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent sulfenome: that is, proteins with at least one cysteine thiol oxidized to a sulfenic acid. By means of a genetic construct consisting of a fusion between the C-terminal domain of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) AP-1–like (YAP1) transcription factor and a tandem affinity purification tag, we detected ∼100 sulfenylated proteins in Arabidopsis cell suspensions exposed to H2O2 stress. The in vivo YAP1-based trapping of sulfenylated proteins was validated by a targeted in vitro analysis of DEHYDROASCORBATE REDUCTASE2 (DHAR2). In DHAR2, the active site nucleophilic cysteine is regulated through a sulfenic acid-dependent switch, leading to S-glutathionylation, a protein modification that protects the protein against oxidative damage. PMID:25049418

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana life without phytochromes

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Bárbara; Sánchez-Lamas, Maximiliano; Yanovsky, Marcelo J.; Casal, Jorge J.; Cerdán, Pablo D.

    2010-01-01

    Plants use light as a source of energy for photosynthesis and as a source of environmental information perceived by photoreceptors. Testing whether plants can complete their cycle if light provides energy but no information about the environment requires a plant devoid of phytochromes because all photosynthetically active wavelengths activate phytochromes. Producing such a quintuple mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has been challenging, but we were able to obtain it in the flowering locus T (ft) mutant background. The quintuple phytochrome mutant does not germinate in the FT background, but it germinates to some extent in the ft background. If germination problems are bypassed by the addition of gibberellins, the seedlings of the quintuple phytochrome mutant exposed to red light produce chlorophyll, indicating that phytochromes are not the sole red-light photoreceptors, but they become developmentally arrested shortly after the cotyledon stage. Blue light bypasses this blockage, rejecting the long-standing idea that the blue-light receptors cryptochromes cannot operate without phytochromes. After growth under white light, returning the quintuple phytochrome mutant to red light resulted in rapid senescence of already expanded leaves and severely impaired expansion of new leaves. We conclude that Arabidopsis development is stalled at several points in the presence of light suitable for photosynthesis but providing no photomorphogenic signal. PMID:20176939

  2. The metabolomic responses of Caenorhabditis elegans to cadmium are largely independent of metallothionein status, but dominated by changes in cystathionine and phytochelatins.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Samantha L; Bundy, Jacob G; Want, Elizabeth J; Kille, Peter; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R

    2009-07-01

    Cadmium is a widely distributed toxic environmental pollutant. Using proton NMR spectroscopy and UPLC-MS, we obtained metabolic profiles from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium. Neither in the presence nor absence of cadmium did the metallothionein status (single or double mtl knockouts) markedly modulate the metabolic profile. However, independent of strain, cadmium exposure resulted in a decrease in cystathionine concentrations and an increase in the nonribosomally synthesized peptides phytochelatin-2 and phytochelatin-3. This suggests that a primary response to low levels of cadmium is the differential regulation of the C. elegans trans-sulfuration pathway, which channels the flux from methionine through cysteine into phytochelatin synthesis. These results were backed up by the finding that phytochelatin synthase mutants (pcs-1) were at least an order of magnitude more sensitive to cadmium than single or double metallothionein mutants. However, an additive sensitivity toward cadmium was observed in the mtl-1; mtl-2; pcs-1 triple mutant.

  3. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity caused by a single intratracheal instillation of colloidal silver nanoparticles in mice: pathobiological changes and metallothionein responses.

    PubMed

    Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth; Banlunara, Wijit; Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Thammachareon, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-01-01

    To study the acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), 0 or 100 ppm of Ag-NPs were instilled intratracheally in mice. Cellular and biochemical parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histological alterations were determined 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after instillation. Ag-NPs induced moderate pulmonary inflammation and injury on BALF indices during the acute period; however, these changes gradually regressed in a time-dependent manner. Concomitant histopathological and laminin immunohistochemical findings generally correlated to BALF data. Superoxide dismutase and metallothionein expression occurred in particle-laden macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells, which correlated to lung lesions in mice treated with Ag-NPs. These findings suggest that instillation of Ag-NPs causes transient moderate acute lung inflammation and tissue damage. Oxidative stress may underlie the induction of injury to lung tissue. Moreover, the expression of metallothionein in tissues indicated the protective response to exposure to Ag-NPs.

  4. Study of Interactions between Metallothionein and Cisplatin by using Differential Pulse Voltammetry Brdickás reaction and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    PubMed Central

    Huska, Dalibor; Fabrik, Ivo; Baloun, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Masarik, Michal; Hubalek, Jaromir; Vasku, Anna; Trnkova, Libuse; Horna, Ales; Zeman, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    Treatment strategies for tumour diseases are progressively focusing on personalization of medicine. However, this focus requires methods revealing the early general biological mechanisms, including the formation anti-cancer drugs’ resistance. The low molecular mass protein metallothionein is thought to be the crucial for the formation of resistance in tumour treatment based on the platinum-cytostatics. The interactions between metallothionein (MT) and cisplatin were determined by the adsorptive transfer stripping technique coupled with the differential pulse votlammetry Brdickás reaction. The signals related to the MT-cisplatin complex appeared at −0.9 V. The formation of this complex depended on the time of interaction between cisplatin and MT. The complex formation was consequently confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance analyses. The formation of this complex was detectable even after a 20 s long interaction. Moreover, we detected presence of MT-cisplatin complex in the blood of male rats treated with this drug. PMID:22573958

  5. Inactivation of GSK-3β by Metallothionein Prevents Diabetes-Related Changes in Cardiac Energy Metabolism, Inflammation, Nitrosative Damage, and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuehui; Feng, Wenke; Xue, Wanli; Tan, Yi; Hein, David W.; Li, Xiao-Kun; Cai, Lu

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β plays an important role in cardiomyopathies. Cardiac-specific metallothionein-overexpressing transgenic (MT-TG) mice were highly resistant to diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy. Therefore, we investigated whether metallothionein cardiac protection against diabetes is mediated by inactivation of GSK-3β. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in both MT-TG and wild-type mice. Changes of energy metabolism–related molecules, lipid accumulation, inflammation, nitrosative damage, and fibrotic remodeling were examined in the hearts of diabetic mice 2 weeks, 2 months, and 5 months after the onset of diabetes with Western blotting, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical assays. RESULTS Activation (dephosphorylation) of GSK-3β was evidenced in the hearts of wild-type diabetic mice but not MT-TG diabetic mice. Correspondingly, cardiac glycogen synthase phosphorylation, hexokinase II, PPARα, and PGC-1α expression, which mediate glucose and lipid metabolisms, were significantly changed along with cardiac lipid accumulation, inflammation (TNF-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 [PAI-1], and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1]), nitrosative damage (3-nitrotyrosin accumulation), and fibrosis in the wild-type diabetic mice. The above pathological changes were completely prevented either by cardiac metallothionein in the MT-TG diabetic mice or by inhibition of GSK-3β activity in the wild-type diabetic mice with a GSK-3β–specific inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that activation of GSK-3β plays a critical role in diabetes-related changes in cardiac energy metabolism, inflammation, nitrosative damage, and remodeling. Metallothionein inactivation of GSK-3β plays a critical role in preventing diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:19324938

  6. PAIR: the predicted Arabidopsis interactome resource.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingzhi; Shen, Xueling; Chen, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The predicted Arabidopsis interactome resource (PAIR, http://www.cls.zju.edu.cn/pair/), comprised of 5990 experimentally reported molecular interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana together with 145,494 predicted interactions, is currently the most comprehensive data set of the Arabidopsis interactome with high reliability. PAIR predicts interactions by a fine-tuned support vector machine model that integrates indirect evidences for interaction, such as gene co-expressions, domain interactions, shared GO annotations, co-localizations, phylogenetic profile similarities and homologous interactions in other organisms (interologs). These predictions were expected to cover 24% of the entire Arabidopsis interactome, and their reliability was estimated to be 44%. Two independent example data sets were used to rigorously validate the prediction accuracy. PAIR features a user-friendly query interface, providing rich annotation on the relationships between two proteins. A graphical interaction network browser has also been integrated into the PAIR web interface to facilitate mining of specific pathways.

  7. The fifth international conference on Arabidopsis research

    SciTech Connect

    Hangarter, R.; Scholl, R.; Davis, K.; Feldmann, K.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations made in conjunction with the Fifth International Conference on Arabidopsis Research held August 19--22, 1993 at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

  8. Impact of deltamethrin exposure on mRNA expression levels of metallothionein A, B and cytochrome P450 1A in rainbow trout muscles.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Orhan; Ceyhun, Saltuk Buğrahan; Ekinci, Deniz; Aksakal, Ercüment

    2011-09-15

    Metallothioneins (MT) are widely utilized to identify specific responses to heavy metal pollution. In addition, there is evidence demonstrating that in vertebrates MT synthesis is stimulated by different endogenous and exogenous agents in particular compounds leading to production of ROS. Also, cytochrome P450 1A can enhance the generation of ROS. On this basis, MT and CYP 1A induction can be considered as biomarkers of oxidative stress. In the current study, we examined the influences of pesticide administration on the expression of MT-A, MT-B and CYP 1A. For this purpose, we produced muscle metallothionein-A, metallothionein-B and cytochrome P450 1A cDNAs and used quantitative RT-PCR to assay mRNAs in rainbow trout exposed to acute and long-term deltamethrin administration. We observed that deltamethrin exposure significantly (p<0.05) increased the expression levels of Cyp1A, MT-A and MT-B in a time dependent manner. Results of our study contributes to the identification of inducers of such biomarkers in addition to well known agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alterations in transcriptome and proteome on metallothioneins following oxidative stress induced by sublethal doses of cadmium and gamma rays in Plantago ovata.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Nirmalya; Talapatra, Shonima; Moulick, Amitava; Chakraborty, Anindita; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2013-07-01

    To study the oxidative stress-induced changes by sublethal doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and gamma irradiation, two redox-inducing agents, on metallothionein (MT) gene and protein expression in Plantago ovata Forsk (P. ovata). Chlorophyll content was estimated to study the stress response in P. ovata seedlings following exposure to gamma irradiation and CdCl2. Lipid peroxidation and proline content, two oxidative stress markers, were also studied. The level of metallothionein gene and protein expression was further investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. Three MT genes of P. ovata namely PoMT 1, PoMT 2 and PoMT 3 were isolated, sequenced and characterized and their expressions were found to be altered in the case of both oxidative stresses in a dose-dependent and tissue-specific manner. The results were in agreement with the observations from immunocytochemistry and FACS analysis. The results suggest that both gamma irradiation and CdCl2 alter redox balance in P. ovata. The metallothionein gene may play an important role in metal tolerance and stress balance. It is conjectured that the stress-mediated imbalance is maintained by altered MT gene and protein expression.

  10. The WD-repeat protein superfamily in Arabidopsis: conservation and divergence in structure and function

    PubMed Central

    van Nocker, Steven; Ludwig, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Background The WD motif (also known as the Trp-Asp or WD40 motif) is found in a multitude of eukaryotic proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. Where studied, repeated WD motifs act as a site for protein-protein interaction, and proteins containing WD repeats (WDRs) are known to serve as platforms for the assembly of protein complexes or mediators of transient interplay among other proteins. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, members of this superfamily are increasingly being recognized as key regulators of plant-specific developmental events. Results We analyzed the predicted complement of WDR proteins from Arabidopsis, and compared this to those from budding yeast, fruit fly and human to illustrate both conservation and divergence in structure and function. This analysis identified 237 potential Arabidopsis proteins containing four or more recognizable copies of the motif. These were classified into 143 distinct families, 49 of which contained more than one Arabidopsis member. Approximately 113 of these families or individual proteins showed clear homology with WDR proteins from the other eukaryotes analyzed. Where conservation was found, it often extended across all of these organisms, suggesting that many of these proteins are linked to basic cellular mechanisms. The functional characterization of conserved WDR proteins in Arabidopsis reveals that these proteins help adapt basic mechanisms for plant-specific processes. Conclusions Our results show that most Arabidopsis WDR proteins are strongly conserved across eukaryotes, including those that have been found to play key roles in plant-specific processes, with diversity in function conferred at least in part by divergence in upstream signaling pathways, downstream regulatory targets and /or structure outside of the WDR regions. PMID:14672542

  11. Cell Polarity Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenbiao

    2009-01-01

    Cell polarization is intimately linked to plant development, growth, and responses to the environment. Major advances have been made in our understanding of the signaling pathways and networks that regulate cell polarity in plants owing to recent studies on several model systems, e.g., tip growth in pollen tubes, cell morphogenesis in the leaf epidermis, and polar localization of PINs. From these studies we have learned that plant cells use conserved mechanisms such as Rho family GTPases to integrate both plant-specific and conserved polarity cues and to coordinate the cytoskeketon dynamics/reorganization and vesicular trafficking required for polarity establishment and maintenance. This review focuses upon signaling mechanisms for cell polarity formation in Arabidopsis, with an emphasis on Rho GTPase signaling in polarized cell growth and how these mechanisms compare with those for cell polarity signaling in yeast and animal systems. PMID:18837672

  12. Apoplastic Diffusion Barriers in Arabidopsis