Science.gov

Sample records for individual differences standardization

  1. Monitoring Text Comprehension: Individual Differences in Epistemological Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael P.

    1984-01-01

    Individual differences in the reading comprehension standards of 90 undergraduates were examined. Students were classified as having a dualistic or relativistic conception of knowledge by attitude measures. Data suggest that epistemological beliefs may dictate choice of comprehension criteria and that these epistemological standards may control…

  2. Setting Performance Standards: Content, Goals, and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bert F.

    Setting performance standards is an area that different constituencies see quite differently. The choices of elements for a particular standard depend to a large extent on the purposes the standard is intended to serve. Standards can be used in certification, as predictors, as descriptors, and as motivators. While performance standards indicate…

  3. Technology and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Albert R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six papers on special education technology and individual differences are introduced. The papers illustrate the growing influence of constructivist perspectives on the use of technology to accommodate individual differences among people. The papers recognize the importance of using technology to scaffold the client's construction of different…

  4. Classroom Demonstrations: Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Sandra M.

    These demonstrations stress individual differences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individual differences: taste blindness,…

  5. Individual Differences in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on individual differences in learning. "Creek Women's Perceptions of Work: A Qualitative Study" (Barbara Bussell Kawulich, Carol D. Hansen), which is an ethnographic study, discusses differences between the value systems held by Creek women and those of the mainstream population. "Subordinates'…

  6. Individual differences in Pollyannaism.

    PubMed

    Matlin, M W; Gawron, V J

    1979-08-01

    The Pollyanna Principle states that people process pleasant information more accurately and efficiently than less pleasant information. This study examined whether different measures of Pollyanna tendencies are correlated with each other. Fourteen measures of Pollyannaism were derived for 133 students. The results showed that subjects who rated themselves as optimistic or happy also showed Pollyannaism on other measures of happiness, believed that the events in their lives were pleasant, gave themselves positive ratings on personality characteristics, recalled pleasant words more often than unpleasant words, supplied more free associations to pleasant stimuli than to unpleasant stimuli, listed pleasant items first, and judged that pleasant words were more frequent in the English language.

  7. Individual Differences in Equity Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmans, Joeri

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we (1) study whether people differ in the equity models they use, and (2) test whether individual differences in equity models relate to individual differences in equity sensitivity. To achieve this goal, an Information Integration experiment was performed in which participants were given information on the performance of two…

  8. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  9. Individual differences in distance perception.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Russell E

    2009-05-01

    Distance perception is among the most pervasive mental phenomena and the oldest research topics in behavioural science. However, we do not understand well the most pervasive finding of distance perception research, that of large individual differences. There are large individual differences in acrophobia (fear of heights), which we commonly assume consists of an abnormal fear of stimuli perceived normally. Evolved navigation theory (ENT) instead suggests that acrophobia consists of a more normal fear of stimuli perceived abnormally. ENT suggests that distance perception individual differences produce major components of acrophobia. Acrophobia tested over a broad range in the present study predicted large individual differences in distance estimation of surfaces that could produce falls. This fear of heights correlated positively with distance estimates of a vertical surface-even among non-acrophobic individuals at no risk of falling and without knowledge of being tested for acrophobia. Acrophobia score predicted magnitude of the descent illusion, which is thought to reflect the risk of falling. These data hold important implications in environmental navigation, clinical aetiology and the evolution of visual systems.

  10. Neural Systems and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.

    2004-01-01

    Howard Garner's book Multiple Intelligences was important in psychology because it sought to relate a neuropsychological theory of common mental processes with a view of individual differences implicit in the term intelligences. New developments in imaging and genetics may make these connections more realistic.

  11. Identifying Individual Differences: A Cognitive Styles Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Perry R.; Conti, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Although One-Stop Career Centers are mandated to promote client-centered services, patrons are ordinarily funneled through a standard procedure. Adult education principles suggest that these centers should be learner-centered and address individual differences. Therefore, the purpose of the this study was to describe the interaction of the…

  12. Individual Differences in Trauma Disclosure

    PubMed Central

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Jaeger, Jeff; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Findings on disclosure and adjustment following traumatic events have been mixed. Better understanding of individual differences in disclosure may help us better understand reactions following trauma exposure. In particular, studying disclosure patterns for those with and without psychopathology and for different types of emotional experiences may help clarify the relationship between disclosure, event emotionality, trauma exposure, and PTSD. Methods In this study, 143 men and women with (n = 67) and without (n = 43) chronic PTSD and without trauma exposure (n = 33) provided information on disclosure for a traumatic/severe life event, a negative event, and a positive event. Results Individuals with PTSD reported greater difficulty disclosing their traumatic event compared to those with trauma exposure no PTSD and those with no-trauma exposure. However, individuals with PTSD reported disclosing the traumatic event a similar number of times and with similar levels of detail to those with trauma exposure but no PTSD. Both sexual and childhood trauma were associated with greater disclosure difficulty. Limitations Although control event types (positive, negative) were selected to control for the passage of time and for general disclosure style, they do not control for salience of the event and results may be limited by control events that were not highly salient. Conclusions The present findings point to a dynamic conceptualization of disclosure, suggesting that the differential difficulty of disclosing traumatic events seen in individuals with PTSD is not simply a function of the amount of disclosure or the amount of details provided. PMID:22080869

  13. Individual differences in causal uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Weary, G; Edwards, J A

    1994-08-01

    This article presents a scale that measures chronic individual differences in people's uncertainty about their ability to understand and detect cause-and-effect relationships in the social world: the Causal Uncertainty Scale (CUS). The results of Study 1 indicated that the scale has good internal and adequate test-retest reliability. Additionally, the results of a factor analysis suggested that the scale appears to be tapping a single construct. Study 2 examined the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale, and Studies 3 and 4 examined the predictive and incremental validity of the scale. The importance of the CUS to work on depressives' social information processing and for basic research and theory on human social judgment processes is discussed.

  14. Individual differences in oral thermosensation.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Suzanna; Zald, David H

    2006-07-30

    Although oral thermosensation is critical to the perception of food and drinks, little information is available on the organization of individual differences in these abilities. We examined the relationship between measures of cooling and warming on the tongue and lip and the association of these measures to taste sensitivity in a sample of 76 healthy subjects. Thermal abilities were assessed with a computer-controlled, 1.5 cm2 peltier plate that was placed on the anterior dorsal surface of the tongue or the lower lip. Thermal testing consisted of both cooling and warming threshold detection, and intensity ratings of warm and cool suprathreshold temperatures. Intensity ratings of different temperatures were highly correlated, especially for temperatures in the same class. Similarly, warming and cooling thresholds were highly correlated. In contrast, thermal detection abilities were largely dissociable from suprathreshold intensity ratings, especially in the cooling direction. Suprathreshold ratings of cooling on the tongue were also modestly associated with ratings of the taste intensity of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). However, a similar association was observed for the lower lip, indicating that the effect does not reflect an isolated characteristic of lingual physiology. Unexpectedly, two subjects with no history of oral trauma demonstrated abnormally deficient (4 S.D. below the mean) cool threshold detection abilities for the tongue, suggesting that there may exist subjects in the population who have profoundly poor lingual temperature processing.

  15. Implementation of standards for individual monitoring in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzi, E; Alves, J G; Ambrosi, P; Janzekovic, H; Vartiainen, E

    2004-01-01

    A large number of standards are available for radiation protection and individual monitoring purposes. They are published by various organisations, international and national. Moreover, the increasing policy of "Quality" applied to individual monitoring requires the implementation of standards on Quality Assurance (QA) both in technical and management aspects of a dosimetric service. Implementation of standards is not mandatory; therefore, varying degrees of implementation can be found in different European countries. However, for a number of good reasons, a degree of harmonisation within the European Union (EU) of the requirements and procedures for individual monitoring would be desirable. Harmonisation as applied to dosimetric services does not mean that they should all follow exactly the same procedures, but that they should aim to meet the same general requirements, and their results should be comparable. This article aims to compile information on the use of all standards applied within individual monitoring practices, be it on the calibration of dosemeters or on the QA procedures to be applied to the overall dose evaluation process. Both "technical standards" and "quality standards" will be discussed. A list of documents of relevance to subjects such as recommendations and requirements in the field of individual monitoring, whose application could help in the harmonisation of procedures, will also be given. As it is agreed that implementation of quality standards is a relevant framework within which harmonisation can be achieved, guidance on the implementation of quality standards in a dosimetric service is given. Accreditation and approval of dosimetric services will be of relevance in the process of harmonisation of individual monitoring within the EU. In this article, a discussion of various procedures and the meaning of both forms of recognition is also provided. Although most of the text applies to the monitoring of internal and external exposure to

  16. Individual differences and evidence-based psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Belmaker, Rh; Bersudsky, Yuly; Agam, Galila

    2012-09-27

    Individual differences in response to pharmacologic treatment limits the usefulness of mean data obtained from randomized controlled trials. These individual differences exist even in genetically uniform inbred mouse strains. While stratification can be of value in large studies, the individual patient history is the most effective currently available guide for personalized medicine in psychopharmacology.

  17. Standards of Scientific Conduct: Disciplinary differences

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Michael; Sweet, Monica; Plemmons, Dena

    2014-01-01

    Teaching of responsible conduct of research is largely predicated on the assumption that there are accepted standards of conduct that can be taught. However there is little evidence of consensus in the scientific community about such standards, at least for the practices of authorship, collaboration, and data management. To assess whether such differences in standards are based on disciplinary differences, a survey, described previously, addressing standards, practices, and perceptions about teaching and learning was distributed in November 2010 to U.S. faculty from 50 graduate programs for the biomedical disciplines of microbiology, neuroscience, nursing, and psychology. Despite evidence of statistically significant differences across the four disciplines, actual differences were quite small. Stricter measures of effect size indicated practically significant disciplinary differences for fewer than 10% of the questions. This suggests that the variation in individual standards of practice within each discipline is at least as great as variation due to differences among disciplines. Therefore, the need for discipline-specific training may not be as important as sometimes thought. PMID:25256408

  18. Standards of Scientific Conduct: Disciplinary Differences.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Michael; Sweet, Monica; Plemmons, Dena

    2015-10-01

    Teaching of responsible conduct of research is largely predicated on the assumption that there are accepted standards of conduct that can be taught. However there is little evidence of consensus in the scientific community about such standards, at least for the practices of authorship, collaboration, and data management. To assess whether such differences in standards are based on disciplinary differences, a survey, described previously, addressing standards, practices, and perceptions about teaching and learning was distributed in November 2010 to US faculty from 50 graduate programs for the biomedical disciplines of microbiology, neuroscience, nursing, and psychology. Despite evidence of statistically significant differences across the four disciplines, actual differences were quite small. Stricter measures of effect size indicated practically significant disciplinary differences for fewer than 10% of the questions. This suggests that the variation in individual standards of practice within each discipline is at least as great as variation due to differences among disciplines. Therefore, the need for discipline-specific training may not be as important as sometimes thought. PMID:25256408

  19. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  20. An ontogenetic perspective on individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Senner, Nathan R.; Conklin, Jesse R.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals can arise during any stage of life. Although several distinct processes underlying individual differences have been defined and studied (e.g. parental effects, senescence), we lack an explicit, unified perspective for understanding how these processes contribute separately and synergistically to observed variation in functional traits. We propose a conceptual framework based on a developmental view of life-history variation, linking each ontogenetic stage with the types of individual differences originating during that period. In our view, the salient differences among these types are encapsulated by three key criteria: timing of onset, when fitness consequences are realized, and potential for reversibility. To fill a critical gap in this framework, we formulate a new term to refer to individual differences generated during adulthood—reversible state effects. We define these as ‘reversible changes in a functional trait resulting from life-history trade-offs during adulthood that affect fitness’, highlighting how the adult phenotype can be repeatedly altered in response to environmental variation. Defining individual differences in terms of trade-offs allows explicit predictions regarding when and where fitness consequences should be expected. Moreover, viewing individual differences in a developmental context highlights how different processes can work in concert to shape phenotype and fitness, and lays a foundation for research linking individual differences to ecological and evolutionary theory. PMID:26336173

  1. Individual Differences, Intelligence, and Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional analysis of behavior. In addition to general intelligence, we discuss three other major aspects of behavior in which individuals differ: speed of processing, working memory, and the learning of three-term contingencies. Despite recent progress in our understanding of the relations among these aspects of behavior, numerous issues remain unresolved. Researchers need to determine which learning tasks predict individual differences in intelligence and which do not, and then identify the specific characteristics of these tasks that make such prediction possible. PMID:18831127

  2. An evolutionary ecology of individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Bell, Alison M.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals often differ in what they do. This has been recognised since antiquity. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary significance of such variation is attracting widespread interest, which is burgeoning to an extent that is fragmenting the literature. As a first attempt at synthesis, we focus on individual differences in behaviour within populations that exceed the day-to-day variation in individual behaviour (i.e. behavioural specialisation). Indeed, the factors promoting ecologically relevant behavioural specialisation within natural populations are likely to have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. We discuss such individual differences from three distinct perspectives: individual niche specialisations, the division of labour within insect societies and animal personality variation. In the process, while recognising that each area has its own unique motivations, we identify a number of opportunities for productive ‘crossfertilisation’ among the (largely independent) bodies of work. We conclude that a complete understanding of evolutionarily and ecologically relevant individual differences must specify how ecological interactions impact the basic biological process (e.g. Darwinian selection, development and information processing) that underpin the organismal features determining behavioural specialisations. Moreover, there is likely to be covariation amongst behavioural specialisations. Thus, we sketch the key elements of a general framework for studying the evolutionary ecology of individual differences. PMID:22897772

  3. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection.

  5. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection. PMID:26597548

  6. Individual differences in susceptibility to inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Seegmiller, Janelle K; Watson, Jason M; Strayer, David L

    2011-05-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by variability in working memory capacity, modulate susceptibility to inattentional blindness. Participants watched a classic inattentional blindness video (Simons & Chabris, 1999) and were instructed to count passes among basketball players, wherein 58% noticed the unexpected: a person wearing a gorilla suit. When participants were accurate with their pass counts, individuals with higher working memory capacity were more likely to report seeing the gorilla (67%) than those with lesser working memory capacity (36%). These results suggest that variability in attentional control is a potential mechanism underlying the apparent modulation of inattentional blindness across individuals.

  7. Individual Differences in Exploration Using Desktop VR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modjeska, David; Chignell, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of information visualization and computer graphics focuses on a study that contrasted performance in three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional zooming interactively (2.5D) virtual worlds for people with differing levels of spatial and structure learning ability. Suggests implications of individual differences for the usability and…

  8. Everyday attention failures: an individual differences investigation.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2012-11-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational contexts (in class or while studying). Latent variable techniques were used to perform analyses, and the results suggested that individual differences in working memory capacity and attention control were related to some but not all everyday attention failures. Furthermore, everyday attention failures predicted SAT scores and partially accounted for the relation between cognitive abilities and SAT scores. These results provide important evidence for individual differences in everyday attention failures as well as for the ecological validity of laboratory measures of working memory capacity and attention control.

  9. Individual differences in recovery from traumatic fear.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Andrew; Singewald, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Although exposure to major psychological trauma is unfortunately common, risk for related neuropsychiatric conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), varies greatly among individuals. Fear extinction offers a tractable and translatable behavioral readout of individual differences in learned recovery from trauma. Studies in rodent substrains and subpopulations are providing new insights into neural system dysfunctions associated with impaired fear extinction. Rapid progress is also being made in identifying key molecular circuits, epigenetic mechanisms, and gene variants associated with differences in fear extinction. Here, we discuss how this research is informing understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of individual differences in risk for trauma-related anxiety disorders, and how future work can help identify novel diagnostic biomarkers and pharmacotherapeutics for these disorders.

  10. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  11. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  12. ERPs reveal individual differences in morphosyntactic processing.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Darren; Van Hell, Janet G

    2014-04-01

    We investigated individual differences in the neural substrates of morphosyntactic processing among monolingual English speakers using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although grand-mean analysis showed a biphasic LAN-P600 pattern to grammatical violations, analysis of individuals׳ ERP responses showed that brain responses varied systematically along a continuum between negativity- and positivity-dominant ERP responses across individuals. Moreover, the left hemisphere topography of the negativity resulted from component overlap between a centro-parietal N400 in some individuals and a right hemisphere-dominant P600 in others. Our results show that biphasic ERP waveforms do not always reflect separable processing stages within individuals, and moreover, that the LAN can be a variant of the N400. These results show that there are multiple neurocognitive routes to successful grammatical comprehension in language users across the proficiency spectrum. Our results underscore that understanding and quantifying individual differences can provide an important source of evidence about language processing in the general population.

  13. Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

  14. Individual Differences in Online Personalized Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samah, Norazrena Abu; Yahaya, Noraffandy; Ali, Mohamad Bilal

    2011-01-01

    The need has arise for the consideration of individual differences, to include their learning styles, learning orientations, preferences and needs in learning to allow learners engage and be responsible for their own learning, retain information longer, apply the knowledge more effectively, have positive attitudes towards the subject, have more…

  15. Are Individual Differences Undertreated in Instructional Design?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional design can be more effective if it is as fixedly dedicated to the accommodation of individual differences as it currently is to the accommodation of subject matters. That is the hypothesis. A menu of accommodation options is provided that is applicable at each of three stages of instructional development or administration: before,…

  16. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  17. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN LEARNING--INTERFERENCE FACTOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JENSEN, ARTHUR R.

    AN INVESTIGATION WAS CONDUCTED (1) TO DEVISE A NUMBER OF LABORATORY MEASURES OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INTERFERENCE EFFECTS IN LEARNING AND (2) TO DETERMINE THEIR DIMENSIONALITY IN A VARIETY OF INTERFERENCE EFFECTS. SUBJECTS WERE 530 STUDENTS IN INTRODUCTORY COURSES IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,…

  18. Trends in the psychophysiology of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Mecacci, L

    1976-01-01

    Pavlov's typology of higher nervous activity was the first systematic approach to the psychophysiology of individual differences. Pavlov's theory has been further developed by Teplov, Nebylitsyn and their pupils in the Institute of Psychology in Moscow. In particular, Nebylitsyn has delineated a new property of the nervous system and has shown that it is different from strength of nervous system. In the Western research context we can compare the relationship between these two parameters to that between arousal and conditioning level. Eysenck's theory of the physiological bases of extraversion/introversion is discussed in relation to Nebylitsyn's theses and Gray's conception of arousability. Finally, it is suggested that future work in the psychophysiology of individual differences should stress the study of the ontogenetic development of the physiological variables.

  19. What standardized tests ignore when assessing individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tenorio, Marcela; Campos, Ruth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In this article we critique the use of traditional standardized tests for the cognitive assessment of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Limitations stem from the lack of integrating (a) results from research into the psychological functioning of these populations, and (b) the main arguments underlying models of human development. We identify four secondary issues in this discussion: (1) these instruments cannot be used with children who have particularly low cognitive functioning; (2) little or no variance in the scores obtained by individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, because all are at floor, prevent adequate interpretations; (3) measurements do not provide information useful for the design of intervention strategies; and (4) different cognitive and/or neural processes may underlie behavioural scores ‘in the normal range’. Rethinking traditional assessment methods in favour of technologically-mediated games yields new cognitive assessment possibilities. PMID:26778874

  20. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire – GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men’s health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers’ health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers’ individual differences. PMID:25578002

  1. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire – GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men’s health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers’ health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers’ individual differences.

  2. Divorce and Health: Beyond Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.; Hasselmo, Karen; Bourassa, Kyle J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews what is known about the association between marital dissolution and health outcomes in adults. Two of the major empirical findings in the literature—that most people do well following marital separation and that this life event increases risk for poor outcomes—appear to be in contrast. This paper provides an individual differences framework for reconciling these competing perspectives and suggests that the bulk of the risk for poor outcomes following marital dissolution is carried by a minority of people. Research focusing on at-risk populations is beginning to shed light on mechanisms of action, the processes that explain why and how marital separation and divorce are associated with ill health. The paper outlines a series of future directions that go beyond individual differences to study these mechanisms. PMID:25892857

  3. Individual differences in subjective circadian flexibility.

    PubMed

    Marcoen, Nele; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Neu, Daniel; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mairesse, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate individual differences in the subjective flexibility of the circadian system in a community sample, with respect to age, gender, chronotype, and sleepiness perceptions. An online questionnaire containing the Circadian Type Inventory, the Composite Scale of Morningness, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was administered. In addition, participants performed a visuo-verbal judgment task to determine time-of-day variations in estimated sleepiness. We analyzed data of 752 participants, aged between 18 and 83 years, who reported good sleep quality, no sleep disturbances, no excessive daytime sleepiness, and no engagement in shiftwork. Our results suggest gender- and chronotype-related differences in the subjective flexibility of the circadian system. Subjective circadian flexibility was higher in men in comparison with women and was positively related to evening preference. Age was not associated with flexibility scores. Additionally, the subjective flexibility of the circadian system had an influence on estimated sleepiness profiles: individuals with a high flexibility displayed lower sleepiness estimations during the biological night in comparison to individuals with a low flexibility. These findings suggests that, next to known chronotype and other dispositional differences, subjective circadian flexibility should be taken into account when evaluating tolerance to activities associated with nighttime functioning (e.g. night shifts).

  4. Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E. W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences. PMID:20308553

  5. 10 CFR 63.311 - Individual protection standard after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Postclosure Individual Protection Standard § 63.311 Individual protection standard after...

  6. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal system. The findings showed that variance in language abilities is associated with performance on different domains of procedural memory, including the motor domain (as shown in the pursuit rotor task), the cognitive domain (as shown in the weather prediction task), and the linguistic domain (as shown in the nonword repetition priming task). These results implicate the corticostriatal system in individual differences in language. PMID:26190949

  7. Individual personality differences in Port Jackson sharks Heterodontus portusjacksoni.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, E E; Brown, C

    2016-08-01

    This study examined interindividual personality differences between Port Jackson sharks Heterodontus portusjacksoni utilizing a standard boldness assay. Additionally, the correlation between differences in individual boldness and stress reactivity was examined, exploring indications of individual coping styles. Heterodontus portusjacksoni demonstrated highly repeatable individual differences in boldness and stress reactivity. Individual boldness scores were highly repeatable across four trials such that individuals that were the fastest to emerge in the first trial were also the fastest to emerge in subsequent trials. Additionally, individuals that were the most reactive to a handling stressor in the first trial were also the most reactive in a second trial. The strong link between boldness and stress response commonly found in teleosts was also evident in this study, providing evidence of proactive-reactive coping styles in H. portusjacksoni. These results demonstrate the presence of individual personality differences in sharks for the first time. Understanding how personality influences variation in elasmobranch behaviour such as prey choice, habitat use and activity levels is critical to better managing these top predators which play important ecological roles in marine ecosystems. PMID:27228221

  8. STANDARD VERSUS INDIVIDUALIZED HIERARCHIES IN DESENSITIZATION TO REDUCE TEST ANXIETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EMERY, JOHN R.; KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D.

    FIFTY-FOUR TEST-ANXIOUS COLLEGE FRESHMEN FROM STANFORD UNIVERSITY WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO ONE OF THREE GROUPS--(1) A DESENSITIZATION GROUP WORKING WITH INDIVIDUALIZED ANXIETY HIERARCHIES, (2) A DESENSITIZATION GROUP WORKING WITH A SINGLE STANDARD HIERARCHY, AND (3) A NO-TREATMENT CONTROL GROUP. THE CRITERIA CONSISTED OF SELF-RATINGS OF ANXIETY…

  9. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Individual drain systems. 60.692-2 Section 60.692-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...)(1) Junction boxes shall be equipped with a cover and may have an open vent pipe. The vent pipe...

  10. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    PubMed

    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary).

  11. Prospective Memory, Personality, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A.; Wong Gonzalez, Daniela; McDouall, Joanna; Leonard, Carrie A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors. PMID:23525147

  12. Standardized Tests, Group Differences, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    The paper considers the controversies of standardized tests and group differences as they relate to the formation of public policy. The overlapping or confounding issues of standardized tests and group differences have long since become matters of public policy. Neither separately nor jointly can the issues be resolved within the confines of…

  13. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment.

  14. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment. PMID:26272366

  15. Individual differences in women's rape avoidance behaviors.

    PubMed

    McKibbin, William F; Shackelford, Todd K; Miner, Emily J; Bates, Vincent M; Liddle, James R

    2011-04-01

    Rape can exact severe psychological, physical, and reproductive costs on women, and likely was a recurrent adaptive problem over human evolutionary history. Therefore, women may have evolved psychological mechanisms that motivate rape avoidance behaviors. Guided heuristically by an evolutionary perspective, we tested the hypothesis that women's rape avoidance behaviors would vary with several individual difference variables. Specifically, we predicted that rape avoidance behaviors would covary positively with (1) women's attractiveness, (2) women's involvement in a committed romantic relationship, and (3) the number of family members living nearby. We also predicted that women's rape avoidance behaviors would covary negatively with age. We administered the Rape Avoidance Inventory (McKibbin et al., Pers Indiv Differ 39:336-340, 2009) and a demographic survey to a sample of women (n = 144). The results of correlational and regression analyses were consistent with the predictions, with the exception that women's rape avoidance behaviors did not covary with women's age. Discussion highlighted limitations of the current research and directions for future research on women's rape avoidance psychology and behaviors.

  16. Individual Differences Reveal the Basis of Consonance

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Josh H.; Lehr, Andriana J.; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Some combinations of musical notes are consonant (pleasant), while others are dissonant (unpleasant), a distinction central to music. Explanations of consonance in terms of acoustics, auditory neuroscience, and enculturation have been debated for centuries [1-12]. We utilized individual differences to distinguish the candidate theories. We measured preferences for musical chords as well as nonmusical sounds that isolated particular acoustic factors – specifically, the beating and the harmonic relationships between frequency components, two factors that have long been thought to potentially underlie consonance [2, 3, 10, 13-20]. Listeners preferred stimuli without beats and with harmonic spectra, but across over 250 subjects, only the preference for harmonic spectra was consistently correlated with preferences for consonant over dissonant chords. Harmonicity preferences were also correlated with the number of years subjects had spent playing a musical instrument, suggesting that exposure to music amplifies preferences for harmonic frequencies because of their musical importance. Harmonic spectra are prominent features of natural sounds, and our results indicate they also underlie the perception of consonance. PMID:20493704

  17. Differing types of medical prevention appeal to different individuals.

    PubMed

    Bouckaert, Nicolas; Schokkaert, Erik

    2016-04-01

    We analyze participation in medical prevention with an expected utility model that is sufficiently rich to capture diverging features of different prevention procedures. The predictions of the model are not rejected with data from SHARE. A decrease in individual health decreases participation in breast cancer screening and dental prevention and increases participation in influenza vaccination, cholesterol screening, blood pressure screening, and blood sugar screening. Positive income effects are most pronounced for dental prevention. Increased mortality risk is an important predictor in the model for breast cancer screening, but not for the other procedures. Targeted screening and vaccination programs increase participation.

  18. Individual differences, cultural differences, and dialectic conflict description and resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation (FOI) in East Asians than in Westerners. To support this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, we manipulated FOI in American participants before having them resolve two conflicts: an interpersonal conflict and a conflict between an individual and an institution. We found that the Americans among whom a high level of FOI had been induced were more likely to look for a dialectical resolution than those among whom a low level had been prompted. The relationship between conflict resolution and FOI was further investigated in Experiment 2, in which FOI was not manipulated. The results indicated that Koreans had higher chronic FOI on average than did the Americans. Compared to the Americans, the Koreans were more likely to resolve the interpersonal conflict dialectically, but did not show the same bias in resolving the person-institution conflict. The differences in the preference for dialectical resolution between FOI conditions in Experiment 1 and cultural groups in Experiment 2 were mediated by FOI. These findings bolster previous research on FOI in showing that chronic levels of FOI are positively related to both preference for dialectical sentences and sensitivity to context. They provide clearer insight into how differences in FOI affect attention and thereby higher-level reasoning such as dialectic description and conflict resolution.

  19. Integrating Individual Differences in Career Assessment: The Atlas Model of Individual Differences and the Strong Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2010-01-01

    Career assessment methods often include measures of individual differences constructs, such as interests, personality, abilities, and values. Although many researchers have recently called for the development of integrated models, career counseling professionals have long faced the challenge of integrating this information into their practice. The…

  20. Exploring Individual Differences in Preschoolers' Causal Stance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Aubry; Booth, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Preschoolers, as a group, are highly attuned to causality, and this attunement is known to facilitate memory, learning, and problem solving. However, recent work reveals substantial individual variability in the strength of children's "causal stance," as demonstrated by their curiosity about and preference for new causal information. In…

  1. Individual differences in mental rotation: What does gesture tell us?

    PubMed Central

    Göksun, Tilbe; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Newcombe, Nora; Shipley, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Gestures are common when people convey spatial information, for example, when they give directions or describe motion in space. Here we examine the gestures speakers produce when they explain how they solved mental rotation problems (Shepard & Meltzer, 1971). We asked whether speakers gesture differently while describing their problems as a function of their spatial abilities. We found that low-spatial individuals (as assessed by a standard paper-and-pencil measure) gestured more to explain their solutions than high-spatial individuals. While this finding may seem surprising, finer-grained analyses showed that low-spatial participants used gestures more often than high-spatial participants to convey “static only” information but less often than high-spatial participants to convey dynamic information. Furthermore, the groups differed in the types of gestures used to convey static information: high-spatial individuals were more likely than low-spatial individuals to use gestures that captured the internal structure of the block forms. Our gesture findings thus suggest that encoding block structure may be as important as rotating the blocks in mental spatial transformation. PMID:23423638

  2. A Standardized Mean Difference Effect Size for Single Case Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Pustejovsky, James E.; Shadish, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Single case designs are a set of research methods for evaluating treatment effects by assigning different treatments to the same individual and measuring outcomes over time and are used across fields such as behavior analysis, clinical psychology, special education, and medicine. Emerging standards for single case designs have focused attention on…

  3. Extraversion predicts individual differences in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingguang; Tian, Moqian; Fang, Huizhen; Xu, Miao; Li, He; Liu, Jia

    2010-07-01

    In daily life, one of the most common social tasks we perform is to recognize faces. However, the relation between face recognition ability and social activities is largely unknown. Here we ask whether individuals with better social skills are also better at recognizing faces. We found that extraverts who have better social skills correctly recognized more faces than introverts. However, this advantage was absent when extraverts were asked to recognize non-social stimuli (e.g., flowers). In particular, the underlying facet that makes extraverts better face recognizers is the gregariousness facet that measures the degree of inter-personal interaction. In addition, the link between extraversion and face recognition ability was independent of general cognitive abilities. These findings provide the first evidence that links face recognition ability to our daily activity in social communication, supporting the hypothesis that extraverts are better at decoding social information than introverts.

  4. Individual Differences in Interest and Narrative Writing

    PubMed

    Albin; Benton; Khramtsova

    1996-10-01

    Two hundred twenty-four undergraduate students wrote about one-half of an inning of a baseball game and about one-half of a soccer game, counterbalanced, for 20 min each. Students then completed two six-item interest inventories-one each on the topics of baseball and soccer-and tests of baseball knowledge and soccer knowledge. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that individual interest in baseball was significantly related to the proportions of game actions and irrelevant-nongame actions, controlling for gender, discourse knowledge, and topic knowledge. Topic knowledge was significantly related to thematic maturity, controlling for gender and discourse knowledge. Students wrote more topic-relevant information on the baseball story-a relatively high-interest topic-than on the soccer story, a relatively low-interest topic. Implications for the Flower and Hayes (1981) writing model and for assigning students writing topics are discussed.

  5. The role of scripts in personal consistency and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Amy; Popovska, Ana; Dabova, Milena

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the role of scripts in personal consistency and individual differences. Scripts are personally distinctive rules for understanding emotionally significant experiences. In 2 studies, scripts were identified from autobiographical memories of college students (Ns = 47 and 50) using standard categories of events and emotions to derive event-emotion compounds (e.g., Affiliation-Joy). In Study 1, scripts predicted responses to a reaction-time task 1 month later, such that participants responded more quickly to the event from their script when asked to indicate what emotion would be evoked by a series of events. In Study 2, individual differences in 5 common scripts were found to be systematically related to individual differences in traits of the Five-Factor Model. Distinct patterns of correlation revealed the importance of studying events and emotions in compound units, that is, in script form (e.g., Agreeableness was correlated with the script Affiliation-Joy but not with the scripts Fun-Joy or Affiliation-Love). PMID:21299561

  6. Individual Differences in Second Language Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in traditional second language (L2) acquisition research, a major question in the field of L2 real-time sentence processing is the extent to which L2 learners process the input like native speakers. Where differences are observed, the underlying causes could be the influence of the learner's first language and/or differences…

  7. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal…

  8. The Role of Individual Differences in L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of individual differences in second language (L2) speech has been extensively studied, the impact of individual differences on the process of second language writing and the written product has been a neglected area of research. In this paper, I review the most important individual difference factors that might explain variations…

  9. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  10. Speech rhythm sensitivity and musical aptitude: ERPs and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Magne, Cyrille; Jordan, Deanna K; Gordon, Reyna L

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the electrophysiological markers of rhythmic expectancy during speech perception. In addition, given the large literature showing overlaps between cognitive and neural resources recruited for language and music, we considered a relation between musical aptitude and individual differences in speech rhythm sensitivity. Twenty adults were administered a standardized assessment of musical aptitude, and EEG was recorded as participants listened to sequences of four bisyllabic words for which the stress pattern of the final word either matched or mismatched the stress pattern of the preceding words. Words with unexpected stress patterns elicited an increased fronto-central mid-latency negativity. In addition, rhythm aptitude significantly correlated with the size of the negative effect elicited by unexpected iambic words, the least common type of stress pattern in English. The present results suggest shared neurocognitive resources for speech rhythm and musical rhythm.

  11. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene... of cracks, gaps, or other problems that could result in benzene emissions. (5) Except as provided...

  12. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene... of cracks, gaps, or other problems that could result in benzene emissions. (5) Except as provided...

  13. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene... of cracks, gaps, or other problems that could result in benzene emissions. (5) Except as provided...

  14. Toward disentangling sources of individual differences in appraisal and anger.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, Peter; Van Mechelen, Iven; Rijmen, Frank

    2008-07-01

    A theoretical framework is presented to explain individual differences in situation-specific emotional experience in terms of three different sources of variance: (a) individual differences in how one appraises one's circumstances, (b) individual differences in how appraisals are related to the experience of emotion, and (c) individual differences independent from situation and appraisal. The relative contribution and nature of these sources was examined empirically for the experience of anger based on data from two directed imagery studies (total N=1,192). Consistent results across the two studies demonstrated that variability in anger experience primarily stems from variability in how a situation is appraised and to a smaller extent from individual differences in the relations between the appraisals and anger and individual differences independent of appraisal. The findings further identified frustration as the central appraisal involved in anger. Implications for emotion theories and anger management programs are discussed.

  15. Individual differences in impulsive choice and timing in rats.

    PubMed

    Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2012-07-01

    Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extent of individual differences in a normal sample of hooded Lister rats. Three experiments utilized variations of a delay discounting task to measure the degree of variation in impulsive choice behavior across individual rats. The individual differences accounted for 22-55% of the variance in choice behavior across the three experiments. In Experiments 2 and 3, the individual differences were still apparent when behavior was measured across multiple choice points. Large individual differences in the rate of responding, and modest individual differences in timing of responding were also observed during occasional peak trials. The individual differences in timing and rate, however, did not correlate consistently with individual differences in choice behavior. This suggests that a variety of factors may affect choice behavior, response rate, and response timing.

  16. Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Accuracy and Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles F., Jr.; DePaulo, Bella M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a meta-analysis of individual differences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individual differences for differences introduced by random measurement error. Although…

  17. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE...

  18. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  19. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  20. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  1. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  2. Investigating Inter-Individual Differences in Short-Term Intra-Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Hamaker, Ellen; Bergeman, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-individual variability over a short period of time may contain important information about how individuals differ from each other. In this article we begin by discussing diverse indicators for quantifying intra-individual variability and indicate their advantages and disadvantages. Then we propose an alternative method that models…

  3. Consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    English, S; Nakagawa, S; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2010-08-01

    Although recent models for the evolution of personality, using game theory and life-history theory, predict that individuals should differ consistently in their cooperative behaviour, consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour have rarely been documented. In this study, we used a long-term data set on wild meerkats to quantify the repeatability of two types of cooperative care (babysitting and provisioning) within individuals and examined how repeatability varied across age, sex and status categories. Contributions to babysitting and provisioning were significantly repeatable and positively correlated within individuals, with provisioning more repeatable than babysitting. While repeatability of provisioning was relatively invariant across categories of individuals, repeatability of babysitting increased with age and was higher for subordinates than dominants. These results provide support for theoretical predictions that life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour and raise questions about why some individuals consistently help more than others across a suite of cooperative behaviours.

  4. Consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    English, S; Nakagawa, S; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2010-08-01

    Although recent models for the evolution of personality, using game theory and life-history theory, predict that individuals should differ consistently in their cooperative behaviour, consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour have rarely been documented. In this study, we used a long-term data set on wild meerkats to quantify the repeatability of two types of cooperative care (babysitting and provisioning) within individuals and examined how repeatability varied across age, sex and status categories. Contributions to babysitting and provisioning were significantly repeatable and positively correlated within individuals, with provisioning more repeatable than babysitting. While repeatability of provisioning was relatively invariant across categories of individuals, repeatability of babysitting increased with age and was higher for subordinates than dominants. These results provide support for theoretical predictions that life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour and raise questions about why some individuals consistently help more than others across a suite of cooperative behaviours. PMID:20492087

  5. EFL Reading Comprehension, Individual Differences and Text Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilikozen, Neslihan; Akyel, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution to EFL reading comprehension of the following individual-difference variables: prior knowledge, topic interest, linguistic proficiency, gender, reading motivation, and metacognitive awareness. It also investigates the relationship between the aforementioned individual differences and the role of text…

  6. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  7. Prototypes and Personal Templates: Collective Wisdom and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Leonard M.; Turan, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns individual differences in the associative meaning of psychological concepts. Associative meaning may be assessed with prototype methodology, which yields a list of features of the concept ordered according to their rated importance. Our theory concerns individual differences in a concept's associative meaning: A personal…

  8. Individual Differences in Impulsive Choice and Timing in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extent…

  9. Localizing Age-Related Individual Differences in a Hierarchical Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Data from 33 separate studies were combined to create an aggregate data set consisting of 16 cognitive variables and 6832 different individuals who ranged between 18 and 95 years of age. Analyses were conducted to determine where in a hierarchical structure of cognitive abilities individual differences associated with age, gender, education, and…

  10. Different ways to active optical frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaogang; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-06-01

    Active optical frequency standard, or active optical clock, is a new concept of optical frequency standard, where a weak feedback with phase coherence information in optical bad-cavity limitation is formed, and the continuous self-sustained coherent stimulated emission between two atomic transition levels with population inversion is realized. Through ten years of both theoretical and experimental exploration, the narrow linewidth and suppression of cavity pulling effect of active optical frequency standard have been initially proved. In this paper, after a simple review, we will mainly present the most recent experimental progresses of active optical frequency standards in Peking University, including 4-level cesium active optical frequency standards and active Faraday optical frequency standards. The future development of active optical frequency standards is also discussed.

  11. Analysis of Individual "Test Of Astronomy STandards" (TOAST) Item Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Schleigh, Sharon Price; Stork, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of valid and reliable strategies to efficiently determine the knowledge landscape of introductory astronomy college students is an effort of great interest to the astronomy education community. This study examines individual item response rates from a widely used conceptual understanding survey, the Test Of Astronomy Standards…

  12. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  13. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  14. An Individual Differences Analysis of Double-Aspect Stimulus Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, G. Alfred; Huber, R. John

    Any theory of information processing must address both what is processed and how that processing takes place. Most studies investigating variables which alter physical dimension utilization have ignored the large individual differences in selective attention or cue utilization. A paradigm was developed using an individual focus on information…

  15. Defining the biological bases of individual differences in musicality.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Honing, Henkjan; Peretz, Isabelle; Trainor, Laurel J; Fisher, Simon E

    2015-03-19

    Advances in molecular technologies make it possible to pinpoint genomic factors associated with complex human traits. For cognition and behaviour, identification of underlying genes provides new entry points for deciphering the key neurobiological pathways. In the past decade, the search for genetic correlates of musicality has gained traction. Reports have documented familial clustering for different extremes of ability, including amusia and absolute pitch (AP), with twin studies demonstrating high heritability for some music-related skills, such as pitch perception. Certain chromosomal regions have been linked to AP and musical aptitude, while individual candidate genes have been investigated in relation to aptitude and creativity. Most recently, researchers in this field started performing genome-wide association scans. Thus far, studies have been hampered by relatively small sample sizes and limitations in defining components of musicality, including an emphasis on skills that can only be assessed in trained musicians. With opportunities to administer standardized aptitude tests online, systematic large-scale assessment of musical abilities is now feasible, an important step towards high-powered genome-wide screens. Here, we offer a synthesis of existing literatures and outline concrete suggestions for the development of comprehensive operational tools for the analysis of musical phenotypes.

  16. Defining the biological bases of individual differences in musicality

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Bruno; Honing, Henkjan; Peretz, Isabelle; Trainor, Laurel J.; Fisher, Simon E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in molecular technologies make it possible to pinpoint genomic factors associated with complex human traits. For cognition and behaviour, identification of underlying genes provides new entry points for deciphering the key neurobiological pathways. In the past decade, the search for genetic correlates of musicality has gained traction. Reports have documented familial clustering for different extremes of ability, including amusia and absolute pitch (AP), with twin studies demonstrating high heritability for some music-related skills, such as pitch perception. Certain chromosomal regions have been linked to AP and musical aptitude, while individual candidate genes have been investigated in relation to aptitude and creativity. Most recently, researchers in this field started performing genome-wide association scans. Thus far, studies have been hampered by relatively small sample sizes and limitations in defining components of musicality, including an emphasis on skills that can only be assessed in trained musicians. With opportunities to administer standardized aptitude tests online, systematic large-scale assessment of musical abilities is now feasible, an important step towards high-powered genome-wide screens. Here, we offer a synthesis of existing literatures and outline concrete suggestions for the development of comprehensive operational tools for the analysis of musical phenotypes. PMID:25646515

  17. Individual differences in saccharin acceptance predict rats' food intake.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Robert A; Martire, Sarah I; Rooney, Kieron B; Kendig, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    Following previous results indicating that low acceptance of saccharin-sweetened yoghurt was associated with slower weight gain, the aim of this experiment was to determine which of three measures of individual differences would predict subsequent chow consumption, body weight gain, and fat mass. Pre-test measures consisted of amount of running in an activity wheel, amount of 0.1% saccharin solution consumed over 24h, and performance on an elevated plus maze (EPM). Rats were then maintained for three weeks on a diet of standard chow and water. Subsequent post-testing repeated the procedures used in pre-testing. The rats were then culled and fat pads excised and weighed. Pre-testing revealed a negative correlation between saccharin acceptance and activity, while neither measure correlated with anxiety in the EPM. Pre-test saccharin acceptance was positively correlated with subsequent chow consumption, percent weight gain, and g/kg fat mass. Multiple regression analyses including all three pre-test measures confirmed saccharin acceptance as a predictor of chow consumption and, marginally, of fat pad mass, while high anxiety predicted low percent body weight gain. PMID:27260516

  18. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-04-04

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction context. Payoff-based learners focus on their peers' success, while decision-based learners disregard payoffs and exclusively focus on their peers' past behaviour. These individual differences may be of considerable importance for cultural evolution. By means of a simple model, we demonstrate that groups harbouring individuals with different learning strategies may be faster in adopting technological innovations and can be more efficient through successful role differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of individual variation for human interactions and sheds new light on the dynamics of cultural evolution.

  19. Individual odor differences and their social functions in insects.

    PubMed

    Barrows, E M; Bell, W J; Michener, C D

    1975-07-01

    The evolution of individual or subgroup differences in odors of halictine bees is suggested from possible widespread intraspecific variation in pheromones. An important result of such variation may be maintenance of genetic polymorphisms; in nesting Hymenoptera odor differences may also facilitate individual nest recognition. In Lasioglosum zephyrum males habituate to odors of different females and perhaps thus save time by not trying to copulate with nonreceptive individuals. Guards (females) at nest entrances distinguish their few nestmates (other females) from other conspecific individuals by odors, seemingly pheromones. Duration of the habituation in L. zephyrum is at least an hour (perhaps much more) for males in relation to females and 6 or 7 days for guards in relation to nestmates. Studies of pheromones should take into consideration the possibility of pheromonal polymorphism in any species and the likelihood that it may be significant from biological and practical viewpoints. PMID:1058498

  20. Individual Differences and Metacognitive Knowledge of Visual Search Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A crucial ability for an organism is to orient toward important objects and to ignore temporarily irrelevant objects. Attention provides the perceptual selectivity necessary to filter an overwhelming input of sensory information to allow for efficient object detection. Although much research has examined visual search and the ‘template’ of attentional set that allows for target detection, the behavior of individual subjects often reveals the limits of experimental control of attention. Few studies have examined important aspects such as individual differences and metacognitive strategies. The present study analyzes the data from two visual search experiments for a conjunctively defined target (Proulx, 2007). The data revealed attentional capture blindness, individual differences in search strategies, and a significant rate of metacognitive errors for the assessment of the strategies employed. These results highlight a challenge for visual attention studies to account for individual differences in search behavior and distractibility, and participants that do not (or are unable to) follow instructions. PMID:22066030

  1. Individual differences in distractibility: An update and a model

    PubMed Central

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of background sound on visual-verbal task performance. A large body of evidence suggests that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) underpin individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction in most tasks and contexts. Specifically, high WMC is associated with a more steadfast locus of attention (thus overruling the call for attention that background noise may evoke) and a more constrained auditory-sensory gating (i.e., less processing of the background sound). The relation between WMC and distractibility is a general framework that may also explain distractibility differences between populations that differ along variables that covary with WMC (such as age, developmental disorders, and personality traits). A neurocognitive task-engagement/distraction trade-off (TEDTOFF) model that summarizes current knowledge is outlined and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:25632345

  2. Individual differences in working memory capacity and attentional control.

    PubMed

    Hiebel, Nina; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2015-03-01

    Visual working memory (WM) has a very limited online capacity making it considerably important to control the gating of encoding into WM. Recent studies have suggested that attention control is of importance in doing so, especially the time needed to disengage. However, the disengagement mechanism operates on a later stage of processing after the initial selection of information has already been initiated. We assume that individual differences in WM capacity are also driven by individual variations in the voluntary engagement of attention. In 2 experiments we investigated whether individuals with high- and low-WM capacity differ in the efficiency and speed of this attention control process. We realised different versions of the task in which different amounts of attention control were necessary, a more automatically triggered allocation of attention and a voluntary initiation of attention engagement, respectively. We further manipulated the time course to look for differences in the latency of attention control. The results revealed that participants with low-WM capacity were less effective to exhibit voluntary attention control processes and they were also slower in doing so compared with high-WM capacity individuals. However, this effect seems to be partly moderated by the ability to update the current task set. If the trial structure did not require task set updating smaller individual differences involving WM capacity could be found. PMID:25730638

  3. Who withdraws? Psychological individual differences and employee withdrawal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Ryan D; Swider, Brian W; Woo, Sang Eun; Allen, David G

    2016-04-01

    Psychological individual differences, such as personality, affectivity, and general mental ability, have been shown to predict numerous work-related behaviors. Although there is substantial research demonstrating relationships between psychological individual differences and withdrawal behaviors (i.e., lateness, absenteeism, and turnover), there is no integrative framework providing scholars and practitioners a guide for conceptualizing how, why, and under what circumstances we observe such relationships. In this integrative conceptual review we: (a) utilize the Cognitive-Affective Processing System framework (Mischel & Shoda, 1995) to provide an overarching theoretical basis for how psychological individual differences affect withdrawal behaviors; (b) create a theoretical model of the situated person that summarizes the existing empirical literature examining the effect of psychological differences on withdrawal behavior; and (c) identify future research opportunities based on our review and integrative framework. PMID:26595754

  4. Accounting for taste: individual differences in preference for harmony.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen E; Griscom, William S

    2013-06-01

    Although empirical research on aesthetics has had some success in explaining the average preferences of groups of observers, relatively little is known about individual differences in preference, and especially about how such differences might covary across different domains. In this study, we identified a new factor underlying aesthetic response-preference for harmonious stimuli-and examined how it varies over four domains (color, shape, spatial location, and music) across individuals with different levels of training in art and music. We found that individual preferences for harmony are strongly correlated across all four dimensions tested and decrease consistently with training in the relevant aesthetic domains. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that cross-domain preference for harmony is well-represented as a single, unified factor, with effects separate from those of training and of common personality measures. PMID:23242798

  5. Variations in Cognitive Maps: Understanding Individual Differences in Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Steven M.; Schinazi, Victor R.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Epstein, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    There are marked individual differences in the formation of cognitive maps both in the real world and in virtual environments (VE; e.g., Blajenkova, Motes, & Kozhevnikov, 2005; Chai & Jacobs, 2010; Ishikawa & Montello, 2006; Wen, Ishikawa, & Sato, 2011). These differences, however, are poorly understood and can be difficult to…

  6. Individual differences in human annoyance response to noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, R. G.; Hart, F. D.; Obrien, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Individual variations in annoyance and in susceptibility to noise were studied to establish a finer definition of the ingredients of the human annoyance response. The study involved interactions among a heterogeneous sample of human subjects, various noise stimuli, and different physical environments of exposure. Significant differences in annoyance ratings among the six noise stimuli, all equated for peak sound pressure level, were found.

  7. Individual Differences in Phonological Development: Ages One and Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vihman, Marilyn May; Greenlee, Mel

    1987-01-01

    The persistence of individual differences in phonological development of 10 normally developing children observed at age one and again at age three was studied. The children differed considerably in rate of vocabulary acquisition and relative phonological maturity and also in their general approach to learning. (Author/JDD)

  8. Individual differences in learning a novel discrete motor task.

    PubMed

    Golenia, Laura; Schoemaker, Marina M; Mouton, Leonora J; Bongers, Raoul M

    2014-01-01

    Many motor learning studies focus on average performance while it is known from everyday life experience that humans differ in their way of learning new motor tasks. This study emphasises the importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning. We studied individual tool grasping profiles of individuals who learned to pick up objects with a novel tool, a pair of pliers. The pair of pliers was attached to the thumb and the index finger so that the tip of the thumb and the tip of the index finger were displaced to the beaks of the pair of pliers. The grasp component was manipulated by varying the location of the hinge of the pair of pliers, which resulted in different relations between beak opening and closing and finger opening and closing. The Wider Beak group had the hinge at 7 cm, the Same Beak group had the hinge at 10 cm (i.e., in the middle), and the Smaller Beak group had the hinge at 13 cm from the digits. Each group consisted of ten right-handed participants who picked up an object with one of the pairs of pliers 200 times on two subsequent days. Hand opening, plateau phase, hand closing, grasping time and maximum aperture were analyzed. To characterize individual changes over practice time, a log function was fitted on these dependent variables and the ratio of improvement was determined. Results showed that at the beginning stage of tool use learning the characteristic grasping profile consisted of three phases; hand opening, plateau phase and hand closing. Over practicing individual participants differed in the number of phases that changed, the amount of change in a phase and/or the direction of change. Moreover, with different pliers different learning paths were found. The importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning is discussed. PMID:25386708

  9. Individual differences in children's and parents' generic language

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics (“Dogs bark”) convey important information about categories and facilitate children’s learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N=104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked to conceptual factors. For both children and parents, individual differences in rate of generic production were stable across time, contexts, and domains, and parents' generic usage significantly correlated with that of their own children. Furthermore, parents’ essentialist beliefs correlated with their own and their children’s rates of generic frequency. These results indicate that generic language use exhibits substantial stability and may reflect individual differences in speakers’ conceptual attitudes toward categories. PMID:24266531

  10. Individual differences in children's and parents' generic language.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Susan A; Ware, Elizabeth A; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M; Stilwell, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("Dogs bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children's learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked to conceptual factors. For both children and parents, individual differences in rate of generic production were stable across time, contexts, and domains, and parents' generic usage significantly correlated with that of their own children. Furthermore, parents' essentialist beliefs correlated with their own and their children's rates of generic frequency. These results indicate that generic language use exhibits substantial stability and may reflect individual differences in speakers' conceptual attitudes toward categories.

  11. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered. PMID:26443545

  12. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  13. Individual differences in individualism and collectivism predict ratings of virtual cities' liveability and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mark; Morrison, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated individual differences in individualism and collectivism as predictors of people's reactions to cities. Psychology undergraduate students (N = 148) took virtual guided tours around historical cities. They then evaluated the cities' liveability and environmental quality and completed measures of individualism and collectivism. Mediation analyses showed that people who scored high in self-responsibility (individualism) rated the cities as more liveable because they perceived them to be richer and better resourced. In contrast, people who scored high in collectivism rated the cities as having a better environmental quality because they perceived them to (1) provide a greater potential for community and social life and (2) allow people to express themselves. These results indicate that people's evaluations of virtual cities are based on the degree to which certain aspects of the cities are perceived to be consistent with individualist and collectivist values. PMID:25302587

  14. Individual differences in individualism and collectivism predict ratings of virtual cities' liveability and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mark; Morrison, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated individual differences in individualism and collectivism as predictors of people's reactions to cities. Psychology undergraduate students (N = 148) took virtual guided tours around historical cities. They then evaluated the cities' liveability and environmental quality and completed measures of individualism and collectivism. Mediation analyses showed that people who scored high in self-responsibility (individualism) rated the cities as more liveable because they perceived them to be richer and better resourced. In contrast, people who scored high in collectivism rated the cities as having a better environmental quality because they perceived them to (1) provide a greater potential for community and social life and (2) allow people to express themselves. These results indicate that people's evaluations of virtual cities are based on the degree to which certain aspects of the cities are perceived to be consistent with individualist and collectivist values.

  15. Working memory delay activity predicts individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2015-05-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contralateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  16. Working Memory Delay Activity Predicts Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contra-lateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  17. Personality, individual differences, and preferences for the sexual media.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, A F

    2001-02-01

    The extent to which personality and individual differences predict preferences for and choices of various forms of sexual media was examined. Personality (e.g., intelligence, aggression) and individual difference factors (e.g., prior sexual experience) were assessed in 160 undergraduate men. These men also indicated their preferences for and choices of various forms of sexual media (e.g., "erotic," female insatiability, violent). As expected, individual differences were predictive, with, for example, men lower in intelligence and higher in aggressive/antisocial tendencies having a higher preference for violent sexual stimuli than men higher in intelligence and lower in aggressive/antisocial tendencies had. In addition, as much as 50% of the variation in the preference for violent sexual materials was accounted for by an additive combination of individual differences and self-report arousal to these materials. Finally, the results indicated that, when given a choice to view different media materials, the men chose a broad range of media materials, although the "female insatiability" films were more popular than the other sexual films (e.g., "erotic" or violent). Results are discussed in relation to recent research and psychological theories that view adults as active in choosing their own social environments.

  18. Examination of Automation-Induced Complacency and Individual Difference Variates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; DeVries, Holly; Freeman, Fred G.; Mikulka, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Automation-induced complacency has been documented as a cause or contributing factor in many airplane accidents throughout the last two decades. It is surmised that the condition results when a crew is working in highly reliable automated environments in which they serve as supervisory controllers monitoring system states for occasional automation failures. Although many reports have discussed the dangers of complacency, little empirical research has been produced to substantiate its harmful effects on performance as well as what factors produce complacency. There have been some suggestions, however, that individual characteristics could serve as possible predictors of performance in automated systems. The present study examined relationship between the individual differences of complacency potential, boredom proneness, and cognitive failure, automation-induced complacency. Workload and boredom scores were also collected and analyzed in relation to the three individual differences. The results of the study demonstrated that there are personality individual differences that are related to whether an individual will succumb to automation-induced complacency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  19. Individual differences in sensitivity to transient electrocutaneous stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, W.D.; Reilly, J.P.; Kittler, L.B.

    1986-05-01

    124 subjects were tested in a procedure designed to measure sensitivity to transient currents applied cutaneously, and to assess individual characteristics accounting for sensitivity differences. College students (one male and one female group), female office workers, and male maintenance workers (electricians, carpenters, plumber, and sheet metal workers) were tested. Perception and annoyance thresholds were determined for capacitive discharged stimuli to the fingertip and forearm. Nonsensory data were taken for each individual in an attempt to account for individual sensitivity differences (occupation, sex, age, height, weight, skin temperature, finger and forearm diameter, skin hardness, customary physical activity level, and prior degree of experience with electric shock). Of these, body size was the only significant correlate of electrical sensitivity. Apparent correlations with sex and occupation were found to be artifacts of the body size relationship. A regression equation relating sensitivity to body weight is presented.

  20. Learning and Individual Differences: Process, Trait, and Content Determinants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Roberts, Richard D.

    In preparation for a conference on learning and individual differences, the invited authors prepared chapters, which were distributed in draft form. Presentations were followed by discussions, which were recorded, and then edited for this volume, so that the discussion transcript follows each paper. The chapters in part 1, General Background and…

  1. Holland's RIASEC Model as an Integrative Framework for Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Day, Susan X.; McVay, Jason P.; Rounds, James

    2008-01-01

    Using data from published sources, the authors investigated J. L. Holland's (1959, 1997) theory of interest types as an integrative framework for organizing individual differences variables that are used in counseling psychology. Holland's interest types were used to specify 2- and 3-dimensional interest structures. In Study 1, measures of…

  2. Individual Differences in Learning and Cognitive Abilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    This final report reviews a program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition. An integrative framework for information processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is presented, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Three major patterns of…

  3. Individual Differences in the Neural Basis of Causal Inferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prat, Chantel S.; Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study used fMRI to examine individual differences in the neural basis of causal inferencing. Participants with varying language skill levels, as indexed by scores on the vocabulary portion of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, read four types of two-sentence passages in which causal relatedness (moderate and distant) and presence or absence of…

  4. Do Individual Learner Variables Contribute to Differences in Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shores, Melanie L.; Smith, Tommy G.; Jarrell, Sasha L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study (n = 761, 58.1% female) examined whether or not individual learner variables (gender, ethnicity, SES) contribute to differences in mathematics performance as measured by test score and mathematics grade for fifth and sixth grade mathematics students in Alabama. Multiple regression analysis revealed that gender and SES show…

  5. Memory Span: Sources of Individual and Developmental Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Frank N.

    1981-01-01

    Ten possible sources of individual and developmental differences in memory span--rehearsal, grouping, chunking, retrieval strategies, item identification, item ordering, capacity, susceptibility to interference, search rate, and output buffer--were examined in a review of the literature. Speed with which presented items can be identified emerged…

  6. Contexts and Individual Differences as Influences on Consumers' Delay Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.; Yani-de-Soriano, Mirella; Wells, Victoria K.

    2011-01-01

    Delay discounting is often considered a universal feature of human choice behavior, but there is controversy over whether it is an individual difference that reflects an underlying psychological trait or a domain-specific behavior. Trait influence on discounting would manifest in (a) highly correlated discount rates for all decisions, regardless…

  7. Individual Differences as a Crucible in Theory Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Benton J.

    A proposal to formulate nomothetic theories -- general statements or scientific laws -- in a way to allow for an immediate test of individual differences is presented. The need for such a proposal is cited in recent developments in structural model building in the area of memory called information processing and in the concern to bring individual…

  8. Functional connectivity patterns reflect individual differences in conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Zhencai; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun; Chen, Antao

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in the ability to utilize previous conflict information to optimize current conflict resolution, which is termed the conflict adaptation effect. Previous studies have linked individual differences in conflict adaptation to distinct brain regions. However, the network-based neural mechanisms subserving the individual differences of the conflict adaptation effect have not been studied. The present study employed a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis with a color-naming Stroop task to examine this issue. The main results were as follows: (1) the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-seeded PPI revealed the involvement of the salience network (SN) in conflict adaptation, while the posterior parietal cortex (PPC)-seeded PPI revealed the engagement of the central executive network (CEN). (2) Participants with high conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-CEN connectivity and lower intra-SN connectivity; while those with low conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-SN connectivity and lower intra-CEN connectivity. (3) The PPC-centered intra-CEN connectivity positively predicted the conflict adaptation effect; while the ACC-centered intra-SN connectivity had a negative correlation with this effect. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that conflict adaptation is likely supported by the CEN and the SN, providing a new perspective on studying individual differences in conflict adaptation on the basis of large-scale networks. PMID:25721566

  9. Group or Individual Testing: Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A group of 120 older adults participated in group testing and 64 in individual testing of mental and physical health. Testing conditions made a difference for personality, perceived health, mental health, and recall of life events. Selection or setting bias was thought to have affected outcomes. (SK)

  10. Statistical Learning and Language: An Individual Differences Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    Although statistical learning and language have been assumed to be intertwined, this theoretical presupposition has rarely been tested empirically. The present study investigates the relationship between statistical learning and language using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered…

  11. Individual Differences in a Spatial-Semantic Virtual Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei

    2000-01-01

    Presents two empirical case studies concerning the role of individual differences in searching through a spatial-semantic virtual environment. Discusses information visualization in information systems; cognitive factors, including associative memory, spatial ability, and visual memory; user satisfaction; and cognitive abilities and search…

  12. Individual Differences in Reading: The Case for Lexical Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay; Naslund, Jan Carol

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research on lexical access (the process of getting information about a word from a mental dictionary). Discusses implications for comprehension development. Suggests that individual differences in comprehension depend on speed of lexical access as well as on speed of decoding. (SR)

  13. Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Children's Comprehension of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Variability in children's language acquisition is likely due to a number of cognitive and social variables. The current study investigated whether individual differences in statistical learning (SL), which has been implicated in language acquisition, independently predicted 6- to 8-year-old's comprehension of syntax. Sixty-eight (N = 68)…

  14. Individual Differences and Development in Water-Level Task Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hoben; Turner, Geoffrey, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    Presents research on individuals' ability to perform Piaget's water-level task. At almost every age and for each sex, some subjects had high probability of success and some had low. Age-related improvement was not a result of children's increasing accuracy in task performance. Differences in performance between sexes were evident at all ages.…

  15. Student Performance, Individual Differences, and Modes of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Helen Adi; Behr, Merlyn

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the effects of individual difference variables of field dependence/independence and spatial visualization ability on the performance of college students in three modes. The extent to which four variables account for variability in retention test performance on certain tasks was also viewed. (MP)

  16. Individual Differences in Learning and Retention. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuell, Thomas J.

    In this investigation of potential sources of individual differences in free-recall learning and retention by children, learning ability is defined in terms of performance on a free-recall test with the upper and lower thirds of the distribution typically being defined as fast and slow learners. Variables concerned with short-term memory,…

  17. The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.

    2009-01-01

    Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

  18. Developmental Changes and Individual Differences in Young Children's Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Rote, Wendy M.; Jambon, Marc; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Villalobos, Myriam; Comer, Jessamy

    2012-01-01

    Developmental trajectories and individual differences in 70 American middle-income 2.5- to 4-year olds' moral judgments were examined 3 times across 1 year using latent growth modeling. At Wave 1, children distinguished hypothetical moral from conventional transgressions on all criteria, but only older preschoolers did so when rating deserved…

  19. Exploring Individual Differences in Attitudes toward Audience Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in attitudes toward Audience Response Systems (ARSs) in secondary school classrooms. Specifically, the impact of gender, grade, subject area, computer comfort level, participation level, and type of use were examined in 659 students. Males had significantly more positive attitudes…

  20. Stable Individual Differences in Number Discrimination in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change…

  1. Individual differences during acquisition predict shifts in generalization.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Matthew G; Church, Barbara A; Mercado, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Learning to distinguish subtle differences in objects or events can impact how one generalizes. In some cases, training can cause novel events to appear more familiar or attractive than those actually experienced during training: the peak shift effect. This study examined whether individual differences in learning led to systematic patterns of generalization. Participants were trained to identify simulated birdsongs, and then tested on their ability to identify a target song presented among several similar songs that differed in pitch. Initial analysis showed that those attaining moderate proficiency at discriminating songs during training were more likely to shift than those performing poorly or proficiently. However, a neural network trained to output individuals' gradient dynamics using only performance during training as input found an additional set of training variables that predicted shift. Specifically, one subset of shifters had highly conservative response biases accompanied by very little change to perceptual sensitivity in training. These findings suggest that discrimination learning may only lead to generalization shifts in some individuals, and that all individuals who shift may not do so for the same reason.

  2. Individual differences in transcranial electrical stimulation current density

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Michael J; Goodman, Theodore; Pierson, Ronald; Shepherd, Shane; Wang, Qiang; Groshong, Bennett; Wiley, David F

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (TCES) is effective in treating many conditions, but it has not been possible to accurately forecast current density within the complex anatomy of a given subject's head. We sought to predict and verify TCES current densities and determine the variability of these current distributions in patient-specific models based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment estimated conductivity from MRIs and compared the current density results against actual measurements from the scalp surface of 3 subjects. In the second experiment, virtual electrodes were placed on the scalps of 18 subjects to model simulated current densities with 2 mA of virtually applied stimulation. This procedure was repeated for 4 electrode locations. Current densities were then calculated for 75 brain regions. Comparison of modeled and measured external current in experiment 1 yielded a correlation of r = .93. In experiment 2, modeled individual differences were greatest near the electrodes (ten-fold differences were common), but simulated current was found in all regions of the brain. Sites that were distant from the electrodes (e.g. hypothalamus) typically showed two-fold individual differences. MRI-based modeling can effectively predict current densities in individual brains. Significant variation occurs between subjects with the same applied electrode configuration. Individualized MRI-based modeling should be considered in place of the 10-20 system when accurate TCES is needed. PMID:24285948

  3. Individual differences during acquisition predict shifts in generalization.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Matthew G; Church, Barbara A; Mercado, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Learning to distinguish subtle differences in objects or events can impact how one generalizes. In some cases, training can cause novel events to appear more familiar or attractive than those actually experienced during training: the peak shift effect. This study examined whether individual differences in learning led to systematic patterns of generalization. Participants were trained to identify simulated birdsongs, and then tested on their ability to identify a target song presented among several similar songs that differed in pitch. Initial analysis showed that those attaining moderate proficiency at discriminating songs during training were more likely to shift than those performing poorly or proficiently. However, a neural network trained to output individuals' gradient dynamics using only performance during training as input found an additional set of training variables that predicted shift. Specifically, one subset of shifters had highly conservative response biases accompanied by very little change to perceptual sensitivity in training. These findings suggest that discrimination learning may only lead to generalization shifts in some individuals, and that all individuals who shift may not do so for the same reason. PMID:24445021

  4. Explaining affective linkages in teams: individual differences in susceptibility to contagion and individualism-collectivism.

    PubMed

    Ilies, Remus; Wagner, David T; Morgeson, Frederick P

    2007-07-01

    To expand on the understanding of how affective states are linked within teams, the authors describe a longitudinal study examining the linkages between team members' affective states over time. In a naturalistic team performance setting, they found evidence that the average affective state of the other team members was related to an individual team member's affect over time, even after controlling for team performance. In addition, they found that these affective linkages were moderated by individual differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and collectivistic tendencies such that the strength of the linkage was stronger for those high in susceptibility and those with collectivistic tendencies. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  5. Rapid Emotion Regulation After Mood Induction: Age and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Larcom, Mary Jo

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that emotion regulation improves with age. This study examined both age and individual differences in online emotion regulation after a negative mood induction. We found evidence that older adults were more likely to rapidly regulate their emotions than were younger adults. Moreover, older adults who rapidly regulated had lower trait anxiety and depressive symptoms and higher levels of optimism than their same-age peers who did not rapidly regulate. Measuring mood change over an extended time revealed that older rapid regulators still reported increased levels of positive affect over 20 min later, whereas young adult rapid regulators’ moods had declined. These results highlight the importance of considering individual differences when examining age differences in online emotion regulation. PMID:19808810

  6. Individual differences in the acquisition of second language phonology.

    PubMed

    Golestani, Narly; Zatorre, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual training was employed to characterize individual differences in non-native speech sound learning. Fifty-nine adult English speakers were trained to distinguish the Hindi dental-retroflex contrast, as well as a tonal pitch contrast. Training resulted in overall group improvement in the ability to identify and to discriminate the phonetic and the tonal contrasts, but there were considerable individual differences in performance. A category boundary effect during the post-training discrimination of the Hindi but not of the tonal contrast suggests different learning mechanisms for these two stimulus types. Specifically, our results suggest that successful learning of the speech sounds involves the formation of a long-term memory category representation for the new speech sound. PMID:18295875

  7. Sex Differences in Cognition in Healthy Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Cynthia A.; Winicki, Jessica M.; Schretlen, David J.; Gower, Emily W.; Turano, Kathleen A.; Muñoz, Beatriz; Keay, Lisa; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in patterns of cognitive test performance have been attributed to factors, such as sex hormones or sexual dimorphisms in brain structure, that change with normal aging. The current study examined sex differences in patterns of cognitive test performance in healthy elderly individuals. Cognitive test scores of 957 men and women (age 67–89), matched for overall level of cognitive test performance, age, education, and depression scale score, were compared. Men and women were indistinguishable on tests of auditory divided attention, category fluency, and executive functioning. In contrast, women performed better than men on tests of psychomotor speed and verbal learning and memory, whereas men outperformed women on tests of visuoconstruction and visual perception. Our finding that the pattern of sex differences in cognition observed in young adults is observed in old age has implications for future studies of both healthy elderly individuals and of those with cognitive disorders. PMID:22670852

  8. Individual differences in the acquisition of second language phonology.

    PubMed

    Golestani, Narly; Zatorre, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual training was employed to characterize individual differences in non-native speech sound learning. Fifty-nine adult English speakers were trained to distinguish the Hindi dental-retroflex contrast, as well as a tonal pitch contrast. Training resulted in overall group improvement in the ability to identify and to discriminate the phonetic and the tonal contrasts, but there were considerable individual differences in performance. A category boundary effect during the post-training discrimination of the Hindi but not of the tonal contrast suggests different learning mechanisms for these two stimulus types. Specifically, our results suggest that successful learning of the speech sounds involves the formation of a long-term memory category representation for the new speech sound.

  9. Personality and individual difference correlates of positive body image.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Hadji-Michael, Maria; Furnham, Adrian

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, 101 women and 106 men from a community sample of British adults completed the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), along with a battery of individual difference measures and demographics. Contrary to previous findings, there were no sex differences in BAS scores, either before or after controlling for individual differences in other measures. The results also showed that, moderating for participants' sex, self-assessed attractiveness, educational qualifications, neuroticism, extraversion, and BMI were all significant predictors of body appreciation. In addition, higher media consumption and higher (male-stereotypic) instrumentality were associated with, but did not predict, higher body appreciation. These results are discussed in relation to the extant work on body image.

  10. Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Fear Learning

    PubMed Central

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Rabinak, Christine A.; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Shankman, Stewart A.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Phan, K. Luan

    2015-01-01

    Variability in fear conditionability is common, and clarity regarding the neural regions responsible for individual differences in fear conditionability could uncover brain-based biomarkers of resilience or vulnerability to trauma-based psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder). In recent years, neuroimaging work has yielded a detailed understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying fear conditioning common across participants, however only a minority of studies have investigated the brain basis of inter-individual variation in fear learning. Moreover, the majority of these studies have employed small sample sizes (mean n = 17; range n = 5–27) and all have failed to meet the minimum recommended sample size for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of individual differences. Here, using fMRI, we analyzed blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response recorded simultaneously with skin conductance response (SCR) and ratings of unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy in 49 participants undergoing Pavlovian fear conditioning. On average, participants became conditioned to the conditioned stimulus (CS+; higher US expectancy ratings and SCR for the CS+ compared to the unpaired conditioned stimulus, CS−); the CS+ also robustly increased activation in the bilateral insula. Amygdala activation was revealed from a regression analysis that incorporated individual differences in fear conditionability (i.e., a between-subjects regressor of mean CS+ > CS− SCR). By replicating results observed using much smaller sample sizes, the results confirm that variation in amygdala reactivity covaries with individual differences in fear conditionability. The link between behavior (SCR) and brain (amygdala reactivity) may be a putative endophenotype for the acquisition of fear memories. PMID:25819422

  11. How can individual differences in autobiographical memory distributions of older adults be explained?

    PubMed

    Wolf, Tabea; Zimprich, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The reminiscence bump phenomenon has frequently been reported for the recall of autobiographical memories. The present study complements previous research by examining individual differences in the distribution of word-cued autobiographical memories. More importantly, we introduce predictor variables that might account for individual differences in the mean (location) and the standard deviation (scale) of individual memory distributions. All variables were derived from different theoretical accounts for the reminiscence bump phenomenon. We used a mixed location-scale logitnormal model, to analyse the 4602 autobiographical memories reported by 118 older participants. Results show reliable individual differences in the location and the scale. After controlling for age and gender, individual proportions of first-time experiences and individual proportions of positive memories, as well as the ratings on Openness to new Experiences and Self-Concept Clarity accounted for 29% of individual differences in location and 42% of individual differences in scale of autobiographical memory distributions. Results dovetail with a life-story account for the reminiscence bump which integrates central components of previous accounts.

  12. How can individual differences in autobiographical memory distributions of older adults be explained?

    PubMed

    Wolf, Tabea; Zimprich, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The reminiscence bump phenomenon has frequently been reported for the recall of autobiographical memories. The present study complements previous research by examining individual differences in the distribution of word-cued autobiographical memories. More importantly, we introduce predictor variables that might account for individual differences in the mean (location) and the standard deviation (scale) of individual memory distributions. All variables were derived from different theoretical accounts for the reminiscence bump phenomenon. We used a mixed location-scale logitnormal model, to analyse the 4602 autobiographical memories reported by 118 older participants. Results show reliable individual differences in the location and the scale. After controlling for age and gender, individual proportions of first-time experiences and individual proportions of positive memories, as well as the ratings on Openness to new Experiences and Self-Concept Clarity accounted for 29% of individual differences in location and 42% of individual differences in scale of autobiographical memory distributions. Results dovetail with a life-story account for the reminiscence bump which integrates central components of previous accounts. PMID:26492840

  13. Musical Rhythm Discrimination Explains Individual Differences in Grammar Skills in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Shivers, Carolyn M.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Yoder, Paul J.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2015-01-01

    This study considered a relation between rhythm perception skills and individual differences in phonological awareness and grammar abilities, which are two language skills crucial for academic achievement. Twenty-five typically developing 6-year-old children were given standardized assessments of rhythm perception, phonological awareness,…

  14. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals Differ in their Response to a Caloric Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Maude; Zulyniak, Michael A.; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; Mutch, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals have a different metabolic response to a standardized diet compared to lean healthy (LH) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) individuals. Methods Thirty adults (35–70 yrs) were classified as LH, MHO, and MUO according to anthropometric and clinical measurements. Participants consumed a standardized high calorie meal (~1330 kcal). Blood glucose and insulin were measured at fasting, and 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially. Additional blood samples were collected for the targeted analysis of amino acids (AAs) and derivatives, and fatty acids (FAs). Results The postprandial response (i.e., area under the curve, AUC) for serum glucose and insulin were similar between MHO and LH individuals, and significantly lower than MUO individuals (p < 0.05). Minor differences were found in postprandial responses for AAs between MHO and MUO individuals, while three polyunsaturated FAs (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid) showed smaller changes in serum after the meal in MHO individuals compared to MUO. Fasting levels for various AAs (notably branched-chain AA) and FAs (e.g., saturated myristic and palmitic acids) were found to correlate with glucose and insulin AUC. Conclusion MHO individuals show preserved insulin sensitivity and a greater ability to adapt to a caloric challenge compared to MUO individuals. PMID:26274804

  15. Space adaptation syndrome: multiple etiological factors and individual differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1991-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a significant operational concern in the American and Soviet space programs. Nearly 70% of all astronauts and cosmonauts are affected to some degree during their first several days of flight. It is now beginning to appear that space motion sickness like terrestrial motion sickness is the consequence of multiple etiological factors. As we come to understand basic mechanisms of spatial orientation and sensory-motor adaptation we can begin to predict etiological factors in different motion environments. Individuals vary greatly in the extent to which they are susceptible to these different factors. However, individuals seem to be relatively self-consistent in terms of their rates of adaptation to provocative stimulation and their retention of adaptation. Attempts to relate susceptibility to motion sickness during the microgravity phases of parabolic flight maneuvers to vestibular function under 1G and 0G test conditions are described.

  16. The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Al-Janabi, Tamara; D'Souza, Hana; Groet, Jurgen; Massand, Esha; Mok, Kin; Startin, Carla; Fisher, Elizabeth; Hardy, John; Nizetic, Dean; Tybulewicz, Victor; Strydom, Andre

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS) still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels—genetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental—constitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer’s disease in this high-risk population. PMID:27019699

  17. Priming Implicit Prosody: Prosodic Boundaries and Individual Differences.

    PubMed

    Jun, Sun-Ah; Bishop, Jason

    2015-12-01

    Using the structural priming paradigm, the present study explores predictions made by the implicit prosody hypothesis (IPH) by testing whether an implicit prosodic boundary generated from a silently read sentence influences attachment preference for a novel, subsequently read sentence. Results indicate that such priming does occur, as evidenced by an effect on relative clause attachment. In particular, priming an implicit boundary directly before a relative clause--cued by commas in orthography--encouraged high attachment of that relative clause, although the size of the effect depended somewhat on individual differences in pragmatic/communication skills (as measured by the Autism Spectrum Quotient). Thus, in addition to supporting the basic claims of the IPH, the present study demonstrates the relevance of such individual differences to sentence processing, and that implicit prosodic structure, like syntactic structure, can be primed. PMID:27483740

  18. Adult individual differences as moderators of child effects.

    PubMed

    Bates, J E; Pettit, G S

    1981-09-01

    Experimentally varying child behavior stimuli and then assessing the extent to which adult individual differences (especially in cognitions) moderate the effect of the child on the adult is a variation on the usual methods in child effects research. This method allows description of the role of child effects in more complex adult-child systems. Existing literature incorporating this approach is reviewed, with emphasis on the moderating effects of sex, personality, and perceptions. A previously unreported study is described as an example of a multivariate approach to exploring the relationships between adult individual differences and the effects of infant stimuli. The study suggests that experienced caregivers who do not have much liking for infants see themselves as likely to provide appropriate, but minimally social care for an infant. Conversely, the study suggests that inexperienced adults who like infants very much see themselves as providing more extensive and social caregiving, although it would not always be appropriate to the infant's state. PMID:7320350

  19. Structural and Functional Bases for Individual Differences in Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, Valentina; Jbabdi, Saad; Kincses, Zsigmond T.; Bosnell, Rose; Douaud, Gwenaelle; Pozzilli, Carlo; Matthews, Paul M.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    People vary in their ability to learn new motor skills. We hypothesize that between-subject variability in brain structure and function can explain differences in learning. We use brain functional and structural MRI methods to characterize such neural correlates of individual variations in motor learning. Healthy subjects applied isometric grip force of varying magnitudes with their right hands cued visually to generate smoothly-varying pressures following a regular pattern. We tested whether individual variations in motor learning were associated with anatomically colocalized variations in magnitude of functional MRI (fMRI) signal or in MRI differences related to white and grey matter microstructure. We found that individual motor learning was correlated with greater functional activation in the prefrontal, premotor, and parietal cortices, as well as in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Structural MRI correlates were found in the premotor cortex [for fractional anisotropy (FA)] and in the cerebellum [for both grey matter density and FA]. The cerebellar microstructural differences were anatomically colocalized with fMRI correlates of learning. This study thus suggests that variations across the population in the function and structure of specific brain regions for motor control explain some of the individual differences in skill learning. This strengthens the notion that brain structure determines some limits to cognitive function even in a healthy population. Along with evidence from pathology suggesting a role for these regions in spontaneous motor recovery, our results also highlight potential targets for therapeutic interventions designed to maximize plasticity for recovery of similar visuomotor skills after brain injury. PMID:20533562

  20. Measures of Individual Differences in Taste and Creaminess Perception

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Lenka; Green, Barry G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous reports that the sensitivity to the bitter tasting substance 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is related to the sensitivity to other tastes, to chemical irritants, and to fats and oils have led to adoption of PROP as a measure of general oral sensitivity and as a predictor of dietary habits that could impact health. The results, however, have not been consistent. It was recently discovered that the ability to perceive “thermal taste” (i.e., sweetness from thermal stimulation alone) was associated with higher responsiveness to 4 prototypical taste stimuli but not to PROP. This finding implied that individual differences in taste perception are determined in large part by factors other than those related to genetic expression of the PROP receptor. The present study followed up this observation by comparing individual differences in perception of 4 prototypical taste stimuli (sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and quinine) and PROP under conditions that also enabled assessment of the reliability of individual intensity ratings of taste. Creaminess ratings of 3 milk products that had different fat contents were also collected to investigate further the relationship between taste and oral somatosensory perception. The results showed that intensity ratings across 2 trials were significantly correlated for all 5 taste stimuli and that averaging across replicates led to significant correlations among the 4 prototypical stimuli. In contrast, the bitterness of PROP was correlated only with the bitterness of quinine. None of the taste stimuli, including PROP, was significantly correlated with ratings of creaminess. These results imply 1) that with the exception of PROP, as few as 2 intensity ratings of common taste stimuli can reveal individual differences in overall taste perception and 2) that any relationship between taste and oral sensation is too weak to be detected under the same conditions. Accordingly, the results support other evidence that the genetic factors which

  1. Individual versus Standardized Running Protocols in the Determination of VO2max.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Paula F; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Reed, Jennifer L; Zinner, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Sperlich, Billy

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an individually designed incremental exercise protocol results in greater rates of oxygen uptake (VO2max) than standardized testing. Fourteen well-trained, male runners performed five incremental protocols in randomized order to measure their VO2max: i) an incremental test (INCS+I) with pre-defined increases in speed (2 min at 8.64 km·h(-1), then a rise of 1.44 km·h(-1) every 30 s up to 14.4 km·h(-1)) and thereafter inclination (0.5° every 30 s); ii) an incremental test (INCI) at constant speed (14.4 km·h(-1)) and increasing inclination (2° every 2 min from the initial 0°); iii) an incremental test (INCS) at constant inclination (0°) and increasing speed (0.5 km·h(-1) every 30 s from the initial 12.0 km·h(-1)); iv) a graded exercise protocol (GXP) at a 1° incline with increasing speed (initially 8.64 km·h(-1) + 1.44 km·h(-1) every 5 min); v) an individual exercise protocol (INDXP) in which the runner chose the inclination and speed. VO2max was lowest (-4.2%) during the GXP (p = 0.01; d = 0.06-0.61) compared to all other tests. The highest rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, ventilation and end-exercise blood lactate concentration were similar between the different protocols (p < 0.05). The time to exhaustion ranged from 7 min 18 sec (INCS) to 25 min 30 sec (GXP) (p = 0.01).The VO2max attained by employing an individual treadmill protocol does not differ from the values derived from various standardized incremental protocols. Key pointsThe mean maximum oxygen uptake during the GXP was lower than for all other tests.Differences in the maximum rate of oxygen uptake between the various protocols exhibited considerable inter-individual variation.From the current findings, it can be concluded that well trained athletes are able to perform an individually designed treadmill running protocol.

  2. Individual versus Standardized Running Protocols in the Determination of VO2max

    PubMed Central

    Sperlich, Paula F.; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Reed, Jennifer L.; Zinner, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Sperlich, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an individually designed incremental exercise protocol results in greater rates of oxygen uptake (VO2max) than standardized testing. Fourteen well-trained, male runners performed five incremental protocols in randomized order to measure their VO2max: i) an incremental test (INCS+I) with pre-defined increases in speed (2 min at 8.64 km·h−1, then a rise of 1.44 km·h−1 every 30 s up to 14.4 km·h−1) and thereafter inclination (0.5° every 30 s); ii) an incremental test (INCI) at constant speed (14.4 km·h−1) and increasing inclination (2° every 2 min from the initial 0°); iii) an incremental test (INCS) at constant inclination (0°) and increasing speed (0.5 km·h−1 every 30 s from the initial 12.0 km·h−1); iv) a graded exercise protocol (GXP) at a 1° incline with increasing speed (initially 8.64 km·h−1 + 1.44 km·h−1 every 5 min); v) an individual exercise protocol (INDXP) in which the runner chose the inclination and speed. VO2max was lowest (-4.2%) during the GXP (p = 0.01; d = 0.06-0.61) compared to all other tests. The highest rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, ventilation and end-exercise blood lactate concentration were similar between the different protocols (p < 0.05). The time to exhaustion ranged from 7 min 18 sec (INCS) to 25 min 30 sec (GXP) (p = 0.01).The VO2max attained by employing an individual treadmill protocol does not differ from the values derived from various standardized incremental protocols. Key points The mean maximum oxygen uptake during the GXP was lower than for all other tests. Differences in the maximum rate of oxygen uptake between the various protocols exhibited considerable inter-individual variation. From the current findings, it can be concluded that well trained athletes are able to perform an individually designed treadmill running protocol. PMID:25983589

  3. Individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity are linked to individual differences in face recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Hayward, William G; Ewing, Louise

    2014-06-01

    Despite their similarity as visual patterns, we can discriminate and recognize many thousands of faces. This expertise has been linked to 2 coding mechanisms: holistic integration of information across the face and adaptive coding of face identity using norms tuned by experience. Recently, individual differences in face recognition ability have been discovered and linked to differences in holistic coding. Here we show that they are also linked to individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity, measured using face identity aftereffects. Identity aftereffects correlated significantly with several measures of face-selective recognition ability. They also correlated marginally with own-race face recognition ability, suggesting a role for adaptive coding in the well-known other-race effect. More generally, these results highlight the important functional role of adaptive face-coding mechanisms in face expertise, taking us beyond the traditional focus on holistic coding mechanisms.

  4. Individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity are linked to individual differences in face recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Hayward, William G; Ewing, Louise

    2014-06-01

    Despite their similarity as visual patterns, we can discriminate and recognize many thousands of faces. This expertise has been linked to 2 coding mechanisms: holistic integration of information across the face and adaptive coding of face identity using norms tuned by experience. Recently, individual differences in face recognition ability have been discovered and linked to differences in holistic coding. Here we show that they are also linked to individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity, measured using face identity aftereffects. Identity aftereffects correlated significantly with several measures of face-selective recognition ability. They also correlated marginally with own-race face recognition ability, suggesting a role for adaptive coding in the well-known other-race effect. More generally, these results highlight the important functional role of adaptive face-coding mechanisms in face expertise, taking us beyond the traditional focus on holistic coding mechanisms. PMID:24684315

  5. Individual differences in attention influence perceptual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Michael D.; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sequential sampling decision-making models have been successful in accounting for reaction time (RT) and accuracy data in two-alternative forced choice tasks. These models have been used to describe the behavior of populations of participants, and explanatory structures have been proposed to account for between individual variability in model parameters. In this study we show that individual differences in behavior from a novel perceptual decision making task can be attributed to (1) differences in evidence accumulation rates, (2) differences in variability of evidence accumulation within trials, and (3) differences in non-decision times across individuals. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we demonstrate that these differences in cognitive variables, in turn, can be explained by attentional differences as measured by phase-locking of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) responses to the signal and noise components of the visual stimulus. Parameters of a cognitive model (a diffusion model) were obtained from accuracy and RT distributions and related to phase-locking indices (PLIs) of SSVEPs with a single step in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Participants who were able to suppress the SSVEP response to visual noise in high frequency bands were able to accumulate correct evidence faster and had shorter non-decision times (preprocessing or motor response times), leading to more accurate responses and faster response times. We show that the combination of cognitive modeling and neural data in a hierarchical Bayesian framework relates physiological processes to the cognitive processes of participants, and that a model with a new (out-of-sample) participant's neural data can predict that participant's behavior more accurately than models without physiological data. PMID:25762974

  6. Individual differences in the acquisition of affectively valenced associations.

    PubMed

    Zinbarg, R E; Mohlman, J

    1998-04-01

    Two studies were conducted to test the predictions derived from the behavioral activation system and behavioral inhibition system theory of personality that trait anxiety is positively related to the speed of acquisition of punishment expectancies and impulsivity is positively related to the speed of acquisition of reward expectancies. Both studies used a standard approach-avoidance discrimination task with self-report measures of expectancies. Both studies found support for the hypothesized relation between trait and acquisition of punishment expectancies but not for the hypothesized relation between impulsivity and acquisition of reward expectancies. Study 2 suggested that the relation between trait anxiety and punishment expectancy is affected by the type of incentive and the type of trait anxiety measure used. The results suggest that highly trait anxious individuals are more susceptible to developing new sources of anxiety than others.

  7. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders’ fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross sectional design. Results indicated that the difference between low achieving and higher achieving children’s fraction arithmetic knowledge, already substantial in 6th grade, was much greater in 8th grade. The fraction arithmetic knowledge of low achieving children was similar in the two grades, whereas higher achieving children showed much greater knowledge in 8th than 6th grade, despite both groups having been in the same classrooms, using the same textbooks, and having the same teachers and classmates. Individual differences in both fraction arithmetic and mathematics achievement test scores were predicted by differences in fraction magnitude knowledge and whole number division, even after the contributions of reading achievement and executive functioning were statistically controlled. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23244401

  8. Variable Global Dysconnectivity and Individual Differences in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Michael W.; Anticevic, Alan; Repovs, Grega; Barch, Deanna

    2011-01-01

    Background A fundamental challenge for understanding neuropsychiatric disease is identifying sources of individual differences in psychopathology, especially when there is substantial heterogeneity of symptom expression, such as is found in schizophrenia (SCZ). We hypothesized that such heterogeneity might arise in part from consistently widespread yet variably patterned alterations in the connectivity of focal brain regions. Methods We used resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging to identify variable global dysconnectivity in 23 patients with DSM-IV SCZ relative to 22 age-, gender-, and parental socioeconomic status-matched control subjects with a novel global brain connectivity method that is robust to high variability across individuals. We examined cognitive functioning with a modified Sternberg task and subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third Edition. We measured symptom severity with the Scale for Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms. Results We identified a dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) region with global and highly variable dysconnectivity involving within-PFC underconnectivity and non-PFC overconnectivity in patients. Variability in this “under/over” pattern of dysconnectivity strongly predicted the severity of cognitive deficits (matrix reasoning IQ, verbal IQ, and working memory performance) as well as individual differences in every cardinal symptom domain of SCZ (poverty, reality distortion, and disorganization). Conclusions These results suggest that global dysconnectivity underlies dorsolateral PFC involvement in the neuropathology of SCZ. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the possibility that specific patterns of dysconnectivity with a given network hub region might explain individual differences in symptom presentation in SCZ. Critically, such findings might extend to other neuropathologies with diverse presentation. PMID:21496789

  9. Self-Assessment of Individual Differences in Language Switching

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Krämer, Ulrike M.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Festman, Julia; Münte, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individual differences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish–Catalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individual differences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism. PMID:22291668

  10. Individual differences affect honest signalling in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Akçay, Caglar; Campbell, S Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D

    2014-01-22

    Research in the past decade has established the existence of consistent individual differences or 'personality' in animals and their important role in many aspects of animal behaviour. At the same time, research on honest signalling of aggression has revealed that while some of the putative aggression signals are reliable, they are only imperfectly so. This study asks whether a significant portion of the variance in the aggression-signal regression may be explained by individual differences in signalling strategies. Using the well-studied aggressive signalling system of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we carried out repeated assays to measure both aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling of territorial males. Through these assays, we found that aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling were both highly repeatable, and moreover that aggressive behaviours in 2009-2010 predicted whether the birds would attack a taxidermic mount over a year later. Most significantly, we found that residual variation in signalling behaviours, after controlling for aggressive behaviour, was individually consistent, suggesting there may be a second personality trait determining the level of aggressive signalling. We term this potential personality trait 'communicativeness' and discuss these results in the context of honest signalling theories and recent findings reporting prevalence of 'under-signalling'.

  11. Standardized Individuality: Cosmopolitanism and Educational Decision-Making in an Atlantic Canadian Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of network society, consumerism, individualization, globalization and contemporary change forces, students are pressured to both perform well in standardized academic assessments while at the same time constructing a non-standard, unique project of the self. I argue that this generates a particular set of place-based tensions for…

  12. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  13. Sex, stress, and fear: individual differences in conditioned learning.

    PubMed

    Zorawski, Michael; Cook, Craig A; Kuhn, Cynthia M; LaBar, Kevin S

    2005-06-01

    It has long been recognized that humans vary in their conditionability, yet the factors that contribute to individual variation in emotional learning remain to be delineated. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship among sex, stress hormones, and fear conditioning in humans. Forty-five healthy adults (22 females) underwent differential delay conditioning, using fear-relevant conditioned stimuli and a shock unconditioned stimulus. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at baseline and after acquisition training and a 24-h-delayed retention test. The results showed that acquisition of conditioning significantly correlated with postacquisition cortisol levels in males, but not in females. This sex-specific relationship was found despite similar overall levels of conditioning, unconditioned responding, and cortisol. There was no effect of postacquisition cortisol on consolidation of fear learning in either sex. These findings have implications for the understanding of individual differences in fear acquisition and risk factors for the development of affective disorders.

  14. Individual differences of action orientation for risktaking in sports.

    PubMed

    Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G

    2004-09-01

    The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing Prospective Action Orientation and State Orientation in Success, Failure, and Planning Situations as action-oriented or state-oriented decision makers. The results of the experiment show that action-oriented players shoot faster and more often to the basket and that state-oriented players prefer to pass to a playmaker more often. Four versions of a computational model of decision making, Decision Field Theory, were compared to evaluate whether behavioral differences depend on the focus of attention, the initial preferences, threshold values, or an approach-avoidance interpretation of the task. Different starting preferences explained individual choices and decision times most accurately. Risk taking in basketball shooting behavior can be best explained by different preferences for starting values for risky and safe options caused by different levels of action orientation.

  15. The 2011 WPATH Standards of Care and Penile Reconstruction in Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Dhejne, Cecilia; Landen, Mikael; Elander, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) currently publishes the Standards of Care (SOC), to provide clinical guidelines for health care of transsexual, transgender and gender non-conforming persons in order to maximize health and well-being by revealing gender dysphoria. An updated version (7th version, 2011) of the WPATH SOC is currently available. Differences between the 6th and the 7th versions of the SOC are shown; the SOC relevant to penile reconstruction in female-to-male (FtM) persons are emphasized, and we analyze how the 2011 WPATH SOC is influencing the daily practice of physicians involved in performing a penile reconstruction procedure for these patients. Depending by an individual's goals and expectations, the most appropriate surgical technique should be performed: the clinic performing penile reconstruction should be able to offer the whole range of techniques, such as: metoidioplasty, pedicle and free flaps phalloplasty procedures. The goals that physicians and health care institutions should achieve in the next years, in order to improve the care of female-to-male persons, consist in: informing in details the individuals applying for penile reconstruction about all the implications; referring specific individuals to centers capable to deliver a particular surgical technique; implementing the surgery with the most updated refinements. PMID:22654902

  16. Enrichment and individual differences affect welfare indicators in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Izzo, Genevieve N; Bashaw, Meredith J; Campbell, John B

    2011-08-01

    Enrichment aims to improve captive animals' welfare by enhancing their environments. Two of the struggles associated with measuring welfare are identifying when animals' needs are being met or surpassed and identifying how individual differences play a role in these outcomes. Using a group of related Guyanese squirrel monkeys, we studied changes in five welfare indicators under different environmental conditions. Manipulating food presentation, walkways, and toys, we created five enrichment levels ranging from just above USDA standards to considerably more complex than the animals' normal housing. At the end of each level, a novelty test was performed in which an unfamiliar woman entered the enclosure and offered food. Changes in behavior as a function of enrichment condition were analyzed using a repeated-measures MANOVA. Compared to baseline, less enrichment consistently increased negative welfare indicators (abnormal behavior, aggression, and negative responses to the novelty test), while more enrichment sometimes decreased these indicators. Positive welfare indicators were less consistently related to enrichment, but positive response to the novelty test did increase somewhat in the most enriched condition. Across conditions, rank correlations revealed that individuals had highly consistent individual differences in positive responses to novelty and somewhat consistent individual differences in rates of aggression. The goal of the enrichment and the species, sex, and individual animals to be enriched should be considered when selecting a welfare indicator, and facilities measuring animal welfare should study changes in the behavior of specific individuals to control for individual differences.

  17. Genetic differentiation in populations with different classes of individuals.

    PubMed

    Rousset, F

    1999-06-01

    I formulate and analyse a model of population structure with different classes of individuals. These different classes may be age classes, other demographic classes, or different types of habitats homogeneously distributed over a geographical area. The value of population differentiation under an island model of dispersal and the increase of differentiation with geographical distance in one- and two-dimensional "isolation by distance" models are then obtained for a generalization of the FST measure of population structure, as a function of "effective" mutation, migration, and population size parameters. The relevant effective subpopulation size is related to the "mutation effective population size" of a single isolated subpopulation and, in models of age-structured populations, to the inbreeding effective population size.

  18. Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2010-02-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None of the existing approaches were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

  19. Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

  20. Developmental and individual differences in performance on phonological synthesis tasks.

    PubMed

    Torgesen, J K; Wagner, R K; Balthazar, M; Davis, C; Morgan, S; Simmons, K; Stage, S; Zirps, F

    1989-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the role of individual differences in working memory and lexical access in accounting for age and reading skill related differences in performance on phonological synthesis tasks. The performance of 28 kindergarten, first-, and second-grade children with normal reading skills, as well as that of 28 reading-disabled second graders, was compared under four testing conditions. The testing conditions were formed by completely crossing rate of presentation of phoneme strings with type of stimulus to be blended (real or nonword). Both independent variables affected performance on the blending tasks, with better performance obtained at faster presentation rates and with real words. There was a developmental discontinuity in overall performance, with the kindergarten children obtaining substantially lower scores than the first or second graders. In the comparison of second-grade good and poor readers, there was a significant interaction between groups, presentation rates, and type of stimulus. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for a general model of performance on the sound blending task, as well as their value for interpreting individual differences on the task. PMID:2738517

  1. Task-Dependent Individual Differences in Prefrontal Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Bharat B.; Eldreth, Dana A.; Motes, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging have permitted testing of hypotheses regarding the neural bases of individual differences, but this burgeoning literature has been characterized by inconsistent results. To test the hypothesis that differences in task demands could contribute to between-study variability in brain-behavior relationships, we had participants perform 2 tasks that varied in the extent of cognitive involvement. We examined connectivity between brain regions during a low-demand vigilance task and a higher-demand digit–symbol visual search task using Granger causality analysis (GCA). Our results showed 1) Significant differences in numbers of frontoparietal connections between low- and high-demand tasks 2) that GCA can detect activity changes that correspond with task-demand changes, and 3) faster participants showed more vigilance-related activity than slower participants, but less visual-search activity. These results suggest that relatively low-demand cognitive performance depends on spontaneous bidirectionally fluctuating network activity, whereas high-demand performance depends on a limited, unidirectional network. The nature of brain-behavior relationships may vary depending on the extent of cognitive demand. High-demand network activity may reflect the extent to which individuals require top-down executive guidance of behavior for successful task performance. Low-demand network activity may reflect task- and performance monitoring that minimizes executive requirements for guidance of behavior. PMID:20064942

  2. Individual differences in rhesus monkeys' demand for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hall, Amy; Winger, Gail

    2012-09-01

    A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individual differences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individual differences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. PMID:21762288

  3. Women’s Sexuality: Behaviors, Responses, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.

    2009-01-01

    Classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality are discussed. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses (desire, excitement, orgasm, and resolution), and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Where applicable, important trends and relationships are highlighted in the literature with both existing reports and previously unpublished data. The present conceptual overview highlights areas in sexual assessment and model building that are in need of further research and theoretical clarification. PMID:8543712

  4. Individual differences in decision making by foraging hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kate V; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    For both humans and animals preference for one option over others can be influenced by the context in which the options occur. In animals, changes in preference could be due to comparative decision-making or to changes in the energy state of the animal when making decisions. We investigated which of these possibilities better explained the response of wild hummingbirds to the addition of a decoy option to a set of two options by presenting Rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) with a foraging experiment with two treatments. In each treatment the birds were presented with a binary choice between two options and a trinary choice with three options. In treatment one the binary choice was between a volume option and a concentration option, whereas in treatment two the same volume option was presented alongside an alternative concentration option. In the trinary choice, birds were presented with the same options as in the binary choice plus one of two inferior options. Birds changed their preferences when a poorer option was added to the choice set: birds increased their preference for the same option when in the presence of either decoy. Which option differed across individuals and the changes in preference were not readily explained by either energy maximisation or the decoy effect. The consistency in response within individuals, however, would suggest that the individual itself brings an extra dimension to context-dependent decision-making. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25181327

  5. Face aftereffects predict individual differences in face recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Edwards, Mark; Susilo, Tirta

    2012-01-01

    Face aftereffects are widely studied on the assumption that they provide a useful tool for investigating face-space coding of identity. However, a long-standing issue concerns the extent to which face aftereffects originate in face-level processes as opposed to earlier stages of visual processing. For example, some recent studies failed to find atypical face aftereffects in individuals with clinically poor face recognition. We show that in individuals within the normal range of face recognition abilities, there is an association between face memory ability and a figural face aftereffect that is argued to reflect the steepness of broadband-opponent neural response functions in underlying face-space. We further show that this correlation arises from face-level processing, by reporting results of tests of nonface memory and nonface aftereffects. We conclude that face aftereffects can tap high-level face-space, and that face-space coding differs in quality between individuals and contributes to face recognition ability.

  6. Individual differences in decision making by foraging hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kate V; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    For both humans and animals preference for one option over others can be influenced by the context in which the options occur. In animals, changes in preference could be due to comparative decision-making or to changes in the energy state of the animal when making decisions. We investigated which of these possibilities better explained the response of wild hummingbirds to the addition of a decoy option to a set of two options by presenting Rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) with a foraging experiment with two treatments. In each treatment the birds were presented with a binary choice between two options and a trinary choice with three options. In treatment one the binary choice was between a volume option and a concentration option, whereas in treatment two the same volume option was presented alongside an alternative concentration option. In the trinary choice, birds were presented with the same options as in the binary choice plus one of two inferior options. Birds changed their preferences when a poorer option was added to the choice set: birds increased their preference for the same option when in the presence of either decoy. Which option differed across individuals and the changes in preference were not readily explained by either energy maximisation or the decoy effect. The consistency in response within individuals, however, would suggest that the individual itself brings an extra dimension to context-dependent decision-making. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.

  7. Sensitivity of alpha band ERD to individual differences in cognition.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Fink, Andreas; Grabner, Roland H

    2006-01-01

    According to the neural efficiency hypothesis, brighter individuals might be characterized by lower and topographically more differentiated brain activation than less intelligent individuals, presumably reflecting a more specialized recruitment of task-related areas. The findings of several studies analyzing the event-related desynchronization (ERD) in the (upper) alpha frequency band have corroborated and elaborated the original neural efficiency hypothesis. In this chapter, we review classical and recent findings and argue in favor of a more differentiated picture of this phenomenon, emphasizing the role of participants' sex, task complexity, and material specificity, as well as the importance to select an adequate external criterion (intelligence measure). Also, recent ERD findings related to emotional intelligence and creativity as well as recent studies focusing on practice, learning ability, and expertise are presented, which point to the need of a broader neurophysiological ability concept. The reviewed findings point at the high suitability of the ERD method to uncover consistent and stable individual differences in people's brain activation patterns when engaged in performing cognitively demanding tasks. PMID:17071230

  8. Alternative Perspectives on Risk: Individual Differences in Problem Structuring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Fischer, Ute; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Team decision making involves contributions of multiple players toward a common goal. While much has been written about the importance of developing shared mental models in order for teams to work together effectively, little has been done to determine the value of alternative perspectives on problem solving and decision making. Early studies of expertise contrasted experts with novices and noted that the two groups differ in the way they structure problems and in their selection of information as salient. Little attention has been given to differences among experts who differ in their specializations. A series of experiments was conducted to determine: (1) what dimensions of flight-related problem situations pilots judge to be most important when making flight-relevant decisions; and (2) whether pilots in different crew positions differ in the way they interpret problems relating to flight decisions. A sorting task was used to identify underlying dimensions judged as salient to individual pilots. Captains, first officers, and flight engineers from two major carriers participated in the study. Twenty-two flight scenarios were developed based on ASRS reports. Pilots were required to make judgments about how they would respond in each case and to sort the scenarios on the basis of similarity of decision factors. They were also asked to provide a verbal label that described each of their sorted categories. A second study required a different group of pilots (also captains, first officers and flight engineers) to sort on predetermined bases.

  9. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  10. Autobiographical remembering and individual differences in emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kohsuke; Toyota, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between individual differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) and self-reported arousal from remembering an autobiographical emotional or neutral event was examined. Participants (N = 235; 75 men; M age = 18.7 yr., SD = 0.9, range = 18-22) were required to complete the Japanese version of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire to assess EI. Participants were then asked to recall personal episodes from autobiographical memory, and then completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ). A group with high EI-rated, emotionally neutral episodes higher than did a group with low EI on several MCQ subscales: sound, participants, overall memory, and doubt/certainty. However, differences in ratings between the two groups were not observed for emotionally positive episodes. These results suggest that high EI is related to more effective use of weak retrieval cues when recalling neutral autobiographical memories.

  11. Chuck Watson's ``differential psychoacoustics:'' Individual differences in auditory abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Gary R.

    2001-05-01

    Chuck Watson was among the first in the psychoacoustic community to seriously address the topic of individual differences. At a time when there was little concern with variation among ``normal listeners'' in psychoacoustic research, Watson began a research program to document the range of human auditory abilities. The primary goals were to determine the number of distinct abilities, to specify the nature of each ability, and to document the distribution of these abilities in the general population. Thanks to Watson's talent for organizing and directing large-scale projects and his workmanlike approach to science, a large and valuable body of data on human individual differences has been collected. The research program began about 20 years ago with the study of basic auditory abilities, and it has expanded to include other modalities and cognitive/intellectual abilities in adults and children. A somewhat biased view of the importance of this work will be presented by one of Watson's many colleagues in this endeavor. The talk will provide an overview of this ongoing research program as well as a brief review of some related research by other investigators. New findings from recent extensions of this work will also be discussed.

  12. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Murch, Kevin B; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2014-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. PMID:23988759

  13. Rules of social exchange: game theory, individual differences and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Wischniewski, Julia; Windmann, Sabine; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Human social interaction is rarely guided by pure reason. Instead, in situation in which humans have the option to cooperate, to defect, or to punish non-cooperative behavior of another person, they quite uniformly tend to reciprocate "good" deeds, reject unfair proposals, and try to enforce obedience to social rules and norms in non-cooperative individuals ("free-riders"), even if the punishment incurs costs to the punisher. Abundant research using various game theoretical approaches has examined these apparently irrational human behaviors. This article reviews the evolutionary rationale of how such behavior could have been favored by selection. It explores the cognitive mechanisms required to compute possible scenarios of cooperation, defection, and the detection of cheating. Moreover, the article summarizes recent research developments into individual differences in behavior, which suggest that temperament and character as well as between- and within-sex differences in hormonal status influence behavior in social exchange. Finally, we present an overview over studies that have addressed the question of how neuropsychiatric disorders may alter performance in game theoretical paradigms, and propose how empirical approaches into this fascinating field can advance our understanding of human nature. PMID:18930761

  14. Individual differences in children's working memory and writing skill.

    PubMed

    Swanson, H L; Berninger, V W

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to address (a) whether individual differences in working memory (WM) and writing are related to a general or process-specific system, (b) whether WM tasks operate independently of phonological short-term memory (STM) on measures of writing and reading, and (c) whether working memory predicts variance in writing beyond that predicted by reading alone. The present study correlated several WM and phonological STM measures with writing and reading measures. The study showed among the memory measures that a four-factor model reflecting phonological STM, verbal WM span, executive processing, and visual-spatial WM span best fit the multivariate data set. Working memory was correlated significantly with a number of writing measures, particularly those related to text generation. WM measures contributed unique variance to writing that was independent of reading skill, and STM measures best predicted transcription processes and reading recognition, whereas WM measures best predicted text generation and reading comprehension. Both verbal and visual-spatial working memory measures predicted reading comprehension, whereas only WM measures that reflect executive processing significantly predicted writing. In general, the results suggest that individual differences in children's writing reflect a specific capacity system, whereas reading comprehension draws upon a multiple capacity system. PMID:8923751

  15. Dosha brain-types: A neural model of individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Frederick T.; Wallace, Robert Keith

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores brain patterns associated with the three categories of regulatory principles of the body, mind, and behavior in Ayurveda, called Vata, Pitta, and Kapha dosha. A growing body of research has reported patterns of blood chemistry, genetic expression, physiological states, and chronic diseases associated with each dosha type. Since metabolic and growth factors are controlled by the nervous system, each dosha type should be associated with patterns of functioning of six major areas of the nervous system: The prefrontal cortex, the reticular activating system, the autonomic nervous system, the enteric nervous system, the limbic system, and the hypothalamus. For instance, the prefrontal cortex, which includes the anterior cingulate, ventral medial, and the dorsal lateral cortices, would exhibit a high range of functioning in the Vata brain-type leading to the possibility of being easily overstimulated. The Vata brain-type performs activity quickly. Learns quickly and forgets quickly. Their fast mind gives them an edge in creative problem solving. The Pitta brain-type reacts strongly to all challenges leading to purposeful and resolute actions. They never give up and are very dynamic and goal oriented. The Kapha brain-type is slow and steady leading to methodical thinking and action. They prefer routine and needs stimulation to get going. A model of dosha brain-types could provide a physiological foundation to understand individual differences. This model could help individualize treatment modalities to address different mental and physical dysfunctions. It also could explain differences in behavior seen in clinical as well as in normal populations. PMID:26834428

  16. Dosha brain-types: A neural model of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Travis, Frederick T; Wallace, Robert Keith

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores brain patterns associated with the three categories of regulatory principles of the body, mind, and behavior in Ayurveda, called Vata, Pitta, and Kapha dosha. A growing body of research has reported patterns of blood chemistry, genetic expression, physiological states, and chronic diseases associated with each dosha type. Since metabolic and growth factors are controlled by the nervous system, each dosha type should be associated with patterns of functioning of six major areas of the nervous system: The prefrontal cortex, the reticular activating system, the autonomic nervous system, the enteric nervous system, the limbic system, and the hypothalamus. For instance, the prefrontal cortex, which includes the anterior cingulate, ventral medial, and the dorsal lateral cortices, would exhibit a high range of functioning in the Vata brain-type leading to the possibility of being easily overstimulated. The Vata brain-type performs activity quickly. Learns quickly and forgets quickly. Their fast mind gives them an edge in creative problem solving. The Pitta brain-type reacts strongly to all challenges leading to purposeful and resolute actions. They never give up and are very dynamic and goal oriented. The Kapha brain-type is slow and steady leading to methodical thinking and action. They prefer routine and needs stimulation to get going. A model of dosha brain-types could provide a physiological foundation to understand individual differences. This model could help individualize treatment modalities to address different mental and physical dysfunctions. It also could explain differences in behavior seen in clinical as well as in normal populations. PMID:26834428

  17. Individual differences in phonological development: ages one and three years.

    PubMed

    Vihman, M M; Greenlee, M

    1987-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of the persistence of individual differences in the phonological development of 10 normally developing children observed at age 1 year and again at age 3 years. Data were based on 1/2-hr audio and video recordings of weekly spontaneous mother-child interaction sessions in the home between 9 and 17 months and at 36 months. In addition, phonological and cognitive probes were administered at age 3. At age 1 the children were compared at four times selected on the basis of the number of different word types used in a session. Preferences for particular phonological categories (fricatives, liquids, final consonants) were found not to correspond to relative mastery of those categories at age 3. Based on both babble and words, high use of vocalizations containing true consonants was found to be predictive of greater phonological advance at age 3. Phonological errors of two kinds were distinguished for age 3: those resulting from difficulty with specific segments and those more typical of younger children, involving the rearrangement, assimilation, or deletion of segments or syllables (prosodic errors). The children differed in intelligibility and in specific segment substitutions and cluster reductions. They also differed in the proportion of prosodic errors made and in consistency in segmental errors. Lastly, aspects of cognitive or learning style as expressed in phonological organization were found to be recognizable at both age 1 and age 3.

  18. Musical training, individual differences and the cocktail party problem

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Mason, Christine R.; Streeter, Timothy M.; Best, Virginia; Kidd, Jr, Gerald; Patel, Aniruddh D.

    2015-01-01

    Are musicians better able to understand speech in noise than non-musicians? Recent findings have produced contradictory results. Here we addressed this question by asking musicians and non-musicians to understand target sentences masked by other sentences presented from different spatial locations, the classical ‘cocktail party problem’ in speech science. We found that musicians obtained a substantial benefit in this situation, with thresholds ~6 dB better than non-musicians. Large individual differences in performance were noted particularly for the non-musically trained group. Furthermore, in different conditions we manipulated the spatial location and intelligibility of the masking sentences, thus changing the amount of ‘informational masking’ (IM) while keeping the amount of ‘energetic masking’ (EM) relatively constant. When the maskers were unintelligible and spatially separated from the target (low in IM), musicians and non-musicians performed comparably. These results suggest that the characteristics of speech maskers and the amount of IM can influence the magnitude of the differences found between musicians and non-musicians in multiple-talker “cocktail party” environments. Furthermore, considering the task in terms of the EM-IM distinction provides a conceptual framework for future behavioral and neuroscientific studies which explore the underlying sensory and cognitive mechanisms contributing to enhanced “speech-in-noise” perception by musicians. PMID:26112910

  19. Ambiguity between self and other: Individual differences in action attribution.

    PubMed

    de Bézenac, Christophe E; Sluming, Vanessa; O'Sullivan, Noreen; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2015-09-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to attribute actions to self or other. This variance is thought to explain, in part, the experience of voice-hearing. Misattribution can also be context-driven. For example, causal ambiguity can arise when the actions of two or more individuals are coordinated and produce similar effects (e.g., music-making). Experience in such challenging contexts may refine skills of action attribution. Forty participants completed a novel finger-tapping task which parametrically manipulated the proportion of control that 'self' versus 'other' possessed over resulting auditory tones. Results showed that action misattribution peaked in the middle of the self-to-other continuum and was biased towards other. This pattern was related to both high hallucination-proneness and to low musical-experience. Findings suggest not only that causal ambiguity plays a key role in agency but also that action attribution abilities may improve with practice, potentially providing an avenue for remediation of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25956971

  20. Individual differences in Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated how an individual's Zhong-Yong tendency is related to his/her perceptual processing capacity. In two experiments, participants completed a Zhong-Yong Thinking Style Scale and performed a redundant-target detection task. Processing capacity was assessed with a non-parametric approach (systems factorial technology, SFT) and a parametric (linear ballistic accumulator model, LBA) approach. Results converged to suggest a positive correlation between Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity. High middle-way thinkers had larger processing capacity in multiple-signal processing compared with low middle-way thinkers, indicating that they processed information more efficiently and in an integrated fashion. Zhong-Yong tendency positively correlates with the processing capacity. These findings suggest that the individual differences in processing capacity can account for the reasons why high middle-way thinkers tend to adopt a global and flexible processing strategy to deal with the external world. Furthermore, the influence of culturally dictated thinking style on cognition can be revealed in a perception task.

  1. Individual Differences, Aging, and IQ in Two-Choice Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2009-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in three two-choice tasks: numerosity discrimination, recognition memory, and lexical decision. The experimental data, accuracy, correct and error response times, and response time distributions, were well explained by Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model. The components of processing identified by the model were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 83 to 146) and age (college students, 60-74, and 75-90 year olds). Declines in performance with age were not significantly different for low compared to high IQ subjects. IQ but not age had large effects on the quality of the evidence that was obtained from a stimulus or memory, that is, the evidence upon which decisions were based. Applying the model to individual subjects, the components of processing identified by the model for individuals correlated across tasks. In addition, the model’s predictions and the data were examined for the “worst performance rule”, the finding that age and IQ have larger effects on slower responses than faster responses. PMID:19962693

  2. Ambiguity between self and other: Individual differences in action attribution.

    PubMed

    de Bézenac, Christophe E; Sluming, Vanessa; O'Sullivan, Noreen; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2015-09-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to attribute actions to self or other. This variance is thought to explain, in part, the experience of voice-hearing. Misattribution can also be context-driven. For example, causal ambiguity can arise when the actions of two or more individuals are coordinated and produce similar effects (e.g., music-making). Experience in such challenging contexts may refine skills of action attribution. Forty participants completed a novel finger-tapping task which parametrically manipulated the proportion of control that 'self' versus 'other' possessed over resulting auditory tones. Results showed that action misattribution peaked in the middle of the self-to-other continuum and was biased towards other. This pattern was related to both high hallucination-proneness and to low musical-experience. Findings suggest not only that causal ambiguity plays a key role in agency but also that action attribution abilities may improve with practice, potentially providing an avenue for remediation of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

  3. Individual differences in recovery time from attentional capture.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Keisuke; Vogel, Edward K

    2011-03-01

    Working memory capacity reflects a core ability of the individual that affects performance on many cognitive tasks. Recent work has suggested that an important covariate of memory capacity is attentional control, and specifically that low-capacity individuals are more susceptible to attentional capture by distractors than high-capacity individuals are, with the latter being able to resist capture. Here, we tested an alternative account according to which all individuals are equally susceptible to attentional capture, but high-capacity individuals recover more quickly than low-capacity individuals. Using psychophysical and electrophysiological methods, we measured recovery time from attentional capture. In two experiments, we found that high- and low-capacity individuals showed equivalent attentional capture effects in the initial moments following capture, but that low-capacity individuals took much longer to recover than high-capacity individuals did. These results suggest that the poor attentional control associated with low capacity is due to slow disengagement from distractors. PMID:21310945

  4. Individual differences in mathematical competence predict parietal brain activation during mental calculation.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Roland H; Ansari, Daniel; Reishofer, Gernot; Stern, Elsbeth; Ebner, Franz; Neuper, Christa

    2007-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that parietal brain circuits subserve arithmetic problem solving and that their recruitment dynamically changes as a function of training and development. The present study investigated whether the brain activation during mental calculation is also modulated by individual differences in mathematical competence. Twenty-five adult students were selected from a larger pool based on their performance on standardized tests of intelligence and arithmetic and divided into groups of individuals with relatively lower and higher mathematical competence. These groups did not differ in their non-numerical intelligence or age. In an fMRI block-design, participants had to verify the correctness of single-digit and multi-digit multiplication problems. Analyses revealed that the individuals with higher mathematical competence displayed stronger activation of the left angular gyrus while solving both types of arithmetic problems. Additional correlational analyses corroborated the association between individual differences in mathematical competence and angular gyrus activation, even when variability in task performance was controlled for. These findings demonstrate that the recruitment of the left angular gyrus during arithmetic problem solving underlies individual differences in mathematical ability and suggests a stronger reliance on automatic, language-mediated processes in more competent individuals.

  5. Investigating individual differences in brain abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, C H; de Haan, M; Friston, K J; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    2003-01-01

    Autism is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by impairments in three domains: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Recent findings implicate the amygdala in the neurobiology of autism. In this paper, we report the results of a series of novel experimental investigations focusing on the structure and function of the amygdala in a group of children with autism. The first section attempts to determine if abnormality of the amygdala can be identified in an individual using magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Using single-case voxel-based morphometric analyses, abnormality in the amygdala was detected in half the children with autism. Abnormalities in other regions were also found. In the second section, emotional modulation of the startle response was investigated in the group of autistic children. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between the patterns of emotional modulation of the startle response in the autistic group compared with the controls. PMID:12639337

  6. Individual differences in physiological flexibility predict spontaneous avoidance.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2016-08-01

    People often regulate their emotions by resorting to avoidance, a putatively maladaptive strategy. Prior work suggests that increased psychopathology symptoms predict greater spontaneous utilisation of this strategy. Extending this work, we examined whether heightened resting cardiac vagal tone (which reflects a general ability to regulate emotions in line with contextual demands) predicts decreased spontaneous avoidance. In Study 1, greater resting vagal tone was associated with reduced spontaneous avoidance in response to disgust-eliciting pictures, beyond anxiety and depression symptoms and emotional reactivity. In Study 2, resting vagal tone interacted with anxiety and depression symptoms to predict spontaneous avoidance in response to disgust-eliciting film clips. The positive association between symptoms and spontaneous avoidance was more pronounced among participants with reduced resting vagal tone. Thus, increased resting vagal tone might protect against the use of avoidance. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing both subjective and biological processes when studying individual differences in emotion regulation.

  7. Individual differences in susceptibility to experimentally induced phantom sensations.

    PubMed

    Burrack, Anna; Brugger, Peter

    2005-09-01

    We investigated individual differences in susceptibility to two vibration-induced phantom illusions, i.e. illusory arm extension and nose prolongation ("Pinocchio illusion"). Vibration was applied to the biceps brachii tendon of 32 healthy participants. Susceptibility to the illusions was quantified by vividness ratings and by ratings of the amount of illusory position changes of the arm and illusory shape changes of the nose. Participants also completed the Perceptual Aberration (PA) and the Need for Cognition (NFC) inventories. PA reflects the frequency of spontaneously experienced body schema alterations and NFC a person's tendency to cognitively structure experiences. PA was positively correlated with participants' susceptibility to illusory arm extension and, exclusively for men, also to nose elongation. A high NFC was weakly associated with a high susceptibility for the Pinocchio illusion. By inference, these findings indicate a physiological basis of PA and a cognitive mediation of experimentally induced phantom sensations.

  8. Individual differences in holistic processing predict face recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruosi; Li, Jingguang; Fang, Huizhen; Tian, Moqian; Liu, Jia

    2012-02-01

    Why do some people recognize faces easily and others frequently make mistakes in recognizing faces? Classic behavioral work has shown that faces are processed in a distinctive holistic manner that is unlike the processing of objects. In the study reported here, we investigated whether individual differences in holistic face processing have a significant influence on face recognition. We found that the magnitude of face-specific recognition accuracy correlated with the extent to which participants processed faces holistically, as indexed by the composite-face effect and the whole-part effect. This association is due to face-specific processing in particular, not to a more general aspect of cognitive processing, such as general intelligence or global attention. This finding provides constraints on computational models of face recognition and may elucidate mechanisms underlying cognitive disorders, such as prosopagnosia and autism, that are associated with deficits in face recognition.

  9. Individual Differences in Nonsymbolic Ratio Processing Predict Symbolic Math Performance.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Percival G; Lewis, Mark Rose; Hubbard, Edward M

    2016-02-01

    What basic capacities lay the foundation for advanced numerical cognition? Are there basic nonsymbolic abilities that support the understanding of advanced numerical concepts, such as fractions? To date, most theories have posited that previously identified core numerical systems, such as the approximate number system (ANS), are ill-suited for learning fraction concepts. However, recent research in developmental psychology and neuroscience has revealed a ratio-processing system (RPS) that is sensitive to magnitudes of nonsymbolic ratios and may be ideally suited for supporting fraction concepts. We provide evidence for this hypothesis by showing that individual differences in RPS acuity predict performance on four measures of mathematical competence, including a university entrance exam in algebra. We suggest that the nonsymbolic RPS may support symbolic fraction understanding much as the ANS supports whole-number concepts. Thus, even abstract mathematical concepts, such as fractions, may be grounded not only in higher-order logic and language, but also in basic nonsymbolic processing abilities.

  10. Individual differences in time perspective predict autonoetic experience.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kathleen M; McDermott, Kathleen B; Szpunar, Karl K

    2011-09-01

    Tulving (1985) posited that the capacity to remember is one facet of a more general capacity-autonoetic (self-knowing) consciousness. Autonoetic consciousness was proposed to underlie the ability for "mental time travel" both into the past (remembering) and into the future to envision potential future episodes (episodic future thinking). The current study examines whether individual differences can predict autonoetic experience. Specifically, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI, Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) was administered to 133 undergraduate students, who also rated phenomenological experiences accompanying autobiographical remembering and episodic future thinking. Scores on two of the five subscales of the ZTPI (Future and Present-Hedonistic) predicted the degree to which people reported feelings of mentally traveling backward (or forward) in time and the degree to which they reported re- or pre-experiencing the event, but not ten other rated properties less related to autonoetic consciousness.

  11. Individual differences in situation awareness: Validation of the Situationism Scale

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Klein, William M. P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns the construct of lay situationism—an individual’s belief in the importance of a behavior’s context. Study 1 identified a 13-item Situationism Scale, which demonstrated good reliability and validity. In particular, higher situationism was associated with greater situation-control (strategies to manipulate the environment in order to avoid temptation). Subsequent laboratory studies indicated that people higher on the situationism subscales used greater situation-control by sitting farther from junk food (Study 2) and choosing to drink non-alcoholic beverages before a cognitive task (Study 3). Overall, findings provide preliminary support for the psychometric validity and predictive utility of the Situationism Scale and offer this individual difference construct as a means to expand self-regulation theory. PMID:25329242

  12. Individual differences: A third component in problem-solving instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronning, Royce R.; McCurdy, Donald; Ballinger, Ruth

    Present research in problem solving appears to be primarily concerned with problem-solving methods and with degree of knowledge acquisition. A brief argument is advanced that this conceptualization is incomplete because of failure to consider individual differences among problem solvers (other than in problem-solving methods and extent of knowledge). A viable theory of problem-solving instruction must take into account all three areas. Evidence for the argument is presented in the form of data on problem-solving success in junior high school students with extreme scores on Witkin's field independence-field dependence measure of cognitive style. Problem-solving protocols are examined as a second source of data. Field independent students significantly out-performed field dependent students on the problems. Examination of protocols revealed consistent performance patterns favoring field independent students.

  13. Individual differences in wisdom conceptions: relationships to gratitude and wisdom.

    PubMed

    König, Susanne; Glück, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that most laypeople hold one of two typical conceptions of wisdom--a cognitive or an integrative conception. The current study extends previous research by including a qualitative assessment of people's views of what wisdom is and how it develops, and by relating wisdom conceptions are related to levels of wisdom and gratitude. A sample of 443 young adults rated the relevance of cognitive, reflective, and affective aspects for wisdom. Cluster analyses confirmed the two typical wisdom conceptions: a primarily cognitive view of wisdom and a view emphasizing the integration of cognition, reflection, and affect. The two groups also differed in freely-generated characteristics of wisdom and its development. Additionally, the integrative conception was more frequent in individuals with higher levels of gratitude and wisdom. In sum, laypeople's conceptions of wisdom vary along similar lines as those of wisdom psychologists.

  14. Individual but not fragile: individual differences in task control predict Stroop facilitation.

    PubMed

    Kalanthroff, E; Henik, A

    2013-06-01

    The Stroop effect is composed of interference and facilitation effects. The facilitation is less stable and thus many times is referred to as a "fragile effect". Here we suggest the facilitation effect is highly vulnerable to individual differences in control over the task conflict (between relevant color naming and irrelevant word reading in the Stroop task). We replicated previous findings of a significant correlation between stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) and Stroop interference, and also found a significant correlation between SSRT and the Stroop facilitation effect-participants with low inhibitory control (i.e., long SSRT) had no facilitation effect or even a reversed one. These results shed new light on the "fragile" facilitation effect and highlight the necessity of awareness of task conflict, especially in the Stroop task.

  15. Measuring Individual Differences in Decision Biases: Methodological Considerations.

    PubMed

    Aczel, Balazs; Bago, Bence; Szollosi, Aba; Foldes, Andrei; Lukacs, Bence

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in people's susceptibility to heuristics and biases (HB) are often measured by multiple-bias questionnaires consisting of one or a few items for each bias. This research approach relies on the assumptions that (1) different versions of a decision bias task measure are interchangeable as they measure the same cognitive failure; and (2) that some combination of these tasks measures the same underlying construct. Based on these assumptions, in Study 1 we developed two versions of a new decision bias survey for which we modified 13 HB tasks to increase their comparability, construct validity, and the participants' motivation. The analysis of the responses (N = 1279) showed weak internal consistency within the surveys and a great level of discrepancy between the extracted patterns of the underlying factors. To explore these inconsistencies, in Study 2 we used three original examples of HB tasks for each of seven biases. We created three decision bias surveys by allocating one version of each HB task to each survey. The participants' responses (N = 527) showed a similar pattern as in Study 1, questioning the assumption that the different examples of the HB tasks are interchangeable and that they measure the same underlying construct. These results emphasize the need to understand the domain-specificity of cognitive biases as well as the effect of the wording of the cover story and the response mode on bias susceptibility before employing them in multiple-bias questionnaires. PMID:26635677

  16. Why are individuals so different from each other?

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, P

    2015-01-01

    An important contributor to the differences between individuals derives from their plasticity. Such plasticity is widespread in organisms from the simple to the most complex. Adaptability plasticity enables the organism to cope with a novel challenge not previously encountered by its ancestors. Conditional plasticity appears to have evolved from repeated challenges from the environment so that the organism responds in a particular manner to the environment in which it finds itself. The resulting phenotypic variation can be triggered during development in a variety of ways, some mediated through the parent's phenotype. Sometimes the organism copes in suboptimal conditions trading off reproductive success against survival. Whatever the adaptedness of the phenotype, each of the many types of plasticity demonstrates how a given genotype will express itself differently in different environmental conditions—a field of biology referred to as the study of epigenetics. The ways in which epigenetic mechanisms may have evolved are discussed, as are the potential impacts on the evolution of their descendants. PMID:25407080

  17. Simulating fiction: individual differences in literature comprehension revealed with FMRI.

    PubMed

    Nijhof, Annabel D; Willems, Roel M

    2015-01-01

    When we read literary fiction, we are transported to fictional places, and we feel and think along with the characters. Despite the importance of narrative in adult life and during development, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying fiction comprehension are unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how individuals differently employ neural networks important for understanding others' beliefs and intentions (mentalizing), and for sensori-motor simulation while listening to excerpts from literary novels. Localizer tasks were used to localize both the cortical motor network and the mentalizing network in participants after they listened to excerpts from literary novels. Results show that participants who had high activation in anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC; part of the mentalizing network) when listening to mentalizing content of literary fiction, had lower motor cortex activity when they listened to action-related content of the story, and vice versa. This qualifies how people differ in their engagement with fiction: some people are mostly drawn into a story by mentalizing about the thoughts and beliefs of others, whereas others engage in literature by simulating more concrete events such as actions. This study provides on-line neural evidence for the existence of qualitatively different styles of moving into literary worlds, and adds to a growing body of literature showing the potential to study narrative comprehension with neuroimaging methods. PMID:25671708

  18. Measuring Individual Differences in Decision Biases: Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Aczel, Balazs; Bago, Bence; Szollosi, Aba; Foldes, Andrei; Lukacs, Bence

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in people's susceptibility to heuristics and biases (HB) are often measured by multiple-bias questionnaires consisting of one or a few items for each bias. This research approach relies on the assumptions that (1) different versions of a decision bias task measure are interchangeable as they measure the same cognitive failure; and (2) that some combination of these tasks measures the same underlying construct. Based on these assumptions, in Study 1 we developed two versions of a new decision bias survey for which we modified 13 HB tasks to increase their comparability, construct validity, and the participants' motivation. The analysis of the responses (N = 1279) showed weak internal consistency within the surveys and a great level of discrepancy between the extracted patterns of the underlying factors. To explore these inconsistencies, in Study 2 we used three original examples of HB tasks for each of seven biases. We created three decision bias surveys by allocating one version of each HB task to each survey. The participants' responses (N = 527) showed a similar pattern as in Study 1, questioning the assumption that the different examples of the HB tasks are interchangeable and that they measure the same underlying construct. These results emphasize the need to understand the domain-specificity of cognitive biases as well as the effect of the wording of the cover story and the response mode on bias susceptibility before employing them in multiple-bias questionnaires. PMID:26635677

  19. Simulating fiction: individual differences in literature comprehension revealed with FMRI.

    PubMed

    Nijhof, Annabel D; Willems, Roel M

    2015-01-01

    When we read literary fiction, we are transported to fictional places, and we feel and think along with the characters. Despite the importance of narrative in adult life and during development, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying fiction comprehension are unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how individuals differently employ neural networks important for understanding others' beliefs and intentions (mentalizing), and for sensori-motor simulation while listening to excerpts from literary novels. Localizer tasks were used to localize both the cortical motor network and the mentalizing network in participants after they listened to excerpts from literary novels. Results show that participants who had high activation in anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC; part of the mentalizing network) when listening to mentalizing content of literary fiction, had lower motor cortex activity when they listened to action-related content of the story, and vice versa. This qualifies how people differ in their engagement with fiction: some people are mostly drawn into a story by mentalizing about the thoughts and beliefs of others, whereas others engage in literature by simulating more concrete events such as actions. This study provides on-line neural evidence for the existence of qualitatively different styles of moving into literary worlds, and adds to a growing body of literature showing the potential to study narrative comprehension with neuroimaging methods.

  20. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    Using Gray and McNaughton's (2000) revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST), we examined the influence of personality on processing of words presented in gain-framed and loss-framed anti-speeding messages and how the processing biases associated with personality influenced message acceptance. The r-RST predicts that the nervous system regulates personality and that behaviour is dependent upon the activation of the behavioural activation system (BAS), activated by reward cues and the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), activated by punishment cues. According to r-RST, individuals differ in the sensitivities of their BAS and FFFS (i.e., weak to strong), which in turn leads to stable patterns of behaviour in the presence of rewards and punishments, respectively. It was hypothesised that individual differences in personality (i.e., strength of the BAS and the FFFS) would influence the degree of both message processing (as measured by reaction time to previously viewed message words) and message acceptance (measured three ways by perceived message effectiveness, behavioural intentions, and attitudes). Specifically, it was anticipated that, individuals with a stronger BAS would process the words presented in the gain-frame messages faster than those with a weaker BAS and individuals with a stronger FFFS would process the words presented in the loss-frame messages faster than those with a weaker FFFS. Further, it was expected that greater processing (faster reaction times) would be associated with greater acceptance for that message. Driver licence holding students (N=108) were recruited to view one of four anti-speeding messages (i.e., social gain-frame, social loss-frame, physical gain-frame, and physical loss-frame). A computerised lexical decision task assessed participants' subsequent reaction times to message words, as an indicator of the extent of processing of the previously viewed message. Self-report measures assessed personality and the three message

  1. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    Using Gray and McNaughton's (2000) revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST), we examined the influence of personality on processing of words presented in gain-framed and loss-framed anti-speeding messages and how the processing biases associated with personality influenced message acceptance. The r-RST predicts that the nervous system regulates personality and that behaviour is dependent upon the activation of the behavioural activation system (BAS), activated by reward cues and the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), activated by punishment cues. According to r-RST, individuals differ in the sensitivities of their BAS and FFFS (i.e., weak to strong), which in turn leads to stable patterns of behaviour in the presence of rewards and punishments, respectively. It was hypothesised that individual differences in personality (i.e., strength of the BAS and the FFFS) would influence the degree of both message processing (as measured by reaction time to previously viewed message words) and message acceptance (measured three ways by perceived message effectiveness, behavioural intentions, and attitudes). Specifically, it was anticipated that, individuals with a stronger BAS would process the words presented in the gain-frame messages faster than those with a weaker BAS and individuals with a stronger FFFS would process the words presented in the loss-frame messages faster than those with a weaker FFFS. Further, it was expected that greater processing (faster reaction times) would be associated with greater acceptance for that message. Driver licence holding students (N=108) were recruited to view one of four anti-speeding messages (i.e., social gain-frame, social loss-frame, physical gain-frame, and physical loss-frame). A computerised lexical decision task assessed participants' subsequent reaction times to message words, as an indicator of the extent of processing of the previously viewed message. Self-report measures assessed personality and the three message

  2. Individual differences in hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Garima; Dubey, Akanksha; Saxena, Prachi; Pandey, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hemisphericity or individual difference in the preference to use the left or the right hemispheric mode of information processing has been associated with various emotion-related differences. For example, the right hemisphericity has been linked with inhibition of emotional expression, feeling of tension, greater impulsivity etc. These observations suggest that right hemisphericity may be associated with greater difficulties in regulating emotions. However, direct empirical tests of such theoretical proposition are very thin. Aim: In view of this, the present study aims to investigate how and to what extent individual difference in hemispheric preference relate to emotion regulation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two right-handed male subjects in the age range 18 to 20 years were assessed on self-report measures of hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation between dimensions of hemispheric preference and difficulties in regulating emotions was computed. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were also done to explore the relative significance of various dimensions of hemispheric preference in predicting emotion regulation difficulties. Results: The findings revealed that in general a preference for the right hemispheric mode of information processing was associated with greater emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation analysis indicated that while impulse control difficulties and difficulties in engaging goal directed behavior was associated with preference for almost all the right hemispheric mode of information processing, the nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation was related to preference for only global/synthetic (a right hemispheric) mode of information processing. Similarly, the lack of emotional clarity facet of emotion regulation difficulties correlated significantly with a preference for the emotional mode of information processing (again a right

  3. Individual Differences in Personality Predict How People Look at Faces

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Susan B.; Morris, James P.; Vander Wyk, Brent C.; Green, Steven R.; Doyle, Jaime L.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Determining the ways in which personality traits interact with contextual determinants to shape social behavior remains an important area of empirical investigation. The specific personality trait of neuroticism has been related to characteristic negative emotionality and associated with heightened attention to negative, emotionally arousing environmental signals. However, the mechanisms by which this personality trait may shape social behavior remain largely unspecified. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed eye tracking to investigate the relationship between characteristics of visual scanpaths in response to emotional facial expressions and individual differences in personality. We discovered that the amount of time spent looking at the eyes of fearful faces was positively related to neuroticism. Conclusions/Significance This finding is discussed in relation to previous behavioral research relating personality to selective attention for trait-congruent emotional information, neuroimaging studies relating differences in personality to amygdala reactivity to socially relevant stimuli, and genetic studies suggesting linkages between the serotonin transporter gene and neuroticism. We conclude that personality may be related to interpersonal interaction by shaping aspects of social cognition as basic as eye contact. In this way, eye gaze represents a possible behavioral link in a complex relationship between genes, brain function, and personality. PMID:19543398

  4. Modeling Individual Differences in Response Time and Accuracy in Numeracy

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thompson, Clarissa A.; McKoon, Gail

    2015-01-01

    In the study of numeracy, some hypotheses have been based on response time (RT) as a dependent variable and some on accuracy, and considerable controversy has arisen about the presence or absence of correlations between RT and accuracy, between RT or accuracy and individual differences like IQ and math ability, and between various numeracy tasks. In this article, we show that an integration of the two dependent variables is required, which we accomplish with a theory-based model of decision making. We report data from four tasks: numerosity discrimination, number discrimination, memory for two-digit numbers, and memory for three-digit numbers. Accuracy correlated across tasks, as did RTs. However, the negative correlations that might be expected between RT and accuracy were not obtained; if a subject was accurate, it did not mean that they were fast (and vice versa). When the diffusion decision-making model was applied to the data (Ratcliff, 1978), we found significant correlations across the tasks between the quality of the numeracy information (drift rate) driving the decision process and between the speed/ accuracy criterion settings, suggesting that similar numeracy skills and similar speed-accuracy settings are involved in the four tasks. In the model, accuracy is related to drift rate and RT is related to speed-accuracy criteria, but drift rate and criteria are not related to each other across subjects. This provides a theoretical basis for understanding why negative correlations were not obtained between accuracy and RT. We also manipulated criteria by instructing subjects to maximize either speed or accuracy, but still found correlations between the criteria settings between and within tasks, suggesting that the settings may represent an individual trait that can be modulated but not equated across subjects. Our results demonstrate that a decision-making model may provide a way to reconcile inconsistent and sometimes contradictory results in numeracy

  5. 12 CFR 615.5351 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios. 615.5351 Section 615.5351 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... for loss, and other ratios compared to the ratios of its peers or industry norms; and (e) The views...

  6. Profile Analysis of Standardized Intelligence Test Performance of Very Low Functioning Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Clark, Julia H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a method that uses age equivalents and standard scores to recreate the full range of variability in the scores of low-functioning individuals. The method allows for a more complete interpretation of performance that can lead to better educational and therapeutic programming. (Author/MCF)

  7. Individual differences in achievement goals among young children.

    PubMed

    Smiley, P A; Dweck, C S

    1994-12-01

    Developmental research has generally not found evidence of helpless responses to failure in young children; a prevailing view is that young children lack the cognitive prerequisite for helplessness. However, recent evidence suggests that even preschoolers are vulnerable to helplessness in some situations. In the present study with 4- and 5-year-olds, we tested a goal-confidence model that predicts achievement behavior during failure for older children. We first categorized preschoolers' orientations toward "learning" or "performance" goals based on their preference for a challenging or nonchallenging task. As for older children, goal orientation was independent of ability and predicted cognitions and emotions during failure. Further, consistent with the model, within a learning goal, children displayed the mastery-oriented pattern regardless of confidence level, whereas within a performance goal, children with low confidence were most susceptible to helplessness. These behavior patterns were found on a second task as well. Thus, our findings show that individual differences in achievement goals emerge very early. PMID:7859551

  8. Individual Differences in Nonsymbolic Ratio Processing Predict Symbolic Math Performance.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Percival G; Lewis, Mark Rose; Hubbard, Edward M

    2016-02-01

    What basic capacities lay the foundation for advanced numerical cognition? Are there basic nonsymbolic abilities that support the understanding of advanced numerical concepts, such as fractions? To date, most theories have posited that previously identified core numerical systems, such as the approximate number system (ANS), are ill-suited for learning fraction concepts. However, recent research in developmental psychology and neuroscience has revealed a ratio-processing system (RPS) that is sensitive to magnitudes of nonsymbolic ratios and may be ideally suited for supporting fraction concepts. We provide evidence for this hypothesis by showing that individual differences in RPS acuity predict performance on four measures of mathematical competence, including a university entrance exam in algebra. We suggest that the nonsymbolic RPS may support symbolic fraction understanding much as the ANS supports whole-number concepts. Thus, even abstract mathematical concepts, such as fractions, may be grounded not only in higher-order logic and language, but also in basic nonsymbolic processing abilities. PMID:26710824

  9. Coherent motion sensitivity predicts individual differences in subtraction.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquière, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings suggest deficits in coherent motion sensitivity, an index of visual dorsal stream functioning, in children with poor mathematical skills or dyscalculia, a specific learning disability in mathematics. We extended these data using a longitudinal design to unravel whether visual dorsal stream functioning is able to predict individual differences in subsequent specific mathematical skills, i.e., single-digit subtraction and multiplication. We measured children's sensitivity to coherent motion in kindergarten (mean age: 5 years 8 months) and evaluated their subtraction and multiplication skills in third grade (mean age 8 years 3 months). Findings revealed an association between subtraction but not multiplication performance and coherent motion sensitivity. This association remained significant even when intellectual ability and reading ability were additionally controlled for. Subtractions are typically solved by means of quantity-based procedural strategies, which reliably recruit the intraparietal sulcus. Against the background of a neural overlap between the intraparietal sulcus and visual dorsal stream functioning, we hypothesize that low-level visuospatial mechanisms might set constraints on the development of quantity representations, which are used during calculation, particularly in subtraction. PMID:21324638

  10. Predictors of individual differences in acute response to ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, W.F.; Muller, K.E.; Bromberg, P.A.; Shy, C.M. )

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personal characteristics that predict individual differences in acute FEV1 response to ozone exposure. Response and predictor data were collected on 290 white male volunteers 18 to 32 yr of age who were each exposed to one of six concentrations of ozone between 0.0 and 0.40 part per million. The sample was divided into an exploratory sample of 96 and a confirmatory sample of 194 subjects. Exploratory analysis indicated that ozone, age, and several other variables explained a significant proportion of the variance in response. In the confirmatory sample, only age and ozone concentration predicted FEV1 decrement. For the combined sample ozone explained 31% of the variance, with age accounting for an additional 4%. The model predicted a decreasing response with increasing age for all nonzero ozone concentrations. For exposure to 0.40 ppm, the model predicts decrements in FEV1 of 1.07 and 0.47 L for 18- and 30-yr-old subjects, respectively. We concluded that for white male subjects age was a significant predictor of response, with older subjects being less responsive to ozone. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exploratory analysis without control of type I statistical error rates may result in apparent findings that cannot be replicated.

  11. Dopaminergic genes predict individual differences in susceptibility to confirmation bias

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Bradley B.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Frank, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is critical for the incremental learning of values associated with behavioral actions. The pre-frontal cortex (PFC) represents abstract rules and explicit contingencies to support rapid behavioral adaptation in the absence of cumulative experience. Here we test two alternative models of the interaction between these systems, and individual differences thereof, when human subjects are instructed with prior information about reward contingencies that may or may not be accurate. Behaviorally, subjects are overly influenced by prior instructions, at the expense of learning true reinforcement statistics. Computational analysis found that this pattern of data is best accounted for by a confirmation bias mechanism in which prior beliefs - putatively represented in PFC - influence the learning that occurs in the striatum such that reinforcement statistics are distorted. We assessed genetic variants affecting prefrontal and striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. A polymorphism in the COMT gene (rs4680), associated with prefrontal dopaminergic function, was predictive of the degree to which participants persisted in responding in accordance with prior instructions even as evidence against their veracity accumulated. Polymorphisms in genes associated with striatal dopamine function (DARPP-32, rs907094, and DRD2, rs6277), were predictive of learning from positive and negative outcomes. Notably, these same variants were predictive of the degree to which such learning was overly inflated or neglected when outcomes are consistent or inconsistent with prior instructions. These findings indicate dissociable neurocomputational and genetic mechanisms by which initial biases are strengthened by experience. PMID:21508242

  12. Individual Differences in Accurately Judging Personality From Text.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith A; Goh, Jin X; Mast, Marianne Schmid; Hagedorn, Christian

    2016-08-01

    This research examines correlates of accuracy in judging Big Five traits from first-person text excerpts. Participants in six studies were recruited from psychology courses or online. In each study, participants performed a task of judging personality from text and performed other ability tasks and/or filled out questionnaires. Participants who were more accurate in judging personality from text were more likely to be female; had personalities that were more agreeable, conscientious, and feminine, and less neurotic and dominant (all controlling for participant gender); scored higher on empathic concern; self-reported more interest in, and attentiveness to, people's personalities in their daily lives; and reported reading more for pleasure, especially fiction. Accuracy was not associated with SAT scores but had a significant relation to vocabulary knowledge. Accuracy did not correlate with tests of judging personality and emotion based on audiovisual cues. This research is the first to address individual differences in accurate judgment of personality from text, thus adding to the literature on correlates of the good judge of personality.

  13. Individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning: a multidimensional view.

    PubMed

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, George

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning was investigated in a sample of young adults. Verbal and spatial working memory, resistance to interference, negative priming, and task-switching measures were used to assess three executive functioning dimensions: updating, inhibition, and shifting. An additional index of basic psychomotor speed was added to this cognitive battery. According to the multidimensional interaction model of anxiety proposed by Endler (1997), state (cognitive-worry and autonomic-emotional) and trait (related to social evaluation, physical danger, ambiguous situations, and daily routines) anxiety were assessed in this evaluation context. Results indicated that shifting and inhibition (negative priming) efficiency were negatively related to state (cognitive-worry) and trait (related to social evaluation) anxiety. However, there was a relative advantage of subjects higher in social evaluation apprehensions in their memory updating performance. The results are consistent with several predictions of the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), and are relevant for research regarding the interaction of situational, personality, and cognitive functioning dimensions.

  14. Inter-individual difference in pupil size correlates to suppression of melatonin by exposure to light.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Shigekazu; Ishibashi, Keita; Aritake, Sayaka; Enomoto, Minori; Hida, Akiko; Tamura, Miyuki; Kozaki, Tomoaki; Motohashi, Yutaka; Mishima, Kazuo

    2008-07-25

    There are large inter-individual differences in pupil size and suppression of melatonin by exposure to light. It has been reported that melatonin suppression by exposure to light increases when pupils are pharmacologically dilated. However, the correlation between normal inter-individual difference in pupil size and melatonin suppression by exposure to light is not clear. Twenty-three healthy male subjects (22.6+/-2.7 years old) were exposed to light (1000 lx) for 2 h at night. The starting time of exposure to light was set to the ascending phase of melatonin concentration of each subject. Pupil area and saliva melatonin concentration were measured before exposure to light under dim light (15 lx) and during exposure to light. There were large inter-individual differences in melatonin suppression and pupil area. The mean and standard deviation of percentage of melatonin suppression 2 h after exposure to light was 57.2+/-22.1%. The mean and standard deviation of pupil areas before and 2 h after exposure to light were 30.7+/-7.9 mm2 and 15.9+/-4.8 mm2, respectively. The percentage of melatonin suppression by light was positively correlated with pupil area during light exposure (r=0.525, p<0.02). Interestingly, it was also correlated with pupil area measured before exposure to light, under dim light (15 lx) (r=0.658, p<0.001). These results suggest that inter-individual difference in pupil area positively correlates with melatonin suppression by light and that pupil area under dim light is a predictor of inter-individual differences in melatonin suppression by light. PMID:18539392

  15. The Sunk Cost Fallacy and Individual Differences in Health Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Norma Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The Sunk Cost fallacy is a biased committed when individuals base their decisions to stop or continue a course of action solely on past irrecoverable invested costs (i.e., monetary or time-related). Individuals' susceptibility to the Sunk Cost fallacy has been justified as the need to try to avoid appearing wasteful, to avoid appearing…

  16. Sleepiness phenomics: modeling individual differences in subjective sleepiness profiles.

    PubMed

    Mairesse, Olivier; De Valck, Elke; Quanten, Stijn; Neu, Daniel; Cortoos, Aisha; Pattyn, Nathalie; Theuns, Peter; Cluydts, Raymond; Hofmans, Joeri

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigates individual differences in subjective sleepiness profiles during 36 h of sustained wakefulness in a modified constant routine protocol. Twenty-three volunteers (11 females), aged between 18 and 47 yrs (M age = 30.41, SD = 10.26) enrolled in the study. Subjective sleepiness ratings were collected every 2 h by means of visual analogue scales. Circadian rhythmicity was assessed by means of salivary cortisol. Subjective sleepiness data were analyzed using functional principal component analysis (fPCA). Our results show that approximately 80% of the variance is accounted for by three functional components. The first component explains 50.28% of the variance and is characterized by a profile of exclusively positive loadings, representing vertical shifts from the mean sleepiness profile. Scores on this component are positively related to self-reported habitual sleep times and mean slow wave activity (SWA) during wake. Positive scores on the second component (18.40% of the variance) are characterized by a higher than average peak-to-trough amplitude in subjective sleepiness profiles. Participants with higher than average scores on this component show a significantly higher amplitude in salivary cortisol profiles as opposed to participants with lower than average scores. Participants with positive scores on the third component (10.09% of the variance) show higher than average levels of subjective sleepiness during morning hours, a buildup of wake effort occurring later and more afternoon sleepiness after sleep deprivation than negative scorers. Peak levels of salivary cortisol occur significantly later in these participants. Taken together, our results suggest that component 1 represents tonic differences in sleepiness profiles primarily related to mechanisms of sleep homeostasis, component 2 to circadian amplitude differences and component 3 to diurnal preference. However, since the components are additions to a mean profile, each of the three

  17. Individual differences in alpha frequency drive crossmodal illusory perception.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Roberto; Rees, Geraint; Romei, Vincenzo

    2015-01-19

    Perception routinely integrates inputs from different senses. Stimulus temporal proximity critically determines whether or not these inputs are bound together. Despite the temporal window of integration being a widely accepted notion, its neurophysiological substrate remains unclear. Many types of common audio-visual interactions occur within a time window of ∼100 ms. For example, in the sound-induced double-flash illusion, when two beeps are presented within ∼100 ms together with one flash, a second illusory flash is often perceived. Due to their intrinsic rhythmic nature, brain oscillations are one candidate mechanism for gating the temporal window of integration. Interestingly, occipital alpha band oscillations cycle on average every ∼100 ms, with peak frequencies ranging between 8 and 14 Hz (i.e., 120-60 ms cycle). Moreover, presenting a brief tone can phase-reset such oscillations in visual cortex. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the duration of each alpha cycle might provide the temporal unit to bind audio-visual events. Here, we first recorded EEG while participants performed the sound-induced double-flash illusion task and found positive correlation between individual alpha frequency (IAF) peak and the size of the temporal window of the illusion. Participants then performed the same task while receiving occipital transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), to modulate oscillatory activity either at their IAF or at off-peak alpha frequencies (IAF±2 Hz). Compared to IAF tACS, IAF-2 Hz and IAF+2 Hz tACS, respectively, enlarged and shrunk the temporal window of illusion, suggesting that alpha oscillations might represent the temporal unit of visual processing that cyclically gates perception and the neurophysiological substrate promoting audio-visual interactions. PMID:25544613

  18. Building a Science of Individual Differences from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Julien; Adolphs, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    To date, fMRI research has been concerned primarily with evincing generic principles of brain function through averaging data from multiple subjects. Given rapid developments in both hardware and analysis tools, the field is now poised to study fMRI-derived measures in individual subjects, and to relate these to psychological traits or genetic variations. We discuss issues of validity, reliability and statistical assessment that arise when the focus shifts to individual subjects and that are applicable also to other imaging modalities. We emphasize that individual assessment of neural function with fMRI presents specific challenges and necessitates careful consideration of anatomical and vascular between-subject variability as well as sources of within-subject variability. PMID:27138646

  19. Comparative study of chemical and biochemical properties of different melon cultivars: standard, hybrid, and grafted melons.

    PubMed

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Kara, Meryem; Tezcan, Filiz; Erim, F Bedia; Sahin, Huseyin; Ulusoy, Esra; Aliyazicioglu, Rezzan

    2010-09-01

    Chemical and biochemical properties of standard, hybrid, and grafted melons cultivated under the same agricultural conditions in adjacent fields in the Cumra region of Turkey were investigated and compared based on pH, Brix, antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, individual phenolics, sugar, and organic acid values. Seventeen different phenolic constituents were quantified by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The highest phenolic acid variability and content were detected in the standard melon. Sugar and organic acid compositions of melon cultivars were tested by capillary electrophoresis, and significant differences in types and contents of individual sugars and organic acids were determined among the cultivars. Standard Cinikiz Cumra melons had the highest ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and total sugar contents. The fructose/glucose ratio increased three times in grafted melon as compared with standard melon. While sugar alcohol mannitol existed in the standard and hybrid cultivars, this constituent disappeared in the grafted types. Citric acid found in the standard cultivar was not detected in the hybrid and grafted types. Consequently, it was concluded that the nutritional value of melons changed by the application of hybridization, grafting, or standard (open pollinated) production methods. The standard melon was found to have the highest score in terms of taste, because of its highest sweetness and sourness. It was also found preferable because of its high antioxidant activity, total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents.

  20. Comparative study of chemical and biochemical properties of different melon cultivars: standard, hybrid, and grafted melons.

    PubMed

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Kara, Meryem; Tezcan, Filiz; Erim, F Bedia; Sahin, Huseyin; Ulusoy, Esra; Aliyazicioglu, Rezzan

    2010-09-01

    Chemical and biochemical properties of standard, hybrid, and grafted melons cultivated under the same agricultural conditions in adjacent fields in the Cumra region of Turkey were investigated and compared based on pH, Brix, antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, individual phenolics, sugar, and organic acid values. Seventeen different phenolic constituents were quantified by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The highest phenolic acid variability and content were detected in the standard melon. Sugar and organic acid compositions of melon cultivars were tested by capillary electrophoresis, and significant differences in types and contents of individual sugars and organic acids were determined among the cultivars. Standard Cinikiz Cumra melons had the highest ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and total sugar contents. The fructose/glucose ratio increased three times in grafted melon as compared with standard melon. While sugar alcohol mannitol existed in the standard and hybrid cultivars, this constituent disappeared in the grafted types. Citric acid found in the standard cultivar was not detected in the hybrid and grafted types. Consequently, it was concluded that the nutritional value of melons changed by the application of hybridization, grafting, or standard (open pollinated) production methods. The standard melon was found to have the highest score in terms of taste, because of its highest sweetness and sourness. It was also found preferable because of its high antioxidant activity, total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents. PMID:20715772

  1. Certification standards of professionals coordinating life care plans for individuals who have acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cloie B; Lacerte, Michel; Fountaine, John D

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss the history and evolution of what is now known as a life care plan. The objectives will be to understand that a life care plan is a tool of case management. A life care plan is based on a proper medical, psychological, case management, and/or rehabilitation foundation. The development of a life care plan requires following generally accepted and peer-reviewed methodology and standards of practice. Life care planning is a trans-disciplinary specialty practice. A life care plan is a dynamic document based upon published standards of practice, comprehensive assessment, data analysis and research that provides an organized, concise plan for current and future needs with associated costs for individuals who have experienced catastrophic injury or have chronic health care needs. The reader will also learn there are Standards of Practice for life care planning that have been a long-standing guide for the practitioner and its core components will be discussed. There are qualifications of professionals who perform the specialty practice of life care planning which will be reviewed, and in conclusion there are special considerations for individuals coordinating life care plans with individuals who have sustained an acquired brain injury will also be discussed.

  2. Investigating Individual Differences in Toddler Search with Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthier, Neil E.; Boucher, Kelsea; Weisner, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Children's performance on cognitive tasks is often described in categorical terms in that a child is described as either passing or failing a test, or knowing or not knowing some concept. We used binomial mixture models to determine whether individual children could be classified as passing or failing two search tasks, the DeLoache model room…

  3. Individual Differences of Action Orientation for Risk Taking in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing…

  4. The Impact of Adapting Content for Students with Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Raymond; Ari, Fatih; Inan, Fethi A.; Arslan-Ari, Ismahan

    2012-01-01

    Combining adaptive hypermedia methods with strategies proposed by instructional theory and motivation models, an adaptable tutorial was designed and developed. The aim of this study was to assess whether the goals of an adaptable tutorial, which individualized instruction based on student motivation and prior knowledge, were being met (i.e.…

  5. Generalization of Individual Differences in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anjum, Amber Nasreen; Al-Othmany, Dheya Shujaa; Hussain, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This commentary is based on the analyses of the participants' responses provided in written form while filling the questionnaires. The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze factors in individuals' experiences about second language acquisition. The study was conducted through a research questionnaire. The questions were designed for…

  6. Interactions between Individual Differences, Treatments, and Structures in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKeyser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    For decades educational psychologists have bemoaned the black box approach of much research on learning, that is, the focus on product rather than process, and the absence of fine-grained analysis of the learning process in the individual. One way that progress has been made on this point in the last couple of decades is through cognitive…

  7. Standard Errors of Equating Differences: Prior Developments, Extensions, and Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Zhang, Wenmin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to extend the use of standard errors for equated score differences (SEEDs) to traditional equating functions. The SEEDs are described in terms of their original proposal for kernel equating functions and extended so that SEEDs for traditional linear and traditional equipercentile equating functions can be computed.…

  8. The Susceptibility to Dental Erosion Differs among Individuals.

    PubMed

    Uhlen, M M; Mulic, A; Holme, B; Tveit, A B; Stenhagen, K R

    2016-01-01

    Studies of wine tasters and patients with self-induced vomiting have revealed that 30-50% of individuals at high risk do not develop erosive lesions. The aim was to investigate this apparent individual susceptibility to enamel erosion. Two enamel specimens were made from each of 3 premolars from 8 persons (donors). Six acrylic mouth appliances were worn by 6 volunteers (carriers). One specimen from each donor was mounted on each appliance. The carriers wore the appliances for 9 days. The appliances were immersed in 0.01 M HCl for 3 min twice per day to imitate a vomiting/reflux situation. The enamel specimens were analysed by a white-light interferometer to measure enamel loss (in micrometres). The enamel loss varied significantly both between the donor teeth (p = 0.009) and the carriers (p = 0.004). The lesion in the specimen with the largest amount of enamel loss was 4 times as deep as in the specimen with the lowest. In 1 carrier, all specimens displayed enamel loss above the mean, including the specimen from the donor with the most resistant enamel. The variation in susceptibility to erosion among individuals appears to be influenced both by the sustainability of the enamel and by factors in the oral environment. This could explain the variation in prevalence and severity of dental erosions among patients exposed to similar acidic challenges. The results suggest that for certain individuals, only minimal acidic challenges may be sufficient to cause damage to the teeth, while others may never develop dental erosions despite extensive exposure to acid.

  9. The Susceptibility to Dental Erosion Differs among Individuals.

    PubMed

    Uhlen, M M; Mulic, A; Holme, B; Tveit, A B; Stenhagen, K R

    2016-01-01

    Studies of wine tasters and patients with self-induced vomiting have revealed that 30-50% of individuals at high risk do not develop erosive lesions. The aim was to investigate this apparent individual susceptibility to enamel erosion. Two enamel specimens were made from each of 3 premolars from 8 persons (donors). Six acrylic mouth appliances were worn by 6 volunteers (carriers). One specimen from each donor was mounted on each appliance. The carriers wore the appliances for 9 days. The appliances were immersed in 0.01 M HCl for 3 min twice per day to imitate a vomiting/reflux situation. The enamel specimens were analysed by a white-light interferometer to measure enamel loss (in micrometres). The enamel loss varied significantly both between the donor teeth (p = 0.009) and the carriers (p = 0.004). The lesion in the specimen with the largest amount of enamel loss was 4 times as deep as in the specimen with the lowest. In 1 carrier, all specimens displayed enamel loss above the mean, including the specimen from the donor with the most resistant enamel. The variation in susceptibility to erosion among individuals appears to be influenced both by the sustainability of the enamel and by factors in the oral environment. This could explain the variation in prevalence and severity of dental erosions among patients exposed to similar acidic challenges. The results suggest that for certain individuals, only minimal acidic challenges may be sufficient to cause damage to the teeth, while others may never develop dental erosions despite extensive exposure to acid. PMID:26981853

  10. Acculturation: When Individuals and Groups of Different Cultural Backgrounds Meet.

    PubMed

    Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2010-07-01

    In cross-cultural psychology, one of the major sources of the development and display of human behavior is the contact between cultural populations. Such intercultural contact results in both cultural and psychological changes. At the cultural level, collective activities and social institutions become altered, and at the psychological level, there are changes in an individual's daily behavioral repertoire and sometimes in experienced stress. The two most common research findings at the individual level are that there are large variations in how people acculturate and in how well they adapt to this process. Variations in ways of acculturating have become known by the terms integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization. Two variations in adaptation have been identified, involving psychological well-being and sociocultural competence. One important finding is that there are relationships between how individuals acculturate and how well they adapt: Often those who integrate (defined as being engaged in both their heritage culture and in the larger society) are better adapted than those who acculturate by orienting themselves to one or the other culture (by way of assimilation or separation) or to neither culture (marginalization). Implications of these findings for policy and program development and for future research are presented. PMID:26162193

  11. Subgenual PFC Activity Predicts Individual Differences in HPA Activity Across Different Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Allison L.; Fox, Andrew S.; Abercrombie, Heather C.; Shelton, Steven E.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system activation is adaptive in response to stress, and HPA dysregulation occurs in stress-related psychopathology. It is important to understand the mechanisms that modulate HPA output; yet, few studies have addressed the neural circuitry associated with HPA regulation in primates and humans. Using high-resolution [F-18]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in rhesus monkeys, we assessed the relation between individual differences in brain activity and HPA function across multiple contexts that varied in stressfulness. Methods Using a logical AND conjunctions analysis, we assessed cortisol and brain metabolic activity with FDG-PET in 35 adolescent rhesus monkeys exposed to two threat and two home-cage conditions. To test the robustness of our findings, we used similar methods in an archival data set. In this data set, brain metabolic activity and cortisol were assessed in 17 adolescent male rhesus monkeys that were exposed to three different stress-related contexts. Results Results from the two studies, revealed that subgenual PFC metabolism (Area 25/24) consistently predicted individual differences in plasma cortisol concentrations regardless of the context in which brain activity and cortisol were assessed. Conclusions These findings suggest that activation in subgenual PFC may be related to HPA output across a variety of contexts (including familiar settings and novel or threatening situations). Individuals prone to elevated subgenual PFC activity across multiple contexts may be individuals who consistently show heightened cortisol, and may be at risk for stress-related HPA dysregulation. PMID:19846063

  12. Personality, individual differences and command in war: 1982.

    PubMed

    Jolly, R T

    1997-01-01

    In 1982, a small percentage of Great Britain's armed forces was involved in a short but bitter action to recover some territory in the South Atlantic region that had been invaded by another nation. As part of a UK Ministry of Defence-sponsored study, 30 Commanding Officers of British sea, land and air units involved in Operation CORPORATE participated between seven and nine years later in a research study investigating their individual variations in personality and the perceived effects of their experience of Command in War. Ten single-seat, fast jet pilots from a slightly younger age group were also investigated.

  13. Learning biases underlying individual differences in sensitivity to social rejection

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Andreas; Carmona, Susanna; Downey, Geraldine; Bolger, Niall; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    People vary greatly in their dispositions to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and strongly react to social rejection (rejection sensitivity, RS) with implications for social functioning and health. Here, we examined how RS influences learning about social threat. Using a classical fear conditioning task, we established that high as compared to low (HRS vs. LRS) individuals displayed a resistance to extinction of the conditioned response to angry faces, but not to neutral faces or non-social stimuli. Our findings suggest that RS biases the flexible updating of acquired expectations for threat, which helps to explain how RS operates as a self-fulfilling prophecy. PMID:23914767

  14. Subcortical representation of musical dyads: individual differences and neural generators.

    PubMed

    Bones, Oliver; Plack, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    When two notes are played simultaneously they form a musical dyad. The sensation of pleasantness, or "consonance", of a dyad is likely driven by the harmonic relation of the frequency components of the combined spectrum of the two notes. Previous work has demonstrated a relation between individual preference for consonant over dissonant dyads, and the strength of neural temporal coding of the harmonicity of consonant relative to dissonant dyads as measured using the electrophysiological "frequency-following response" (FFR). However, this work also demonstrated that both these variables correlate strongly with musical experience. The current study was designed to determine whether the relation between consonance preference and neural temporal coding is maintained when controlling for musical experience. The results demonstrate that strength of neural coding of harmonicity is predictive of individual preference for consonance even for non-musicians. An additional purpose of the current study was to assess the cochlear generation site of the FFR to low-frequency dyads. By comparing the reduction in FFR strength when high-pass masking noise was added to the output of a model of the auditory periphery, the results provide evidence for the FFR to low-frequency dyads resulting in part from basal cochlear generators.

  15. Individualism and collectivism: what differences between Portuguese and Romanian adolescents?

    PubMed

    Ciochină, Laura; Faria, Luísa

    2009-11-01

    This article presents the results of a series of preliminary comparisons, between the Portuguese and Romanian cultural contexts, on the individualism-collectivism (IND/COL) cultural dimension. The IND/COL was evaluated with the Individualism-Collectivism Questionnaire - ICQ -, constructed in New Zealand by Shulruf, Hattie and Dixon (2003, Anonymous Questionnaire of Self-Attitudes - AQSA), and adapted to the Portuguese and Romanian contexts by Ciochină and Faria (2007), using studies of confirmatory factor analysis. The ICQ composed by 26 items, 15 evaluating the IND scale--with three subscales (Uniqueness, Competition and Responsibility)--, and 11 evaluating the COL scale--with two subscales (Harmony and Advice)--, was administered to 395 subjects, 200 Portuguese and 195 Romanian, 10th and 12th graders. On the whole, in the Portuguese and Romanian samples, the multivariate and univariate statistical analyses evidenced the existence of two independent variables--gender and cultural context--, with significant effects, main and of interaction, on the scales and subscales of the ICQ. The results were discussed taking into consideration the specificities of the educational systems in the two cultural contexts, which are inevitably shaped by socio-cultural factors characteristic of the two countries considered in the present study--Portugal and Romania.

  16. Individual differences in reading social intentions from motor deviants

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, Daniel; Quesque, Francois; Coello, Yann; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne N.

    2015-01-01

    As social animals, it is crucial to understand others’ intention. But is it possible to detect social intention in two actions that have the exact same motor goal? In the present study, we presented participants with video clips of an individual reaching for and grasping an object to either use it (personal trial) or to give his partner the opportunity to use it (social trial). In Experiment 1, the ability of naïve participants to classify correctly social trials through simple observation of short video clips was tested. In addition, detection levels were analyzed as a function of individual scores in psychological questionnaires of motor imagery, visual imagery, and social cognition. Results revealed that the between-participant heterogeneity in the ability to distinguish social from personal actions was predicted by the social skill abilities. A second experiment was then conducted to assess what predictive mechanism could contribute to the detection of social intention. Video clips were sliced and normalized to control for either the reaction times (RTs) or/and the movement times (MTs) of the grasping action. Tested in a second group of participants, results showed that the detection of social intention relies on the variation of both RT and MT that are implicitly perceived in the grasping action. The ability to use implicitly these motor deviants for action-outcome understanding would be the key to intuitive social interaction. PMID:26347673

  17. Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F

    2015-03-01

    A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing.

  18. Individual differences in gains from computer-assisted remedial reading.

    PubMed

    Wise, B W; Ring, J; Olson, R K

    2000-11-01

    Two hundred second- to fifth-grade students (aged approximately 7 to 11 years) spent 29 h in a computer-assisted remedial reading program that compared benefits from accurate, speech-supported reading in context, with and without explicit phonological training. Children in the "accurate-reading-in-context" condition spent 22 individualized computer hours reading stories and 7 small-group hours learning comprehension strategies. Children in the "phonological-analysis" condition learned phonological strategies in 7 small-group hours, and divided their computer time between phonological exercises and story reading. Phonologically trained children gained more in phonological skills and untimed word reading; children with more contextual reading gained more in time-limited word reading. Lower level readers gained more, and benefited more from phonological training, than higher level readers. In follow-up testing, most children maintained or improved their levels, but not their rates, of training gains. Phonologically trained children scored higher on phonological decoding, but children in both conditions scored equivalently on word reading.

  19. Individual differences in fixation duration distributions in reading.

    PubMed

    Staub, Adrian; Benatar, Ashley

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the location and skew of an individual reader's fixation duration distribution. The ex-Gaussian distribution was fit to eye fixation data from 153 subjects in five experiments, four previously presented and one new. The τ parameter was entirely uncorrelated with the μ and σ parameters; by contrast, there was a modest positive correlation between these parameters for lexical decision and speeded pronunciation response times. The conclusion that, for fixation durations, the degree of skew is uncorrelated with the location of the distribution's central tendency was also confirmed nonparametrically, by examining vincentile plots for subgroups of subjects. Finally, the stability of distributional parameters for a given subject was demonstrated to be relatively high. Taken together with previous findings of selective influence on the μ parameter of the fixation duration distribution, the present results suggest that in reading, the location and the skew of the fixation duration distribution may reflect functionally distinct processes. The authors speculate that the skew parameter may specifically reflect the frequency of processing disruption.

  20. Assessing Learning from Hypertext: An Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Martin

    2003-01-01

    From an instructional perspective, it is conceivable that employing an appropriate hypertext architecture should have the advantage of facilitating learning by representing logically the interrelationships between the different pieces of information contained within the hypertext. Furthermore, there would however appear to be a sound theoretical…

  1. Individual Differences in Substance Preference and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marc; Kumar, V. K.; Angelini, Frank; Pekala, Ronald J.; Porter, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Using H. J. Eysenck's (1957,1967) theory of temperament, this study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, and personality among incarcerated inmates. Analysis indicated a general preference for marijuana and alcohol over 8 other commonly used drugs across different personality types. Theoretical and clinical implications are…

  2. Individual Differences in False Recall: A Latent Variable Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between intrusions in several different recall tasks was examined in the current study. Intrusions from these tasks were moderately correlated and formed a unitary intrusion factor. This factor was related to other cognitive ability measures including working memory capacity, judgments of recency, and general source-monitoring…

  3. Individual Difference Predictors of Creativity in Art and Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Batey, Mark; Booth, Tom W.; Patel, Vikita; Lozinskaya, Dariya

    2011-01-01

    Two studies are reported that used multiple measures of creativity to investigate creativity differences and correlates in arts and science students. The first study examined Divergent Thinking fluency, Self-Rated Creativity and Creative Achievement in matched groups of Art and Science students. Arts students scored higher than Science students on…

  4. Individual Differences Reveal Correlates of Hidden Hearing Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Masud, Salwa; Mehraei, Golbarg; Verhulst, Sarah; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical audiometry has long focused on determining the detection thresholds for pure tones, which depend on intact cochlear mechanics and hair cell function. Yet many listeners with normal hearing thresholds complain of communication difficulties, and the causes for such problems are not well understood. Here, we explore whether normal-hearing listeners exhibit such suprathreshold deficits, affecting the fidelity with which subcortical areas encode the temporal structure of clearly audible sound. Using an array of measures, we evaluated a cohort of young adults with thresholds in the normal range to assess both cochlear mechanical function and temporal coding of suprathreshold sounds. Listeners differed widely in both electrophysiological and behavioral measures of temporal coding fidelity. These measures correlated significantly with each other. Conversely, these differences were unrelated to the modest variation in otoacoustic emissions, cochlear tuning, or the residual differences in hearing threshold present in our cohort. Electroencephalography revealed that listeners with poor subcortical encoding had poor cortical sensitivity to changes in interaural time differences, which are critical for localizing sound sources and analyzing complex scenes. These listeners also performed poorly when asked to direct selective attention to one of two competing speech streams, a task that mimics the challenges of many everyday listening environments. Together with previous animal and computational models, our results suggest that hidden hearing deficits, likely originating at the level of the cochlear nerve, are part of “normal hearing.” PMID:25653371

  5. Shallow Semantic Processing of Text: An Individual-Differences Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Brenda; Daneman, Meredyth

    2004-01-01

    We used Barton and Sanford's (1993) anomaly detection task to investigate text processing differences between skilled and less-skilled readers. The results of 2 experiments showed that many readers had the tendency to process text in a shallow or incomplete manner, frequently failing to detect anomalous nouns or noun phrases (NPs) in text such as…

  6. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Reiriz, María José; Irisarri, Jade; Labarta, Uxio

    2016-01-01

    Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain) were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F) and slow (S) growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate) and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher) resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5±4.9 J h−1) than S individuals (7.3±1.1 J h−1). The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization) than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals. PMID:26849372

  7. Linking inter-individual differences in the conflict adaptation effect to spontaneous brain activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Zhencai; Zhao, Guang; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Congcong; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Liu, Yijun; Chen, Antao

    2014-04-15

    Conflict adaptation has been widely researched in normal and clinical populations. There are large individual differences in conflict adaptation, and it has been linked to the schizotypal trait. However, no study to date has examined how individual differences in spontaneous brain activity are related to behavioral conflict adaptation (performance). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) is a promising tool to investigate this issue. The present study evaluated the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of RS-fMRI signals in order to explore the neural basis of individual differences in conflict adaptation across two independent samples comprising a total of 67 normal subjects. A partial correlation analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between ReHo and behavioral conflict adaptation, while controlling for reaction time, standard deviation and flanker interference effects. This analysis was conducted on 39 subjects' data (sample 1); the results showed significant positive correlations in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. We then conducted a test-validation procedure on the remaining 28 subjects' data (sample 2) to examine the reliability of the results. Regions of interest were defined based on the correlation results. Regression analysis showed that variability in ReHo values in the DLPFC accounted for 48% of the individual differences in the conflict adaptation effect in sample 2. The present findings provide further support for the importance of the DLPFC in the conflict adaptation process. More importantly, we demonstrated that ReHo of RS-fMRI signals in the DLPFC can predict behavioral performance in conflict adaptation, which provides potential biomarkers for the early detection of cognitive control deterioration.

  8. Individual differences in strategic flight management and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Raby, Mireille

    1991-01-01

    A group of 30 instrument-rated pilots was made to fly simulator approaches to three airports under conditions of low, medium, and high workload conditions. An analysis is presently conducted of the difference in discrete task scheduling between the group of 10 highest and 10 lowest performing pilots in the sample; this categorization was based on the mean of various flight-profile measures. The two groups were found to differ from each other only in terms of the time when specific events were conducted, and of the optimality of scheduling for certain high-priority tasks. These results are assessed in view of the relative independence of task-management skills from aircraft-control skills.

  9. Gender-Related Differences in Individuals Seeking Treatment for Kleptomania

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. Method From 2001 to 2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment to identify gender-related differences. Results Men and women both showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared to affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% compared to 25.9%; p=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 compared to 14 years; p=.001), steal household items (p<.001), hoard stolen items (p=.020), and have an eating disorder (p=.017) and less likely to steal electronic goods (p<.001) and have another impulse control disorder (p=.018). Conclusions Kleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations. PMID:18323758

  10. Premarital sexual standards and sociosexuality: gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Susan; Treger, Stanislav; Sakaluk, John K

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present results from a "cohort-longitudinal" analysis of sexual attitudes and behaviors based on a large sample of young adults (N = 7,777) obtained from a university setting over a 23-year period. We investigated gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences in sexual permissiveness, endorsement of the double standard, and sociosexuality. Compared to women, men had more permissive attitudes, particularly about sex in casual relationships, endorsed the double standard to a greater degree, and had a more unrestricted sociosexuality. Black men were generally more permissive than White, Hispanic, and Asian men, whereas ethnic differences were not found among women. Participants from the 1995-1999 cohort were slightly less permissive than those from the 1990-1994 and 2005-2012 cohorts. Although prior meta-analytic studies (e.g., Petersen & Hyde, 2010) found reduced gender differences in sexuality over time, our cohort analyses suggest that gender differences in sexual permissiveness have not changed over the past two decades among college students. PMID:23842785

  11. Formaldehyde emission—Comparison of different standard methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risholm-Sundman, Maria; Larsen, Annelise; Vestin, Ewa; Weibull, Anders

    The emission of formaldehyde is an important factor in the evaluation of the environmental and health effects of wood-based board materials. This article gives a comparison between commonly used European test methods: chamber method [EN 717-1, 2004. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 1: formaldehyde emission by the chamber method. European Standard, October 2004], gas analysis method [EN 717-2, 1994. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 2: formaldehyde release by the gas analysis method, European Standard, November 1994], flask method [EN 717-3, 1996. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 3: formaldehyde release by the flask method, European Standard, March 1996], perforator method [EN 120, 1993. Wood based panels—determination of formaldehyde content—extraction method called perforator method, European Standard, September 1993], Japanese test methods: desiccator methods [JIS A 1460, 2001. Building boards. Determination of formaldehyde emission—desiccator method, Japanese Industrial Standard, March 2001 and JAS MAFF 233, 2001] and small chamber method [JIS A 1901, 2003. Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes for building products—small chamber method, Japanese Industrial Standard, January 2003], for solid wood, particleboard, plywood and medium density fiberboard. The variations between the results from different methods can partly be explained by differences in test conditions. Factors like edge sealing, conditioning of the sample before the test and test temperature have a large effect on the final emission result. The Japanese limit for F **** of 0.3 mg l -1 (in desiccator) for particleboards was found to be equivalent to 0.04 mg m -3 in the European chamber test and 2.8 mg per 100 g in the perforator test. The variations in inter-laboratory tests are much larger than in intra-laboratory tests; the coefficient of variation is 16% and 6

  12. A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; Bastiansen, Finn; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Ginot, Vincent; Giske, Jarl; Goss-Custard, John; Grand, Tamara; Heinz, Simone K.; Huse, Geir; Huth, Andreas; Jepsen, Jane U.; Jorgensen, Christian; Mooij, Wolf M.; Muller, Birgit; Pe'er, Guy; Piou, Cyril; Railsback, Steven F.; Robbins, Andrew M.; Robbins, Martha M.; Rossmanith, Eva; Ruger, Nadja; Strand, Espen; Souissi, Sami; Stillman, Richard A.; Vabo, Rune; Visser, Ute; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Simulation models that describe autonomous individual organisms (individual based models, IBM) or agents (agent-based models, ABM) have become a widely used tool, not only in ecology, but also in many other disciplines dealing with complex systems made up of autonomous entities. However, there is no standard protocol for describing such simulation models, which can make them difficult to understand and to duplicate. This paper presents a proposed standard protocol, ODD, for describing IBMs and ABMs, developed and tested by 28 modellers who cover a wide range of fields within ecology. This protocol consists of three blocks (Overview, Design concepts, and Details), which are subdivided into seven elements: Purpose, State variables and scales, Process overview and scheduling, Design concepts, Initialization, Input, and Submodels. We explain which aspects of a model should be described in each element, and we present an example to illustrate the protocol in use. In addition, 19 examples are available in an Online Appendix. We consider ODD as a first step for establishing a more detailed common format of the description of IBMs and ABMs. Once initiated, the protocol will hopefully evolve as it becomes used by a sufficiently large proportion of modellers.

  13. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124.203 Section 124.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Procedures for RCRA Standardized Permit Applying for A Standardized Permit § 124.203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to...

  14. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124.203 Section 124.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Procedures for RCRA Standardized Permit Applying for A Standardized Permit § 124.203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to...

  15. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124.203 Section 124.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Procedures for RCRA Standardized Permit Applying for A Standardized Permit § 124.203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to...

  16. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124.203 Section 124.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Procedures for RCRA Standardized Permit Applying for A Standardized Permit § 124.203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to...

  17. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124.203 Section 124.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Procedures for RCRA Standardized Permit Applying for A Standardized Permit § 124.203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to...

  18. Individual Differences in Navigation between Sharable Content Objects--An Evaluation Study of a Learning Module Prototype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauss, Boris; Urbas, Leon

    2003-01-01

    Reports the design and evaluation of a prototype for learning modules compliant to the SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) standard for use with hypermedia systems in Web-based instruction. Discusses a study of undergraduates that considered relations between individual differences in learner characteristics, including intrinsic…

  19. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  20. Using monolingual neuropsychological test norms with bilingual Hispanic americans: application of an individual comparison standard.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Gonzalez, Cassandra Dayanira

    2012-05-01

    Conventional neuropsychological norms developed for monolinguals likely overestimate normal performance in bilinguals on language but not visual-perceptual format tests. This was studied by comparing neuropsychological false-positive rates using the 50th percentile of conventional norms and individual comparison standards (Picture Vocabulary or Matrix Reasoning scores) as estimates of preexisting neuropsychological skill level against the number expected from the normal distribution for a consecutive sample of 56 neurologically intact, bilingual, Hispanic Americans. Participants were tested in separate sessions in Spanish and English in the counterbalanced order on La Bateria Neuropsicologica and the original English language tests on which this battery was based. For language format measures, repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that individual estimates of preexisting skill level in English generated the mean number of false positives most approximate to that expected from the normal distribution, whereas the 50th percentile of conventional English language norms did the same for visual-perceptual format measures. When using conventional Spanish or English monolingual norms for language format neuropsychological measures with bilingual Hispanic Americans, individual estimates of preexisting skill level are recommended over the 50th percentile.

  1. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates. PMID:26008886

  2. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates.

  3. Individual Differences in Premotor Brain Systems Underlie Behavioral Apathy

    PubMed Central

    Bonnelle, Valerie; Manohar, Sanjay; Behrens, Tim; Husain, Masud

    2016-01-01

    Lack of physical engagement, productivity, and initiative—so-called “behavioral apathy”—is a common problem with significant impact, both personal and economic. Here, we investigate whether there might be a biological basis to such lack of motivation using a new effort and reward-based decision-making paradigm, combined with functional and diffusion-weighted imaging. We hypothesized that behavioral apathy in otherwise healthy people might be associated with differences in brain systems underlying either motivation to act (specifically in effort and reward-based decision-making) or in action processing (transformation of an intention into action). The results demonstrate that behavioral apathy is associated with increased effort sensitivity as well as greater recruitment of neural systems involved in action anticipation: supplementary motor area (SMA) and cingulate motor zones. In addition, decreased structural and functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and SMA were associated with increased behavioral apathy. These findings reveal that effort sensitivity and translation of intentions into actions might make a critical contribution to behavioral apathy. We propose a mechanism whereby inefficient communication between ACC and SMA might lead to increased physiological cost—and greater effort sensitivity—for action initiation in more apathetic people. PMID:26564255

  4. Individual differences in impulsivity predict anticipatory eye movements.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Laetitia; de Timary, Philippe; Lefèvre, Phillipe; Missal, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale), which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology. PMID:22046334

  5. Differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Inma; del Olmo, David; Sijses, Laurien; Martinez-Alborcia, María J; Cuello, Cristina; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques. Eighteen sperm-rich ejaculate samples from six boars (three per boar) were diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution and split into three aliquots. The aliquots were (1) further diluted to 3×10(7) sperm/mL and stored as a liquid at 17°C for 72 h, (2) frozen-thawed (FT) at 1×10(9) sperm/mL using standard 0.5-mL straw protocols, or (3) sex-sorted with subsequent liquid storage (at 17°C for 6 h) or FT (2×10(7) sperm/mL using a standard 0.25-mL straw protocol). The sperm quality was evaluated based on total sperm motility (the CASA system), viability (plasma membrane integrity assessed using flow cytometry and the LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit), lipid peroxidation (assessed via indirect measurement of the generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) using the BIOXYTECH MDA-586 Assay Kit) and DNA fragmentation (sperm chromatin dispersion assessed using the Sperm-Sus-Halomax(®) test). Data were normalized to the values assessed for the fresh (for liquid-stored and FT samples) or the sorted semen samples (for liquid stored and the FT sorted spermatozoa). All of the four sperm-processing techniques affected sperm quality (P<0.01), regardless of the semen donor, with reduced percentages of motile and viable sperm and increased MDA generation and percentages of sperm with fragmented DNA. Significant (P<0.05) inter-boar (effect of boars within each semen-processing technique) and intra-boar (effect of semen-processing techniques within each boar) differences were evident for all of the sperm quality parameters assessed, indicating differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boars to withstand the semen-processing techniques. These results are the first evidence that ejaculate spermatozoa from individual boars can respond in a boar-dependent manner to different semen-processing techniques. PMID:22554791

  6. Revealing a latent variable: Individual differences in affective response to repeated injections

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cigdem; Frohmader, Karla; Akil, Huda

    2015-01-01

    Latent variables may exist in experimental designs and may interfere with reproducibility of findings. The present study reveals one such variable, the individual differences in affective response to chronic injection stress, by using the novelty-seeking phenotype as a model of differential emotional reactivity. The phenotype is identified by exposing a population of experimentally-naïve outbred rats to the mild stress of a novel environment and classifying them as high responders (HR; upper 1/3rd) and low responders (LR; lower 1/3rd) based on their locomotor reactivity. Research has shown that HR/LR animals differ in their basal levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, as well as in their response to environmental and pharmacological challenges; suggesting validity of this model in studying individual differences in stress reactivity. The present data showed that 14 daily, intraperitoneal saline injections did not alter the phenotypic differences in social behavior observed basally in HR/LR rats. However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in LRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in HRs, compared to handled-controls. These data indicate that individual differences in stress reactivity can have a significant impact on the depressive-like responses to repeated intraperitoneal injections in rats. Given that such underlying emotional variability exists within standard, outbred rat populations, this study highlights the importance of accounting for such variability in any study investigating the effects of repeated drug administration on depressive-like behavior for reliability and replicability of findings. Thus, we recommend including an uninjected control group in all studies. PMID:26191946

  7. Quantifying the influence of measured and unmeasured individual differences on demography.

    PubMed

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim; Delorme, Daniel; Warnant, Claude; Michallet, Jacques; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Krishnakumar, Siddharth; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    1. Demographic rates can vary not only with measured individual characters like age, sex and mass but also with unmeasured individual variables like behaviour, genes and health. 2. Predictions from population models that include measured individual characteristics often differ from models that exclude them. Similarly, unmeasured individual differences have the potential to impact predictions from population models. However, unmeasured individual differences are rarely included in population models. 3. We construct stage- and age-structured models (where stage is mass) of a roe deer population, which are parameterized from statistical functions that either include, or ignore, unmeasured individual differences. 4. We found that mass and age structures substantially impacted model parameters describing population dynamics, as did temporal environmental variation, while unmeasured individual differences impacted parameters describing population dynamics to a much smaller extent once individual heterogeneity related to mass and age has been included in the model. We discuss how our assumptions (unmeasured individual differences only in mean trait values) could have influenced our findings and under what circumstances unmeasured individual differences could have had a larger impact on population dynamics. 5. There are two reasons explaining the relative small influence of unmeasured individual differences on population dynamics in roe deer. First, individual body mass and age both capture a large amount of individual differences in roe deer. Second, in large populations of long-lived animals, the average quality of individuals (independent of age and mass) within the population is unlikely to show substantial variation over time, unless rapid evolution is occurring. So even though a population consisting of high-quality individuals would have much higher population growth rate than a population consisting of low-quality individuals, the probability of observing a

  8. Individual differences in the relationship transition context: links to physiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Keneski, Elizabeth; Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-12-01

    The identification of relationship-relevant individual differences is central to elucidating how relationship experiences differentially impact individuals' health. To this end, we highlight the utility of studying the influence of individual differences on physiological outcomes (e.g., cortisol reactivity and recovery) in the context of normative relationship transitions. We argue that relationship transitions, such as falling in love and the process of committing to marry one's partner, amplify the influence of individual differences on relationship processes and, by extension, on physiological outcomes. Two such individual differences are highlighted-namely, relationship-focused processing and dependence-and suggestions for future work are provided.

  9. Individual differences in reading aloud: a mega-study, item effects, and some models.

    PubMed

    Adelman, James S; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura G; Marquis, Suzanne J; Estes, Zachary

    2014-02-01

    Normal individual differences are rarely considered in the modelling of visual word recognition--with item response time effects and neuropsychological disorders being given more emphasis--but such individual differences can inform and test accounts of the processes of reading. We thus had 100 participants read aloud words selected to assess theoretically important item response time effects on an individual basis. Using two major models of reading aloud--DRC and CDP+--we estimated numerical parameters to best model each individual's response times to see if this would allow the models to capture the effects, individual differences in them and the correlations among these individual differences. It did not. We therefore created an alternative model, the DRC-FC, which successfully captured more of the correlations among individual differences, by modifying the locus of the frequency effect. Overall, our analyses indicate that (i) even after accounting for individual differences in general speed, several other individual difference in reading remain significant; and (ii) these individual differences provide critical tests of models of reading aloud. The database thus offers a set of important constraints for future modelling of visual word recognition, and is a step towards integrating such models with other knowledge about individual differences in reading.

  10. Classification Systems for Individual Differences in Multiple-task Performance and Subjective Estimates of Workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Human factors practitioners often are concerned with mental workload in multiple-task situations. Investigations of these situations have demonstrated repeatedly that individuals differ in their subjective estimates of workload. These differences may be attributed in part to individual differences in definitions of workload. However, after allowing for differences in the definition of workload, there are still unexplained individual differences in workload ratings. The relation between individual differences in multiple-task performance, subjective estimates of workload, information processing abilities, and the Type A personality trait were examined.

  11. Mechanisms of impulsive choice: I. Individual differences in interval timing and reward processing.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Andrew T; Smith, Aaron P; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2014-07-01

    Impulsive choice behavior incorporates the psychological mechanisms involved in the processing of the anticipated magnitude and delay until reward. The goal of the present experiment was to determine whether individual differences in such processes related to individual differences in impulsive choice behavior. Two groups of rats (Delay Group and Magnitude Group) were initially exposed to an impulsive choice task with choices between smaller-sooner (SS) and larger-later (LL) rewards. The Delay Group was subsequently exposed to a temporal discrimination task followed by a progressive interval task, whereas the Magnitude Group was exposed to a reward magnitude sensitivity task followed by a progressive ratio task. Intertask correlations revealed that the rats in the Delay Group that made more self-controlled (LL) choices also displayed lower standard deviations in the temporal bisection task and greater delay tolerance in the progressive interval task. Impulsive choice behavior in the Magnitude Group did not display any substantial correlations with the reward magnitude sensitivity and progressive ratio tasks. The results indicate the importance of core timing processes in impulsive choice behavior, and encourage further research examining the effects of changes in core timing processes on impulsive choice.

  12. The Role of Affective and Cognitive Individual Differences in Social Perception.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Antonio; Haddock, Geoffrey; Maio, Gregory R; Wolf, Lukas J; Alparone, Francesca R

    2016-06-01

    Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed. PMID:27460272

  13. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.840 By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs based on the following: (a) The... individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare Regulations Relating...

  14. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.840 By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs based on the following: (a) The... individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare Regulations Relating...

  15. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.840 By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs based on the following: (a) The... individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare Regulations Relating...

  16. Individual Differences in Cortisol Responses to Fear and Frustration during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in the activation and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in prepubertal children after exposure to two different stress modalities and to evaluate the utility of an individual differences approach to the examination of HPA axis functioning. After a 30-min…

  17. Conceptual Analysis and Implications of Students' Individual Differences to Curriculum Implementation in Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Godwin A.; Essien, Emmanuel O.; Okure, Okure S.

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences refer to the unique ways each human being differs from another human being as expressed in behaviour or perceived in the physical appearance. Three factors of individual differences identified to be closely related to learning/acquisition of skills and performance of tasks. These are personality dimensions, self-efficacy and…

  18. Individual differences in cortisol stress response predict increases in voice pitch during exam stress.

    PubMed

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Nowak, Judyta; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Despite a long history of empirical research, the potential vocal markers of stress remain unclear. Previous studies examining speech under stress most consistently report an increase in voice pitch (the acoustic correlate of fundamental frequency, F0), however numerous studies have failed to replicate this finding. In the present study we tested the prediction that these inconsistencies are tied to variation in the severity of the stress response, wherein voice changes may be observed predominantly among individuals who show a cortisol stress response (i.e., an increase in free cortisol levels) above a critical threshold. Voice recordings and saliva samples were collected from university psychology students at baseline and again immediately prior to an oral examination. Voice recordings included both read and spontaneous speech, from which we measured mean, minimum, maximum, and the standard deviation in F0. We observed an increase in mean and minimum F0 under stress in both read and spontaneous speech, whereas maximum F0 and its standard deviation showed no systematic changes under stress. Our results confirmed that free cortisol levels increased by an average of 74% (ranging from 0 to 270%) under stress. Critically, increases in cortisol concentrations significantly predicted increases in mean F0 under stress for both speech types, but did not predict variation in F0 at baseline. On average, stress-induced increases in voice pitch occurred only when free cortisol levels more than doubled their baseline concentrations. Our results suggest that researchers examining speech under stress should control for individual differences in the magnitude of the stress response. PMID:27188981

  19. On-Line Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Considerable individual differences in language ability exist among normally developing children and adults. Whereas past research have attributed such differences to variations in verbal working memory or experience with language, we test the hypothesis that individual differences in statistical learning may be associated with differential language performance. We employ a novel paradigm for studying statistical learning on-line, combining a serial-reaction time task with artificial grammar learning. This task offers insights into both the timecourse of and individual differences in statistical learning. Experiment 1 charts the micro-level trajectory for statistical learning of nonadjacent dependencies and provides an on-line index of individual differences therein. In Experiment 2, these differences are then shown to predict variations in participants’ on-line processing of long-distance dependencies involving center-embedded relative clauses. The findings suggest that individual differences in the ability to learn from experience through statistical learning may contribute to variations in linguistic performance. PMID:21833201

  20. COMT Val158Met Genotype and Individual Differences in Executive Function in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wishart, Heather A.; Roth, Robert M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Rhodes, C. Harker; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Pattin, Kristine A.; Moore, Jason H.; Mcallister, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    The Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene may be related to individual differences in cognition, likely via modulation of prefrontal dopamine catabolism. However, the available studies have yielded mixed results, possibly in part because they do not consistently account for other genes that affect cognition. We hypothesized that COMT Met allele homozygosity, which is associated with higher levels of prefrontal dopamine, would predict better executive function as measured using standard neuropsychological testing, and that other candidate genes might interact with COMT to modulate this effect. Participants were 95 healthy, right-handed adults who underwent genotyping and cognitive testing. COMT genotype predicted executive ability as measured by the Trail-Making Test, even after covarying for demographics and APOE, BDNF and ANKK1 genotype. There was a COMT-ANKK1 interaction in which individuals having both the COMT Val allele and the ANKK1 T allele showed the poorest performance. This study suggests the heterogeneity in COMT effects reported in the literature may be due in part to gene-gene interactions that influence central dopaminergic systems. PMID:21144101

  1. Revealing a latent variable: individual differences in affective response to repeated injections.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cigdem; Frohmader, Karla; Akil, Huda

    2015-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 129(5) of Behavioral Neuroscience (see record 2015-43762-001). In the article, there was an error in the abstract. The sentence "However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in LRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in HRs, compared with handled-controls." should be "However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in HRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in LRs, compared with handled-controls."] Latent variables may exist in experimental designs and may interfere with reproducibility of findings. The present study reveals 1 such variable, the individual differences in affective response to chronic injection stress, by using the novelty-seeking phenotype as a model of differential emotional reactivity. The phenotype is identified by exposing a population of experimentally naïve outbred rats to the mild stress of a novel environment and classifying them as high responders (HR; upper 1/3) and low responders (LR; lower 1/3) based on their locomotor reactivity. Research has shown that HR/LR animals differ in their basal levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, as well as in their response to environmental and pharmacological challenges; suggesting validity of this model in studying individual differences in stress reactivity. The present data showed that 14 daily, intraperitoneal saline injections did not alter the phenotypic differences in social behavior observed basally in HR/LR rats. However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in HRs, [corrected] while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in LRs, [corrected] compared with handled-controls. These data indicate that individual differences in stress reactivity can have a significant impact on the depressive-like responses

  2. Critical Differences of Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection from Standard Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, S.; Wada, T.; Fuchida, T.; Kondoh, K.

    2016-09-01

    We have clarified the structure of asymmetric magnetic reconnection in detail as the result of the spontaneous evolutionary process. The asymmetry is imposed as ratio k of the magnetic field strength in both sides of the initial current sheet (CS) in the isothermal equilibrium. The MHD simulation is carried out by the HLLD code for the long-term temporal evolution with very high spatial resolution. The resultant structure is drastically different from the symmetric case (e.g., the Petschek model) even for slight asymmetry k = 2. (1) The velocity distribution in the reconnection jet clearly shows a two-layered structure, i.e., the high-speed sub-layer in which the flow is almost field aligned and the acceleration sub-layer. (2) Higher beta side (HBS) plasma is caught in a lower beta side plasmoid. This suggests a new plasma mixing process in the reconnection events. (3) A new large strong fast shock in front of the plasmoid forms in the HBS. This can be a new particle acceleration site in the reconnection system. These critical properties that have not been reported in previous works suggest that we contribute to a better and more detailed knowledge of the reconnection of the standard model for the symmetric magnetic reconnection system.

  3. The standard upwind compact difference schemes for incompressible flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Compact difference schemes have been used extensively for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. However, the earlier formulations of the schemes are of central type (called central compact schemes, CCS), which are dispersive and susceptible to numerical instability. To enhance stability of CCS, the optimal upwind compact schemes (OUCS) are developed recently by adding high order dissipative terms to CCS. In this paper, it is found that OUCS are essentially not of the upwind type because they do not use upwind-biased but central type of stencils. Furthermore, OUCS are not the most optimal since orders of accuracy of OUCS are at least one order lower than the maximum achievable orders. New upwind compact schemes (called standard upwind compact schemes, SUCS) are developed in this paper. In contrast to OUCS, SUCS are constructed based completely on upwind-biased stencils and hence can gain adequate numerical dissipation with no need for introducing optimization calculations. Furthermore, SUCS can achieve the maximum achievable orders of accuracy and hence be more compact than OUCS. More importantly, SUCS have prominent advantages on combining the stable and high resolution properties which are demonstrated from the global spectral analyses and typical numerical experiments.

  4. Tactical use of the T area in squash by players of differing standard.

    PubMed

    Vucković, Goran; Pers, Janez; James, Nic; Hughes, Mike

    2009-06-01

    The importance of dominating the T in squash is recognized by coaches and players but there has been little formal investigation of this aspect of tactical play. Consequently, the aim of this research was to analyse player occupancy of a T area, to establish whether there are differences between winners and losers of games at different playing standards. An automated player-tracking system, with operator supervision and intervention, captured players' movements during matches at the World Team Championships (n = 11), the Slovenian National Championships (n = 11), and a local tournament (n = 15). Frequency of occupying the T area at the moment opponents played their shot best discriminated playing standard. Winners spent a greater proportion of total playing time in the T area than losers (P < 0.001), except during closely contested games. The results suggest that time in the T area indicates dominance of rallies. Future studies need to consider both between-group (playing standard) and within-game (individual player standard) differences, as both were shown to influence the time players spent in the T area.

  5. Origins of Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: From Nature to Nurture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire; Jaffee, Sara R.; Happ, Francesca; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2005-01-01

    In this study of the origins of individual differences in theory of mind (ToM), the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study sample of 1,116 sixty-month-old twin pairs completed a comprehensive battery of ToM tasks. Individual differences in ToM were striking and strongly associated with verbal ability. Behavioral genetic models of the…

  6. Individual Differences in Base Rate Neglect: A Fuzzy Processing Preference Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christopher R.; Fisher, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about individual differences in integrating numeric base-rates and qualitative text in making probability judgments. Fuzzy-Trace Theory predicts a preference for fuzzy processing. We conducted six studies to develop the FPPI, a reliable and valid instrument assessing individual differences in this fuzzy processing preference. It…

  7. Multilevel Models for Examining Individual Differences in Within-Person Variation and Covariation over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lesa

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneity of variance may be more than a statistical nuisance--it may be of direct interest as a result of individual differences. In studies of short-term fluctuation, individual differences may relate to the magnitude of within-person variation as well as to level of an outcome or its covariation with other processes. Although models for…

  8. Speed and Accuracy of Accessing Information in Working Memory: An Individual Differences Investigation of Focus Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Engle, Randall W.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the nature of individual differences in switching the focus of attention in working memory. Participants performed 3 versions of a continuous counting task that required successive updating and switching between counts. Across all 3 experiments, individual differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence were…

  9. Individual Differences in the Processing of Written Sarcasm and Metaphor: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olkoniemi, Henri; Ranta, Henri; Kaakinen, Johanna K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in the processing of different forms of figurative language. Sixty participants read sarcastic, metaphorical, and literal sentences embedded in story contexts while their eye movements were recorded, and responded to a text memory and an inference question after each story. Individual differences…

  10. Does Computer-Assisted Instruction Reduce Individual Differences? Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August

    The interrelationship of computer assisted instruction and individual differences was investigated. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) Bloom's hypothesis of decreasing individual differences under a mastery-learning strategy, and (2) the random walk interpretation of simplicial correlation matrices. Stanford's Computer-Assisted Instruction Math…

  11. Inter-Individual Differences in the Oral Bacteriome Are Greater than Intra-Day Fluctuations in Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Natsuko; Ye, Bin; Yamada, Takuji; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nagasaki, Masao; Tsuboi, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Given the advent of massively parallel DNA sequencing, human microbiome is analyzed comprehensively by metagenomic approaches. However, the inter- and intra-individual variability and stability of the human microbiome remain poorly characterized, particularly at the intra-day level. This issue is of crucial importance for studies examining the effects of microbiome on human health. Here, we focused on bacteriome of oral plaques, for which repeated, time-controlled sampling is feasible. Eighty-one supragingival plaque subjects were collected from healthy individuals, examining multiple sites within the mouth at three time points (forenoon, evening, and night) over the course of 3 days. Bacterial composition was estimated by 16S rRNA sequencing and species-level profiling, resulting in identification of a total of 162 known bacterial species. We found that species compositions and their relative abundances were similar within individuals, and not between sampling time or tooth type. This suggests that species-level oral bacterial composition differs significantly between individuals, although the number of subjects is limited and the intra-individual variation also occurs. The majority of detected bacterial species (98.2%; 159/162), however, did not fluctuate over the course of the day, implying a largely stable oral microbiome on an intra-day time scale. In fact, the stability of this data set enabled us to estimate potential interactions between rare bacteria, with 40 co-occurrences supported by the existing literature. In summary, the present study provides a valuable basis for studies of the human microbiome, with significant implications in terms of biological and clinical outcomes. PMID:26121551

  12. Individual Differences in Arousal and Their Relationship to Short- and Long-Term Retention. Report From the Project on Motivation and Individual Differences in Learning and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, John W.; Farley, Frank H.

    In two separate paired-associate learning experiments each employing 40 university students as subjects, the contribution of individual differences (IDs) in arousal to short- and long-term retention was investigated using IDs in salivary response to lemon juice stimulation as an index of arousal. Experimental subjects were pre-selected out of 184…

  13. The Reliability and Validity of Salivation as a Measure of Individual Differences in Intrinsic Arousal. Report from the Project on Motivation and Individual Differences in Learning and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Frank H.; And Others

    Two studies were reported which attempted to estimate the stability and construct validity of human salivary response as a measure of individual differences (IDs) in physiological arousal. Twenty-second base line estimates and 20-second response levels to four drops of lemon juice were measured, with the former value being removed from the latter…

  14. Solving the puzzle of collective action through inter-individual differences

    PubMed Central

    von Rueden, Chris; Gavrilets, Sergey; Glowacki, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Models of collective action infrequently account for differences across individuals beyond a limited set of strategies, ignoring variation in endowment (e.g. physical condition, wealth, knowledge, personality, support), individual costs of effort, or expected gains from cooperation. However, behavioural research indicates these inter-individual differences can have significant effects on the dynamics of collective action. The papers contributed to this theme issue evaluate how individual differences affect the propensity to cooperate, and how they can catalyse others’ likelihood of cooperation (e.g. via leadership). Many of the papers emphasize the relationship between individual decisions and socio-ecological context, particularly the effect of group size. All together, the papers in this theme issue provide a more complete picture of collective action, by embracing the reality of inter-individual variation and its multiple roles in the success or failure of collective action. PMID:26503677

  15. [Individual differences in behavior and mechanisms of ecological differentiation with fishes as an example].

    PubMed

    Budaev, S V; Mikheev, V N; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a review of individual differences in animal behavior exemplified by fishes. Main approaches to these differences investigation are outlined. Such terms as temperament can be used to describe consistent characteristics of individuality in animals. It should be emphasized that consistency over time and across situations is the main classification characteristic of the temperament trait. We also briefly review genetic and physiological mechanisms of individuality in fish, factors affecting their development in the ontogeny, and effects of the individual experience. Significant adaptive value of temperament is shown: in many cases the natural selection maintains alternative behavioral tactics. We also consider the main quantitative models accounting for the coexistence of individuals with different behavioral patterns. Finally, it is demonstrated that patterns of behavioral individuality may significantly affect population dynamics.

  16. Quantification of Hordeins by ELISA: The Correct Standard Makes a Magnitude of Difference

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Gregory J.; Blundell, Malcolm J.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Howitt, Crispin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Coeliacs require a life-long gluten-free diet supported by accurate measurement of gluten (hordein) in gluten-free food. The gluten-free food industry, with a value in excess of $6 billion in 2011, currently depends on two ELISA protocols calibrated against standards that may not be representative of the sample being assayed. Aim The factors affecting the accuracy of ELISA analysis of hordeins in beer were examined. Results A simple alcohol-dithiothreitol extraction protocol successfully extracts the majority of hordeins from barley flour and malt. Primary hordein standards were purified by FPLC. ELISA detected different classes of purified hordeins with vastly different sensitivity. The dissociation constant (Kd) for a given ELISA reaction with different hordeins varied by three orders of magnitude. The Kd of the same hordein determined by ELISA using different antibodies varied by up to two orders of magnitude. The choice of either ELISA kit or hordein standard may bias the results and confound interpretation. Conclusions Accurate determination of hordein requires that the hordein standard used to calibrate the ELISA reaction be identical in composition to the hordeins present in the test substance. In practice it is not feasible to isolate a representative hordein standard from each test food. We suggest that mass spectrometry is more reliable than ELISA, as ELISA enumerates only the concentration of particular amino-acid epitopes which may vary between different hordeins and may not be related to the absolute hordein concentration. MS quantification is undertaken using peptides that are specific and unique enabling the quantification of individual hordein isoforms. PMID:23509607

  17. Consistent individual differences in paternal behavior: a field study of threespine stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Laura R.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in parenting are widespread; however, we know little about why there is variation in parenting behavior among individuals within species. One possible explanation for consistent individual differences in parenting is that individuals invest in different aspects of parental care, such as provisioning or defense. In this field study we measured consistent individual differences in parenting behavior and evaluated correlations between parenting and other behaviors in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We repeatedly measured male parenting behavior and male behavior in the presence of three different types of live intruders: a female, a conspecific male, and a predator, meant to provoke courtship, aggressive and antipredator behavior, respectively. While males plastically adjusted their reactions to different types of intruders, we found consistent individual differences in behavior (behavioral types) both within and across contexts, even after accounting for variation in body size and nest characteristics. Males that performed more parenting behavior responded faster to all types of intruders. These results suggest that in nature, individual male stickleback exhibit robust parental behavioral types, and highly parental males are more attentive to their surroundings. Future studies are needed to examine the potential causes of individual variation in parental behavior in the field. PMID:25663736

  18. Standardization meets stories: Contrasting perspectives on the needs of frail individuals at a rehabilitation unit

    PubMed Central

    Mjølstad, Bente Prytz; Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Getz, Linn; Hetlevik, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Background Repeated encounters over time enable general practitioners (GPs) to accumulate biomedical and biographical knowledge about their patients. A growing body of evidence documenting the medical relevance of lifetime experiences indicates that health personnel ought to appraise this type of knowledge and consider how to incorporate it into their treatment of patients. In order to explore the interdisciplinary communication of such knowledge within Norwegian health care, we conducted a research project at the interface between general practice and a nursing home. Methods In the present study, nine Norwegian GPs were each interviewed about one of their patients who had recently been admitted to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation. A successive interview conducted with each of these patients aimed at both validating the GP's information and exploring the patient's life story. The GP's treatment opinions and the patient's biographical information and treatment preferences were condensed into a biographical record presented to the nursing home staff. The transcripts of the interviews and the institutional treatment measures were compared and analysed, applying a phenomenological–hermeneutical framework. In the present article, we compare and discuss: (1) the GPs’ specific recommendations for their patients; (2) the patients’ own wishes and perceived needs; and (3) if and how this information was integrated into the institution's interventions and priorities. Results Each GP made rehabilitation recommendations, which included statements regarding both the patient's personality and life circumstances. The nursing home staff individualized their selection of therapeutic interventions based on defined standardized treatment approaches, without personalizing them. Conclusion We found that the institutional voice of medicine consistently tends to override the voice of the patient's lifeworld. Thus, despite the institution's best intentions, their efforts

  19. State and Trait Components of Functional Connectivity: Individual Differences Vary with Mental State

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Cam-CAN; Henson, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is often treated as a trait, used, for example, to draw inferences about individual differences in cognitive function, or differences between healthy or diseased populations. However, functional connectivity can also depend on the individual's mental state. In the present study, we examined the relative contribution of state and trait components in shaping an individual's functional architecture. We used fMRI data from a large, population-based human sample (N = 587, age 18–88 years), as part of the Cambridge Centre for Aging and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN), which were collected in three mental states: resting, performing a sensorimotor task, and watching a movie. Whereas previous studies have shown commonalities across mental states in the average functional connectivity across individuals, we focused on the effects of states on the pattern of individual differences in functional connectivity. We found that state effects were as important as trait effects in shaping individual functional connectivity patterns, each explaining an approximately equal amount of variance. This was true when we looked at aging, as one specific dimension of individual differences, as well as when we looked at generic aspects of individual variation. These results show that individual differences in functional connectivity consist of state-dependent aspects, as well as more stable, trait-like characteristics. Studying individual differences in functional connectivity across a wider range of mental states will therefore provide a more complete picture of the mechanisms underlying factors such as cognitive ability, aging, and disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The brain's functional architecture is remarkably similar across different individuals and across different mental states, which is why many studies use functional connectivity as a trait measure. Despite these trait-like aspects, functional

  20. Individual differences and workload effects on strategy adoption in a dynamic task.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jungaa; Betts, Shawn; Anderson, John R

    2013-09-01

    The current study investigated the effects of individual differences and workload on strategy adaptivity in a complex, dynamic task called the Space Fortress game (Donchin, 1989). Participants learned to use a strategy of flying a ship in circles around the fortress in a standard game environment. Once they mastered the strategy, they were assigned to different workload conditions and transferred to a nonstandard environment in which a strong wind was introduced that made it more difficult to achieve a circular orbit. About half of the participants continued with their prior circular strategy while the rest adopted a novel strategy that achieved comparable performance with less effort. With this novel strategy, rather than trying to complete orbits they flew into the wind and then allowed the wind to blow them back to achieve a pendulum-like path. Participants without a working-memory load were more likely to adopt the new strategy. Participants were also more likely to adopt the new strategy if their pattern of behavior exposed them more often to the potential of drifting with the wind. The results indicate that spontaneous changes in strategy occur when people are exposed to the potential of a new strategy and have the cognitive resources to understand its potential. PMID:23831665

  1. Vowel-dependent variation in Cantonese /s/ from an individual-difference perspective.

    PubMed

    Yu, Alan C L

    2016-04-01

    Individual variation is ubiquitous in the acoustic realization of human speech; however, little is known about the nature of individual differences in coarticulation. Through an in-depth case study of the temporal dynamics of vocalic influences on the acoustic realization of Cantonese /s/, this study demonstrates that coarticulatory effects may vary by the sex and self-reported autistic-like traits of the individual. These findings have significant implications for research in phonetics, phonology, and sound change. PMID:27106314

  2. Individual differences in the effects of prenatal stress exposure in rodents.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Tamashiro, Kellie L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress alters the phenotype of the offspring in adulthood. When the prenatal and adult environments do not match, these alterations may induce pathology risk. There are, however, large individual differences in the effects of prenatal stress. While some individuals seem vulnerable, others appear to be relatively resistant to its effects. In this review we discuss potential mechanisms underlying these individual differences with a focus on animal models. Differences between rodent models selected for stress coping traits are discussed. In addition, the role of circulating factors, like glucocorticoids and cytokines, factors involved in brain development and influences of epigenetic and genetic factors in prenatal stress induced phenotype are covered. PMID:27589662

  3. Individual differences in the effects of prenatal stress exposure in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Tamashiro, Kellie L.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress alters the phenotype of the offspring in adulthood. When the prenatal and adult environments do not match, these alterations may induce pathology risk. There are, however, large individual differences in the effects of prenatal stress. While some individuals seem vulnerable, others appear to be relatively resistant to its effects. In this review we discuss potential mechanisms underlying these individual differences with a focus on animal models. Differences between rodent models selected for stress coping traits are discussed. In addition, the role of circulating factors, like glucocorticoids and cytokines, factors involved in brain development and influences of epigenetic and genetic factors in prenatal stress induced phenotype are covered. PMID:27589662

  4. The effects of individual differences and charismatic leadership on workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, Willie; Towler, Annette

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the effects of individual differences variables (trait anger, self-control, negative affectivity, attitudes toward revenge, and attributional style) and charismatic leadership on incidents of workplace aggression in a sample of 213 employees from a wide range of organizations. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that the individual differences variables accounted for 27% of the variance in workplace aggression and that charismatic leadership accounted for an additional 3% after controlling for individual differences. In addition, psychological empowerment partially mediated the relationship between charismatic leadership and workplace aggression.

  5. Do individuals with autism spectrum disorder process own- and other-race faces differently?

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Quinn, Paul C; Feng, Cong; Li, Jiao; Ding, Haiyan; Lee, Kang

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) process human faces in atypical ways according to previous literature. We investigated whether individuals with ASD can process face race information and respond to own- and other-race faces differentially. Chinese individuals with ASD (n=24), typically developing (TD) individuals (n=28), and individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID, n=26) were asked to recognize Chinese and Caucasian faces in an old-new face paradigm using eye tracking. In terms of recognition, the ASD and ID groups did not perform differently and displayed superior own-race recognition compared with other-race faces; TD participants displayed similar recognition of the two types of faces. In terms of eye tracking, the TD, ASD, and ID groups displayed more looking on the eyes and less looking on the nose and mouth of Caucasian faces relative to Chinese faces. Overall, individuals with ASD manifested a behavioral other-race effect and displayed the same type of cross-racial differentiation in face scanning observed in TD individuals. The findings suggest that as is the case with TD individuals, face processing of individuals with ASD is influenced by differences in visual experience with different face categories. PMID:25542277

  6. Individualism: a valid and important dimension of cultural differences between nations.

    PubMed

    Schimmack, Ulrich; Oishi, Shigehiro; Diener, Ed

    2005-01-01

    Oyserman, Coon, and Kemmelmeier's (2002) meta-analysis suggested problems in the measurement of individualism and collectivism. Studies using Hofstede's individualism scores show little convergent validity with more recent measures of individualism and collectivism. We propose that the lack of convergent validity is due to national differences in response styles. Whereas Hofstede statistically controlled for response styles, Oyserman et al.'s meta-analysis relied on uncorrected ratings. Data from an international student survey demonstrated convergent validity between Hofstede's individualism dimension and horizontal individualism when response styles were statistically controlled, whereas uncorrected scores correlated highly with the individualism scores in Oyserman et al.'s meta-analysis. Uncorrected horizontal individualism scores and meta-analytic individualism scores did not correlate significantly with nations' development, whereas corrected horizontal individualism scores and Hofstede's individualism dimension were significantly correlated with development. This pattern of results suggests that individualism is a valid construct for cross-cultural comparisons, but that the measurement of this construct needs improvement.

  7. Characterizing individual differences in animal responses to a nutritional challenge: Toward improved robustness measures.

    PubMed

    Friggens, N C; Duvaux-Ponter, C; Etienne, M P; Mary-Huard, T; Schmidely, P

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the variation between individuals in the response to and recovery from a nutritional challenge, the repeatability of responses between lactation stages, and the use of shape-clustering methods to classify similar individuals. Sixteen dairy goats were exposed to a 2-d nutritional challenge (underfeeding) at 2 different stages of lactation. Each challenge consisted of a 7-d control period with standard total mixed ration (TMR), 2d of straw-only feeding, and a 10-d recovery period on the TMR. All feeds were offered ad libitum, as was water. The first challenge was in late lactation on primiparous goats (mean days in milk=249), and the second challenge was carried out on the same goats early in the following lactation (mean days in milk=28). The main energetic response traits dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, body weight, milk fat and protein contents, and plasma glucose, fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), urea, and insulin, were measured daily throughout. A clustering procedure linked to a piecewise mixed model was used to characterize different types of response. As expected, straw feeding caused a large decline in DMI and milk yield, and substantial increases in milk fat and milk protein composition, relative to the prechallenge period on the control TMR. For both DMI and milk yield, the slope of the response, and hence the size of the drop, was strongly related to the prechallenge values, indicating that these 2 measures were tightly constrained by the challenge. Regression slopes between lactation stages for responses to the same nutritional challenge were significant for DMI, milk protein content, plasma BHB and urea, and body weight, indicating that within-animal responses in late and early lactation were repeatable. The clustering procedure generally performed well, classifying both scaling differences and differences in shape. The extent of reranking of cluster designations between late lactation and the

  8. Experimental Food Restriction Reveals Individual Differences in Corticosterone Reaction Norms with No Oxidative Costs

    PubMed Central

    Schoenle, Laura A.; Fasanello, Vincent; Haussmann, Mark F.; Bonier, Frances; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2014-01-01

    Highly plastic endocrine traits are thought to play a central role in allowing organisms to respond rapidly to environmental change. Yet, not all individuals display the same degree of plasticity in these traits, and the costs of this individual variation in plasticity are unknown. We studied individual differences in corticosterone levels under varying conditions to test whether there are consistent individual differences in (1) baseline corticosterone levels; (2) plasticity in the hormonal response to an ecologically relevant stressor (food restriction); and (3) whether individual differences in plasticity are related to fitness costs, as estimated by oxidative stress levels. We took 25 wild-caught house sparrows into captivity and assigned them to repeated food restricted and control treatments (60% and 110% of their daily food intake), such that each individual experienced both food restricted and control diets twice. We found significant individual variation in baseline corticosterone levels and stress responsiveness, even after controlling for changes in body mass. However, these individual differences in hormonal responsiveness were not related to measures of oxidative stress. These results have implications for how corticosterone levels may evolve in natural populations and raise questions about what we can conclude from phenotypic correlations between hormone levels and fitness measures. PMID:25386675

  9. Explaining Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Via Individual and Interpersonal Variables in Different Job Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, W. Alan; Posner, Barry Z.

    1981-01-01

    Examined relationships between experiencing role conflict and ambiguity and four individual and interpersonal variables. Results suggest that the underlying equations regarding the influence of individual and interpersonal variables on role perceptions vary in different job categories. Task characteristics are offered as plausible reasons for…

  10. New Era: The Sacrifice of Individual Differences to the False Claim of "Scientifically Based Instruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam

    2003-01-01

    By making the general curriculum the reference point for all considerations, The New Era proposals set forth by the President's Commission are devoid of all considerations of individual differences. Rather than tailoring IEP's to the particular learning characteristics of individual children, it is suggested that one kind of good, scientifically…

  11. Ignoring Individual Differences in Times of Assessment in Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulombe, Patrick; Selig, James P.; Delaney, Harold D.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often collect longitudinal data to model change over time in a phenomenon of interest. Inevitably, there will be some variation across individuals in specific time intervals between assessments. In this simulation study of growth curve modeling, we investigate how ignoring individual differences in time points when modeling change over…

  12. Individual Differences in L2 Acquisition of Japanese Particles "WA" and "GA"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Sachiho

    2008-01-01

    Although the L2 acquisition studies of Japanese particles "WA" and "GA" were investigated by many researchers (Sakamoto, 2000), they completely ignored learners' individual differences. Indeed, learners' individualities are important factors for the L2 learning (Lightbrown & Spada, 1999). Thus, this research explored whether learners' individual…

  13. Curious Eyes: Individual Differences in Personality Predict Eye Movement Behavior in Scene-Viewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Evan F.; Anderson, Nicola C.; Lanthier, Sophie; Kingstone, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Visual exploration is driven by two main factors--the stimuli in our environment, and our own individual interests and intentions. Research investigating these two aspects of attentional guidance has focused almost exclusively on factors common across individuals. The present study took a different tack, and examined the role played by individual…

  14. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to False Memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jason M.; Bunting, Michael F.; Poole, Bradley J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors addressed whether individual differences in the working memory capacity (WMC) of young adults influence susceptibility to false memories for nonpresented critical words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott associative list paradigm. The results of 2 experiments indicated that individuals with greater WMC recalled fewer critical words than…

  15. Individual Differences in Components of Reaction Time Distributions and Their Relations to Working Memory and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiedek, Florian; Oberauer, Klaus; Wilhelm, Oliver; Suss, Heinz-Martin; Wittmann, Werner W.

    2007-01-01

    The authors bring together approaches from cognitive and individual differences psychology to model characteristics of reaction time distributions beyond measures of central tendency. Ex-Gaussian distributions and a diffusion model approach are used to describe individuals' reaction time data. The authors identified common latent factors for each…

  16. Self-Reflection, Insight, and Individual Differences in Various Language Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of self-reflection and insight with individuals' performances on various language tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS; Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) assessed individual differences in three factors: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight. A high need for reflection was…

  17. Resting EEG in Alpha and Beta Bands Predicts Individual Differences in Attentional Blink Magnitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Mary H.; Arnell, Karen M.; Cote, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy for a second target (T2) is reduced when it is presented within 500 ms of a first target (T1) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)--an attentional blink (AB). There are reliable individual differences in the magnitude of the AB. Recent evidence has shown that the attentional approach that an individual typically adopts during a…

  18. Trait-like differences in underlying oscillatory state predict individual differences in the TMS-evoked response

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Bornali; Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) can provide insights into how differing cognitive contexts produce different brain states, through TMS-based measures of effective connectivity. For instance, in a recent study, the amplitude of the TMS-evoked response (TMS-ER) derived during the delay-period of a spatial short-term memory (STM) task had a larger amplitude, and greater spread to distal cortical areas, than the TMS-ER from a fixation condition [1]. This indicated that the brain's electrical response to TMS is influenced by the cognitive context (STM or fixation) at the time of stimulation. This study also showed significant individual differences in the shape of the TMS-ER. Further, delay-period spectrograms revealed patterns of activity, the sustained pattern of delay-period activity (SPDPA), which were different across individuals. Objective/Hypothesis The present study addressed whether individual differences in the SPDPA predict spectral properties of the TMS-ER. We predicted that significant relationships would exist in task-relevant areas, such as the prefrontal cortex in the case of STM. Methods The TMS-ER was derived using TMS-EEG and source-localization methods. Results The SPDPA varied significantly across subjects, and these differences predicted individual differences in several frequency-dependent parameters of the TMS-ER that were specific to task-relevant areas, including prefrontal cortex for STM. Furthermore, a follow-up test-retest study revealed that the SPDPA was stable over sessions. Conclusions These observations offer a window into how individual differences in the effects of TMS are related to trait-like individual differences in physiological profile. PMID:24472620

  19. The Academic Diligence Task (ADT): Assessing Individual Differences in Effort on Tedious but Important Schoolwork.

    PubMed

    Galla, Brian M; Plummer, Benjamin D; White, Rachel E; Meketon, David; D'Mello, Sidney K; Duckworth, Angela L

    2014-10-01

    The current study reports on the development and validation of the Academic Diligence Task (ADT), designed to assess the tendency to expend effort on academic tasks which are tedious in the moment but valued in the long-term. In this novel online task, students allocate their time between solving simple math problems (framed as beneficial for problem solving skills) and, alternatively, playing Tetris or watching entertaining videos. Using a large sample of high school seniors (N = 921), the ADT demonstrated convergent validity with self-report ratings of Big Five conscientiousness and its facets, self-control and grit, as well as discriminant validity from theoretically unrelated constructs, such as Big Five extraversion, openness, and emotional stability, test anxiety, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect. The ADT also demonstrated incremental predictive validity for objectively measured GPA, standardized math and reading achievement test scores, high school graduation, and college enrollment, over and beyond demographics and intelligence. Collectively, findings suggest the feasibility of online behavioral measures to assess noncognitive individual differences that predict academic outcomes.

  20. The Academic Diligence Task (ADT): Assessing Individual Differences in Effort on Tedious but Important Schoolwork

    PubMed Central

    Galla, Brian M.; Plummer, Benjamin D.; White, Rachel E.; Meketon, David; D’Mello, Sidney K.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports on the development and validation of the Academic Diligence Task (ADT), designed to assess the tendency to expend effort on academic tasks which are tedious in the moment but valued in the long-term. In this novel online task, students allocate their time between solving simple math problems (framed as beneficial for problem solving skills) and, alternatively, playing Tetris or watching entertaining videos. Using a large sample of high school seniors (N = 921), the ADT demonstrated convergent validity with self-report ratings of Big Five conscientiousness and its facets, self-control and grit, as well as discriminant validity from theoretically unrelated constructs, such as Big Five extraversion, openness, and emotional stability, test anxiety, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect. The ADT also demonstrated incremental predictive validity for objectively measured GPA, standardized math and reading achievement test scores, high school graduation, and college enrollment, over and beyond demographics and intelligence. Collectively, findings suggest the feasibility of online behavioral measures to assess noncognitive individual differences that predict academic outcomes. PMID:25258470

  1. Individual Differences in Personality Masculinity-Femininity: Examining the Effects of Genes, Environment, and Prenatal Hormone Transfer.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Karin J H; Mosing, Miriam A; Ullén, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used Big-Five personality inventory data of 9,520 Swedish twins (aged 27 to 54) to create a bipolar M-F personality scale. Using biometrical twin modeling, we estimated the influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual differences in a M-F personality score. Furthermore, we tested whether prenatal hormone transfer may influence individuals' M-F scores by comparing the scores of twins with a same-sex versus those with an opposite-sex co-twin. On average, males scored 1.09 standard deviations higher than females on the created M-F scale. Around a third of the variation in M-F personality score was attributable to genetic factors, while family environmental factors had no influence. Males and females from opposite-sex pairs scored significantly more masculine (both approximately 0.1 SD) than those from same-sex pairs. In conclusion, genetic influences explain part of the individual differences in personality M-F, and hormone transfer from the male to the female twin during pregnancy may increase the level of masculinization in females. Additional well-powered studies are needed to clarify this association and determine the underlying mechanisms in both sexes. PMID:26948461

  2. Individual Differences in Personality Masculinity-Femininity: Examining the Effects of Genes, Environment, and Prenatal Hormone Transfer.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Karin J H; Mosing, Miriam A; Ullén, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used Big-Five personality inventory data of 9,520 Swedish twins (aged 27 to 54) to create a bipolar M-F personality scale. Using biometrical twin modeling, we estimated the influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual differences in a M-F personality score. Furthermore, we tested whether prenatal hormone transfer may influence individuals' M-F scores by comparing the scores of twins with a same-sex versus those with an opposite-sex co-twin. On average, males scored 1.09 standard deviations higher than females on the created M-F scale. Around a third of the variation in M-F personality score was attributable to genetic factors, while family environmental factors had no influence. Males and females from opposite-sex pairs scored significantly more masculine (both approximately 0.1 SD) than those from same-sex pairs. In conclusion, genetic influences explain part of the individual differences in personality M-F, and hormone transfer from the male to the female twin during pregnancy may increase the level of masculinization in females. Additional well-powered studies are needed to clarify this association and determine the underlying mechanisms in both sexes.

  3. Individual differences in cyber security behaviors: an examination of who is sharing passwords.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Monica; Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found younger [corrected] people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns. PMID:25517697

  4. Individual differences in cyber security behaviors: an examination of who is sharing passwords.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Monica; Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found younger [corrected] people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns.

  5. Individual Differences in Cyber Security Behaviors: An Examination of Who Is Sharing Passwords

    PubMed Central

    Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found older people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns. PMID:25517697

  6. Estimating the Standard Error of the Impact Estimator in Individually Randomized Trials with Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael J.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    In the "individually randomized group treatment" (IRGT) experimental design, individuals are first randomly assigned to a treatment arm or a control arm, but then within each arm, are grouped together (e.g., within classrooms/schools, through shared case managers, in group therapy sessions, through shared doctors, etc.) to receive…

  7. Three-Mode Models and Individual Differences in Semantic Differential Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Takashi; Kroonenberg, Pieter M.

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrated how individual differences in semantic differential data can be modeled and assessed using three-mode models by studying the characterization of Chopin's "Preludes" by 38 Japanese college students. (SLD)

  8. TMFA: A FORTRAN Program for Three-Mode Factor Analysis and Individual Differences Multidimensional Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfield, Joel

    1978-01-01

    TMFA, a FORTRAN program for three-mode factor analysis and individual-differences multidimensional scaling, is described. Program features include a variety of input options, extensive preprocessing of input data, and several alternative methods of analysis. (Author)

  9. Individual differences in the perceptual span during reading: evidence from the moving window technique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonil; Lowder, Matthew W; Ferreira, Fernanda; Henderson, John M

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of an eye tracking experiment that used the gaze-contingent moving window technique to examine individual differences in the size of readers' perceptual span. Participants read paragraphs while the size of the rightward window of visible text was systematically manipulated across trials. In addition, participants completed a large battery of individual-difference measures representing two cognitive constructs: language ability and oculomotor processing speed. Results showed that higher scores on language ability measures and faster oculomotor processing speed were associated with faster reading times and shorter fixation durations. More interestingly, the size of readers' perceptual span was modulated by individual differences in language ability but not by individual differences in oculomotor processing speed, suggesting that readers with greater language proficiency are more likely to have efficient mechanisms to extract linguistic information beyond the fixated word. PMID:26059082

  10. Task-free MRI predicts individual differences in brain activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Tavor, I; Parker Jones, O; Mars, R B; Smith, S M; Behrens, T E; Jbabdi, S

    2016-04-01

    When asked to perform the same task, different individuals exhibit markedly different patterns of brain activity. This variability is often attributed to volatile factors, such as task strategy or compliance. We propose that individual differences in brain responses are, to a large degree, inherent to the brain and can be predicted from task-independent measurements collected at rest. Using a large set of task conditions, spanning several behavioral domains, we train a simple model that relates task-independent measurements to task activity and evaluate the model by predicting task activation maps for unseen subjects using magnetic resonance imaging. Our model can accurately predict individual differences in brain activity and highlights a coupling between brain connectivity and function that can be captured at the level of individual subjects. PMID:27124457

  11. Task-free MRI predicts individual differences in brain activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Tavor, I; Parker Jones, O; Mars, R B; Smith, S M; Behrens, T E; Jbabdi, S

    2016-04-01

    When asked to perform the same task, different individuals exhibit markedly different patterns of brain activity. This variability is often attributed to volatile factors, such as task strategy or compliance. We propose that individual differences in brain responses are, to a large degree, inherent to the brain and can be predicted from task-independent measurements collected at rest. Using a large set of task conditions, spanning several behavioral domains, we train a simple model that relates task-independent measurements to task activity and evaluate the model by predicting task activation maps for unseen subjects using magnetic resonance imaging. Our model can accurately predict individual differences in brain activity and highlights a coupling between brain connectivity and function that can be captured at the level of individual subjects.

  12. 23 CFR 636.117 - What conflict of interest standards apply to individuals who serve as selection team members for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the requirements of 48 CFR Part 3, Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest... who serve as selection team members for the owner? 636.117 Section 636.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... § 636.117 What conflict of interest standards apply to individuals who serve as selection team...

  13. Standardized Patient Encounters and Individual Case-Based Simulations Improve Students' Confidence and Promote Reflection: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stacy; Weidner, Thomas; Armstrong, Kirk J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Simulations and standardized patient (SP) encounters are used to provide clinical experiences for students. In athletic training, no research has examined the perceived educational benefits of these interventions. Objective: To explore athletic training students' perceptions regarding small group SP encounters and individual case-based…

  14. The Effects of the Maryland Online Individualized Education Program Goal Wizard on Writing Standards Based Annual Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of the Maryland Online Individualized Education Program Goal Wizard on writing standards based annual goals. Specifically, 100 novice special education teachers form a large urban school system in Maryland were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The experimental group received one…

  15. 42 CFR 136.405 - What are the minimum standards of character for individuals placed in, or applying for, a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the minimum standards of character for individuals placed in, or applying for, a position that involves regular contact with or control over Indian children? 136.405 Section 136.405 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE,...

  16. A standard set of upper extremity tasks for evaluating rehabilitation interventions for individuals with complete arm paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, Andrew S.; Liao, James Y.; Bryden, Anne M.; Kirsch, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a set of upper extremity functional tasks to guide the design and test the performance of rehabilitation technologies that restore arm motion in people with high tetraplegia. Our goal was to develop a short set of tasks that would be representative of a much larger set of activities of daily living while also being feasible for a unilateral user of an implanted Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) system. To compile this list of tasks, we reviewed existing clinical outcome measures related to arm and hand function, and were further informed by surveys of patient desires. We ultimately selected a set of five tasks that captured the most common components of movement seen in these tasks, making them highly relevant for assessing FES-restored unilateral arm function in individuals with high cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The tasks are intended to be used when setting design specifications and for evaluation and standardization of rehabilitation technologies under development. While not unique, this set of tasks will provide a common basis for comparing different interventions (e.g., FES, powered orthoses, robotic assistants) and testing different user command interfaces (e.g., sip-and-puff, head joysticks, brain-computer interfaces). PMID:22773199

  17. Vive les differences! Individual variation in neural mechanisms of executive control

    PubMed Central

    Braver, Todd S.; Cole, Michael W.; Yarkoni, Tal

    2010-01-01

    Summary Investigations of individual differences have become increasingly important in the cognitive neuroscience of executive control. For instance, individual variation in lateral prefrontal cortex function (and that of associated regions) has recently been used to identify contributions of executive control processes to a number of domains, including working memory capacity, anxiety, reward/motivation, and emotion regulation. However, the origins of such individual differences remain poorly understood. Recent progress toward identifying the genetic and environmental sources of variation in neural traits, in combination with progress identifying the causal relationships between neural and cognitive processes, will be essential for developing a mechanistic understanding of executive control. PMID:20381337

  18. Assessment of anti-slip devices from healthy individuals in different ages walking on slippery surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gard, Gunvor; Berggård, Glenn

    2006-03-01

    The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Using an appropriate anti-slip device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on different surfaces outdoors during winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best anti-slip devices of different designs in the Swedish market on a larger group of healthy individuals in different ages on five different slippery surfaces as a way to develop a standard method to test anti-slip devices. Three different designs of anti-slip devices: heel device, foot-blade device and whole-foot device were evaluated on ice surfaces uncovered or covered with gravel, sand, salt or snow. The evaluations were done according to subject's perceived walking safety and balance, videorecordings of walking postures and movements, time to take on and off each anti-slip device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-slip device and a list of priorities for own use according to three criteria: safety, balance and appearance. The heel device was perceived to be the most safe on all five surfaces, followed by the toe device and the whole-foot device. The heel device was also perceived to be the one with the best walking balance on uncovered ice and on snow covered ice. There were some significant differences due to gender and age. Most subjects walked with a normal muscle function in the hip and knee when walking with or without an anti-slip device on all surfaces. The heel device was perceived as the most rapid one to take on and the toe device as the most rapid one to take off. All three devices were perceived as having a good foothold. The heel device was perceived to fit the shoe and to be stable at heel-strike. The toe device was easily portable and stable on uncovered ice. The whole-foot device was comfortable to walk with and safe on snow covered ice. The heel device had the highest priority according to walking safety

  19. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... notify the Administrator in the report required in 40 CFR 60.7 that the owner or operator has elected to... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards...

  20. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for... notify the Administrator in the report required in 40 CFR 60.7 that the owner or operator has elected...

  1. Individual differences in visual information processing rate and the prediction of performance differences in team sports: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Adam, J J; Wilberg, R B

    1992-06-01

    This study used a backward-masking paradigm to examine individual differences in rate of visual information processing among university basketball, ice hockey and Canadian football players. Displays containing four letters were presented for stimulus durations ranging from 25 to 300 ms. Following stimulus offset, a masking stimulus was presented for 200 ms. The subjects were instructed to write down as many letters as possible from the briefly presented stimulus display on a specially prepared response grid. The results indicated consistent individual differences in rate of visual information processing. More importantly, it was found that rate of visual information processing as indexed by the backward-masking technique, has promising validity for predicting general performance excellence in university ice hockey and basketball players. Individual differences in rate of visual information processing were interpreted as reflecting the operation of attentional factors.

  2. Commutability of Cytomegalovirus WHO International Standard in Different Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sara; Webb, Erika M.; Barry, Catherine P.; Choi, Won S.; Abravaya, Klara B.; Schneider, George J.

    2016-01-01

    Commutability of quantitative standards allows patient results to be compared across molecular diagnostic methods and laboratories. This is critical to establishing quantitative thresholds for use in clinical decision-making. A matrix effect associated with the 1st cytomegalovirus (CMV) WHO international standard (IS) was identified using the Abbott RealTime CMV assay. A commutability study was performed to compare the CMV WHO IS and patient specimens diluted in plasma and whole blood. Patient specimens showed similar CMV DNA quantitation values regardless of the diluent or extraction procedure used. The CMV WHO IS, on the other hand, exhibited a matrix effect. The CMV concentration reported for the WHO IS diluted in plasma was within the 95% prediction interval established with patient samples. In contrast, the reported DNA concentration of the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood was reduced approximately 0.4 log copies/ml, and values fell outside the 95% prediction interval. Calibrating the assay by using the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood would introduce a bias for CMV whole-blood quantitation; samples would be reported as having higher measured concentrations, by approximately 0.4 log IU/ml. Based on the commutability study with patient samples, the RealTime CMV assay was standardized based on the CMV WHO IS diluted in plasma. A revision of the instructions for use of the CMV WHO IS should be considered to alert users of the potential impact from the diluent matrix. The identification of a matrix effect with the CMV WHO IS underscores the importance of assessing commutability of the IS in order to achieve consistent results across methods. PMID:27030491

  3. Current considerations related to physiological differences between the sexes and physical employment standards.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Delia; Gebhardt, Deborah L; Gaskill, Steven E; Roy, Tanja C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2016-06-01

    The use of physical employment standards (PES) has helped ensure that workers have the physical attributes necessary to complete their jobs in a safe and efficient manner. However, PES used in the selection processes have not always reflected the critical physical requirements of the job tasks. Women generally have smaller anthropometric stature than men, less muscle mass, and therefore less strength, power, and endurance, particularly in the upper body. Nonetheless, these attributes in themselves are not valid grounds for exclusion from employment in physically demanding occupations. Selection standards based upon size or strength, irrespective of the job requirements, have resulted in the barring of capable women from physically demanding jobs, claims of gender bias, and costly litigations. To ensure all individuals are provided with equal access to employment, accurate characterization of the critical physical requirements of the job is paramount. This paper summarizes the existing research related to disparities between the sexes that contribute to sex differences in job performance in physically demanding occupations including physical and legal factors. Strategies for mitigating these differences in the setting of PES and the meeting of minimum employment standards are discussed. Where available, injury rates for women and men in physically demanding occupations are presented and the etiology considered. Finally, areas for further research are identified. PMID:27277561

  4. Standards and solutions for architecture based, ontology driven and individualized pervasive health.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Based on the long-term work of scientific institutions and SDOs dedicated to system architectures, an interoperability framework is presented to help navigation through existing, emerging and even future standards for comprehensive interoperability of intelligent health and social care services. HL7 artifacts as well as work products of competing organizations are classified and semi-formally interrelated. The methodology is proven in many international standard development and health information systems implementation projects.

  5. In others' shoes: do individual differences in empathy and theory of mind shape social preferences?

    PubMed

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person.

  6. Individual differences in the interoceptive states of hunger, fullness and thirst.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J; Mahmut, Mehmet; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-12-01

    Interoception is the ability to perceive internal bodily states. This involves the detection and awareness of static and changing afferent signals from the viscera, motivational states, affective reactions, and associated cognitions. We examined whether there are individual differences in any or all of these aspects of ingestion-related interoception and their possible causes. Individual variation in almost all aspects of interoception was documented for hunger, fullness and thirst - including how participants use, prioritise and integrate visceral, motivational, affective and cognitive information. Individual differences may arise from multiple causes, including genetic influences, developmental changes hypothesised to result from child feeding practices, and from conditions such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders and certain subtypes of obesity. A nutritionally poor diet, and dietary restraint, may also affect ingestion-related interoception. Finally, certain forms of brain injury, notably to the medial temporal lobes are associated with impaired ingestion-related interoception. We conclude by examining the practical and theoretical consequences of these individual differences.

  7. Individual differences in arithmetic skill reflected in event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Peña, M Isabel; Gracia-Bafalluy, María; Tubau, Elisabet

    2011-05-01

    We used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to study the problem-size effect in individuals with high and low arithmetic skill. Participants were presented with a classic equality verification task, and problem size was manipulated by using small (e.g., 3+4), medium (e.g., 7+8) and large problems (e.g., 16+29). ERP analyses were time-locked to the onset of the second operand in order to address brain potentials during the production phase. High-skill individuals showed a positive slow wave when solving large problems and no differences in the ERP pattern when solving small and medium problems. In contrast, low-skill individuals showed a positive slow wave when solving medium and large problems. Given that differences between high and low skill individuals have been related to differences in calculation strategies, these results provide further support to the utility of using ERP as a signature of arithmetic strategy.

  8. In Others' Shoes: Do Individual Differences in Empathy and Theory of Mind Shape Social Preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person. PMID:24743312

  9. Individual differences in the forced swimming test and the effect of environmental enrichment: searching for an interaction.

    PubMed

    Sequeira-Cordero, A; Mora-Gallegos, A; Cuenca-Berger, P; Fornaguera-Trías, J

    2014-04-18

    Animals with low and high immobility in the forced swimming test (FST) differ in a number of neurobehavioral factors. A growing body of evidence suggests that the exposure to enriched environments mediates a number of changes in the brain. Therefore, we studied if animals' individuality can somehow modulate the response to environmental stimuli. Male rats were classified according to their immobility time scores in the FST test session as animals with low, medium or high immobility. Then, rats from groups with low and high immobility were randomly distributed in two groups to be reared in different housing conditions (i.e., enriched and standard conditions) during 8weeks. Animals were subjected to the open field test (OFT) before and 6weeks after the start of housing protocol. Rats with high immobility in the FST also showed high ambulation and high rearing time in the first OFT. Such findings were not observed in the second OFT. Conversely, an effect of environmental enrichment was found in the second OFT where enriched animals showed lower ambulation and higher grooming time than the standard control group. Rats were sacrificed after the housing protocol and neurochemical content and/or gene expression were studied in three different brain regions: the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens. Rats with low immobility showed significantly higher accumbal 5-HT levels than animals with high immobility, whereas no neurochemical differences were observed between enriched and standard animals. Regarding expression data, however, an effect of enrichment on accumbal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its receptor 1 (CRFR1) levels was observed, and such effect depended on immobility levels. Thus, our results not only allowed us to identify a number of differences between animals with low and high immobility or animals housed in standard and enriched conditions, but also suggested that animals' individuality modulated in some way the response to

  10. Neurochemical factors underlying individual differences in locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioral responses in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Muraleetharan, Arrujyan; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Variation among individuals may arise for several reasons, and may have diverse underlying mechanisms. Individual differences have been studied in a variety of species, but recently a new model organism has emerged in this field that offers both sophistication in phenotypical characterization and powerful mechanistic analysis. Recently, zebrafish, one of the favorites of geneticists, have been shown to exhibit consistent individual differences in baseline locomotor activity. In the current study, we further explore this finding and examine whether individual differences in locomotor activity correlate with anxiety-like behavioral measures and with levels of dopamine, serotonin and the metabolites of these neurotransmitters. In addition, we examine whether individual differences in locomotor activity are also associated with reactivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of and neurochemical responses to acute ethanol exposure (30min long, 1% v/v ethanol bath application). Principal component analyses revealed a strong association among anxiety-like responses, locomotor activity, serotonin and dopamine levels. Furthermore, ethanol exposure was found to abolish the locomotion-dependent anxiety-like behavioral and serotonergic responses suggesting that this drug also engages a common underlying pathway. Overall, our results provide support for an important role of the serotonergic system in mediating individual differences in anxiety-like responses and locomotor activity in zebrafish and for a minor modulatory role of the dopaminergic system.

  11. Individual differences in attention strategies during detection, fine discrimination, and coarse discrimination.

    PubMed

    Bridwell, David A; Hecker, Elizabeth A; Serences, John T; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2013-08-01

    Interacting with the environment requires the ability to flexibly direct attention to relevant features. We examined the degree to which individuals attend to visual features within and across Detection, Fine Discrimination, and Coarse Discrimination tasks. Electroencephalographic (EEG) responses were measured to an unattended peripheral flickering (4 or 6 Hz) grating while individuals (n = 33) attended to orientations that were offset by 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and 90° from the orientation of the unattended flicker. These unattended responses may be sensitive to attentional gain at the attended spatial location, since attention to features enhances early visual responses throughout the visual field. We found no significant differences in tuning curves across the three tasks in part due to individual differences in strategies. We sought to characterize individual attention strategies using hierarchical Bayesian modeling, which grouped individuals into families of curves that reflect attention to the physical target orientation ("on-channel") or away from the target orientation ("off-channel") or a uniform distribution of attention. The different curves were related to behavioral performance; individuals with "on-channel" curves had lower thresholds than individuals with uniform curves. Individuals with "off-channel" curves during Fine Discrimination additionally had lower thresholds than those assigned to uniform curves, highlighting the perceptual benefits of attending away from the physical target orientation during fine discriminations. Finally, we showed that a subset of individuals with optimal curves ("on-channel") during Detection also demonstrated optimal curves ("off-channel") during Fine Discrimination, indicating that a subset of individuals can modulate tuning optimally for detection and discrimination.

  12. Speed and Lateral Inhibition of Stimulus Processing Contribute to Individual Differences in Stroop-Task Performance.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Vedder, Anneke; Brown, Stephen B R E; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    The Stroop task is a popular neuropsychological test that measures executive control. Strong Stroop interference is commonly interpreted in neuropsychology as a diagnostic marker of impairment in executive control, possibly reflecting executive dysfunction. However, popular models of the Stroop task indicate that several other aspects of color and word processing may also account for individual differences in the Stroop task, independent of executive control. Here we use new approaches to investigate the degree to which individual differences in Stroop interference correlate with the relative processing speed of word and color stimuli, and the lateral inhibition between visual stimuli. We conducted an electrophysiological and behavioral experiment to measure (1) how quickly an individual's brain processes words and colors presented in isolation (P3 latency), and (2) the strength of an individual's lateral inhibition between visual representations with a visual illusion. Both measures explained at least 40% of the variance in Stroop interference across individuals. As these measures were obtained in contexts not requiring any executive control, we conclude that the Stroop effect also measures an individual's pre-set way of processing visual features such as words and colors. This study highlights the important contributions of stimulus processing speed and lateral inhibition to individual differences in Stroop interference, and challenges the general view that the Stroop task primarily assesses executive control. PMID:27313555

  13. Speed and Lateral Inhibition of Stimulus Processing Contribute to Individual Differences in Stroop-Task Performance.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Vedder, Anneke; Brown, Stephen B R E; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    The Stroop task is a popular neuropsychological test that measures executive control. Strong Stroop interference is commonly interpreted in neuropsychology as a diagnostic marker of impairment in executive control, possibly reflecting executive dysfunction. However, popular models of the Stroop task indicate that several other aspects of color and word processing may also account for individual differences in the Stroop task, independent of executive control. Here we use new approaches to investigate the degree to which individual differences in Stroop interference correlate with the relative processing speed of word and color stimuli, and the lateral inhibition between visual stimuli. We conducted an electrophysiological and behavioral experiment to measure (1) how quickly an individual's brain processes words and colors presented in isolation (P3 latency), and (2) the strength of an individual's lateral inhibition between visual representations with a visual illusion. Both measures explained at least 40% of the variance in Stroop interference across individuals. As these measures were obtained in contexts not requiring any executive control, we conclude that the Stroop effect also measures an individual's pre-set way of processing visual features such as words and colors. This study highlights the important contributions of stimulus processing speed and lateral inhibition to individual differences in Stroop interference, and challenges the general view that the Stroop task primarily assesses executive control.

  14. Comparison of Differences in Dialect Speech among Black College Students Grouped by Standard English Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehl, Siegmar; Muehl, Lois

    1976-01-01

    Black students that were grouped for English ability by their standardized test scores translated a standard English text into black dialect. Analytical data show group differences in dialect facility that correlate to standard English ability, suggesting that language development affects both dialect performance and standard English learning. (RL)

  15. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  16. Individual differences in social anxiety affect the salience of errors in social contexts.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyson V; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-12-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that occurs approximately 50 ms after an erroneous response. The magnitude of the ERN is influenced by contextual factors, such as when errors are made during social evaluation. The ERN is also influenced by individual differences in anxiety, and it is elevated among anxious individuals. However, little research has examined how individual differences in anxiety interact with contextual factors to impact the ERN. Social anxiety involves fear and apprehension of social evaluation. In the present study, we explored how individual differences in social anxiety interact with social contexts to modulate the ERN. The ERN was measured in 43 young adults characterized as being either high or low in social anxiety, while they completed a flanker task in two contexts: alone and during social evaluation. The results revealed a significant interaction between social anxiety and context, such that the ERN was enhanced in a social relative to a nonsocial context only among highly socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, the degree of such enhancement significantly correlated with individual differences in social anxiety. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is characterized by enhanced neural activity to errors in social-evaluative contexts.

  17. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  18. Effects of differences in nasal anatomy on airflow distribution: a comparison of four individuals at rest.

    PubMed

    Segal, Rebecca A; Kepler, Grace M; Kimbell, Julia S

    2008-11-01

    Differences in nasal anatomy among human subjects may cause significant differences in respiratory airflow patterns and subsequent dosimetry of inhaled gases and particles in the respiratory tract. This study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study inter-individual differences in nasal airflow among four healthy individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were digitized and nasal-surface-area-to-volume ratios (SAVR) were calculated for 15 adults. Two males and two females, representative of the range of SAVR values, were selected for flow analysis. Nasal CFD models were constructed for each subject by a semi-automated process that provided input to a commercial mesh generator to generate structured hexahedral meshes (Gambit, Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH, USA). Steady-state inspiratory laminar airflow at 15 L/min was calculated using commercial CFD software (FIDAP, Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH, USA). Streamline patterns, velocities, and helicity values were compared. In all subjects, the majority of flow passed through the middle and ventral regions of the nasal passages; however, the amount and location of swirling flow differed among individuals. Cross-sectional flow allocation analysis also indicated inter-individual differences. Laboratory water-dye experiments confirmed streamlines and velocity magnitudes predicted by the computational model. These results suggest that significant inter-individual differences exist in bulk airflow patterns in the nose.

  19. Linking neurogenetics and individual differences in language learning: the dopamine hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Patrick C M; Morgan-Short, Kara; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

    2012-10-01

    Fundamental advances in neuroscience have come from investigations into neuroplasticity and learning. These investigations often focus on identifying universal principles across different individuals of the same species. Increasingly, individual differences in learning success have also been observed, such that any seemingly universal principle might only be applicable to a certain extent within a particular learner. One potential source of this variation is individuals' genetic differences. Adult language learning provides a unique opportunity for understanding individual differences and genetic bases of neuroplasticity because of the large individual differences in learning success that have already been documented, and because of the body of empirical work connecting language learning and neurocognition. In this article, we review the literature on the genetic bases of neurocognition, especially studies examining polymorphisms of dopamine (DA)-related genes and procedural learning. This review leads us to hypothesize that there may be an association between DA-related genetic variation and language learning differences. If this hypothesis is supported by future empirical findings we suggest that it may point to neurogenetic markers that allow for language learning to be personalized.

  20. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Dual-Process Theories of the Mind

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Tugade, Michele M.; Engle, Randall W.

    2005-01-01

    Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individual differences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory capacity (WMC). The authors discuss the enormous implications of this individual difference for a host of dual-process theories in social, personality, cognitive, and clinical psychology. In addition, the authors propose several new areas of investigation that derive directly from applying the concept of WMC to dual-process theories of the mind. PMID:15250813

  1. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. PMID:20870067

  2. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed.

  3. Experience-Dependent Plasticity Drives Individual Differences in Pheromone-Sensing Neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei Sabrina; Lee, Donghoon; Holy, Timothy E

    2016-08-17

    Different individuals exhibit distinct behaviors, but studying the neuronal basis of individuality is a daunting challenge. Here, we considered this question in the vomeronasal organ, a pheromone-detecting epithelium containing hundreds of distinct neuronal types. Using light-sheet microscopy, we characterized in each animal the abundance of 17 physiologically defined types, altogether recording from half a million sensory neurons. Inter-animal differences were much larger than predicted by chance, and different physiological cell types showed distinct patterns of variability. One neuronal type was present in males and nearly absent in females. Surprisingly, this apparent sexual dimorphism was generated by plasticity, as exposure to female scents or single ligands led to both the elimination of this cell type and alterations in olfactory behavior. That an all-or-none apparent sex difference in neuronal types is controlled by experience-even in a sensory system devoted to "innate" behaviors-highlights the extraordinary role of "nurture" in neural individuality. PMID:27537487

  4. Patterns of theta oscillation reflect the neural basis of individual differences in epistemic motivation.

    PubMed

    Mussel, Patrick; Ulrich, Natalie; Allen, John J B; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Theta oscillations in the EEG have been shown to reflect ongoing cognitive processes related to mental effort. Here, we show that the pattern of theta oscillation in response to varying cognitive demands reflects stable individual differences in the personality trait epistemic motivation: Individuals with high levels of epistemic motivation recruit relatively more cognitive resources in response to situations possessing high, compared to low, cognitive demand; individuals with low levels do not show such a specific response. Our results provide direct evidence for the theory of the construct need for cognition and add to our understanding of the neural processes underlying theta oscillations. More generally, we provide an explanation how individual differences in personality traits might be represented on a neural level. PMID:27380648

  5. Patterns of theta oscillation reflect the neural basis of individual differences in epistemic motivation

    PubMed Central

    Mussel, Patrick; Ulrich, Natalie; Allen, John J. B.; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Theta oscillations in the EEG have been shown to reflect ongoing cognitive processes related to mental effort. Here, we show that the pattern of theta oscillation in response to varying cognitive demands reflects stable individual differences in the personality trait epistemic motivation: Individuals with high levels of epistemic motivation recruit relatively more cognitive resources in response to situations possessing high, compared to low, cognitive demand; individuals with low levels do not show such a specific response. Our results provide direct evidence for the theory of the construct need for cognition and add to our understanding of the neural processes underlying theta oscillations. More generally, we provide an explanation how individual differences in personality traits might be represented on a neural level. PMID:27380648

  6. Complementary Approaches to Individual Differences Using Paired Comparisons and Multidimensional Scaling: Applications to Multicultural Counseling Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Maria; Lee, Debbiesiu; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2004-01-01

    Multicultural research has traditionally involved normative methodology and definitions of individual differences. To further our understanding of multicultural concerns, the authors urge researchers to broaden the repertoire of methods used in these inquiries. First, the authors highlight the differences among normative, idiographic, and…

  7. Individual Differences in Early Adolescents' Beliefs in the Legitimacy of Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Emily S.; Laird, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents differ in the extent to which they believe that parents have legitimate authority to impose rules restricting adolescents' behavior. The purpose of the current study was to test predictors of individual differences in legitimacy beliefs during the middle school years. Annually, during the summers following Grades 5, 6, and 7, early…

  8. Examining the Domain-Specificity of Metacognition Using Academic Domains and Task-Specific Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Brianna M.; Berman, Ashleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition refers to students' knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as their accuracy in predicting their academic performance. This study addressed two major questions: 1) how do metacognitive knowledge, regulation and accuracy differ across domains?, and 2) how do students' individual differences relate to their reported…

  9. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  10. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Dual-Process Theories of the Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Tugade, Michele M.; Engle, Randall W.

    2004-01-01

    Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individual differences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory…

  11. Individual Differences in Strategy Use on Division Problems: Mental versus Written Computation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickendorff, Marian; van Putten, Cornelis M.; Verhelst, Norman D.; Heiser, Willem J.

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in strategy use (choice and accuracy) were analyzed. A sample of 362 Grade 6 students solved complex division problems under 2 different conditions. In the choice condition students were allowed to use either a mental or a written strategy. In the subsequent no-choice condition, they were required to use a written strategy.…

  12. Individual differences in temperament and behavioral management practices for nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Kristine

    2012-03-01

    Effective behavioral management plans are tailored to unique behavioral patterns of each individual species. However, even within a species behavioral needs of individuals can vary. Factors such as age, sex, and temperament can affect behavioral needs of individuals. While some of these factors, such as age and sex, are taken into account, other factors, such as an individual's temperament, are rarely specifically provided for in behavioral management plans. However, temperament may affect how animals respond to socialization, positive reinforcement training and other forms of enrichment. This review will examine how individual differences in temperament might affect, or be affected by, behavioral management practices for captive primates. Measuring temperament may help us predict outcome of social introductions. It can also predict which animals may be difficult to train using traditional methods. Further, knowledge of temperament may be able to help identify individuals at risk for development of behavioral problems. Taken together, understanding individual differences in temperament of captive primates can help guide behavioral management decisions.

  13. "According to...": Toward Standards for the Ethical Use of Evidence in Individual Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tracy M.

    Guidelines for citing sources in forensic competition are needed for use by students, as well as by coaches and judges. The first step toward developing standardized guidelines could be an adaptation of the Modern Language Association's American Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, which provides clear-cut definitions of plagiarism,…

  14. Impact of different individual GNSS receiver antenna calibration models on geodetic positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baire, Q.; Pottiaux, E.; Bruyninx, C.; Defraigne, P.; Aerts, W.; Legrand, J.; Bergeot, N.; Chevalier, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Since April 2011, the igs08.atx antenna calibration model is used in the routine IGS (International GNSS Service) data analysis. The model includes mean robot calibrations to correct for the offset and phase center variations of the GNSS receiver antennas. These so-called "type" calibrations are means of the individual calibrations available for a specific antenna/radome combination. The GNSS data analysis performed within the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) aims at being as consistent as possible with the IGS analysis. This also applies to the receiver antenna calibrations. However, when available, individual antenna calibrations are used within the EPN analysis instead of the "type" calibration. When these individual calibrations are unavailable, then the EPN analysis falls back to (type) calibrations identical as the ones used within the IGS (igs08.atx). The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of the offset caused by using different receiver antenna calibration models on the station position. Using the PPP (Precise Point Positioning) technique, we first investigate the differences in positioning obtained when switching between individual antenna calibrations and type calibrations. We analyze the observations of the 43 EPN stations equipped with receiver antenna individually calibrated over the period covering from 2003 to 2010 and we show that these differences can reach up to 4 mm in horizontal and 10 mm in vertical. Secondly, we study the accuracy of the individual calibrations models and we evaluate the effect of different sets of individual calibrations on the positioning. For that purpose, we use the data from 6 GNSS stations equipped with an antenna which has been individually calibrated at two calibration facilities recognized by the IGS: GEO++ and Bonn institute.

  15. Individual Differences in the Real-Time Comprehension of Children with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Venker, Courtney E.; Eernisse, Elizabeth R.; Saffran, Jenny R.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2013-01-01

    associated with language and cognition in children without ASD, suggesting that this may also be the case for children with ASD. This study adopted an individual differences approach to characterizing real-time comprehension of familiar words in a group of 34 three- to six-year-olds with ASD. The looking-while-listening paradigm was employed; it measures online accuracy and latency through language-mediated eye movements and has limited task demands. On average, children demonstrated comprehension of the familiar words, but considerable variability emerged. Children with better accuracy were faster to process the familiar words. In combination, processing speed and comprehension on a standardized language assessment explained 63% of the variance in online accuracy. Online accuracy was not correlated with autism severity or maternal education, and nonverbal cognition did not explain unique variance. Notably, online accuracy at age 5½ was related to vocabulary comprehension three years earlier. The words typically learned earliest in life were processed most quickly. Consistent with a dimensional view of language abilities, these findings point to similarities in patterns of language acquisition in typically developing children and those with ASD. Overall, our results emphasize the value of examining individual differences in real-time language comprehension in this population. We propose that the looking-while-listening paradigm is a sensitive and valuable methodological tool that can be applied across many areas of autism research. PMID:23696214

  16. Mathematical Skill in Individuals with Williams Syndrome: Evidence from a Standardized Mathematics Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Landau, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder associated with relatively spared verbal skills and severe visuospatial deficits. It has also been reported that individuals with WS are impaired at mathematics. We examined mathematical skills in persons with WS using the second edition of the Test of Early Mathematical Ability (TEMA-2), which…

  17. Predicting and preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS): the need for individualized not standardized treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the most serious complication of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) as part of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). While the safety and efficacy of ART is well established, physicians should always be aware of the risk of OHSS in patients undergoing COS, as it can be fatal. This article will briefly present the pathophysiology of OHSS, including the key role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), to provide the foundation for an overview of current techniques for the prevention of OHSS. Risk factors and predictive factors for OHSS will be presented, as recognizing these risk factors and individualizing the COS protocol appropriately is the key to the primary prevention of OHSS, as the benefits and risks of each COS strategy vary among individuals. Individualized COS (iCOS) could effectively eradicate OHSS, and the identification of hormonal, functional and genetic markers of ovarian response will facilitate iCOS. However, if iCOS is not properly applied, various preventive measures can be instituted once COS has begun, including cancelling the cycle, coasting, individualizing the human chorionic gonadotropin trigger dose or using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (for those using a GnRH antagonist protocol), the use of intravenous fluids at the time of oocyte retrieval, and cryopreserving/vitrifying all embryos for subsequent transfer in an unstimulated cycle. Some of these techniques have been widely adopted, despite the scarcity of data from randomized clinical trials to support their use. PMID:22531097

  18. The Addition of an Individualized Cognitive Intervention to a Standardized Behavioral Intervention for Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Janice L.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.

    This study examined the effectiveness of the addition of a cognitive intervention based on individualized assessment to a behavioral intervention for obesity. Overweight subjects (N=63) were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention or a behavioral intervention combined with a cognitive intervention which focused on changing specific…

  19. An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these. PMID:23162446

  20. Reliabilities of mental rotation tasks: limits to the assessment of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Thielsch, Meinald T; Zernikow, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotation tasks with objects and body parts as targets are widely used in cognitive neuropsychology. Even though these tasks are well established to study between-groups differences, the reliability on an individual level is largely unknown. We present a systematic study on the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of individual differences in mental rotation tasks comparing different target types and orders of presentations. In total n = 99 participants (n = 63 for the retest) completed the mental rotation tasks with hands, feet, faces, and cars as targets. Different target types were presented in either randomly mixed blocks or blocks of homogeneous targets. Across all target types, the consistency (split-half reliability) and stability (test-retest reliabilities) were good or acceptable both for intercepts and slopes. At the level of individual targets, only intercepts showed acceptable reliabilities. Blocked presentations resulted in significantly faster and numerically more consistent and stable responses. Mental rotation tasks-especially in blocked variants-can be used to reliably assess individual differences in global processing speed. However, the assessment of the theoretically important slope parameter for individual targets requires further adaptations to mental rotation tests. PMID:24195068

  1. Individual differences in posterior cortical volume correlate with proneness to pride and gratitude.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Roland; Garrido, Griselda; Moll, Jorge; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-11-01

    Proneness to specific moral sentiments (e.g. pride, gratitude, guilt, indignation) has been linked with individual variations in functional MRI (fMRI) response within anterior brain regions whose lesion leads to inappropriate behaviour. However, the role of structural anatomical differences in rendering individuals prone to particular moral sentiments relative to others is unknown. Here, we investigated grey matter volumes (VBM8) and proneness to specific moral sentiments on a well-controlled experimental task in healthy individuals. Individuals with smaller cuneus, and precuneus volumes were more pride-prone, whereas those with larger right inferior temporal volumes experienced gratitude more readily. Although the primary analysis detected no associations with guilt- or indignation-proneness, subgenual cingulate fMRI responses to guilt were negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the left superior temporal sulcus and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (right >left). This shows that individual variations in functional activations within critical areas for moral sentiments were not due to grey matter volume differences in the same areas. Grey matter volume differences between healthy individuals may nevertheless play an important role by affecting posterior cortical brain systems that are non-critical but supportive for the experience of specific moral sentiments. This may be of particular relevance when their experience depends on visuo-spatial elaboration.

  2. Consistent individual differences in haemolymph density reflect risk propensity in a marine invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines

    2015-01-01

    While the literature on consistent individual differences in correlated suites of physiological and behavioural traits is steadily growing for vertebrates, invertebrates have received less attention. The few studies that do exist have measured temporary physiological states (or responses), rather than consistent individual physiological traits. Here, I explore the consistency of individual differences in physiology and behaviour of n=53 shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) by repeatedly measuring haemolymph density (HD) and the crabs' responses to a novel environment. In crustaceans, HD is directly proportional to protein concentrations, and thus indicative of physiological condition. HD was highly repeatable, and crabs showed consistent individual differences in their behavioural responses to a novel environment, thus indicating individual consistency in both physiology and behaviour. Furthermore, HD was significantly correlated with the crabs' risk propensity, i.e. individuals with higher HD spent more time near shelter. Overall, this provides the first evidence for consistency in an endogenous physiological trait in an invertebrate. The link between consistent physiology and behaviour, i.e. coping styles, analogous to those found in vertebrates, suggests metabolic and/or immunological correlates of personality which offer great potential for future studies. PMID:26543575

  3. Camouflage and individual variation in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) from different habitats.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E; Wood, Louisa E

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is widespread throughout the natural world and conceals animals from predators in a vast range of habitats. Because successful camouflage usually involves matching aspects of the background environment, species and populations should evolve appearances tuned to their local habitat, termed phenotype-environment associations. However, although this has been studied in various species, little work has objectively quantified the appearances of camouflaged animals from different habitats, or related this to factors such as ontogeny and individual variation. Here, we tested for phenotype-environment associations in the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas), a species highly variable in appearance and found in a wide range of habitats. We used field surveys and digital image analysis of the colors and patterns of crabs found in four locations around Cornwall in the UK to quantify how individuals vary with habitat (predominantly rockpool, mussel bed, and mudflat). We find that individuals from sites comprising different backgrounds show substantial differences in several aspects of color and pattern, and that this is also dependent on life stage (adult or juvenile). Furthermore, the level of individual variation is dependent on site and life stage, with juvenile crabs often more variable than adults, and individuals from more homogenous habitats less diverse. Ours is the most comprehensive study to date exploring phenotype-environment associations for camouflage and individual variation in a species, and we discuss the implications of our results in terms of the mechanisms and selection pressures that may drive this. PMID:25551233

  4. Consistent individual differences in haemolymph density reflect risk propensity in a marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Fürtbauer, Ines

    2015-06-01

    While the literature on consistent individual differences in correlated suites of physiological and behavioural traits is steadily growing for vertebrates, invertebrates have received less attention. The few studies that do exist have measured temporary physiological states (or responses), rather than consistent individual physiological traits. Here, I explore the consistency of individual differences in physiology and behaviour of n=53 shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) by repeatedly measuring haemolymph density (HD) and the crabs' responses to a novel environment. In crustaceans, HD is directly proportional to protein concentrations, and thus indicative of physiological condition. HD was highly repeatable, and crabs showed consistent individual differences in their behavioural responses to a novel environment, thus indicating individual consistency in both physiology and behaviour. Furthermore, HD was significantly correlated with the crabs' risk propensity, i.e. individuals with higher HD spent more time near shelter. Overall, this provides the first evidence for consistency in an endogenous physiological trait in an invertebrate. The link between consistent physiology and behaviour, i.e. coping styles, analogous to those found in vertebrates, suggests metabolic and/or immunological correlates of personality which offer great potential for future studies. PMID:26543575

  5. Individual differences in posterior cortical volume correlate with proneness to pride and gratitude

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, Roland; Garrido, Griselda; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Proneness to specific moral sentiments (e.g. pride, gratitude, guilt, indignation) has been linked with individual variations in functional MRI (fMRI) response within anterior brain regions whose lesion leads to inappropriate behaviour. However, the role of structural anatomical differences in rendering individuals prone to particular moral sentiments relative to others is unknown. Here, we investigated grey matter volumes (VBM8) and proneness to specific moral sentiments on a well-controlled experimental task in healthy individuals. Individuals with smaller cuneus, and precuneus volumes were more pride-prone, whereas those with larger right inferior temporal volumes experienced gratitude more readily. Although the primary analysis detected no associations with guilt- or indignation-proneness, subgenual cingulate fMRI responses to guilt were negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the left superior temporal sulcus and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (right >left). This shows that individual variations in functional activations within critical areas for moral sentiments were not due to grey matter volume differences in the same areas. Grey matter volume differences between healthy individuals may nevertheless play an important role by affecting posterior cortical brain systems that are non-critical but supportive for the experience of specific moral sentiments. This may be of particular relevance when their experience depends on visuo-spatial elaboration. PMID:24106333

  6. Different Roles of Direct and Indirect Frontoparietal Pathways for Individual Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Matthias; Fiebach, Christian J; Melzer, Corina; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Derrfuss, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in working memory is a hallmark of human intelligence and differs considerably across individuals, but the structural brain correlates underlying these differences in working memory capacity (WMC) are only poorly understood. In two separate studies, diffusion MRI data and WMC scores were collected for 70 and 109 healthy individuals. Using a combination of probabilistic tractography and network analysis of the white matter tracts, we examined whether structural brain network properties were predictive of individual WMC. Converging evidence from both studies showed that lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex of high-capacity individuals are more densely connected compared with low-capacity individuals. Importantly, our network approach was further able to dissociate putative functional roles associated with two different pathways connecting frontal and parietal regions: a corticocortical pathway and a subcortical pathway. In Study 1, where participants were required to maintain and update working memory items, the connectivity of the direct and indirect pathway was predictive of WMC. In contrast, in Study 2, where participants were required to maintain working memory items without updating, only the connectivity of the direct pathway was predictive of individual WMC. Our results suggest an important dissociation in the circuitry connecting frontal and parietal regions, where direct frontoparietal connections might support storage and maintenance, whereas subcortically mediated connections support the flexible updating of working memory content.

  7. Camouflage and individual variation in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) from different habitats.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E; Wood, Louisa E

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is widespread throughout the natural world and conceals animals from predators in a vast range of habitats. Because successful camouflage usually involves matching aspects of the background environment, species and populations should evolve appearances tuned to their local habitat, termed phenotype-environment associations. However, although this has been studied in various species, little work has objectively quantified the appearances of camouflaged animals from different habitats, or related this to factors such as ontogeny and individual variation. Here, we tested for phenotype-environment associations in the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas), a species highly variable in appearance and found in a wide range of habitats. We used field surveys and digital image analysis of the colors and patterns of crabs found in four locations around Cornwall in the UK to quantify how individuals vary with habitat (predominantly rockpool, mussel bed, and mudflat). We find that individuals from sites comprising different backgrounds show substantial differences in several aspects of color and pattern, and that this is also dependent on life stage (adult or juvenile). Furthermore, the level of individual variation is dependent on site and life stage, with juvenile crabs often more variable than adults, and individuals from more homogenous habitats less diverse. Ours is the most comprehensive study to date exploring phenotype-environment associations for camouflage and individual variation in a species, and we discuss the implications of our results in terms of the mechanisms and selection pressures that may drive this.

  8. Camouflage and Individual Variation in Shore Crabs (Carcinus maenas) from Different Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E.; Wood, Louisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is widespread throughout the natural world and conceals animals from predators in a vast range of habitats. Because successful camouflage usually involves matching aspects of the background environment, species and populations should evolve appearances tuned to their local habitat, termed phenotype-environment associations. However, although this has been studied in various species, little work has objectively quantified the appearances of camouflaged animals from different habitats, or related this to factors such as ontogeny and individual variation. Here, we tested for phenotype-environment associations in the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas), a species highly variable in appearance and found in a wide range of habitats. We used field surveys and digital image analysis of the colors and patterns of crabs found in four locations around Cornwall in the UK to quantify how individuals vary with habitat (predominantly rockpool, mussel bed, and mudflat). We find that individuals from sites comprising different backgrounds show substantial differences in several aspects of color and pattern, and that this is also dependent on life stage (adult or juvenile). Furthermore, the level of individual variation is dependent on site and life stage, with juvenile crabs often more variable than adults, and individuals from more homogenous habitats less diverse. Ours is the most comprehensive study to date exploring phenotype-environment associations for camouflage and individual variation in a species, and we discuss the implications of our results in terms of the mechanisms and selection pressures that may drive this. PMID:25551233

  9. Individual differences in the reinforcing and punishing effects of nicotine in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Winger, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The relatively weak reinforcing effects of nicotine in experimental studies have been attributed to possible aversive effects or the need to space nicotine administrations over time to expose reinforcing effects. Objective This study was designed to determine if the response-maintaining effects of nicotine are increased when availability is spaced through time, and whether nicotine is an effective punisher of remifentanil-maintained responding. Methods Compared to a cocaine reference dose, nicotine dose and timeout (TO) value were varied in eight rhesus monkeys responding for intravenous (i.v.) nicotine on varying fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement. The aversive effects of nicotine were evaluated in four animals choosing between a standard dose of remifentanil alone or in combination with one of several doses of nicotine. Results In three of eight self-administration monkeys, 0.01 mg/kg/inj nicotine did not maintain responding at any FR value. In the other five animals, nicotine-maintained response rates increased with either FR or TO values to a certain point, and then slowed. Maximum nicotine-maintained response rates were much slower than those maintained by cocaine, and demand for nicotine was less than demand for cocaine. Nicotine was an effective punisher of remifentanil-maintained responding at doses ranging from 0.01 to 0.3 mg/kg/inj. Lower punishing dose seemed to be related to the absence of reinforcing effects within subject. Conclusion There are an order of magnitude individual differences in sensitivity to both the reinforcing and punishing effects of nicotine, and this drug may be unique in being a weak positive reinforcer in small doses and aversive in large doses. PMID:25662609

  10. Individual differences in the processing of written sarcasm and metaphor: Evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Olkoniemi, Henri; Ranta, Henri; Kaakinen, Johanna K

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined individual differences in the processing of different forms of figurative language. Sixty participants read sarcastic, metaphorical, and literal sentences embedded in story contexts while their eye movements were recorded, and responded to a text memory and an inference question after each story. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC), need for cognition (NFC), and cognitive-affective processing were measured. The results showed that the processing of metaphors was characterized by slow-down during first-pass reading of the utterances, whereas sarcasm produced mainly delayed effects in the eye movement records. Sarcastic utterances were also harder to comprehend than literal or metaphorical utterances as indicated by poorer performance in responses to inference questions. Individual differences in general cognitive factors (WMC and NFC) were related to the processing of metaphors, whereas individual differences in both general cognitive factors (WMC) as well as processing of emotional information were related to the processing of sarcasm. The results indicate that different forms of figurative language pose different cognitive demands to the reader, and show that reader characteristics play a prominent role in figurative language comprehension. PMID:26371496

  11. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    PubMed

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation.

  12. Individual differences in foraging strategies of parasitic sabre-tooth blennies.

    PubMed

    Bshary, Andrea; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    Originally, evolutionary game theory typically predicted that optimal behaviour in a given situation is uniform or bimodal. However, the growing evidence that animals behave more variably while individuals may differ consistently in their behaviour, has led to the development of models that predict a distribution of strategies. Here we support the importance of such models in a study on a coral reef fish host-parasite system. Parasitic blennies (Plagiotremus sp.) regularly attack other fishes to bite off scales and mucus. Individuals of some victim species react to being bitten with punishing the parasite through aggressive chasing. Our field observations and laboratory experiments show that individual blennies differ markedly in how they incorporate being punished into their foraging decisions. We discuss how these differences may affect the payoff structure and hence the net effect of punishment on punishers and on the appearance of a public good for look-alikes.

  13. Metamemory accuracy: effects of feedback and the stability of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W B

    1998-01-01

    This study addressed two questions about metamemory accuracy: how feedback about recall performance affects confidence-recall accuracy and whether individual differences in confidence-recall accuracy are stable across different sets of test items. College students answered general knowledge questions and made confidence ratings about the correctness of the answers. Half the students were told whether their answers were correct. All students answered half the questions a second time. The results show that feedback did not produce a general improvement in metamemory accuracy; the improvement was specific to the questions for which feedback was provided. Also, individual students' metamemory accuracy showed moderate alternate-forms stability when each test was made up of 250 items. Therefore, researchers studying individual differences in metamemory accuracy on recall tasks should use tests that yield several hundred responses. PMID:9624702

  14. Moral values are associated with individual differences in regional brain volume

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, G. J.; Kanai, R.; Bates, T. C.; Rees, G.

    2012-01-01

    Moral sentiment has been hypothesized to reflect evolved adaptations to social living. If so, individual differences in moral values may relate to regional variation in brain structure. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 70 young, healthy adults examining whether differences on two major dimensions of moral values were significantly associated with regional gray matter volume. The two clusters of moral values assessed were “individualizing” (values of harm/care and fairness), and “binding” (deference to authority, in-group loyalty, and purity/sanctity). Individualizing was positively associated with left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex volume, and negatively associated with bilateral precuneus volume. For binding, a significant positive association was found for bilateral subcallosal gyrus and a trend to significance for the left anterior insula volume. These findings demonstrate that variation in moral sentiment reflects individual differences in brain structure and suggest a biological basis for moral sentiment, distributed across multiple brain regions. PMID:22571458

  15. Efficiency under record performance demands: exertion control--an individual difference variable?

    PubMed

    Heckhausen, H; Strang, H

    1988-09-01

    Semiprofessional players ran basketball circuits under either normal or record performance demands. Lactate concentration and heart rate were measured as indexes of exertion. Number of dribbling errors, attempted shots, hits, and hit rate served as measures of performance and efficiency. Several individual difference measures were taken in order to identify those athletes who were capable of moderating the extent of exertion and of preserving their performance from impairment. The indexes of exertion rose sharply from normal to record trials. Correspondingly, the numbers of dribbling errors and of shots increased while the hit rate declined. However, there were considerable individual differences in restraining exertion and preserving efficiency--both indexes of exertion control. Neither achievement motive scores nor questionnaire items that ask for self-knowledge about exertion control could account for these differences. However, individuals capable of exertion control could be discriminated by an action-control scale that asks about postdecisional implementation of action steps (Kuhl, 1985).

  16. Individual differences in the exploration of a redundant space-time motor task.

    PubMed

    King, Adam C; Ranganathan, Rajiv; Newell, Karl M

    2012-11-01

    Individual differences in learning a motor task are rarely assessed even though they can potentially contribute to our understanding of the problem of motor redundancy-i.e., how individuals can exploit multiple different strategies to realize the task goal. This study examined individual variations in the preferred movement strategy of a redundant motor task. Thirty-two participants performed a star tracing task on a digitizing tablet with the goal of minimizing a performance score that was given as feedback. The performance score was a weighted combination of spatial error and movement time, meaning that multiple strategies could yield the same score. A cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups of individuals based on their initial movement strategy preferences. These groups were not only different on their initial performance, but also exhibited differences in both local (trial-to-trial change) and global (average change) search strategies that were reflected through differential modification of spatial and temporal components. Overall, the results in this space-time task reveal that the intrinsic dynamics of the individual channel the initial exploratory solutions to learning a redundant motor task. PMID:22914583

  17. Beyond Self-Report: Emerging Methods for Capturing Individual Differences in Decision-Making Process

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Brenda L.; Rende, Richard; Colton, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    People vary in the way in which they approach decision-making, which impacts real-world behavior. There has been a surge of interest in moving beyond reliance on self-report measures to capture such individual differences. Particular emphasis has been placed on devising and applying a range of methodologies that include experimental, neuroscience, and observational paradigms. This paper provides a selective review of recent studies that illustrate the methods and yield of these approaches in terms of generating a deeper understanding of decision-making style and the notable differences that can be found across individuals. PMID:26973589

  18. Individual-to-Resource Landscape Interaction Strength Can Explain Different Collective Feeding Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Nikolai W. F.; Delcourt, Johann

    2013-01-01

    Taking in sufficient quantities of nutrients is vital for all living beings and in doing so, individuals interact with the local resource environment. Here, we focus explicitly on the interactions between feeding individuals and the resource landscape. In particular, we are interested in the emergent movement dynamics resulting from these interactions. We present an individual-based simulation model for the movement of populations in a resource landscape that allows us to vary the strength of the interactions mentioned above. The key assumption and novelty of our model is that individuals can cause the release of additional nutrients, as well as consuming them. Our model produces clear predictions. For example, we expect more tortuous individual movement paths and higher levels of aggregation in populations occupying homogeneous environments where individual movement makes more nutrients available. We also show how observed movement dynamics could change when local nutrient sources are depleted or when the population density increases. Our predictions are testable and qualitatively reproduce the different feeding behaviours observed in filter-feeding ducks, for example. We suggest that considering two-way interactions between feeding individuals and resource landscapes could help to explain fine-scale movement dynamics. PMID:24130748

  19. Individual differences in temperament and behavioral management practices for nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Effective behavioral management plans are tailored to unique behavioral patterns of each individual species. However, even within a species behavioral needs of individuals can vary. Factors such as age, sex, and temperament can affect behavioral needs of individuals. While some of these factors, such as age and sex, are taken into account, other factors, such as an individual’s temperament, are rarely specifically provided for in behavioral management plans. However, temperament may affect how animals respond to socialization, positive reinforcement training and other forms of enrichment. This review will examine how individual differences in temperament might affect, or be affected by, behavioral management practices for captive primates. Measuring temperament may help us predict outcome of social introductions. It can also predict which animals may be difficult to train using traditional methods. Further, knowledge of temperament may be able to help identify individuals at risk for development of behavioral problems. Taken together, understanding individual differences in temperament of captive primates can help guide behavioral management decisions. PMID:22518067

  20. Propensity Score-Based Approaches to Confounding by Indication in Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis: Non-Standardized Treatment for Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Gregory J.; Benedetti, Andrea; Mitnick, Carole D.; Pai, Madhukar; Menzies, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Background In the absence of randomized clinical trials, meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) from observational studies may provide the most accurate effect estimates for an intervention. However, confounding by indication remains an important concern that can be addressed by incorporating individual patient covariates in different ways. We compared different analytic approaches to account for confounding in IPD from patients treated for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods Two antibiotic classes were evaluated, fluoroquinolones—considered the cornerstone of effective MDR-TB treatment—and macrolides, which are known to be safe, yet are ineffective in vitro. The primary outcome was treatment success against treatment failure, relapse or death. Effect estimates were obtained using multivariable and propensity-score based approaches. Results Fluoroquinolone antibiotics were used in 28 included studies, within which 6,612 patients received a fluoroquinolone and 723 patients did not. Macrolides were used in 15 included studies, within which 459 patients received this class of antibiotics and 3,670 did not. Both standard multivariable regression and propensity score-based methods resulted in similar effect estimates for early and late generation fluoroquinolones, while macrolide antibiotics use was associated with reduced treatment success. Conclusions In this individual patient data meta-analysis, standard multivariable and propensity-score based methods of adjusting for individual patient covariates for observational studies yielded produced similar effect estimates. Even when adjustment is made for potential confounding, interpretation of adjusted estimates must still consider the potential for residual bias. PMID:27022741

  1. Individual differences in the preferred neck-resting position of Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A; O'Brien, Edward H

    2009-01-01

    When resting, flamingos often lay their heads along their backs. While in this position they must curve their necks to either the right or left of their midline. Observations of captive Caribbean flamingos at the Philadelphia Zoo (Philadelphia, PA, USA) were conducted in order to determine if individual birds would display consistent preferences in neck-resting position over multiple observations. While individual birds were shown to vary greatly in regards to the strength and direction of their preferences, a significant flock-level preference towards neck resting to the right was obtained. Analysis of individual flamingos revealed that 5 out of 17 birds displayed preferences that significantly differed from chance, with each of these birds preferring to rest their necks to the right. From the present data we can conclude that flamingos display behavioural laterality of neck-resting position at both the level of the group and that of the individual.

  2. Differences among sighted individuals and individuals with visual impairments in word intelligibility presented via synthetic and natural speech.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Katemidou, Evangelia; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios; Mouratidou, Eirini

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated word intelligibility among sighted individuals and individuals with visual impairments for both natural and synthetic speech. Both groups of participants performed significantly better when identifying words presented via natural speech. The results also demonstrated that individuals with visual impairments were more successful than their sighted peers in understanding words presented via synthetic speech, with experience being the most critical factor in identifying words for the participants with visual impairments. Finally, the findings show the correlation between intelligibility and key factors such as age and the overall use of text-to-speech systems. PMID:20969513

  3. The causes of variation in learning and behavior: why individual differences matter.

    PubMed

    Sauce, Bruno; Matzel, Louis D

    2013-01-01

    IN A SEMINAL PAPER WRITTEN FIVE DECADES AGO, CRONBACH DISCUSSED THE TWO HIGHLY DISTINCT APPROACHES TO SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY: experimental and correlational. Today, although these two approaches are fruitfully implemented and embraced across some fields of psychology, this synergy is largely absent from other areas, such as in the study of learning and behavior. Both Tolman and Hull, in a rare case of agreement, stated that the correlational approach held little promise for the understanding of behavior. Interestingly, this dismissal of the study of individual differences was absent in the biologically oriented branches of behavior analysis, namely, behavioral genetics and ethology. Here we propose that the distinction between "causation" and "causes of variation" (with its origins in the field of genetics) reveals the potential value of the correlational approach in understanding the full complexity of learning and behavior. Although the experimental approach can illuminate the causal variables that modulate learning, the analysis of individual differences can elucidate how much and in which way variables interact to support variations in learning in complex natural environments. For example, understanding that a past experience with a stimulus influences its "associability" provides little insight into how individual predispositions interact to modulate this influence on associability. In this "new" light, we discuss examples from studies of individual differences in animals' performance in the Morris water maze and from our own work on individual differences in general intelligence in mice. These studies illustrate that, opposed to what Underwood famously suggested, studies of individual differences can do much more to psychology than merely providing preliminary indications of cause-effect relationships. PMID:23847569

  4. Individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss in the work environment.

    PubMed

    Van Dongen, Hans P A; Belenky, Gregory

    2009-10-01

    There are considerable individual differences in cognitive performance deficits resulting from extended work hours and shift work schedules. Recent progress in sleep and performance research has yielded new insights into the causes and consequences of these individual differences. Neurobiological processes of sleep/wake regulation underlie trait individual variability in vulnerability to performance impairment due to sleep loss. Trait vulnerability to sleep loss is observed in the laboratory and in the work environment, even in occupational settings where (self-)selection pressures are high. In general, individuals do not seem to accurately assess the magnitude of their own vulnerability. Methods for identifying workers who are most at risk of sleep loss-related errors and accidents would therefore be helpful to target fatigue countermeasure interventions at those needing them most. As yet, no reliable predictors of vulnerability to sleep loss have been identified, although candidate genetic predictors have been proposed. However, a Bayesian forecasting technique based on closed-loop feedback of measured performance has been developed for individualized prediction of future performance impairment during ongoing operations. Judiciously selecting or monitoring individuals in specific tasks or occupations, within legally and ethically acceptable boundaries, has the potential to improve operational performance and productivity, reduce errors and accidents, and save lives. Trait individual variability in responses to sleep loss represents a major complication in the application of one-size-fits-all hours of service regulations--favoring instead modern fatigue risk management strategies, because these allow flexibility to account for individual vulnerability or resilience to the performance consequences of extended work hours and shift work schedules.

  5. Individual differences in highly skilled visual perceptual-motor striking skill.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sean; Brenton, John; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Harbaugh, Allen G; Reid, Corinne

    2015-07-01

    Expertise studies into visual perceptual-motor skills have mainly focused their investigation upon group comparisons rather than individual comparisons. This study investigated the pick-up of visual information to time weight transfer and bat kinematics within an exemplar group of striking sport experts using an in situ temporal occlusion paradigm. Highly skilled cricket batsmen faced bowlers and attempted to strike delivered balls, whilst their vision was either temporally occluded through occlusion glasses prior to ball bounce or not occluded (control condition). A chronometric analysis was conducted on trials in the occlusion condition to quantify the pick-up of visual information to time biomechanical variables. Results indicated that initiation of weight transfer and bat downswing, as well as bat downswing completion, was significantly different between some individual batsmen. No significant difference was found between individual batsmen for time of weight transfer completion. Unexpectedly, it was found that achievement of the goal to strike delivered balls, that is, the frequency of bat-ball contacts was not significantly different between batsmen. Collectively, the findings indicate that individual differences exist in the coordination pattern of a complex whole body visual perceptual-motor skill, but these different patterns are used to achieve a similar outcome, which is known as motor equivalence.

  6. Individuation among bedouin versus urban arab adolescents: ethnic and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2004-11-01

    Three scales assessing individuation (Objective Measure of Ego-Identity Status [OMEIS], Separation-Individuation Test of Adolescence [SITA], and Multigenerational Interconnectedness Scale [MIS]) were administered to 40 female and 38 male Bedouin Arab adolescents and to 39 female and 38 male urban Arab adolescents in Grade 12. It was hypothesized that Bedouin Arab adolescents and female adolescents would manifest less individuation than urban Arab adolescents and male adolescents, respectively. Results from the OMEIS revealed that the identity foreclosed mean of the Bedouin adolescents was higher than that of the urban adolescents. As for the SITA, significant differences were found between Bedouin and urban Arabs in terms of dependency denial, separation anxiety, teacher enmeshment, peer enmeshment, and rejection expectancy. Significant gender differences were found in regard to dependency denial, and a borderline difference was found for separation anxiety. Significant effects of ethnicity and gender were found on the financial interconnectedness subscale of the MIS. The results support the present hypotheses concerning ethnicity differences and indicate that urbanization seems to narrow the differences in individuation between male and female adolescents.

  7. Inter-Individual Differences in RNA Levels in Human Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Wilfinger, William W.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Kennedy, Amy; Rymaszewski, Michal; Mackey, Karol

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the range of RNA levels in human blood. This report provides assessment of peripheral blood RNA level and its inter-individual differences in a group of 35 healthy humans consisting of 25 females and 10 males ranging in age from 50 to 89 years. In this group, the average total RNA level was 14.59 μg/ml of blood, with no statistically significant difference between females and males. The individual RNA level ranged from 6.7 to 22.7 μg/ml of blood. In healthy subjects, the repeated sampling of an individual’s blood showed that RNA level, whether high or low, was stable. The inter-individual differences in RNA level in blood can be attributed to both, differences in cell number and the amount of RNA per cell. The 3.4-fold range of inter-individual differences in total RNA levels, documented herein, should be taken into account when evaluating the results of quantitative RT-PCR and/or RNA sequencing studies of human blood. Based on the presented results, a comprehensive assessment of gene expression in blood should involve determination of both the amount of mRNA per unit of total RNA (U / ng RNA) and the amount of mRNA per unit of blood (U / ml blood) to assure a thorough interpretation of physiological or pathological relevance of study results. PMID:26863434

  8. Using eye tracking to test for individual differences in attention to attractive faces

    PubMed Central

    Valuch, Christian; Pflüger, Lena S.; Wallner, Bernard; Laeng, Bruno; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    We assessed individual differences in visual attention toward faces in relation to their attractiveness via saccadic reaction times. Motivated by the aim to understand individual differences in attention to faces, we tested three hypotheses: (a) Attractive faces hold or capture attention more effectively than less attractive faces; (b) men show a stronger bias toward attractive opposite-sex faces than women; and (c) blue-eyed men show a stronger bias toward blue-eyed than brown-eyed feminine faces. The latter test was included because prior research suggested a high effect size. Our data supported hypotheses (a) and (b) but not (c). By conducting separate tests for disengagement of attention and attention capture, we found that individual differences exist at distinct stages of attentional processing but these differences are of varying robustness and importance. In our conclusion, we also advocate the use of linear mixed effects models as the most appropriate statistical approach for studying inter-individual differences in visual attention with naturalistic stimuli. PMID:25698993

  9. Human brain structure predicts individual differences in preconscious evaluation of facial dominance and trustworthiness

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Social cues conveyed by the human face, such as eye gaze direction, are evaluated even before they are consciously perceived. While there is substantial individual variability in such evaluation, its neural basis is unknown. Here we asked whether individual differences in preconscious evaluation of social face traits were associated with local variability in brain structure. Adult human participants (n = 36) monocularly viewed faces varying in dominance and trustworthiness, which were suppressed from awareness by a dynamic noise pattern shown to the other eye. The time taken for faces to emerge from suppression and become visible (t2e) was used as a measure of potency in competing for visual awareness. Both dominant and untrustworthy faces resulted in slower t2e than neutral faces, with substantial individual variability in these effects. Individual differences in t2e were correlated with gray matter volume in right insula for dominant faces, and with gray matter volume in medial prefrontal cortex, right temporoparietal junction and bilateral fusiform face area for untrustworthy faces. Thus, individual differences in preconscious social processing can be predicted from local brain structure, and separable correlates for facial dominance and untrustworthiness suggest distinct mechanisms of preconscious processing. PMID:25193945

  10. Probabilistic Inference: Task Dependency and Individual Differences of Probability Weighting Revealed by Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling.

    PubMed

    Boos, Moritz; Seer, Caroline; Lange, Florian; Kopp, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive determinants of probabilistic inference were examined using hierarchical Bayesian modeling techniques. A classic urn-ball paradigm served as experimental strategy, involving a factorial two (prior probabilities) by two (likelihoods) design. Five computational models of cognitive processes were compared with the observed behavior. Parameter-free Bayesian posterior probabilities and parameter-free base rate neglect provided inadequate models of probabilistic inference. The introduction of distorted subjective probabilities yielded more robust and generalizable results. A general class of (inverted) S-shaped probability weighting functions had been proposed; however, the possibility of large differences in probability distortions not only across experimental conditions, but also across individuals, seems critical for the model's success. It also seems advantageous to consider individual differences in parameters of probability weighting as being sampled from weakly informative prior distributions of individual parameter values. Thus, the results from hierarchical Bayesian modeling converge with previous results in revealing that probability weighting parameters show considerable task dependency and individual differences. Methodologically, this work exemplifies the usefulness of hierarchical Bayesian modeling techniques for cognitive psychology. Theoretically, human probabilistic inference might be best described as the application of individualized strategic policies for Bayesian belief revision.

  11. Human brain structure predicts individual differences in preconscious evaluation of facial dominance and trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Getov, Spas; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

    2015-05-01

    Social cues conveyed by the human face, such as eye gaze direction, are evaluated even before they are consciously perceived. While there is substantial individual variability in such evaluation, its neural basis is unknown. Here we asked whether individual differences in preconscious evaluation of social face traits were associated with local variability in brain structure. Adult human participants (n = 36) monocularly viewed faces varying in dominance and trustworthiness, which were suppressed from awareness by a dynamic noise pattern shown to the other eye. The time taken for faces to emerge from suppression and become visible (t2e) was used as a measure of potency in competing for visual awareness. Both dominant and untrustworthy faces resulted in slower t2e than neutral faces, with substantial individual variability in these effects. Individual differences in t2e were correlated with gray matter volume in right insula for dominant faces, and with gray matter volume in medial prefrontal cortex, right temporoparietal junction and bilateral fusiform face area for untrustworthy faces. Thus, individual differences in preconscious social processing can be predicted from local brain structure, and separable correlates for facial dominance and untrustworthiness suggest distinct mechanisms of preconscious processing.

  12. Probabilistic Inference: Task Dependency and Individual Differences of Probability Weighting Revealed by Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Moritz; Seer, Caroline; Lange, Florian; Kopp, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive determinants of probabilistic inference were examined using hierarchical Bayesian modeling techniques. A classic urn-ball paradigm served as experimental strategy, involving a factorial two (prior probabilities) by two (likelihoods) design. Five computational models of cognitive processes were compared with the observed behavior. Parameter-free Bayesian posterior probabilities and parameter-free base rate neglect provided inadequate models of probabilistic inference. The introduction of distorted subjective probabilities yielded more robust and generalizable results. A general class of (inverted) S-shaped probability weighting functions had been proposed; however, the possibility of large differences in probability distortions not only across experimental conditions, but also across individuals, seems critical for the model's success. It also seems advantageous to consider individual differences in parameters of probability weighting as being sampled from weakly informative prior distributions of individual parameter values. Thus, the results from hierarchical Bayesian modeling converge with previous results in revealing that probability weighting parameters show considerable task dependency and individual differences. Methodologically, this work exemplifies the usefulness of hierarchical Bayesian modeling techniques for cognitive psychology. Theoretically, human probabilistic inference might be best described as the application of individualized strategic policies for Bayesian belief revision. PMID:27303323

  13. Metagenomic Sequencing Indicates That the Oropharyngeal Phageome of Individuals With Schizophrenia Differs From That of Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yolken, Robert H.; Severance, Emily G.; Sabunciyan, Sarven; Gressitt, Kristin L.; Chen, Ou; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy A. B.; Savage, Christina L. G.; Banis, Maria; Khushalani, Sunil; Dickerson, Faith B.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal sites such as the oropharynx contain a wide range of microorganisms, collectively designated as the microbiome. The microbiome can affect behavior through a number of neurobiological and immunological mechanisms. Most previous studies have focused on the bacterial components of the microbiome. However, the microbiome also includes viruses such as bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect bacteria and alter their metabolism and replication. We employed metagenomic analysis to characterize bacteriophage genomes in the oral pharynx of 41 individuals with schizophrenia and 33 control individuals without a psychiatric disorder. This analysis was performed by the generation of more than 100000000 sequence reads from each sample and the mapping of these reads to databases. We identified 79 distinct bacteriophage sequences in the oropharyngeal samples. Of these, one bacteriophage genome, Lactobacillus phage phiadh, was found to be significantly different in individuals with schizophrenia (P < .00037, q < 0.03 adjusted for multiple comparisons). The differential levels of Lactobacillus phage phiadh remained significant when controlling for age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, or cigarette smoking (P < .006). Within the group of individuals with schizophrenia, the level of Lactobacillus phage phiadh correlated with the prevalence of immunological disorders as well as with the administration of valproate, which has been shown in animal models to alter the microbiome. The bacteriophage composition of the oropharynx in individuals with schizophrenia differs from that of controls. The biological consequences of this difference and the potential effects of altering bacteriophage levels through therapeutic interventions are worthy of further investigation. PMID:25666826

  14. Human brain structure predicts individual differences in preconscious evaluation of facial dominance and trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Getov, Spas; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

    2015-05-01

    Social cues conveyed by the human face, such as eye gaze direction, are evaluated even before they are consciously perceived. While there is substantial individual variability in such evaluation, its neural basis is unknown. Here we asked whether individual differences in preconscious evaluation of social face traits were associated with local variability in brain structure. Adult human participants (n = 36) monocularly viewed faces varying in dominance and trustworthiness, which were suppressed from awareness by a dynamic noise pattern shown to the other eye. The time taken for faces to emerge from suppression and become visible (t2e) was used as a measure of potency in competing for visual awareness. Both dominant and untrustworthy faces resulted in slower t2e than neutral faces, with substantial individual variability in these effects. Individual differences in t2e were correlated with gray matter volume in right insula for dominant faces, and with gray matter volume in medial prefrontal cortex, right temporoparietal junction and bilateral fusiform face area for untrustworthy faces. Thus, individual differences in preconscious social processing can be predicted from local brain structure, and separable correlates for facial dominance and untrustworthiness suggest distinct mechanisms of preconscious processing. PMID:25193945

  15. Individual differences in physiologic measures are stable across repeated exposures to total sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Eric Chern‐Pin; Yeo, Sing‐Chen; Lee, Ivan Tian‐Guang; Tan, Luuan‐Chin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Sara S.; Ho Mien, Ivan; Gooley, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Some individuals show severe cognitive impairment when sleep deprived, whereas others are able to maintain a high level of performance. Such differences are stable and trait‐like, but it is not clear whether these findings generalize to physiologic responses to sleep loss. Here, we analyzed individual differences in behavioral and physiologic measures in healthy ethnic‐Chinese male volunteers (n = 12; aged 22–30 years) who were kept awake for at least 26 h in a controlled laboratory environment on two separate occasions. Every 2 h, sustained attention performance was assessed using a 10‐min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and sleepiness was estimated objectively by determining percentage eyelid closure over the pupil over time (PERCLOS) and blink rate. Between‐subject differences in heart rate and its variability, and electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power were also analyzed during each PVT. To assess stability of individual differences, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were determined using variance components analysis. Consistent with previous work, individual differences in PVT performance were reproducible across study visits, as were baseline sleep measures prior to sleep deprivation. In addition, stable individual differences were observed during sleep deprivation for PERCLOS, blink rate, heart rate and its variability, and EEG spectral power in the alpha frequency band, even after adjusting for baseline differences in these measures (range, ICC = 0.67–0.91). These findings establish that changes in ocular, ECG, and EEG signals are highly reproducible across a night of sleep deprivation, hence raising the possibility that, similar to behavioral measures, physiologic responses to sleep loss are trait‐like. PMID:25263200

  16. Individual differences in behavioural inhibition explain free riding in public good games when punishment is expected but not implemented

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature on social dilemmas and punishment focuses on the behaviour of the punisher. However, to fully explain the effect of punishment on cooperation, it is important to understand the psychological mechanisms influencing the behaviour of those who expect to be punished. This paper examines whether the expectation of punishment, rather than the implementation of punishment is sufficient to prevent individuals from free riding. Individual differences in the punishment sensitivity have been linked to both threat responses (flight, fight, fear system, or the FFFS) and to the response to the uncertainty of punishment (BIS-anxiety).The paper, therefore, examines if individual differences in BIS-anxiety and FFFS can explain some of the variability in free riding in the face of implemented and non-implemented punishment. Methods Participants took part in a series of one-shot Public Goods Games (PGGs) facing two punishment conditions (implemented and non-implemented) and two standard non-punishment PGGs. The punishment was implemented as a centralized authority punishment (i.e., if one participant contributed less than their group members, they were automatically fined). Individual contribution levels and presence/absence of zero contributions indexed free riding. Individual differences in behavioural inhibition were assessed. Results Individuals contributed more under the threat of punishment (both implemented and non-implemented). However, individuals contributed less when the punishment was not implemented compared to when it was. Those scoring high in BIS-anxiety contributed more when the punishment expectations were not implemented. This effect was not observed for FFFS. Conclusion Supporting previous research, punishment had a powerful effect in increasing contribution levels in the PGGs. However, when expected punishment was not implemented, individual differences in punishment sensitivity, specifically in BIS-anxiety, were related to fewer

  17. Relationships between individual differences in motivation and borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Larry C

    2013-08-01

    Two studies investigate relationships between individual differences in motivation and borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment. Participants completed the Brief Assessment of Individual Motives 1--Revised, a measure of 15 putative evolved motives (i.e., "traits of action"). In Study 1, N = 147 adult participants also completed the Borderline Personality Questionnaire and Self-Report Psychopathy III Questionnaire (SRP III). In Study 2, N = 135 college age participants also completed the SRP III and the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62. Regression analyses suggested that individual differences in motivational traits account for moderate amounts of variance in measures of antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment. They also suggested that lower motivation to engage in cooperative behaviors (e.g., sharing resources and forming coalitions) is related to impaired interpersonal relationships and maladjustment.

  18. Individual differences in face-looking behavior generalize from the lab to the world.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew F; Lin, Jing; Zaun, Ian; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-05-01

    Recent laboratory studies have found large, stable individual differences in the location people first fixate when identifying faces, ranging from the brows to the mouth. Importantly, this variation is strongly associated with differences in fixation-specific identification performance such that individuals' recognition ability is maximized when looking at their preferred location (Mehoudar, Arizpe, Baker, & Yovel, 2014; Peterson & Eckstein, 2013). This finding suggests that face representations are retinotopic and individuals enact gaze strategies that optimize identification, yet the extent to which this behavior reflects real-world gaze behavior is unknown. Here, we used mobile eye trackers to test whether individual differences in face gaze generalize from lab to real-world vision. In-lab fixations were measured with a speeded face identification task, while real-world behavior was measured as subjects freely walked around the Massachusetts Institute of Technology campus. We found a strong correlation between the patterns of individual differences in face gaze in the lab and real-world settings. Our findings support the hypothesis that individuals optimize real-world face identification by consistently fixating the same location and thus strongly constraining the space of retinotopic input. The methods developed for this study entailed collecting a large set of high-definition, wide field-of-view natural videos from head-mounted cameras and the viewer's fixation position, allowing us to characterize subjects' actually experienced real-world retinotopic images. These images enable us to ask how vision is optimized not just for the statistics of the "natural images" found in web databases, but of the truly natural, retinotopic images that have landed on actual human retinae during real-world experience. PMID:27191940

  19. Cognitive Abilities, Monitoring Confidence, and Control Thresholds Explain Individual Differences in Heuristics and Biases

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina; Howie, Pauline; Stankov, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants (N = 250) completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and Resistance to Framing. Using structural equation modeling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence, and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision-making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation. PMID:27790170

  20. Resting-state Networks Predict Individual Differences in Common and Specific Aspects of Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Reineberg, Andrew E.; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Depue, Brendan; Friedman, Naomi P.; Banich, Marie T.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine relationships between individual differences in resting state functional connectivity as ascertained by fMRI (rs-fcMRI) and performance on tasks of executive function (EF), broadly defined as the ability to regulate thoughts and actions. Unlike most previous research that focused on the relationship between rs-fcMRI and a single behavioral measure of EF, in the current study we examined the relationship of rs-fcMRI with individual differences in subcomponents of EF. Ninety-one adults completed a resting state fMRI scan and three separate EF tasks outside the magnet: inhibition of prepotent responses, task set shifting, and working memory updating. From these three measures, we derived estimates of common aspects of EF, as well as abilities specific to working memory updating and task shifting. Using Independent Components Analysis (ICA), we identified across the group of participants several networks of regions (Resting State Networks, RSNs) with temporally correlated time courses. We then used dual regression to explore how these RSNs covaried with individual differences in EF. Dual regression revealed that increased higher common EF was associated with connectivity of a) frontal pole with an attentional RSN, and b) Crus I and II of the cerebellum with the right frontoparietal RSN. Moreover, higher shifting-specific abilities were associated with increased connectivity of angular gyrus with a ventral attention RSN. The results of the current study suggest that the organization of the brain at rest may have important implications for individual differences in EF, and that individuals higher in EF may have expanded resting state networks as compared to individuals with lower EF. PMID:25281800

  1. Assessment of individual differences in the rat nucleus accumbens transcriptome following taste-heroin extended access.

    PubMed

    Imperio, Caesar G; McFalls, Ashley J; Colechio, Elizabeth M; Masser, Dustin R; Vrana, Kent E; Grigson, Patricia S; Freeman, Willard M

    2016-05-01

    Heroin addiction is a disease of chronic relapse that harms the individual through devaluation of personal responsibilities in favor of finding and using drugs. Only some recreational heroin users devolve into addiction but the basis of these individual differences is not known. We have shown in rats that avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue reliably identifies individual animals with greater addiction-like behavior for heroin. Here rats received 5min access to a 0.15% saccharin solution followed by the opportunity to self-administer either saline or heroin for 6h. Large Suppressors of the heroin-paired taste cue displayed increased drug escalation, motivation for drug, and drug loading behavior compared with Small Suppressors. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these individual differences in addiction-like behavior. We examined the individual differences in mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats that were behaviorally stratified by addiction-like behavior using next-generation sequencing. We hypothesized that based on the avoidance of the drug-paired cue there will be a unique mRNA profile in the NAc. Analysis of strand-specific whole genome RNA-Seq data revealed a number of genes differentially regulated in NAc based on the suppression of the natural saccharine reward. Large Suppressors exhibited a unique mRNA prolife compared to Saline controls and Small Suppressors. Genes related to immunity, neuronal activity, and behavior were differentially expressed among the 3 groups. In total, individual differences in avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue are associated with addiction-like behavior along with differential NAc gene expression. PMID:26733446

  2. Individual differences in face-looking behavior generalize from the lab to the world.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew F; Lin, Jing; Zaun, Ian; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-05-01

    Recent laboratory studies have found large, stable individual differences in the location people first fixate when identifying faces, ranging from the brows to the mouth. Importantly, this variation is strongly associated with differences in fixation-specific identification performance such that individuals' recognition ability is maximized when looking at their preferred location (Mehoudar, Arizpe, Baker, & Yovel, 2014; Peterson & Eckstein, 2013). This finding suggests that face representations are retinotopic and individuals enact gaze strategies that optimize identification, yet the extent to which this behavior reflects real-world gaze behavior is unknown. Here, we used mobile eye trackers to test whether individual differences in face gaze generalize from lab to real-world vision. In-lab fixations were measured with a speeded face identification task, while real-world behavior was measured as subjects freely walked around the Massachusetts Institute of Technology campus. We found a strong correlation between the patterns of individual differences in face gaze in the lab and real-world settings. Our findings support the hypothesis that individuals optimize real-world face identification by consistently fixating the same location and thus strongly constraining the space of retinotopic input. The methods developed for this study entailed collecting a large set of high-definition, wide field-of-view natural videos from head-mounted cameras and the viewer's fixation position, allowing us to characterize subjects' actually experienced real-world retinotopic images. These images enable us to ask how vision is optimized not just for the statistics of the "natural images" found in web databases, but of the truly natural, retinotopic images that have landed on actual human retinae during real-world experience.

  3. Feature-Based Change Detection Reveals Inconsistent Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Joseph P.; Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a key cognitive system that enables people to hold visual information in mind after a stimulus has been removed and compare past and present to detect changes that have occurred. VWM is severely capacity limited to around 3–4 items, although there are robust individual differences in this limit. Importantly, these individual differences are evident in neural measures of VWM capacity. Here, we capitalized on recent work showing that capacity is lower for more complex stimulus dimension. In particular, we asked whether individual differences in capacity remain consistent if capacity is shifted by a more demanding task, and, further, whether the correspondence between behavioral and neural measures holds across a shift in VWM capacity. Participants completed a change detection (CD) task with simple colors and complex shapes in an fMRI experiment. As expected, capacity was significantly lower for the shape dimension. Moreover, there were robust individual differences in behavioral estimates of VWM capacity across dimensions. Similarly, participants with a stronger BOLD response for color also showed a strong neural response for shape within the lateral occipital cortex, intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and superior IPS. Although there were robust individual differences in the behavioral and neural measures, we found little evidence of systematic brain-behavior correlations across feature dimensions. This suggests that behavioral and neural measures of capacity provide different views onto the processes that underlie VWM and CD. Recent theoretical approaches that attempt to bridge between behavioral and neural measures are well positioned to address these findings in future work. PMID:27147986

  4. Feature-Based Change Detection Reveals Inconsistent Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Joseph P; Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Buss, Aaron T; Spencer, John P

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a key cognitive system that enables people to hold visual information in mind after a stimulus has been removed and compare past and present to detect changes that have occurred. VWM is severely capacity limited to around 3-4 items, although there are robust individual differences in this limit. Importantly, these individual differences are evident in neural measures of VWM capacity. Here, we capitalized on recent work showing that capacity is lower for more complex stimulus dimension. In particular, we asked whether individual differences in capacity remain consistent if capacity is shifted by a more demanding task, and, further, whether the correspondence between behavioral and neural measures holds across a shift in VWM capacity. Participants completed a change detection (CD) task with simple colors and complex shapes in an fMRI experiment. As expected, capacity was significantly lower for the shape dimension. Moreover, there were robust individual differences in behavioral estimates of VWM capacity across dimensions. Similarly, participants with a stronger BOLD response for color also showed a strong neural response for shape within the lateral occipital cortex, intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and superior IPS. Although there were robust individual differences in the behavioral and neural measures, we found little evidence of systematic brain-behavior correlations across feature dimensions. This suggests that behavioral and neural measures of capacity provide different views onto the processes that underlie VWM and CD. Recent theoretical approaches that attempt to bridge between behavioral and neural measures are well positioned to address these findings in future work. PMID:27147986

  5. Individual differences in auditory sentence comprehension in children: An exploratory event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation.

    PubMed

    Yeatman, Jason D; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Glover, Gary H; Feldman, Heidi M

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore changes in activation of the cortical network that serves auditory sentence comprehension in children in response to increasing demands of complex sentences. A further goal is to study how individual differences in children's receptive language abilities are associated with such changes in cortical responses. Fourteen children, 10-16 years old, participated in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a cross modal sentence-picture verification paradigm. We manipulated sentence difficulty and length in a 2x2 factorial design. Task-related activation covered large regions of the left and right superior temporal cortex, inferior parietal lobe, precuneous, cingulate, middle frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus. Sentence difficulty, independent of length, led to increased activation in the left temporal-parietal junction and right superior temporal gyrus. Changes in activation in frontal regions positively correlated with age-standardized receptive vocabulary scores and negatively correlated with reaction time on a receptive grammar test outside the scanner. Thus, individual differences in language skills were associated with changes in the network in response to changing task demands. These preliminary findings in a small sample of typically developing children suggest that the investigation of individual differences may prove useful in elucidating the underlying neural mechanisms of language disorders in children.

  6. Using individual differences to predict job performance: correcting for direct and indirect restriction of range.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Sofia; Sjöberg, Anders; Näswall, Katharina; Sverke, Magnus

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between individual differences, indicated by personality (FFM) and general mental ability (GMA), and job performance applying two different methods of correction for range restriction. The results, derived by analyzing meta-analytic correlations, show that the more accurate method of correcting for indirect range restriction increased the operational validity of individual differences in predicting job performance and that this increase primarily was due to general mental ability being a stronger predictor than any of the personality traits. The estimates for single traits can be applied in practice to maximize prediction of job performance. Further, differences in the relative importance of general mental ability in relation to overall personality assessment methods was substantive and the estimates provided enables practitioners to perform a correct utility analysis of their overall selection procedure. PMID:22612634

  7. Kids See Human Too: Adapting an Individual Differences Measure of Anthropomorphism for a Child Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severson, Rachel L.; Lemm, Kristi M.

    2016-01-01

    The study of anthropomorphism in adults has received considerable interest with the development of the Individual Differences in Anthropomorphism Questionnaire (IDAQ; Waytz, Cacioppo, & Epley, 2010). Anthropomorphism in children--its development, correlates, and consequences--is also of significant interest, yet a comparable measure does not…

  8. Individual Differences in Written Corrective Feedback: A Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Su; Li, Pengjing

    2012-01-01

    Written corrective feedback (WCF) has been a long time practice in L2 writing instruction. However, in many cases, the effects are not satisfactory. There have been controversies about it both theoretically and empirically. This paper reports a multi-case study exploring individual differences that impact learners' responses to WCF. Four students'…

  9. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Hambrick, David Z.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have established that "online" cognitive processes, which operate during conscious encoding and retrieval of information, contribute substantially to individual differences in memory. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that "offline" processes during sleep also contribute to memory performance. However, the question of whether…

  10. Neurobiological and Endocrine Correlates of Individual Differences in Spatial Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandi, Carmen; Cordero, M. Isabel; Merino, Jose J.; Kruyt, Nyika D.; Regan, Ciaran M.; Murphy, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) has been implicated in activity-dependent synaptic remodeling and memory formation. Here, we questioned whether training-induced modulation of PSA-NCAM expression might be related to individual differences in spatial learning abilities. At 12 h posttraining, immunohistochemical analyses…

  11. Learning and Individual Differences: An Ability/Information-Processing Framework for Skill Acquisition. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    A program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition is reviewed. An integrative framework for information-processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is reviewed, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Experimental manipulations were used to…

  12. Vocational Rehabilitation Service Patterns and Outcomes for Individuals with Autism of Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, June L.; Sung, Connie; Pi, Sukyeong

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often experience employment difficulties. Using Rehabilitation Service Administration data (RSA-911), this study investigated the service patterns and factors related to the employment outcomes of individuals with ASD in different age groups. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted…

  13. Individual Differences in Decision-Making and Confidence: Capturing Decision Tendencies in a Fictitious Medical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is a complex process that is largely studied from an experimental perspective or in specific organizational contexts. As such, no generalizable framework exists with which to study decision-making from an individual differences perspective for predictive/selection purposes. By generalising a context-specific decision model proposed…

  14. Individual Differences in Children's and Parents' Generic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("'Dogs' bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children's learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked…

  15. Lexical Precision in Skilled Readers: Individual Differences in Masked Neighbor Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sally; Hersch, Jolyn

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the relationship between masked form priming and individual differences in reading and spelling proficiency among university students. Experiment 1 assessed neighbor priming for 4-letter word targets from high- and low-density neighborhoods in 97 university students. The overall results replicated previous evidence of…

  16. Educational Barriers of Rural Youth: Relation of Individual and Contextual Difference Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Hutchins, Bryan C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of several individual and contextual difference factors to the perceived educational barriers of rural youth. Data were from a broader national investigation of students' postsecondary aspirations and preparation in rural high schools across the United States. The sample involved more than…

  17. Determinants of Success in Native and Non-Native Listening Comprehension: An Individual Differences Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…

  18. The Multifold Relationship between Memory and Decision Making: An Individual-Differences Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo; Hansson, Patrik; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M.; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Several judgment and decision-making tasks are assumed to involve memory functions, but significant knowledge gaps on the memory processes underlying these tasks remain. In a study on 568 adults between 25 and 80 years of age, hypotheses were tested on the specific relationships between individual differences in working memory, episodic memory,…

  19. The Relation between Navigation Strategy and Associative Memory: An Individual Differences Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Chi T.; Weisberg, Steven M.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the hippocampus is implicated in both spatial navigation and associative memory, very little is known about whether individual differences in the 2 domains covary. People who prefer to navigate using a hippocampal-dependent place strategy may show better performance on associative memory tasks than those who prefer a caudate-dependent…

  20. Structural Model of Employee Involvement in Skill Development Activity: The Role of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Todd J.; Lippstreu, Michael; Judge, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    We extend prior research on involvement in employee development activity by including prominent individual difference constructs that have been previously ignored in this area of research. These include two important personality characteristics (conscientiousness and openness to experience), mental ability and goal orientation constructs. We…

  1. Individual Differences in Formal Operational Thought: Sex Role and Learned Helplessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Willis F.; Meehan, Anita M.

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate sex-role identity and learned helplessness as possible mediating factors affecting performance on formal operational tasks, the responses of 60 male and female adolescents were assessed. Contrary to expectations, the performances of individuals with feminine versus masculine sex roles did not differ significantly.…

  2. Encoding strategy accounts for individual differences in change detection measures of VSTM.

    PubMed

    Linke, A C; Vicente-Grabovetsky, A; Mitchell, D J; Cusack, R

    2011-05-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity is often assessed using change detection tasks, and individual differences in performance have been shown to predict cognitive aptitudes across a range of domains in children and adults. We recently showed that intelligence correlates with an attentional component necessary for change detection rather than with memory capacity per se (Cusack, Lehmann, Veldsman, & Mitchell, 2009). It remained unclear, however, whether different attentional strategies during change detection have most impact during the encoding or maintenance of information. Here we present recent findings from our laboratory supporting the hypothesis that attentional selection during encoding dominates individual differences in change detection measures of visual short-term memory. In a first study, we unpredictably varied whether short-term memory was probed using change detection or whole report, encouraging participants to adopt the same encoding strategy throughout the tasks. Change detection performance of lower-IQ individuals improved. In a second study, we found that deficits in top-down attentional selectivity can be alleviated in participants with low change detection performance by providing helpful grouping information during encoding. Finally, a meta-analysis of neuroimaging data from 112 participants performing a variety of VSTM tasks showed that performance correlates with activity in several parietal and frontal regions during the encoding but not the maintenance phase. Taken together, these results support the notion that encoding strategy and not short-term memory capacity itself largely determines individual differences in visual change detection performance.

  3. The Onion Model: Myth or Reality in the Field of Individual Differences Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cools, Eva; Bellens, Kim

    2012-01-01

    To bring order in concepts related to individual learner differences, Curry (1983) designed the three-layered onion model. As this model provides an interesting way to distinguish related concepts--such as cognitive styles and approaches to studying--on the basis of their stability in learning situations, ample studies build further on this model.…

  4. Effects of Situated Learning on Students' Knowledge Acquisition: An Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of situated learning on students' knowledge acquisition by investigating the influence of individual differences in such learning. Seventy-nine graduates were recruited from an educational department and were assigned to situated learning and traditional learning based on a randomized block design. Results…

  5. Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer…

  6. Sex and boldness explain individual differences in spatial learning in a lizard.

    PubMed

    Carazo, Pau; Noble, Daniel W A; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2014-05-01

    Understanding individual differences in cognitive performance is a major challenge to animal behaviour and cognition studies. We used the Eastern water skink (Eulamprus quoyii) to examine associations between exploration, boldness and individual variability in spatial learning, a dimension of lizard cognition with important bearing on fitness. We show that males perform better than females in a biologically relevant spatial learning task. This is the first evidence for sex differences in learning in a reptile, and we argue that it is probably owing to sex-specific selective pressures that may be widespread in lizards. Across the sexes, we found a clear association between boldness after a simulated predatory attack and the probability of learning the spatial task. In contrast to previous studies, we found a nonlinear association between boldness and learning: both 'bold' and 'shy' behavioural types were more successful learners than intermediate males. Our results do not fit with recent predictions suggesting that individual differences in learning may be linked with behavioural types via high-low-risk/reward trade-offs. We suggest the possibility that differences in spatial cognitive performance may arise in lizards as a consequence of the distinct environmental variability and complexity experienced by individuals as a result of their sex and social tactics.

  7. The Assessment of Meta-Cognition in Different Contexts: Individualized vs. Peer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Adina; Mevarech, Zemira R.; Gida, Carmit

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of assessing young children's meta-cognition in different contexts (i.e., individual learning (IL), peer assisted learning (PAL) and self-reports). Additionally, the contributions of declarative and procedural meta-cognition in IL and PAL, TOM and language ability on children's cognitive performance…

  8. The Role of Some Individual Differences in Understanding Chemical Changes: A Study in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypraios, Nikolaos; Papageorgiou, George; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    In this study, students' understanding of chemical changes was investigated in relation to four individual differences, related to logical thinking, field dependence/independence, convergence and divergence thinking. The study took place in Greece with the participation of students (n = 374) from three grades (8th, 10th and 12th grades) of…

  9. Age Differences within Secular IQ Trends: An Individual Growth Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen J.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2005-01-01

    Age differences within the yo-yo trend in IQ, caused when aging norms that produce inflated scores are replaced with new norms, were examined using longitudinal WISC, WISC-R and WISC-III records of students tested for special education services from 10 school districts. Descriptive and individual growth modeling analyses revealed that while the…

  10. The Importance of Managing Interference for Second Language Reading Ability: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamasaki, Brianna L.; Prat, Chantel S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on individual differences in second language (L2) reading ability has primarily focused on factors known to contribute to first language (L1) reading ability, with little consideration of factors mediating interference between languages. In an exploratory analysis, we compared the degree to which the linguistic interference that readers…

  11. Variability in Second Language Learning: The Roles of Individual Differences, Learning Conditions, and Linguistic Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagarelli, Kaitlyn M.; Ruiz, Simón; Vega, José Luis Moreno; Rebuschat, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Second language learning outcomes are highly variable, due to a variety of factors, including individual differences, exposure conditions, and linguistic complexity. However, exactly how these factors interact to influence language learning is unknown. This article examines the relationship between these three variables in language learners.…

  12. Individual Differences in Children's Knowledge of Expository Text Structures: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Melissa N.; Meyer, Bonnie J. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this review of literature we examine empirical research of individual differences in younger readers' knowledge and use of expository text structures. The goal of this review is to explore the influence of reader and text characteristics in order to better understand the instructional needs of elementary school readers. First we review research…

  13. Investigating the Missing Link in Flexible Work Arrangement Utilization: An Individual Difference Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kristen M.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between individual differences and flexible work arrangement use. Three need-based motivational factors (need for affiliation at work, need for segmentation of work from other life roles, need for occupational achievement) were examined in relation to extent of flextime and flexplace use.…

  14. Individual Differences in the Effects of Retrieval from Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Gene A.; Unsworth, Nash

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…

  15. Relative Endurance and Physiological Responses: A Study of Individual Differences in Prepubescent Boys and Adult Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sady, Stanley P.; Katch, Victor L.

    1981-01-01

    The oxygen uptake and heart rate of men and boys were determined and compared using a continuous incremental bicycle ergometer test. Both groups had similar patterns for consistency, but the children had smaller individual difference variations for both oxygen uptake and heart rate. (FG)

  16. Individual Differences in the Expression of Conditioned Fear Are Associated with Endogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    These experiments examined the relationship between the neurotrophic factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and individual differences in the expression of conditioned fear. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that rats naturally expressing low levels of contextual or cued fear have higher levels of hippocampal FGF2 relative to rats that express…

  17. Individual and Sex Differences in the Consequences of Victimization: Moderation by Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Peer victimization is a known risk factor for various forms of maladjustment; however, the specific type of maladjustment may depend on individual differences in youth. This 2-wave longitudinal study examined the hypothesis that social approach-avoidance motivation, together with sex, would moderate the contribution of 3rd-grade victimization to…

  18. Individual Differences in Mathematical Competence Modulate Brain Responses to Arithmetic Errors: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Koschutnig, Karl; Reishofer, Gernot; Ebner, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Data from both neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the left inferior parietal cortex in calculation. Comparatively less attention has been paid to the neural responses associated with the commission of calculation errors and how the processing of arithmetic errors is modulated by individual differences in mathematical…

  19. Individual Differences in Adolescents' Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Functioning Moderate Associations between Family Environment and Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…

  20. Evaluating the Power of Latent Growth Curve Models to Detect Individual Differences in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Christopher; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the statistical power of single-indicator latent growth curve models to detect individual differences in change (variances of latent slopes) as a function of sample size, number of longitudinal measurement occasions, and growth curve reliability. We recommend the 2 degree-of-freedom generalized test assessing loss of fit when both…

  1. Identifying Individual Differences among Doctoral Candidates: A Framework for Understanding Problematic Candidature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Robert H.; Scevak, Jill J.; Bourke, Sid; Holbrook, Allyson

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how candidates cope with the demands of PhD candidature is important for institutions, supervisors and candidates. Individual differences in affective and metacognitive disposition were explored in 263 PhD candidates from two Australian universities. Several questionnaires relating to affective and metacognitive beliefs were…

  2. Sender Demeanor: Individual Differences in Sender Believability Have a Powerful Impact on Deception Detection Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Serota, Kim B.; Shulman, Hillary; Clare, David D.; Park, Hee Sun; Shaw, Allison S.; Shim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jung Hyon

    2011-01-01

    Sender demeanor is an individual difference in the believability of message senders that is conceptually independent of actual honesty. Recent research suggests that sender demeanor may be the most influential source of variation in deception detection judgments. Sender demeanor was varied in five experiments (N = 30, 113, 182, 30, and 35) to…

  3. Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Reply to O'Sullivan (2008) and Pigott and Wu (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles F., Jr.; DePaulo, Bella M.

    2008-01-01

    C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo reported a quantitative synthesis of individual differences in judging deception. Here, the authors respond to a pair of commentaries on this synthesis: a statistical critique by T. D. Pigott and M. J. Wu and a narrative reaction by M. O'Sullivan. In response to suggestions made by Pigott and Wu, the authors conduct…

  4. Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

  5. Semantic Preview Benefit in English: Individual Differences in the Extraction and Use of Parafoveal Semantic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Although there is robust evidence that skilled readers of English extract and use orthographic and phonological information from the parafovea to facilitate word identification, semantic preview benefits have been elusive. We sought to establish whether individual differences in the extraction and/or use of parafoveal semantic information could…

  6. Individual Differences in the Relationship between Satisfaction with Job Rewards and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmans, Joeri; De Gieter, Sara; Pepermans, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Although previous research often showed a positive relationship between pay satisfaction and job satisfaction, we dispute the universality of this finding. Cluster-wise regression analyses on three samples consistently show that two types of individuals can be distinguished, each with a different job reward-job satisfaction relationship. For the…

  7. Educational Outcomes for Children At-Risk: The Influence of Individual Differences in Children's Temperaments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hendawi, Maha; Reed, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in temperament can be protective or risk factors that may enhance or interfere with children's healthy development and educational success. This study examined the concurrent and predictive relationships between temperament, school adjustment, and academic achievement in children at-risk. Seventy-seven children at-risk, ages…

  8. Not All Skilled Readers Have Cracked the Code: Individual Differences in Masked Form Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sally; Lo, Steson

    2012-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether individual differences in written language proficiency among university students predict the early stages of lexical retrieval tapped by the masked form priming lexical decision task. To separate the contributions of sublexical facilitation and lexical competition to masked form priming, the effects of prime…

  9. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN STUDENT TENDENCIES TO PERSEVERE--MANIFESTATIONS OF NEURAL TRACE PERSISTENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAPLAN, RACHEL

    THE CONCEPT OF PERSERVATION WAS EXTENDED TO A MORE NEURAL LEVEL TO INCLUDE PERSISTENCE OF TRACE ACTIVITY, AND A STUDY WAS MADE TO SEARCH FOR THE DIMENSIONS OF TRACE PERSISTENCE. THE STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO IDENTIFY BEHAVIORAL DIFFERENCES OF INDIVIDUAL LEARNING PROCESSES AMONG STUDENTS. THE STUDY DID NOT TAKE THE TRADITIONAL PERSONALITY-MOTIVATION…

  10. A Strategy of Professional Development for Dealing with Individual Differences in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer-Hayon, Lya; Ben-Peretz, Miriam

    1985-01-01

    This article relates to two problems: how to deal with individual differences in heterogeneous classes and how to plan and implement professional development programs in this area. The planning and implementation of such a program through a process of collaboration between researchers and teachers is reported in the study. (Author)

  11. An Examination of the Differences between Type A and B Individuals on Hardiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, James P.; And Others

    This study examined the differences between Type A and B individuals and their hardiness. Although it is thought to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, the role of Type A behavior in other disease processes or general health has not been established. Because Type A has been hypothesized to be a maladaptive coping strategy…

  12. Individual Differences in General Intelligence Correlate with Brain Function during Nonreasoning Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haier, Richard J.; White, Nathan S.; Alkire, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Administered Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices to 22 adults and measured cerebral glucose activity as subjects viewed videos on 2 occasions. Data provide evidence that individual differences in intelligence correlate with brain function even when the brain is engaged in non-reasoning tasks. (SLD)

  13. Individual Differences in Emotional Reactivity and Academic Achievement: A Psychophysiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta; Pastore, Massimiliano; Mason, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Factors related to grade point average (GPA) are of great importance for students' success. Yet, little is known about the impact of individual differences in emotional reactivity on students' academic performance. We aimed to examine the emotional reactivity-GPA link and to assess whether self-esteem and psychological distress moderate this…

  14. Working Memory and Mathematics: A Review of Developmental, Individual Difference, and Cognitive Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Hecht, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Working memory refers to a mental workspace, involved in controlling, regulating, and actively maintaining relevant information to accomplish complex cognitive tasks (e.g. mathematical processing). Despite the potential relevance of a relation between working memory and math for understanding developmental and individual differences in…

  15. Structural covariance networks of the dorsal anterior insula predict females' individual differences in empathic responding.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Klimecki, Olga M; Leiberg, Susanne; Singer, Tania

    2014-08-01

    Previous functional imaging studies have shown key roles of the dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) in empathy for the suffering of others. The current study mapped structural covariance networks of these regions and assessed the relationship between networks and individual differences in empathic responding in 94 females. Individual differences in empathy were assessed through average state measures in response to a video task showing others' suffering, and through questionnaire-based trait measures of empathic concern. Overall, covariance patterns indicated that dAI and aMCC are principal hubs within prefrontal, temporolimbic, and midline structural covariance networks. Importantly, participants with high empathy state ratings showed increased covariance of dAI, but not aMCC, to prefrontal and limbic brain regions. This relationship was specific for empathy and could not be explained by individual differences in negative affect ratings. Regarding questionnaire-based empathic trait measures, we observed a similar, albeit weaker modulation of dAI covariance, confirming the robustness of our findings. Our analysis, thus, provides novel evidence for a specific contribution of frontolimbic structural covariance networks to individual differences in social emotions beyond negative affect.

  16. A Cognitive Processing Account of Individual Differences in Novice Logo Programmers' Conceptualisation and Use of Recursion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated individual differences in the construction of mental models of recursion in LOGO programming. The learning process was investigated from the perspective of Norman's mental models theory and employed diSessa's ontology regarding distributed, functional, and surrogate mental models, and the Luria model of brain…

  17. A Formative Analysis of Individual Differences in the Effectiveness of Learning Objects in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in the effectiveness of learning objects in secondary school classrooms. Specifically, gender, age, grade, subject area, and computer comfort (self-efficacy) were examined in 850 students. Effectiveness was measured in terms of student attitude (learning, quality, and engagement) and…

  18. Phonological Development from Babbling to Speech: Common Tendencies and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vihman, Marilyn May; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Using Locke's 1983 model, analyzes one tendency, consonant use in babbling and early words, and phonological word-selection patterns in 10 children, aged 8 to 16 months. Individual differences were found in all three domains analyzed, with some increase in uniformity across subjects with increasing knowledge of language. (Author/SED)

  19. Is Reading Different for Deaf Individuals? Reexamining the Role of Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Connie; Trezek, Beverly J.

    2014-01-01

    A quarter century ago, Hanson (1989) asked, "Is reading different for deaf individuals?" (p. 85). Appealing to evidence available at the time, she argued that skilled deaf readers, like their hearing counterparts, relied on their knowledge of English structure, including phonological information. This perspective on the role phonology…

  20. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Action Monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Eve; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in…