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Sample records for individual differences standardization

  1. Differences in motor variability among individuals performing a standardized short-cycle manual task.

    PubMed

    Sandlund, Jonas; Srinivasan, Divya; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2017-01-01

    Motor variability (MV) has been suggested to be a determinant of the risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive work. In this study we examined whether individuals consistently differed in the extent of motor variability when performing a standardized short-cycle manual task. On three separate days, arm kinematics was recorded in 14 healthy subjects performing a pipetting task, transferring liquid from a pick-up tube to eight target tubes with a cycle time of 2.8s. Cycle-to-cycle standard deviations (SD) of a large selection of shoulder and elbow kinematic variables, were processed using principal component analysis (PCA). Thereafter, between-subjects and between-days (within-subject) variance components were calculated using a random effects model for each of four extracted principal components. The results showed that MV differed consistently between subjects (95% confidence intervals of the between-subjects variances did not include zero) and that subjects differed consistently in MV between days. Thus, our results support the notion that MV may be a consistent personal trait, even though further research is needed to verify whether individuals rank consistently in MV even across tasks. If so, MV may be a candidate determinant of the risk of developing fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive occupational work.

  2. A standardized mean difference effect size for multiple baseline designs across individuals.

    PubMed

    Hedges, Larry V; Pustejovsky, James E; Shadish, William R

    2013-12-01

    Single-case designs are a class of research methods for evaluating treatment effects by measuring outcomes repeatedly over time while systematically introducing different condition (e.g., treatment and control) to the same individual. The designs are used across fields such as behavior analysis, clinical psychology, special education, and medicine. Emerging standards for single-case designs have focused attention on methods for summarizing and meta-analyzing findings and on the need for effect sizes indices that are comparable to those used in between-subjects designs. In the previous work, we discussed how to define and estimate an effect size that is directly comparable to the standardized mean difference often used in between-subjects research based on the data from a particular type of single-case design, the treatment reversal or (AB)(k) design. This paper extends the effect size measure to another type of single-case study, the multiple baseline design. We propose estimation methods for the effect size and its variance, study the estimators using simulation, and demonstrate the approach in two applications. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A Standardized Mean Difference Effect Size for Multiple Baseline Designs across Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Pustejovsky, James E.; Shadish, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Single-case designs are a class of research methods for evaluating treatment effects by measuring outcomes repeatedly over time while systematically introducing different condition (e.g., treatment and control) to the same individual. The designs are used across fields such as behavior analysis, clinical psychology, special education, and…

  4. A Standardized Mean Difference Effect Size for Multiple Baseline Designs across Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Pustejovsky, James E.; Shadish, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Single-case designs are a class of research methods for evaluating treatment effects by measuring outcomes repeatedly over time while systematically introducing different condition (e.g., treatment and control) to the same individual. The designs are used across fields such as behavior analysis, clinical psychology, special education, and…

  5. Technology and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Albert R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six papers on special education technology and individual differences are introduced. The papers illustrate the growing influence of constructivist perspectives on the use of technology to accommodate individual differences among people. The papers recognize the importance of using technology to scaffold the client's construction of different…

  6. Classroom Demonstrations: Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Sandra M.

    These demonstrations stress individual differences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individual differences: taste blindness,…

  7. Technology and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Albert R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six papers on special education technology and individual differences are introduced. The papers illustrate the growing influence of constructivist perspectives on the use of technology to accommodate individual differences among people. The papers recognize the importance of using technology to scaffold the client's construction of different…

  8. Standardization of individual dosimetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallini, A.

    1983-10-01

    The activities of an Italian operating group for the standardization of individual dosimeters are discussed. Intercalibration was performed for about 10,000 individual dosimeters in order to analyze systematic and random measuring errors. The validity of normalized inspection procedures was examined and the necessity of periodic checks was considered. Legislation is proposed including a technical inspection prior to authorization to start a dosimetry center and a norm for periodic controls of dosimetry services. The creation of a dosimetric data bank is also suggested.

  9. Individual Differences in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on individual differences in learning. "Novice and Expert Learning: Impact on Training" (Barbara J. Daley) reports on a study in which 20 novice and expert nurses were interviewed to identify their different learning processes and the factors that facilitated or hindered their learning.…

  10. Accepting Individual Differences: Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Shirley; And Others

    The overview, the first in a series of five manuals, describes the goals of the AID (Accepting Individual Differences) curriculum of fostering acceptance and respect for differences, as exemplified by disabilities. Briefly discussed in the guide's section on the curriculum's rationale are need, assumptions (such as that handicapped individuals…

  11. Convergent individual differences in visual cortices, but not the amygdala across standard amygdalar fMRI probe tasks.

    PubMed

    Villalta-Gil, Victoria; Hinton, Kendra E; Landman, Bennett A; Yvernault, Benjamin C; Perkins, Scott F; Katsantonis, Allison S; Sellani, Courtney L; Lahey, Benjamin B; Zald, David H

    2017-02-01

    The amygdala (AMG) has been repeatedly implicated in the processing of threatening and negatively valenced stimuli and multiple fMRI paradigms have reported personality, genetic, and psychopathological associations with individual differences in AMG activation in these paradigms. Yet the interchangeability of activations in these probes has not been established, thus it remains unclear if we can interpret AMG responses on specific tasks as general markers of its reactivity. In this study we aimed to assess if different tasks that have been widely used within the Affective Neuroscience literature consistently recruit the AMG.

  12. Individual Differences in Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Jeannette

    This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

  13. A cognitive neuroscience-based computerized battery for efficient measurement of individual differences: standardization and initial construct validation.

    PubMed

    Gur, Ruben C; Richard, Jan; Hughett, Paul; Calkins, Monica E; Macy, Larry; Bilker, Warren B; Brensinger, Colleen; Gur, Raquel E

    2010-03-30

    There is increased need for efficient computerized methods to collect reliable data on a range of cognitive domains that can be linked to specific brain systems. Such need arises in functional neuroimaging studies, where individual differences in cognitive performance are variables of interest or serve as confounds. In genetic studies of complex behavior, which require particularly large samples, such trait measures can serve as endophenotypes. Traditional neuropsychological tests, based on clinical pathological correlations, are protracted, require extensive training in administration and scoring, and leave lengthy paper trails (double-entry for analysis). We present a computerized battery that takes an average of 1h and provides measures of accuracy and speed on 9 neurocognitive domains. They are cognitive neuroscience-based in that they have been linked experimentally to specific brain systems with functional neuroimaging studies. We describe the process of translating tasks used in functional neuroimaging to tests for assessing individual differences. Data are presented on each test with samples ranging from 139 (81 female) to 536 (311 female) of carefully screened healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 84. Item consistency was established with acceptable to high Cronbach alpha coefficients. Inter-item correlations were moderate to high within domain and low to nil across domains, indicating construct validity. Initial criterion validity was demonstrated by sensitivity to sex differences and the effects of age, education and parental education. These results encourage the use of this battery in studies needing an efficient assessment of major neurocognitive domains such as multi-site genetic studies and clinical trials.

  14. Individual Differences in Attention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-18

    equally often (viz., 34 times ). In the one-familiar condition, the same familiar word appeared in every attention display along with three novel...Classification) Individual Differences in Attention 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) William A. Johnston, K vin J. Hawley, and M. 4ann Farah 13a. TYPE OF REPORT...13b TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Final IFROMLI2aT5LI/388 88/7/18 10 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES

  15. Individual differences in Pollyannaism.

    PubMed

    Matlin, M W; Gawron, V J

    1979-08-01

    The Pollyanna Principle states that people process pleasant information more accurately and efficiently than less pleasant information. This study examined whether different measures of Pollyanna tendencies are correlated with each other. Fourteen measures of Pollyannaism were derived for 133 students. The results showed that subjects who rated themselves as optimistic or happy also showed Pollyannaism on other measures of happiness, believed that the events in their lives were pleasant, gave themselves positive ratings on personality characteristics, recalled pleasant words more often than unpleasant words, supplied more free associations to pleasant stimuli than to unpleasant stimuli, listed pleasant items first, and judged that pleasant words were more frequent in the English language.

  16. Individual Differences in Equity Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmans, Joeri

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we (1) study whether people differ in the equity models they use, and (2) test whether individual differences in equity models relate to individual differences in equity sensitivity. To achieve this goal, an Information Integration experiment was performed in which participants were given information on the performance of two…

  17. Do different standard plate counting (IDF/ISSO or AOAC) methods interfere in the conversion of individual bacteria counts to colony forming units in raw milk?

    PubMed

    Cassoli, L D; Lima, W J F; Esguerra, J C; Da Silva, J; Machado, P F; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to establish the correlation between individual bacterial count (IBC) obtained by flow cytometry and the number of colony forming units (CFU) determined by standard plate count (SPC) in raw milk using two different reference methodologies: the methodology of the International Dairy Federation (IDF) - International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833, incubation for 72 h at 30°C and the methodology of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), incubation for 48 h at 35°C. For this, 100 bovine milk samples (80 ml) from different farms were collected in a sterile bottle and maintained refrigerated at 4°C and were delivered to the laboratory. In the laboratory, the samples were divided into two vials of 40 ml each. Then, half of the vials were forwarded for the SPC analysis, and the other half were analysed using the equipment BactoScan FC. The analyses by flow cytometry and SPC were performed at the same time (maximum deviation of +/- 1 h). To transform the data from IBC ml(-1) to CFU ml(-1) (IDF or AOAC methodology), a standard linear regression equation was used, as recommended by IDF/ISO-196. The difference between the reference methodologies affects the equation that transforms IBC into CFU and therefore the accuracy of the results. The results estimated by the equation using the ISO 4833 methodology were on average 0·18 log units higher than the results estimated using the equation using the AOAC methodology. After the comparison of the methodologies, it was concluded that there is an impact of the reference methodologies on the conversion of the results from IBC to CFU. Depending on the methodology adopted by each laboratory or country, there may not be equivalence in the results. Hence, the laboratories specialized in milk quality analysis that have changed their methodology for analysis, passing from the MAPA (AOAC) methodology to the IDF standard, need to develop new conversion equations to make their

  18. Individual Differences, Computers, and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayersman, David J.; Minden, Avril von

    1995-01-01

    Provides a conceptual foundation for the development of hypermedia as an instructional tool for addressing individual differences in learning styles. Highlights include a literature review; computers and instruction; individual differences, computers, and instruction; cognitive controls; cognitive styles and learning; personality types; and future…

  19. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  20. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  1. Standards for Services for Developmentally Disabled Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, Chicago, IL.

    Provided are standards for agencies and hospitals serving developmentally disabled persons with emphasis on planning and implementing individual programs. The introduction provides information on the establishment of the Accreditation Council for Services for Mentally Retarded and Other Developmentally Disabled Persons and the Joint Commission on…

  2. Bayesian Models of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Georgie; Meredith, Zoe; McMillin, Rebecca; Freeman, Tom C. A.

    2016-01-01

    According to Bayesian models, perception and cognition depend on the optimal combination of noisy incoming evidence with prior knowledge of the world. Individual differences in perception should therefore be jointly determined by a person’s sensitivity to incoming evidence and his or her prior expectations. It has been proposed that individuals with autism have flatter prior distributions than do nonautistic individuals, which suggests that prior variance is linked to the degree of autistic traits in the general population. We tested this idea by studying how perceived speed changes during pursuit eye movement and at low contrast. We found that individual differences in these two motion phenomena were predicted by differences in thresholds and autistic traits when combined in a quantitative Bayesian model. Our findings therefore support the flatter-prior hypothesis and suggest that individual differences in prior expectations are more systematic than previously thought. In order to be revealed, however, individual differences in sensitivity must also be taken into account. PMID:27770059

  3. Individual differences in distance perception

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Russell E.

    2009-01-01

    Distance perception is among the most pervasive mental phenomena and the oldest research topics in behavioural science. However, we do not understand well the most pervasive finding of distance perception research, that of large individual differences. There are large individual differences in acrophobia (fear of heights), which we commonly assume consists of an abnormal fear of stimuli perceived normally. Evolved navigation theory (ENT) instead suggests that acrophobia consists of a more normal fear of stimuli perceived abnormally. ENT suggests that distance perception individual differences produce major components of acrophobia. Acrophobia tested over a broad range in the present study predicted large individual differences in distance estimation of surfaces that could produce falls. This fear of heights correlated positively with distance estimates of a vertical surface—even among non-acrophobic individuals at no risk of falling and without knowledge of being tested for acrophobia. Acrophobia score predicted magnitude of the descent illusion, which is thought to reflect the risk of falling. These data hold important implications in environmental navigation, clinical aetiology and the evolution of visual systems. PMID:19324829

  4. Individual differences in distance perception.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Russell E

    2009-05-07

    Distance perception is among the most pervasive mental phenomena and the oldest research topics in behavioural science. However, we do not understand well the most pervasive finding of distance perception research, that of large individual differences. There are large individual differences in acrophobia (fear of heights), which we commonly assume consists of an abnormal fear of stimuli perceived normally. Evolved navigation theory (ENT) instead suggests that acrophobia consists of a more normal fear of stimuli perceived abnormally. ENT suggests that distance perception individual differences produce major components of acrophobia. Acrophobia tested over a broad range in the present study predicted large individual differences in distance estimation of surfaces that could produce falls. This fear of heights correlated positively with distance estimates of a vertical surface-even among non-acrophobic individuals at no risk of falling and without knowledge of being tested for acrophobia. Acrophobia score predicted magnitude of the descent illusion, which is thought to reflect the risk of falling. These data hold important implications in environmental navigation, clinical aetiology and the evolution of visual systems.

  5. Neural Systems and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.

    2004-01-01

    Howard Garner's book Multiple Intelligences was important in psychology because it sought to relate a neuropsychological theory of common mental processes with a view of individual differences implicit in the term intelligences. New developments in imaging and genetics may make these connections more realistic.

  6. Identifying Individual Differences: A Cognitive Styles Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Perry R.; Conti, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Although One-Stop Career Centers are mandated to promote client-centered services, patrons are ordinarily funneled through a standard procedure. Adult education principles suggest that these centers should be learner-centered and address individual differences. Therefore, the purpose of the this study was to describe the interaction of the…

  7. Individual differences in trauma disclosure.

    PubMed

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Jaeger, Jeff; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen; Zoellner, Lori A

    2012-06-01

    Findings on disclosure and adjustment following traumatic events have been mixed. Better understanding of individual differences in disclosure may help us better understand reactions following trauma exposure. In particular, studying disclosure patterns for those with and without psychopathology and for different types of emotional experiences may help clarify the relationship between disclosure, event emotionality, trauma exposure, and PTSD. In this study, 143 men and women with (n=67) and without (n=43) chronic PTSD and without trauma exposure (n=33) provided information on disclosure for a traumatic/severe life event, a negative event, and a positive event. Individuals with PTSD reported greater difficulty disclosing their traumatic event compared to those with trauma exposure no PTSD and those with no-trauma exposure. However, individuals with PTSD reported disclosing the traumatic event a similar number of times and with similar levels of detail to those with trauma exposure but no PTSD. Both sexual and childhood trauma were associated with greater disclosure difficulty. Although control event types (positive, negative) were selected to control for the passage of time and for general disclosure style, they do not control for salience of the event and results may be limited by control events that were not highly salient. The present findings point to a dynamic conceptualization of disclosure, suggesting that the differential difficulty of disclosing traumatic events seen in individuals with PTSD is not simply a function of the amount of disclosure or the amount of details provided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Individual Differences Tradition in Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawis, Rene V.

    1992-01-01

    Traces historical development from individual differences psychology through psychological testing, vocational counseling, and student personnel work, to counseling psychology. Describes individual differences tradition in counseling psychology research and practice. Discusses how individual differences psychology has influenced counseling…

  9. Individual differences in cognitive arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Geary, D C; Widaman, K F

    1987-06-01

    Relations factor was found. Results of the structural modeling support the conclusion that information retrieval from a network of arithmetic facts and execution of the carry operation are elementary component processes involved uniquely in the mental solving of arithmetic problems. Furthermore, individual differences in the speed of executing these two elementary component processes appear to underlie individual differences on ability measures that traditionally span the Numerical Facility factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  10. Individual differences in deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Newstead, Stephen E; Handley, Simon J; Harley, Clare; Wright, Helen; Farrelly, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Three studies are reported, which examined individual differences in deductive reasoning as a function of intellectual ability and thinking style. Intellectual ability was a good predictor of logical performance on syllogisms, especially where there was a conflict between logic and believability. However, in the first two experiments there was no link between ability and performance on indicative selection tasks, in sharp contrast to previous research. This correlation did, however, return in the final study. Our data are consistent with the claim that the correlation with logical accuracy on abstract selection tasks is found primarily with participants of relatively high ability. At lower levels, pragmatically cued responses are given but those of slightly higher ability divorce the rule from the scenario and respond consistently (though incorrectly) across problems. Self-report questionnaires were generally poor predictors of performance, but a measure of the ability to generate alternative representations proved an excellent predictor. These results are consistent with a mental models approach to reasoning and also have implications for the debate about human rationality.

  11. Individual Differences in Outplacement Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Harry J.; Lekan, Dennis F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Although outplacement consulting and career transition services have become a standard management practice and are almost universally provided when terminating executives, these services have not been carefully evaluated and their benefits are not clearly understood. The purpose of this paper is to consider the role of individual…

  12. Individual Differences Methods for Randomized Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments allow researchers to randomly vary the key manipulation, the instruments of measurement, and the sequences of the measurements and manipulations across participants. To date, however, the advantages of randomized experiments to manipulate both the aspects of interest and the aspects that threaten internal validity have been primarily used to make inferences about the average causal effect of the experimental manipulation. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing experimental data in order to make inferences about individual differences in causal effects. Approaches to analyzing the data produced by a number of classical designs, and two more novel designs, are discussed. Simulations highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the data produced by each design with respect to internal validity. Results indicate that, although the data produced by standard designs can be used to produce accurate estimates of average causal effects of experimental manipulations, more elaborate designs are often necessary for accurate inferences with respect to individual differences in causal effects. The methods described here can be diversely applied by researchers interested in determining the extent to which individuals respond differentially to an experimental manipulation or treatment, and how differential responsiveness relates to individual participant characteristics. PMID:21744970

  13. Standards of Scientific Conduct: Disciplinary differences

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Michael; Sweet, Monica; Plemmons, Dena

    2014-01-01

    Teaching of responsible conduct of research is largely predicated on the assumption that there are accepted standards of conduct that can be taught. However there is little evidence of consensus in the scientific community about such standards, at least for the practices of authorship, collaboration, and data management. To assess whether such differences in standards are based on disciplinary differences, a survey, described previously, addressing standards, practices, and perceptions about teaching and learning was distributed in November 2010 to U.S. faculty from 50 graduate programs for the biomedical disciplines of microbiology, neuroscience, nursing, and psychology. Despite evidence of statistically significant differences across the four disciplines, actual differences were quite small. Stricter measures of effect size indicated practically significant disciplinary differences for fewer than 10% of the questions. This suggests that the variation in individual standards of practice within each discipline is at least as great as variation due to differences among disciplines. Therefore, the need for discipline-specific training may not be as important as sometimes thought. PMID:25256408

  14. Standards of Scientific Conduct: Disciplinary Differences.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Michael; Sweet, Monica; Plemmons, Dena

    2015-10-01

    Teaching of responsible conduct of research is largely predicated on the assumption that there are accepted standards of conduct that can be taught. However there is little evidence of consensus in the scientific community about such standards, at least for the practices of authorship, collaboration, and data management. To assess whether such differences in standards are based on disciplinary differences, a survey, described previously, addressing standards, practices, and perceptions about teaching and learning was distributed in November 2010 to US faculty from 50 graduate programs for the biomedical disciplines of microbiology, neuroscience, nursing, and psychology. Despite evidence of statistically significant differences across the four disciplines, actual differences were quite small. Stricter measures of effect size indicated practically significant disciplinary differences for fewer than 10% of the questions. This suggests that the variation in individual standards of practice within each discipline is at least as great as variation due to differences among disciplines. Therefore, the need for discipline-specific training may not be as important as sometimes thought.

  15. Individual Differences and Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Daniel, Jr.

    Recent educational research indicates that learners differ in their preferences for learning mode and strategies. Implications for instruction and assessment are discussed as they relate to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences of H. Gardner (1983). One of the principles of the "Learner Centered Psychological Principles" of the American…

  16. Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

  17. Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

  18. Individual differences and evidence-based psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Belmaker, Rh; Bersudsky, Yuly; Agam, Galila

    2012-09-27

    Individual differences in response to pharmacologic treatment limits the usefulness of mean data obtained from randomized controlled trials. These individual differences exist even in genetically uniform inbred mouse strains. While stratification can be of value in large studies, the individual patient history is the most effective currently available guide for personalized medicine in psychopharmacology.

  19. Individual Differences, Intelligence, and Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional…

  20. Individual Differences, Intelligence, and Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional…

  1. Individual differences in cognition among teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2017-01-23

    Individual differences in cognitive abilities have been thoroughly investigated in humans and to a lesser extent in other mammals. Despite the growing interest in studying cognition in other taxonomic groups, data on individual differences are scarce for non-mammalian species. Here, we review the literature on individual differences in cognitive abilities in teleost fishes. Relatively few studies have directly addressed this topic and have provided evidence of consistent and heritable individual variation in cognitive abilities in fish. We found much more evidence of individual cognitive differences in other research areas, namely sex differences, personality differences, cerebral lateralisation and comparison between populations. Altogether, these studies suggest that individual differences in cognition are as common in fish as in warm-blooded vertebrates. Based on the example of research on mammals, we suggest directions for future investigation in fish.

  2. Exploring Individual Differences in Workload Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-26

    relatively low performance and high subjective workload scores. To quantitatively test if the participants differed across both of the NASA-TLX and...EXPLORING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN WORKLOAD ASSESSMENT THESIS Danielle K. Boeke, Captain...AFIT-ENV-MS-14-D-31 EXPLORING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN WORKLOAD ASSESSMENT THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems

  3. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  4. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  5. Disturbance of sleep by noise: Individual differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The literature on the effects of noise on sleep is searched for evidence on individual differences along the dimensions of age, sex, occupation, personality, neuroticism, and mental health. With the exception of age, little firm evidence is found. Thus there remains a need to establish at better than the anecdotal level whether or not real individual differences exist.

  6. An ontogenetic perspective on individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Senner, Nathan R.; Conklin, Jesse R.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals can arise during any stage of life. Although several distinct processes underlying individual differences have been defined and studied (e.g. parental effects, senescence), we lack an explicit, unified perspective for understanding how these processes contribute separately and synergistically to observed variation in functional traits. We propose a conceptual framework based on a developmental view of life-history variation, linking each ontogenetic stage with the types of individual differences originating during that period. In our view, the salient differences among these types are encapsulated by three key criteria: timing of onset, when fitness consequences are realized, and potential for reversibility. To fill a critical gap in this framework, we formulate a new term to refer to individual differences generated during adulthood—reversible state effects. We define these as ‘reversible changes in a functional trait resulting from life-history trade-offs during adulthood that affect fitness’, highlighting how the adult phenotype can be repeatedly altered in response to environmental variation. Defining individual differences in terms of trade-offs allows explicit predictions regarding when and where fitness consequences should be expected. Moreover, viewing individual differences in a developmental context highlights how different processes can work in concert to shape phenotype and fitness, and lays a foundation for research linking individual differences to ecological and evolutionary theory. PMID:26336173

  7. Individual differences in spatial mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Borst, Grégoire; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2010-10-01

    In this article, we report a new image-scanning paradigm that allowed us to measure objectively individual differences in spatial mental imagery--specifically, imagery for location. Participants were asked to determine whether an arrow was pointing at a dot using a visual mental image of an array of dots. The degree of precision required to discriminate "yes" from "no" trials was varied. In Experiment 1, the time to scan increasing distances, as well as the number of errors, increased when greater precision was required to make a judgement. The results in Experiment 2 replicated those results while controlling for possible biases. When greater precision is required, the accuracy of the spatial image becomes increasingly important--and hence the effect of precision in the task reflects the accuracy of the image. In Experiment 3, this measure was shown to be related to scores on the Paper Folding test, on the Paper Form Board test, and on the visuospatial items on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices--but not to scores on questionnaires measuring object-based mental imagery. Thus, we provide evidence that classical standardized spatial tests rely on spatial mental imagery but not object mental imagery.

  8. An evolutionary ecology of individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Bell, Alison M.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals often differ in what they do. This has been recognised since antiquity. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary significance of such variation is attracting widespread interest, which is burgeoning to an extent that is fragmenting the literature. As a first attempt at synthesis, we focus on individual differences in behaviour within populations that exceed the day-to-day variation in individual behaviour (i.e. behavioural specialisation). Indeed, the factors promoting ecologically relevant behavioural specialisation within natural populations are likely to have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. We discuss such individual differences from three distinct perspectives: individual niche specialisations, the division of labour within insect societies and animal personality variation. In the process, while recognising that each area has its own unique motivations, we identify a number of opportunities for productive ‘crossfertilisation’ among the (largely independent) bodies of work. We conclude that a complete understanding of evolutionarily and ecologically relevant individual differences must specify how ecological interactions impact the basic biological process (e.g. Darwinian selection, development and information processing) that underpin the organismal features determining behavioural specialisations. Moreover, there is likely to be covariation amongst behavioural specialisations. Thus, we sketch the key elements of a general framework for studying the evolutionary ecology of individual differences. PMID:22897772

  9. IEC STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, Miroslav; Ambrosi, P.; Behrens, R.; Chiaro Jr, Peter John

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B Radiation protection instrumentation and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  10. IEC standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R; Chiaro, P

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  11. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. What standardized tests ignore when assessing individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tenorio, Marcela; Campos, Ruth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In this article we critique the use of traditional standardized tests for the cognitive assessment of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Limitations stem from the lack of integrating (a) results from research into the psychological functioning of these populations, and (b) the main arguments underlying models of human development. We identify four secondary issues in this discussion: (1) these instruments cannot be used with children who have particularly low cognitive functioning; (2) little or no variance in the scores obtained by individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, because all are at floor, prevent adequate interpretations; (3) measurements do not provide information useful for the design of intervention strategies; and (4) different cognitive and/or neural processes may underlie behavioural scores ‘in the normal range’. Rethinking traditional assessment methods in favour of technologically-mediated games yields new cognitive assessment possibilities. PMID:26778874

  13. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection.

  14. Individual Differences in Exploration Using Desktop VR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modjeska, David; Chignell, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of information visualization and computer graphics focuses on a study that contrasted performance in three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional zooming interactively (2.5D) virtual worlds for people with differing levels of spatial and structure learning ability. Suggests implications of individual differences for the usability and…

  15. Individual Differences in Exploration Using Desktop VR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modjeska, David; Chignell, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of information visualization and computer graphics focuses on a study that contrasted performance in three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional zooming interactively (2.5D) virtual worlds for people with differing levels of spatial and structure learning ability. Suggests implications of individual differences for the usability and…

  16. Individual differences in recovery from traumatic fear

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Andrew; Singewald, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Although exposure to major psychological trauma is unfortunately common, risk for related neuropsychiatric conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), varies greatly among individuals. Fear extinction offers a tractable and translatable behavioral readout of individual differences in learned recovery from trauma. Studies in rodent substrains and subpopulations are providing new insights into neural system dysfunctions associated with impaired fear extinction. Rapid progress is also being made in identifying key molecular circuits, epigenetic mechanisms, and gene variants associated with differences in fear extinction. Here, we discuss how this research is informing understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of individual differences in risk for trauma-related anxiety disorders, and how future work can help identify novel diagnostic biomarkers and pharmacotherapeutics for these disorders. PMID:23260015

  17. ERPs reveal individual differences in morphosyntactic processing.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Darren; Van Hell, Janet G

    2014-04-01

    We investigated individual differences in the neural substrates of morphosyntactic processing among monolingual English speakers using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although grand-mean analysis showed a biphasic LAN-P600 pattern to grammatical violations, analysis of individuals׳ ERP responses showed that brain responses varied systematically along a continuum between negativity- and positivity-dominant ERP responses across individuals. Moreover, the left hemisphere topography of the negativity resulted from component overlap between a centro-parietal N400 in some individuals and a right hemisphere-dominant P600 in others. Our results show that biphasic ERP waveforms do not always reflect separable processing stages within individuals, and moreover, that the LAN can be a variant of the N400. These results show that there are multiple neurocognitive routes to successful grammatical comprehension in language users across the proficiency spectrum. Our results underscore that understanding and quantifying individual differences can provide an important source of evidence about language processing in the general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Empathizing: neurocognitive developmental mechanisms and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This chapter reviews the Mindreading System model encompassing four neurocognitive mechanisms (ID, EDD, SAM, and ToMM) before reviewing the revised empathizing model encompassing two new neurocognitive mechanisms (TED and TESS). It is argued that the empathizing model is more comprehensive because it entails perception, interpretation, and affective responses to other agents. Sex differences in empathy (female advantage) are then reviewed, as a clear example of individual differences in empathy. This leads into an illustration of individual differences using the Empathy Quotient (EQ). Finally, the neuroimaging literature in relation to each of the neurocognitive mechanisms is briefly summarized and a new study is described that tests if different brain regions respond to the perception of different facial expressions of emotion, as a function of the observer's EQ.

  19. Individual differences in human brain development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy T

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses recent scientific advances in the study of individual differences in human brain development. Focusing on structural neuroimaging measures of brain morphology and tissue properties, two kinds of variability are related and explored: differences across individuals of the same age and differences across age as a result of development. A recent multidimensional modeling study is explained, which was able to use brain measures to predict an individual's chronological age within about one year on average, in children, adolescents, and young adults between 3 and 20 years old. These findings reveal great regularity in the sequence of the aggregate brain state across different ages and phases of development, despite the pronounced individual differences people show on any single brain measure at any given age. Future research is suggested, incorporating additional measures of brain activity and function. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1389. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1389 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 The Authors. WIREs Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Individual differences in analgesic effects of narcotics].

    PubMed

    Ide, Soichiro; Kasai, Shinya; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2008-02-01

    Narcotic analgesics have been widely used for management of severe pain, especially for cancer pain. Most of these drugs are opioids, and they show their analgesic effects by acting through opioid receptors. Significant individual differences in opioid sensitivity can hamper effective pain treatments and increase side effects, which is associated with decreased quality of life. It is thought that genetic factors may affect individual differences in opioid sensitivity. Recent studies using various inbred and knockout mice have revealed that the mu-opioid receptor (MOP) plays a mandatory role in the analgesic properties of opioids. There is also increasing evidence that differences in the sequence of the MOP gene might significantly affect the amount of MOP gene mRNA expression and sensitivity to opioids. Furthermore, it can be thought that individual differences in opioid sensitivity are caused by genetic differences in not only MOP but other biomolecules, such as endogenous opioid peptides, molecules related with metabolic process and second messenger systems. Rapid advances in this research field are leading to a better understanding of relationships between gene polymorphisms and opioid sensitivities, which, in turn, will allow us to more accurately predict opioid sensitivity and opioid requirements in individual patients.

  1. Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

  2. Individual Differences in Dyadic Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Elizabeth M.; Collier, William G.; Oxford, Julie A.; Bond, Charles F., Jr.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of individual differences on the performance of roles of learner and learning facilitator was studied during dyadic cooperative learning with 80 college students in same-sex groups of 4. The learner role accounted for more than 70% of the variance in total recall. The influence of cognitive and rapport factors is discussed. (SLD)

  3. Individual Differences in Online Personalized Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samah, Norazrena Abu; Yahaya, Noraffandy; Ali, Mohamad Bilal

    2011-01-01

    The need has arise for the consideration of individual differences, to include their learning styles, learning orientations, preferences and needs in learning to allow learners engage and be responsible for their own learning, retain information longer, apply the knowledge more effectively, have positive attitudes towards the subject, have more…

  4. Women's Sexuality: Behaviors, Responses, and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses, and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Highlights trends and…

  5. Exploring Individual Differences in Language Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray; Doering, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanders appear to routinely and immediately evaluate the congruence of discourse at many levels of analysis, processes often labeled "validation." This study was an initial exploration of individual differences in discourse validation. Text "reading-time" profiles were examined as a function of two negligibly correlated…

  6. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  7. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  8. An Individual Difference Perspective on Student Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisler-Brenstein, E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 325 university students explored relationships between personality and learning styles in students with high or low self-esteem. Ways that personality and learning theory can combine to help define individual differences in learning, their origins, manifestation, and amenability to change are examined. Implications for achievement,…

  9. Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dörnyei, Zoltán

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the early days of its existence, the field of psychology has been trying to achieve two different and somewhat contradictory objectives: to understand the "general principles" of the human mind and to explore the "uniqueness" of the individual mind. The latter direction has formed an independent subdiscipline within…

  10. Cognitive world: Neuropsychology of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-09-20

    It is proposed that depending upon the specific pattern of cognitive abilities, each individual lives in an idiosyncratic "cognitive world." Brain pathology can be associated with some disturbed abilities, and frequently experiential changes (i.e., how the world is understood) are observed. Because these patients often are aware of their intellectual changes, they may represent excellent models to illustrate the diversity of cognitive interpretations an individual can have about the surrounding environmental conditions. Four neuropsychology cases are presented to illustrate this point: (a) prosopagnosia associated with spatial agnosia; (b) Gerstmann's syndrome; (c) dysexecutive syndrome due to a head injury; and, (d) patient with Capgras' syndrome associated with a left temporal cyst. It is further emphasized that non-brain damaged people present an enormous-but usually overlooked-dispersion in different cognitive domains, resulting in specific and idiosyncratic patterns of cognitive abilities. It is concluded that the concept of "cognitive world" in neuropsychology can parallel the concept of "perceptual world" introduced by von Uexküll in biology, which assumes that different animal species live in idiosyncratic perceptual worlds, available and knowable by the differences in their sensory system abilities. That is, different individuals live in idiosyncratic cognitive worlds, owing to their differences in cognitive abilities.

  11. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire – GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men’s health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers’ health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers’ individual differences.

  12. Individual differences in response conflict adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Keye, Doris; Wilhelm, Oliver; Oberauer, Klaus; Stürmer, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Conflict-monitoring theory argues for a general cognitive mechanism that monitors for conflicts in information-processing. If that mechanism detects conflict, it engages cognitive control to resolve it. A slow-down in response to incongruent trials (conflict effect), and a modulation of the conflict effect by the congruence of the preceding trial (Gratton or context effect) have been taken as indicators of such a monitoring system. The present study (N = 157) investigated individual differences in the conflict and the context effect in a horizontal and a vertical Simon task, and their correlation with working memory capacity (WMC). Strength of conflict was varied by proportion of congruent trials. Coherent factors could be formed representing individual differences in speeded performance, conflict adaptation, and context adaptation. Conflict and context factors were not associated with each other. Contrary to theories assuming a close relation between working memory and cognitive control, WMC showed no relation with any factors representing adaptation to conflict. PMID:24385971

  13. Divorce and Health: Beyond Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.; Hasselmo, Karen; Bourassa, Kyle J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews what is known about the association between marital dissolution and health outcomes in adults. Two of the major empirical findings in the literature—that most people do well following marital separation and that this life event increases risk for poor outcomes—appear to be in contrast. This paper provides an individual differences framework for reconciling these competing perspectives and suggests that the bulk of the risk for poor outcomes following marital dissolution is carried by a minority of people. Research focusing on at-risk populations is beginning to shed light on mechanisms of action, the processes that explain why and how marital separation and divorce are associated with ill health. The paper outlines a series of future directions that go beyond individual differences to study these mechanisms. PMID:25892857

  14. Individual differences in multitasking ability and adaptability.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney; Abbott, Robert; Radvansky, Gabriel; Haass, Michael; Tamplin, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the cognitive factors that predictability and adaptability during multitasking with a flight simulator. Multitasking has become increasingly prevalent as most professions require individuals to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Considerable research has been undertaken to identify the characteristics of people (i.e., individual differences) that predict multitasking ability. Although working memory is a reliable predictor of general multitasking ability (i.e., performance in normal conditions), there is the question of whether different cognitive faculties are needed to rapidly respond to changing task demands (adaptability). Participants first completed a battery of cognitive individual differences tests followed by multitasking sessions with a flight simulator. After a baseline condition, difficulty of the flight simulator was incrementally increased via four experimental manipulations, and performance metrics were collected to assess multitasking ability and adaptability. Scholastic aptitude and working memory predicted general multitasking ability (i.e., performance at baseline difficulty), but spatial manipulation (in conjunction with working memory) was a major predictor of adaptability (performance in difficult conditions after accounting for baseline performance). Multitasking ability and adaptability may be overlapping but separate constructs that draw on overlapping (but not identical) sets of cognitive abilities. The results of this study are applicable to practitioners and researchers in human factors to assess multitasking performance in real-world contexts and with realistic task constraints. We also present a framework for conceptualizing multitasking adaptability on the basis of five adaptability profiles derived from performance on tasks with consistent versus increased difficulty.

  15. Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E. W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences. PMID:20308553

  16. [Pediatric parenteral nutrition: are standard solutions better than individualized ones?].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, J M; Fernández-Shaw, C; Gomis Muñoz, P; Valero Zanuy, M A; León Sanz, M

    2002-07-01

    Pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) in Spain has traditionally been prescribed and made up on an individual basis. This practice entails daily indication of the quantity of each of the components of the PN bag as well as precise calculations for its formulation and preparation. The main advantages of individualized prescriptions are their flexibility and precise biochemical control. The aim of this study was to determine whether pediatric PN can be standardized in a tertiary care hospital. We reviewed the composition of all the pediatric PN bags prepared in our hospital from 1.1.1996 to 31.12.1998. Each individual prescription was compared with a standard PN fulfilling the following criteria: a) Holiday-Segar equation for volume; b) 1 kcal/ml (10 %), and c) macronutrient distribution: 8-15 % amino acids, 55-65 % dextrose; 30-35 % lipids. The results of this comparison were used to estimate the number of bags fulfilling all three criteria and those that fulfilled only the third. We also reviewed the distribution of PN bags prepared according to the protocol used in our center which allows three options: standard PN, individualized prescription, and individualized prescription except electrolytes, supplied in fixed concentrations per liter of PN. Five hundred fifty-four patients received 7,921 PN bags. The mean duration of PN was 14.3 days and the mean number of PN per day was 7.2. Only 4.5 % fulfilled all three criteria but 16.2 % satisfied at least the last criterion. If the three criteria for standardization were applied, only one PN bag/day could be prepared. Analysis of the application of our protocol revealed that of all the PN bags prepared only 27.9 % were partially or totally standardized. However, exclusion of neonates increased this figure to 53.2 %. If rigid standardization criteria are applied, only a small number of PN bags can be prepared in a tertiary hospital. Combining both standard and tailored PN could reduce pharmacy workload and costs while

  17. An individual difference analysis of false recognition

    PubMed Central

    SALTHOUSE, TIMOTHY A.; SIEDLECKI, KAREN L.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies with moderately large samples of participants were conducted to examine correlates of false recognition. In Experiment 1 false recognition of words was found to be a robust and reliable phenomenon at the level of individuals, and the tendency to classify critical lures as old was more closely related to the correct classification of old items as old than to the incorrect classification of unrelated new items as old. False recognition was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities that were assessed, including episodic memory, or to other factors such as personality and chronic mood. In Experiment 2 these findings were extended to include dot pattern and face stimuli. Although measures of veridical memory were significantly correlated across the different types of stimulus material, false recognition rates only had modest and generally not significant correlations, which suggests that the tendency to produce false recognitions may be a task-specific characteristic of individuals. PMID:17892087

  18. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal system. The findings showed that variance in language abilities is associated with performance on different domains of procedural memory, including the motor domain (as shown in the pursuit rotor task), the cognitive domain (as shown in the weather prediction task), and the linguistic domain (as shown in the nonword repetition priming task). These results implicate the corticostriatal system in individual differences in language. PMID:26190949

  19. Individual personality differences in Port Jackson sharks Heterodontus portusjacksoni.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, E E; Brown, C

    2016-08-01

    This study examined interindividual personality differences between Port Jackson sharks Heterodontus portusjacksoni utilizing a standard boldness assay. Additionally, the correlation between differences in individual boldness and stress reactivity was examined, exploring indications of individual coping styles. Heterodontus portusjacksoni demonstrated highly repeatable individual differences in boldness and stress reactivity. Individual boldness scores were highly repeatable across four trials such that individuals that were the fastest to emerge in the first trial were also the fastest to emerge in subsequent trials. Additionally, individuals that were the most reactive to a handling stressor in the first trial were also the most reactive in a second trial. The strong link between boldness and stress response commonly found in teleosts was also evident in this study, providing evidence of proactive-reactive coping styles in H. portusjacksoni. These results demonstrate the presence of individual personality differences in sharks for the first time. Understanding how personality influences variation in elasmobranch behaviour such as prey choice, habitat use and activity levels is critical to better managing these top predators which play important ecological roles in marine ecosystems. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Prospective memory, personality, and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A; Wong Gonzalez, Daniela; McDouall, Joanna; Leonard, Carrie A

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors.

  1. Prospective Memory, Personality, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A.; Wong Gonzalez, Daniela; McDouall, Joanna; Leonard, Carrie A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors. PMID:23525147

  2. Subcortical Correlates of Individual Differences in Aptitude

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Rex E.; Ryman, Sephira G.; Vakhtin, Andrei A.; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A.

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16–29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math – higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary – higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding – higher right thalamus volume; Foresight – lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning – higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary). PMID:24586770

  3. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    PubMed

    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary).

  4. Implementation of quality standards in an individual monitoring service.

    PubMed

    Hyvönen, H; Vartiainen, E

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a quality system to the procedures of an individual monitoring service (IMS) is described from the practical perspective. The IMS of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is used as an example. The IMS of STUK monitors about 8500 persons mainly working in hospitals, industry and research centres. The current thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system was introduced in 1992 and the whole service changed to TLDs in 1995. The quality system compatible with the quality standards was introduced in 1999. An application for accreditation to fulfill EN45001 and ISO/IEC Guide 25 was made in December 1999, accreditation was achieved in August 2000 by the Finnish Accreditation Service (FINAS). The considerations needed for the quality system to fulfill the requirements of the quality standards are reported.

  5. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment.

  6. A Standardized Mean Difference Effect Size for Single Case Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Pustejovsky, James E.; Shadish, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Single case designs are a set of research methods for evaluating treatment effects by assigning different treatments to the same individual and measuring outcomes over time and are used across fields such as behavior analysis, clinical psychology, special education, and medicine. Emerging standards for single case designs have focused attention on…

  7. Understanding visual metaphor: developmental and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Kogan, N; Connor, K; Gross, A; Fava, D

    1980-01-01

    The development of an instrument--the Metaphoric Triads Task (MTT)--for the assessment of metaphoric comprehension is described. In the tradition of earlier cognitive-style research, a visual triad format was adopted that offered three possible pairings of pictorial stimuli, one of which was metaphorical in character. A subject's score reflects the number of metaphoric pairings formed (with appropriate metaphoric explanations) across all of the triads of the task. Data are reported for 12 samples of subjects (ranging from 7 1/2 to 28 years of age) who responded to the MTT in a diverse array of studies. Internal analyses of the MTT yielded satisfactory reliabilities (interjudge and internal consistency) and item-sum correlations. Sex differences were negligible, but progressive improvement in MTT score with age was noted. At the same time, a slight modification of the MTT triad format generated performance levels from younger children that approximated those of children 1--3 years older who had taken the MTT in its standard form. Higher MTT scores were generally obtained by those subjects who attempted more pairings, spent more time at the task, and chose the metaphoric pair as "best" among the alternative pairing possibilities. Correlations of MTT performance with standardized tests of intellective aptitudes and achievements were inconsistent across samples and between the sexes within samples. In contrast, MTT scores were quite consistently related to solving difficult analogies, generating high-quality responses to divergent-thinking tasks, and manifesting broad categorizing and physiognomic sensitivity. Significant correlations between the MTT and a set of verbal metaphoric triads offered convergent validational evidence suggestive of a general metaphoric style. Some relation was found between MTT performance and teacher ratings of figurative language appreciation and esthetic sensitivity, though it appeared that these might be mediated by the teachers' estimate

  8. Standardized versus Individualized Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pach, Daniel; Yang-Strobel, Xiaoli; Lüdtke, Rainer; Icke, Katja; Brinkhaus, Benno; Witt, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effectiveness of standardized and individualized acupuncture treatment in patients with chronic low back pain. A single-center randomized controlled single-blind trial was performed in a general medical practice in Germany run by a Chinese-born medical doctor trained in western and Chinese medicine. One hundred and fifty outpatients with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups (78 standardized and 72 individualized acupuncture). Patients received either standardized acupuncture or individualized acupuncture. Treatment encompassed between 10 and 15 treatments based on individual symptoms with two treatments per week. The main outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) summarizing eight weeks of daily rated pain severity measured with a visual analogue scale (0 mm = no pain, 100 mm = worst imaginable pain). No significant differences between groups were observed for the AUC (individualized acupuncture mean: 1768.7 (95% CI, 1460.4; 2077.1); standardized acupuncture 1482.9 (1177.2; 1788.7); group difference, 285.8 (−33.9; 605.5) P = 0.080). In this single-center trial, individualized acupuncture was not superior to standardized acupuncture for patients suffering from chronic pain. As a next step, a multicenter noninferiority study should be performed to investigate whether standardised acupuncture treatment for chronic low back pain might be applicable in a broader usual care setting. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00758017. PMID:24288556

  9. Standardized versus Individualized Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Pach, Daniel; Yang-Strobel, Xiaoli; Lüdtke, Rainer; Roll, Stephanie; Icke, Katja; Brinkhaus, Benno; Witt, Claudia M

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effectiveness of standardized and individualized acupuncture treatment in patients with chronic low back pain. A single-center randomized controlled single-blind trial was performed in a general medical practice in Germany run by a Chinese-born medical doctor trained in western and Chinese medicine. One hundred and fifty outpatients with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups (78 standardized and 72 individualized acupuncture). Patients received either standardized acupuncture or individualized acupuncture. Treatment encompassed between 10 and 15 treatments based on individual symptoms with two treatments per week. The main outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) summarizing eight weeks of daily rated pain severity measured with a visual analogue scale (0 mm = no pain, 100 mm = worst imaginable pain). No significant differences between groups were observed for the AUC (individualized acupuncture mean: 1768.7 (95% CI, 1460.4; 2077.1); standardized acupuncture 1482.9 (1177.2; 1788.7); group difference, 285.8 (-33.9; 605.5) P = 0.080). In this single-center trial, individualized acupuncture was not superior to standardized acupuncture for patients suffering from chronic pain. As a next step, a multicenter noninferiority study should be performed to investigate whether standardised acupuncture treatment for chronic low back pain might be applicable in a broader usual care setting. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00758017.

  10. Individual differences, cultural differences, and dialectic conflict description and resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation (FOI) in East Asians than in Westerners. To support this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, we manipulated FOI in American participants before having them resolve two conflicts: an interpersonal conflict and a conflict between an individual and an institution. We found that the Americans among whom a high level of FOI had been induced were more likely to look for a dialectical resolution than those among whom a low level had been prompted. The relationship between conflict resolution and FOI was further investigated in Experiment 2, in which FOI was not manipulated. The results indicated that Koreans had higher chronic FOI on average than did the Americans. Compared to the Americans, the Koreans were more likely to resolve the interpersonal conflict dialectically, but did not show the same bias in resolving the person-institution conflict. The differences in the preference for dialectical resolution between FOI conditions in Experiment 1 and cultural groups in Experiment 2 were mediated by FOI. These findings bolster previous research on FOI in showing that chronic levels of FOI are positively related to both preference for dialectical sentences and sensitivity to context. They provide clearer insight into how differences in FOI affect attention and thereby higher-level reasoning such as dialectic description and conflict resolution.

  11. Individual differences in spatial cognition influence mental simulation of language.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Nikola; Williams, John N

    2015-09-01

    The factors that contribute to perceptual simulation during sentence comprehension remain underexplored. Extant research on perspective taking in language has largely focused on linguistic constraints, such as the role of pronouns in guiding perspective adoption. In the present study, we identify preferential usage of egocentric and allocentric reference frames in individuals, and test the two groups on a standard sentence-picture verification task. Across three experiments, we show that individual biases in spatial reference frame adoption observed in non-linguistic tasks influence visual simulation of perspective in language. Our findings suggest that typically reported grand-averaged effects may obscure important between-subject differences, and support proposals arguing for representational pluralism, where perceptual information is integrated dynamically and in a way that is sensitive to contextual and especially individual constraints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrating Individual Differences in Career Assessment: The Atlas Model of Individual Differences and the Strong Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2010-01-01

    Career assessment methods often include measures of individual differences constructs, such as interests, personality, abilities, and values. Although many researchers have recently called for the development of integrated models, career counseling professionals have long faced the challenge of integrating this information into their practice. The…

  13. Integrating Individual Differences in Career Assessment: The Atlas Model of Individual Differences and the Strong Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2010-01-01

    Career assessment methods often include measures of individual differences constructs, such as interests, personality, abilities, and values. Although many researchers have recently called for the development of integrated models, career counseling professionals have long faced the challenge of integrating this information into their practice. The…

  14. Exploring Individual Differences in Preschoolers' Causal Stance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Aubry; Booth, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Preschoolers, as a group, are highly attuned to causality, and this attunement is known to facilitate memory, learning, and problem solving. However, recent work reveals substantial individual variability in the strength of children's "causal stance," as demonstrated by their curiosity about and preference for new causal information. In…

  15. Introversion: A Misunderstood "Individual Difference" Among Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henjum, Arnold

    1982-01-01

    Definitions of introversion and various suggested school practices are provided in the hope that these valuable members of society can "become what they are capable of becoming." Well-meaning teachers and parents try to mold these youths into socially outgoing individuals without understanding their deep-seated feelings and motivations.…

  16. Individual Differences in Learning and Cognitive Abilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-15

    conducted by Sir Francis Galton . Galton’s view of intelligence was that it distinguished those individuals who had genius (e.g., demonstrated by making...genius must have more refined sensory and motor faculties. Thus, Galton argued, intelligence could be measured by assessing constructs such as visual

  17. Human Individual Differences in Military Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    experience, and literacy on job performance; Summary of HumRRO work units UTILITY and REALISTIC (Tech. Rep. 71-1). Alexandria, VA: Human Resources...Williams, R. J., & Rimland, B. Individuality. In Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Neurology, and Psychoanalysis . New York: Van Nostrand, 1977. 26

  18. The Effect of Individualized Versus Standardized Parenteral Nutrition on Body Weight in Very Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Evering, Vincent H. M.; Andriessen, Peter; Duijsters, Carola E. P. M.; Brogtrop, Jeroen; Derijks, Luc J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate whether standardizing total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is at least non-inferior to TPN with individualized composition in premature infants with a gestational age (GA) < 32 weeks. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, all preterm born in or transferred to Maxima Medical Center (MMC) within 24 hours after birth with a GA < 32 weeks were included. The individualized group (2011) was compared to the partially standardized group (2012) and completely standardized group (2014) consequently. The primary endpoint was difference in growth. Secondary endpoints included differences in electrolyte concentrations. Results A total of 299 preterm were included in this study. When comparing weight gain, the infants in the (partially) standardized group demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) less weight loss during the first days of life and grew faster subsequently in the following days than the individualized TPN regimen. Furthermore, significant differences in abnormal serum sodium, chloride, calcium, creatinine, magnesium and triglycerides values were demonstrated. Conclusion TPN with a (partially) standardized composition revealed to be at least non-inferior to TPN with an individualized composition. PMID:28270894

  19. Individual Differences Underlying Pilot Cockpit Error

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    easily demonstrated in the past. Guion and Gottier (1965) presented an extensive review of organizational personality research related to selection and...Personnel Psychology. Guion and Gottier caution that each test reviewed was considered as an individual predictor, and the various contributions of a...validity designs, rather than predictive validity designs. With these constraints noted, Guion and Gottier concluded that, congruent with the trend in

  20. Analysis of individual differences in radiosensitivity using genome editing.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, S; Royba, E; Akutsu, S N; Yanagihara, H; Ochiai, H; Kudo, Y; Tashiro, S; Miyamoto, T

    2016-06-01

    Current standards for radiological protection of the public have been uniformly established. However, individual differences in radiosensitivity are suggested to exist in human populations, which could be caused by nucleotide variants of DNA repair genes. In order to verify if such genetic variants are responsible for individual differences in radiosensitivity, they could be introduced into cultured human cells for evaluation. This strategy would make it possible to analyse the effect of candidate nucleotide variants on individual radiosensitivity, independent of the diverse genetic background. However, efficient gene targeting in cultured human cells is difficult due to the low frequency of homologous recombination (HR) repair. The development of artificial nucleases has enabled efficient HR-mediated genome editing to be performed in cultured human cells. A novel genome editing strategy, 'transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated two-step single base pair editing', has been developed, and this was used to introduce a nucleotide variant associated with a chromosomal instability syndrome bi-allelically into cultured human cells to demonstrate that it is the causative mutation. It is proposed that this editing technique will be useful to investigate individual radiosensitivity.

  1. Extraversion predicts individual differences in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingguang; Tian, Moqian; Fang, Huizhen; Xu, Miao; Li, He; Liu, Jia

    2010-07-01

    In daily life, one of the most common social tasks we perform is to recognize faces. However, the relation between face recognition ability and social activities is largely unknown. Here we ask whether individuals with better social skills are also better at recognizing faces. We found that extraverts who have better social skills correctly recognized more faces than introverts. However, this advantage was absent when extraverts were asked to recognize non-social stimuli (e.g., flowers). In particular, the underlying facet that makes extraverts better face recognizers is the gregariousness facet that measures the degree of inter-personal interaction. In addition, the link between extraversion and face recognition ability was independent of general cognitive abilities. These findings provide the first evidence that links face recognition ability to our daily activity in social communication, supporting the hypothesis that extraverts are better at decoding social information than introverts.

  2. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene... of cracks, gaps, or other problems that could result in benzene emissions. (5) Except as provided...

  3. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene... of cracks, gaps, or other problems that could result in benzene emissions. (5) Except as provided...

  4. The role of scripts in personal consistency and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Amy; Popovska, Ana; Dabova, Milena

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the role of scripts in personal consistency and individual differences. Scripts are personally distinctive rules for understanding emotionally significant experiences. In 2 studies, scripts were identified from autobiographical memories of college students (Ns = 47 and 50) using standard categories of events and emotions to derive event-emotion compounds (e.g., Affiliation-Joy). In Study 1, scripts predicted responses to a reaction-time task 1 month later, such that participants responded more quickly to the event from their script when asked to indicate what emotion would be evoked by a series of events. In Study 2, individual differences in 5 common scripts were found to be systematically related to individual differences in traits of the Five-Factor Model. Distinct patterns of correlation revealed the importance of studying events and emotions in compound units, that is, in script form (e.g., Agreeableness was correlated with the script Affiliation-Joy but not with the scripts Fun-Joy or Affiliation-Love). © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Individual Differences in Second Language Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in traditional second language (L2) acquisition research, a major question in the field of L2 real-time sentence processing is the extent to which L2 learners process the input like native speakers. Where differences are observed, the underlying causes could be the influence of the learner's first language and/or differences…

  6. Learning Styles and Individual Differences in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riechmann-Hruska, Sheryl

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the following factors influencing learning: (1) environment; (2) emotional makeup; (3) persistence; (4) timing of learning; (5) teaching method; (6) cognitive style; (7) food intake; and (8) psychological factors, including the difference between analytical and global thinking. Discusses how to get a sense of one's personal learning…

  7. Individual and Group Differences in Study Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, J. B.

    Existing research indicates that particular study strategies are deployed with differing success according to certain critical personality factors, most notably a syndrome of characteristics related to internal or external locus of control. Institutional factors that have an effect on study behaviour include Faculty membership (Arts/Science), mode…

  8. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal…

  9. Individual Differences in Time-Sharing Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    relative to solitary task performance levels (e.g., North and Gopher, 1975; Parker, 1964; Sterky and Eysenck , 1965). In attempting such an analysis...Sterky, K. and Eysenck , H. J. Pursuit rotor performance as a function of different degrees of distraction. Life Sciences, 1965) 4, 889-897. Trankell, A

  10. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal…

  11. Different ways to active optical frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaogang; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-06-01

    Active optical frequency standard, or active optical clock, is a new concept of optical frequency standard, where a weak feedback with phase coherence information in optical bad-cavity limitation is formed, and the continuous self-sustained coherent stimulated emission between two atomic transition levels with population inversion is realized. Through ten years of both theoretical and experimental exploration, the narrow linewidth and suppression of cavity pulling effect of active optical frequency standard have been initially proved. In this paper, after a simple review, we will mainly present the most recent experimental progresses of active optical frequency standards in Peking University, including 4-level cesium active optical frequency standards and active Faraday optical frequency standards. The future development of active optical frequency standards is also discussed.

  12. Developmental and Individual Differences in Chinese Writing.

    PubMed

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Wagner, Richard K; Meng, Wanjin

    2013-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the generalizability of a model of the underlying dimensions of written composition across writing systems (Chinese Mandarin vs. English) and level of writing skill. A five-factor model of writing originally developed from analyses of 1st and 4th grade English writing samples was applied to Chinese writing samples obtained from 4th and 7th grade students. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fits of alternative models of written composition. The results suggest that the five-factor model of written composition generalizes to Chinese writing samples and applies to both less skilled (Grade 4) and more skilled (Grade 7) writing, with differences in factor means between grades that vary in magnitude across factors.

  13. Developmental and Individual Differences in Chinese Writing

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Wagner, Richard K.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the generalizability of a model of the underlying dimensions of written composition across writing systems (Chinese Mandarin vs. English) and level of writing skill. A five-factor model of writing originally developed from analyses of 1st and 4th grade English writing samples was applied to Chinese writing samples obtained from 4th and 7th grade students. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fits of alternative models of written composition. The results suggest that the five-factor model of written composition generalizes to Chinese writing samples and applies to both less skilled (Grade 4) and more skilled (Grade 7) writing, with differences in factor means between grades that vary in magnitude across factors. PMID:26038631

  14. MENTAL ASSOCIATION: TESTING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES BEFORE BINET.

    PubMed

    Mülberger, Annette

    2017-02-25

    This paper challenges the historiographical discontinuity established between earlier "anthropometric testing" and the arrival of "psychological testing" with Binet and Simon's intelligence test in 1905. After some conceptual clarifications, it deals with "word association": a kind of psychological experimentation and testing which became popular over the last two decades of the 19th century. First Galton's exploration are presented, followed by experiments performed at the Leipzig laboratory by Trautscholdt, and then Cattell and Bryant's collective testing. Additionally, I document the use of this method for the study of mental difference through the works of Münsterberg, Bourdon, Jastrow, Nevers and Calkins. The cases I present show how the method gave rise to various measurements and classifications. I conclude that the word association technique triggered reflection on mental "uniqueness", gender traits and the influence of education, among other topics. Moreover, it prepared the terrain and anticipated some basic attractions and problems intelligence testing would later encounter.

  15. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  16. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  17. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a human...

  18. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a human...

  19. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a human...

  20. MENTAL ASSOCIATION: TESTING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES BEFORE BINET

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This paper challenges the historiographical discontinuity established between earlier “anthropometric testing” and the arrival of “psychological testing” with Binet and Simon's intelligence test in 1905. After some conceptual clarifications, it deals with “word association”: a kind of psychological experimentation and testing which became popular over the last two decades of the 19th century. First Galton's exploration are presented, followed by experiments performed at the Leipzig laboratory by Trautscholdt, and then Cattell and Bryant's collective testing. Additionally, I document the use of this method for the study of mental difference through the works of Münsterberg, Bourdon, Jastrow, Nevers and Calkins. The cases I present show how the method gave rise to various measurements and classifications. I conclude that the word association technique triggered reflection on mental “uniqueness”, gender traits and the influence of education, among other topics. Moreover, it prepared the terrain and anticipated some basic attractions and problems intelligence testing would later encounter. PMID:28236298

  1. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  2. Standardized Symptom Measurement of Individuals with Early Lyme Disease Over Time.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Kathleen T; Rebman, Alison W; Crowder, Lauren A; Johnson-Greene, Doug; Aucott, John N

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the Lyme disease (LD) literature is challenging given the lack of consistent methodology and standardized measurement of symptoms and the impact on functioning. This prospective study incorporates well-validated measures to capture the symptom picture of individuals with early LD from time of diagnosis through 6-months post-treatment. One hundred seven patients with confirmed early LD and 26 healthy controls were evaluated using standardized instruments for pain, fatigue, depressive symptoms, functional impact, and cognitive functioning. Prior to antibiotic treatment, patients experience notable symptoms of fatigue and pain statistically higher than controls. After treatment, there are no group differences, suggesting that symptoms resolve and that there are no residual cognitive impairments at the level of group analysis. However, using subgroup analyses, some individuals experience persistent symptoms that lead to functional decline and these individuals can be identified immediately post-completion of standard antibiotic treatment using well-validated symptom measures. Overall, the findings suggest that ideally-treated early LD patients recover well and experience symptom resolution over time, though a small subgroup continue to suffer with symptoms that lead to functional decline. The authors discuss use of standardized instruments for identification of individuals who warrant further clinical follow-up.

  3. Matching effects on eating. Individual differences do make a difference!

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas A

    2012-04-01

    Dyads composed of unacquainted females (n=82) watched a cartoon while consuming salty aperitif snacks. The Affective Communication Test was used to measure nonverbal expressiveness. Computing intraclass correlation coefficients, the extent to which participants within dyads matched each other's food intake was analyzed. Food intake matched highly for dyads with two expressive individuals and moderately for dyads with one expressive participant. For dyads with two unexpressive participants, there was no evidence for matching behavior. Highly expressive people seem to be able to synchronize with others and thereby allow for close matching. This is the first study to show an influence of personality on matching consumption behavior.

  4. Speech rhythm sensitivity and musical aptitude: ERPs and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Magne, Cyrille; Jordan, Deanna K; Gordon, Reyna L

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the electrophysiological markers of rhythmic expectancy during speech perception. In addition, given the large literature showing overlaps between cognitive and neural resources recruited for language and music, we considered a relation between musical aptitude and individual differences in speech rhythm sensitivity. Twenty adults were administered a standardized assessment of musical aptitude, and EEG was recorded as participants listened to sequences of four bisyllabic words for which the stress pattern of the final word either matched or mismatched the stress pattern of the preceding words. Words with unexpected stress patterns elicited an increased fronto-central mid-latency negativity. In addition, rhythm aptitude significantly correlated with the size of the negative effect elicited by unexpected iambic words, the least common type of stress pattern in English. The present results suggest shared neurocognitive resources for speech rhythm and musical rhythm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A laboratory comparison of individual Targis/Vectris posts with standard fiberglass posts.

    PubMed

    Corsalini, Massimo; Genovese, Katia; Lamberti, Luciano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Carella, Mauro; Carossa, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an in vitro analysis of a specific occlusal loading test on endodontically treated teeth restored with 2 different composite post materials. Individual, customized posts (IFPs) were compared to standard fiberglass posts (SFPs). The selected IFPs (standard cylindric Targis/Vectris posts) were compared to SFPs (Conic 6% Post, Ghimas). The posts were first subjected to a 3-point bending test to compare their flexural elastic properties. They were then used to restore 22 endodontically treated artificial maxillary central incisors and subjected to a specific occlusal loading simulation test. The loading test showed that IFP restorations performed better than SFP restorations. A clinical evaluation of this laboratory observation is suggested.

  6. Reproductive performance of mice in disposable and standard individually ventilated cages.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Danielle R; Bailey, Michele M

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the reproductive performance of mice housed in 2 types of individually ventilated caging systems. Breeding pairs from 48 female and 24 male mice of 3 established transgenic mouse breeding colonies were placed in either a standard or disposable ventilated caging system. For 3 breeding cycles, the number of pups born, pup survival rate to weaning, time interval between litters, and pup weights were monitored for each breeding pair. Disposable and standard cages were maintained in the same location during breeding. Environmental parameters included intracage temperature, humidity, and ammonia and carbon dioxide levels and room light intensity and sound. Overall, 776 offspring were produced. Breeding performance did not differ significantly between the 2 cage types. By 11 wk of age, the weights of pups from both cage types were equivalent. The intracage temperature was 1.1 °F warmer and light intensity at the site of the nest was 34 lx dimmer in disposable cages than in standard caging. The difference in lighting likely was due to nest location; the nests in the disposable cages were at the back of the cages and away from the anterior air supply, whereas in standard caging, nests were at the front of the cages, with the air supply at the rear. Under these husbandry conditions, mice housed in disposable caging systems have comparable breeding performance to those housed in standard individually ventilated cages.

  7. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN IMPULSIVE CHOICE AND TIMING IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extent of individual differences in a normal sample of hooded Lister rats. Three experiments utilized variations of a delay discounting task to measure the degree of variation in impulsive choice behavior across individual rats. The individual differences accounted for 22–55% of the variance in choice behavior across the three experiments. In Experiments 2 and 3, the individual differences were still apparent when behavior was measured across multiple choice points. Large individual differences in the rate of responding, and modest individual differences in timing of responding were also observed during occasional peak trials. The individual differences in timing and rate, however, did not correlate consistently with individual differences in choice behavior. This suggests that a variety of factors may affect choice behavior, response rate, and response timing. PMID:22851792

  8. Analysis of Individual "Test Of Astronomy STandards" (TOAST) Item Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Schleigh, Sharon Price; Stork, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of valid and reliable strategies to efficiently determine the knowledge landscape of introductory astronomy college students is an effort of great interest to the astronomy education community. This study examines individual item response rates from a widely used conceptual understanding survey, the Test Of Astronomy Standards…

  9. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment... Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? Yes. The individual protection and ground water protection standards are severable. ...

  10. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment... Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? Yes. The individual protection and ground water protection standards are severable....

  11. Individual Differences in Optimization Problem Solving: Reconciling Conflicting Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle, Edward P.; MacGregor, James N.; Lee, Michael; Ormerod, Thomas C.; Hughes, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Results on human performance on the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) from different laboratories show high consistency. However, one exception is in the area of individual differences. While one research group has consistently failed to find systematic individual differences across instances of TSPs (Chronicle, MacGregor and Ormerod), another…

  12. Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Accuracy and Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles F., Jr.; DePaulo, Bella M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a meta-analysis of individual differences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individual differences for differences introduced by random measurement error. Although…

  13. Task Dependent Differences and Individual Differences in Dual Task Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    conversation with the flight instructor, with the skilled pilot who can easily excercise flight control, and converse in par- allel. A difference...The subjects tested were 35 twelve-year olds , who performed tasks singly first then two dual task pairs and then each singly again. McQueen’s results...conducted by Sverko (1977) on adults in an effort to find evidence for a general factor of time-sharing skill. This study was conducted in order to

  14. Consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    English, S; Nakagawa, S; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2010-08-01

    Although recent models for the evolution of personality, using game theory and life-history theory, predict that individuals should differ consistently in their cooperative behaviour, consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour have rarely been documented. In this study, we used a long-term data set on wild meerkats to quantify the repeatability of two types of cooperative care (babysitting and provisioning) within individuals and examined how repeatability varied across age, sex and status categories. Contributions to babysitting and provisioning were significantly repeatable and positively correlated within individuals, with provisioning more repeatable than babysitting. While repeatability of provisioning was relatively invariant across categories of individuals, repeatability of babysitting increased with age and was higher for subordinates than dominants. These results provide support for theoretical predictions that life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour and raise questions about why some individuals consistently help more than others across a suite of cooperative behaviours.

  15. Straight-wire appliances: standard versus individual prescription.

    PubMed

    Farronato, Giampietro; Periti, Giulia; Giannini, Lucia; Farronato, Davide; Maspero, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    In this article the individual patient (IP) appliance is described. It consists of 250 options of bracket and band variations as the straight wire appliances. Increasing the bracket capabilities means using an increasing number of brackets, each with a specific design created for a treatment situation. The objective of IP appliance is to eliminate wire bending from orthodontic treatment and improve the treatment results. To manage this technique, a computer software is needed. Internet offers significant possibilities in managing each patient by patient basis. The clinician is required to make the diagnosis and treatment plan before ordering the appliance. Two clinical cases are described with the aim to present the advantages of this technique.

  16. EFL Reading Comprehension, Individual Differences and Text Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilikozen, Neslihan; Akyel, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution to EFL reading comprehension of the following individual-difference variables: prior knowledge, topic interest, linguistic proficiency, gender, reading motivation, and metacognitive awareness. It also investigates the relationship between the aforementioned individual differences and the role of text…

  17. EFL Reading Comprehension, Individual Differences and Text Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilikozen, Neslihan; Akyel, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution to EFL reading comprehension of the following individual-difference variables: prior knowledge, topic interest, linguistic proficiency, gender, reading motivation, and metacognitive awareness. It also investigates the relationship between the aforementioned individual differences and the role of text…

  18. Prototypes and Personal Templates: Collective Wisdom and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Leonard M.; Turan, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns individual differences in the associative meaning of psychological concepts. Associative meaning may be assessed with prototype methodology, which yields a list of features of the concept ordered according to their rated importance. Our theory concerns individual differences in a concept's associative meaning: A personal…

  19. Individual Differences in Impulsive Choice and Timing in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extent…

  20. Individual Differences in Impulsive Choice and Timing in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extent…

  1. Measuring Individual Differences in Sensitivities to Basic Emotions in Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Hoshino, Takahiro; Shigemasu, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of individual differences in facial expression recognition is normally required to address two major issues: (1) high agreement level (ceiling effect) and (2) differential difficulty levels across emotions. We propose a new assessment method designed to quantify individual differences in the recognition of the six basic emotions,…

  2. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  3. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  4. Individual Differences in Fear Extinction and Anxiety-Like Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gabrielle; Scott, Elliot; Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2017-01-01

    There is growing appreciation for the substantial individual differences in the acquisition and inhibition of aversive associations, and the insights this might give into identifying individuals particularly vulnerable to stress and psychopathology. We examined whether animals that differed in rate of extinction (i.e., Fast versus Slow) were…

  5. Inter-individual differences in heart rate variability are associated with inter-individual differences in mind-reading.

    PubMed

    Lischke, Alexander; Lemke, Daniela; Neubert, Jörg; Hamm, Alfons O; Lotze, Martin

    2017-09-14

    In the present study, we investigated whether inter-individual differences in vagally-mediated cardiac activity (high frequency heart rate variability, HF-HRV) would be associated with inter-individual differences in mind-reading, a specific aspect of social cognition. To this end, we recorded resting state HF-HRV in 49 individuals before they completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, a test that required the identification of mental states on basis of subtle facial cues. As expected, inter-individual differences in HF-HRV were associated with inter-individual differences in mental state identification: Individuals with high HF-HRV were more accurate in the identification of positive but not negative states than individuals with low HF-HRV. Individuals with high HF-HRV may, thus, be more sensitive to positive states of others, which may increase the likelihood to detect cues that encourage approach and affiliative behavior in social contexts. Inter-individual differences in mental state identification may, thus, explain why individuals with high HF-HRV have been shown to be more successful in initiating and maintaining social relationships than individuals with low HF-HRV.

  6. Individual differences in executive functioning: implications for stress regulation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paula G; Suchy, Yana; Rau, Holly K

    2009-04-01

    Executive functioning (EF) refers to the set of neurocognitive processes that facilitate novel problem solving, modification of behavior in response to environmental changes, planning and generating strategies for complex actions, and ability to override pre-potent behavioral and emotional responses to engage in goal-directed behavior. To provide an overview of research on individual differences in EF and examine the extent to which these individual differences confer risk and resilience for poor stress regulation. Review of the literature suggests that individual differences in EF are evident at multiple levels of analysis including genotype, endophenotype (e.g., performance on cognitive tasks), and phenotype (e.g., temperament and personality). These individual differences are associated with differential stress exposure, reactivity, recovery, and restorative processes. A theoretical framework that includes individual differences in EF will inform behavioral medicine research on stress risk and resilience.

  7. Standardizing the intrinsic brain: Towards robust measurement of inter-individual variation in 1000 functional connectomes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chao-Gan; Craddock, R. Cameron; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Milham, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    As researchers increase their efforts to characterize variations in the functional connectome across studies and individuals, concerns about the many sources of nuisance variation present and their impact on resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) measures continue to grow. Although substantial within-site variation can exist, efforts to aggregate data across multiple sites such as the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project (FCP) and International Neuroimaging Data-sharing Initiative (INDI) datasets amplify these concerns. The present work draws upon standardization approaches commonly used in the microarray gene expression literature, and to a lesser extent recent imaging studies, and compares them with respect to their impact on relationships between common R-fMRI measures and nuisance variables (e.g., imaging site, motion), as well as phenotypic variables of interest (age, sex). Standardization approaches differed with regard to whether they were applied post-hoc vs. during pre-processing, and at the individual vs. group level; additionally they varied in whether they addressed additive effects vs. additive + multiplicative effects, and were parametric vs. non-parametric. While all standardization approaches were effective at reducing undesirable relationships with nuisance variables, post-hoc approaches were generally more effective than global signal regression (GSR). Across approaches, correction for additive effects (global mean) appeared to be more important than for multiplicative effects (global SD) for all R-fMRI measures, with the exception of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF). Group-level post-hoc standardizations for mean-centering and variance-standardization were found to be advantageous in their ability to avoid the introduction of artifactual relationships with standardization parameters; though results between individual and group-level post-hoc approaches were highly similar overall. While post-hoc standardization procedures drastically increased

  8. Individual differences in working memory capacity and temporal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Broadway, James M; Engle, Randall W

    2011-01-01

    Temporal judgment in the milliseconds-to-seconds range depends on consistent attention to time and robust working memory representation. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) predict a wide range of higher-order and lower-order cognitive abilities. In the present work we examined whether WMC would predict temporal discrimination. High-WMC individuals were more sensitive than low-WMC at discriminating the longer of two temporal intervals across a range of temporal differences. WMC-related individual differences in temporal discrimination were not eliminated by including a measure of fluid intelligence as a covariate. Results are discussed in terms of attention, working memory and other psychological constructs.

  9. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Individual differences in activity levels in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Steven; Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences and variation in behavioural responses have been identified in many animal species. These differences may be the result of genetic or environmental factors or the interaction between them. Analysis of individual differences in behaviour may be important for many reasons. The zebrafish is a powerful model organism that is rapidly gaining popularity in behavioural brain research. However, individual differences have rarely been explored in zebrafish although significant variation in their performance has been reported. In the current study we identified individual differences in activity levels of zebrafish using a genetically heterogeneous population. Groups of zebrafish classified as high, medium, or low activity performers demonstrated consistent activity levels over a period of 7 days, and also in a subsequent open field task, suggesting stable individual differences as opposed to stochastic variation among subjects. We also uncovered a sex dependent relationship between behavioural measures. Female zebrafish in the high activity group preferred the top portion of the tank, whereas low activity females preferred the lower portion but males did not show such a relationship. The relationship between these two behaviours in females implies the potential existence of a behavioural syndrome persisting between contexts. Furthermore, females demonstrated a higher level of consistency in their behaviour as compared to males, and the behavioural differences were found to be independent of both body size and weight of the tested subjects. The identification of individual differences in activity levels in zebrafish will allow the investigation of underlying genetic and/or environmental underpinnings. PMID:24084583

  11. Defining the biological bases of individual differences in musicality

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Bruno; Honing, Henkjan; Peretz, Isabelle; Trainor, Laurel J.; Fisher, Simon E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in molecular technologies make it possible to pinpoint genomic factors associated with complex human traits. For cognition and behaviour, identification of underlying genes provides new entry points for deciphering the key neurobiological pathways. In the past decade, the search for genetic correlates of musicality has gained traction. Reports have documented familial clustering for different extremes of ability, including amusia and absolute pitch (AP), with twin studies demonstrating high heritability for some music-related skills, such as pitch perception. Certain chromosomal regions have been linked to AP and musical aptitude, while individual candidate genes have been investigated in relation to aptitude and creativity. Most recently, researchers in this field started performing genome-wide association scans. Thus far, studies have been hampered by relatively small sample sizes and limitations in defining components of musicality, including an emphasis on skills that can only be assessed in trained musicians. With opportunities to administer standardized aptitude tests online, systematic large-scale assessment of musical abilities is now feasible, an important step towards high-powered genome-wide screens. Here, we offer a synthesis of existing literatures and outline concrete suggestions for the development of comprehensive operational tools for the analysis of musical phenotypes. PMID:25646515

  12. Individual differences in saccharin acceptance predict rats' food intake.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Robert A; Martire, Sarah I; Rooney, Kieron B; Kendig, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    Following previous results indicating that low acceptance of saccharin-sweetened yoghurt was associated with slower weight gain, the aim of this experiment was to determine which of three measures of individual differences would predict subsequent chow consumption, body weight gain, and fat mass. Pre-test measures consisted of amount of running in an activity wheel, amount of 0.1% saccharin solution consumed over 24h, and performance on an elevated plus maze (EPM). Rats were then maintained for three weeks on a diet of standard chow and water. Subsequent post-testing repeated the procedures used in pre-testing. The rats were then culled and fat pads excised and weighed. Pre-testing revealed a negative correlation between saccharin acceptance and activity, while neither measure correlated with anxiety in the EPM. Pre-test saccharin acceptance was positively correlated with subsequent chow consumption, percent weight gain, and g/kg fat mass. Multiple regression analyses including all three pre-test measures confirmed saccharin acceptance as a predictor of chow consumption and, marginally, of fat pad mass, while high anxiety predicted low percent body weight gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Defining the biological bases of individual differences in musicality.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Honing, Henkjan; Peretz, Isabelle; Trainor, Laurel J; Fisher, Simon E

    2015-03-19

    Advances in molecular technologies make it possible to pinpoint genomic factors associated with complex human traits. For cognition and behaviour, identification of underlying genes provides new entry points for deciphering the key neurobiological pathways. In the past decade, the search for genetic correlates of musicality has gained traction. Reports have documented familial clustering for different extremes of ability, including amusia and absolute pitch (AP), with twin studies demonstrating high heritability for some music-related skills, such as pitch perception. Certain chromosomal regions have been linked to AP and musical aptitude, while individual candidate genes have been investigated in relation to aptitude and creativity. Most recently, researchers in this field started performing genome-wide association scans. Thus far, studies have been hampered by relatively small sample sizes and limitations in defining components of musicality, including an emphasis on skills that can only be assessed in trained musicians. With opportunities to administer standardized aptitude tests online, systematic large-scale assessment of musical abilities is now feasible, an important step towards high-powered genome-wide screens. Here, we offer a synthesis of existing literatures and outline concrete suggestions for the development of comprehensive operational tools for the analysis of musical phenotypes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual Skill Differences and Large-Scale Environmental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alexa W.; Shelton, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial skills are known to vary widely among normal individuals. This project was designed to address whether these individual differences are differentially related to large-scale environmental learning from route (ground-level) and survey (aerial) perspectives. Participants learned two virtual environments (route and survey) with limited…

  15. An Individual Differences Analysis of Double-Aspect Stimulus Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, G. Alfred; Huber, R. John

    Any theory of information processing must address both what is processed and how that processing takes place. Most studies investigating variables which alter physical dimension utilization have ignored the large individual differences in selective attention or cue utilization. A paradigm was developed using an individual focus on information…

  16. Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

  17. Assessing Students' Learning Styles and Teaching for Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, Anthony

    1978-01-01

    Since it is assumed that students' classroom behaviors reflect learning modalities and attitudes, this investigation was undertaken to assist teachers in identifying their students' individual differences. (Author/NCR)

  18. A Brief Overview of Individual Differences in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Madeline E.; Leaver, Betty Lou; Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2003-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of the field of individual differences in language learning, especially as they are reflected in learning styles, learning strategies, and affective variables. Touches on areas for further research. (Author/VWL)

  19. Individual Differences in Information Processing in Networked Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-31

    processing in terms of their impact on the timeliness and accuracy of decisions. In this paper, we address this problem by introducing an agent-based model...for corroboration. Based on a novel way of modeling the degree of problem difficulty, we investigate the impact of individual differences in networked...agents mod- els have incorporated the notion of bounded rational- ity [Carley et al., 2009], the impact of individual differ- ences especially in the NC

  20. 12 CFR 615.5351 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... individual institution minimum capital ratios. 615.5351 Section 615.5351 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... OPERATIONS Establishment of Minimum Capital Ratios for an Individual Institution § 615.5351 Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios. The appropriate minimum...

  1. 12 CFR 615.5351 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... individual institution minimum capital ratios. 615.5351 Section 615.5351 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... OPERATIONS Establishment of Minimum Capital Ratios for an Individual Institution § 615.5351 Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios. The appropriate minimum...

  2. 12 CFR 3.403 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... individual minimum capital ratios. 3.403 Section 3.403 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Establishment of Minimum Capital Ratios for an... individual minimum capital ratios. The appropriate minimum capital ratios for an individual national bank...

  3. 12 CFR 3.11 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... individual minimum capital ratios. 3.11 Section 3.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Establishment of Minimum Capital Ratios for an Individual Bank § 3.11 Standards for determination of appropriate individual...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5351 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... individual institution minimum capital ratios. 615.5351 Section 615.5351 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... OPERATIONS Establishment of Minimum Capital Ratios for an Individual Institution § 615.5351 Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios. The appropriate minimum...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5351 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... individual institution minimum capital ratios. 615.5351 Section 615.5351 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... OPERATIONS Establishment of Minimum Capital Ratios for an Individual Institution § 615.5351 Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios. The appropriate minimum...

  6. 12 CFR 615.5351 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... individual institution minimum capital ratios. 615.5351 Section 615.5351 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... OPERATIONS Establishment of Minimum Capital Ratios for an Individual Institution § 615.5351 Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios. The appropriate minimum...

  7. Individual differences in face cognition: brain-behavior relationships.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Grit; Kunina, Olga; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2010-03-01

    Individual differences in perceiving, learning, and recognizing faces, summarized under the term face cognition, have been shown on the behavioral and brain level, but connections between these levels have rarely been made. We used ERPs in structural equation models to determine the contributions of neurocognitive processes to individual differences in the accuracy and speed of face cognition as established by Wilhelm, Herzmann, Kunina, Danthiir, Schacht, and Sommer [Individual differences in face cognition, in press]. For 85 participants, we measured several ERP components and, in independent tasks and sessions, assessed face cognition abilities and other cognitive abilities, including immediate and delayed memory, mental speed, general cognitive ability, and object cognition. Individual differences in face cognition were unrelated to domain-general visual processes (P100) and to processes involved with memory encoding (Dm component). The ability of face cognition accuracy was moderately related to neurocognitive indicators of structural face encoding (latency of the N170) and of activating representations of both faces and person-related knowledge (latencies and amplitudes of the early and late repetition effects, ERE/N250 and LRE/N400, respectively). The ability of face cognition speed was moderately related to the amplitudes of the ERE and LRE. Thus, a substantial part of individual differences in face cognition is explained by the speed and efficiency of activating memory representations of faces and person-related knowledge. These relationships are not moderated by individual differences in established cognitive abilities.

  8. Individual Differences and Metacognitive Knowledge of Visual Search Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A crucial ability for an organism is to orient toward important objects and to ignore temporarily irrelevant objects. Attention provides the perceptual selectivity necessary to filter an overwhelming input of sensory information to allow for efficient object detection. Although much research has examined visual search and the ‘template’ of attentional set that allows for target detection, the behavior of individual subjects often reveals the limits of experimental control of attention. Few studies have examined important aspects such as individual differences and metacognitive strategies. The present study analyzes the data from two visual search experiments for a conjunctively defined target (Proulx, 2007). The data revealed attentional capture blindness, individual differences in search strategies, and a significant rate of metacognitive errors for the assessment of the strategies employed. These results highlight a challenge for visual attention studies to account for individual differences in search behavior and distractibility, and participants that do not (or are unable to) follow instructions. PMID:22066030

  9. Personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Pietschnig, Jakob; Bertl, Bianca; Nader, Ingo W; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2012-08-01

    This study examined differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals on a range of personality and individual difference measures. A community sample of 540 individuals from the southern German-speaking area of central Europe completed a survey consisting of measures of the Big Five personality factors, Need for Uniqueness, Self-esteem, sensation seeking, Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, Attitudes Toward Tattoos, tattoo possession, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that 22% of the total sample possessed at least one tattoo. Further analyses showed that, compared with non-tattooed (n = 420) individuals, tattooed participants (n = 120) had significantly higher scores on Extraversion, Experience Seeking, Need for Uniqueness, and held more positive Attitudes Toward Tattoos, although effect sizes of these group differences were generally small- to medium-sized. These results are considered in relation to the contemporary prevalence of tattoos in socioeconomically developed societies.

  10. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-04-04

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction context. Payoff-based learners focus on their peers' success, while decision-based learners disregard payoffs and exclusively focus on their peers' past behaviour. These individual differences may be of considerable importance for cultural evolution. By means of a simple model, we demonstrate that groups harbouring individuals with different learning strategies may be faster in adopting technological innovations and can be more efficient through successful role differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of individual variation for human interactions and sheds new light on the dynamics of cultural evolution.

  11. Individual differences and metacognitive knowledge of visual search strategy.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    A crucial ability for an organism is to orient toward important objects and to ignore temporarily irrelevant objects. Attention provides the perceptual selectivity necessary to filter an overwhelming input of sensory information to allow for efficient object detection. Although much research has examined visual search and the 'template' of attentional set that allows for target detection, the behavior of individual subjects often reveals the limits of experimental control of attention. Few studies have examined important aspects such as individual differences and metacognitive strategies. The present study analyzes the data from two visual search experiments for a conjunctively defined target (Proulx, 2007). The data revealed attentional capture blindness, individual differences in search strategies, and a significant rate of metacognitive errors for the assessment of the strategies employed. These results highlight a challenge for visual attention studies to account for individual differences in search behavior and distractibility, and participants that do not (or are unable to) follow instructions.

  12. Individual odor differences and their social functions in insects.

    PubMed Central

    Barrows, E M; Bell, W J; Michener, C D

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of individual or subgroup differences in odors of halictine bees is suggested from possible widespread intraspecific variation in pheromones. An important result of such variation may be maintenance of genetic polymorphisms; in nesting Hymenoptera odor differences may also facilitate individual nest recognition. In Lasioglosum zephyrum males habituate to odors of different females and perhaps thus save time by not trying to copulate with nonreceptive individuals. Guards (females) at nest entrances distinguish their few nestmates (other females) from other conspecific individuals by odors, seemingly pheromones. Duration of the habituation in L. zephyrum is at least an hour (perhaps much more) for males in relation to females and 6 or 7 days for guards in relation to nestmates. Studies of pheromones should take into consideration the possibility of pheromonal polymorphism in any species and the likelihood that it may be significant from biological and practical viewpoints. PMID:1058498

  13. Individual differences in distractibility: An update and a model

    PubMed Central

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of background sound on visual-verbal task performance. A large body of evidence suggests that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) underpin individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction in most tasks and contexts. Specifically, high WMC is associated with a more steadfast locus of attention (thus overruling the call for attention that background noise may evoke) and a more constrained auditory-sensory gating (i.e., less processing of the background sound). The relation between WMC and distractibility is a general framework that may also explain distractibility differences between populations that differ along variables that covary with WMC (such as age, developmental disorders, and personality traits). A neurocognitive task-engagement/distraction trade-off (TEDTOFF) model that summarizes current knowledge is outlined and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:25632345

  14. Accounting for taste: individual differences in preference for harmony.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen E; Griscom, William S

    2013-06-01

    Although empirical research on aesthetics has had some success in explaining the average preferences of groups of observers, relatively little is known about individual differences in preference, and especially about how such differences might covary across different domains. In this study, we identified a new factor underlying aesthetic response-preference for harmonious stimuli-and examined how it varies over four domains (color, shape, spatial location, and music) across individuals with different levels of training in art and music. We found that individual preferences for harmony are strongly correlated across all four dimensions tested and decrease consistently with training in the relevant aesthetic domains. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that cross-domain preference for harmony is well-represented as a single, unified factor, with effects separate from those of training and of common personality measures.

  15. Who withdraws? Psychological individual differences and employee withdrawal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Ryan D; Swider, Brian W; Woo, Sang Eun; Allen, David G

    2016-04-01

    Psychological individual differences, such as personality, affectivity, and general mental ability, have been shown to predict numerous work-related behaviors. Although there is substantial research demonstrating relationships between psychological individual differences and withdrawal behaviors (i.e., lateness, absenteeism, and turnover), there is no integrative framework providing scholars and practitioners a guide for conceptualizing how, why, and under what circumstances we observe such relationships. In this integrative conceptual review we: (a) utilize the Cognitive-Affective Processing System framework (Mischel & Shoda, 1995) to provide an overarching theoretical basis for how psychological individual differences affect withdrawal behaviors; (b) create a theoretical model of the situated person that summarizes the existing empirical literature examining the effect of psychological differences on withdrawal behavior; and (c) identify future research opportunities based on our review and integrative framework.

  16. Individual differences in human annoyance response to noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, R. G.; Hart, F. D.; Obrien, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Individual variations in annoyance and in susceptibility to noise were studied to establish a finer definition of the ingredients of the human annoyance response. The study involved interactions among a heterogeneous sample of human subjects, various noise stimuli, and different physical environments of exposure. Significant differences in annoyance ratings among the six noise stimuli, all equated for peak sound pressure level, were found.

  17. How Individual Differences Interact with Task Demands in Text Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zuowei; Sabatini, John; O'Reilly, Tenaha; Feng, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Reading is affected by both situational requirements and one's cognitive skills. The current study investigated how individual differences interacted with task requirements to determine reading behavior and outcome. We recorded the eye movements of college students, who differed in reading efficiency, while they completed a multiple-choice (MC)…

  18. Familial Patterns and the Origins of Individual Differences in Synaesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Kylie J.; Finucane, Ciara; Asher, Julian E.; Bargary, Gary; Corvin, Aiden P.; Newell, Fiona N.; Mitchell, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The term synaesthesia has been applied to a range of different sensory-perceptual and cognitive experiences, yet how these experiences are related to each other is not well understood. Not only are there disparate types of synaesthesia, but even within types there are vast individual differences in the way that stimuli induce synaesthesia and in…

  19. Individual Differences in Achievement Orientation and Use of Classroom Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Timothy A.; Hom, Harry L., Jr.

    Individual differences in achievement orientation are compared with differences in gifted students' use of feedback on a classroom exam. The achievement orientation of 57 seventh- and eighth-grade gifted students was measured using the Motivational Orientation Scale (MOS). There were 33 males and 24 females. As part of their regular classroom…

  20. Variations in Cognitive Maps: Understanding Individual Differences in Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Steven M.; Schinazi, Victor R.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Epstein, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    There are marked individual differences in the formation of cognitive maps both in the real world and in virtual environments (VE; e.g., Blajenkova, Motes, & Kozhevnikov, 2005; Chai & Jacobs, 2010; Ishikawa & Montello, 2006; Wen, Ishikawa, & Sato, 2011). These differences, however, are poorly understood and can be difficult to…

  1. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross-sectional design. Results indicated that the…

  2. Providing for Individual Differences and Designing the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Elementary school students differ in interest, capacity, achievement, social development, socioeconomic level, and psychomotor skills. These individual differences are discussed in reference to the process of designing the elementary social studies curriculum. Part One suggests ways in which teachers can respond to students' individual…

  3. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a crosssectional design. Results indicated that the difference…

  4. Variations in Cognitive Maps: Understanding Individual Differences in Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Steven M.; Schinazi, Victor R.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Epstein, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    There are marked individual differences in the formation of cognitive maps both in the real world and in virtual environments (VE; e.g., Blajenkova, Motes, & Kozhevnikov, 2005; Chai & Jacobs, 2010; Ishikawa & Montello, 2006; Wen, Ishikawa, & Sato, 2011). These differences, however, are poorly understood and can be difficult to…

  5. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Kirkby, Nikolai; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce J.; Bardow, Allan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from 85 individuals with low levels of caries experience (healthy group) and 79 individuals with high levels of caries experience (caries group) were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbiome Identification Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique. Subsequently, saliva samples from caries-free individuals in the healthy group (n = 57) and the caries group (n = 31) were compared. A significantly higher α-diversity (p < 0.0001) and a twofold higher relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, and Fusobacterium were recorded in saliva samples from the healthy group compared with the caries group. Differences observed were more pronounced when limiting the analyses to caries-free individuals in each group. Data from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that low levels of caries experience might associate with a characteristic salivary bacterial composition different from that in individuals with high caries experience. Consequently, longitudinal studies are required to determine if the composition of the salivary microbiota might be a predictive factor of caries risk at the individual level. PMID:28326153

  6. Individual Differences in Learning a Novel Discrete Motor Task

    PubMed Central

    Golenia, Laura; Schoemaker, Marina M.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2014-01-01

    Many motor learning studies focus on average performance while it is known from everyday life experience that humans differ in their way of learning new motor tasks. This study emphasises the importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning. We studied individual tool grasping profiles of individuals who learned to pick up objects with a novel tool, a pair of pliers. The pair of pliers was attached to the thumb and the index finger so that the tip of the thumb and the tip of the index finger were displaced to the beaks of the pair of pliers. The grasp component was manipulated by varying the location of the hinge of the pair of pliers, which resulted in different relations between beak opening and closing and finger opening and closing. The Wider Beak group had the hinge at 7 cm, the Same Beak group had the hinge at 10 cm (i.e., in the middle), and the Smaller Beak group had the hinge at 13 cm from the digits. Each group consisted of ten right-handed participants who picked up an object with one of the pairs of pliers 200 times on two subsequent days. Hand opening, plateau phase, hand closing, grasping time and maximum aperture were analyzed. To characterize individual changes over practice time, a log function was fitted on these dependent variables and the ratio of improvement was determined. Results showed that at the beginning stage of tool use learning the characteristic grasping profile consisted of three phases; hand opening, plateau phase and hand closing. Over practicing individual participants differed in the number of phases that changed, the amount of change in a phase and/or the direction of change. Moreover, with different pliers different learning paths were found. The importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning is discussed. PMID:25386708

  7. Individual and sex differences in high and low responder phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carreira, María B; Cossio, Ricardo; Britton, Gabrielle B

    2017-03-01

    Individual differences in responses to a novel environment are an important tool to predict predisposition to neuropsychiatric disorders. One way to examine individual differences involves classifying animals based on locomotion in a novel context. In this study we focused on individual and sex differences by categorizing female and male mice as high (HR) or low responders (LR) on the basis of open field locomotion. We then assessed whether groups differed on behavioral measures of spontaneous alternations, anxiety, depression and contextual fear conditioning. In the Y-maze, we observed no differences across HR/LR or sex on spontaneous alternations, but HR displayed more locomotion. HR male mice showed less anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark test but not the elevated plus maze. We observed no differences in the forced swim test across HR/LR, although males exhibited greater depression-like behavior overall. HR mice exhibited less contextual fear memory compared to LR regardless of sex. Principal component analyses suggested sex-specific patterns of behaviors across tests, with female responses within individual tests tending to load together. In females anxiety- and depression-like behaviors explained a large part of the variance observed across tests in our battery, whereas male behavior was primarily explained by variables related to locomotion.

  8. Individual versus Standardized Running Protocols in the Determination of VO2max.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Paula F; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Reed, Jennifer L; Zinner, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Sperlich, Billy

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an individually designed incremental exercise protocol results in greater rates of oxygen uptake (VO2max) than standardized testing. Fourteen well-trained, male runners performed five incremental protocols in randomized order to measure their VO2max: i) an incremental test (INCS+I) with pre-defined increases in speed (2 min at 8.64 km·h(-1), then a rise of 1.44 km·h(-1) every 30 s up to 14.4 km·h(-1)) and thereafter inclination (0.5° every 30 s); ii) an incremental test (INCI) at constant speed (14.4 km·h(-1)) and increasing inclination (2° every 2 min from the initial 0°); iii) an incremental test (INCS) at constant inclination (0°) and increasing speed (0.5 km·h(-1) every 30 s from the initial 12.0 km·h(-1)); iv) a graded exercise protocol (GXP) at a 1° incline with increasing speed (initially 8.64 km·h(-1) + 1.44 km·h(-1) every 5 min); v) an individual exercise protocol (INDXP) in which the runner chose the inclination and speed. VO2max was lowest (-4.2%) during the GXP (p = 0.01; d = 0.06-0.61) compared to all other tests. The highest rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, ventilation and end-exercise blood lactate concentration were similar between the different protocols (p < 0.05). The time to exhaustion ranged from 7 min 18 sec (INCS) to 25 min 30 sec (GXP) (p = 0.01).The VO2max attained by employing an individual treadmill protocol does not differ from the values derived from various standardized incremental protocols. Key pointsThe mean maximum oxygen uptake during the GXP was lower than for all other tests.Differences in the maximum rate of oxygen uptake between the various protocols exhibited considerable inter-individual variation.From the current findings, it can be concluded that well trained athletes are able to perform an individually designed treadmill running protocol.

  9. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  10. The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Al-Janabi, Tamara; D'Souza, Hana; Groet, Jurgen; Massand, Esha; Mok, Kin; Startin, Carla; Fisher, Elizabeth; Hardy, John; Nizetic, Dean; Tybulewicz, Victor; Strydom, Andre

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS) still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels-genetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental-constitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer's disease in this high-risk population.

  11. Individual Differences in the Flexibility of Peripersonal Space.

    PubMed

    Hunley, Samuel B; Marker, Arwen M; Lourenco, Stella F

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated individual differences in the flexibility of peripersonal space (i.e., representational space near the body), specifically in relation to trait claustrophobic fear (i.e., fear of suffocating or being physically restricted). Participants completed a line bisection task with either a laser pointer (Laser condition), allowing for a baseline measure of the size of one's peripersonal space, or a stick (Stick condition), which produces expansion of one's peripersonal space. Our results revealed that individuals high in claustrophobic fear had larger peripersonal spaces than those lower in claustrophobic fear, replicating previous research. We also found that, whereas individuals low in claustrophobic fear demonstrated the expected expansion of peripersonal space in the Stick condition, individuals high in claustrophobic fear showed less expansion, suggesting decreased flexibility. We discuss these findings in relation to the defensive function of peripersonal space and reduced attentional flexibility associated with trait anxieties.

  12. Developmental and individual differences in understanding of fractions.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Pyke, Aryn A

    2013-10-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross-sectional design. Results indicated that the difference between low achieving and higher achieving children's fraction arithmetic knowledge, already substantial in 6th grade, was much greater in 8th grade. The fraction arithmetic knowledge of low achieving children was similar in the 2 grades, whereas higher achieving children showed much greater knowledge in 8th than 6th grade, despite both groups having been in the same classrooms, using the same textbooks, and having the same teachers and classmates. Individual differences in both fraction arithmetic and mathematics achievement test scores were predicted by differences in fraction magnitude knowledge and whole number division, even after the contributions of reading achievement and executive functioning were statistically controlled. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Differences Between Individual and Societal Health State Valuations

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Franks, Peter; Duberstein, Paul R.; Jerant, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Objective The concept of “adaptation” has been proposed to account for differences between individual and societal valuations of specific health states in patients with chronic diseases. Little is known about psychological indices of adaptational capacity, which may predict differences in individual and societal valuations of health states. We investigated whether such differences were partially explained by personality traits in chronic disease patients. Research Design Analysis of baseline data of randomized controlled trial. Subjects Three hundred seventy patients with chronic disease. Measures The NEO-five factor inventory measure of personality, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) societal-based, and the EQ visual analogue scale individually-based measures of health valuation. Results Regression analyses modeled Dev, a measure of difference between the EQ-Visual Analogue Scale and EQ-5D, as a function of personality traits, sociodemographic factors, and chronic diseases. Individual valuations were significantly and clinically higher than societal valuations among patients in the second and third quartile of conscientiousness (Dev = 0.08, P = 0.01); among covariates, only depression (Dev = -0.04, P = 0.046) was also associated with Dev. Conclusion Compared with societal valuations of a given health state, persons at higher quartiles of conscientiousness report less disutility associated with poor health. The effect is roughly twice that of some estimates of minimally important clinical differences on the EQ-5D and of depression. Although useful at the aggregate level, societal preference measures may systematically undervalue the health states of more conscientious individuals. Future work should examine the impact this has on individual patient outcome evaluation in clinical studies. PMID:19543121

  14. Examination of Automation-Induced Complacency and Individual Difference Variates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; DeVries, Holly; Freeman, Fred G.; Mikulka, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Automation-induced complacency has been documented as a cause or contributing factor in many airplane accidents throughout the last two decades. It is surmised that the condition results when a crew is working in highly reliable automated environments in which they serve as supervisory controllers monitoring system states for occasional automation failures. Although many reports have discussed the dangers of complacency, little empirical research has been produced to substantiate its harmful effects on performance as well as what factors produce complacency. There have been some suggestions, however, that individual characteristics could serve as possible predictors of performance in automated systems. The present study examined relationship between the individual differences of complacency potential, boredom proneness, and cognitive failure, automation-induced complacency. Workload and boredom scores were also collected and analyzed in relation to the three individual differences. The results of the study demonstrated that there are personality individual differences that are related to whether an individual will succumb to automation-induced complacency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  15. Individual differences in individualism and collectivism predict ratings of virtual cities' liveability and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mark; Morrison, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated individual differences in individualism and collectivism as predictors of people's reactions to cities. Psychology undergraduate students (N = 148) took virtual guided tours around historical cities. They then evaluated the cities' liveability and environmental quality and completed measures of individualism and collectivism. Mediation analyses showed that people who scored high in self-responsibility (individualism) rated the cities as more liveable because they perceived them to be richer and better resourced. In contrast, people who scored high in collectivism rated the cities as having a better environmental quality because they perceived them to (1) provide a greater potential for community and social life and (2) allow people to express themselves. These results indicate that people's evaluations of virtual cities are based on the degree to which certain aspects of the cities are perceived to be consistent with individualist and collectivist values.

  16. Standardized Individuality: Cosmopolitanism and Educational Decision-Making in an Atlantic Canadian Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of network society, consumerism, individualization, globalization and contemporary change forces, students are pressured to both perform well in standardized academic assessments while at the same time constructing a non-standard, unique project of the self. I argue that this generates a particular set of place-based tensions for…

  17. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  18. Standardized Individuality: Cosmopolitanism and Educational Decision-Making in an Atlantic Canadian Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of network society, consumerism, individualization, globalization and contemporary change forces, students are pressured to both perform well in standardized academic assessments while at the same time constructing a non-standard, unique project of the self. I argue that this generates a particular set of place-based tensions for…

  19. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative standards for individual drain systems. 60.693-1 Section 60.693-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for...

  20. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative standards for individual drain systems. 60.693-1 Section 60.693-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for...

  1. Understanding Individual Differences in Young Children's Imitative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenstermacher, Susan K.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2006-01-01

    Because early theoretical frameworks such as Piaget's stage model and social learning theory sought to explain the development and performance of imitation in terms of overall group trends, any evidence for individual differences in this behavior was until recently largely overlooked. Results of contemporary imitation studies have not only begun…

  2. Individual Differences in a Spatial-Semantic Virtual Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei

    2000-01-01

    Presents two empirical case studies concerning the role of individual differences in searching through a spatial-semantic virtual environment. Discusses information visualization in information systems; cognitive factors, including associative memory, spatial ability, and visual memory; user satisfaction; and cognitive abilities and search…

  3. Sources of Individual Differences in Spatial Visualization Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Three hypotheses accounting for individual differences in spatial visualization ability were investigated in 2 experiments with 142 male undergraduates at Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta). Support was found for the preservation-under-transformation hypothesis, suggesting that effectiveness of storage during concurrent information…

  4. Individual Differences in a Spatial-Semantic Virtual Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei

    2000-01-01

    Presents two empirical case studies concerning the role of individual differences in searching through a spatial-semantic virtual environment. Discusses information visualization in information systems; cognitive factors, including associative memory, spatial ability, and visual memory; user satisfaction; and cognitive abilities and search…

  5. Individual Differences in Sibling Teaching in Early and Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Sibling teaching and learning behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of children in early and middle childhood. Study 1 addressed individual differences in teaching/learning and associations with dyadic age, age gap, gender, birth order, and relationship quality in 71 middle-class dyads (firstborns M age = 81.54 months;…

  6. Individual Differences and Instructional Variables in the Acquisition of Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Margaret Patricia

    The effects of instructional variables and individual differences upon structural learning tasks were studied. Eighty college students were given pretasks to test mathematical problem solving and paired-associate (PA) learning skills. Each subject was then given two PA learning tasks presented in a study-test format. Kinship terms served as…

  7. Individual Differences in the Neural Basis of Causal Inferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prat, Chantel S.; Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study used fMRI to examine individual differences in the neural basis of causal inferencing. Participants with varying language skill levels, as indexed by scores on the vocabulary portion of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, read four types of two-sentence passages in which causal relatedness (moderate and distant) and presence or absence of…

  8. Assessing Soldier Individual Differences to Enable Tailored Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Army Research Institute John Lipinski, U.S. Army Research Institute NOTICES DISTRIBUTION: Primary distribution of this Research...way to measure individual differences with strong criterion and face validity (Lievens, Peeters , & Schollaert, 2007). Attention to detail...Lievens, F., Peeters , G., & Schollaert, E. (2008). Situational judgment tests: a review of recent research. Personnel Review 37 (4), 426-441

  9. Sensitization during Visual Habituation Sequences: Procedural Effects and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, John; Frick, Janet E.; Gorman, Sheila A.

    1997-01-01

    Examined possibility that arousability as manifested in sensitization contributes to individual differences in infants' attentional profiles. Sensitization tended to occur more frequently with more complex than with less complex checkerboards. Infants showing sensitization looked longer and did not habituate as readily as infants who showed no…

  10. Statistical Learning and Language: An Individual Differences Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    Although statistical learning and language have been assumed to be intertwined, this theoretical presupposition has rarely been tested empirically. The present study investigates the relationship between statistical learning and language using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered…

  11. Developmental Changes and Individual Differences in Young Children's Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Rote, Wendy M.; Jambon, Marc; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Villalobos, Myriam; Comer, Jessamy

    2012-01-01

    Developmental trajectories and individual differences in 70 American middle-income 2.5- to 4-year olds' moral judgments were examined 3 times across 1 year using latent growth modeling. At Wave 1, children distinguished hypothetical moral from conventional transgressions on all criteria, but only older preschoolers did so when rating deserved…

  12. Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Children's Comprehension of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Variability in children's language acquisition is likely due to a number of cognitive and social variables. The current study investigated whether individual differences in statistical learning (SL), which has been implicated in language acquisition, independently predicted 6- to 8-year-old's comprehension of syntax. Sixty-eight (N = 68)…

  13. An Individual Differences Analysis of the Self-Teaching Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Frances A.; Loveall, Susan J.; Moore, Marie S.; Hume, Laura E.; Maddox, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    The self-teaching hypothesis suggests that children learn orthographic structure of words through the experience of phonologically recoding them. The current study is an individual differences analysis of the self-teaching hypothesis. A total of 40 children in Grades 2 and 3 (7-9 years of age) completed tests of phonological recoding, word…

  14. Sensitization during Visual Habituation Sequences: Procedural Effects and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, John; Frick, Janet E.; Gorman, Sheila A.

    1997-01-01

    Examined possibility that arousability as manifested in sensitization contributes to individual differences in infants' attentional profiles. Sensitization tended to occur more frequently with more complex than with less complex checkerboards. Infants showing sensitization looked longer and did not habituate as readily as infants who showed no…

  15. Individual Differences in the Neural Basis of Causal Inferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prat, Chantel S.; Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study used fMRI to examine individual differences in the neural basis of causal inferencing. Participants with varying language skill levels, as indexed by scores on the vocabulary portion of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, read four types of two-sentence passages in which causal relatedness (moderate and distant) and presence or absence of…

  16. Holland's RIASEC Model as an Integrative Framework for Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Day, Susan X.; McVay, Jason P.; Rounds, James

    2008-01-01

    Using data from published sources, the authors investigated J. L. Holland's (1959, 1997) theory of interest types as an integrative framework for organizing individual differences variables that are used in counseling psychology. Holland's interest types were used to specify 2- and 3-dimensional interest structures. In Study 1, measures of…

  17. Individual Differences in Syntactic Priming in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Although the syntactic priming methodology is a promising tool for language acquisition researchers, using the technique with children raises issues that are not problematic in adult research. The current paper reports on an individual differences study that addressed some of these outstanding issues. (a) Does priming purely reflect syntactic…

  18. Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Second Language Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golestani, Narly; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual training was employed to characterize individual differences in non-native speech sound learning. Fifty-nine adult English speakers were trained to distinguish the Hindi dental-retroflex contrast, as well as a tonal pitch contrast. Training resulted in overall group improvement in the ability to identify and to discriminate the phonetic…

  19. Beyond Individual Differences: Exploring School Effects on SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Howard T.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the complex, hierarchical relation among school characteristics, individual differences in academic achievement, extracurricular activities, and socioeconomic background on performance on the verbal and mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Using multilevel structural equation models (SEMs) with latent means, we…

  20. Individual Differences in Online Spoken Word Recognition: Implications for SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have…

  1. "Frame Size" and Individual Differences in Programmed Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronqvist, Harry

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a study of the stimulus variable of "frame size" and a group of variables reflecting student ability and sex. Individual differences were studied by varying ability, as measured by school grades and a battery of seven "factor tests" of intelligence and…

  2. Learning and Individual Differences: Process, Trait, and Content Determinants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Roberts, Richard D.

    In preparation for a conference on learning and individual differences, the invited authors prepared chapters, which were distributed in draft form. Presentations were followed by discussions, which were recorded, and then edited for this volume, so that the discussion transcript follows each paper. The chapters in part 1, General Background and…

  3. Functional connectivity patterns reflect individual differences in conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Zhencai; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun; Chen, Antao

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in the ability to utilize previous conflict information to optimize current conflict resolution, which is termed the conflict adaptation effect. Previous studies have linked individual differences in conflict adaptation to distinct brain regions. However, the network-based neural mechanisms subserving the individual differences of the conflict adaptation effect have not been studied. The present study employed a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis with a color-naming Stroop task to examine this issue. The main results were as follows: (1) the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-seeded PPI revealed the involvement of the salience network (SN) in conflict adaptation, while the posterior parietal cortex (PPC)-seeded PPI revealed the engagement of the central executive network (CEN). (2) Participants with high conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-CEN connectivity and lower intra-SN connectivity; while those with low conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-SN connectivity and lower intra-CEN connectivity. (3) The PPC-centered intra-CEN connectivity positively predicted the conflict adaptation effect; while the ACC-centered intra-SN connectivity had a negative correlation with this effect. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that conflict adaptation is likely supported by the CEN and the SN, providing a new perspective on studying individual differences in conflict adaptation on the basis of large-scale networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Developmental Changes and Individual Differences in Young Children's Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Rote, Wendy M.; Jambon, Marc; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Villalobos, Myriam; Comer, Jessamy

    2012-01-01

    Developmental trajectories and individual differences in 70 American middle-income 2.5- to 4-year olds' moral judgments were examined 3 times across 1 year using latent growth modeling. At Wave 1, children distinguished hypothetical moral from conventional transgressions on all criteria, but only older preschoolers did so when rating deserved…

  5. Antisocial and Prosocial Teasing among Children: Perceptions and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Mark A.; Burns, Susan R.; Sanborn, Fred W.; Bartel, Jeffrey S.; Wilds, Stacey J.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies examined fifth- and sixth-grade students' perceptions of antisocial and prosocial teasing among peers and potential correlates of individual differences in their tendencies to engage in both forms of teasing. The children were rated as showing a greater tendency to be prosocial teasers than antisocial teasers by both teachers and…

  6. Contexts and Individual Differences as Influences on Consumers' Delay Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.; Yani-de-Soriano, Mirella; Wells, Victoria K.

    2011-01-01

    Delay discounting is often considered a universal feature of human choice behavior, but there is controversy over whether it is an individual difference that reflects an underlying psychological trait or a domain-specific behavior. Trait influence on discounting would manifest in (a) highly correlated discount rates for all decisions, regardless…

  7. Learning and Individual Differences: Process, Trait, and Content Determinants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Roberts, Richard D.

    In preparation for a conference on learning and individual differences, the invited authors prepared chapters, which were distributed in draft form. Presentations were followed by discussions, which were recorded, and then edited for this volume, so that the discussion transcript follows each paper. The chapters in part 1, General Background and…

  8. Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Second Language Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golestani, Narly; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual training was employed to characterize individual differences in non-native speech sound learning. Fifty-nine adult English speakers were trained to distinguish the Hindi dental-retroflex contrast, as well as a tonal pitch contrast. Training resulted in overall group improvement in the ability to identify and to discriminate the phonetic…

  9. Individual Differences in Automatic and Controlled Information Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    RD-Ri46 245 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN AUTOMATIC AND CONTROLLED i/l INFORMATION PROCESSING(U) ILLINOIS UNIV CHAMPAIGN HUMAN ATTENTION RESEARCH LAB P L...declines rapidly as time -on- task increases (for both simple and relatively complex tasks). Based on these effects, traditional conceptions equating general

  10. Individual Differences in the Fan Effect and Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, M.F.; Conway, A.R.A.; Heitz, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    In opposition to conceptualizing working memory (WM) in terms of a general capacity, we present four experiments that favor the view that individual differences in WM depend on attentional control. High- and low-WM participants, as assessed by the operation span task, learned unrelated sentences for which the subject and predicate of the sentences…

  11. The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.

    2009-01-01

    Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

  12. Do Individual Learner Variables Contribute to Differences in Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shores, Melanie L.; Smith, Tommy G.; Jarrell, Sasha L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study (n = 761, 58.1% female) examined whether or not individual learner variables (gender, ethnicity, SES) contribute to differences in mathematics performance as measured by test score and mathematics grade for fifth and sixth grade mathematics students in Alabama. Multiple regression analysis revealed that gender and SES show…

  13. Individual Differences in RIASEC Profile Similarity across Five Interest Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.; Taber, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    The present research indicated substantial variation within the 5 RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) profiles obtained by each of 99 individuals who responded to the same 5 interest inventories. The authors concluded that the RIASEC indicators on each inventory probably reflect different portions of the…

  14. The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.

    2009-01-01

    Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

  15. Individual Differences in Syntactic Priming in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Although the syntactic priming methodology is a promising tool for language acquisition researchers, using the technique with children raises issues that are not problematic in adult research. The current paper reports on an individual differences study that addressed some of these outstanding issues. (a) Does priming purely reflect syntactic…

  16. Statistical Learning and Language: An Individual Differences Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    Although statistical learning and language have been assumed to be intertwined, this theoretical presupposition has rarely been tested empirically. The present study investigates the relationship between statistical learning and language using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered…

  17. Sources of Individual Differences in Children's Understanding of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children's understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number…

  18. Holland's RIASEC Model as an Integrative Framework for Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Day, Susan X.; McVay, Jason P.; Rounds, James

    2008-01-01

    Using data from published sources, the authors investigated J. L. Holland's (1959, 1997) theory of interest types as an integrative framework for organizing individual differences variables that are used in counseling psychology. Holland's interest types were used to specify 2- and 3-dimensional interest structures. In Study 1, measures of…

  19. Towards a Pedagogy for Clinical Education: Beyond Individual Learning Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, Ian M.; Baysan, Aylin; Cabot, Lyndon Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The development of teaching in higher education towards a more learner-orientated model has been supported by the literature on individual learning differences and on learning styles in particular. This has contributed to the evolution of university pedagogy away from a medieval transmission model than runs counter to contemporary understanding of…

  20. Sources of Individual Differences in Children's Understanding of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children's understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number…

  1. Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Children's Comprehension of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Variability in children's language acquisition is likely due to a number of cognitive and social variables. The current study investigated whether individual differences in statistical learning (SL), which has been implicated in language acquisition, independently predicted 6- to 8-year-old's comprehension of syntax. Sixty-eight (N = 68)…

  2. Individual Differences in Online Spoken Word Recognition: Implications for SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have…

  3. Individual Differences in Sibling Teaching in Early and Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Sibling teaching and learning behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of children in early and middle childhood. Study 1 addressed individual differences in teaching/learning and associations with dyadic age, age gap, gender, birth order, and relationship quality in 71 middle-class dyads (firstborns M age = 81.54 months;…

  4. Cultural Differences between Arabs and Americans: Individualism-Collectivism Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buda, Richard; Elsayed-Elkhouly, Sayed M.

    1998-01-01

    Cultural differences between Arabs and Americans were investigated using the individualism-collectivism survey of J. Wagner (1995). Arab subjects (n=331) were significantly more collectivist than U.S. subjects (n=102), and within the Arab group, Egyptian subjects (n=224) were significantly more individualistic than Gulf States subjects.…

  5. Individual Differences in Memory: Theory, Data, and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, James M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Individual differences in memory can be studied from two theoretical perspectives: Reappearance Theory or Constructive Theory. To test the Constructive Theory, two experiments examined the retention of high and low ability students. The results of both experiments supported the hypothesis that learners who acquire information rapidly also display…

  6. Individual Differences in Learning and Cognitive Abilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    This final report reviews a program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition. An integrative framework for information processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is presented, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Three major patterns of…

  7. Different brains process numbers differently: structural bases of individual differences in spatial and nonspatial number representations.

    PubMed

    Krause, Florian; Lindemann, Oliver; Toni, Ivan; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-04-01

    A dominant hypothesis on how the brain processes numerical size proposes a spatial representation of numbers as positions on a "mental number line." An alternative hypothesis considers numbers as elements of a generalized representation of sensorimotor-related magnitude, which is not obligatorily spatial. Here we show that individuals' relative use of spatial and nonspatial representations has a cerebral counterpart in the structural organization of the posterior parietal cortex. Interindividual variability in the linkage between numbers and spatial responses (faster left responses to small numbers and right responses to large numbers; spatial-numerical association of response codes effect) correlated with variations in gray matter volume around the right precuneus. Conversely, differences in the disposition to link numbers to force production (faster soft responses to small numbers and hard responses to large numbers) were related to gray matter volume in the left angular gyrus. This finding suggests that numerical cognition relies on multiple mental representations of analogue magnitude using different neural implementations that are linked to individual traits.

  8. The 2011 WPATH Standards of Care and Penile Reconstruction in Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Dhejne, Cecilia; Landen, Mikael; Elander, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) currently publishes the Standards of Care (SOC), to provide clinical guidelines for health care of transsexual, transgender and gender non-conforming persons in order to maximize health and well-being by revealing gender dysphoria. An updated version (7th version, 2011) of the WPATH SOC is currently available. Differences between the 6th and the 7th versions of the SOC are shown; the SOC relevant to penile reconstruction in female-to-male (FtM) persons are emphasized, and we analyze how the 2011 WPATH SOC is influencing the daily practice of physicians involved in performing a penile reconstruction procedure for these patients. Depending by an individual's goals and expectations, the most appropriate surgical technique should be performed: the clinic performing penile reconstruction should be able to offer the whole range of techniques, such as: metoidioplasty, pedicle and free flaps phalloplasty procedures. The goals that physicians and health care institutions should achieve in the next years, in order to improve the care of female-to-male persons, consist in: informing in details the individuals applying for penile reconstruction about all the implications; referring specific individuals to centers capable to deliver a particular surgical technique; implementing the surgery with the most updated refinements. PMID:22654902

  9. Stable Individual Differences in Number Discrimination in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change…

  10. Stable Individual Differences in Number Discrimination in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change…

  11. Neural markers of individual differences in decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Joseph W.; Levy, Ifat

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years, neuroscientists have begun to identify associations between individual differences in decision-making and features of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. Different tendencies in decision making, such as tolerance for risk, delay or effort, have been linked to various neurobiological measures, such as morphometry, structural connectivity, functional connectivity or the function of neurotransmitter systems. Though far from immutable, these neural features may nonetheless be suitable as relatively stable biomarkers for different decision traits. The establishment of such markers would achieve one of the stated goals of neuroeconomics, which is to improve the prediction of economic behavior across different contexts.

  12. Neural systems underlying individual differences in intertemporal decision making

    PubMed Central

    Elton, Amanda; Smith, Christopher T.; Parrish, Michael H.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessively choosing immediate over larger future rewards, or delay discounting (DD), associates with multiple clinical conditions. Individual differences in DD likely depend on variations in the activation of and functional interactions between networks, representing possible endophenotypes for associated disorders, including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Numerous fMRI studies have probed the neural bases of DD, but investigations of large-scale networks remains scant. We addressed this gap by testing whether activation within large-scale networks during “Now/Later” decision-making predicts individual differences in DD. To do so, we scanned 95 social drinkers (18–40 years; 50 females) using fMRI during hypothetical choices between small monetary amounts available “today” or larger amounts available later. We identified neural networks engaged during Now/Later choice using independent component analysis (ICA) and tested the relationship between component activation and degree of DD. The activity of two components during Now/Later choice correlated with individual DD rates: a temporal lobe network positively correlated with DD, while a frontoparietal-striatal network negatively correlated with DD. Activation differences between these networks predicted individual differences in DD and their negative correlation during Now/Later choice suggests functional competition. A generalized psychophysiological interactions (gPPI) analysis confirmed a decrease in their functional connectivity during decision-making. The functional connectivity of these two networks negatively correlates with alcohol-related harm, potentially implicating these networks in AUDs. These findings provide novel insight into the neural underpinnings of individual differences in impulsive decision making with potential implications for addiction and related disorders in which impulsivity is a defining feature. PMID:27779911

  13. Neural Systems Underlying Individual Differences in Intertemporal Decision-making.

    PubMed

    Elton, Amanda; Smith, Christopher T; Parrish, Michael H; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2017-03-01

    Excessively choosing immediate over larger future rewards, or delay discounting (DD), associates with multiple clinical conditions. Individual differences in DD likely depend on variations in the activation of and functional interactions between networks, representing possible endophenotypes for associated disorders, including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Numerous fMRI studies have probed the neural bases of DD, but investigations of large-scale networks remain scant. We addressed this gap by testing whether activation within large-scale networks during Now/Later decision-making predicts individual differences in DD. To do so, we scanned 95 social drinkers (18-40 years old; 50 women) using fMRI during hypothetical choices between small monetary amounts available "today" or larger amounts available later. We identified neural networks engaged during Now/Later choice using independent component analysis and tested the relationship between component activation and degree of DD. The activity of two components during Now/Later choice correlated with individual DD rates: A temporal lobe network positively correlated with DD, whereas a frontoparietal-striatal network negatively correlated with DD. Activation differences between these networks predicted individual differences in DD, and their negative correlation during Now/Later choice suggests functional competition. A generalized psychophysiological interactions analysis confirmed a decrease in their functional connectivity during decision-making. The functional connectivity of these two networks negatively correlates with alcohol-related harm, potentially implicating these networks in AUDs. These findings provide novel insight into the neural underpinnings of individual differences in impulsive decision-making with potential implications for addiction and related disorders in which impulsivity is a defining feature.

  14. Consistent differences in individual reactions to drugs and dummies

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, C. R. B.

    1959-01-01

    The tendency of some individuals to report changes of physical and mental state after taking pharmacologically inert substances has been investigated experimentally. In a class of healthy medical students, those individuals who reported symptoms and those who did not made significantly different scores on a number of behavioural tests. The likely reactions of the members of a second class (containing none of the previous participants) to dummies were then predicted from their scores on the same tests, some of which were found to be much more efficient predictors than would have been expected by chance. Some implications for further research and for clinical medicine are discussed. PMID:14408028

  15. Resistance to change: developing an individual differences measure.

    PubMed

    Oreg, Shaul

    2003-08-01

    The Resistance to Change Scale was designed to measure an individual's dispositional inclination to resist changes. In Study 1, exploratory analyses indicated 4 reliable factors: Routine Seeking, Emotional Reaction to Imposed Change, Cognitive Rigidity, and Short-Term Focus. Studies 2, 3, and 4 confirmed this structure and demonstrated the scale's convergent and discriminant validities. Studies 5, 6, and 7 demonstrated the concurrent and predictive validities of the scale in 3 distinct contexts. The scale can be used to account for the individual-difference component of resistance to change and to predict reactions to specific change.

  16. Modeling Variability in Individual Development: Differences of degree or kind?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Daniel J; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton

    2010-08-01

    The proper use of statistical models for analyzing individual change over time is critical for the progress of developmental science. Latent curve models, hierarchical linear growth models, group-based trajectory models, and growth mixture models constitute increasingly important tools for longitudinal data analysis. To facilitate their understanding and use, this paper clarifies similarities and differences between these models, with particular attention to the assumptions they make about individual development. An example shows how the results and interpretation vary across model types. Discussion centers on reviewing the strengths and limitations of each approach for developmental research.

  17. Modeling Variability in Individual Development: Differences of degree or kind?

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton

    2014-01-01

    The proper use of statistical models for analyzing individual change over time is critical for the progress of developmental science. Latent curve models, hierarchical linear growth models, group-based trajectory models, and growth mixture models constitute increasingly important tools for longitudinal data analysis. To facilitate their understanding and use, this paper clarifies similarities and differences between these models, with particular attention to the assumptions they make about individual development. An example shows how the results and interpretation vary across model types. Discussion centers on reviewing the strengths and limitations of each approach for developmental research. PMID:24910711

  18. Individual differences shape the content of visual representations.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Reshanne R

    2016-10-19

    Visually perceiving a stimulus activates a pictorial representation of that item in the brain, but how pictorial is the representation of a stimulus in the absence of visual stimulation? Here I address this question with a review of the literatures on visual imagery (VI), visual working memory (VWM), and visual preparatory templates, all of which require activating visual information in the absence of sensory stimulation. These processes have historically been studied separately, but I propose that they can provide complimentary evidence for the pictorial nature of their contents. One major challenge in studying the contents of visual representations is the discrepant findings concerning the extent of overlap (both cortical and behavioral) between externally and internally sourced visual representations. I argue that these discrepancies may in large part be due to individual differences in VI vividness and precision, the specific representative abilities required to perform a task, appropriateness of visual preparatory strategies, visual cortex anatomy, and level of expertise with a particular object category. Individual differences in visual representative abilities greatly impact task performance and may influence the likelihood of experiences such as intrusive VI and hallucinations, but research still predominantly focuses on uniformities in visual experience across individuals. In this paper I review the evidence for the pictorial content of visual representations activated for VI, VWM, and preparatory templates, and highlight the importance of accounting for various individual differences in conducting research on this topic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual differences in transcranial electrical stimulation current density

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Michael J; Goodman, Theodore; Pierson, Ronald; Shepherd, Shane; Wang, Qiang; Groshong, Bennett; Wiley, David F

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (TCES) is effective in treating many conditions, but it has not been possible to accurately forecast current density within the complex anatomy of a given subject's head. We sought to predict and verify TCES current densities and determine the variability of these current distributions in patient-specific models based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment estimated conductivity from MRIs and compared the current density results against actual measurements from the scalp surface of 3 subjects. In the second experiment, virtual electrodes were placed on the scalps of 18 subjects to model simulated current densities with 2 mA of virtually applied stimulation. This procedure was repeated for 4 electrode locations. Current densities were then calculated for 75 brain regions. Comparison of modeled and measured external current in experiment 1 yielded a correlation of r = .93. In experiment 2, modeled individual differences were greatest near the electrodes (ten-fold differences were common), but simulated current was found in all regions of the brain. Sites that were distant from the electrodes (e.g. hypothalamus) typically showed two-fold individual differences. MRI-based modeling can effectively predict current densities in individual brains. Significant variation occurs between subjects with the same applied electrode configuration. Individualized MRI-based modeling should be considered in place of the 10-20 system when accurate TCES is needed. PMID:24285948

  20. Dissociable mechanisms underlying individual differences in visual working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Gulbinaite, Rasa; Johnson, Addie; de Jong, Ritske; Morey, Candice C; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2014-10-01

    Individuals scoring relatively high on measures of working memory tend to be more proficient at controlling attention to minimize the effect of distracting information. It is currently unknown whether such superior attention control abilities are mediated by stronger suppression of irrelevant information, enhancement of relevant information, or both. Here we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) with the Eriksen flanker task to track simultaneously the attention to relevant and irrelevant information by tagging target and distractors with different frequencies. This design allowed us to dissociate attentional biasing of perceptual processing (via SSVEPs) and stimulus processing in the frontal cognitive control network (via time-frequency analyses of EEG data). We show that while preparing for the upcoming stimulus, high- and low-WMC individuals use different strategies: High-WMC individuals show attentional suppression of the irrelevant stimuli, whereas low-WMC individuals demonstrate attentional enhancement of the relevant stimuli. Moreover, behavioral performance was predicted by trial-to-trial fluctuations in strength of distractor-suppression for high-WMC participants. We found no evidence for WMC-related differences in cognitive control network functioning, as measured by midfrontal theta-band power. Taken together, these findings suggest that early suppression of irrelevant information is a key underlying neural mechanism by which superior attention control abilities are implemented.

  1. Individual differences during acquisition predict shifts in generalization.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Matthew G; Church, Barbara A; Mercado, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Learning to distinguish subtle differences in objects or events can impact how one generalizes. In some cases, training can cause novel events to appear more familiar or attractive than those actually experienced during training: the peak shift effect. This study examined whether individual differences in learning led to systematic patterns of generalization. Participants were trained to identify simulated birdsongs, and then tested on their ability to identify a target song presented among several similar songs that differed in pitch. Initial analysis showed that those attaining moderate proficiency at discriminating songs during training were more likely to shift than those performing poorly or proficiently. However, a neural network trained to output individuals' gradient dynamics using only performance during training as input found an additional set of training variables that predicted shift. Specifically, one subset of shifters had highly conservative response biases accompanied by very little change to perceptual sensitivity in training. These findings suggest that discrimination learning may only lead to generalization shifts in some individuals, and that all individuals who shift may not do so for the same reason.

  2. Sex differences in cognition in healthy elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Munro, Cynthia A; Winicki, Jessica M; Schretlen, David J; Gower, Emily W; Turano, Kathleen A; Muñoz, Beatriz; Keay, Lisa; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K

    2012-11-01

    Sex differences in patterns of cognitive test performance have been attributed to factors, such as sex hormones or sexual dimorphisms in brain structure, that change with normal aging. The current study examined sex differences in patterns of cognitive test performance in healthy elderly individuals. Cognitive test scores of 957 men and women (age 67-89), matched for overall level of cognitive test performance, age, education, and depression scale score, were compared. Men and women were indistinguishable on tests of auditory divided attention, category fluency, and executive functioning. In contrast, women performed better than men on tests of psychomotor speed and verbal learning and memory, whereas men outperformed women on tests of visuoconstruction and visual perception. Our finding that the pattern of sex differences in cognition observed in young adults is observed in old age has implications for future studies of both healthy elderly individuals and of those with cognitive disorders.

  3. Individual differences in the acquisition of second language phonology.

    PubMed

    Golestani, Narly; Zatorre, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual training was employed to characterize individual differences in non-native speech sound learning. Fifty-nine adult English speakers were trained to distinguish the Hindi dental-retroflex contrast, as well as a tonal pitch contrast. Training resulted in overall group improvement in the ability to identify and to discriminate the phonetic and the tonal contrasts, but there were considerable individual differences in performance. A category boundary effect during the post-training discrimination of the Hindi but not of the tonal contrast suggests different learning mechanisms for these two stimulus types. Specifically, our results suggest that successful learning of the speech sounds involves the formation of a long-term memory category representation for the new speech sound.

  4. How Can Evolutionary Psychology Successfully Explain Personality and Individual Differences?

    PubMed

    Buss, David M

    2009-07-01

    Although evolutionary psychology has been successful in explaining some species-typical and sex-differentiated adaptations, a large question that has largely eluded the field is this: How can the field successfully explain personality and individual differences? This article highlights some promising theoretical directions for tackling this question. These include life-history theory, costly signaling theory, environmental variability in fitness optima, frequency-dependent selection, mutation load, and flexibly contingent shifts in strategy according to environmental conditions. Tackling the explanatory question also requires progress on three fronts: (a) reframing some personality traits as forms of strategic individual differences; (b) providing a nonarbitrary, evolutionary-based formulation of environments as distributions and salience profiles of adaptive problems; and (c) identifying which strategies thrive and which falter in these differing problem-defined environments.

  5. Stable individual differences in number discrimination in infancy.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change detection paradigm, we present more direct evidence that infants' numerical perception is ratio-dependent even within the range of discriminable ratios and thus adheres to Weber's Law. Furthermore, we show that infants' numerical discrimination at 6 months reliably predicts their numerical discrimination abilities but not visual short-term memory at 9 months. Thus, individual differences in numerical discrimination acuity may be stable within the first year of life and provide important avenues for future longitudinal research exploring the relationship between infant numerical discrimination and later developing math achievement.

  6. Rapid Emotion Regulation After Mood Induction: Age and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Larcom, Mary Jo

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that emotion regulation improves with age. This study examined both age and individual differences in online emotion regulation after a negative mood induction. We found evidence that older adults were more likely to rapidly regulate their emotions than were younger adults. Moreover, older adults who rapidly regulated had lower trait anxiety and depressive symptoms and higher levels of optimism than their same-age peers who did not rapidly regulate. Measuring mood change over an extended time revealed that older rapid regulators still reported increased levels of positive affect over 20 min later, whereas young adult rapid regulators’ moods had declined. These results highlight the importance of considering individual differences when examining age differences in online emotion regulation. PMID:19808810

  7. War of Attrition with Individual Differences on RHP.

    PubMed

    Kura; Kura

    1998-07-21

    The fact that there always exists various kinds of almost continuous mutations for any animal population implies that players in competitions can never be perfectly symmetric in any sense. To develop a model to fit this reality, we consider war of attrition games in which players have continuously different resource holding potential (RHP). The RHP of each opponent is not known in our settings. Pure ESS functions and Nash equilibria are obtained under sufficiently rotational conditions as unique solutions of certain differential equations among the class of Lebesgue measurable functions. They are normal in that a higher RHP induces a longer attrition time, which implies that a player with greater RHP always wins. This model includes as the limit the conclusions of Maynard Smith (1974, J. theor. Biol. 47, 209-221) and Norman et al. (1977, J. theor. Biol. 65, 571-578), which did not consider individual differences in RHP. Our results suggest that, by changing each player's qualitative differences to continuous quantitative differences, some of the mixed ESS solutions previously found in discrete games may degenerate into pure ESS functions. Moreover, we found that the smaller the individual differences of RHP, the smaller is the mean pay-off of most individuals as well as the total pay-off of the population.Copyright 1998 Academic Press

  8. Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Fear Learning

    PubMed Central

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Rabinak, Christine A.; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Shankman, Stewart A.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Phan, K. Luan

    2015-01-01

    Variability in fear conditionability is common, and clarity regarding the neural regions responsible for individual differences in fear conditionability could uncover brain-based biomarkers of resilience or vulnerability to trauma-based psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder). In recent years, neuroimaging work has yielded a detailed understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying fear conditioning common across participants, however only a minority of studies have investigated the brain basis of inter-individual variation in fear learning. Moreover, the majority of these studies have employed small sample sizes (mean n = 17; range n = 5–27) and all have failed to meet the minimum recommended sample size for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of individual differences. Here, using fMRI, we analyzed blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response recorded simultaneously with skin conductance response (SCR) and ratings of unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy in 49 participants undergoing Pavlovian fear conditioning. On average, participants became conditioned to the conditioned stimulus (CS+; higher US expectancy ratings and SCR for the CS+ compared to the unpaired conditioned stimulus, CS−); the CS+ also robustly increased activation in the bilateral insula. Amygdala activation was revealed from a regression analysis that incorporated individual differences in fear conditionability (i.e., a between-subjects regressor of mean CS+ > CS− SCR). By replicating results observed using much smaller sample sizes, the results confirm that variation in amygdala reactivity covaries with individual differences in fear conditionability. The link between behavior (SCR) and brain (amygdala reactivity) may be a putative endophenotype for the acquisition of fear memories. PMID:25819422

  9. Neural correlates of individual differences in fear learning.

    PubMed

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Rabinak, Christine A; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Shankman, Stewart A; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K Luan

    2015-01-01

    Variability in fear conditionability is common, and clarity regarding the neural regions responsible for individual differences in fear conditionability could uncover brain-based biomarkers of resilience or vulnerability to trauma-based psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder). In recent years, neuroimaging work has yielded a detailed understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying fear conditioning common across participants, however only a minority of studies have investigated the brain basis of inter-individual variation in fear learning. Moreover, the majority of these studies have employed small sample sizes (mean n=17; range n=5-27) and all have failed to meet the minimum recommended sample size for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of individual differences. Here, using fMRI, we analyzed blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response recorded simultaneously with skin conductance response (SCR) and ratings of unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy in 49 participants undergoing Pavlovian fear conditioning. On average, participants became conditioned to the conditioned stimulus (CS+; higher US expectancy ratings and SCR for the CS+ compared to the unpaired conditioned stimulus, CS-); the CS+ also robustly increased activation in the bilateral insula. Amygdala activation was revealed from a regression analysis that incorporated individual differences in fear conditionability (i.e., a between-subjects regressor of mean CS+>CS- SCR). By replicating results observed using much smaller sample sizes, the results confirm that variation in amygdala reactivity covaries with individual differences in fear conditionability. The link between behavior (SCR) and brain (amygdala reactivity) may be a putative endophenotype for the acquisition of fear memories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Explaining affective linkages in teams: individual differences in susceptibility to contagion and individualism-collectivism.

    PubMed

    Ilies, Remus; Wagner, David T; Morgeson, Frederick P

    2007-07-01

    To expand on the understanding of how affective states are linked within teams, the authors describe a longitudinal study examining the linkages between team members' affective states over time. In a naturalistic team performance setting, they found evidence that the average affective state of the other team members was related to an individual team member's affect over time, even after controlling for team performance. In addition, they found that these affective linkages were moderated by individual differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and collectivistic tendencies such that the strength of the linkage was stronger for those high in susceptibility and those with collectivistic tendencies. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  11. Individual Differences and Fitting Methods for the Two-Choice Diffusion Model of Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger; Childers, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Methods of fitting the diffusion model were examined with a focus on what the model can tell us about individual differences. Diffusion model parameters were obtained from the fits to data from two experiments and consistency of parameter values, individual differences, and practice effects were examined using different numbers of observations from each subject. Two issues were examined, first, what sizes of differences between groups can be obtained to distinguish between groups and second, what sizes of differences would be needed to find individual subjects that had a deficit relative to a control group. The parameter values from the experiments provided ranges that were used in a simulation study to examine recovery of individual differences. This study used several diffusion model fitting programs, fitting methods, and published packages. In a second simulation study, 64 sets of simulated data from each of 48 sets of parameter values (spanning the range of typical values obtained from fits to data) were fit with the different methods and biases and standard deviations in recovered model parameters were compared across methods. Finally, in a third simulation study, a comparison between a standard chi-square method and a hierarchical Bayesian method was performed. The results from these studies can be used as a starting point for selecting fitting methods and as a basis for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of using diffusion model analyses to examine individual differences in clinical, neuropsychological, and educational testing. PMID:26236754

  12. Musical Rhythm Discrimination Explains Individual Differences in Grammar Skills in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Shivers, Carolyn M.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Yoder, Paul J.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2015-01-01

    This study considered a relation between rhythm perception skills and individual differences in phonological awareness and grammar abilities, which are two language skills crucial for academic achievement. Twenty-five typically developing 6-year-old children were given standardized assessments of rhythm perception, phonological awareness,…

  13. How can individual differences in autobiographical memory distributions of older adults be explained?

    PubMed

    Wolf, Tabea; Zimprich, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The reminiscence bump phenomenon has frequently been reported for the recall of autobiographical memories. The present study complements previous research by examining individual differences in the distribution of word-cued autobiographical memories. More importantly, we introduce predictor variables that might account for individual differences in the mean (location) and the standard deviation (scale) of individual memory distributions. All variables were derived from different theoretical accounts for the reminiscence bump phenomenon. We used a mixed location-scale logitnormal model, to analyse the 4602 autobiographical memories reported by 118 older participants. Results show reliable individual differences in the location and the scale. After controlling for age and gender, individual proportions of first-time experiences and individual proportions of positive memories, as well as the ratings on Openness to new Experiences and Self-Concept Clarity accounted for 29% of individual differences in location and 42% of individual differences in scale of autobiographical memory distributions. Results dovetail with a life-story account for the reminiscence bump which integrates central components of previous accounts.

  14. Predicting Smartphone Operating System from Personality and Individual Differences.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Heather; Ellis, David A; Kendrick, Libby-Rae; Ziegler, Fenja; Wiseman, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Android and iPhone devices account for over 90 percent of all smartphones sold worldwide. Despite being very similar in functionality, current discourse and marketing campaigns suggest that key individual differences exist between users of these two devices; however, this has never been investigated empirically. This is surprising, as smartphones continue to gain momentum across a variety of research disciplines. In this article, we consider if individual differences exist between these two distinct groups. In comparison to Android users, we found that iPhone owners are more likely to be female, younger, and increasingly concerned about their smartphone being viewed as a status object. Key differences in personality were also observed with iPhone users displaying lower levels of Honesty-Humility and higher levels of emotionality. Following this analysis, we were also able to build and test a model that predicted smartphone ownership at above chance level based on these individual differences. In line with extended self-theory, the type of smartphone owned provides some valuable information about its owner. These findings have implications for the increasing use of smartphones within research particularly for those working within Computational Social Science and PsychoInformatics, where data are typically collected from devices and applications running a single smartphone operating system.

  15. Injury risk is different in team and individual youth sport.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Daniel; Frisch, Anne; Malisoux, Laurent; Urhausen, Axel; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Seil, Romain

    2013-05-01

    This study compared sports injury incidence in young high-level athletes from various team and individual sports and investigated if sport participation patterns are linked to injuries. Prospective cohort follow-up. Pupils from a public sports school (12-19 years) were recruited over two separate school years (2008-2009: 42 weeks, n=199 athletes; 2009-2010: 40 weeks, n=89 athletes). Training and competition volume and intensity were recorded via a personal sports diary. Sports injuries (time-loss definition) were registered by medical staff members using a standardized questionnaire. Injury incidence was significantly higher in team compared with individual sports (6.16 versus 2.88 injuries/1000h, respectively), as a result of a higher incidence of both traumatic (RR=2.17; CI95%=1.75-2.70; p<0.001), and overuse injuries (RR=2.06; CI95%=1.46-2.91; p<0.001). A Cox proportional hazards regression revealed that team sports participation had a hazard ratio of 2.00 (CI95%=1.49-2.68; p<0.001) compared to individual sports, with additionally previous injury being a risk and age a protective factor. The number of competitions per 100 days was significantly higher in team sports, whereas the number of intense training sessions per 100 days was significantly lower. In team sports, the number of competitions per 100 days was positively associated with injuries (HR=1.072; CI95% [1.033; 1.113]; p<0.001), while in individual sports the number of competitions per 100 days had a protective effect (HR=0.940; CI95% [0.893; 0.989]; p=0.017). Team sports participation entailed a higher injury risk, whatever the injury category. Further research should elucidate the role of characteristics related to sport participation in injury causation. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vantage sensitivity: individual differences in response to positive experiences.

    PubMed

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2013-07-01

    The notion that some people are more vulnerable to adversity as a function of inherent risk characteristics is widely embraced in most fields of psychology. This is reflected in the popularity of the diathesis-stress framework, which has received a vast amount of empirical support over the years. Much less effort has been directed toward the investigation of endogenous factors associated with variability in response to positive influences. One reason for the failure to investigate individual differences in response to positive experiences as a function of endogenous factors may be the absence of adequate theoretical frameworks. According to the differential-susceptibility hypothesis, individuals generally vary in their developmental plasticity regardless of whether they are exposed to negative or positive influences--a notion derived from evolutionary reasoning. On the basis of this now well-supported proposition, we advance herein the new concept of vantage sensitivity, reflecting variation in response to exclusively positive experiences as a function of individual endogenous characteristics. After distinguishing vantage sensitivity from theoretically related concepts of differential-susceptibility and resilience, we review some recent empirical evidence for vantage sensitivity featuring behavioral, physiological, and genetic factors as moderators of a wide range of positive experiences ranging from family environment and psychotherapy to educational intervention. Thereafter, we discuss genetic and environmental factors contributing to individual differences in vantage sensitivity, potential mechanisms underlying vantage sensitivity, and practical implications. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Relationship between individual differences in speech processing and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po; Fung, Roxana

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that cognitive abilities may play a role in individual differences in speech processing. The present study took advantage of a widespread linguistic phenomenon of sound change to systematically assess the relationships between speech processing and various components of attention and working memory in the auditory and visual modalities among typically developed Cantonese-speaking individuals. The individual variations in speech processing are captured in an ongoing sound change-tone merging in Hong Kong Cantonese, in which typically developed native speakers are reported to lose the distinctions between some tonal contrasts in perception and/or production. Three groups of participants were recruited, with a first group of good perception and production, a second group of good perception but poor production, and a third group of good production but poor perception. Our findings revealed that modality-independent abilities of attentional switching/control and working memory might contribute to individual differences in patterns of speech perception and production as well as discrimination latencies among typically developed speakers. The findings not only have the potential to generalize to speech processing in other languages, but also broaden our understanding of the omnipresent phenomenon of language change in all languages.

  18. Acceptance of cosmetic surgery: personality and individual difference predictors.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Bridges, Stacey; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between several attitudinal constructs related to acceptance of cosmetic surgery, and participant demographics, personality, and individual difference variables. A sample of 332 university students completed a battery of scales comprising the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS) and measures of the Big Five personality factors, self-esteem, conformity, self-assessed attractiveness, and demographics. Multiple regressions showed that the predictor variables explained a large proportion of the variance in ACSS factors (Adj. R(2) ranging between .31 and .60). In addition, structural equation modelling revealed that distal factors (sex and age) were generally associated with acceptance of cosmetic surgery through the mediate influence of more proximate variables (in the first instance, the Big Five personality factors, followed by self-esteem and conformity, and finally self-assessed attractiveness). These results allow for the presentation of a preliminary model integrating personality and individual differences in predicting acceptance of cosmetic surgery.

  19. Space adaptation syndrome: multiple etiological factors and individual differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1991-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a significant operational concern in the American and Soviet space programs. Nearly 70% of all astronauts and cosmonauts are affected to some degree during their first several days of flight. It is now beginning to appear that space motion sickness like terrestrial motion sickness is the consequence of multiple etiological factors. As we come to understand basic mechanisms of spatial orientation and sensory-motor adaptation we can begin to predict etiological factors in different motion environments. Individuals vary greatly in the extent to which they are susceptible to these different factors. However, individuals seem to be relatively self-consistent in terms of their rates of adaptation to provocative stimulation and their retention of adaptation. Attempts to relate susceptibility to motion sickness during the microgravity phases of parabolic flight maneuvers to vestibular function under 1G and 0G test conditions are described.

  20. The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Al-Janabi, Tamara; D'Souza, Hana; Groet, Jurgen; Massand, Esha; Mok, Kin; Startin, Carla; Fisher, Elizabeth; Hardy, John; Nizetic, Dean; Tybulewicz, Victor; Strydom, Andre

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS) still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels—genetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental—constitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer’s disease in this high-risk population. PMID:27019699

  1. Risk perception and experience: hazard personality profiles and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J; Breakwell, G M

    2001-02-01

    The dominance of the "psychometric" paradigm and the consequent emphasis on personality profiles of hazards has resulted in little attention being given to individual variability in risk judgments. This study examines how far differences in experience of risk activities can explain individual variability in risk assessments. A questionnaire study (n = 172) was used to explore the relationships between experience and risk perceptions in relation to 16 risk activities. It was expected that these relationships would differ for voluntary and involuntary activities. Measures of experience included assessments of "impact" and "outcome" valence as well as "frequency." These three aspects of experience each related to risk assessment but their relationship depended on whether the risk experiences were voluntary or not. The results indicate the importance of developing more fine-grained ways of indexing risk experience.

  2. Automated Motor Skills Training Optimized for Individual Differences.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    training. A general review of the researh effort as well as a .pecific discussion of the research conducted during 1 October 1979 to 󈧎 Septem~her P1...1977. I Savage, R. E., Williges, R. C., and Williges, B. H. Individual differences in motor skill training. Paper presented at the Sixth Psychology in...Paper presented at the Sixth Psychology in the DoD Symposium, April, 1979. Williges, R. C. and Williges, B. H. Automated motor skills training

  3. Predicting Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Loss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-15

    2011 4. TITLE Predicting Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Loss 5a. Contract Number: 5b. Grant Number: 5c. Program Element Number: 5d...ADDRESS(ES) Naval Medical Reserach Unit – Dayton 2624 Q St., Bldg. 851, Area B Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION... Program Department of the Navy 2300 E Street, NW Washington, DC 20372-5300 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) BUMED 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT

  4. A Questionnaire Measure of Individual Differences in Stimulus Screening and Associated Differences in Arousability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrabian, Albert

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale for a questionnaire measure of individual differences in stimulus screening--namely, individual differences in automatic screening of irrelevant stimuli and rapid habituation to distracting, irrelevant stimuli. All components of the questionnaire were intercorrelated and represented a unitary dimension of…

  5. Individual differences in the acquisition of affectively valenced associations.

    PubMed

    Zinbarg, R E; Mohlman, J

    1998-04-01

    Two studies were conducted to test the predictions derived from the behavioral activation system and behavioral inhibition system theory of personality that trait anxiety is positively related to the speed of acquisition of punishment expectancies and impulsivity is positively related to the speed of acquisition of reward expectancies. Both studies used a standard approach-avoidance discrimination task with self-report measures of expectancies. Both studies found support for the hypothesized relation between trait and acquisition of punishment expectancies but not for the hypothesized relation between impulsivity and acquisition of reward expectancies. Study 2 suggested that the relation between trait anxiety and punishment expectancy is affected by the type of incentive and the type of trait anxiety measure used. The results suggest that highly trait anxious individuals are more susceptible to developing new sources of anxiety than others.

  6. Exploring the Neural Dynamics Underpinning Individual Differences in Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate individual differences in the neural underpinnings of sentence comprehension, with a focus on neural adaptability (dynamic configuration of neural networks with changing task demands). Twenty-seven undergraduates, with varying working memory capacities and vocabularies, read sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex under conditions of varying extrinsic working memory demands (sentences alone or preceded by to-be-remembered words or nonwords). All readers showed greater neural adaptability when extrinsic working memory demands were low, suggesting that adaptability is related to resource availability. Higher capacity readers showed greater neural adaptability (greater increase in activation with increasing syntactic complexity) across conditions than did lower capacity readers. Higher capacity readers also showed better maintenance of or increase in synchronization of activation between brain regions as tasks became more demanding. Larger vocabulary was associated with more efficient use of cortical resources (reduced activation in frontal regions) in all conditions but was not associated with greater neural adaptability or synchronization. The distinct characterizations of verbal working memory capacity and vocabulary suggest that dynamic facets of brain function such as adaptability and synchronization may underlie individual differences in more general information processing abilities, whereas neural efficiency may more specifically reflect individual differences in language experience. PMID:21148612

  7. Individual differences in circadian variations of consumers' emotional state.

    PubMed

    Chebat, J C; Dubé, L; Marquis, M

    1997-06-01

    A laboratory study investigated the effect of circadian orientation on consumers' emotional state at different times of day. Subjects' emotional state was measured using the Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance scale in the morning and in the evening. Individual circadian orientation (morningness-eveningness) was also assessed. Analyses showed that changes in consumers' emotional state as a function of the time of the day is moderated by individual differences in circadian orientation. Morning-types were in a more pleasurable emotional state in the morning than in the evening. The predicted reversed pattern for the evening-types did not reach significance. Null effects were reported for the arousal and submissive/dominance dimensions of emotional state. Morning-types rated themselves as more awake than evening-types. Morning-types were more awake in the morning than in the evening and vice-versa for evening-types. The magnitude of the differences between evening-type and morning-type individuals was significant in the morning. Findings are discussed from methodological, theoretical, and marketing perspectives.

  8. Individual differences in intrinsic brain connectivity predict decision strategy

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kevin M.; Plitt, Mark; Martin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    When humans are provided with ample time to make a decision, individual differences in strategy emerge. Using an adaptation of a well-studied decision making paradigm, motion direction discrimination, we probed the neural basis of individual differences in strategy. We tested whether strategies emerged from moment-to-moment reconfiguration of functional brain networks involved in decision making with task-evoked functional MRI (fMRI) and whether intrinsic properties of functional brain networks, measured at rest with functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI), were associated with strategy use. We found that human participants reliably selected one of two strategies across 2 days of task performance, either continuously accumulating evidence or waiting for task difficulty to decrease. Individual differences in decision strategy were predicted both by the degree of task-evoked activation of decision-related brain regions and by the strength of pretask correlated spontaneous brain activity. These results suggest that spontaneous brain activity constrains strategy selection on perceptual decisions. PMID:25031254

  9. Individual differences in intrinsic brain connectivity predict decision strategy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kelly Anne; Anderson, Kevin M; Plitt, Mark; Martin, Alex

    2014-10-15

    When humans are provided with ample time to make a decision, individual differences in strategy emerge. Using an adaptation of a well-studied decision making paradigm, motion direction discrimination, we probed the neural basis of individual differences in strategy. We tested whether strategies emerged from moment-to-moment reconfiguration of functional brain networks involved in decision making with task-evoked functional MRI (fMRI) and whether intrinsic properties of functional brain networks, measured at rest with functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI), were associated with strategy use. We found that human participants reliably selected one of two strategies across 2 days of task performance, either continuously accumulating evidence or waiting for task difficulty to decrease. Individual differences in decision strategy were predicted both by the degree of task-evoked activation of decision-related brain regions and by the strength of pretask correlated spontaneous brain activity. These results suggest that spontaneous brain activity constrains strategy selection on perceptual decisions.

  10. Exploring the neural dynamics underpinning individual differences in sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Prat, Chantel S; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-08-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate individual differences in the neural underpinnings of sentence comprehension, with a focus on neural adaptability (dynamic configuration of neural networks with changing task demands). Twenty-seven undergraduates, with varying working memory capacities and vocabularies, read sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex under conditions of varying extrinsic working memory demands (sentences alone or preceded by to-be-remembered words or nonwords). All readers showed greater neural adaptability when extrinsic working memory demands were low, suggesting that adaptability is related to resource availability. Higher capacity readers showed greater neural adaptability (greater increase in activation with increasing syntactic complexity) across conditions than did lower capacity readers. Higher capacity readers also showed better maintenance of or increase in synchronization of activation between brain regions as tasks became more demanding. Larger vocabulary was associated with more efficient use of cortical resources (reduced activation in frontal regions) in all conditions but was not associated with greater neural adaptability or synchronization. The distinct characterizations of verbal working memory capacity and vocabulary suggest that dynamic facets of brain function such as adaptability and synchronization may underlie individual differences in more general information processing abilities, whereas neural efficiency may more specifically reflect individual differences in language experience.

  11. Individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity are linked to individual differences in face recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Hayward, William G; Ewing, Louise

    2014-06-01

    Despite their similarity as visual patterns, we can discriminate and recognize many thousands of faces. This expertise has been linked to 2 coding mechanisms: holistic integration of information across the face and adaptive coding of face identity using norms tuned by experience. Recently, individual differences in face recognition ability have been discovered and linked to differences in holistic coding. Here we show that they are also linked to individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity, measured using face identity aftereffects. Identity aftereffects correlated significantly with several measures of face-selective recognition ability. They also correlated marginally with own-race face recognition ability, suggesting a role for adaptive coding in the well-known other-race effect. More generally, these results highlight the important functional role of adaptive face-coding mechanisms in face expertise, taking us beyond the traditional focus on holistic coding mechanisms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Individual differences in attention influence perceptual decision making.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Michael D; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sequential sampling decision-making models have been successful in accounting for reaction time (RT) and accuracy data in two-alternative forced choice tasks. These models have been used to describe the behavior of populations of participants, and explanatory structures have been proposed to account for between individual variability in model parameters. In this study we show that individual differences in behavior from a novel perceptual decision making task can be attributed to (1) differences in evidence accumulation rates, (2) differences in variability of evidence accumulation within trials, and (3) differences in non-decision times across individuals. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we demonstrate that these differences in cognitive variables, in turn, can be explained by attentional differences as measured by phase-locking of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) responses to the signal and noise components of the visual stimulus. Parameters of a cognitive model (a diffusion model) were obtained from accuracy and RT distributions and related to phase-locking indices (PLIs) of SSVEPs with a single step in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Participants who were able to suppress the SSVEP response to visual noise in high frequency bands were able to accumulate correct evidence faster and had shorter non-decision times (preprocessing or motor response times), leading to more accurate responses and faster response times. We show that the combination of cognitive modeling and neural data in a hierarchical Bayesian framework relates physiological processes to the cognitive processes of participants, and that a model with a new (out-of-sample) participant's neural data can predict that participant's behavior more accurately than models without physiological data.

  13. Analysis of household refrigerators for different testing standards

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, P.K.; McGill, I.

    1995-08-01

    This study highlights the salient differences among various testing standards for household refrigerator-freezers and proposes a methodology for predicting the performance of a single evaporator-based vapor-compression refrigeration system (either refrigerator or freezer) from one test standard (where the test data are available-the reference case) to another (the alternative case). The standards studied during this investigation include the Australian-New Zealand Standard (ANZS), the International Standard (ISO), the American National Standard (ANSI), the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), and the Chinese National Standard (CNS). A simple analysis in conjunction with the BICYCLE model (Bansal and Rice 1993) is used to calculate the energy consumption of two refrigerator cabinets from the reference case to the alternative cases. The proposed analysis includes the effect of door openings (as required by the JIS) as well as defrost heaters. The analytical results are found to agree reasonably well with the experimental observations for translating energy consumption information from one standard to another.

  14. Comparison of two training programmes in chronic airway limitation patients: standardized versus individualized protocols.

    PubMed

    Vallet, G; Ahmaïdi, S; Serres, I; Fabre, C; Bourgouin, D; Desplan, J; Varray, A; Préfaut, C

    1997-01-01

    This study tested the effect of two methods of training, one individualized at the heart rate corresponding to the gas exchange threshold (GET) and the other at the heart rate corresponding to 50% of maximal heart rate reserve, on maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory response in 24 patients with chronic airway limitation (CAL). The patients were randomly assigned to either the individualized training group (IT; n = 12) or the standardized training group (ST; n = 12). The training programme consisted of 4 weeks of stationary bicycle exercise, 5 days.week-1. Before reconditioning began, the target level based on heart rate was not significantly different between groups (109 +/- 4 versus 110 +/- 3 beats.min-1, in IT and ST, respectively). Post-training, a significant increase in symptom-limited oxygen uptake (V'O2.sl) and maximal O2 pulse was found in IT, whereas ST exhibited no significant change. In each group, GET was statistically increased in much the same way as V'O2,sl, with a higher increase in IT (p < 0.01) than ST (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, IT exhibited a concomitant and gradual decrease in minute ventilation (V'E), carbon dioxide production (V'CO2), and venous lactate concentration ([La]), whereas ST presented no significant change in these parameters (intergroup p < 0.01). Breathing pattern was also altered after IT, at the same metabolic level and at the same ventilation level (intergroup p < 0.05). Cardiac responses were modified in the two groups. At the same metabolic level, a significantly lower cardiac frequency was found both for IT and ST (intragroup p < 0.05 after training). In contrast, the increase in O2 pulse was only significantly higher in It after training. These data show the greater efficiency of an individualized training protocol based on determination of gas exchange threshold as compared to a standardized protocol, in improving exercise performance, when applied to a patient group. Despite an apparently similar target training level

  15. Individuals with low back pain breathe differently than healthy individuals during a lifting task.

    PubMed

    Hagins, Marshall; Lamberg, Eric M

    2011-03-01

    Case control, repeated-measures, experimental laboratory study. To determine if, during a whole-body lifting task, individuals with low back pain (LBP) breathe differently than age-matched controls. Breath control may be optimized to provide increased intersegmental control of the lumbar spine through the generation of intra-abdominal pressure. Consequently, impairments in respiratory and trunk muscle coordination during lifting tasks may contribute to the occurrence or maintenance of LBP. Participants without LBP (n = 30) were matched by gender and age with those presenting with chronic mechanical LBP (n = 32) of at least 1 year in duration. Participants completed a total of 8 self-paced lifts of a crate from the floor to a table, with the crate empty during 4 of the lifts and loaded to 25% of the participant's body weight during 4 of the lifts. The amount of volume in the lungs, measured as a percentage of the individual's vital capacity (%VC), was identified at 9 points during the lifting task. A 2 × 2 × 2 × 9 (group by gender by load by time) mixed-model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with age as the covariate, was used to identify differences among conditions and groups of %VC used during the lift. Individuals with LBP performed the lifting task with more volume in their lungs (48.2 %VC) than healthy peers (40.9 %VC). Age significantly affected %VC used during the lift: with increasing age, participants with LBP increased inspired volume and participants without LBP decreased inspired volume. Individuals with LBP performed a lifting task with more inhaled lung volume than individuals without LBP. These findings are consistent with the theoretical link between breath control, intra-abdominal pressure, and lumbar segmental control.

  16. Psittacine cognition: Individual differences and sources of variation.

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A

    2017-01-01

    Both the number and breadth of avian cognition studies have expanded in the past three decades. Parrots have a long history as subjects in avian cognition research. This paper summarizes results from a number of parrot species tested on basic learning, and physical & social cognitive processes, with an emphasis on individual differences. Early psittacine studies were aimed at demonstrating a particular cognitive ability existed in a given species. Because of this proof of capacity focus, early studies typically included only a single individual or a dyad of parrots. Existing reviews of parrot cognition tend to focus on a particular cognitive component in a single species, or even a single individual. Despite the narrow focus, results from increasing sample sizes show intraspecific variation across a variety of cognitive assessments and parrot species. Intraspecific variability in performance on cognitive tasks highlights the need for establishing a cognitive normal range for a given species and process. To accomplish this, large numbers of individuals need to be tested and non-cognitive sources of variability need to be controlled. Once species typical cognitive normal ranges are established, cognitive comparisons can be made between parrot species and between parrots and other taxa.

  17. Individual differences in the calibration of trust in automation.

    PubMed

    Pop, Vlad L; Shrewsbury, Alex; Durso, Francis T

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to determine whether operators with an expectancy that automation is trustworthy are better at calibrating their trust to changes in the capabilities of automation, and if so, why. Studies suggest that individual differences in automation expectancy may be able to account for why changes in the capabilities of automation lead to a substantial change in trust for some, yet only a small change for others. In a baggage screening task, 225 participants searched for weapons in 200 X-ray images of luggage. Participants were assisted by an automated decision aid exhibiting different levels of reliability. Measures of expectancy that automation is trustworthy were used in conjunction with subjective measures of trust and perceived reliability to identify individual differences in trust calibration. Operators with high expectancy that automation is trustworthy were more sensitive to changes (both increases and decreases) in automation reliability. This difference was eliminated by manipulating the causal attribution of automation errors. Attributing the cause of automation errors to factors external to the automation fosters an understanding of tasks and situations in which automation differs in reliability and may lead to more appropriate trust. The development of interventions can lead to calibrated trust in automation. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders’ fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross sectional design. Results indicated that the difference between low achieving and higher achieving children’s fraction arithmetic knowledge, already substantial in 6th grade, was much greater in 8th grade. The fraction arithmetic knowledge of low achieving children was similar in the two grades, whereas higher achieving children showed much greater knowledge in 8th than 6th grade, despite both groups having been in the same classrooms, using the same textbooks, and having the same teachers and classmates. Individual differences in both fraction arithmetic and mathematics achievement test scores were predicted by differences in fraction magnitude knowledge and whole number division, even after the contributions of reading achievement and executive functioning were statistically controlled. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23244401

  19. Socioeconomic gradients predict individual differences in neurocognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; McCandliss, Bruce D; Farah, Martha J

    2007-07-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with childhood cognitive achievement. In previous research we found that this association shows neural specificity; specifically we found that groups of low and middle SES children differed disproportionately in perisylvian/language and prefrontal/executive abilities relative to other neurocognitive abilities. Here we address several new questions: To what extent does this disparity between groups reflect a gradient of SES-related individual differences in neurocognitive development, as opposed to a more categorical difference? What other neurocognitive systems differ across individuals as a function of SES? Does linguistic ability mediate SES differences in other systems? And how do specific prefrontal/executive subsystems vary with SES? One hundred and fifty healthy, socioeconomically diverse first-graders were administered tasks tapping language, visuospatial skills, memory, working memory, cognitive control, and reward processing. SES explained over 30% of the variance in language, and a smaller but highly significant portion of the variance in most other systems. Statistically mediating factors and possible interventional approaches are discussed.

  20. Self-assessment of individual differences in language switching.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Krämer, Ulrike M; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Festman, Julia; Münte, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individual differences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish-Catalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individual differences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism.

  1. Self-Assessment of Individual Differences in Language Switching

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Krämer, Ulrike M.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Festman, Julia; Münte, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individual differences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish–Catalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individual differences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism. PMID:22291668

  2. Individual patient information to select patients for different radiation techniques.

    PubMed

    Quik, E H; Feenstra, T L; Postmus, D; Slotman, B J; Leemans, C R; Krabbe, P F M; Langendijk, J A

    2016-07-01

    Proton therapy is an emerging technique in radiotherapy which results in less dose to the normal tissues with similar target dose than photon therapy, the current standard. Patient-level simulation models support better decision making on which patients would benefit most. A simulation model was developed tracking individual patients' status regarding the primary tumour and multiple complications. As a proof of principle, the model was populated based on information from a cohort of 1013 head and neck cancer patients. Dose-volume parameters for photon and proton radiation treatment plans were then fed into the model to compare outcomes in terms of length and quality of life and select patients that would benefit most. The illustrative model could adequately replicate the outcomes of photon therapy in the cohort. Improvements from proton therapy varied considerably between patients. The model projects medium-term outcomes for specific individuals and determines the benefits of applying proton rather than photon therapy. While the model needs to be fed with more and especially recent data before being fully ready for use in clinical practice, it could already distinguish between patients with high and low potential benefits from proton therapy. Benefits are highest for patients with both good prognosis and high expected damage to adjacent organs. The model allows for selecting such patients a priori based on patient relevant outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Amygdala-prefrontal coupling underlies individual differences in emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyejeen; Heller, Aaron S; van Reekum, Carien M; Nelson, Brady; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-09-01

    Despite growing evidence on the neural bases of emotion regulation, little is known about the mechanisms underlying individual differences in cognitive regulation of negative emotion, and few studies have used objective measures to quantify regulatory success. Using a trait-like psychophysiological measure of emotion regulation, corrugator electromyography, we obtained an objective index of the ability to cognitively reappraise negative emotion in 56 healthy men (Session 1), who returned 1.3 years later to perform the same regulation task using fMRI (Session 2). Results indicated that the corrugator measure of regulatory skill predicted amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity. Individuals with greater ability to down-regulate negative emotion as indexed by corrugator at Session 1 showed not only greater amygdala attenuation but also greater inverse connectivity between the amygdala and several sectors of the prefrontal cortex while down-regulating negative emotion at Session 2. Our results demonstrate that individual differences in emotion regulation are stable over time and underscore the important role of amygdala-prefrontal coupling for successful regulation of negative emotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    PubMed

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  5. Individual differences in functional connectivity during naturalistic viewing conditions.

    PubMed

    Vanderwal, Tamara; Eilbott, Jeffrey; Finn, Emily S; Craddock, R Cameron; Turnbull, Adam; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2017-08-15

    Naturalistic viewing paradigms such as movies have been shown to reduce participant head motion and improve arousal during fMRI scanning relative to task-free rest, and have been used to study both functional connectivity and stimulus-evoked BOLD-signal changes. These task-based hemodynamic changes are synchronized across subjects and involve large areas of the cortex, and it is unclear whether individual differences in functional connectivity are enhanced or diminished under such naturalistic conditions. This work first aims to characterize variability in BOLD-signal based functional connectivity (FC) across 2 distinct movie conditions and eyes-open rest (n=31 healthy adults, 2 scan sessions each). We found that movies have higher within- and between-subject correlations in cluster-wise FC relative to rest. The anatomical distribution of inter-individual variability was similar across conditions, with higher variability occurring at the lateral prefrontal lobes and temporoparietal junctions. Second, we used an unsupervised test-retest matching algorithm that identifies individual subjects from within a group based on FC patterns, quantifying the accuracy of the algorithm across the three conditions. The movies and resting state all enabled identification of individual subjects based on FC matrices, with accuracies between 61% and 100%. Overall, pairings involving movies outperformed rest, and the social, faster-paced movie attained 100% accuracy. When the parcellation resolution, scan duration, and number of edges used were increased, accuracies improved across conditions, and the pattern of movies>rest was preserved. These results suggest that using dynamic stimuli such as movies enhances the detection of FC patterns that are unique at the individual level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yumeng; Mao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self-regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to "switch costs" that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating individual differences among targets of workplace incivility.

    PubMed

    Milam, Alex C; Spitzmueller, Christiane; Penney, Lisa M

    2009-01-01

    The present study focused on individual differences in Big Five traits among targets of workplace incivility. The authors hypothesized a negative relation between agreeableness and incivility, a positive relation between neuroticism and incivility, and a negative relation between extraversion and incivility. The authors also hypothesized that provocative target behavior is the mediating force that drives these relations. Multisource data from a diverse sample of employees and their coworkers indicate that individuals low in agreeableness and those high in neuroticism experience more incivility than their counterparts. The mediation model was supported for agreeableness and neuroticism. Findings suggest that target traits are important components in incivility research, and should be considered in future research as well as in efforts to alleviate the consequences of incivility.

  8. Individual differences in situation awareness: validation of the situationism scale.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Megan E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Klein, William M P

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This article concerns the construct of lay situationism-an individual's belief in the importance of a behavior's context. Study 1 identified a 13-item Situationism Scale, which demonstrated good reliability and validity. In particular, higher situationism was associated with greater situation-control (strategies to manipulate the environment in order to avoid temptation). Subsequent laboratory studies indicated that people higher on the situationism subscales used greater situation-control by sitting farther from junk food (Study 2) and choosing to drink non-alcoholic beverages before a cognitive task (Study 3). Overall, findings provide preliminary support for the psychometric validity and predictive utility of the Situationism Scale and offer this individual difference construct as a means to expand self-regulation theory.

  9. Religion as attachment: normative processes and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Granqvist, Pehr; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R

    2010-02-01

    The authors review findings from the psychology of religion showing that believers' perceived relationships with God meet the definitional criteria for attachment relationships. They also review evidence for associations between aspects of religion and individual differences in interpersonal attachment security and insecurity. They focus on two developmental pathways to religion. The first is a "compensation" pathway involving distress regulation in the context of insecure attachment and past experiences of insensitive caregiving. Research suggests that religion as compensation might set in motion an "earned security" process for individuals who are insecure with respect to attachment. The second is a "correspondence" pathway based on secure attachment and past experiences with sensitive caregivers who were religious. The authors also discuss conceptual limitations of a narrow religion-as-attachment model and propose a more inclusive framework that accommodates concepts such as mindfulness and "nonattachment" from nontheistic religions such as Buddhism and New Age spirituality.

  10. Individual differences in oral nicotine intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Nesil, Tanseli; Kanit, Lutfiye; Collins, Allan C; Pogun, Sakire

    2011-01-01

    To study individual differences in nicotine preference and intake, male and female rats were given free access to a choice of oral nicotine (10 or 20 mg/L) or water for 24 h/day for periods of at least six weeks, starting at adolescence or adulthood. A total of 341 rats, were used in four different experiments; weight, nicotine intake and total liquid consumption were recorded weekly. Results show that rats can discriminate nicotine from water, can regulate their intake, and that there are readily detected individual differences in nicotine preference. Ward analyses indicated that the animals could be divided into minimum, median and maximum preferring subgroups in all experiments. The effect of saccharine on nicotine intake was also evaluated; although the addition of saccharine increased total intake, rats drank unsweetened nicotine solutions and those with higher preferences for nicotine, preferred nicotine over water with or without saccharine added. Nicotine reduced weight gain and the effect was more pronounced in females than males. The average nicotine consumption of adolescent rats was higher than adults and nicotine exposure during adolescence reduced nicotine intake in adult rats. About half of the rats which had access to nicotine as adolescents and also as adults had a persistent pattern of consumption; the behavior was very stable in the female minimum preferring groups and a much higher ratio of rats sustained their adolescent behavior as adults. The change in preference was more pronounced when there was an interval between adolescent and adult exposure; female rats showed a more stable behavior than males suggesting a greater role for environmental influences on males. In conclusion, marked individual differences were observed in oral nicotine intake as measured in a continuous access 2-bottle choice test. Age and sex of the subjects and previous exposure to nicotine are significant factors which affect preference in rats.

  11. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ORAL NICOTINE INTAKE IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Nesil, Tanseli; Kanit, Lutfiye; Collins, Allan C; Pogun, Sakire

    2011-01-01

    To study individual differences in nicotine preference and intake, male and female rats were given free access to a choice of oral nicotine (10 or 20 mg/L) or water for 24 hours/day for periods of at least six weeks, starting at adolescence or adulthood. A total of 341 rats, were used in four different experiments; weight, nicotine intake and total liquid consumption were recorded weekly. Results show that rats can discriminate nicotine from water, can regulate their intake, and that there are readily detected individual differences in nicotine preference. Ward analyses indicated that the animals could be divided into minimum, median and maximum preferring subgroups in all experiments. The effect of saccharine on nicotine intake was also evaluated; although the addition of saccharine increased total intake, rats drank unsweetened nicotine solutions and those with higher preferences for nicotine, preferred nicotine over water with or without saccharine added. Nicotine reduced weight gain and the effect was more pronounced in females than males. The average nicotine consumption of adolescent rats was higher than adults and nicotine exposure during adolescence reduced nicotine intake in adult rats. About half of the rats which had access to nicotine as adolescents and also as adults had a persistent pattern of consumption; the behavior was very stable in the female minimum preferring groups and a much higher ratio of rats sustained their adolescent behavior as adults. The change in preference was more pronounced when there was an interval between adolescent and adult exposure; female rats showed a more stable behavior than males suggesting a greater role for environmental influences on males. In conclusion, marked individual differences were observed in oral nicotine intake as measured in a continuous access 2-bottle choice test. Age and sex of the subjects and previous exposure to nicotine are significant factors which affect preference in rats. PMID:21504750

  12. Emotion Perception and Empathy: An Individual Differences Test of Relations.

    PubMed

    Olderbak, Sally; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-03-30

    Numerous theories posit a positive relation between perceiving emotion expressed in the face of a stranger (emotion perception) and feeling or cognitively understanding the emotion of that person (affective and cognitive empathy, respectively). However, when relating individual differences in emotion perception with individual differences in affective or cognitive empathy, effect sizes are contradictory, but often not significantly different from zero. Based on 4 studies (study ns range from 97 to 486 persons; ntotal = 958) that differ from one another on many design and sample characteristics, applying advanced modeling techniques to control for measurement error, we estimate relations between affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and emotion perception. Relations are tested separately for each of the 6 basic emotions (an emotion-specific model) as well as across all emotions (an emotion-general model). Reflecting the literature, effect sizes and statistical significance with an emotion-general model vary across the individual studies (rs range from -.001 to .24 for emotion perception with affective empathy and -.01 to .39 for emotion perception with cognitive empathy), with a meta-analysis of these results indicating emotion perception is weakly related with affective (r = .13, p = .003) and cognitive empathy (r = .13, p = .05). Relations are not strengthened in an emotion-specific model. We argue that the weak effect sizes and inconsistency across studies reflects a neglected distinction of measurement approach-specifically, empathy is assessed as typical behavior and emotion perception is assessed as maximal effort-and conclude with considerations regarding the measurement of each construct. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Enrichment and individual differences affect welfare indicators in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Izzo, Genevieve N; Bashaw, Meredith J; Campbell, John B

    2011-08-01

    Enrichment aims to improve captive animals' welfare by enhancing their environments. Two of the struggles associated with measuring welfare are identifying when animals' needs are being met or surpassed and identifying how individual differences play a role in these outcomes. Using a group of related Guyanese squirrel monkeys, we studied changes in five welfare indicators under different environmental conditions. Manipulating food presentation, walkways, and toys, we created five enrichment levels ranging from just above USDA standards to considerably more complex than the animals' normal housing. At the end of each level, a novelty test was performed in which an unfamiliar woman entered the enclosure and offered food. Changes in behavior as a function of enrichment condition were analyzed using a repeated-measures MANOVA. Compared to baseline, less enrichment consistently increased negative welfare indicators (abnormal behavior, aggression, and negative responses to the novelty test), while more enrichment sometimes decreased these indicators. Positive welfare indicators were less consistently related to enrichment, but positive response to the novelty test did increase somewhat in the most enriched condition. Across conditions, rank correlations revealed that individuals had highly consistent individual differences in positive responses to novelty and somewhat consistent individual differences in rates of aggression. The goal of the enrichment and the species, sex, and individual animals to be enriched should be considered when selecting a welfare indicator, and facilities measuring animal welfare should study changes in the behavior of specific individuals to control for individual differences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Individual differences in emotionality: social temperament and health.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, John P

    2011-06-01

    Individual differences, the importance of which was identified by Darwin more than 150 years ago, are evident in multiple domains. This review discusses the role of temperament in health-related outcomes in rhesus monkeys. Temperament is proposed as affecting health outcomes via behavioral means, and also via physical means either through its direct association with variation in physiological systems (a "main effects" model), or through its impact on functioning when organisms are in stressful circumstances (an "interaction effects" model). The specific temperament factor described is Sociability, which reflects a tendency to affiliate, and which is associated with positive affect, and with differences in sensitivity of brain dopamine systems. Data are reviewed showing that individual differences in Sociability in rhesus monkeys are related to variation in sympathetic innervation of lymphoid tissue (a main effect), as well as to patterns of coping in socially stressful circumstances (an interaction effect). Results such as these have implications for studies in behavioral ecology, medicine, and even for management practices in captive colonies of nonhuman primates. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Individual Differences in Emotionality: Social Temperament and Health

    PubMed Central

    CAPITANIO, JOHN P.

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences, the importance of which was identified by Darwin more than 150 years ago, are evident in multiple domains. This review discusses the role of temperament in health-related outcomes in rhesus monkeys. Temperament is proposed as affecting health outcomes via behavioral means, and also via physical means either through its direct association with variation in physiological systems (a “main effects” model), or through its impact on functioning when organisms are in stressful circumstances (an “interaction effects” model). The specific temperament factor described is Sociability, which reflects a tendency to affiliate, and which is associated with positive affect, and with differences in sensitivity of brain dopamine systems. Data are reviewed showing that individual differences in Sociability in rhesus monkeys are related to variation in sympathetic innervation of lymphoid tissue (a main effect), as well as to patterns of coping in socially stressful circumstances (an interaction effect). Results such as these have implications for studies in behavioral ecology, medicine, and even for management practices in captive colonies of nonhuman primates. PMID:20717999

  16. Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

  17. Task-Dependent Individual Differences in Prefrontal Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Bharat B.; Eldreth, Dana A.; Motes, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging have permitted testing of hypotheses regarding the neural bases of individual differences, but this burgeoning literature has been characterized by inconsistent results. To test the hypothesis that differences in task demands could contribute to between-study variability in brain-behavior relationships, we had participants perform 2 tasks that varied in the extent of cognitive involvement. We examined connectivity between brain regions during a low-demand vigilance task and a higher-demand digit–symbol visual search task using Granger causality analysis (GCA). Our results showed 1) Significant differences in numbers of frontoparietal connections between low- and high-demand tasks 2) that GCA can detect activity changes that correspond with task-demand changes, and 3) faster participants showed more vigilance-related activity than slower participants, but less visual-search activity. These results suggest that relatively low-demand cognitive performance depends on spontaneous bidirectionally fluctuating network activity, whereas high-demand performance depends on a limited, unidirectional network. The nature of brain-behavior relationships may vary depending on the extent of cognitive demand. High-demand network activity may reflect the extent to which individuals require top-down executive guidance of behavior for successful task performance. Low-demand network activity may reflect task- and performance monitoring that minimizes executive requirements for guidance of behavior. PMID:20064942

  18. Individual differences in fear extinction and anxiety-like behavior.

    PubMed

    King, Gabrielle; Scott, Elliot; Graham, Bronwyn M; Richardson, Rick

    2017-05-01

    There is growing appreciation for the substantial individual differences in the acquisition and inhibition of aversive associations, and the insights this might give into identifying individuals particularly vulnerable to stress and psychopathology. We examined whether animals that differed in rate of extinction (i.e., Fast versus Slow) were different in their response to an acute stress in adulthood or following a chronic stress that occurred either early or later in life. We found that Slow Extinguishers had significantly poorer extinction retention than Fast Extinguishers, but an acute stressor did not differentially affect anxiety-like behavior in the two groups. Further, while exposure to chronic stress in adulthood did not impact on the extinction phenotypes or anxiety-like behavior, exposure to chronic stress early in life affected both extinction retention and anxiety-like behavior. These findings have implications for the development of a more nuanced approach to identifying those most at risk of anxiety disorders. © 2017 King et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Women’s Sexuality: Behaviors, Responses, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.

    2009-01-01

    Classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality are discussed. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses (desire, excitement, orgasm, and resolution), and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Where applicable, important trends and relationships are highlighted in the literature with both existing reports and previously unpublished data. The present conceptual overview highlights areas in sexual assessment and model building that are in need of further research and theoretical clarification. PMID:8543712

  20. Alternative Perspectives on Risk: Individual Differences in Problem Structuring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Fischer, Ute; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Team decision making involves contributions of multiple players toward a common goal. While much has been written about the importance of developing shared mental models in order for teams to work together effectively, little has been done to determine the value of alternative perspectives on problem solving and decision making. Early studies of expertise contrasted experts with novices and noted that the two groups differ in the way they structure problems and in their selection of information as salient. Little attention has been given to differences among experts who differ in their specializations. A series of experiments was conducted to determine: (1) what dimensions of flight-related problem situations pilots judge to be most important when making flight-relevant decisions; and (2) whether pilots in different crew positions differ in the way they interpret problems relating to flight decisions. A sorting task was used to identify underlying dimensions judged as salient to individual pilots. Captains, first officers, and flight engineers from two major carriers participated in the study. Twenty-two flight scenarios were developed based on ASRS reports. Pilots were required to make judgments about how they would respond in each case and to sort the scenarios on the basis of similarity of decision factors. They were also asked to provide a verbal label that described each of their sorted categories. A second study required a different group of pilots (also captains, first officers and flight engineers) to sort on predetermined bases.

  1. 12 CFR 3.11 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../or affiliate(s); (d) The bank's liquidity, capital, risk asset and other ratios compared to the... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios. 3.11 Section 3.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE...

  2. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  3. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  4. 12 CFR 3.11 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios. 3.11 Section 3.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY... necessary for the bank; (b) The exigency of those circumstances or potential problems; (c) The...

  5. 12 CFR 3.11 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios. 3.11 Section 3.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY... necessary for the bank; (b) The exigency of those circumstances or potential problems; (c) The...

  6. 10 CFR 63.311 - Individual protection standard after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual protection standard after permanent closure. 63.311 Section 63.311 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE... closure. (a) DOE must demonstrate, using performance assessment, that there is a reasonable expectation...

  7. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  8. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  9. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  10. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  11. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  12. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drain systems. 60.693-1 Section 60.693-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect to construct and operate a completely...

  13. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drain systems. 60.693-1 Section 60.693-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect to construct and operate a completely...

  14. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drain systems. 60.693-1 Section 60.693-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect to construct and operate a completely...

  15. Standardized mappings--a framework to combine different semantic mappers into a standardized web-API.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Philipp; Doods, Justin; Dugas, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Automatic coding of medical terms is an important, but highly complicated and laborious task. To compare and evaluate different strategies a framework with a standardized web-interface was created. Two UMLS mapping strategies are compared to demonstrate the interface. The framework is a Java Spring application running on a Tomcat application server. It accepts different parameters and returns results in JSON format. To demonstrate the framework, a list of medical data items was mapped by two different methods: similarity search in a large table of terminology codes versus search in a manually curated repository. These mappings were reviewed by a specialist. The evaluation shows that the framework is flexible (due to standardized interfaces like HTTP and JSON), performant and reliable. Accuracy of automatically assigned codes is limited (up to 40%). Combining different semantic mappers into a standardized Web-API is feasible. This framework can be easily enhanced due to its modular design.

  16. Intrinsic functional connectivity predicts individual differences in distractibility.

    PubMed

    Poole, Victoria N; Robinson, Meghan E; Singleton, Omar; DeGutis, Joseph; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Esterman, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Distractor suppression, the ability to filter and ignore task-irrelevant information, is critical for efficient task performance. While successful distractor suppression relies on a balance of activity in neural networks responsible for attention maintenance (dorsal attention network; DAN), reorientation (ventral attention network; VAN), and internal thought (default mode network, DMN), the degree to which intrinsic connectivity within and between these networks contributes to individual differences in distractor suppression ability is not well-characterized. For the purposes of understanding these interactions, the current study collected resting-state fMRI data from 32 Veterans and, several months later (7±5 months apart), performance on the additional singleton paradigm, a measure of distractor suppression. Using multivariate support vector regression models composed of resting state connectivity between regions of the DAN, VAN, and DMN, and a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation procedure, we were able to predict an individual's task performance, yielding a significant correlation between the actual and predicted distractor suppression (r=0.48, p=0.0053). Network-level analyses revealed that greater within-network DMN connectivity was predictive of better distractor suppression, while greater connectivity between the DMN and attention networks was predictive of poorer distractor suppression. The strongest connection hubs were determined to be the right frontal eye field and temporoparietal junction of the DAN and VAN, respectively, and medial (ventromedial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices) and bilateral prefrontal regions of the DMN. These results are amongst a small but growing number of studies demonstrating that resting state connectivity is related to stable individual differences in cognitive ability, and suggest that greater integrity and independence of the DMN is related to better attentional ability.

  17. ISCCP Cloud Properties Associated with Standard Cloud Types Identified in Individual Surface Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Carole J.; Rossow, William B.; Warren, Stephen G.

    1999-01-01

    Individual surface weather observations from land stations and ships are compared with individual cloud retrievals of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), Stage C1, for an 8-year period (1983-1991) to relate cloud optical thicknesses and cloud-top pressures obtained from satellite data to the standard cloud types reported in visual observations from the surface. Each surface report is matched to the corresponding ISCCP-C1 report for the time of observation for the 280x280-km grid-box containing that observation. Classes of the surface reports are identified in which a particular cloud type was reported present, either alone or in combination with other clouds. For each class, cloud amounts from both surface and C1 data, base heights from surface data, and the frequency-distributions of cloud-top pressure (p(sub c) and optical thickness (tau) from C1 data are averaged over 15-degree latitude zones, for land and ocean separately, for 3-month seasons. The frequency distribution of p(sub c) and tau is plotted for each of the surface-defined cloud types occurring both alone and with other clouds. The average cloud-top pressures within a grid-box do not always correspond well with values expected for a reported cloud type, particularly for the higher clouds Ci, Ac, and Cb. In many cases this is because the satellites also detect clouds within the grid-box that are outside the field of view of the surface observer. The highest average cloud tops are found for the most extensive cloud type, Ns, averaging 7 km globally and reaching 9 km in the ITCZ. Ns also has the greatest average retrieved optical thickness, tau approximately equal 20. Cumulonimbus clouds may actually attain far greater heights and depths, but do not fill the grid-box. The tau-p(sub c) distributions show features that distinguish the high, middle, and low clouds reported by the surface observers. However, the distribution patterns for the individual low cloud types (Cu, Sc, St

  18. CAN INTERMITTENT VIDEO SAMPLING CAPTURE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NATURALISTIC DRIVING?

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, Nazan; Schall, Mark; Anderson, Steven; Dawson, Jeffery; Tippin, Jon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Summary We examined the utility and validity of intermittent video samples from black box devices for capturing individual difference variability in real-world driving performance in an ongoing study of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and community controls. Three types of video clips were coded for several dimensions of interest to driving research including safety, exposure, and driver state. The preliminary findings indicated that clip types successfully captured variability along targeted dimensions such as highway vs. city driving, driver state such as distraction and sleepiness, and safety. Sleepiness metrics were meaningfully associated with adherence to PAP (positive airway pressure) therapy. OSA patients who were PAP adherent showed less sleepiness and less non-driving related gaze movements than nonadherent patients. Simple differences in sleepiness did not readily translate to improvements in driver safety, consistent with epidemiologic evidence to date. PMID:24535569

  19. Autobiographical remembering and individual differences in emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kohsuke; Toyota, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between individual differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) and self-reported arousal from remembering an autobiographical emotional or neutral event was examined. Participants (N = 235; 75 men; M age = 18.7 yr., SD = 0.9, range = 18-22) were required to complete the Japanese version of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire to assess EI. Participants were then asked to recall personal episodes from autobiographical memory, and then completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ). A group with high EI-rated, emotionally neutral episodes higher than did a group with low EI on several MCQ subscales: sound, participants, overall memory, and doubt/certainty. However, differences in ratings between the two groups were not observed for emotionally positive episodes. These results suggest that high EI is related to more effective use of weak retrieval cues when recalling neutral autobiographical memories.

  20. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  1. Context-dependent individual differences in playfulness in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Jessica F; Burman, Oliver; Würbel, Hanno; Melotti, Luca

    2017-03-01

    Play has been proposed as an indicator of positive emotions and welfare in higher vertebrates. This study investigated playfulness in male rats by exploring its consistency across motivational states (with/without prior short social isolation) and two age points at early and late adolescence. Twenty-four male Lister Hooded rats housed in cages of four underwent two play tests: conspecific Play-in-Pairs and Tickling by the experimenter, which were compared with play in the home cage and basal anxiety levels. Play-in-Pairs measures were consistent across age and motivational states, and were independent from anxiety. Positively valenced vocalizations in the Tickling test were also consistent across age, yet were negatively related to anxiety. Play-in-Pairs and Tickling play contexts, as well as social and solitary play types, were unrelated. Therefore, this study supports the existence of consistent individual differences in playfulness in rats, and suggests that different play contexts and types represent motivationally distinct systems.

  2. Individual differences in the propensity for partner sexual coercion.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Joseph A; Quinsey, Vernon L

    2009-03-01

    Lalumière, Harris, Quinsey, and Rice (2005) proposed a three-path model (psychopathy, young male syndrome, and competitive disadvantage) of the development of sexually coercive behavior, but none of these individual difference characteristics have been tested among partner rapists. Using a community sample in Study 1, the authors find that psychopathy is the only significant predictor of self-reported propensity for partner sexual coercion. This model is tested in Study 2 by comparing convicted partner rapists, nonsexual partner assaulters, and heterosexual child molesters. One third of partner rapists are psychopaths, and their psychopathy scores are no different from those found in correctional samples. Partner rapists have an average IQ, providing further evidence that competitive disadvantage is less characteristic of partner rapists. There is some indication that partner rapists desist with age. The authors discuss these findings in light of recent findings that implicate cuckoldry risk in partner sexual assault.

  3. Inattentional Blindness and Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    People sometimes fail to notice salient unexpected objects when their attention is otherwise occupied, a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. To explore individual differences in inattentional blindness, we employed both static and dynamic tasks that either presented the unexpected object away from the focus of attention (spatial) or near the focus of attention (central). We hypothesized that noticing in central tasks might be driven by the availability of cognitive resources like working memory, and that noticing in spatial tasks might be driven by the limits on spatial attention like attention breadth. However, none of the cognitive measures predicted noticing in the dynamic central task or in either the static or dynamic spatial task. Only in the central static task did working memory capacity predict noticing, and that relationship was fairly weak. Furthermore, whether or not participants noticed an unexpected object in a static task was only weakly associated with their odds of noticing an unexpected object in a dynamic task. Taken together, our results are largely consistent with the notion that noticing unexpected objects is driven more by stochastic processes common to all people than by stable individual differences in cognitive abilities. PMID:26258545

  4. Dynamic functional connectivity shapes individual differences in associative learning.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Zainab; Kovacevic, Natasha; Misic, Bratislav; McIntosh, Anthony Randal

    2016-11-01

    Current neuroscientific research has shown that the brain reconfigures its functional interactions at multiple timescales. Here, we sought to link transient changes in functional brain networks to individual differences in behavioral and cognitive performance by using an active learning paradigm. Participants learned associations between pairs of unrelated visual stimuli by using feedback. Interindividual behavioral variability was quantified with a learning rate measure. By using a multivariate statistical framework (partial least squares), we identified patterns of network organization across multiple temporal scales (within a trial, millisecond; across a learning session, minute) and linked these to the rate of change in behavioral performance (fast and slow). Results indicated that posterior network connectivity was present early in the trial for fast, and later in the trial for slow performers. In contrast, connectivity in an associative memory network (frontal, striatal, and medial temporal regions) occurred later in the trial for fast, and earlier for slow performers. Time-dependent changes in the posterior network were correlated with visual/spatial scores obtained from independent neuropsychological assessments, with fast learners performing better on visual/spatial subtests. No relationship was found between functional connectivity dynamics in the memory network and visual/spatial test scores indicative of cognitive skill. By using a comprehensive set of measures (behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological), we report that individual variations in learning-related performance change are supported by differences in cognitive ability and time-sensitive connectivity in functional neural networks. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3911-3928, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Individual differences in children's working memory and writing skill.

    PubMed

    Swanson, H L; Berninger, V W

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to address (a) whether individual differences in working memory (WM) and writing are related to a general or process-specific system, (b) whether WM tasks operate independently of phonological short-term memory (STM) on measures of writing and reading, and (c) whether working memory predicts variance in writing beyond that predicted by reading alone. The present study correlated several WM and phonological STM measures with writing and reading measures. The study showed among the memory measures that a four-factor model reflecting phonological STM, verbal WM span, executive processing, and visual-spatial WM span best fit the multivariate data set. Working memory was correlated significantly with a number of writing measures, particularly those related to text generation. WM measures contributed unique variance to writing that was independent of reading skill, and STM measures best predicted transcription processes and reading recognition, whereas WM measures best predicted text generation and reading comprehension. Both verbal and visual-spatial working memory measures predicted reading comprehension, whereas only WM measures that reflect executive processing significantly predicted writing. In general, the results suggest that individual differences in children's writing reflect a specific capacity system, whereas reading comprehension draws upon a multiple capacity system.

  6. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Murch, Kevin B; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2014-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions.

  7. Prototypes and personal templates: collective wisdom and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Leonard M; Turan, Bulent

    2008-10-01

    This article concerns individual differences in the associative meaning of psychological concepts. Associative meaning may be assessed with prototype methodology, which yields a list of features of the concept ordered according to their rated importance. Our theory concerns individual differences in a concept's associative meaning: A personal template reveals a person's idiosyncratic associative meaning. It is possible to assess the degree to which a personal template matches the corresponding prototype. The theory distinguishes among three types of concepts. One type, for example, specifies a particular behavior to be predicted, for example, a person who is likely to commit suicide, and features of the prototype would include predictors of suicidal behavior. According to the theory, the most prototypical features are (under specifiable conditions) valid predictors, and people with a strong template-to-prototype match possess more valid knowledge about the concept than do people with a weak template-to-prototype match. Other types of concepts cannot be validated (e.g., those describing subjective experiences). In that case, a strong template-to-prototype match does not reflect a person's degree of valid knowledge. The authors provide three applications of the theory.

  8. Chuck Watson's ``differential psychoacoustics:'' Individual differences in auditory abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Gary R.

    2004-05-01

    Chuck Watson was among the first in the psychoacoustic community to seriously address the topic of individual differences. At a time when there was little concern with variation among ``normal listeners'' in psychoacoustic research, Watson began a research program to document the range of human auditory abilities. The primary goals were to determine the number of distinct abilities, to specify the nature of each ability, and to document the distribution of these abilities in the general population. Thanks to Watson's talent for organizing and directing large-scale projects and his workmanlike approach to science, a large and valuable body of data on human individual differences has been collected. The research program began about 20 years ago with the study of basic auditory abilities, and it has expanded to include other modalities and cognitive/intellectual abilities in adults and children. A somewhat biased view of the importance of this work will be presented by one of Watson's many colleagues in this endeavor. The talk will provide an overview of this ongoing research program as well as a brief review of some related research by other investigators. New findings from recent extensions of this work will also be discussed.

  9. Individual differences predict low prevalence visual search performance.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Chad; Becker, Mark W

    2017-01-01

    Critical real-world visual search tasks such as radiology and baggage screening rely on the detection of rare targets. When targets are rare, observers search for a relatively short amount of time and have a high miss rate, a pattern of results known as the low prevalence effect. Attempts to improve the search for rare targets have been unsuccessful or resulted in an increase in detections at the price of more false alarms. As an alternative to improving visual search performance through experimental manipulations, an individual differences approach found that those with higher working memory capacity were better at finding rare targets. We build on the individual differences approach and assess 141 observers' visual working memory capacity (vWMC), vigilance, attentional control, big five personality traits, and performance in both high and low prevalence search tasks. vWMC, vigilance, attentional control, high prevalence visual search performance, and level of introversion were all significant predictors of low prevalence search accuracy, and together account for more than 50% of the variance in search performance. With the exception of vigilance, these factors are also significant predictors of reaction time; better performance was associated with longer reaction times, suggesting these factors identify observers who maintain relatively high quitting thresholds, even with low target prevalence. Our results suggest that a quick and easy-to-administer battery of tasks can identify observers who are likely to perform well in low prevalence search tasks, and these predictor variables are associated with higher quitting thresholds, leading to higher accuracy.

  10. Individual Differences in Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jagadeesh, Anoop; Mauermann, Manfred; Ernst, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how outer hair cell loss interacts with noise-induced and age-related auditory nerve degradation (i.e., cochlear synaptopathy) to affect auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave characteristics. Given that listeners with impaired audiograms likely suffer from mixtures of these hearing deficits and that ABR amplitudes have successfully been used to isolate synaptopathy in listeners with normal audiograms, an improved understanding of how different hearing pathologies affect the ABR source generators will improve their sensitivity in hearing diagnostics. We employed a functional model for human ABRs in which different combinations of hearing deficits were simulated and show that high-frequency cochlear gain loss steepens the slope of the ABR Wave-V latency versus intensity and amplitude versus intensity curves. We propose that grouping listeners according to a ratio of these slope metrics (i.e., the ABR growth ratio) might offer a way to factor out the outer hair cell loss deficit and maximally relate individual differences for constant ratios to other peripheral hearing deficits such as cochlear synaptopathy. We compared the model predictions to recorded click-ABRs from 30 participants with normal or high-frequency sloping audiograms and confirm the predicted relationship between the ABR latency growth curve and audiogram slope. Experimental ABR amplitude growth showed large individual differences and was compared with the Wave-I amplitude, Wave-V/I ratio, or the interwaveI–W latency in the same listeners. The model simulations along with the ABR recordings suggest that a hearing loss profile depicting the ABR growth ratio versus the Wave-I amplitude or Wave-V/I ratio might be able to differentiate outer hair cell deficits from cochlear synaptopathy in listeners with mixed pathologies. PMID:27837052

  11. Early ERPs to faces: aging, luminance, and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Magdalena M.; Frei, Luisa S.; Rousselet, Guillaume A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Rousselet et al. reported a 1 ms/year delay in visual processing speed in a sample of healthy aged 62 subjects (Frontiers in Psychology 2010, 1:19). Here, we replicate this finding in an independent sample of 59 subjects and investigate the contribution of optical factors (pupil size and luminance) to the age-related slowdown and to individual differences in visual processing speed. We conducted two experiments. In experiment 1 we recorded EEG from subjects aged 18–79. Subjects viewed images of faces and phase scrambled noise textures under nine luminance conditions, ranging from 0.59 to 60.8 cd/m2. We manipulated luminance using neutral density filters. In experiment 2, 10 young subjects (age < 35) viewed similar stimuli through pinholes ranging from 1 to 5 mm. In both experiments, subjects were tested twice. We found a 1 ms/year slowdown in visual processing that was independent of luminance. Aging effects became visible around 125 ms post-stimulus and did not affect the onsets of the face-texture ERP differences. Furthermore, luminance modulated the entire ERP time-course from 60 to 500 ms. Luminance effects peaked in the N170 time window and were independent of age. Importantly, senile miosis and individual differences in pupil size did not account for aging differences and inter-subject variability in processing speed. The pinhole manipulation also failed to match the ERPs of old subjects to those of young subjects. Overall, our results strongly suggest that early ERPs to faces (<200 ms) are delayed by aging and that these delays are of cortical, rather than optical origin. Our results also demonstrate that even late ERPs to faces are modulated by low-level factors. PMID:23717297

  12. Predictability and heritability of individual differences in fear learning.

    PubMed

    Shumake, Jason; Furgeson-Moreira, Sergio; Monfils, Marie H

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize individual differences in fear conditioning and extinction in an outbred rat strain, to test behavioral predictors of these individual differences, and to assess their heritability. We fear-conditioned 100 Long-Evans rats, attempted to extinguish fear the next day, and tested extinction recall on the third day. The distribution of freezing scores after fear conditioning was skewed, with most rats showing substantial freezing; after fear extinction, the distribution was bimodal with most rats showing minimal freezing, but a substantial portion showing maximal freezing. Longer rearing episodes measured prior to conditioning predicted less freezing at the beginning of extinction, but differences in extinction learning were not predicted by any baseline exploratory behaviors. We tested the heritability of extinction differences by breeding rats from the top and bottom 20% of freezing scores during extinction recall. We then ran the offspring through the same conditioning/extinction procedure, with the addition of recording ultrasonic vocalizations throughout training and testing. Only a minority of rats emitted distress vocalizations during fear acquisition, but the incidence was less frequent in the offspring of good extinguishers than in poor extinguishers or randomly bred controls. The occurrence of distress vocalizations during acquisition predicted higher levels of freezing during fear recall regardless of breeding line, but the relationship between vocalization and freezing was no longer evident following extinction training, at which point freezing levels were influenced only by breeding and not by vocalization. The heritability (h(2)) of extinction recall was estimated at 0.36, consistent with human estimates.

  13. Dosha brain-types: A neural model of individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Frederick T.; Wallace, Robert Keith

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores brain patterns associated with the three categories of regulatory principles of the body, mind, and behavior in Ayurveda, called Vata, Pitta, and Kapha dosha. A growing body of research has reported patterns of blood chemistry, genetic expression, physiological states, and chronic diseases associated with each dosha type. Since metabolic and growth factors are controlled by the nervous system, each dosha type should be associated with patterns of functioning of six major areas of the nervous system: The prefrontal cortex, the reticular activating system, the autonomic nervous system, the enteric nervous system, the limbic system, and the hypothalamus. For instance, the prefrontal cortex, which includes the anterior cingulate, ventral medial, and the dorsal lateral cortices, would exhibit a high range of functioning in the Vata brain-type leading to the possibility of being easily overstimulated. The Vata brain-type performs activity quickly. Learns quickly and forgets quickly. Their fast mind gives them an edge in creative problem solving. The Pitta brain-type reacts strongly to all challenges leading to purposeful and resolute actions. They never give up and are very dynamic and goal oriented. The Kapha brain-type is slow and steady leading to methodical thinking and action. They prefer routine and needs stimulation to get going. A model of dosha brain-types could provide a physiological foundation to understand individual differences. This model could help individualize treatment modalities to address different mental and physical dysfunctions. It also could explain differences in behavior seen in clinical as well as in normal populations. PMID:26834428

  14. Musical training, individual differences and the cocktail party problem.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Mason, Christine R; Streeter, Timothy M; Best, Virginia; Kidd, Gerald; Patel, Aniruddh D

    2015-06-26

    Are musicians better able to understand speech in noise than non-musicians? Recent findings have produced contradictory results. Here we addressed this question by asking musicians and non-musicians to understand target sentences masked by other sentences presented from different spatial locations, the classical 'cocktail party problem' in speech science. We found that musicians obtained a substantial benefit in this situation, with thresholds ~6 dB better than non-musicians. Large individual differences in performance were noted particularly for the non-musically trained group. Furthermore, in different conditions we manipulated the spatial location and intelligibility of the masking sentences, thus changing the amount of 'informational masking' (IM) while keeping the amount of 'energetic masking' (EM) relatively constant. When the maskers were unintelligible and spatially separated from the target (low in IM), musicians and non-musicians performed comparably. These results suggest that the characteristics of speech maskers and the amount of IM can influence the magnitude of the differences found between musicians and non-musicians in multiple-talker "cocktail party" environments. Furthermore, considering the task in terms of the EM-IM distinction provides a conceptual framework for future behavioral and neuroscientific studies which explore the underlying sensory and cognitive mechanisms contributing to enhanced "speech-in-noise" perception by musicians.

  15. Explaining individual differences in cognitive processes underlying hindsight bias.

    PubMed

    Coolin, Alisha; Erdfelder, Edgar; Bernstein, Daniel M; Thornton, Allen E; Thornton, Wendy Loken

    2015-04-01

    After learning an event's outcome, people's recollection of their former prediction of that event typically shifts toward the actual outcome. Erdfelder and Buchner (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 387-414, 1998) developed a multinomial processing tree (MPT) model to identify the underlying processes contributing to this hindsight bias (HB) phenomenon. More recent applications of this model have revealed that, in comparison to younger adults, older adults are more susceptible to two underlying HB processes: recollection bias and reconstruction bias. However, the impact of cognitive functioning on these processes remains unclear. In this article, we extend the MPT model for HB by incorporating individual variation in cognitive functioning into the estimation of the model's core parameters in older and younger adults. In older adults, our findings revealed that (1) better episodic memory was associated with higher recollection ability in the absence of outcome knowledge, (2) better episodic memory and inhibitory control and higher working memory capacity were associated with higher recollection ability in the presence of outcome knowledge, and (3) better inhibitory control was associated with less reconstruction bias. Although the pattern of effects was similar in younger adults, the cognitive covariates did not significantly predict the underlying HB processes in this age group. In sum, we present a novel approach to modeling individual variability in MPT models. We applied this approach to the HB paradigm to identify the cognitive mechanisms contributing to the underlying HB processes. Our results show that working memory capacity and inhibitory control, respectively, drive individual differences in recollection bias and reconstruction bias, particularly in older adults.

  16. Individual differences in decision making by foraging hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kate V; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    For both humans and animals preference for one option over others can be influenced by the context in which the options occur. In animals, changes in preference could be due to comparative decision-making or to changes in the energy state of the animal when making decisions. We investigated which of these possibilities better explained the response of wild hummingbirds to the addition of a decoy option to a set of two options by presenting Rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) with a foraging experiment with two treatments. In each treatment the birds were presented with a binary choice between two options and a trinary choice with three options. In treatment one the binary choice was between a volume option and a concentration option, whereas in treatment two the same volume option was presented alongside an alternative concentration option. In the trinary choice, birds were presented with the same options as in the binary choice plus one of two inferior options. Birds changed their preferences when a poorer option was added to the choice set: birds increased their preference for the same option when in the presence of either decoy. Which option differed across individuals and the changes in preference were not readily explained by either energy maximisation or the decoy effect. The consistency in response within individuals, however, would suggest that the individual itself brings an extra dimension to context-dependent decision-making. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling growth and individual differences in spatial tasks.

    PubMed

    Thomas, H; Lohaus, A

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the present research is to understand individual differences and growth of children's and adolescents' performance on two spatial tasks through a formal model framework. In Study 1, 579 subjects aged 7-16 years old drew lines to represent their water-level task predictions for eight tilted rectangular vessels. In the verticality task, called the "van task," subjects drew lines representing their predictions concerning the orientation of a plumb line suspended from the ceiling of a van parked on eight different inclines. In Study 2, 185 subjects aged 9-16 years were presented with video displays on a computer monitor and were instructed to adjust lines on the screen to indicate their predictions for the same stimuli used in Study 1. Later, they responded to a multiple-choice verbal analogies test and answered interview questions concerning their task performance strategies for the van and water-level tasks. In both studies, responses on the van and water-level tasks were scored as correct or incorrect on the basis of empirically derived scoring criteria that varied with age. The number of correct responses for each subject on the van and water-level tasks was modeled as a binomial random variable. Individual differences, growth differences, and sex differences in task performance were modeled as mixtures of binomial distributions, a model that may be viewed as a latent class model. Data for Study 1 subjects 11 years and older were combined so that the joint structure of the water-level and van tasks could be studied. This structure was modeled as a mixture of bivariate binomial distributions. On the basis of their task performance, subjects in Study 1 were assigned to their corresponding latent classes. Once classified, the original response distributions of subjects within each latent class were explored in an effort to understand their various response strategies. Additionally, the correspondence between verbal explanations and van and water-level task

  18. Standard Errors of Equating Differences: Prior Developments, Extensions, and Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Zhang, Wenmin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to extend the use of standard errors for equated score differences (SEEDs) to traditional equating functions. The SEEDs are described in terms of their original proposal for kernel equating functions and extended so that SEEDs for traditional linear and traditional equipercentile equating functions can be computed.…

  19. Standard Errors of Equating Differences: Prior Developments, Extensions, and Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Zhang, Wenmin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to extend the use of standard errors for equated score differences (SEEDs) to traditional equating functions. The SEEDs are described in terms of their original proposal for kernel equating functions and extended so that SEEDs for traditional linear and traditional equipercentile equating functions can be computed.…

  20. Does individualization matter? A randomized trial of standardized (focused) versus individualized (broad) cognitive behavior therapy for bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Ata

    2006-02-01

    Does higher level of individualization increase treatment efficacy? Fifty patients with bulimia nervosa were randomized into either manual-based (focused) or more individualized (broader) cognitive behavioral therapy guided by logical functional analysis. Eating disorders Examination and a series of self-report questionnaires were used for assessment at pre-, and post-treatment as well as at follow-up. Both conditions improved significantly at post-treatment, and the results were maintained at the 6 months follow-up. There were no statistically and clinically significant differences between the two conditions at post-treatment with the exception of abstinence from objective bulimic episodes, eating concerns, and body shape dissatisfaction, all favoring the individualized, broader condition. Both groups improved concerning self-esteem, perceived social support from friends, and depression. The improvements were maintained at follow-up. Ten patients (20%) did not respond to the treatment. Notably, a majority of non-responders (80%) were in the manual-based condition. Non-responders showed extreme dominance of rule-governed behavior, and lack of contact with actual contingencies compared to responders. The study provided preliminary support for the superiority of higher level of individualization (i.e. broader CBT) in terms of the response to treatment, and relapses. However, the magnitude of effects was moderate, and independent replications, with blind assessment procedures, and a larger sample sized are needed before more clear cut conclusions can be drawn.

  1. The neural basis of individual differences in mate poaching.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Ryuhei; Ashida, Hiroshi; Yanagisawa, Kuniaki; Abe, Nobuhito

    2016-05-10

    This study tested the hypothesis that individual differences in the activity of the orbitofrontal cortex, a region implicated in value-based decision-making, are associated with the preference for a person with a partner, which could lead to mate poaching. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), male participants were presented with facial photographs of (a) attractive females with a partner, (b) attractive females without a partner, (c) unattractive females with a partner, and (d) unattractive females without a partner. The participants were asked to rate the degree to which they desired a romantic relationship with each female using an 8-point scale. The participants rated attractive females higher than unattractive females, and this effect was associated with ventral striatum activation. The participants also indicated lower ratings for females with a partner than for females without a partner, and this effect was associated with parietal cortex activation. As predicted, the participants characterized by higher orbitofrontal activity demonstrated a greater willingness to engage in a romantic relationship with females who have a partner compared with females who do not have a partner. These results are the first to provide a possible neural explanation for why certain individuals are willing to engage in mate poaching.

  2. Individual differences in Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated how an individual's Zhong-Yong tendency is related to his/her perceptual processing capacity. In two experiments, participants completed a Zhong-Yong Thinking Style Scale and performed a redundant-target detection task. Processing capacity was assessed with a non-parametric approach (systems factorial technology, SFT) and a parametric (linear ballistic accumulator model, LBA) approach. Results converged to suggest a positive correlation between Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity. High middle-way thinkers had larger processing capacity in multiple-signal processing compared with low middle-way thinkers, indicating that they processed information more efficiently and in an integrated fashion. Zhong-Yong tendency positively correlates with the processing capacity. These findings suggest that the individual differences in processing capacity can account for the reasons why high middle-way thinkers tend to adopt a global and flexible processing strategy to deal with the external world. Furthermore, the influence of culturally dictated thinking style on cognition can be revealed in a perception task. PMID:25477842

  3. Ambiguity between self and other: Individual differences in action attribution.

    PubMed

    de Bézenac, Christophe E; Sluming, Vanessa; O'Sullivan, Noreen; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2015-09-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to attribute actions to self or other. This variance is thought to explain, in part, the experience of voice-hearing. Misattribution can also be context-driven. For example, causal ambiguity can arise when the actions of two or more individuals are coordinated and produce similar effects (e.g., music-making). Experience in such challenging contexts may refine skills of action attribution. Forty participants completed a novel finger-tapping task which parametrically manipulated the proportion of control that 'self' versus 'other' possessed over resulting auditory tones. Results showed that action misattribution peaked in the middle of the self-to-other continuum and was biased towards other. This pattern was related to both high hallucination-proneness and to low musical-experience. Findings suggest not only that causal ambiguity plays a key role in agency but also that action attribution abilities may improve with practice, potentially providing an avenue for remediation of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Individual differences in anthropomorphic attributions and human brain structure.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Harriet; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

    2014-09-01

    Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics or behaviour to animals, non-living things or natural phenomena. It is pervasive among humans, yet nonetheless exhibits a high degree of inter-individual variability. We hypothesized that brain areas associated with anthropomorphic thinking might be similar to those engaged in the attribution of mental states to other humans, the so-called 'theory of mind' or mentalizing network. To test this hypothesis, we related brain structure measured using magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 83 healthy young adults to a simple, self-report questionnaire that measured the extent to which our participants made anthropomorphic attributions about non-human animals and non-animal stimuli. We found that individual differences in anthropomorphism for non-human animals correlated with the grey matter volume of the left temporoparietal junction, a brain area involved in mentalizing. Our data support previous work indicating a link between areas of the brain involved in attributing mental states to other humans and those involved in anthropomorphism. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Individual differences in the learning potential of human beings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Elsbeth

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the genetic foundations that guide human brain development have not changed fundamentally during the past 50,000 years. However, because of their cognitive potential, humans have changed the world tremendously in the past centuries. They have invented technical devices, institutions that regulate cooperation and competition, and symbol systems, such as script and mathematics, that serve as reasoning tools. The exceptional learning ability of humans allows newborns to adapt to the world they are born into; however, there are tremendous individual differences in learning ability among humans that become obvious in school at the latest. Cognitive psychology has developed models of memory and information processing that attempt to explain how humans learn (general perspective), while the variation among individuals (differential perspective) has been the focus of psychometric intelligence research. Although both lines of research have been proceeding independently, they increasingly converge, as both investigate the concepts of working memory and knowledge construction. This review begins with presenting state-of-the-art research on human information processing and its potential in academic learning. Then, a brief overview of the history of psychometric intelligence research is combined with presenting recent work on the role of intelligence in modern societies and on the nature-nurture debate. Finally, promising approaches to integrating the general and differential perspective will be discussed in the conclusion of this review.

  6. Individual differences in anthropomorphic attributions and human brain structure

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics or behaviour to animals, non-living things or natural phenomena. It is pervasive among humans, yet nonetheless exhibits a high degree of inter-individual variability. We hypothesized that brain areas associated with anthropomorphic thinking might be similar to those engaged in the attribution of mental states to other humans, the so-called ‘theory of mind’ or mentalizing network. To test this hypothesis, we related brain structure measured using magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 83 healthy young adults to a simple, self-report questionnaire that measured the extent to which our participants made anthropomorphic attributions about non-human animals and non-animal stimuli. We found that individual differences in anthropomorphism for non-human animals correlated with the grey matter volume of the left temporoparietal junction, a brain area involved in mentalizing. Our data support previous work indicating a link between areas of the brain involved in attributing mental states to other humans and those involved in anthropomorphism. PMID:23887807

  7. Individual differences and reasoning: a study on personality traits.

    PubMed

    Bensi, Luca; Giusberti, Fiorella; Nori, Raffaella; Gambetti, Elisa

    2010-08-01

    Personality can play a crucial role in how people reason and decide. Identifying individual differences related to how we actively gather information and use evidence could lead to a better comprehension and predictability of human reasoning. Recent findings have shown that some personality traits are related to similar decision-making patterns showed by people with mental disorders. We performed research with the aim to investigate delusion-proneness, obsessive-like personality, anxiety (trait and state), and reasoning styles in individuals from the general population. We introduced personality trait and state anxiety scores in a regression model to explore specific associations with: (1) amount of data-gathered prior to making a decision; and (2) the use of confirmatory and disconfirmatory evidence. Results showed that all our independent variables were positively or negatively associated with the amount of data collected in order to make simple probabilistic decisions. Anxiety and obsessiveness were the only predictors of the weight attributed to evidence in favour or against a hypothesis. Findings were discussed in relation to theoretical assumptions, predictions, and clinical implications. Personality traits can predict peculiar ways to reason and decide that, in turn, could be involved to some extent in the formation and/or maintenance of psychological disorders.

  8. Comparative study of chemical and biochemical properties of different melon cultivars: standard, hybrid, and grafted melons.

    PubMed

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Kara, Meryem; Tezcan, Filiz; Erim, F Bedia; Sahin, Huseyin; Ulusoy, Esra; Aliyazicioglu, Rezzan

    2010-09-08

    Chemical and biochemical properties of standard, hybrid, and grafted melons cultivated under the same agricultural conditions in adjacent fields in the Cumra region of Turkey were investigated and compared based on pH, Brix, antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, individual phenolics, sugar, and organic acid values. Seventeen different phenolic constituents were quantified by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The highest phenolic acid variability and content were detected in the standard melon. Sugar and organic acid compositions of melon cultivars were tested by capillary electrophoresis, and significant differences in types and contents of individual sugars and organic acids were determined among the cultivars. Standard Cinikiz Cumra melons had the highest ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and total sugar contents. The fructose/glucose ratio increased three times in grafted melon as compared with standard melon. While sugar alcohol mannitol existed in the standard and hybrid cultivars, this constituent disappeared in the grafted types. Citric acid found in the standard cultivar was not detected in the hybrid and grafted types. Consequently, it was concluded that the nutritional value of melons changed by the application of hybridization, grafting, or standard (open pollinated) production methods. The standard melon was found to have the highest score in terms of taste, because of its highest sweetness and sourness. It was also found preferable because of its high antioxidant activity, total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents.

  9. Individual differences in mathematical competence predict parietal brain activation during mental calculation.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Roland H; Ansari, Daniel; Reishofer, Gernot; Stern, Elsbeth; Ebner, Franz; Neuper, Christa

    2007-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that parietal brain circuits subserve arithmetic problem solving and that their recruitment dynamically changes as a function of training and development. The present study investigated whether the brain activation during mental calculation is also modulated by individual differences in mathematical competence. Twenty-five adult students were selected from a larger pool based on their performance on standardized tests of intelligence and arithmetic and divided into groups of individuals with relatively lower and higher mathematical competence. These groups did not differ in their non-numerical intelligence or age. In an fMRI block-design, participants had to verify the correctness of single-digit and multi-digit multiplication problems. Analyses revealed that the individuals with higher mathematical competence displayed stronger activation of the left angular gyrus while solving both types of arithmetic problems. Additional correlational analyses corroborated the association between individual differences in mathematical competence and angular gyrus activation, even when variability in task performance was controlled for. These findings demonstrate that the recruitment of the left angular gyrus during arithmetic problem solving underlies individual differences in mathematical ability and suggests a stronger reliance on automatic, language-mediated processes in more competent individuals.

  10. Individual differences in situation awareness: Validation of the Situationism Scale

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Klein, William M. P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns the construct of lay situationism—an individual’s belief in the importance of a behavior’s context. Study 1 identified a 13-item Situationism Scale, which demonstrated good reliability and validity. In particular, higher situationism was associated with greater situation-control (strategies to manipulate the environment in order to avoid temptation). Subsequent laboratory studies indicated that people higher on the situationism subscales used greater situation-control by sitting farther from junk food (Study 2) and choosing to drink non-alcoholic beverages before a cognitive task (Study 3). Overall, findings provide preliminary support for the psychometric validity and predictive utility of the Situationism Scale and offer this individual difference construct as a means to expand self-regulation theory. PMID:25329242

  11. Sampling Capacity Underlies Individual Differences in Human Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Though much work has studied how external factors, such as stimulus properties, influence generalization of associative strength, there has been limited exploration of the influence that internal dispositions may contribute to stimulus processing. Here we report 2 studies using a modified negative patterning discrimination to test the relationship between global processing and generalization. Global processing was associated with stronger negative patterning discrimination, indicative of limited generalization between distinct stimulus compounds and their constituent elements. In Experiment 2, participants pretrained to adopt global processing similarly showed strong negative patterning discrimination. These results demonstrate considerable individual difference in capacity to engage in negative patterning discrimination and suggest that the tendency toward global processing may be one factor explaining this variability. The need for models of learning to account for this variability in learning is discussed. PMID:24446699

  12. Individual differences in wisdom conceptions: relationships to gratitude and wisdom.

    PubMed

    König, Susanne; Glück, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that most laypeople hold one of two typical conceptions of wisdom--a cognitive or an integrative conception. The current study extends previous research by including a qualitative assessment of people's views of what wisdom is and how it develops, and by relating wisdom conceptions are related to levels of wisdom and gratitude. A sample of 443 young adults rated the relevance of cognitive, reflective, and affective aspects for wisdom. Cluster analyses confirmed the two typical wisdom conceptions: a primarily cognitive view of wisdom and a view emphasizing the integration of cognition, reflection, and affect. The two groups also differed in freely-generated characteristics of wisdom and its development. Additionally, the integrative conception was more frequent in individuals with higher levels of gratitude and wisdom. In sum, laypeople's conceptions of wisdom vary along similar lines as those of wisdom psychologists.

  13. Individual differences in emotional complexity: their psychological implications.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sun-Mee; Shaver, Phillip R

    2004-08-01

    Two studies explored the nature and psychological implications of individual differences in emotional complexity, defined as having emotional experiences that are broad in range and well differentiated. Emotional complexity was predicted to be associated with private self-consciousness, openness to experience, empathic tendencies, cognitive complexity, ability to differentiate among named emotions, range of emotions experienced daily, and interpersonal adaptability. The Range and Differentiation of Emotional Experience Scale (RDEES) was developed to test these hypotheses. In Study 1 (N=1,129) students completed questionnaire packets containing the RDEES and various outcome measures. Study 2 (N=95) included the RDEES and non-self-report measures such as peer reports, complexity of representations of the emotion domain, and level of ego development measured by a sentence completion test. Results supported all of the hypotheses, providing extensive evidence for the RDEES's construct validity. Findings were discussed in terms of the role of emotional complexity in ego maturity and interpersonal adaptability.

  14. Individual differences and correlates of highly superior autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Patihis, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    Highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) is a recently identified ability that has been difficult to explain with existing memory science. The present study measured HSAM participants' and age/gender-matched controls' on a number of behavioural measures to test three main hypotheses: imaginative absorption, emotional arousal, and sleep. HSAM participants were significantly higher than controls on the dispositions absorption and fantasy proneness. These two dispositions also were associated with a measure of HSAM ability within the hyperthymesia participants. The emotional-arousal hypothesis yielded only weak support. The sleep hypothesis was not supported in terms of quantity, but sleep quality may be a small factor worthy of further research. Other individual differences are also documented using a predominantly exploratory analysis. Speculative pathways describing how the tendencies to absorb and fantasise could lead to enhanced autobiographical memory are discussed.

  15. Individual differences in the conceptualization of food across eating contexts

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Christine E.

    2007-01-01

    Individual differences in food-related knowledge structures were explored by applying schema theory to examine the categories 42 adults used to classify foods across four eating contexts. Food card-sort labels were organized into 12 categories, category salience for each person was evaluated, and cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of participants according to the salience of their categories. Clusters were further evaluated for complexity and consistency of category use across contexts. Seven food schema clusters were identified. Meal/time and Routine categories were the most salient overall and were used by most clusters. Well-being, Person, Source, Convenience, Meal component, and Food group categories varied in salience across clusters. The complexity and consistency of the food categories participants used across the contexts varied among the clusters. This study provided insight about cognitions that may underlie food-choice behaviors. Understanding individuals’ food schemas could help nutrition professionals tailor messages to maximize health impact. PMID:19122739

  16. Genetic contributions to individual differences in emotion: a primer.

    PubMed

    Miu, Andrei C

    2008-01-01

    The methodological and empirical development of cognitive, affective and clinical neuroscience has brought these fields into the ideal position of being able to benefit from the increasing number of techniques and interdisciplinary applications developed since the completion of the sequencing of the human genome. An increasingly investigated topic in behavioral, molecular and neuroimaging genetics concerns genetic influences on emotional reactivity and regulation. The estimation of the heritability of emotional traits and states, and the identification of functional genetic polymorphisms that are associated with emotional aspects of behavior, hold great promise for understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of mood and anxiety disorders. This article briefly reviews evidence from twin, genetic association, and neuroimaging genetic studies of individual differences in emotion reactivity and regulation, with an emphasis on trends in recent research, and their potential to contribute to the clinical neuroscience of emotional dysfunction.

  17. Sources of individual differences in children's understanding of fractions.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Rose K; Fuchs, Lynn S; Geary, David C; Jordan, Nancy C; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children's understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number knowledge) competencies; at 7 years on whole-number arithmetic computations and number line estimation; and at 10 years on fraction concepts. Mediation analyses controlling for general mathematics ability and general academic ability revealed that numerical and mathematical competencies were direct predictors of fraction concepts, whereas domain-general competencies supported the acquisition of fraction concepts via whole-number arithmetic computations or number line estimation. Results indicate multiple pathways to fraction competence.

  18. Investigating individual differences in brain abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, C H; de Haan, M; Friston, K J; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    2003-01-01

    Autism is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by impairments in three domains: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Recent findings implicate the amygdala in the neurobiology of autism. In this paper, we report the results of a series of novel experimental investigations focusing on the structure and function of the amygdala in a group of children with autism. The first section attempts to determine if abnormality of the amygdala can be identified in an individual using magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Using single-case voxel-based morphometric analyses, abnormality in the amygdala was detected in half the children with autism. Abnormalities in other regions were also found. In the second section, emotional modulation of the startle response was investigated in the group of autistic children. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between the patterns of emotional modulation of the startle response in the autistic group compared with the controls. PMID:12639337

  19. Individual differences in time perspective predict autonoetic experience.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kathleen M; McDermott, Kathleen B; Szpunar, Karl K

    2011-09-01

    Tulving (1985) posited that the capacity to remember is one facet of a more general capacity-autonoetic (self-knowing) consciousness. Autonoetic consciousness was proposed to underlie the ability for "mental time travel" both into the past (remembering) and into the future to envision potential future episodes (episodic future thinking). The current study examines whether individual differences can predict autonoetic experience. Specifically, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI, Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) was administered to 133 undergraduate students, who also rated phenomenological experiences accompanying autobiographical remembering and episodic future thinking. Scores on two of the five subscales of the ZTPI (Future and Present-Hedonistic) predicted the degree to which people reported feelings of mentally traveling backward (or forward) in time and the degree to which they reported re- or pre-experiencing the event, but not ten other rated properties less related to autonoetic consciousness.

  20. Standardizing measures in four domains of employment outcomes for individual placement and support.

    PubMed

    Bond, Gary R; Campbell, Kikuko; Drake, Robert E

    2012-08-01

    Virtually all studies of the individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment measure outcomes for job acquisition, but studies are less consistent in measuring job tenure, hours worked, and employment earnings. Lack of a common set of employment measures limits comparisons across studies and cumulative knowledge about IPS. To lay the groundwork for standardization, this study examined measures in four employment domains and their interrelationships. Using a combined data set from four randomized controlled trials of IPS, this study examined mean differences between IPS participants (N=307) and participants in other vocational services (control sample) (N=374) in four domains (job acquisition, job duration, hours worked per week, and total hours and wages). Eight competitive employment measures were examined (employed at any time, total weeks worked, tenure in the longest-held job, total hours worked, average hours per week worked, total wages, days to first job, and working ≥ 20 hours per week during follow-up). Correlations between measures within both the IPS and control samples were determined. IPS participants had significantly better outcomes across all employment measures and domains. Correlations between measures were strong within each domain, but they were variable between domains. In addition to improving job acquisition, IPS improved job duration, hours worked per week, and total hours and wages. The correlational findings suggest proxy measures to assist meta-analysts in the synthesis of studies for which direct measures are unavailable. Initial steps toward a cross-disciplinary theoretical framework for employment outcomes are described.

  1. Why are individuals so different from each other?

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, P

    2015-01-01

    An important contributor to the differences between individuals derives from their plasticity. Such plasticity is widespread in organisms from the simple to the most complex. Adaptability plasticity enables the organism to cope with a novel challenge not previously encountered by its ancestors. Conditional plasticity appears to have evolved from repeated challenges from the environment so that the organism responds in a particular manner to the environment in which it finds itself. The resulting phenotypic variation can be triggered during development in a variety of ways, some mediated through the parent's phenotype. Sometimes the organism copes in suboptimal conditions trading off reproductive success against survival. Whatever the adaptedness of the phenotype, each of the many types of plasticity demonstrates how a given genotype will express itself differently in different environmental conditions—a field of biology referred to as the study of epigenetics. The ways in which epigenetic mechanisms may have evolved are discussed, as are the potential impacts on the evolution of their descendants. PMID:25407080

  2. Simulating fiction: individual differences in literature comprehension revealed with FMRI.

    PubMed

    Nijhof, Annabel D; Willems, Roel M

    2015-01-01

    When we read literary fiction, we are transported to fictional places, and we feel and think along with the characters. Despite the importance of narrative in adult life and during development, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying fiction comprehension are unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how individuals differently employ neural networks important for understanding others' beliefs and intentions (mentalizing), and for sensori-motor simulation while listening to excerpts from literary novels. Localizer tasks were used to localize both the cortical motor network and the mentalizing network in participants after they listened to excerpts from literary novels. Results show that participants who had high activation in anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC; part of the mentalizing network) when listening to mentalizing content of literary fiction, had lower motor cortex activity when they listened to action-related content of the story, and vice versa. This qualifies how people differ in their engagement with fiction: some people are mostly drawn into a story by mentalizing about the thoughts and beliefs of others, whereas others engage in literature by simulating more concrete events such as actions. This study provides on-line neural evidence for the existence of qualitatively different styles of moving into literary worlds, and adds to a growing body of literature showing the potential to study narrative comprehension with neuroimaging methods.

  3. Measuring Individual Differences in Decision Biases: Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Aczel, Balazs; Bago, Bence; Szollosi, Aba; Foldes, Andrei; Lukacs, Bence

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in people's susceptibility to heuristics and biases (HB) are often measured by multiple-bias questionnaires consisting of one or a few items for each bias. This research approach relies on the assumptions that (1) different versions of a decision bias task measure are interchangeable as they measure the same cognitive failure; and (2) that some combination of these tasks measures the same underlying construct. Based on these assumptions, in Study 1 we developed two versions of a new decision bias survey for which we modified 13 HB tasks to increase their comparability, construct validity, and the participants' motivation. The analysis of the responses (N = 1279) showed weak internal consistency within the surveys and a great level of discrepancy between the extracted patterns of the underlying factors. To explore these inconsistencies, in Study 2 we used three original examples of HB tasks for each of seven biases. We created three decision bias surveys by allocating one version of each HB task to each survey. The participants' responses (N = 527) showed a similar pattern as in Study 1, questioning the assumption that the different examples of the HB tasks are interchangeable and that they measure the same underlying construct. These results emphasize the need to understand the domain-specificity of cognitive biases as well as the effect of the wording of the cover story and the response mode on bias susceptibility before employing them in multiple-bias questionnaires. PMID:26635677

  4. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    Using Gray and McNaughton's (2000) revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST), we examined the influence of personality on processing of words presented in gain-framed and loss-framed anti-speeding messages and how the processing biases associated with personality influenced message acceptance. The r-RST predicts that the nervous system regulates personality and that behaviour is dependent upon the activation of the behavioural activation system (BAS), activated by reward cues and the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), activated by punishment cues. According to r-RST, individuals differ in the sensitivities of their BAS and FFFS (i.e., weak to strong), which in turn leads to stable patterns of behaviour in the presence of rewards and punishments, respectively. It was hypothesised that individual differences in personality (i.e., strength of the BAS and the FFFS) would influence the degree of both message processing (as measured by reaction time to previously viewed message words) and message acceptance (measured three ways by perceived message effectiveness, behavioural intentions, and attitudes). Specifically, it was anticipated that, individuals with a stronger BAS would process the words presented in the gain-frame messages faster than those with a weaker BAS and individuals with a stronger FFFS would process the words presented in the loss-frame messages faster than those with a weaker FFFS. Further, it was expected that greater processing (faster reaction times) would be associated with greater acceptance for that message. Driver licence holding students (N=108) were recruited to view one of four anti-speeding messages (i.e., social gain-frame, social loss-frame, physical gain-frame, and physical loss-frame). A computerised lexical decision task assessed participants' subsequent reaction times to message words, as an indicator of the extent of processing of the previously viewed message. Self-report measures assessed personality and the three message

  5. Comparison of standardized versus individualized caloric prescriptions in the nutritional rehabilitation of inpatients with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Haynos, Ann F.; Snipes, Cassandra; Guarda, Angela; Mayer, Laurel E.; Attia, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sparse research informs how caloric prescriptions should be advanced during nutritional rehabilitation of inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN). This study compared the impact of a standardized caloric increase approach, in which increases occurred on a predetermined schedule, to an individualized approach, in which increases occurred only following insufficient weight gain, on rate, pattern, and cumulative amount of weight gain and other weight restoration outcomes. Method This study followed a natural experiment design comparing AN inpatients consecutively admitted before (n = 35) and after (n = 35) an institutional change from individualized to standardized caloric prescriptions. Authors examined the impact of prescription plan on weekly weight gain in the first treatment month using multilevel modeling. Within a subsample remaining inpatient through weight restoration (n = 40), multiple regressions examined the impact of caloric prescription plan on time to weight restoration, length of hospitalization, maximum caloric prescription, discharge BMI, and incidence of activity restriction and edema. Results There were significant interactions between prescription plan and quadratic time on average weekly weight gain (p = .03) and linear time on cumulative weekly weight gain (p < .001). Under the standardized plan, patients gained in an accelerated curvilinear pattern (p = .04) and, therefore, gained cumulatively greater amounts of weight over time (p < .001). Additionally, 30% fewer patients required activity restriction under the standardized plan. Discussion Standardized caloric prescriptions may confer advantage by facilitating accelerated early weight gain and lower incidence of bed rest without increasing the incidence of refeeding syndrome. PMID:26769581

  6. Individual but not fragile: individual differences in task control predict Stroop facilitation.

    PubMed

    Kalanthroff, E; Henik, A

    2013-06-01

    The Stroop effect is composed of interference and facilitation effects. The facilitation is less stable and thus many times is referred to as a "fragile effect". Here we suggest the facilitation effect is highly vulnerable to individual differences in control over the task conflict (between relevant color naming and irrelevant word reading in the Stroop task). We replicated previous findings of a significant correlation between stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) and Stroop interference, and also found a significant correlation between SSRT and the Stroop facilitation effect-participants with low inhibitory control (i.e., long SSRT) had no facilitation effect or even a reversed one. These results shed new light on the "fragile" facilitation effect and highlight the necessity of awareness of task conflict, especially in the Stroop task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Individual Differences Among Children in Sucrose Detection Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Paule Valery; Reed, Danielle R.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little research has focused on whether there are individual differences among children in their sensitivity to sweet taste and, if so, the biological correlates of such differences. Objectives Our goal was to understand how variations in children’s sucrose detection thresholds relate to their age and gender, taste genotype, body composition, and dietary intake of added sugars. Methods Sucrose detection thresholds in 7- to 14-year-old children were tested individually using a validated, two-alternative, forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method. Five genetic variants of taste genes were assayed: TAS1R3 and GNAT3 (sweet genes; one variant each) and the bitter receptor gene TAS2R38 (three variants). All children were measured for body weight and height. A subset of these children were measured for the percentage of body fat and waist circumference and provided added sugar intake by 24-hour dietary recall. Results Sucrose thresholds ranged from 0.23 to 153.8 mM with most of the children completing the threshold task (216/235; 92%). Some children were biologically related (i.e., siblings), and for the genetic analysis, one sibling from each family was studied. Variants in the bitter but not the sweet genes were related to sucrose threshold and sugar intake; children with two bitter-sensitive alleles could detect sucrose at lower concentrations (F(2,165) = 4.55, p = .01; rs1726866) and reported eating more added sugar (% kcal; F(2, 62) = 3.64, p = .03) than did children with less sensitive alleles. Age, gender, and indices of obesity also were related to child-to-child differences in sucrose threshold; girls were more sensitive than boys (t(214) = 2.0, p = .05), older children were more sensitive than younger children (r(214) = −.16, p = .02), and fatter (r(84) = −.22, p = .05) or more centrally obese children (r(84) = −.26, p = .02) were more sensitive relative to others. Discussion Inborn differences in bitter sensitivity may affect childhood

  8. Gazepath: An eye-tracking analysis tool that accounts for individual differences and data quality.

    PubMed

    van Renswoude, Daan R; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Koornneef, Arnout; Johnson, Scott P; Hunnius, Sabine; Visser, Ingmar

    2017-06-07

    Eye-trackers are a popular tool for studying cognitive, emotional, and attentional processes in different populations (e.g., clinical and typically developing) and participants of all ages, ranging from infants to the elderly. This broad range of processes and populations implies that there are many inter- and intra-individual differences that need to be taken into account when analyzing eye-tracking data. Standard parsing algorithms supplied by the eye-tracker manufacturers are typically optimized for adults and do not account for these individual differences. This paper presents gazepath, an easy-to-use R-package that comes with a graphical user interface (GUI) implemented in Shiny (RStudio Inc 2015). The gazepath R-package combines solutions from the adult and infant literature to provide an eye-tracking parsing method that accounts for individual differences and differences in data quality. We illustrate the usefulness of gazepath with three examples of different data sets. The first example shows how gazepath performs on free-viewing data of infants and adults, compared to standard EyeLink parsing. We show that gazepath controls for spurious correlations between fixation durations and data quality in infant data. The second example shows that gazepath performs well in high-quality reading data of adults. The third and last example shows that gazepath can also be used on noisy infant data collected with a Tobii eye-tracker and low (60 Hz) sampling rate.

  9. Individual differences and emotional inferences during reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Gillioz, Christelle; Gygax, Pascal; Tapiero, Isabelle

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated readers' representations of the main protagonist's emotional status in short narratives, as well as several mental factors that may affect these representations. General and visuospatial working memory, empathy, and simulation were investigated as potential individual differences in generating emotional inferences. Participants were confronted with narratives conveying information about the protagonist's emotional state. We manipulated each narrative's target sentence according to its content (emotional label vs. description of the behaviour associated to the emotion) and its congruence to the story (matching vs. mismatching). The results showed that globally the difference between reading times of congruent and incongruent target sentences was bigger in the behavioural than in the emotional condition. This pattern was accentuated for high visuospatial working memory participants when they were asked to simulate the stories. These results support the idea that mental models may be of a perceptual nature and may more likely include behavioural elements than emotion labels per se, as suggested earlier by Gygax et al. (2007). 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  10. The role of individual differences in cognitive training and transfer.

    PubMed

    Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Shah, Priti; Jonides, John

    2014-04-01

    Working memory (WM) training has recently become a topic of intense interest and controversy. Although several recent studies have reported near- and far-transfer effects as a result of training WM-related skills, others have failed to show far transfer, suggesting that generalization effects are elusive. Also, many of the earlier intervention attempts have been criticized on methodological grounds. The present study resolves some of the methodological limitations of previous studies and also considers individual differences as potential explanations for the differing transfer effects across studies. We recruited intrinsically motivated participants and assessed their need for cognition (NFC; Cacioppo & Petty Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42:116-131, 1982) and their implicit theories of intelligence (Dweck, 1999) prior to training. We assessed the efficacy of two WM interventions by comparing participants' improvements on a battery of fluid intelligence tests against those of an active control group. We observed that transfer to a composite measure of fluid reasoning resulted from both WM interventions. In addition, we uncovered factors that contributed to training success, including motivation, need for cognition, preexisting ability, and implicit theories about intelligence.

  11. Individual differences in lateralisation of hallucinations associated with sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Girard, T A; Cheyne, J A

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences were investigated in the lateralisation of two general categories of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations associated with sleep paralysis: (1) Vestibular-motor (V-M) hallucinations; comprising sensations of floating, flying, illusory locomotion and postural adjustments, out-of-body experiences (OBE), and autoscopy; and (2) Intruder hallucinations; incorporating a sense of the presence, and visual and auditory hallucinations of external, alien agents. Left-right lateralisation of such hallucinations, as well as handedness and footedness, were assessed in a diverse, nonclinical sample of 201 subjects participating in a web-based survey of sleep paralysis experiences. V-M hallucinations, but not Intruder hallucinations were predicted, based on the hypothesised distinctive neural sources of the different hallucinations, to be positively associated with handedness and footedness. Specifically, the predictions were based on the hypothesis that the activation of components of a vestibular, motor, and kinaesthetic bodily-self neuromatrix underlies V-M hallucinations, whereas a threat-activated vigilance system is responsible for Intruder hallucinations. As predicted, limb preferences were consistently found to be significantly and positively associated with a side bias of V-M, but not Intruder, hallucinations.

  12. Assessment of Individual Differences in Regulatory Focus among Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Haaga, David A. F.; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara G.; McIntosh, Elizabeth; Ahrens, Anthony H.

    2008-01-01

    Smoking cessation programs might benefit from tailoring messages to individual differences in regulatory focus (see Higgins, 1997), but there is little evidence on the stability or convergent validity of regulatory focus measures. In two studies, smokers completed four measures of regulatory focus: (a) Regulatory Focus Questionnaire (RFQ); (b) actual-ideal and actual-ought self-discrepancies; (c) response duration in naming name ideal or ought self-guides; and (d) reaction time for lexical decisions about one’s ideal or ought self-guides. Study 1 included a one-month retest. Retest reliability was adequate, but convergent validity was poor. Questionnaire and self-discrepancy measures were unrelated to each other or to the reaction time measures. To facilitate future studies of tailored health behavior change interventions, research is needed to determine whether weak convergent validity resulted from (a) invalidity of some or all of the regulatory focus measures or (b) validity of each for measuring a different aspect of the construct. PMID:18958291

  13. Modeling individual differences in response time and accuracy in numeracy.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thompson, Clarissa A; McKoon, Gail

    2015-04-01

    In the study of numeracy, some hypotheses have been based on response time (RT) as a dependent variable and some on accuracy, and considerable controversy has arisen about the presence or absence of correlations between RT and accuracy, between RT or accuracy and individual differences like IQ and math ability, and between various numeracy tasks. In this article, we show that an integration of the two dependent variables is required, which we accomplish with a theory-based model of decision making. We report data from four tasks: numerosity discrimination, number discrimination, memory for two-digit numbers, and memory for three-digit numbers. Accuracy correlated across tasks, as did RTs. However, the negative correlations that might be expected between RT and accuracy were not obtained; if a subject was accurate, it did not mean that they were fast (and vice versa). When the diffusion decision-making model was applied to the data (Ratcliff, 1978), we found significant correlations across the tasks between the quality of the numeracy information (drift rate) driving the decision process and between the speed/accuracy criterion settings, suggesting that similar numeracy skills and similar speed-accuracy settings are involved in the four tasks. In the model, accuracy is related to drift rate and RT is related to speed-accuracy criteria, but drift rate and criteria are not related to each other across subjects. This provides a theoretical basis for understanding why negative correlations were not obtained between accuracy and RT. We also manipulated criteria by instructing subjects to maximize either speed or accuracy, but still found correlations between the criteria settings between and within tasks, suggesting that the settings may represent an individual trait that can be modulated but not equated across subjects. Our results demonstrate that a decision-making model may provide a way to reconcile inconsistent and sometimes contradictory results in numeracy

  14. Certification standards of professionals coordinating life care plans for individuals who have acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cloie B; Lacerte, Michel; Fountaine, John D

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss the history and evolution of what is now known as a life care plan. The objectives will be to understand that a life care plan is a tool of case management. A life care plan is based on a proper medical, psychological, case management, and/or rehabilitation foundation. The development of a life care plan requires following generally accepted and peer-reviewed methodology and standards of practice. Life care planning is a trans-disciplinary specialty practice. A life care plan is a dynamic document based upon published standards of practice, comprehensive assessment, data analysis and research that provides an organized, concise plan for current and future needs with associated costs for individuals who have experienced catastrophic injury or have chronic health care needs. The reader will also learn there are Standards of Practice for life care planning that have been a long-standing guide for the practitioner and its core components will be discussed. There are qualifications of professionals who perform the specialty practice of life care planning which will be reviewed, and in conclusion there are special considerations for individuals coordinating life care plans with individuals who have sustained an acquired brain injury will also be discussed.

  15. Absorbency properties of different brands of standardized endodontic paper points.

    PubMed

    Pumarola-Suñé, J; Solá-Vicens, L; Sentís-Vilalta, J; Canalda-Sahli, C; Brau-Aguadé, E

    1998-12-01

    A comparative study of the absorbency properties of different endodontic paper points has been conducted. Twenty standardized absorbent paper points, size 30, from 13 bands (Dentaline, Zipperer, Kerr, Diadent, Roeko novo, Roeko color, Maillefer, P.D., Schein, Spectrapoint, Proclinic, Euronda, and Alpro) of 12 manufacturers were tested. Each dry paper point was weighted using an electronic laboratory balance. A length of 16 mm from the tip was then lowered in distilled water for 5 s, the paper point was weighted again, and the difference between both measurements was taken as the value of the fluid absorbed. Diadent, Kerr, and Dentalite showed significantly higher absorbencies (p < 0.05) than standardized paper points of the remaining brands. The study demonstrates a wide variation in the absorbency properties of this dental accessory.

  16. Considering ERP difference scores as individual difference measures: Issues with subtraction and alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Alexandria; Lerner, Matthew D; De Los Reyes, Andres; Laird, Robert D; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in psychophysiological and neural correlates of psychopathology, personality, and other individual differences. Many studies correlate a criterion individual difference variable (e.g., anxiety) with a psychophysiological measurement derived by subtracting scores taken from two within-subject conditions. These subtraction-based difference scores are intended to increase specificity by isolating variability of interest. Using data on the error-related negativity (ERN) and correct response negativity (CRN) in relation to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), we highlight several conceptual and practical issues with subtraction-based difference scores and propose alternative approaches based on regression. We show that ERN and CRN are highly correlated, and that the ΔERN (i.e., ERN - CRN) is correlated in opposite directions both with ERN and CRN. Bivariate analyses indicate that GAD is related to ΔERN and ERN, but not CRN. We first show that, by using residualized scores, GAD relates both to a larger ERN and smaller CRN. Moreover, by probing the interaction of ERN and CRN, we show that the relationship between GAD and ERN varies by CRN. These latter findings are not evident when using traditional subtraction-based difference scores. We then completed follow-up analyses that suggested that an increased P300 in anxious individuals gave rise to the apparent anxiety/CRN relationship observed. These findings have important conceptual implications for facilitating the interpretability of results from individual difference studies of psychophysiology.

  17. Individual Differences in Memory Search and Their Relation to Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Healey, M. Karl; Crutchley, Patrick; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to understand why memory predicts intelligence have not fully leveraged state-of-the-art measures of recall dynamics. Using data from a multi–session free recall study we examine individual differences in measures of recall initiation and post–initiation transitions. We identify four sources of variation: a recency factor reflecting variation in the tendency to initiate recall from an item near the end of the list, a primacy factor reflecting a tendency to initiate from the beginning of the list, a temporal factor corresponding to transitions mediated by temporal associations, and a semantic factor corresponding to semantically–mediated transitions. Together these four factors account for 83% of the variability in overall recall accuracy, suggesting they provide a nearly complete picture of recall dynamics. We also show that these sources of variability account for over 80% of the variance shared between memory and intelligence. The temporal association factor was the most influential in predicting both recall accuracy and intelligence. We outline a theory of how controlled drift of temporal context may be critical across a range of cognitive activities. PMID:24730719

  18. Individual Differences in the Neural Basis of Causal Inferencing

    PubMed Central

    Prat, Chantel S.; Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study used fMRI to examine individual differences in the neural basis of causal inferencing. Participants with varying language skill levels, as indexed by scores on the vocabulary portion of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, read four types of two-sentence passages in which causal relatedness (moderate and distant) and presence or absence of explicit clause connectives were orthogonally varied to manipulate coherence and cohesion during inference generation. Skilled readers showed better neural efficiency (less activation) during all context sentences and during all inference conditions. Increased activation in less-skilled readers was most extensively distributed in the right hemisphere (RH) homologues of left hemisphere (LH) language areas, especially in the most difficult passage types. Skilled readers also showed greater sensitivity to coherence (greater activation and synchronization in moderately related than distantly related passages) whereas less-skilled readers showed sensitivity to cohesion (greater activation and synchronization when clause connectives were present than when they were not). These finding support the hypothesis that skilled reading comprehension requires recruitment of the RH on an “as needed” basis. We describe the dynamic spillover hypothesis, a new theoretical framework that outlines the conditions under which RH language contributions are most likely evoked. PMID:21051084

  19. Individual differences in the neural basis of causal inferencing.

    PubMed

    Prat, Chantel S; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study used fMRI to examine individual differences in the neural basis of causal inferencing. Participants with varying language skill levels, as indexed by scores on the vocabulary portion of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, read four types of two-sentence passages in which causal relatedness (moderate and distant) and presence or absence of explicit clause connectives were orthogonally varied to manipulate coherence and cohesion during inference generation. Skilled readers showed better neural efficiency (less activation) during all context sentences and during all inference conditions. Increased activation in less-skilled readers was most extensively distributed in the right hemisphere (RH) homologues of left hemisphere (LH) language areas, especially in the most difficult passage types. Skilled readers also showed greater sensitivity to coherence (greater activation and synchronization in moderately related than distantly related passages) whereas less-skilled readers showed sensitivity to cohesion (greater activation and synchronization when clause connectives were present than when they were not). These finding support the hypothesis that skilled reading comprehension requires recruitment of the RH on an "as needed" basis. We describe the dynamic spillover hypothesis, a new theoretical framework that outlines the conditions under which RH language contributions are most likely evoked.

  20. Understanding individual differences in word recognition skills of ESL children.

    PubMed

    Geva, E; Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z; Schuster, B

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extent to which the development of ESL (English as a Second Language) word recognition skills mimics similar trajectories in same-aged EL1 (English as a First Language) children, and the extent to which phonological processing skills and rapid naming can be used to predict word recognition performance in ESL children. Two cohorts of Grade 1 ESL and EL1 primary-level children were followed for two consecutive years. Results indicated that vocabulary knowledge, a measure of language proficiency, and nonverbal intelligence were not significant predictors of word recognition in either group. Yet, by considering individual differences in phonological awareness and rapid naming, it was possible to predict substantial amounts of variance on word recognition performance six months and one year later in both language groups. Commonality analyses indicated that phonological awareness and rapid naming contributed unique variance to word recognition performance. Moreover, the profiles of not at-risk children in the EL1 and ESL groups were similar on all but the oral language measure, where EL1 children had the advantage. In addition, EL1 and ESL profiles of children who had word-recognition difficulty were similar, with low performance on rapid naming and phonological awareness. Results indicate that these measures are reliable indicators of potential reading disability among ESL children.

  1. Individual differences in perceptual adaptability of foreign sound categories

    PubMed Central

    Schertz, Jessamyn; Cho, Taehong; Lotto, Andrew; Warner, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Listeners possess a remarkable ability to adapt to acoustic variability in the realization of speech sound categories (e.g. different accents). The current work tests whether non-native listeners adapt their use of acoustic cues in phonetic categorization when they are confronted with changes in the distribution of cues in the input, as native listeners do, and examines to what extent these adaptation patterns are influenced by individual cue-weighting strategies. In line with previous work, native English listeners, who use VOT as a primary cue to the stop voicing contrast (e.g. ‘pa’ vs. ‘ba’), adjusted their use of f0 (a secondary cue to the contrast) when confronted with a noncanonical “accent” in which the two cues gave conflicting information about category membership. Native Korean listeners’ adaptation strategies, while variable, were predictable based on their initial cue weighting strategies. In particular, listeners who used f0 as the primary cue to category membership adjusted their use of VOT (their secondary cue) in response to the noncanonical accent, mirroring the native pattern of “downweighting” a secondary cue. Results suggest that non-native listeners show native-like sensitivity to distributional information in the input and use this information to adjust categorization, just as native listeners do, with the specific trajectory of category adaptation governed by initial cue-weighting strategies. PMID:26404530

  2. Individual Differences in Nonsymbolic Ratio Processing Predict Symbolic Math Performance.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Percival G; Lewis, Mark Rose; Hubbard, Edward M

    2016-02-01

    What basic capacities lay the foundation for advanced numerical cognition? Are there basic nonsymbolic abilities that support the understanding of advanced numerical concepts, such as fractions? To date, most theories have posited that previously identified core numerical systems, such as the approximate number system (ANS), are ill-suited for learning fraction concepts. However, recent research in developmental psychology and neuroscience has revealed a ratio-processing system (RPS) that is sensitive to magnitudes of nonsymbolic ratios and may be ideally suited for supporting fraction concepts. We provide evidence for this hypothesis by showing that individual differences in RPS acuity predict performance on four measures of mathematical competence, including a university entrance exam in algebra. We suggest that the nonsymbolic RPS may support symbolic fraction understanding much as the ANS supports whole-number concepts. Thus, even abstract mathematical concepts, such as fractions, may be grounded not only in higher-order logic and language, but also in basic nonsymbolic processing abilities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Individual differences in perceptual adaptability of foreign sound categories.

    PubMed

    Schertz, Jessamyn; Cho, Taehong; Lotto, Andrew; Warner, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Listeners possess a remarkable ability to adapt to acoustic variability in the realization of speech sound categories (e.g., different accents). The current work tests whether non-native listeners adapt their use of acoustic cues in phonetic categorization when they are confronted with changes in the distribution of cues in the input, as native listeners do, and examines to what extent these adaptation patterns are influenced by individual cue-weighting strategies. In line with previous work, native English listeners, who use voice onset time (VOT) as a primary cue to the stop voicing contrast (e.g., 'pa' vs. 'ba'), adjusted their use of f0 (a secondary cue to the contrast) when confronted with a noncanonical "accent" in which the two cues gave conflicting information about category membership. Native Korean listeners' adaptation strategies, while variable, were predictable based on their initial cue weighting strategies. In particular, listeners who used f0 as the primary cue to category membership adjusted their use of VOT (their secondary cue) in response to the noncanonical accent, mirroring the native pattern of "downweighting" a secondary cue. Results suggest that non-native listeners show native-like sensitivity to distributional information in the input and use this information to adjust categorization, just as native listeners do, with the specific trajectory of category adaptation governed by initial cue-weighting strategies.

  4. Predictors of individual differences in acute response to ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, W.F.; Muller, K.E.; Bromberg, P.A.; Shy, C.M. )

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personal characteristics that predict individual differences in acute FEV1 response to ozone exposure. Response and predictor data were collected on 290 white male volunteers 18 to 32 yr of age who were each exposed to one of six concentrations of ozone between 0.0 and 0.40 part per million. The sample was divided into an exploratory sample of 96 and a confirmatory sample of 194 subjects. Exploratory analysis indicated that ozone, age, and several other variables explained a significant proportion of the variance in response. In the confirmatory sample, only age and ozone concentration predicted FEV1 decrement. For the combined sample ozone explained 31% of the variance, with age accounting for an additional 4%. The model predicted a decreasing response with increasing age for all nonzero ozone concentrations. For exposure to 0.40 ppm, the model predicts decrements in FEV1 of 1.07 and 0.47 L for 18- and 30-yr-old subjects, respectively. We concluded that for white male subjects age was a significant predictor of response, with older subjects being less responsive to ozone. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exploratory analysis without control of type I statistical error rates may result in apparent findings that cannot be replicated.

  5. Individual differences in adult handwritten spelling-to-dictation.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Millotte, Séverine; Barry, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We report an investigation of individual differences in handwriting latencies and number of errors in a spelling-to-dictation task. Eighty adult participants wrote a list of 164 spoken words (presented in two sessions). The participants were also evaluated on a vocabulary test (Deltour, 1993). Various multiple regression analyses were performed (on both writing latency and errors). The analysis of the item means showed that the reliable predictors of spelling latencies were acoustic duration, cumulative word frequency, phonology-to-orthographic (PO) consistency, the number of letters in the word and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability. (Error rates were also predicted by frequency, consistency, length and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability.) The analysis of the participant means (and trials) showed that (1) there was both within- and between-session reliability across the sets of items, (2) there was no trade-off between the utilization of lexical and non-lexical information, and (3) participants with high vocabulary knowledge were more accurate (and somewhat faster), and had a differential sensitivity to certain stimulus characteristics, than those with low vocabulary knowledge. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of orthographic word production.

  6. Individual differences in white matter microstructure predict semantic control.

    PubMed

    Nugiel, Tehila; Alm, Kylie H; Olson, Ingrid R

    2016-12-01

    In everyday conversation, we make many rapid choices between competing concepts and words in order to convey our intent. This process is termed semantic control, and it is thought to rely on information transmission between a distributed semantic store in the temporal lobes and a more discrete region, optimized for retrieval and selection, in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging in a group of neurologically normal young adults to investigate the relationship between semantic control and white matter tracts that have been implicated in semantic memory retrieval. Participants completed a verb generation task that taps semantic control (Snyder & Munakata, 2008; Snyder et al., 2010) and underwent a diffusion imaging scan. Deterministic tractography was performed to compute indices representing the microstructural properties of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the uncinate fasciculus (UF), and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Microstructural measures of the UF failed to predict semantic control performance. However, there was a significant relationship between microstructure of the left IFOF and ILF and individual differences in semantic control. Our findings support the view put forth by Duffau (2013) that the IFOF is a key structural pathway in semantic retrieval.

  7. Individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning: a multidimensional view.

    PubMed

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, George

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning was investigated in a sample of young adults. Verbal and spatial working memory, resistance to interference, negative priming, and task-switching measures were used to assess three executive functioning dimensions: updating, inhibition, and shifting. An additional index of basic psychomotor speed was added to this cognitive battery. According to the multidimensional interaction model of anxiety proposed by Endler (1997), state (cognitive-worry and autonomic-emotional) and trait (related to social evaluation, physical danger, ambiguous situations, and daily routines) anxiety were assessed in this evaluation context. Results indicated that shifting and inhibition (negative priming) efficiency were negatively related to state (cognitive-worry) and trait (related to social evaluation) anxiety. However, there was a relative advantage of subjects higher in social evaluation apprehensions in their memory updating performance. The results are consistent with several predictions of the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), and are relevant for research regarding the interaction of situational, personality, and cognitive functioning dimensions.

  8. Aging and individual differences in rapid two-choice decisions

    PubMed Central

    RATCLIFF, ROGER; THAPAR, ANJALI; McKOON, GAIL

    2008-01-01

    The effects of aging on performance were examined in signal detection, letter discrimination, brightness discrimination, and recognition memory, with each subject tested on all four tasks. Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model was fit to the data for each subject for each task, and it provided a good account of accuracy and the distributions of correct and error response times. the model's analysis of the components of processing showed that aging had three main effects: the nondecision components of processing were slower and the decision criteria were more conservative for 60- to 74-year-old and 75- to 85-year-old subjects than for college students, but the quality of the evidence on which decisions were based was as good for the older subjects as for college students on some of the tasks. individual differences among subjects in components of processing tended to be preserved across the tasks, as was shown by strong correlations across the tasks in the parameters of the model that represent the components of processing. for example, if the evidence on which a subject's decisions were based was good in one task, it tended to be good in all four tasks. PMID:17201362

  9. Individual differences in children's understanding of inversion and arithmetical skill.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Camilla K; Bryant, Peter

    2006-06-01

    Background and aims. In order to develop arithmetic expertise, children must understand arithmetic principles, such as the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction, in addition to learning calculation skills. We report two experiments that investigate children's understanding of the principle of inversion and the relationship between their conceptual understanding and arithmetical skills. A group of 127 children from primary schools took part in the study. The children were from 2 age groups (6-7 and 8-9 years). Children's accuracy on inverse and control problems in a variety of presentation formats and in canonical and non-canonical forms was measured. Tests of general arithmetic ability were also administered. Children consistently performed better on inverse than control problems, which indicates that they could make use of the inverse principle. Presentation format affected performance: picture presentation allowed children to apply their conceptual understanding flexibly regardless of the problem type, while word problems restricted their ability to use their conceptual knowledge. Cluster analyses revealed three subgroups with different profiles of conceptual understanding and arithmetical skill. Children in the 'high ability' and 'low ability' groups showed conceptual understanding that was in-line with their arithmetical skill, whilst a 3rd group of children had more advanced conceptual understanding than arithmetical skill. The three subgroups may represent different points along a single developmental path or distinct developmental paths. The discovery of the existence of the three groups has important consequences for education. It demonstrates the importance of considering the pattern of individual children's conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills.

  10. The Sunk Cost Fallacy and Individual Differences in Health Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Norma Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The Sunk Cost fallacy is a biased committed when individuals base their decisions to stop or continue a course of action solely on past irrecoverable invested costs (i.e., monetary or time-related). Individuals' susceptibility to the Sunk Cost fallacy has been justified as the need to try to avoid appearing wasteful, to avoid appearing…

  11. Is the fluency of language outputs related to individual differences in intelligence and executive function?

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Paul E; Nigg, Joel T; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2013-10-01

    There has been little research on the fluency of language production and individual difference variables, such as intelligence and executive function. In this study, we report data from 106 participants who completed a battery of standardized cognitive tasks and a sentence production task. For the sentence production task, participants were presented with two objects and a verb and their task was to formulate a sentence. Four types of disfluency were examined: filled pauses (e.g. uh, um), unfilled pauses, repetitions, and repairs. Repetitions occur when the speaker suspends articulation and then repeats the previous word/phrase, and repairs occur when the speaker suspends articulation and then starts over with a different word/phrase. Hierarchical structural equation modeling revealed a significant relationship between repair disfluencies and inhibition. Conclusions focus on the role of individual differences in cognitive ability and their role in models and theories of language production.

  12. Is the fluency of language outputs related to individual differences in intelligence and executive function?

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Nigg, Joel T.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on the fluency of language production and individual differences variables, such as intelligence and executive function. In this study, we report data from 106 participants who completed a battery of standardized cognitive tasks and a sentence production task. For the sentence production task, participants were presented with two objects and a verb and their task was to formulate a sentence. Four types of disfluency were examined: filled pauses (e.g. uh, um), unfilled pauses, repetitions, and repairs. Repetitions occur when the speaker suspends articulation and then repeats the previous word/phrase, and repairs occur when the speaker suspends articulation and then starts over with a different word/phrase. Hierarchical structural equation modeling revealed a significant relationship between repair disfluencies and inhibition. Conclusions focus on the role of individual differences in cognitive ability and their role in models and theories of language production. PMID:24018099

  13. Are Individual Differences in Fatigue Vulnerability Related to Baseline Differences in Cortical Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    fMRI) was used to examine the activation of military pilots whose sleep -deprivation vulnerability previously was quantified. A Sternberg Working Memory...that underlying patterns of cortical activation may partially account for individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of sleep deprivation...Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI) was used to examine the activation of military pilots whose sleep -deprivation vulnerability

  14. Formaldehyde emission—Comparison of different standard methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risholm-Sundman, Maria; Larsen, Annelise; Vestin, Ewa; Weibull, Anders

    The emission of formaldehyde is an important factor in the evaluation of the environmental and health effects of wood-based board materials. This article gives a comparison between commonly used European test methods: chamber method [EN 717-1, 2004. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 1: formaldehyde emission by the chamber method. European Standard, October 2004], gas analysis method [EN 717-2, 1994. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 2: formaldehyde release by the gas analysis method, European Standard, November 1994], flask method [EN 717-3, 1996. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 3: formaldehyde release by the flask method, European Standard, March 1996], perforator method [EN 120, 1993. Wood based panels—determination of formaldehyde content—extraction method called perforator method, European Standard, September 1993], Japanese test methods: desiccator methods [JIS A 1460, 2001. Building boards. Determination of formaldehyde emission—desiccator method, Japanese Industrial Standard, March 2001 and JAS MAFF 233, 2001] and small chamber method [JIS A 1901, 2003. Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes for building products—small chamber method, Japanese Industrial Standard, January 2003], for solid wood, particleboard, plywood and medium density fiberboard. The variations between the results from different methods can partly be explained by differences in test conditions. Factors like edge sealing, conditioning of the sample before the test and test temperature have a large effect on the final emission result. The Japanese limit for F **** of 0.3 mg l -1 (in desiccator) for particleboards was found to be equivalent to 0.04 mg m -3 in the European chamber test and 2.8 mg per 100 g in the perforator test. The variations in inter-laboratory tests are much larger than in intra-laboratory tests; the coefficient of variation is 16% and 6

  15. Premarital sexual standards and sociosexuality: gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Susan; Treger, Stanislav; Sakaluk, John K

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present results from a "cohort-longitudinal" analysis of sexual attitudes and behaviors based on a large sample of young adults (N = 7,777) obtained from a university setting over a 23-year period. We investigated gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences in sexual permissiveness, endorsement of the double standard, and sociosexuality. Compared to women, men had more permissive attitudes, particularly about sex in casual relationships, endorsed the double standard to a greater degree, and had a more unrestricted sociosexuality. Black men were generally more permissive than White, Hispanic, and Asian men, whereas ethnic differences were not found among women. Participants from the 1995-1999 cohort were slightly less permissive than those from the 1990-1994 and 2005-2012 cohorts. Although prior meta-analytic studies (e.g., Petersen & Hyde, 2010) found reduced gender differences in sexuality over time, our cohort analyses suggest that gender differences in sexual permissiveness have not changed over the past two decades among college students.

  16. Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement.

    PubMed

    Halberda, Justin; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-10-02

    Human mathematical competence emerges from two representational systems. Competence in some domains of mathematics, such as calculus, relies on symbolic representations that are unique to humans who have undergone explicit teaching. More basic numerical intuitions are supported by an evolutionarily ancient approximate number system that is shared by adults, infants and non-human animals-these groups can all represent the approximate number of items in visual or auditory arrays without verbally counting, and use this capacity to guide everyday behaviour such as foraging. Despite the widespread nature of the approximate number system both across species and across development, it is not known whether some individuals have a more precise non-verbal 'number sense' than others. Furthermore, the extent to which this system interfaces with the formal, symbolic maths abilities that humans acquire by explicit instruction remains unknown. Here we show that there are large individual differences in the non-verbal approximation abilities of 14-year-old children, and that these individual differences in the present correlate with children's past scores on standardized maths achievement tests, extending all the way back to kindergarten. Moreover, this correlation remains significant when controlling for individual differences in other cognitive and performance factors. Our results show that individual differences in achievement in school mathematics are related to individual differences in the acuity of an evolutionarily ancient, unlearned approximate number sense. Further research will determine whether early differences in number sense acuity affect later maths learning, whether maths education enhances number sense acuity, and the extent to which tertiary factors can affect both.

  17. Individual differences in alpha frequency drive crossmodal illusory perception.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Roberto; Rees, Geraint; Romei, Vincenzo

    2015-01-19

    Perception routinely integrates inputs from different senses. Stimulus temporal proximity critically determines whether or not these inputs are bound together. Despite the temporal window of integration being a widely accepted notion, its neurophysiological substrate remains unclear. Many types of common audio-visual interactions occur within a time window of ∼100 ms. For example, in the sound-induced double-flash illusion, when two beeps are presented within ∼100 ms together with one flash, a second illusory flash is often perceived. Due to their intrinsic rhythmic nature, brain oscillations are one candidate mechanism for gating the temporal window of integration. Interestingly, occipital alpha band oscillations cycle on average every ∼100 ms, with peak frequencies ranging between 8 and 14 Hz (i.e., 120-60 ms cycle). Moreover, presenting a brief tone can phase-reset such oscillations in visual cortex. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the duration of each alpha cycle might provide the temporal unit to bind audio-visual events. Here, we first recorded EEG while participants performed the sound-induced double-flash illusion task and found positive correlation between individual alpha frequency (IAF) peak and the size of the temporal window of the illusion. Participants then performed the same task while receiving occipital transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), to modulate oscillatory activity either at their IAF or at off-peak alpha frequencies (IAF±2 Hz). Compared to IAF tACS, IAF-2 Hz and IAF+2 Hz tACS, respectively, enlarged and shrunk the temporal window of illusion, suggesting that alpha oscillations might represent the temporal unit of visual processing that cyclically gates perception and the neurophysiological substrate promoting audio-visual interactions.

  18. Eye blink rate predicts individual differences in pseudoneglect

    PubMed Central

    Slagter, Heleen A.; Davidson, Richard J.; Tomer, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Most healthy individuals display a subtle spatial attentional bias, exhibiting relative inattention for stimuli on one side of the visual field, a phenomenon known as pseudoneglect. Prior work in animals and patients has implicated dopamine in spatial attention asymmetries. The current study therefore examined - in healthy individuals - the relationship between the attentional bias and spontaneous eye-blink rate (EBR), a putative measure of central dopaminergic function. We found that those individuals, who blinked more often under resting conditions, displayed greater preference for the right side of the visual display in a subsequent attention task. This finding may support the idea that the observed attentional bias in healthy individuals reflects asymmetries in dopaminergic circuits, and corroborates previous findings implicating dopamine in spatial attention. PMID:20036680

  19. Individual differences in novelty-seeking and behavioral responses to nicotine: a review of animal studies.

    PubMed

    Redolat, Rosa; Pérez-Martínez, Asunción; Carrasco, M Carmen; Mesa, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Individual differences in the behavioral responses to a novel environment have been proposed as a research tool to predict responsiveness to other behavioral tasks, response to certain events and individual vulnerability to nicotine addiction. In rats and mice, novelty seeking (defined as enhanced specific exploration of novel situations) is a complex behavior confirmed by a large body of neurochemical, endocrinological and behavioral data. We review the main standardized procedures employed to measure the novelty seeking trait in rodents and the ontogeny of this behavior throughout the life-span taking into account that novelty seeking can be permanently modified as a consequence of particular early experiences, maternal care, and environmental enrichment. Studies in animal models suggest that individual differences in the sensitivity to nicotine depend on different variables such as basal locomotor activity of the experimental subjects, their response to novel environments (open-field, hole-board) and level of impulsivity. It is concluded that these basic findings contribute to a better understanding of smoking behavior and to the establishment of improved pharmacological treatments if individual differences are borne in mind.

  20. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124.203 Section 124.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Permit Applying for A Standardized Permit § 124.203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to...

  1. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124.203 Section 124.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Permit Applying for A Standardized Permit § 124.203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to...

  2. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124.203 Section 124.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Permit Applying for A Standardized Permit § 124.203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to...

  3. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124.203 Section 124.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Permit Applying for A Standardized Permit § 124.203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to...

  4. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124.203 Section 124.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Permit Applying for A Standardized Permit § 124.203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to...

  5. Individual recognition: it is good to be different.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Dale, James

    2007-10-01

    Individual recognition (IR) behavior has been widely studied, uncovering spectacular recognition abilities across a range of taxa and modalities. Most studies of IR focus on the recognizer (receiver). These studies typically explore whether a species is capable of IR, the cues that are used for recognition and the specializations that receivers use to facilitate recognition. However, relatively little research has explored the other half of the communication equation: the individual being recognized (signaler). Provided there is a benefit to being accurately identified, signalers are expected to actively broadcast their identity with distinctive cues. Considering the prevalence of IR, there are probably widespread benefits associated with distinctiveness. As a result, selection for traits that reveal individual identity might represent an important and underappreciated selective force contributing to the evolution and maintenance of genetic polymorphisms.

  6. Individual differences in cognitive style and strategy predict similarities in the patterns of brain activity between individuals.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael B; Donovan, Christa-Lynn; Bennett, Craig M; Aminoff, Elissa M; Mayer, Richard E

    2012-01-02

    Neuroimaging is being used increasingly to make inferences about an individual. Yet, those inferences are often confounded by the fact that topographical patterns of task-related brain activity can vary greatly from person to person. This study examined two factors that may contribute to the variability across individuals in a memory retrieval task: individual differences in cognitive style and individual differences in encoding strategy. Cognitive style was probed using a battery of assessments focused on the individual's tendency to visualize or verbalize written material. Encoding strategy was probed using a series of questions designed to assess typical strategies that an individual might utilize when trying to remember a list of words. Similarity in brain activity was assessed by cross-correlating individual t-statistic maps contrasting the BOLD response during retrieval to the BOLD response during fixation. Individual differences in cognitive style and encoding strategy accounted for a significant portion of the variance in similarity. This was true above and beyond individual differences in anatomy and memory performance. These results demonstrate the need for a multidimensional approach in the use of fMRI to make inferences about an individual.

  7. Individual Differences in Boredom Proneness and Task Effectiveness at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drory, Amos

    1982-01-01

    Studied relationships between boredom at work, personal characteristics, and performance in a sample of truck drivers. Results suggest that boredom was associated negatively with higher mental and physical individual capacity and negatively associated with effectiveness. The relationship between boredom and work effectiveness was significantly…

  8. The Impact of Adapting Content for Students with Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Raymond; Ari, Fatih; Inan, Fethi A.; Arslan-Ari, Ismahan

    2012-01-01

    Combining adaptive hypermedia methods with strategies proposed by instructional theory and motivation models, an adaptable tutorial was designed and developed. The aim of this study was to assess whether the goals of an adaptable tutorial, which individualized instruction based on student motivation and prior knowledge, were being met (i.e.…

  9. Developmental Theories for the 1990s: Development and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    1992-01-01

    Argues that an evolutionary perspective can unite the study of species-typical development and individual variation. Provides examples from the domains of personality, social, and intellectual development. Maintains that understanding the ways in which genes and environments work together helps developmentalists identify children who need…

  10. Individual Differences in Mathematical Ability: Genetic, Cognitive and Behavioural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying individuals with mathematical difficulties (MD) is becoming increasingly important in our education system. However, recognising MD is only the first stage in the provision of special educational needs (SEN). Although planning the effective remedial support is vital, there is little consensus on the interventions that are appropriate.…

  11. Generalization of Individual Differences in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anjum, Amber Nasreen; Al-Othmany, Dheya Shujaa; Hussain, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This commentary is based on the analyses of the participants' responses provided in written form while filling the questionnaires. The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze factors in individuals' experiences about second language acquisition. The study was conducted through a research questionnaire. The questions were designed for…

  12. Second Language Pragmatic Ability: Individual Differences According to Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyner, Lauren; Cohen, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review research literature on the role that the second language (L2) and foreign language (FL) environments actually play in the development of learners' target language (TL) pragmatic ability, and also to speculate as to the extent to which individual factors can offset the advantages that learners may have by being…

  13. Individual Differences in Learning from an Intelligent Discovery World: Smithtown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.

    "Smithtown" is an intelligent computer program designed to enhance an individual's scientific inquiry skills as well as to provide an environment for learning principles of basic microeconomics. It was hypothesized that intelligent computer instruction on applying effective interrogative skills (e.g., changing one variable at a time…

  14. Investigating Individual Differences in Toddler Search with Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthier, Neil E.; Boucher, Kelsea; Weisner, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Children's performance on cognitive tasks is often described in categorical terms in that a child is described as either passing or failing a test, or knowing or not knowing some concept. We used binomial mixture models to determine whether individual children could be classified as passing or failing two search tasks, the DeLoache model room…

  15. Individual Differences in Distraction by Pictures in a Reading Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.

    1978-01-01

    Good, normal, and poor third grade readers were required to read easy, moderate, and difficult one-syllable nouns under three conditions: control condition with no pictures, identifying-picture condition, and unrelated-picture condition. Reading performance of poor readers was influenced by pictures under all conditions. Individual differences…

  16. Mathematics: Individual Differences. R & D Interpretation Service Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Jean

    The need to consider the interaction of characteristics that affect students' learning is stressed. Levels of cognitive development as proposed by Piaget are presented first, with how they relate to teaching mathematics discussed. Then two cognitive styles, relating to the way an individual most efficiently processes information, are considered:…

  17. Investigating Individual Differences in Toddler Search with Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthier, Neil E.; Boucher, Kelsea; Weisner, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Children's performance on cognitive tasks is often described in categorical terms in that a child is described as either passing or failing a test, or knowing or not knowing some concept. We used binomial mixture models to determine whether individual children could be classified as passing or failing two search tasks, the DeLoache model room…

  18. Interactions between Individual Differences, Treatments, and Structures in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKeyser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    For decades educational psychologists have bemoaned the black box approach of much research on learning, that is, the focus on product rather than process, and the absence of fine-grained analysis of the learning process in the individual. One way that progress has been made on this point in the last couple of decades is through cognitive…

  19. Individual Differences: Interplay of Learner Characteristics and Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornyei, Zoltan

    2009-01-01

    The notion of language as a complex adaptive system has been conceived within an agent-based framework, which highlights the significance of individual-level variation in the characteristics and contextual circumstances of the learner/speaker. Yet, in spite of this emphasis, currently we know relatively little about the interplay among language,…

  20. Individual Differences in Military Training Environments: Four Areas of Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-30

    and Caylor, J.S. (1971). Effects of aptitude (AFQT). job experience, and literacy on job performance: Summary of HUMRRO work units utility and...Review of Psychology, 35, 519-55!. Williams, R.J. and Rimland, B. (1977). Individuality. In Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Neurology and Psychoanalysis . New

  1. A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; Bastiansen, Finn; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Ginot, Vincent; Giske, Jarl; Goss-Custard, John; Grand, Tamara; Heinz, Simone K.; Huse, Geir; Huth, Andreas; Jepsen, Jane U.; Jorgensen, Christian; Mooij, Wolf M.; Muller, Birgit; Pe'er, Guy; Piou, Cyril; Railsback, Steven F.; Robbins, Andrew M.; Robbins, Martha M.; Rossmanith, Eva; Ruger, Nadja; Strand, Espen; Souissi, Sami; Stillman, Richard A.; Vabo, Rune; Visser, Ute; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Simulation models that describe autonomous individual organisms (individual based models, IBM) or agents (agent-based models, ABM) have become a widely used tool, not only in ecology, but also in many other disciplines dealing with complex systems made up of autonomous entities. However, there is no standard protocol for describing such simulation models, which can make them difficult to understand and to duplicate. This paper presents a proposed standard protocol, ODD, for describing IBMs and ABMs, developed and tested by 28 modellers who cover a wide range of fields within ecology. This protocol consists of three blocks (Overview, Design concepts, and Details), which are subdivided into seven elements: Purpose, State variables and scales, Process overview and scheduling, Design concepts, Initialization, Input, and Submodels. We explain which aspects of a model should be described in each element, and we present an example to illustrate the protocol in use. In addition, 19 examples are available in an Online Appendix. We consider ODD as a first step for establishing a more detailed common format of the description of IBMs and ABMs. Once initiated, the protocol will hopefully evolve as it becomes used by a sufficiently large proportion of modellers.

  2. Inter-individual Differences in the Effects of Aircraft Noise on Sleep Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Sarah; Müller, Uwe; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Basner, Mathias

    2016-05-01

    Environmental noise exposure disturbs sleep and impairs recuperation, and may contribute to the increased risk for (cardiovascular) disease. Noise policy and regulation are usually based on average responses despite potentially large inter-individual differences in the effects of traffic noise on sleep. In this analysis, we investigated what percentage of the total variance in noise-induced awakening reactions can be explained by stable inter-individual differences. We investigated 69 healthy subjects polysomnographically (mean ± standard deviation 40 ± 13 years, range 18-68 years, 32 male) in this randomized, balanced, double-blind, repeated measures laboratory study. This study included one adaptation night, 9 nights with exposure to 40, 80, or 120 road, rail, and/or air traffic noise events (including one noise-free control night), and one recovery night. Mixed-effects models of variance controlling for reaction probability in noise-free control nights, age, sex, number of noise events, and study night showed that 40.5% of the total variance in awakening probability and 52.0% of the total variance in EEG arousal probability were explained by inter-individual differences. If the data set was restricted to nights (4 exposure nights with 80 noise events per night), 46.7% of the total variance in awakening probability and 57.9% of the total variance in EEG arousal probability were explained by inter-individual differences. The results thus demonstrate that, even in this relatively homogeneous, healthy, adult study population, a considerable amount of the variance observed in noise-induced sleep disturbance can be explained by inter-individual differences that cannot be explained by age, gender, or specific study design aspects. It will be important to identify those at higher risk for noise induced sleep disturbance. Furthermore, the custom to base noise policy and legislation on average responses should be re-assessed based on these findings. © 2016 Associated

  3. Individual Difference Variables as Predictors of Error during Multitasking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    investigated predictors of errors and rate of error-making within a structural model that included a complement of cognitive variables (e.g., working...memory, perceptual speed) and non- cognitive variables (e.g., state anxiety, personality). Results indicated that working memory and state anxiety...individuals to perceive and act upon the task environment accurately. Holding this multitasking environment constant, we propose that both cognitive

  4. Acculturation: When Individuals and Groups of Different Cultural Backgrounds Meet.

    PubMed

    Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2010-07-01

    In cross-cultural psychology, one of the major sources of the development and display of human behavior is the contact between cultural populations. Such intercultural contact results in both cultural and psychological changes. At the cultural level, collective activities and social institutions become altered, and at the psychological level, there are changes in an individual's daily behavioral repertoire and sometimes in experienced stress. The two most common research findings at the individual level are that there are large variations in how people acculturate and in how well they adapt to this process. Variations in ways of acculturating have become known by the terms integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization. Two variations in adaptation have been identified, involving psychological well-being and sociocultural competence. One important finding is that there are relationships between how individuals acculturate and how well they adapt: Often those who integrate (defined as being engaged in both their heritage culture and in the larger society) are better adapted than those who acculturate by orienting themselves to one or the other culture (by way of assimilation or separation) or to neither culture (marginalization). Implications of these findings for policy and program development and for future research are presented. © The Author(s) 2010.

  5. Using monolingual neuropsychological test norms with bilingual Hispanic americans: application of an individual comparison standard.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Gonzalez, Cassandra Dayanira

    2012-05-01

    Conventional neuropsychological norms developed for monolinguals likely overestimate normal performance in bilinguals on language but not visual-perceptual format tests. This was studied by comparing neuropsychological false-positive rates using the 50th percentile of conventional norms and individual comparison standards (Picture Vocabulary or Matrix Reasoning scores) as estimates of preexisting neuropsychological skill level against the number expected from the normal distribution for a consecutive sample of 56 neurologically intact, bilingual, Hispanic Americans. Participants were tested in separate sessions in Spanish and English in the counterbalanced order on La Bateria Neuropsicologica and the original English language tests on which this battery was based. For language format measures, repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that individual estimates of preexisting skill level in English generated the mean number of false positives most approximate to that expected from the normal distribution, whereas the 50th percentile of conventional English language norms did the same for visual-perceptual format measures. When using conventional Spanish or English monolingual norms for language format neuropsychological measures with bilingual Hispanic Americans, individual estimates of preexisting skill level are recommended over the 50th percentile.

  6. Individual differences in episodic memory: the role of self-initiated encoding strategies.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Brenda A

    2009-04-01

    Individuals' abilities to form and retrieve episodic memories vary widely. Consistent with this, there are substantial individual differences in brain activity during encoding and retrieval that are associated with individual differences in memory performance. Growing evidence suggests that individual differences in self-initiated encoding strategy use play an important role in individual differences in episodic memory and brain activity during intentional encoding. This review examines the role of individual differences in self-initiated encoding strategy use in individual differences in episodic memory, and outlines the major findings of brain lesion and functional neuroimaging studies that characterize the neural correlates of individual differences in self-initiated encoding strategy use. The relevance of individual differences in self-initiated encoding strategy use to understanding episodic memory impairments and alterations in brain activity in clinical populations such as individuals with schizophrenia is also discussed.

  7. Integration of lucid individuals and agitated individuals with dementia in different care units.

    PubMed

    Ragneskog, H; Gerdner, L A; Hellström, L

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to illuminate how the integration of lucid individuals and agitated cognitively impaired individuals affects aspects of perceived quality of care. A questionnaire was mailed to hospital wards, nursing home wards and residential homes in Sweden. Nursing staff replied to the questionnaire on behalf of each care unit. Integration of cognitively impaired and lucid patients/residents was identified as a problem, regardless of whether the care unit was a hospital ward, nursing home or residential home. Agitated behaviours in people who were cognitively impaired could result in lucid residents becoming anxious, afraid and irritated. This in turn could lead to an exacerbation of behaviour in residents who were already agitated. Sometimes a lucid patient/resident was required to share a room with an agitated individual. There is a need for staff training specific to the needs of people with dementia. Findings suggest that there is a shortage of units designed specifically for the care of agitated cognitively impaired patients/residents. The findings of this study support the need for healthcare providers in long-term care settings to maintain the rights and well being of all patients/residents.

  8. Plaques from different individuals yield different microbiota responses to oral-antiseptic treatment.

    PubMed

    Filoche, Sara K; Soma, Dennes; van Bekkum, Margo; Sissons, Chris H

    2008-10-01

    Dental caries is a polymicrobial disease and complicated to treat. Understanding the microbiota responses to treatment from different individuals is a key factor in developing effective treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the 24-h posttreatment effect of two oral antiseptics (chlorhexidine and Listerine) on species composition of microplate plaque biofilms that had been initiated from the saliva of five different donors and grown in both 0.15% and 0.5% sucrose. Plaque composition was analyzed using checkerboard DNA : DNA hybridization analysis, which comprised of a panel of 40 species associated with oral health and disease. The supernatant pH of the plaques grown in 0.15% sucrose ranged from 4.3 to 6 and in 0.5% sucrose, it ranged from 3.8 to 4. Plaque biomass was largely unaffected by either antiseptic. Each donor had a different salivary microbial profile, differentiating according to the prevalence of either caries or periodontal/anaerobic pathogens. Despite similar plaque microbiota compositions being elicited through the sucrose growth conditions, microbiota responses to chlorhexidine and Listerine differentiated according to the donor. These findings indicate that efficacious caries treatments would depend on the responses of an individual's microbiota, which may differ from person to person.

  9. Learning biases underlying individual differences in sensitivity to social rejection

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Andreas; Carmona, Susanna; Downey, Geraldine; Bolger, Niall; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    People vary greatly in their dispositions to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and strongly react to social rejection (rejection sensitivity, RS) with implications for social functioning and health. Here, we examined how RS influences learning about social threat. Using a classical fear conditioning task, we established that high as compared to low (HRS vs. LRS) individuals displayed a resistance to extinction of the conditioned response to angry faces, but not to neutral faces or non-social stimuli. Our findings suggest that RS biases the flexible updating of acquired expectations for threat, which helps to explain how RS operates as a self-fulfilling prophecy. PMID:23914767

  10. Individual differences in reading social intentions from motor deviants

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, Daniel; Quesque, Francois; Coello, Yann; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne N.

    2015-01-01

    As social animals, it is crucial to understand others’ intention. But is it possible to detect social intention in two actions that have the exact same motor goal? In the present study, we presented participants with video clips of an individual reaching for and grasping an object to either use it (personal trial) or to give his partner the opportunity to use it (social trial). In Experiment 1, the ability of naïve participants to classify correctly social trials through simple observation of short video clips was tested. In addition, detection levels were analyzed as a function of individual scores in psychological questionnaires of motor imagery, visual imagery, and social cognition. Results revealed that the between-participant heterogeneity in the ability to distinguish social from personal actions was predicted by the social skill abilities. A second experiment was then conducted to assess what predictive mechanism could contribute to the detection of social intention. Video clips were sliced and normalized to control for either the reaction times (RTs) or/and the movement times (MTs) of the grasping action. Tested in a second group of participants, results showed that the detection of social intention relies on the variation of both RT and MT that are implicitly perceived in the grasping action. The ability to use implicitly these motor deviants for action-outcome understanding would be the key to intuitive social interaction. PMID:26347673

  11. Individualism and collectivism: what differences between Portuguese and Romanian adolescents?

    PubMed

    Ciochină, Laura; Faria, Luísa

    2009-11-01

    This article presents the results of a series of preliminary comparisons, between the Portuguese and Romanian cultural contexts, on the individualism-collectivism (IND/COL) cultural dimension. The IND/COL was evaluated with the Individualism-Collectivism Questionnaire - ICQ -, constructed in New Zealand by Shulruf, Hattie and Dixon (2003, Anonymous Questionnaire of Self-Attitudes - AQSA), and adapted to the Portuguese and Romanian contexts by Ciochină and Faria (2007), using studies of confirmatory factor analysis. The ICQ composed by 26 items, 15 evaluating the IND scale--with three subscales (Uniqueness, Competition and Responsibility)--, and 11 evaluating the COL scale--with two subscales (Harmony and Advice)--, was administered to 395 subjects, 200 Portuguese and 195 Romanian, 10th and 12th graders. On the whole, in the Portuguese and Romanian samples, the multivariate and univariate statistical analyses evidenced the existence of two independent variables--gender and cultural context--, with significant effects, main and of interaction, on the scales and subscales of the ICQ. The results were discussed taking into consideration the specificities of the educational systems in the two cultural contexts, which are inevitably shaped by socio-cultural factors characteristic of the two countries considered in the present study--Portugal and Romania.

  12. Explaining Differences in Mental Health between Married and Cohabiting Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcussen, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    Research on the relationship between cohabitation and mental health tends to ignore social psychological factors that help explain mental health differences between the married and the unmarried, including coping resources and perceived relationship quality. In this paper I draw on social psychological theory and research to clarify differences in…

  13. Differences in individual susceptibility affect the development of trigeminal neuralgia☆

    PubMed Central

    Duransoy, Yusuf Kurtuluş; Mete, Mesut; Akçay, Emrah; Selçuki, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a syndrome due to dysfunctional hyperactivity of the trigeminal nerve, and is characterized by a sudden, usually unilateral, recurrent lancinating pain arising from one or more divisions of the nerve. The most accepted pathogenetic mechanism for trigeminal neuralgia is compression of the nerve at its dorsal root entry zone or in its distal course. In this paper, we report four cases with trigeminal neuralgia due to an unknown mechanism after an intracranial intervention. The onset of trigeminal neuralgia after surgical interventions that are unrelated to the trigeminal nerve suggests that in patients with greater individual susceptibility, nerve contact with the vascular structure due to postoperative pressure and changes in cerebrospinal fluid flow may cause the onset of pain. PMID:25206428

  14. Individual differences in detecting rapidly presented fearful faces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dandan; Wang, Lili; Luo, Yi; Luo, Yuejia

    2012-01-01

    Rapid detection of evolutionarily relevant threats (e.g., fearful faces) is important for human survival. The ability to rapidly detect fearful faces exhibits high variability across individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between behavioral detection ability and brain activity, using both event-related potential (ERP) and event-related oscillation (ERO) measurements. Faces with fearful or neutral facial expressions were presented for 17 ms or 200 ms in a backward masking paradigm. Forty-two participants were required to discriminate facial expressions of the masked faces. The behavioral sensitivity index d' showed that the detection ability to rapidly presented and masked fearful faces varied across participants. The ANOVA analyses showed that the facial expression, hemisphere, and presentation duration affected the grand-mean ERP (N1, P1, and N170) and ERO (below 20 Hz and lasted from 100 ms to 250 ms post-stimulus, mainly in theta band) brain activity. More importantly, the overall detection ability of 42 subjects was significantly correlated with the emotion effect (i.e., fearful vs. neutral) on ERP (r = 0.403) and ERO (r = 0.552) measurements. A higher d' value was corresponding to a larger size of the emotional effect (i.e., fearful--neutral) of N170 amplitude and a larger size of the emotional effect of the specific ERO spectral power at the right hemisphere. The present results suggested a close link between behavioral detection ability and the N170 amplitude as well as the ERO spectral power below 20 Hz in individuals. The emotional effect size between fearful and neutral faces in brain activity may reflect the level of conscious awareness of fearful faces.

  15. Resting-state functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis: an examination of group differences and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Alisha L; Boster, Aaron; Patterson, Beth A; Abduljalil, Amir; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, resulting in physical and cognitive disturbances. The goal of the current study was to examine the association between network integrity and composite measures of cognition and disease severity in individuals with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), relative to healthy controls. All participants underwent a neuropsychological and neuroimaging session, where resting-state data was collected. Independent component analysis and dual regression were employed to examine network integrity in individuals with MS, relative to healthy controls. The MS sample exhibited less connectivity in the motor and visual networks, relative to healthy controls, after controlling for group differences in gray matter volume. However, no alterations were observed in the frontoparietal, executive control, or default-mode networks, despite previous evidence of altered neuronal patterns during tasks of exogenous processing. Whole-brain, voxel-wise regression analyses with disease severity and processing speed composites were also performed to elucidate the brain-behavior relationship with neuronal network integrity. Individuals with higher levels of disease severity demonstrated reduced intra-network connectivity of the motor network, and the executive control network, while higher disease burden was associated with greater inter-network connectivity between the medial visual network and areas involved in visuomotor learning. Our findings underscore the importance of examining resting-state oscillations in this population, both as a biomarker of disease progression and a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Individual differences in reading skill and language lateralisation: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiarello, Christine; Welcome, Suzanne E; Leonard, Christiana M

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in reading and cerebral lateralisation were investigated in 200 college students who completed reading assessments and divided visual field word recognition tasks, and received a structural MRI scan. Prior studies on this data set indicated that little variance in brain-behaviour correlations could be attributed to the effects of sex and handedness variables (Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, & Leonard, 2009; Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, Towler, et al., 2009; Welcome et al., 2009). Here a more bottom-up approach to behavioural classification (cluster analysis) was used to explore individual differences that need not depend on a priori decisions about relevant subgroups. The cluster solution identified four subgroups of college age readers with differing reading skill and visual field lateralisation profiles. These findings generalised to measures that were not included in the cluster analysis. Poorer reading skill was associated with somewhat reduced VF asymmetry, while average readers demonstrated exaggerated RVF/left hemisphere advantages. Skilled readers had either reduced asymmetries, or asymmetries that varied by task. The clusters did not differ by sex or handedness, suggesting that there are identifiable sources of variance among individuals that are not captured by these standard participant variables. All clusters had typical leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. However, the size of areas in the posterior corpus callosum distinguished the two subgroups with high reading skill. A total of 17 participants, identified as multivariate outliers, had unusual behavioural profiles and differed from the remainder of the sample in not having significant leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. A less buffered type of neurodevelopment that is more open to the effects of random genetic and environmental influences may characterise such individuals.

  17. After 16 Years of Publishing Standards, Do CAS Standards Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arminio, Jan; Gochenauer, Patty

    2004-01-01

    Using members of professional associations who are a part of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) consortia as a sample, this study investigated who uses CAS Standards, how and why they are used, and whether CAS Standards are associated with enhanced student learning. Using a quantitative analysis, this study…

  18. Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Poom, Leo

    2017-02-01

    Math anxiety (MA) involves negative affect and tension when solving mathematical problems, with potentially life-long consequences. MA has been hypothesized to be a consequence of negative learning experiences and cognitive predispositions. Recent research indicates genetic and neurophysiological links, suggesting that MA stems from a basic level deficiency in symbolic numerical processing. However, the contribution of evolutionary ancient purely nonverbal processes is not fully understood. Here we show that the roots of MA may go beyond symbolic numbers. We demonstrate that MA is correlated with precision of the Approximate Number System (ANS). Individuals high in MA have poorer ANS functioning than those low in MA. This correlation remains significant when controlling for other forms of anxiety and for cognitive variables. We show that MA mediates the documented correlation between ANS precision and math performance, both with ANS and with math performance as independent variable in the mediation model. In light of our results, we discuss the possibility that MA has deep roots, stemming from a non-verbal number processing deficiency. The findings provide new evidence advancing the theoretical understanding of the developmental etiology of MA.

  19. Dissociative tendencies and individual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology. Twenty-one low suggestible (LS), 19 low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and 11 high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants were administered hypnotic suggestibility scales and completed measures of free recall, working memory capacity, imagery, fantasy-proneness, psychopathology, and exposure to stressful life events. HDHS participants were more responsive to positive and negative hallucination suggestions and experienced greater involuntariness during hypnotic responding. They also exhibited impaired working memory capacity, elevated pathological fantasy and dissociative symptomatology, and a greater incidence of exposure to stressful life events. In contrast, LDHS participants displayed superior object visual imagery. These results provide further evidence for two highly suggestible subtypes: a dissociative subtype characterised by deficits in executive functioning and a predisposition to psychopathology, and a subtype that exhibits superior imagery and no observable deficits in functioning.

  20. Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem

    PubMed Central

    Heatherton, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing. PMID:24795440

  1. Individual Differences in Fornix Microstructure and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Baddeley, Roland J.; Jones, Derek K.; Aggleton, John P.; O’Sullivan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and associated health conditions is increasing in the developed world. Obesity is related to atrophy and dysfunction of the hippocampus and hippocampal lesions may lead to increased appetite and weight gain. The hippocampus is connected via the fornix tract to the hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and the nucleus accumbens, all key structures for homeostatic and reward related control of food intake. The present study employed diffusion MRI tractography to investigate the relationship between microstructural properties of the fornix and variation in Body Mass Index (BMI), within normal and overweight ranges, in a group of community-dwelling older adults (53–93 years old). Larger BMI was associated with larger axial and mean diffusivity in the fornix (r = 0.64 and r = 0.55 respectively), relationships that were most pronounced in overweight individuals. Moreover, controlling for age, education, cognitive performance, blood pressure and global brain volume increased these correlations. Similar associations were not found in the parahippocampal cingulum, a comparison temporal association pathway. Thus, microstructural changes in fornix white matter were observed in older adults with increasing BMI levels from within normal to overweight ranges, so are not exclusively related to obesity. We propose that hippocampal-hypothalamic-prefrontal interactions, mediated by the fornix, contribute to the healthy functioning of networks involved in food intake control. The fornix, in turn, may display alterations in microstructure that reflect weight gain. PMID:23555805

  2. Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F

    2015-03-01

    A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing.

  3. No volumetric differences in the anterior cingulate of psychopathic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Andrea L.; Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Colletti, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of psychopathy have demonstrated reduced activity in the anterior cingulate, yet it is unclear whether this region is structurally impaired. In this study, we used structural MRI to examine whether volumetric differences exist in the anterior cingulate between psychopathic (n=24) and control (n=24) male participants. We found no group differences in the volume of the anterior cingulate or its dorsal and ventral subregions. Our findings call into question whether the anterior cingulate is impaired in psychopathy, or whether previous findings of reduced activity may result from reduced input from other deficient regions. PMID:20630717

  4. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Reiriz, María José; Irisarri, Jade; Labarta, Uxio

    2016-01-01

    Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain) were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F) and slow (S) growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate) and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher) resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5±4.9 J h(-1)) than S individuals (7.3±1.1 J h(-1)). The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization) than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals.

  5. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Reiriz, María José; Irisarri, Jade; Labarta, Uxio

    2016-01-01

    Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain) were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F) and slow (S) growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate) and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher) resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5±4.9 J h−1) than S individuals (7.3±1.1 J h−1). The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization) than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals. PMID:26849372

  6. Individual (co)variation in standard metabolic rate, feeding rate, and exploratory behavior in wild-caught semiaquatic salamanders.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Matthew E; Clay, Timothy A; Careau, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Repeatability is an important concept in evolutionary analyses because it provides information regarding the benefit of repeated measurements and, in most cases, a putative upper limit to heritability estimates. Repeatability (R) of different aspects of energy metabolism and behavior has been demonstrated in a variety of organisms over short and long time intervals. Recent research suggests that consistent individual differences in behavior and energy metabolism might covary. Here we present new data on the repeatability of body mass, standard metabolic rate (SMR), voluntary exploratory behavior, and feeding rate in a semiaquatic salamander and ask whether individual variation in behavioral traits is correlated with individual variation in metabolism on a whole-animal basis and after conditioning on body mass. All measured traits were repeatable, but the repeatability estimates ranged from very high for body mass (R = 0.98), to intermediate for SMR (R = 0.39) and food intake (R = 0.58), to low for exploratory behavior (R = 0.25). Moreover, repeatability estimates for all traits except body mass declined over time (i.e., from 3 to 9 wk), although this pattern could be a consequence of the relatively low sample size used in this study. Despite significant repeatability in all traits, we find little evidence that behaviors are correlated with SMR at the phenotypic and among-individual levels when conditioned on body mass. Specifically, the phenotypic correlations between SMR and exploratory behavior were negative in all trials but significantly so in one trial only. Salamanders in this study showed individual variation in how their exploratory behavior changed across trials (but not body mass, SMR, and feed intake), which might have contributed to observed changing correlations across trials.

  7. Sex Differences in Realization of Individual Potential for Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Josefina Jayme; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Women had higher high school grades and academic ability test scores in Grade 9. By 11 years after high school, men had more education and were earning more money. Sex differences in realization of achievement potential were found across all socioeconomic levels, and found to be partially due to role conflict. (Author/JAC)

  8. Sexual orientation related differences in cortical thickness in male individuals.

    PubMed

    Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.

  9. Individual Differences in Reactions to Irregular Work Hours

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    over a temporary 10-week for small children find no differences period of weekly alternation between night (Estryn-Behar et. al., 1978, Beermann, 1995...Eds). Ergonomics, Health andditracsndlepiodrsnshfDre ds). P ergonomies , Healthe aindti. workers. In: P.A. Buser, W.A. Cobb, T. Safety. Perspectives

  10. Individual Differences in False Recall: A Latent Variable Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between intrusions in several different recall tasks was examined in the current study. Intrusions from these tasks were moderately correlated and formed a unitary intrusion factor. This factor was related to other cognitive ability measures including working memory capacity, judgments of recency, and general source-monitoring…

  11. Sexual Orientation Related Differences in Cortical Thickness in Male Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation. PMID:25479554

  12. Assessing Learning from Hypertext: An Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Martin

    2003-01-01

    From an instructional perspective, it is conceivable that employing an appropriate hypertext architecture should have the advantage of facilitating learning by representing logically the interrelationships between the different pieces of information contained within the hypertext. Furthermore, there would however appear to be a sound theoretical…

  13. Individual Difference Predictors of Creativity in Art and Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Batey, Mark; Booth, Tom W.; Patel, Vikita; Lozinskaya, Dariya

    2011-01-01

    Two studies are reported that used multiple measures of creativity to investigate creativity differences and correlates in arts and science students. The first study examined Divergent Thinking fluency, Self-Rated Creativity and Creative Achievement in matched groups of Art and Science students. Arts students scored higher than Science students on…

  14. Individual and Sex Differences in the Zone of Acceptable Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, S. Alvin; Harmon, Lenore W.

    1990-01-01

    Examined zone of acceptable alternatives construct from Gottfredson's theory of career aspiration. College students' (N=246) responses to Occupations List were coded with measurements of sex type and prestige, and indicators of zone of acceptable alternatives for subjects' were computed. Found changes over time and differences related to gender…

  15. Individual Differences in Substance Preference and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marc; Kumar, V. K.; Angelini, Frank; Pekala, Ronald J.; Porter, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Using H. J. Eysenck's (1957,1967) theory of temperament, this study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, and personality among incarcerated inmates. Analysis indicated a general preference for marijuana and alcohol over 8 other commonly used drugs across different personality types. Theoretical and clinical implications are…

  16. Individual Differences in Substance Preference and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marc; Kumar, V. K.; Angelini, Frank; Pekala, Ronald J.; Porter, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Using H. J. Eysenck's (1957,1967) theory of temperament, this study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, and personality among incarcerated inmates. Analysis indicated a general preference for marijuana and alcohol over 8 other commonly used drugs across different personality types. Theoretical and clinical implications are…

  17. Shallow Semantic Processing of Text: An Individual-Differences Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Brenda; Daneman, Meredyth

    2004-01-01

    We used Barton and Sanford's (1993) anomaly detection task to investigate text processing differences between skilled and less-skilled readers. The results of 2 experiments showed that many readers had the tendency to process text in a shallow or incomplete manner, frequently failing to detect anomalous nouns or noun phrases (NPs) in text such as…

  18. Individual differences reveal correlates of hidden hearing deficits.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Hari M; Masud, Salwa; Mehraei, Golbarg; Verhulst, Sarah; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2015-02-04

    Clinical audiometry has long focused on determining the detection thresholds for pure tones, which depend on intact cochlear mechanics and hair cell function. Yet many listeners with normal hearing thresholds complain of communication difficulties, and the causes for such problems are not well understood. Here, we explore whether normal-hearing listeners exhibit such suprathreshold deficits, affecting the fidelity with which subcortical areas encode the temporal structure of clearly audible sound. Using an array of measures, we evaluated a cohort of young adults with thresholds in the normal range to assess both cochlear mechanical function and temporal coding of suprathreshold sounds. Listeners differed widely in both electrophysiological and behavioral measures of temporal coding fidelity. These measures correlated significantly with each other. Conversely, these differences were unrelated to the modest variation in otoacoustic emissions, cochlear tuning, or the residual differences in hearing threshold present in our cohort. Electroencephalography revealed that listeners with poor subcortical encoding had poor cortical sensitivity to changes in interaural time differences, which are critical for localizing sound sources and analyzing complex scenes. These listeners also performed poorly when asked to direct selective attention to one of two competing speech streams, a task that mimics the challenges of many everyday listening environments. Together with previous animal and computational models, our results suggest that hidden hearing deficits, likely originating at the level of the cochlear nerve, are part of "normal hearing." Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352161-12$15.00/0.

  19. Cooperative bird differentiates between the calls of different individuals, even when vocalizations were from completely unfamiliar individuals

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative behaviour typically require differentiation between either groups of conspecifics (e.g. kin/non-kin) or, more typically, individuals (e.g. reciprocal altruism). Despite this, the mechanisms that facilitate individual or class recognition have rarely been explored in cooperative species. This study examines the individual differentiation abilities of noisy miners (Manorina melanocephala), a species with one of the most complex avian societies known. Miners permanently occupy colonies numbering into hundreds of individuals. Within these colonies, cooperative coalitions form on a fission–fusion basis across numerous contexts, from social foraging through to mobbing predators. Birds often use individually distinctive ‘chur’ calls to recruit others to a caller's location, facilitating coalition formation. I used the habituation–discrimination paradigm to test the ability of miners to differentiate between the chur calls of two individuals that were both either: (i) familiar, or (ii) unfamiliar to the focal subject. This technique had not, to my knowledge, been used to assess vocalization differentiation in cooperative birds previously, but here demonstrated that miners could correctly use the spectral features of signals to differentiate between the vocalizations of different individuals, regardless of their familiarity. By attending to individual differences in recruitment calls, miners have a communication system that is capable of accommodating even the most complex cooperative hypotheses based upon acoustic information. PMID:22258445

  20. Cooperative bird differentiates between the calls of different individuals, even when vocalizations were from completely unfamiliar individuals.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Paul G

    2012-06-23

    Hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative behaviour typically require differentiation between either groups of conspecifics (e.g. kin/non-kin) or, more typically, individuals (e.g. reciprocal altruism). Despite this, the mechanisms that facilitate individual or class recognition have rarely been explored in cooperative species. This study examines the individual differentiation abilities of noisy miners (Manorina melanocephala), a species with one of the most complex avian societies known. Miners permanently occupy colonies numbering into hundreds of individuals. Within these colonies, cooperative coalitions form on a fission-fusion basis across numerous contexts, from social foraging through to mobbing predators. Birds often use individually distinctive 'chur' calls to recruit others to a caller's location, facilitating coalition formation. I used the habituation-discrimination paradigm to test the ability of miners to differentiate between the chur calls of two individuals that were both either: (i) familiar, or (ii) unfamiliar to the focal subject. This technique had not, to my knowledge, been used to assess vocalization differentiation in cooperative birds previously, but here demonstrated that miners could correctly use the spectral features of signals to differentiate between the vocalizations of different individuals, regardless of their familiarity. By attending to individual differences in recruitment calls, miners have a communication system that is capable of accommodating even the most complex cooperative hypotheses based upon acoustic information.

  1. Mathematical skill in individuals with Williams syndrome: evidence from a standardized mathematics battery.

    PubMed

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Landau, Barbara

    2007-08-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder associated with relatively spared verbal skills and severe visuospatial deficits. It has also been reported that individuals with WS are impaired at mathematics. We examined mathematical skills in persons with WS using the second edition of the Test of Early Mathematical Ability (TEMA-2), which measures a wide range of skills. We administered the TEMA-2 to 14 individuals with WS and 14 children matched individually for mental-age on the matrices subtest of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. There were no differences between groups on the overall scores on the TEMA-2. However, an item-by-item analysis revealed group differences. Participants with WS performed more poorly than controls when reporting which of two numbers was closest to a target number, a task thought to utilize a mental number line subserved by the parietal lobe, consistent with previous evidence showing parietal abnormalities in people with WS. In contrast, people with WS performed better than the control group at reading numbers, suggesting that verbal math skills may be comparatively strong in WS. These findings add to evidence that components of mathematical knowledge may be differentially damaged in developmental disorders.

  2. Inter-individual Differences in the Effects of Aircraft Noise on Sleep Fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Sarah; Müller, Uwe; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Basner, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Environmental noise exposure disturbs sleep and impairs recuperation, and may contribute to the increased risk for (cardiovascular) disease. Noise policy and regulation are usually based on average responses despite potentially large inter-individual differences in the effects of traffic noise on sleep. In this analysis, we investigated what percentage of the total variance in noise-induced awakening reactions can be explained by stable inter-individual differences. Methods: We investigated 69 healthy subjects polysomnographically (mean ± standard deviation 40 ± 13 years, range 18–68 years, 32 male) in this randomized, balanced, double-blind, repeated measures laboratory study. This study included one adaptation night, 9 nights with exposure to 40, 80, or 120 road, rail, and/or air traffic noise events (including one noise-free control night), and one recovery night. Results: Mixed-effects models of variance controlling for reaction probability in noise-free control nights, age, sex, number of noise events, and study night showed that 40.5% of the total variance in awakening probability and 52.0% of the total variance in EEG arousal probability were explained by inter-individual differences. If the data set was restricted to nights (4 exposure nights with 80 noise events per night), 46.7% of the total variance in awakening probability and 57.9% of the total variance in EEG arousal probability were explained by inter-individual differences. The results thus demonstrate that, even in this relatively homogeneous, healthy, adult study population, a considerable amount of the variance observed in noise-induced sleep disturbance can be explained by inter-individual differences that cannot be explained by age, gender, or specific study design aspects. Conclusions: It will be important to identify those at higher risk for noise induced sleep disturbance. Furthermore, the custom to base noise policy and legislation on average responses should be re

  3. Individual differences in strategic flight management and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Raby, Mireille

    1991-01-01

    A group of 30 instrument-rated pilots was made to fly simulator approaches to three airports under conditions of low, medium, and high workload conditions. An analysis is presently conducted of the difference in discrete task scheduling between the group of 10 highest and 10 lowest performing pilots in the sample; this categorization was based on the mean of various flight-profile measures. The two groups were found to differ from each other only in terms of the time when specific events were conducted, and of the optimality of scheduling for certain high-priority tasks. These results are assessed in view of the relative independence of task-management skills from aircraft-control skills.

  4. Individual differences in strategic flight management and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Raby, Mireille

    1991-01-01

    A group of 30 instrument-rated pilots was made to fly simulator approaches to three airports under conditions of low, medium, and high workload conditions. An analysis is presently conducted of the difference in discrete task scheduling between the group of 10 highest and 10 lowest performing pilots in the sample; this categorization was based on the mean of various flight-profile measures. The two groups were found to differ from each other only in terms of the time when specific events were conducted, and of the optimality of scheduling for certain high-priority tasks. These results are assessed in view of the relative independence of task-management skills from aircraft-control skills.

  5. Thinking about conditionals: a study of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Handley, Simon J; Nelzens, Helen; Over, David E

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies have shown the existence of two qualitatively distinct groups of people based on how they judge the probability of a conditional statement. The present study was designed to test whether these differences are rooted in distinctive means of processing conditional statements and whether they are linked to differences in general intelligence. In the study, each of 120 participants completed three separate cognitive tasks involving the processing of abstract conditional statements--the probability-of-conditionals task, the conditional truth table task, and the conditional inference task--in addition to completing a test of general intelligence (AH4). The results showed a number of predicted effects: People responding with conditional (rather than conjunctive) probabilities on the first task were higher in cognitive ability, showed reasoning patterns more consistent with a suppositional treatment of the conditional, and showed a strongly "defective" truth table pattern. The results include several novel findings and post challenges to contemporary psychological theories of conditionals.

  6. Gender-related differences in individuals seeking treatment for kleptomania.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N

    2008-03-01

    Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. From 2001--2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-defined kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics, including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment, to identify gender-related differences. Men and women showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared with affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% vs 25.9%; P=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 vs 14 years of age; P=.001), steal household items (P<.001), hoard stolen items (P=.020), and have an eating disorder (P=.017) and less likely to steal electronic goods (P<.001) and have another impulse-control disorder (P=.018). Kleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations.

  7. Gender-Related Differences in Individuals Seeking Treatment for Kleptomania

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. Method From 2001 to 2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment to identify gender-related differences. Results Men and women both showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared to affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% compared to 25.9%; p=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 compared to 14 years; p=.001), steal household items (p<.001), hoard stolen items (p=.020), and have an eating disorder (p=.017) and less likely to steal electronic goods (p<.001) and have another impulse control disorder (p=.018). Conclusions Kleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations. PMID:18323758

  8. Different standards for healthy screenees than patients in routine clinics?

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Geir

    2013-01-01

    Less than 5% of colorectal adenomas will become malignant, but we do not have sufficient knowledge about their natural course to target removal of these 5% only. Thus, 95% of polypectomies are a waste of time exposing patients to a small risk of complications. Recently, a new type of polyps, sessile serrated polyps, has attracted attention. Previously considered innocuous, they are now found to have molecular similarities to cancer and some guidelines recommend to have them removed. These lesions are often flat, covered by mucous, not easily seen and situated in the proximal colon where the bowel wall is thinner. Thus, polypectomy carries a higher risk of perforation than predominantly left-sided, stalked adenomas - and we do not know what is gained in terms of cancer prevention. Screening is a neat balance between harms and benefit for presumptively healthy participants not interested in risk exposure to obtain confirmation of being healthy. The situation is quite different for patient worried about symptom. Thus, the standards set for evidence-based practice may be higher for screening than for routine clinics - a mechanism which may benefit patients in the long run. PMID:24379569

  9. Different standards for healthy screenees than patients in routine clinics?

    PubMed

    Hoff, Geir

    2013-12-14

    Less than 5% of colorectal adenomas will become malignant, but we do not have sufficient knowledge about their natural course to target removal of these 5% only. Thus, 95% of polypectomies are a waste of time exposing patients to a small risk of complications. Recently, a new type of polyps, sessile serrated polyps, has attracted attention. Previously considered innocuous, they are now found to have molecular similarities to cancer and some guidelines recommend to have them removed. These lesions are often flat, covered by mucous, not easily seen and situated in the proximal colon where the bowel wall is thinner. Thus, polypectomy carries a higher risk of perforation than predominantly left-sided, stalked adenomas - and we do not know what is gained in terms of cancer prevention. Screening is a neat balance between harms and benefit for presumptively healthy participants not interested in risk exposure to obtain confirmation of being healthy. The situation is quite different for patient worried about symptom. Thus, the standards set for evidence-based practice may be higher for screening than for routine clinics - a mechanism which may benefit patients in the long run.

  10. The standard upwind compact difference schemes for incompressible flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Compact difference schemes have been used extensively for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. However, the earlier formulations of the schemes are of central type (called central compact schemes, CCS), which are dispersive and susceptible to numerical instability. To enhance stability of CCS, the optimal upwind compact schemes (OUCS) are developed recently by adding high order dissipative terms to CCS. In this paper, it is found that OUCS are essentially not of the upwind type because they do not use upwind-biased but central type of stencils. Furthermore, OUCS are not the most optimal since orders of accuracy of OUCS are at least one order lower than the maximum achievable orders. New upwind compact schemes (called standard upwind compact schemes, SUCS) are developed in this paper. In contrast to OUCS, SUCS are constructed based completely on upwind-biased stencils and hence can gain adequate numerical dissipation with no need for introducing optimization calculations. Furthermore, SUCS can achieve the maximum achievable orders of accuracy and hence be more compact than OUCS. More importantly, SUCS have prominent advantages on combining the stable and high resolution properties which are demonstrated from the global spectral analyses and typical numerical experiments.

  11. Individual differences in degree of handedness and somesthetic asymmetry predict individual differences in left-right confusion.

    PubMed

    Vingerhoets, Guy; Sarrechia, Iemke

    2009-12-01

    Confusion or frustration connected with daily demands involving left-right discrimination is a common observation even in neurologically intact adults. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the degree of left-right confusion is associated with bodily asymmetry. Sixty-two female volunteers performed a left-right decision task that required fast responses to visually presented directional words (left, right, up, down) or pictograms (<--, -->, upward arrow, downward arrow). Participants also performed several tests that measured asymmetry of handedness, grip strength, and tactile sensitivity, and completed self-reports on left-right confusion and perceived bodily asymmetry. Results showed significant correlations between left-right confusion and the degree of handedness and asymmetry in tactile sensitivity. These results suggest that individuals who reveal a stronger internal bias between both sides of the body show less left-right confusion than people with less salient bodily asymmetry.

  12. Incorporating Learning Characteristics into Automatic Essay Scoring Models: What Individual Differences and Linguistic Features Tell Us about Writing Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, Laura K.; Snow, Erica L.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates a novel approach to automatically assessing essay quality that combines natural language processing approaches that assess text features with approaches that assess individual differences in writers such as demographic information, standardized test scores, and survey results. The results demonstrate that combining text…

  13. Individual Differences in Navigation between Sharable Content Objects--An Evaluation Study of a Learning Module Prototype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauss, Boris; Urbas, Leon

    2003-01-01

    Reports the design and evaluation of a prototype for learning modules compliant to the SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) standard for use with hypermedia systems in Web-based instruction. Discusses a study of undergraduates that considered relations between individual differences in learner characteristics, including intrinsic…

  14. Individual Differences in Navigation between Sharable Content Objects--An Evaluation Study of a Learning Module Prototype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauss, Boris; Urbas, Leon

    2003-01-01

    Reports the design and evaluation of a prototype for learning modules compliant to the SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) standard for use with hypermedia systems in Web-based instruction. Discusses a study of undergraduates that considered relations between individual differences in learner characteristics, including intrinsic…

  15. Infrared Thermal Analysis and Individual Differences in Skin Temperature Asymmetry in Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Symons, Frank J; Byiers, Breanne; Hoch, John; Dimian, Adele; Barney, Chantel; Feyma, Timothy; Beisang, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of using a portable infrared thermal camera to quantify the degree of thermal dysregulation (cold hands/feet) and test for naturally occurring within-patient skin temperature asymmetry in Rett syndrome. Infrared thermal images were acquired passively from 15 patients (mean age = 13.7 years, range 4-47) with clinical diagnoses of Rett. Images were acquired using a FLIR T400 infrared thermal camera (still images recorded at 5 Hz, resolution of 320 × 240 pixels, thermal sensitivity = 0.05 °C; capture session lasted approximately 3 minutes). The infrared thermal camera was orthogonal to the body part (hands, feet) and positioned approximately 1 meter from the skin's surface. There were large intraindividual left/right differences in temperature. Seven (47%) and eight (53%) patients had statistically significant (P <0.05) left/right asymmetries between hands (mean difference = 0.87 °C, standard deviation = 1.21) and feet (mean difference = 1.73 °C, standard deviation = 3.03), respectively. Coders were reliable (intraclass correlations 0.97-0.99) on temperatures and selection of anatomical regions of interest. The degree of thermal asymmetry may reflect prolonged activity of the sympathetic nervous system and individual differences in sympathetic regulation. As clinical trials emerge and endpoints are considered, portable infrared thermal camera may provide one noninvasive means of evaluating changes in sympathetic regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical Effects of Standard and Individualized Dialysate Sodium in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Eftimovska–Otovic, Natasa; Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Grozdanovski, Risto; Stojcev, Saso

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The degree to which the dialysate prescription and, in particular, the dialysate sodium concentration influences blood pressure and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) via changes in sodium flux, plasma volume or the other parameters is not well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate whether dialysis patients will have some beneficial effects of dialysate sodium set up according to serum sodium or sodium modeling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-two nondiabetic subjects (52 men and 40 women) performed 12 consecutive hemodialysis (HD) sessions (4 weeks) with dialysate sodium concentration set up on 138 mmol/L (standard sodium – first phase), followed by 24 sessions (second phase) wherein dialysate sodium was set up according to individualized sodium. Variables of interest were: systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure, pulse, IDWG, thirst score – (Xerostomia Inventory (XI) and Dialysis Thirst Inventory (DTI)) and side effects (occurrence of hypotension and muscle cramps). After the first phase, the subjects were divided into 3 groups: normotensive (N=76), hypertensive (N= 11) and hypotensive (N=5) based on the average pre-HD systolic BP during the whole period of the first phase. RESULTS: Sodium individualization resulted in significantly lower blood pressure (133.61 ± 11.88 versus 153.60 ± 14.26 mmHg; p=0.000) and IDWG (2.21 ± 0.93 versus 1.87 ± 0.92 kg; p=0.018) in hypertensive patients, whereas normotensive patients showed only significant decrease in IDWG (2.21 ± 0.72 versus 2.06 ± 0.65, p=0,004). Sodium profiling in hypotensive patients significantly increased IDWG (2.45 vs. 2.74, p= 0,006), and had no impact on blood pressure. Thirst score was significantly lower in normotensive patients with individualized-sodium HD and showed no change in the other two groups. During the second phase, hypotension occurred in only 1 case and muscle cramps in 10 normotensive patients. CONCLUSION: Individualized sodium resulted in clinical

  17. Sources of Group and Individual Differences in Emerging Fraction Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Steven A.; Vagi, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Results from a two year longitudinal study of 181 children from fourth through fifth grade are reported. Levels of growth in children’s computation, word problem, and estimation skills using common fractions were predicted by working memory, attentive classroom behavior, conceptual knowledge about fractions, and simple arithmetic fluency. Comparisons of 55 participants identified as having mathematical difficulties to those without mathematical difficulties revealed that group differences in emerging fraction skills were consistently mediated by attentive classroom behavior and conceptual knowledge about fractions. Neither working memory nor arithmetic fluency mediated group differences in growth in fraction skills. It was also found that the development of basic fraction skills and conceptual knowledge are bidirectional in that conceptual knowledge exerted strong influences on all three types of basic fraction skills, and basic fraction skills exerted a more modest influence on subsequent conceptual knowledge. Results are discussed with reference to how the identification of potentially malleable student characteristics that contribute to the difficulties that some students have with fractions informs interventions and also will contribute to a future theoretical account concerning how domain general and domain specific factors influence the development of basic fraction skills. PMID:21170171

  18. Sources of Group and Individual Differences in Emerging Fraction Skills.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Steven A; Vagi, Kevin J

    2010-11-01

    Results from a two year longitudinal study of 181 children from fourth through fifth grade are reported. Levels of growth in children's computation, word problem, and estimation skills using common fractions were predicted by working memory, attentive classroom behavior, conceptual knowledge about fractions, and simple arithmetic fluency. Comparisons of 55 participants identified as having mathematical difficulties to those without mathematical difficulties revealed that group differences in emerging fraction skills were consistently mediated by attentive classroom behavior and conceptual knowledge about fractions. Neither working memory nor arithmetic fluency mediated group differences in growth in fraction skills. It was also found that the development of basic fraction skills and conceptual knowledge are bidirectional in that conceptual knowledge exerted strong influences on all three types of basic fraction skills, and basic fraction skills exerted a more modest influence on subsequent conceptual knowledge. Results are discussed with reference to how the identification of potentially malleable student characteristics that contribute to the difficulties that some students have with fractions informs interventions and also will contribute to a future theoretical account concerning how domain general and domain specific factors influence the development of basic fraction skills.

  19. Individual differences in political ideology are effects of adaptive error management.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2014-06-01

    We apply error management theory to the analysis of individual differences in the negativity bias and political ideology. Using principles from evolutionary psychology, we propose a coherent theoretical framework for understanding (1) why individuals differ in their political ideology and (2) the conditions under which these individual differences influence and fail to influence the political choices people make.

  20. Bowel function measurements of individuals with different eating patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, G J; Crowder, M; Reid, B; Dickerson, J W

    1986-01-01

    Bowel function was assessed in 51 subjects: 10 women and seven men who habitually consumed an omnivorous, vegetarian, or vegan diet. The subjects on these diets had a mean intake of fibre of 23 g, 37 g, and 47 g respectively. Mean transit times were variable and not significantly different between the groups. Vegans, however, had a greater frequency of defecation and passed softer stools. All measurements of bowel function were significantly correlated with total dietary fibre. As dietary fibre increased mean transit time decreased, stool frequency increased and the stools became softer. Men produced a greater quantity of softer, less formed faeces than women. During the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle women excreted harder stools and had a significantly longer mean transit time. The finding that mean transit time was more highly correlated with faecal form than any of the other bowel function measurements could be of practical importance. PMID:3005140