Science.gov

Sample records for individual knowledge sharing

  1. The Design of Individual Knowledge Sharing Platform Based on Blog for Online Information Literacy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qun, Zeng; Xiaocheng, Zhong

    Knowledge sharing means that an individual, team and organization share the knowledge with other members of the organization in the course of activities through the various ways. This paper analyzes the obstacle factors in knowledge sharing based on the technical point, and chooses the Blog technology to build a platform for improving knowledge sharing between individuals. The construction of the platform is an important foundation for information literacy education, and it also can be used to achieve online information literacy education. Finally, it gives a detailed analysis of its functions, advantages and disadvantages.

  2. Effects of Information Technologies, Department Characteristics and Individual Roles on Improving Knowledge Sharing Visibility: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xi; Vogel, Douglas R.; Zhou, Zhongyun

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge sharing visibility (KSV) is a critical environmental factor which can reduce social loafing in knowledge sharing (KS). This is especially true in ICT [information and communication technology]-based KS in learning organisations. As such, it is imperative that we better understand how to design technology enabled knowledge management…

  3. Risk Propensity and Knowledge Sharing Intentions of Individuals in a Downsized Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    found that significant improvements to an individual’s work atmosphere initiated increases in individual organizational commitment. For example , when...Pablo (1992) 21 provide the example of playing the lottery. The possibility of winning the grand prize is extremely low, but the extreme...my year group and AFSC total in the Air Force. Basically there was not much pressure on my year group and AFSC class. I think it is an example of

  4. The Romance of Learning from Disagreement. The Effect of Cohesiveness and Disagreement on Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Individual Performance Within Teams.

    PubMed

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Sanders, Karin

    2010-03-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of disagreement and cohesiveness on knowledge sharing in teams, and on the performance of individual team members. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Data were obtained from a survey among 1,354 employees working in 126 teams in 17 organizations. FINDINGS: The results show that cohesiveness has a positive effect on the exchange of advice between team members and on openness for sharing opinions, whereas disagreement has a negative effect on openness for sharing opinions. Furthermore, the exchange of advice in a team has a positive effect on the performance of individual team members and acts as a mediator between cohesiveness and individual performance. IMPLICATIONS: Managers who want to stimulate knowledge sharing processes and performance within work teams may be advised to take measures to prevent disagreement between team members and to enhance team cohesiveness. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although some gurus in organizational learning claim that disagreement has a positive effect on group processes such as knowledge sharing and team learning, this study does not support this claim.

  5. Sharing our knowledge.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Matt

    2017-01-25

    There are more than 70,000 nurse prescribers in the UK, many of whom have years of experience that should be shared with trainee prescribers. In November, the General Pharmaceutical Council launched a consultation on whether pharmacist independent prescribers (PIPs) should be able to mentor trainee PIPs. This discussion, which closes on 1 February, should be expanded to our own and other professional groups, because we could all gain so much from each other.

  6. So This is Knowledge Sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan

    2003-01-01

    People within large organizations have probably already dealt with problems similar to the problems that you face; you can save time and money by taking advantage of that experience and knowledge. Knowledge sharing by mentors can empower less experienced managers who would otherwise not challenge the status quo. Reviews should encourage joint problem solving rather than just reporting. To accomplish this, ensure that the review process is viewed as feedback from independent and supportive experts.

  7. Analyzing Collaborative Interactions: Divergence, Shared Understanding and Construction of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important facets of collaborative learning is the interaction between individual and collaborative learning activities--between divergent perspectives and shared knowledge building. Individuals bring divergent ideas into a collaborative environment. While individuals bring their own unique knowledge and perspectives, the second…

  8. Hydrology for everyone: Share your knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogulu, Nilay; Dogulu, Canay

    2015-04-01

    Hydrology, the science of water, plays a central role in understanding the function and behaviour of water on the earth. Given the increasingly complex, uncertain, and dynamic nature of this system, the study of hydrology presents challenges in solving water-related problems in societies. While researchers in hydrologic science and engineering embrace these challenges, it is important that we also realize our critical role in promoting the basic understanding of hydrology concepts among the general public. Hydrology is everywhere, yet, the general public often lacks the basic understanding of the hydrologic environment surrounding them. Essentially, we believe that a basic level of knowledge on hydrology is a must for everyone and that this knowledge might facilitate resilience of communities to hydrological extremes. For instance, in case of flood and drought conditions, which are the most frequent and widespread hydrological phenomena that societies live with, a key aspect of facilitating community resilience would be to create awareness on the hydrological, meteorological, and climatological processes behind floods and droughts, and also on their potential implications on water resources management. Such knowledge awareness can lead to an increase in individuals' awareness on their role in water-related problems which in turn can potentially motivate them to adopt preparedness behaviours. For these reasons, embracing an approach that will increase hydrologic literacy of the general public should be a common objective for the hydrologic community. This talk, hopefully, will motivate researchers in hydrologic science and engineering to share their knowledge with the general public. We, as early career hydrologists, should take this responsibility more than anybody else. Start teaching hydrology now and share your knowledge with people around you - friends, family, relatives, neighbours, and others. There is hydrology for everyone!

  9. Knowledge Management for Shared Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Toward Organizational Change.” Journal of Managerial Psychology , Vol. 19, No. 2, 2004. 93 10. GLOSSARY [15]15 Knowledge Management Glossary...from one another. Conceptual Knowledge: Abstract mental models of the world. Concepts, Perspectives, and Gestalts are meta-models for complex

  10. Describing functional requirements for knowledge sharing communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Sandra; Caldwell, Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Human collaboration in distributed knowledge sharing groups depends on the functionality of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support performance. Since many of these dynamic environments are constrained by time limits, knowledge must be shared efficiently by adapting the level of information detail to the specific situation. This paper focuses on the process of knowledge and context sharing with and without mediation by ICT, as well as issues to be resolved when determining appropriate ICT channels. Both technology-rich and non-technology examples are discussed.

  11. Tourism Skills Delivery: Sharing Tourism Knowledge Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Patrice; Hollick, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' initial insights into tourism industry capacity building via flexibly delivered online skilling and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: An online research survey approach was employed, involving a sample of 64 micro tourism operators. Findings: The paper finds that the major…

  12. Dynamic Dyads: Sharing and Creating Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sophie T.; Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    In today's competitive market, it is essential to maximize employees' efficiency through job structure and knowledge exchange. This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of sharing and creating knowledge in teams of two. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with four dyadic teams. Data analysis revealed four major themes…

  13. Shared knowledge or shared affordances? Insights from an ecological dynamics approach to team coordination in sports.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Garganta, Júlio; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Aguiar, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has proposed that team coordination is based on shared knowledge of the performance context, responsible for linking teammates' mental representations for collective, internalized action solutions. However, this representational approach raises many questions including: how do individual schemata of team members become reformulated together? How much time does it take for this collective cognitive process to occur? How do different cues perceived by different individuals sustain a general shared mental representation? This representational approach is challenged by an ecological dynamics perspective of shared knowledge in team coordination. We argue that the traditional shared knowledge assumption is predicated on 'knowledge about' the environment, which can be used to share knowledge and influence intentions of others prior to competition. Rather, during competitive performance, the control of action by perceiving surrounding informational constraints is expressed in 'knowledge of' the environment. This crucial distinction emphasizes perception of shared affordances (for others and of others) as the main communication channel between team members during team coordination tasks. From this perspective, the emergence of coordinated behaviours in sports teams is based on the formation of interpersonal synergies between players resulting from collective actions predicated on shared affordances.

  14. Theory and ontology for sharing temporal knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loganantharaj, Rasiah

    1996-01-01

    Using current technology, the sharing or re-using of knowledge-bases is very difficult, if not impossible. ARPA has correctly recognized the problem and funded a knowledge sharing initiative. One of the outcomes of this project is a formal language called Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) for representing knowledge that could be translated into other languages. Capturing and representing design knowledge and reasoning with them have become very important for NASA who is a pioneer of innovative design of unique products. For upgrading an existing design for changing technology, needs, or requirements, it is essential to understand the design rationale, design choices, options and other relevant information associated with the design. Capturing such information and presenting them in the appropriate form are part of the ongoing Design Knowledge Capture project of NASA. The behavior of an object and various other aspects related to time are captured by the appropriate temporal knowledge. The captured design knowledge will be represented in such a way that various groups of NASA who are interested in various aspects of the design cycle should be able to access and use the design knowledge effectively. To facilitate knowledge sharing among these groups, one has to develop a very well defined ontology. Ontology is a specification of conceptualization. In the literature several specific domains were studied and some well defined ontologies were developed for such domains. However, very little, or no work has been done in the area of representing temporal knowledge to facilitate sharing. During the ASEE summer program, I have investigated several temporal models and have proposed a theory for time that is flexible to accommodate the time elements, such as, points and intervals, and is capable of handling the qualitative and quantitative temporal constraints. I have also proposed a primitive temporal ontology using which other relevant temporal ontologies can be built. I

  15. Tools for Knowledge Analysis, Synthesis, and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medland, Michael B.

    2007-04-01

    Change and complexity are creating a need for increasing levels of literacy in science and technology. Presently, we are beginning to provide students with clear contexts in which to learn, including clearly written text, visual displays and maps, and more effective instruction. We are also beginning to give students tools that promote their own literacy by helping them to interact with the learning context. These tools include peer-group skills as well as strategies to analyze text and to indicate comprehension by way of text summaries and concept maps. Even with these tools, more appears to be needed. Disparate backgrounds and languages interfere with the comprehension and the sharing of knowledge. To meet this need, two new tools are proposed. The first tool fractures language ontologically, giving all learners who use it a language to talk about what has, and what has not, been uttered in text or talk about the world. The second fractures language epistemologically, giving those involved in working with text or on the world around them a way to talk about what they have done and what remains to be done. Together, these tools operate as a two- tiered knowledge representation of knowledge. This representation promotes both an individual meta-cognitive and a social meta-cognitive approach to what is known and to what is not known, both ontologically and epistemologically. Two hypotheses guide the presentation: If the tools are taught during early childhood, children will be prepared to master science and technology content. If the tools are used by both students and those who design and deliver instruction, the learning of such content will be accelerated.

  16. Sharing Your Knowledge: Getting Your Idea Published.

    PubMed

    Milner, Kerry A

    2016-01-01

    Nurses have a professional and ethical obligation to share best practices to advance nursing knowledge and create better outcomes for patients. Practice-based evidence is as important to advancing evidence-based practice as original research. Infusion nurses are in an excellent position to share local best practices more broadly. Writing for publication is a mechanism for disseminating practice-based evidence. This article reviews the importance of sharing best practices and describes not only how to prepare a manuscript for publication but also resources that will help nurses in this important endeavor.

  17. Factors Influencing Knowledge Sharing among Undergraduate Students: A Malaysian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Hway-Boon; Yeap, Peik-Foong; Tan, Siow-Hooi; Chong, Lee-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge sharing can enhance learning and help to build the knowledge workforce. This paper reports on a study of knowledge sharing behaviour among undergraduate students in Malaysia. Knowledge sharing was found to be influenced by the mechanisms used, various barriers to communication and the motivations behind knowledge sharing. The mechanisms…

  18. Deconstructing Interaction Dynamics in Knowledge Sharing Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, Ablimit; Agichtein, Eugene

    Online knowledge sharing sites have recently exploded in popularity, and have began to play an important role in online information seeking. Unfortunately, many factors that influence the effectiveness of the information exchange in these communities are not well understood. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap by exploring the dynamics of information sharing in such sites - that is, identifying the factors that can explain how people respond to information requests. As a case study, we use Yahoo! Answers, one of the leading knowledge sharing portals on the web with millions of active participants. We follow the progress of thousands of questions, from posting until resolution. We examine contextual factors such as the topical area of the questions, as well as intrinsic factors of question wording, subjectivity, sentiment, and other characteristics that could influence how a community responds to an information request. Our findings could be useful for improving existing collaborative question answering systems, and for designing the next generation of knowledge sharing communities.

  19. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: A New Model and Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Frankie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…

  20. Knowledge Sharing in an American Multinational Company Based in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Chen Wai; Sandhu, Manjit S.; Jain, Kamal Kishore

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the views of executives working in an American based multinational company (MNC) about knowledge sharing, barriers to knowledge sharing, and strategies to promote knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: This study was carried out in phases. In the first phase, a topology of organizational mechanisms for…

  1. Distinguishing Knowledge-Sharing, Knowledge-Construction, and Knowledge-Creation Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalst, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The study reported here sought to obtain the clear articulation of asynchronous computer-mediated discourse needed for Carl Bereiter and Marlene Scardamalia's knowledge-creation model. Distinctions were set up between three modes of discourse: knowledge sharing, knowledge construction, and knowledge creation. These were applied to the asynchronous…

  2. Knowledge sharing in the health scenario

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of certain data often requires the collection of similar data from different places to be analysed and interpreted. Interoperability standards and ontologies, are facilitating data interchange around the world. However, beyond the existing networks and advances for data transfer, data sharing protocols to support multilateral agreements are useful to exploit the knowledge of distributed Data Warehouses. The access to a certain data set in a federated Data Warehouse may be constrained by the requirement to deliver another specific data set. When bilateral agreements between two nodes of a network are not enough to solve the constraints for accessing to a certain data set, multilateral agreements for data exchange are needed. We present the implementation of a Multi-Agent System for multilateral exchange agreements of clinical data, and evaluate how those multilateral agreements increase the percentage of data collected by a single node from the total amount of data available in the network. Different strategies to reduce the number of messages needed to achieve an agreement are also considered. The results show that with this collaborative sharing scenario the percentage of data collected dramaticaly improve from bilateral agreements to multilateral ones, up to reach almost all data available in the network. PMID:25471452

  3. Knowledge Exchange in the Shrines of Knowledge: The ''How's'' and ''Where's'' of Knowledge Sharing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reychav, Iris; Te'eni, Dov

    2009-01-01

    Academic conferences are places of situated learning dedicated to the exchange of knowledge. Knowledge is exchanged between colleagues who are looking to enhance their future research by taking part in several formal and informal settings (lectures, discussions and social events). We studied the processes of knowledge sharing and the influence of…

  4. Breaking the Myths of Rewards: An Exploratory Study of Attitudes about Knowledge Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Gee-Woo; Kim, Young-Gul

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of organizational knowledge sharing focuses on a study of Korean public organizations that investigated factors affecting the individual's knowledge sharing behavior. Highlights include social exchange theory; self-efficacy; theory of reasoned action; and hypothesis testing that showed expected associations and contribution, rather than…

  5. The Distributed Team Members Explanations of Knowledge They Assume to Be Shared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Piritta; Bluemink, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the knowledge that is shared among team members has been found to be a prerequisite for successful collaborative teamwork. In previous research on collaborative learning and work, shared knowledge has mainly been evaluated by researchers, and an individual's own perspective has been omitted. In this study the aim was to…

  6. Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Y. C.; Bailey, T.

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation, Burton and Bailey, discuss the challenges and opportunities in developing knowledge sharing systems in organizations. Bailey provides a tool using imagery and collage for identifying and utilizing the diverse values and beliefs of individuals and groups. Burton reveals findings from a business research study that examines how social construction influences knowledge sharing among task oriented groups.

  7. The Content and Implementation of Shared Professional Knowledge in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melasalmi, Anitta; Husu, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the sociocultural view, shared knowledge is regarded as a basis for interdependent working and multi-professional learning in early childhood education. Shared professional knowledge can be seen as a central element in successful collaboration facilitating individual and collaborative professional learning. This study aims to…

  8. A Text Analysis Approach to Motivate Knowledge Sharing via Microsoft SharePoint

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; McNair, Wade; Symons, Christopher T; Treadwell, Jim N; Potok, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Creating incentives for knowledge workers to share their knowledge within an organization continues to be a challenging task. Strong, innate behaviors of the knowledge worker, such as self-preservation and self- advancement, are difficult to overcome, regardless of the level of knowledge. Many incentive policies simply focus on providing external pressure to promote knowledge sharing. This work describes a technical approach to motivate sharing. Utilizing text analysis and machine learning techniques to create an enhanced knowledge sharing experience, a prototype system was developed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that reduces the overhead cost of sharing while providing a quick, positive payoff for the knowledge worker. This work describes the implementation and experiences of using the prototype in a corporate production environment.

  9. Independence, Individualism & Connection among Share Householders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natalier, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    How do young people who are financially dependent on their parents but living in share households conceive of the concept of independence? The meanings of independence are discussed in relation to a qualitative study of young people who described themselves as independent although they accepted money on a regular basis from their parents. Their…

  10. Collaborating to Compete: Achieving Effective Knowledge Sharing in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laycock, Martyn

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a practitioner overview of the challenges and growing strategic importance of knowledge and knowledge sharing in organizations, considering roles of learning, and in particular networks, together with collaboration in the development of sustainable competitive edge through knowledge, knowledge management and the…

  11. Knowledge Sharing at Work: An Examination of Organizational Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Tricia M.

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid pace of today's knowledge-driven industries, organizations are turning to successful knowledge management initiatives to obtain sustainable competitive advantage. As a result, one facet of knowledge management, knowledge sharing at work, has received increased researcher and practitioner attention in the last decade. However, in the…

  12. [Precision Nursing: Individual-Based Knowledge Translation].

    PubMed

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Su, Sui-Lung

    2016-12-01

    U.S. President Obama announced a new era of precision medicine in the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). This initiative aims to accelerate the progress of personalized medicine in light of individual requirements for prevention and treatment in order to improve the state of individual and public health. The recent and dramatic development of large-scale biologic databases (such as the human genome sequence), powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, microbiome, diverse biomarkers, and even pharmacogenomics), and computational tools for analyzing big data are maximizing the potential benefits of precision medicine. Nursing science should follow and keep pace with this trend in order to develop empirical knowledge and expertise in the area of personalized nursing care. Nursing scientists must encourage, examine, and put into practice innovative research on precision nursing in order to provide evidence-based guidance to clinical practice. The applications in personalized precision nursing care include: explanations of personalized information such as the results of genetic testing; patient advocacy and support; anticipation of results and treatment; ongoing chronic monitoring; and support for shared decision-making throughout the disease trajectory. Further, attention must focus on the family and the ethical implications of taking a personalized approach to care. Nurses will need to embrace the paradigm shift to precision nursing and work collaboratively across disciplines to provide the optimal personalized care to patients. If realized, the full potential of precision nursing will provide the best chance for good health for all.

  13. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  14. Revisiting Knowledge Sharing from the Organizational Change Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Eun-Jee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify how knowledge sharing literature has discussed task, structure, technology and people as elements of organizational change and to examine the interactions between the four elements of knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: The research questions guiding the study are: How do organizational…

  15. Sharing Knowledge in Universities: Communities of Practice the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Sheryl; du Toit, Adeline

    2009-01-01

    The change from an industrial economy to a knowledge economy forced many organizations to change their modus operandi if they were going to survive in a sustainable way. The introduction of communities of practice (CoPs) by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger shed new light on knowledge sharing and dissemination of information. Sharing, interacting,…

  16. Sharing of Knowledge among Faculty in a Mega Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santosh, Sujata; Panda, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Developments in ICTs and knowledge societies have revolutionized the traditional paradigms of education. There is a lot of emphasis on a culture of sharing and collaboration in the education scenario of today though educators have certain inhibitions about sharing of knowledge, ideas and resources. The present study was undertaken to explore the…

  17. An Integrative Literature Review of Knowledge Sharing through Cultural Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, EunJee

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrative review of literature on cultural dimensions that have been suggested as facilitative and inhibitive to knowledge sharing in organizations. Content analysis was conducted on articles related to national, organizational and professional culture and knowledge sharing process. Based on a review of existing literature…

  18. Knowledge Growth: Applied Models of General and Individual Knowledge Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silkina, Galina Iu.; Bakanova, Svetlana A.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the mathematical models of the growth and accumulation of scientific and applied knowledge since it is seen as the main potential and key competence of modern companies. The problem is examined on two levels--the growth and evolution of objective knowledge and knowledge evolution of a particular individual. Both processes are…

  19. Description of dynamic shared knowledge: an exploratory study during a competitive team sports interaction.

    PubMed

    Bourbousson, J; Poizat, G; Saury, J; Seve, C

    2011-02-01

    This exploratory case study describes the sharedness of knowledge within a basketball team (nine players) and how it changes during an official match. To determine how knowledge is mobilised in an actual game situation, the data were collected and processed following course-of-action theory (Theureau 2003). The results were used to characterise the contents of the shared knowledge (i.e. regarding teammate characteristics, team functioning, opponent characteristics, opposing team functioning and game conditions) and to identify the characteristic types of change: (a) the reinforcement of a previous element of shared knowledge; (b) the invalidation of an element of shared knowledge; (c) fragmentation of an element of shared knowledge; (d) the creation of a new element of shared knowledge. The discussion deals with the diverse types of change in shared knowledge and the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of common ground within the team. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The present case study focused on how the cognitions of individual members of a team coordinate to produce a team performance (e.g. surgical teams in hospitals, military teams) and how the shared knowledge changes during team activity. Traditional methods to increase knowledge sharedness can be enhanced by making use of 'opportunities for coordination' to optimise team adaptiveness.

  20. Measuring successful knowledge sharing among academia through social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Saadiah; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zabidi, Nerda Zura; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Alias, Rose Alinda

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to study the influence of social media on knowledge sharing among academia. Previously, many researches have been done to explore the importance emergence of social media for public use, but there are still limited studies on how this technological advancement affects the academia. For this study, Facebook is chosen as one of the online social networking tools as the medium of knowledge sharing. To begin with, this study is started with the identification of factors that encourage the academia to share their knowledge through social media. These factors are then categorized based on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). After this knowledge has successfully shared, the level of successful knowledge sharing through Facebook is modeled using Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy inputs for this study are the number of like, comment and share. Findings from this study indeed showed that there are many reasons encouraging academia to utilize social media for their work. Besides, this paper contributes new knowledge to fuzzy logic application as it is the first known research in measuring Facebook engagement for knowledge sharing purposes. In conclusion although there exist some barriers and limitations with the use of social media, academia are showing a positive shift in the application of these tools for work.

  1. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  2. From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in Cai Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of Cai Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…

  3. Enhancing Knowledge Sharing Management Using BIM Technology in Construction

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shih-Ping; Tserng, Hui-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Construction knowledge can be communicated and reused among project managers and jobsite engineers to alleviate problems on a construction jobsite and reduce the time and cost of solving problems related to constructability. This paper proposes a new methodology for the sharing of construction knowledge by using Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology. The main characteristics of BIM include illustrating 3D CAD-based presentations and keeping information in a digital format and facilitation of easy updating and transfer of information in the BIM environment. Using the BIM technology, project managers and engineers can gain knowledge related to BIM and obtain feedback provided by jobsite engineers for future reference. This study addresses the application of knowledge sharing management using BIM technology and proposes a BIM-based Knowledge Sharing Management (BIMKSM) system for project managers and engineers. The BIMKSM system is then applied in a selected case study of a construction project in Taiwan to demonstrate the effectiveness of sharing knowledge in the BIM environment. The results demonstrate that the BIMKSM system can be used as a visual BIM-based knowledge sharing management platform by utilizing the BIM technology. PMID:24723790

  4. Enhancing knowledge sharing management using BIM technology in construction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Ping; Tserng, Hui-Ping; Jan, Shu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Construction knowledge can be communicated and reused among project managers and jobsite engineers to alleviate problems on a construction jobsite and reduce the time and cost of solving problems related to constructability. This paper proposes a new methodology for the sharing of construction knowledge by using Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology. The main characteristics of BIM include illustrating 3D CAD-based presentations and keeping information in a digital format and facilitation of easy updating and transfer of information in the BIM environment. Using the BIM technology, project managers and engineers can gain knowledge related to BIM and obtain feedback provided by jobsite engineers for future reference. This study addresses the application of knowledge sharing management using BIM technology and proposes a BIM-based Knowledge Sharing Management (BIMKSM) system for project managers and engineers. The BIMKSM system is then applied in a selected case study of a construction project in Taiwan to demonstrate the effectiveness of sharing knowledge in the BIM environment. The results demonstrate that the BIMKSM system can be used as a visual BIM-based knowledge sharing management platform by utilizing the BIM technology.

  5. Collaborative On-Line Teaching: The Inevitable Path to Deep Learning and Knowledge Sharing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell

    2006-01-01

    It is often stressed that the pedagogic models and approaches of Collaborative Online Learning support a learner's shared knowledge building within collaborating groups of learners, the individual construction of knowledge and the formation of an ongoing learning Community of Practice. Based on a recent case study of a Danish Master's programme,…

  6. Lending a Helping Hand: Voluntary Engagement in Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mergel, Ines; Lazer, David; Binz-Scharf, Maria Christina

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge is essential for the functioning of every social system, especially for professionals in knowledge-intensive organisations. Since individuals do not possess all the work-related knowledge that they require, they turn to others in search for that knowledge. While prior research has mainly focused on antecedents and consequences of…

  7. Knowledge Sharing and Creation in a Teachers' Professional Virtual Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fu-ren; Lin, Sheng-cheng; Huang, Tzu-ping

    2008-01-01

    By virtue of the non-profit nature of school education, a professional virtual community composed of teachers provides precious data to understand the processes of knowledge sharing and creation. Guided by grounded theory, the authors conducted a three-phased study on a teachers' virtual community in order to understand the knowledge flows among…

  8. Are You Ready for Knowledge Sharing? An Empirical Study of Virtual Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Shiu-Wan; Cheng, Min-Jhih

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between knowledge sharing intentions and the perceptions of individual technology users who are members of virtual communities. We characterized learners' perceptions of new technological products or services by including both an individual's psychological state of readiness to accept technology and…

  9. Perceptions of physicians about knowledge sharing barriers in Turkish health care system.

    PubMed

    Gider, Ömer; Ocak, Saffet; Top, Mehmet

    2015-05-01

    This study was based on knowledge sharing barriers about attitudes of physicians in Turkish health care system. The present study aims to determine whether the knowledge sharing barriers about attitudes of physicians vary depending on gender, position, departments at hospitals, and hospital ownership status. This study was planned and conducted on physicians at one public hospital, one university hospital, and one private hospital in Turkey. 209 physicians were reached for data collection. The study was conducted in June-September 2014. The questionnaire (developed by A. Riege, (J. Knowl. Manag. 9(3):18-35, 2005)), five point Likert-type scale including 39 items having the potential of the physicians' knowledge- sharing attitudes and behaviors, was used in the study for data collection. Descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, student t test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. According to results of this study, there was medium level of knowledge sharing barriers within hospitals. In general, physicians had perceptions about the lowest level individual barriers, intermediate level organizational barriers and the highest level technological barriers perceptions, respectively. This study revealed that some knowledge sharing barriers about attitudes of physicians were significantly difference according to hospital ownership status, gender, position and departments. Most evidence medical decisions and evidence based practice depend on experience and knowledge of existing options and knowledge sharing in health care organizations. Physicians are knowledge and information-intensive and principal professional group in health care context.

  10. The impact of knowledge sharing through social media among academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Saadiah; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zabidi, Nerda Zura; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Alias, Rose Alinda

    2016-10-01

    The world of research require researcher, academia and lecturers to share knowledge among them. With the invention of social media, knowledge sharing process has been more effective and easy. Previously, there were numerous researches done to investigate the effect of social media utilization for public used. There were also study that aimed to study social media effects in educatioanal sector but those study were centered around student's perspective. Less consideration is given towards academia's perspective. Therefore, this study is directed to explore other niche area on knowledge sharing environment where it will focused on the effects of social media on knowledge sharing among academia. Initially, literature review analysis was done to discover the potential factors that encourage academia to engage in social media. Ability to facilitate communication, idea generation and group establishment are the most cited reasons. Not only that, this paper will highlight the significance of performing this study. In conclusion, there is no doubt that social media do enhance and upgrading the knowledge sharing process thus assisting academia in their scholarly work.

  11. Enhancing Knowledge Sharing and Research Collaboration among Academics: The Role of Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Christine Nya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Although knowledge sharing (KS) has been acknowledged as important, universities face issues that may hinder active sharing among its faculty members such as the absence of trust among its members or insufficient incentives rewarded to those who deserved it. The aim of this research is to focus on the impact of knowledge management (KM) factors in…

  12. The Role of Community Trust and Altruism in Knowledge Sharing: An Investigation of a Virtual Community of Teacher Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Fan, Hsueh-Liang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge sharing process within a virtual community of teacher professionals is viewed as a social exchange process in that the knowledge sharing intention and behavior of individuals are influenced by the exchange relationship among members. However, relatively little research has focused on this approach to exploring the factors that…

  13. Students' Knowledge Sources and Knowledge Sharing in the Design Studio--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Sheng-Hsiao

    2010-01-01

    Architectural design is a knowledge-intensive activity; however, students frequently lack sufficient knowledge when they practice design. Collaborative learning can supplement the students' insufficient expertise. Successful collaborative learning relies on knowledge sharing between students. This implies that the peers are a considerable design…

  14. Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Martin; Hamacher, Duane W.; Warren, John; Byrne, Alex; Pagnucco, Maurice; Harley, Ross; Venugopal, Srikumar; Thorpe, Kirsten; Neville, Richard; Bolt, Reuben

    2014-06-01

    Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project emerging between experts in the higher education, library, archive and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a culturally sensitive manner.

  15. Stop Reinventing the Wheel: Using Wikis for Professional Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitering, Anne-Marie; Bridgewater, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This article details the development of the Library Instruction Wiki (http://instructionwiki.org): an effort to develop a web-based, knowledge-sharing resource. Though some library instruction is specific to a given institution or class, much of what instruction librarians teach is similar. Library instructors have repeatedly expressed the desire…

  16. Cultivating Knowledge Sharing through the Relationship Management Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Valerie A.; Hatzakis, Tally; Lycett, Mark; Macredie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the development of the relationship management maturity model (RMMM), the output of an initiative aimed at bridging the gap between business units and the IT organisation. It does this through improving and assessing knowledge sharing between business and IT staff in Finco, a large financial…

  17. The Tools are Out There: DAUs Knowledge Sharing Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    resources link back exhaustively to ACQuipedia ar- ticles, giving users one - stop information on key acquisition terms. DAU also introduced a new...dap.dau.mil>. Deployed in July 2009, the DAP is a one - stop source for acquisition information and tools, replacing the AT&L Knowledge Sharing System

  18. Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chindgren, Tina M.

    2008-01-01

    Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan…

  19. Social Technologies and Informal Knowledge Sharing within and across Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrahi, Mohammad Hosein

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is focused on both empirical and conceptual contributions relative to the roles social technologies play in informal knowledge sharing practices, both within and across organizations. Social technologies include (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers), (b) emerging social…

  20. User observations on information sharing (corporate knowledge and lessons learned)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Ronald A.; Gregg, Lawrence A.; Martin, Shirley A.; Underwood, Leroy H.; Mcgee, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The sharing of 'corporate knowledge' and lessons learned in the NASA aerospace community has been identified by Johnson Space Center survey participants as a desirable tool. The concept of the program is based on creating a user friendly information system that will allow engineers, scientists, and managers at all working levels to share their information and experiences with other users irrespective of location or organization. The survey addresses potential end uses for such a system and offers some guidance on the development of subsequent processes to ensure the integrity of the information shared. This system concept will promote sharing of information between NASA centers, between NASA and its contractors, between NASA and other government agencies, and perhaps between NASA and institutions of higher learning.

  1. A Foundation for Understanding Knowledge Sharing: Organizational Culture, Informal Workplace Learning, Performance Support, and Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Shirley J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper serves as an exploration into some of the ways in which organizations can promote, capture, share, and manage the valuable knowledge of their employees. The problem is that employees typically do not share valuable information, skills, or expertise with other employees or with the entire organization. The author uses research as well as…

  2. Modelling Knowledge Sharing Behaviour Using Self-Efficacy as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, Jenefer; Mohd Rasdi, Roziah; Abu Samah, Bahaman

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and indirect relationships between individual-related factors and environmental-related factors with the knowledge sharing behaviour through the mediating role of self-efficacy among successful farmers in selected states in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The research used survey…

  3. Transformational Leadership and Knowledge Sharing: Mediating Roles of Employee's Empowerment, Commitment, and Citizenship Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Seung Hyun; Seo, Gaeun; Yoon, Seung Won; Yoon, Dong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the fundamental process through which transformational leaders play a significant role in employees' knowledge sharing by investigating mediating roles of individual affects, particularly psychological empowerment, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).…

  4. Knowledge sharing and expertise coordination of event response in organizations.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Barrett S

    2008-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of opportunities and challenges for expert coordination, knowledge sharing, and task performance using advanced information and communication technologies. Evolving in part from [Hendrick, H., 1991. Ergonomics in organizational design and management. Ergonomics 34(6), 743-756] discussion of macroergonomics, this paper describes the author's framework for systems engineering analysis of information flow and performance at team and organizational units of analysis. Work in the author's research lab has focused on several aspects of information technology use and team interactions to support shared understandings, task demands, and effective responses in responses to events. Multiple empirical studies are summarized describing evaluations of technology use, task cycles and expert knowledge coordination in several settings, including aerospace, healthcare, and project management.

  5. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M; Whiten, Andrew; Brosnan, Sarah F; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Hoppitt, Will

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a 'copying dominants' bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed for conformist transmission, and perhaps in concert with it, restrict the accumulation of traditions within chimpanzee communities whilst maintaining cultural diversity.

  6. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity

    PubMed Central

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M.; Whiten, Andrew; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hoppitt, Will

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a ‘copying dominants’ bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed for conformist transmission, and perhaps in concert with it, restrict the accumulation of traditions within chimpanzee communities whilst maintaining cultural diversity. PMID:27053916

  7. Is Trust Really Social Capital? Knowledge Sharing in Product Development Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Marloes; Leenders, Roger Th. A. J.; Gabbay, Shaul M.; Kratzer, Jan; Van Engelen, Jo M. L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to focus on the role of trust in knowledge sharing. Social capital researchers have put forward trust as an important force behind the sharing of knowledge. This study aims to investigate whether trust indeed explains knowledge sharing relationships, or whether there are in fact much more important drivers…

  8. Synchronous brain activity across individuals underlies shared psychological perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Hyönä, Jukka; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    For successful communication, we need to understand the external world consistently with others. This task requires sufficiently similar cognitive schemas or psychological perspectives that act as filters to guide the selection, interpretation and storage of sensory information, perceptual objects and events. Here we show that when individuals adopt a similar psychological perspective during natural viewing, their brain activity becomes synchronized in specific brain regions. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 33 healthy participants who viewed a 10-min movie twice, assuming once a ‘social’ (detective) and once a ‘non-social’ (interior decorator) perspective to the movie events. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures (inter-subject correlations; ISCs) of functional MRI data. We used k-nearest-neighbor and support vector machine classifiers as well as a Mantel test on the ISC matrices to reveal brain areas wherein ISC predicted the participants' current perspective. ISC was stronger in several brain regions—most robustly in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and lateral occipital cortex—when the participants viewed the movie with similar rather than different perspectives. Synchronization was not explained by differences in visual sampling of the movies, as estimated by eye gaze. We propose that synchronous brain activity across individuals adopting similar psychological perspectives could be an important neural mechanism supporting shared understanding of the environment. PMID:24936687

  9. Is Knowledge Shared within Households? Policy Research Working Papers No. 2261.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Kaushik; Narayan, Ambar; Ravallion, Martin

    This paper examines whether an illiterate worker's earnings are affected by the literacy of other members of the household. Theory suggests that a member of a collective-action household may or may not share knowledge with others in the household. Shared income gains from shared knowledge may well be offset by a shift in the balance of power…

  10. QSIA--A Web-Based Environment for Learning, Assessing and Knowledge Sharing in Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafaeli, Sheizaf; Barak, Miri; Dan-Gur, Yuval; Toch, Eran

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a Web-based and distributed system named QSIA that serves as an environment for learning, assessing and knowledge sharing. QSIA--Questions Sharing and Interactive Assignments--offers a unified infrastructure for developing, collecting, managing and sharing of knowledge items. QSIA enhances collaboration in authoring via online…

  11. Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning.…

  12. Individual Differences in Knowledge Acquisition from Maps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, J. R., and G. H. Bower, Human Associative Memory , V. H. Winston and Sons, Washington, D.C., 1973. Atkinson , R., and R. Shiffrin ...is generally assumed that these are conscious processes ander subject control ( Atkinson and Shiffrin , 1968; Posner and Warren, 1972; Norman and Bobrow...is a constructive process that produces in long-term memory a representation of the stimulus, In map learning, this knowledge representation encodes

  13. Model learning and knowledge sharing for a multiagent system with Dyna-Q learning.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kao-Shing; Jiang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-05-01

    In a multiagent system, if agents' experiences could be accessible and assessed between peers for environmental modeling, they can alleviate the burden of exploration for unvisited states or unseen situations so as to accelerate the learning process. Since how to build up an effective and accurate model within a limited time is an important issue, especially for complex environments, this paper introduces a model-based reinforcement learning method based on a tree structure to achieve efficient modeling and less memory consumption. The proposed algorithm tailored a Dyna-Q architecture to multiagent systems by means of a tree structure for modeling. The tree-model built from real experiences is used to generate virtual experiences such that the elapsed time in learning could be reduced. As well, this model is suitable for knowledge sharing. This paper is inspired by the concept of knowledge sharing methods in multiagent systems where an agent could construct a global model from scattered local models held by individual agents. Consequently, it can increase modeling accuracy so as to provide valid simulated experiences for indirect learning at the early stage of learning. To simplify the sharing process, the proposed method applies resampling techniques to grafting partial branches of trees containing required and useful experiences disseminated from experienced peers, instead of merging the whole trees. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed sharing method can achieve the objectives of sample efficiency and learning acceleration in multiagent cooperation applications.

  14. Empirical Study of Motivators and Barriers of Teacher Online Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Hara, Noriko

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this study was to understand knowledge flows among teachers by examining what types of knowledge was shared by teachers, as well as what motivates or hinders teachers to share knowledge online. We examined an electronic mailing list (listserv) supporting a community of practice of literacy teachers. Data were gathered on the teachers…

  15. An Empirical Inquiry on Knowledge Sharing among Academicians in Higher Learning Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramayah, T.; Yeap, Jasmine A. L.; Ignatius, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Universities are expected to be places where knowledge is shared freely among academicians. However, the reality shows that knowledge sharing is barely present within universities these days. As Malaysia shifts towards building a knowledge-based society, academic institutions, particularly the public universities, now face ever-growing faculty…

  16. Employee Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: Effects of Team Diversity, Emergent States, and Team Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Jae Hang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in work teams is one of the critical team processes. Without sharing of knowledge, work teams and organizations may not be able to fully utilize the diverse knowledge brought into work teams by their members. The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and underlying mechanisms influencing the extent to which team…

  17. Effects of Peer-Tutor Competences on Learner Cognitive Load and Learning Performance during Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ya-Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    In Learning Networks, learners need to share knowledge with others to build knowledge. In particular, when working on complex tasks, they often need to acquire extra cognitive resources from others to process a high task load. However, without support high task load and organizing knowledge sharing themselves might easily overload learners'…

  18. A Unified Model of Knowledge Sharing Behaviours: Theoretical Development and Empirical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chennamaneni, Anitha; Teng, James T. C.; Raja, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Research and practice on knowledge management (KM) have shown that information technology alone cannot guarantee that employees will volunteer and share knowledge. While previous studies have linked motivational factors to knowledge sharing (KS), we took a further step to thoroughly examine this theoretically and empirically. We developed a…

  19. Analysis of Knowledge-Sharing Evolutionary Game in University Teacher Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huo, Mingkui

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge-sharing activity is a major drive force behind the progress and innovation of university teacher team. Based on the evolutionary game theory, this article analyzes the knowledge-sharing process model of this team, studies the influencing mechanism of various factors such as knowledge aggregate gap, incentive coefficient and risk…

  20. Knowledge Sharing and Dialogue among Information Technology Workers: A Case Study Using a Public Works Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    The problem addressed in this study is the willingness or reluctance of information technology (IT) knowledge workers and managers to share knowledge. The purpose of the study was to examine the willingness or unwillingness of technical personnel in IT to share technical knowledge and the issues surrounding their reluctance, if any. The study…

  1. An Effective Assessment of Knowledge Sharing and E-Learning Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramanian, D. Venkata; Geetha, Angelina; Shankar, P.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, most of the companies have increasingly realized the importance of the knowledge sharing portal and E-Learning portals to provide competitive knowledge for their employees. The knowledge stored in these portals varies from technical, process and project knowledge functional or domain specific knowledge to face the competitiveness…

  2. Sharing and Cultivating Tacit Knowledge in an Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Meng Yew; Karney, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Research on knowledge cultivation often focuses on explicit forms of knowledge. However, knowledge can also take a tacit form--a form that is often difficult or impossible to tease out, even when it is considered critical in an educational context. A review of the literature revealed that few studies have examined tacit knowledge issues in online…

  3. Knowledge Sharing via Social Networking Platforms in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettles, Degan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge Management Systems have been actively promoted for decades within organizations but have frequently failed to be used. Recently, deployments of enterprise social networking platforms used for knowledge management have become commonplace. These platforms help harness the knowledge of workers by serving as repositories of knowledge as well…

  4. Shared decision-making in the care of individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, V; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, R; Hargraves, I; Gionfriddo, M R; Tamhane, S; Montori, V M

    2016-06-01

    People with diabetes often live with other chronic conditions and lead complicated lives. Determining what is the best management decision for a patient requires consideration of each individual's personal, social and biomedical context, what he or she values, the reasons he or she has to value the available options, and the relative contribution of each option in terms of benefits, harms, costs and inconveniences. Empathic conversations between patients and clinicians to diagnose the patient situation that necessitates action and the range of evidence-based actions that best address the situation, so-called shared decision-making, are essential to the personalized care of people with diabetes. The aim of the present review was to present key elements of shared decision-making and propose three different approaches for its application. The first approach focuses on transferring information to patients so that they can make decisions. The second approach, choice, focuses on cultivating the individual's ability to give voice to which choice is best for them. The third approach, conversation, establishes an empathic conversational environment through which the individual with diabetes and their clinician think and talk through how to address the problems of living with diabetes and related illnesses. These approaches are manifest in the design of evidence-based decision aids created to support shared decision-making. In randomized trials, decision aids can efficiently improve patient's knowledge, satisfaction, risk awareness, decisional conflict and involvement. Further research, however, is needed to better understand when and how to promote the empathic conversations, patient, clinician and service and policy contexts necessary to routinely implement shared decision-making in different at scale healthcare systems. In the interim, sufficient evidence and tools exist for persons with diabetes and their clinicians to gain expertise in making decisions together.

  5. Study of Sharing Knowledge Resources in Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranjan, Jayanthi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a common business school framework based on knowledge resources that are available in business schools. To support the arguments made based on review literature, the paper presents the holistic framework of knowledge resources in a business school and also provides a knowledge value chain in sharing…

  6. Design of a Personal Health Record and Health Knowledge Sharing System using IHE-XDS and OWL.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Hui; Chou, Yi-Ting; Huang, Ean-Wen; Liou, Der-Ming

    2013-04-01

    Personal Health Record systems (PHRs) provide opportunities for patients to access their own PHR. However, PHRs are teeming with medical terminologies, such as disease and symptom names, etc. Patients need readily understandable and useful health knowledge in addition to their records in order to enhance their self-care ability. This study describes a Personal Health Record and Health Knowledge Sharing System (PHR&HKS) whereby users not only can maintain and import their PHR, but also can collate useful health Web resources that are related to their personal diseases. Furthermore, they can share the collated Web resources with any user with the same diseases and vice versa. To fulfill these objectives, IHE Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing (XDS) architecture was adopted to share and integrate the PHR. A registry ontology, consisting of part of the XDS document metadata attributes, the ICD-9-CM code, and part of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES), was created to enhance the health knowledge collating and sharing functions. The system was then tested and evaluated by 30 users. Among these individuals, 24 (81 %) held positive views on the ease of use and usefulness of the system while the remainder, who held either neutral (14 %) or negative (5 %) attitudes, were identified as individuals who were somewhat unwilling to maintain any PHR or share any information with others.

  7. On the different “worlds” of intra-organizational knowledge management: Understanding idiosyncratic variation in MNC cross-site knowledge-sharing practices

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Helmut; Lehrer, Mark; Mühlbacher, Jürgen; Müller, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative field study investigated cross-site knowledge sharing in a small sample of multinational corporations in three different MNC business contexts (global, multidomestic, transnational). The results disclose heterogeneous “worlds” of MNC knowledge sharing, ultimately raising the question as to whether the whole concept of MNC knowledge sharing covers a sufficiently unitary phenomenon to be meaningful. We derive a non-exhaustive typology of MNC knowledge-sharing practices: self-organizing knowledge sharing, technocratic knowledge sharing, and best practice knowledge sharing. Despite its limitations, this typology helps to elucidate a number of issues, including the latent conflict between two disparate theories of MNC knowledge sharing, namely “sender–receiver” and “social learning” theories (Noorderhaven & Harzing, 2009). More generally, we develop the term “knowledge contextualization” to highlight the way that firm-specific organizational features pre-define which knowledge is considered to be of special relevance for intra-organizational sharing. PMID:27087759

  8. Higher Education and Knowledge Sharing: From Ivory Tower to Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge is the driving force of a knowledge economy. Therefore, the way knowledge is shared and created and the way these actions are managed could lead to either a competitive advantage for an organisation or it could lead to its demise. Managing especially academics' knowledge to the benefit of all can be even a greater challenge to any…

  9. Examining Factors that Affect Knowledge Sharing and Students' Attitude toward Their Learning Experience within Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jinxia

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors included: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group discussion and the…

  10. A Study on the Methods of Assessment and Strategy of Knowledge Sharing in Computer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Pat P. W.

    2014-01-01

    With the advancement of information and communication technology, collaboration and knowledge sharing through technology is facilitated which enhances the learning process and improves the learning efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to review the methods of assessment and strategy of collaboration and knowledge sharing in a computer course,…

  11. Organizational Culture as Determinant of Knowledge Sharing Practices of Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the influence of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The study hypothesized the impact of various aspects of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The data required for the…

  12. Knowledge-Sharing in Virtual Communities: Familiarity, Anonymity and Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Cheolho; Rolland, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of motivation has been emphasised in knowledge-sharing literature, traditional motivation theories, such as self-determination theory (SDT), have not been actively used as a research framework in knowledge-sharing research. The purposes of this study are twofold. The first objective is to propose a model, based on SDT, to test…

  13. Impact of Organisational Factors on the Knowledge Sharing Practice of Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the various organizational factors that influence the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The study hypothesized the impact of various organizational factors on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The data required for the study…

  14. Improving Quality and Quantity of Contributions: Two Models for Promoting Knowledge Exchange with Shared Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, U.; Barquero, B.; Schwan, S.; Hesse, F. W.

    2007-01-01

    Shared databases are used for knowledge exchange in groups. Whether a person is willing to contribute knowledge to a shared database presents a social dilemma: Each group member saves time and energy by not contributing any information to the database and by using the database only to retrieve information which was contributed by others. But if…

  15. Examining the Factors Influencing Participants' Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Virtual Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Irene Y. L.; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk

    2009-01-01

    Increasing organizations and educational institutions have implemented virtual learning communities to encourage knowledge sharing. However, this task can not be accomplished simply by grouping people together and telling them "sharing your knowledge will make you learn better". This research attempts to examine the factors influencing knowledge…

  16. Technical College Teachers Sharing Their Knowledge: Does Leadership, Institutional Factors or Barriers Predict Their Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahir, Lokman Mohd; Musah, Muhamad Berhanddin; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Abdullah, Mohd Hazim Asran

    2016-01-01

    This study determines the preferable leadership practised by colleges' directors, institutional factors and challenges encountered in knowledge sharing in Malaysian technical higher learning institutions (HLIs). Using a pragmatic mixed-method strand, we obtained 212 teachers and instructors' viewpoints on knowledge sharing factors and barriers.…

  17. Knowledge-Sharing Intention among Information Professionals in Nigeria: A Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Adeyinka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researcher administered a survey and developed and tested a statistical model to examine the factors that determine the intention of information professionals in Nigeria to share knowledge with their colleagues. The result revealed correlations between the overall score for intending to share knowledge and other…

  18. Empowering Faculty to Develop and Share Global Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David

    2014-01-01

    As colleges seek to increase global knowledge within its students, it is important that faculty members are also offered opportunities to increase their own knowledge of global issues. This chapter discusses faculty development models for seminars abroad and how these seminars encourage the development of unique global study programs.

  19. Networked Experiments and Scientific Resource Sharing in Cooperative Knowledge Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cikic, Sabine; Jeschke, Sabina; Ludwig, Nadine; Sinha, Uwe; Thomsen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Cooperative knowledge spaces create new potentials for the experimental fields in natural sciences and engineering because they enhance the accessibility of experimental setups through virtual laboratories and remote technology, opening them for collaborative and distributed usage. A concept for extending existing virtual knowledge spaces for the…

  20. Inter-Individual Knowledge Transfer and Performance in Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Ajith; Ganesh, L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine how knowledge transfer between individuals influences performance in product development (PD) organizations and whether this influence is contingent to the degree of novelty in the PD work. Design/methodology/approach: A set of hypotheses describing the relationships between knowledge transfer by codification…

  1. Fostering Collective and Individual Learning through Knowledge Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Ke; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and examine a computer-supported knowledge-building environment and to investigate both collective knowledge-building dynamics and individual learning in the context of a tertiary education course in mainland China. The participants were 102 students in four intact Year-one tertiary business classes. Two…

  2. 'Big Data' Collaboration: Exploring, Recording and Sharing Enterprise Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Ferrell, Regina Kay

    2013-01-01

    As data sources and data size proliferate, knowledge discovery from "Big Data" is starting to pose several challenges. In this paper, we address a specific challenge in the practice of enterprise knowledge management while extracting actionable nuggets from diverse data sources of seemingly-related information. In particular, we address the challenge of archiving knowledge gained through collaboration, dissemination and visualization as part of the data analysis, inference and decision-making lifecycle. We motivate the implementation of an enterprise data-discovery and knowledge recorder tool, called SEEKER based on real world case-study. We demonstrate SEEKER capturing schema and data-element relationships, tracking the data elements of value based on the queries and the analytical artifacts that are being created by analysts as they use the data. We show how the tool serves as digital record of institutional domain knowledge and a documentation for the evolution of data elements, queries and schemas over time. As a knowledge management service, a tool like SEEKER saves enterprise resources and time by avoiding analytic silos, expediting the process of multi-source data integration and intelligently documenting discoveries from fellow analysts.

  3. Identifying Factors That Encourage and Hinder Knowledge Sharing in a Longstanding Online Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Hara, Noriko

    2006-01-01

    Despite the strong interests among practitioners, there is a knowledge gap with regard to online communities of practice. This study examines knowledge sharing among critical-care and advanced-practice nurses, who are engaged in a longstanding online community of practice. Data were collected about members' online knowledge contribution as well as…

  4. Individual differences in cyber security behaviors: an examination of who is sharing passwords.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Monica; Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found younger [corrected] people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns.

  5. The Effect of Shared versus Individual Reflection on Team Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domke-Damonte, Darla J.; Keels, J. Kay

    2015-01-01

    In this study, teams in a strategic management classroom were given one of two versions of an assignment related to the development of a team contract: independent individual reflections on desired team behaviors versus team-level reflections on desired behavioral norms. Results of a multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for gender and…

  6. Argumentation Structure and Metacognition in Constructing Shared Knowledge at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Santi, Marina

    This paper reports on a qualitative study of children's discourse-reasoning about knowledge objects emerging when the classroom becomes a community of discourse. Its purpose was to analyze metacognitive reflections with respect to the steps of the argument. Within science education classes, a part of a wider ecological curriculum was implemented…

  7. Evaluating a Tacit Knowledge Sharing Initiative: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, Claire; Corrigan, Siobhan; Garavan, Thomas N.; O'Connor, Christy; Leahy, Damien; Long, David; Murphy, Eamonn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a case study illustrating the issues involved in the tacit knowledge conversion process and to determine whether such conversion delivers value to the organisation in terms of business value and return on investment (ROI). Design/methodology/approach: A single-case multiple baseline participants experimental…

  8. Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, T.; Burton, Y. C.

    2000-01-01

    In this discussion, T. Bailey will be addressing the multiple paradigms within organizations using imagery. Dr. Burton will discuss the relationship between these paradigms and social exchanges that lead to knowledge sharing.

  9. Understanding Online Knowledge Sharing: An Interpersonal Relationship Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Will W. K.; Yuen, Allan H. K.

    2011-01-01

    The unique features and capabilities of online learning are built on the ability to connect to a wider range of learning resources and peer learners that benefit individual learners, such as through discussion forums, collaborative learning, and community building. The success of online learning thus depends on the participation, engagement, and…

  10. Building Vocabulary Knowledge in Preschoolers through Shared Book Reading and Gameplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Ridge, Katherine; Parker, Amira; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Dickinson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    This study moves beyond previous investigations to examine whether an educational intervention combining shared book reading with a vocabulary game increases children's vocabulary knowledge. Four-year-olds (N = 44) were randomly assigned to dyads in either an intervention (shared book reading plus vocabulary review game) or comparison condition…

  11. Knowledge Dating and Knowledge Sharing in Ad-Hoc Transient Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter

    In a Learning Network, the autonomy of the learner, whether professional, hobbyist or amateur is taken as the starting point. This contrasts with other approaches in which a Learning Network is as an element in a design which embodies particular instructional principles (Squires 1999). In accordance with our view, a Learning Network offers learners opportunities to act that are on a par with the opportunities staff have in traditional, less learner-centred educational approaches. Learners are allowed to create their own learning activities, build their own learning plans, and share their learning activities and their learning plans with peers and institutions. Much as these are desirable features that strengthen learner autonomy, an unfortunate side-effect may be that autonomy rapidly degrades into isolation. Learners who do not feel socially embedded in a community will not thrive, to the detriment of their achievements and their appreciation of learning in a Learning Network setting. In general, individual success or failure on a learning activity depends on the extent to which learners perceive themselves as genuinely participating in a community (Wegerif et al. 1998).

  12. Shared musical knowledge in 11-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Mehr, Samuel A; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2017-02-22

    Five-month-old infants selectively attend to novel people who sing melodies originally learned from a parent, but not melodies learned from a musical toy or from an unfamiliar singing adult, suggesting that music conveys social information to infant listeners. Here, we test this interpretation further in older infants with a more direct measure of social preferences. We randomly assigned 64 11-month-old infants to 1-2 weeks' exposure to one of two novel play songs that a parent either sang or produced by activating a recording inside a toy. Infants then viewed videos of two new people, each singing one song. When the people, now silent, each presented the infant with an object, infants in both conditions preferentially chose the object endorsed by the singer of the familiar song. Nevertheless, infants' visual attention to that object was predicted by the degree of song exposure only for infants who learned from the singing of a parent. Eleven-month-olds thus garner social information from songs, whether learned from singing people or from social play with musical toys, but parental singing has distinctive effects on infants' responses to new singers. Both findings support the hypothesis that infants endow music with social meaning. These findings raise questions concerning the types of music and behavioral contexts that elicit infants' social responses to those who share music with them, and they support suggestions concerning the psychological functions of music both in contemporary environments and in the environments in which humans evolved.

  13. The Intention to Share: Professionals' Knowledge Sharing Behaviors in Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alajmi, Bibi M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the rise of some online communities as well as the decline of others has caught the attention of academia as well as of practice. One assumption for the decline of some online communities is the lack of the rich knowledge content that is believed to be the source of competitiveness and sustainability of any online community.…

  14. Ancient Rome Worldwide Links: Sharing Knowledge to Preserve the Roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, P.; Allegrini Simonetti, F.; Forti, G.; Corrao, A.

    2013-07-01

    Following the collaboration agreement between the SAPIENZA, S.D.R.A. Department and the "Collectivité territoriale de Corse, secteur Archéologie", this project tried to set, accomplished on the archaeological site of the ancient roman city of Aléria, a complex program of selected dataset structured for many different uses and fruitions. As for any kind of survey, the initial project definition, described in this paper, constitutes the most delicate part of the work, in this instance a certain additional significance it has to be given to it, cause of the multiple interests focalized on the Aléria site, where a new digging season is expected after a sixty years long interruption. The process can be synthesized as follows: various surveying technologies were applied on the site, as 3D Laser scanning, Topography, and GPS; Dense Stereo Matching was accomplished on a sample object there excavated and actually exposed in the local Carcopino Museum, while Computational Photography techniques were realized on an object exposed in Rome in the Etruscan Museum of "Villa Giulia" as the other twin found and exposed in Aléria, to be a purpose for future collaborations. A GIS and WEBGIS workflow followed, using a specific application in its latest version, thus collecting all of the actual and previous documents, providing to build up a complete 3D geo-database with a space and time referenced 3D Web scene to share in the GIS online Cloud Platform. These applied procedures aim to spread the complex results, articulated in different sets on the social media world.

  15. Secondary Preservice Teachers Share Their Writing with Individual Students in School: A Survey of Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study was to describe the method, barriers, and positive effects when secondary preservice teachers of diverse subject areas shared their writing with individual middle and high school students in school. (Methodology) secondary preservice teachers (N = 77) shared their writing for two minutes before class each time…

  16. The Method and Significance of Secondary Preservice Teachers Sharing Reading with Individual Teenagers in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study was to describe how secondary preservice teachers of diverse subject areas shared their reading with an individual student in school. A second purpose was to describe the barriers (if any) that they faced sharing their reading. A third purpose was to report their beliefs about the positive aspects of sharing…

  17. Knowledge Management and the Practice of Knowledge Sharing and Learning at Work: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmholdt, Claus

    2004-01-01

    This article offers a critique of knowledge management. The critique is empirically based on the case study of a Danish software production company's (A-Soft) knowledge management strategy of implementing an information technology (IT) tool known as 'knowledge centre' (KC). The article argues: (1) the discourses on knowledge and learning informing…

  18. Formation of share market prices under heterogeneous beliefs and common knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Yuri; Giannoccolo, Pierpaolo; Galam, Serge

    2012-11-01

    Financial economic models often assume that investors know (or agree on) the fundamental value of the shares of the firm, easing the passage from the individual to the collective dimension of the financial system generated by the Share Exchange over time. Our model relaxes that heroic assumption of one unique “true value” and deals with the formation of share market prices through the dynamic formation of individual and social opinions (or beliefs) based upon a fundamental signal of economic performance and position of the firm, the forecast revision by heterogeneous individual investors, and their social mood or sentiment about the ongoing state of the market pricing process. Market clearing price formation is then featured by individual and group dynamics that make its collective dimension irreducible to its individual level. This dynamic holistic approach can be applied to better understand the market exuberance generated by the Share Exchange over time.

  19. Pedagogical Knowledge and Elementary Reading Methodology Textbooks: In Search of a Shared Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Jay; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines a computer-based concordance of 5,760 references from 12 elementary reading methodology textbooks with copyrights ranging from 1985 to 1989. Suggests the existence of a shared example of pedagogical knowledge, which is composed of a complex amalgam of knowledge on philosophy, principles, and practices. (RS)

  20. Knowledge Sharing, Communities of Practice, and Learning Asset Integration - DAU’s Major Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    investing in KM, Organizational Learning (OL), and other development programs to help employees tap into knowledge resources. This article discusses the...impact of KM on personal learning, job performance, and organizational learning . What follows is an overview of Knowledge Sharing through the eyes of the

  1. More than a Master: Developing, Sharing, and Using Knowledge in School-University Research Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Postgraduate master's programs for in-service teachers may be a promising new avenue in developing research partnership networks that link schools and university and enable collaborative development, sharing and use of knowledge of teacher research. This study explores the way these knowledge processes originating from master's students' research…

  2. A Collaborative Multimedia Annotation Tool for Enhancing Knowledge Sharing in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Stephen J. H.; Zhang, Jia; Su, Addison Y. S.; Tsai, Jeffrey J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) requires intensive social interactions among participants, typically in the form of annotations. An annotation refers to an explicit expression of knowledge that is attached to a document to reveal the conceptual meanings of an annotator's implicit thoughts. In this research, we…

  3. Examining Antecedents of Knowledge-Sharing Factors on Research Supervision: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosravi, Arash; Ahmad, Mohammad Nazir

    2016-01-01

    The use of an effective supervision mechanism is crucial between a student and supervisor. The essential knowledge shared and transferred between these two parties must be observed and understood very well in order to ensure that students are produced at good level of quality for future professional knowledge workers. The aim of this study was to…

  4. Virtual Knowledge-Sharing Communities of Practice at Caterpillar: Success Factors and Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexander; Page, Vaughn; Wentling, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of a qualitative study of success factors and barriers to the development of virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice at Caterpillar Inc. Identified prerequisites for successful knowledge management through virtual communities of practice, as well as barriers to virtual community development, and discusses future…

  5. Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Prachi; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2015-01-01

    In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss. Plants have evolved various physiological and molecular adaptations to protect themselves under stress combinations. Emerging evidences suggest that plant responses to a combination of stresses are unique from individual stress responses. In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of both unique and shared responses. Specific focus of this review is on heat–drought stress as a major abiotic stress combination and, drought–pathogen and heat–pathogen as examples of abiotic–biotic stress combinations. We also comprehend the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of cross talk in relation to shared and unique molecular responses for plant survival under stress combinations. Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance. PMID:26442037

  6. User involvement as sharing knowledge – an extended perspective in patient education

    PubMed Central

    Strøm, Anita; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient education is undergoing a paradigm shift in which the perspectives of patients are increasingly being incorporated into learning programs. Access to the users’ experience is now considered a prerequisite for the development of quality health services, but how this user experience is incorporated is somewhat unclear. The inclusion of experiential knowledge and user involvement can challenge professional authority, roles, and working methods because knowledge sharing is different from persuasion, professional explanation, and consent. Dialogue and collaboration between professionals and users are essential to effective user involvement; however, little is understood about the characteristics of their collaboration. Objective To describe characteristics of the collaboration between users and health professionals in developing, implementing, and evaluating patient education courses in hospitals. Design, setting, and methods A field study was conducted in three different hospitals. Data collection comprised open observations in meetings of 17 different collaboration groups with a total of 100 participants, and 24 interviews with users and professionals. The data analyses included both thematic and the Systematic Data Integration approach. Results Two contrasting types of collaboration emerged from the analyses; knowledge sharing and information exchange. The first was characterized by mutual knowledge sharing, involvement, and reciprocal decision making. Characteristics of the second were the absence of dialogue, meagre exploration of the users’ knowledge, and decisions usually made by the professionals. Conclusion Collaboration between users and health personnel takes place in an asymmetric relationship. Mutual knowledge sharing was found to be more than the exchange of information and consultation and also to be a prerequisite for shared decision making. In developing patient education when users are involved the health professionals have the

  7. The transformation of individual and collective knowledge in elementary science classrooms that are organised as knowledge-building communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinn, Michelle K.; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Boutonné, Sylvie; Woszczyna, Carolyn

    1995-06-01

    This study was designed to address two purposes. First, we wanted to test working hypotheses derived from previous studies about the transformation of individual and collective knowledge in elementary classrooms. Second, we attempted to understand the degree to which “ownership” was an appropriate concept to understand the process of learning in science classrooms. Over a four-month period, we collected extensive data in a Grade 6/7 classroom studying simple machines. As in our previous studies we found that (a) conceptual and material resources were readily shared among students, and (b) tool-related practices were appropriated as newcomers participated with more competent others (peers and teachers) in the pursuit of student-framed goals. We also found that for discursive change (“learning”) at the classroom level to occur, it appeared more important whether a new language game was closely related to students' previous language games than who actually proposed the new language game (teacher or student). Implications are drawn for the design of science curricula and classroom activities. Both pedagogy and design are still tightly bound by rationalist, symbol-manipulating, problem-solving assumptions that hold knowledge to be a property of individuals. Pedagogy still concentrates on the individual and individual performance, even though most work is ultimately collaborative and highly social. (Brown & Duguid, 1992, p. 171)

  8. Rethinking Knowledge Management: Strategies for Enhancing District-Level Teacher and Leader Tacit Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Grounded within knowledge management (KM) theory and conceptions of tacit and explicit knowledge, this article draws on historical evidence from the Early Years Literacy Project (EYLP), a four-year instructional renewal strategy implemented across 100 schools in a large Canadian school district. The EYLP management approach included a series of…

  9. Shared Sanitation versus Individual Household Latrines: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Cumming, Oliver; Peletz, Rachel; Chan, Gabrielle Ka-Seen; Brown, Joe; Baker, Kelly; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 761 million people rely on shared sanitation facilities. These have historically been excluded from international sanitation targets, regardless of the service level, due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this review to identify and summarize existing evidence that compares health outcomes associated with shared sanitation versus individual household latrines. Methods and Findings Shared sanitation included any type of facilities intended for the containment of human faeces and used by more than one household, but excluded public facilities. Health outcomes included diarrhoea, helminth infections, enteric fevers, other faecal-oral diseases, trachoma and adverse maternal or birth outcomes. Studies were included regardless of design, location, language or publication status. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the STROBE guidelines. Twenty-two studies conducted in 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. Studies show a pattern of increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation compared to individual household latrines. A meta-analysis of 12 studies reporting on diarrhoea found increased odds of disease associated with reliance on shared sanitation (odds ratio (OR) 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18–1.76). Conclusion Evidence to date does not support a change of existing policy of excluding shared sanitation from the definition of improved sanitation used in international monitoring and targets. However, such evidence is limited, does not adequately address likely confounding, and does not identify potentially important distinctions among types of shared facilities. As reliance on shared sanitation is increasing, further research is necessary to determine the circumstances, if any, under which shared sanitation can offer a safe, appropriate and acceptable alternative to individual household latrines. PMID:24743336

  10. The online Managed Knowledge Network that shares knowledge for eHealth in NHS Scotland.

    PubMed

    Dallest, Kathy; Strachan, Heather; Flett, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    The Managed Knowledge Network (MKN) for Nurses, Midwives and the Allied Health Professions (NMAHPs) in NHS Scotland was launched in November 2007. The online portal supports the NMAHP network to manage its knowledge and information sources that facilitate engagement with the national eHealth programme and realisation of benefits that eHealth offers to improve healthcare and service delivery. It is an integrated change management and knowledge management initiative. Web2 technologies support the social networking side of knowledge management and learning, allowing people to contact each other and collaborate. MKN resources are managed within the e-Library also giving access to over 5,000 online journals and over 500 bibliographic databases.

  11. Motivating interdependent teams: individual rewards, shared rewards, or something in between?

    PubMed

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Christian, Michael S; Ellis, Aleksander P J

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose in this study was to extend theory and research regarding the motivational process in teams by examining the effects of hybrid rewards on team performance. Further, to better understand the underlying team level mechanisms, the authors examined whether the hypothesized benefits of hybrid over shared and individual rewards were due to increased information allocation and reduced social loafing. Results from 90 teams working on a command-and-control simulation supported the hypotheses. Hybrid rewards led to higher levels of team performance than did individual and shared rewards; these effects were due to improvements in information allocation and reductions in social loafing.

  12. Can Universities Encourage Students' Continued Motivation for Knowledge Sharing and How Can This Help Organizations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Both practitioners and researchers recognize the increasing importance of knowledge sharing in organizations (Bock, Zmud, Kim, & Lee, 2005; Vera-Muñoz, Ho, & Chow, 2006). Knowledge sharing influences a firm's knowledge creation, organizational learning, performance achievement, growth, and competitive advantage (Bartol &…

  13. "Heading Up the Street:" Localized Opportunities for Shared Constructions of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carol D.; Majors, Yolanda J.

    2003-01-01

    Compares linguistic and non-linguistic components of ways of speaking, being, performing, and reasoning within an urban African American secondary classroom and a midwestern African American hair salon, identifying culturally shared interactional norms that inform knowledge building across sites and analyzing how the discourse norms and structures…

  14. Horizontal Evaluation: Fostering Knowledge Sharing and Program Improvement within a Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiele, Graham; Devaux, Andre; Velasco, Claudio; Horton, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal evaluation combines self-assessment and external evaluation by peers. Papa Andina, a regional network that works to reduce rural poverty in the Andean region by fostering innovation in potato production and marketing, has used horizontal evaluations to improve the work of local project teams and to share knowledge within the network. In…

  15. The Role of Motivators in Improving Knowledge-Sharing among Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Christine Nya-Ling; Ramayah, T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This research addresses a primary issue that involves motivating academics to share knowledge. Adapting the theory of reasoned action, this study examines the role of motivation that consists of intrinsic motivators (commitment; enjoyment in helping others) and extrinsic motivators (reputation; organizational rewards) to determine…

  16. DIY Activists: Communities of Practice, Cultural Dialogism, and Radical Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, David; Leskowitz, Shari

    2013-01-01

    This study explored innovative alternative processes of living, learning, and knowledge sharing of a loosely knit community of anarchist, anticapitalist "Do-It-Yourself" (DIY) activists. Generated through participant observation and interviews, findings reinforced adult education theories--that adults can diagnose their own learning…

  17. Debriefing in Moodle: Written Feedback on Trust and Knowledge Sharing in a Social Dilemma Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oertig, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to debriefing that uses the discussion forum feature of the Moodle open source course management system to debrief a simulation game with undergraduate business students. The simulation game allowed the students to experience the fragility of trust when sharing knowledge in a global virtual project team. I…

  18. Collaboration and Knowledge Sharing Using 3D Virtual World on "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahim, Noor Faridah A.

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative and knowledge sharing virtual activity on "Second Life" using a learner-centred teaching methodology was initiated between Temasek Polytechnic and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (HK PolyU) in the October 2011 semester. This paper highlights the author's experience in designing and implementing this e-learning…

  19. Intergenerational Sharing of Knowledge as Means of Deepening the Organisational Learning Culture in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph; Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2016-01-01

    Learning organisations promote the transfer of insights to new personnel (vertical dimension) and the development of shared team knowledge (horizontal dimension). Educational research focuses mainly on the horizontal dimension. This study examined a theoretical framework combining both dimensions and its contribution to teachers' work. Three…

  20. Exploration of Social Capital and Knowledge Sharing: An Empirical Study on Student Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying Chieh; Li, FengChia

    2012-01-01

    Although research on virtual teams is becoming more popular, there is a gap in the understanding of how social capital affects knowledge sharing and creating, and their impacts on virtual team performance. To fill in this gap, this study establishes a framework by incorporating social capital with the SECI model and further examines it with an…

  1. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  2. Employee Determinants to Share Knowledge in a U.S. Federal Government Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature indicates that knowledge sharing (KS) research is prevalent in the private sector, there is scant empirical research data about KS in the public sector. Moreover, organizations lack an understanding of employee KS behavior. This study investigated two research questions: First, how does the perceived importance of five…

  3. Confucius Institutes: Distributed Leadership and Knowledge Sharing in a Worldwide Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hsi Chang; Mirmirani, Sam; Ilacqua, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on Confucius Institutes and assess the applicability of theories of leadership and knowledge sharing to multinational organizations and worldwide networks. Growth of multinational trade and decrease in international tension have facilitated the globalization of both profit-seeking and non-profit…

  4. Asynchronous Knowledge Sharing and Conversation Interaction Impact on Grade in an Online Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2011-01-01

    Student knowledge sharing and conversation theory interactions were coded from asynchronous discussion forums to measure the effect of learning-oriented utterances on academic performance. The sample was 3 terms of an online business course (in an accredited MBA program) at a U.S.-based university. Correlation, stepwise regression, and multiple…

  5. Exploring the Supervisor Role as a Facilitator of Knowledge Sharing in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeil, Christina Mary

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the themes and implications, concerning the role of the supervisor as a facilitator of knowledge sharing in teams. After describing the strategic context for devolving human resource responsibilities to line managers, the paper defines and discusses the line manager/supervisor role. The barriers to learning in the workplace are…

  6. Knowledge Sharing and Educational Technology Acceptance in Online Academic Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate; Schustek, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Online programs rely on the use of educational technology for knowledge sharing in academic virtual communities of practice (vCoPs). This poses the question as to which factors influence technology acceptance. Previous research has investigated the inter-relationship between educational technology acceptance (ETA) and the vCoP context…

  7. Motivation for Knowledge Sharing by Expert Participants in Company-Hosted Online User Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Jingli

    2014-01-01

    Company-hosted online user communities are increasingly popular as firms continue to search for ways to provide their customers with high quality and reliable support in a low cost and scalable way. Yet, empirical understanding of motivations for knowledge sharing in this type of online communities is lacking, especially with regard to an…

  8. Let's Lunch and Learn: Professional Knowledge Sharing in Teachers' Lounges and Other Congregational Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Lynnette

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' lounges are often thought as places that breed negativity. This two-year ethnography conducted in the United States explored teachers' interactions within teachers' lounges and congregational spaces. This article discusses that an important occurrence in these spaces, professional knowledge sharing, took place instead of perpetual…

  9. The Impact of Affective and Cognitive Trust on Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Peter E.; Hwang, Alvin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to add to the research on the role of cognitive and affective trust in promoting knowledge sharing between executives and consequently establishing an organizational learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper examines the influence of one conceptualization of trust, one that has two…

  10. The Ecosystem Factor in Supporting Wiki Initiative for Knowledge Sharing in Malaysian Public Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khuzaimah, Khairil Hizar Md; Affandi, Haryanti Mohd; Hassan, Fadzil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significance of considering the organizational ecosystem in implementing wikis for knowledge sharing.The findings suggest that a prerequisite of an effective wiki is the appreciation of the factors that make up the organizational ecosystem; technical and organizational factors are variable elements of…

  11. Knowledge Sharing Through Online Communities of Practice: The Impact of Cultural Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Maurer, Martin; Wentling, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This study explores cultural variations in knowledge sharing strategies in virtual communities of practice at three overseas offices (located in Brazil, China, and Russia) of Caterpillar, a US-based Fortune 100 corporation. The study results show that such factors as degree of collectivism, competitiveness, the importance of saving face, cultural…

  12. National Culture in Practice: Its Impact on Knowledge Sharing in Global Virtual Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Kangning

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning global virtual collaboration have received considerable attention in both the academic and practical world; however, little research has been conducted on knowledge-sharing activities in global virtual collaboration, which is a key process to achieve collaboration effectiveness. Due to national culture having been seen as one of…

  13. Collaborative work and medical talk: opportunities for learning through knowledge sharing.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Line Lundvoll; Ludvigsen, Sten R

    2010-01-01

    Teleconsultations provide new opportunities for learning in medical settings. This study explores the conditions under which learning among physicians takes place. The empirical context is 47 real-time video conferences carried out to examine collaborative work and the medical talk involved. Sixteen of the observations were consultations wherein general practitioners (GPs) and specialists shared knowledge with the purpose of solving a medical problem related to a patient under treatment. In this exploratory study, the learning opportunities are seen as what medical practitioners with different types of expertise achieve through interaction while working with patients over periods of time. The analysis of medical talk in consultations shows that collaborative work among GPs and specialists creates a shared understanding of the patient's clinical history and treatment trajectory. As knowledge is demanded and attributed and gaps of knowledge become shared, consultations create a work tool that expands the medical work and talk. Collaborative work in and between different levels of the health care service expands knowledge, creates opportunities for learning in everyday settings, and improves the quality of knowledge distribution in the health care system.

  14. Assessment on Knowledge Network Sharing Capability of Industrial Cluster Based on Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hailin

    2014-01-01

    Based on Theory of Evidence and reviewing research papers concerned, a concept model of knowledge sharing network among industrial cluster firms, which can be applied to assess knowledge sharing capacity, has been built. Next, the authors create a set of assessment index systems including twelve subindexes under four principle indexes. In this study, ten experts in the same field were invited to score all the indexes of knowledge sharing capacity concerning one certain industrial cluster. The research result shows relatively high knowledge network sharing capacity among the certain industrial cluster firms. Another conclusion is that the assessment method with Theory of Evidence is feasible to conduct such a research. PMID:24795540

  15. Assessment on knowledge network sharing capability of industrial cluster based on dempster-shafer theory of evidence.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shengli; Zhang, Hailin

    2014-01-01

    Based on Theory of Evidence and reviewing research papers concerned, a concept model of knowledge sharing network among industrial cluster firms, which can be applied to assess knowledge sharing capacity, has been built. Next, the authors create a set of assessment index systems including twelve subindexes under four principle indexes. In this study, ten experts in the same field were invited to score all the indexes of knowledge sharing capacity concerning one certain industrial cluster. The research result shows relatively high knowledge network sharing capacity among the certain industrial cluster firms. Another conclusion is that the assessment method with Theory of Evidence is feasible to conduct such a research.

  16. From Knowledge Sharing to Knowledge Creation: A Blended Knowledge-Management Model for Improving University Students' Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu; Yeh, Yi-ling; Chen, Yu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Creativity and knowledge management are both important competences that university students need to strive to develop. This study therefore developed and evaluated an instructional program for improving university students' creativity based on a blended knowledge-management (KM) model that integrates e-learning and three core processes of KM:…

  17. WebLab: a data-centric, knowledge-sharing bioinformatic platform.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqiao; Wu, Jianmin; Wang, Jun; Liu, Xiaochuan; Zhao, Shuqi; Li, Zhe; Kong, Lei; Gu, Xiaocheng; Luo, Jingchu; Gao, Ge

    2009-07-01

    With the rapid progress of biological research, great demands are proposed for integrative knowledge-sharing systems to efficiently support collaboration of biological researchers from various fields. To fulfill such requirements, we have developed a data-centric knowledge-sharing platform WebLab for biologists to fetch, analyze, manipulate and share data under an intuitive web interface. Dedicated space is provided for users to store their input data and analysis results. Users can upload local data or fetch public data from remote databases, and then perform analysis using more than 260 integrated bioinformatic tools. These tools can be further organized as customized analysis workflows to accomplish complex tasks automatically. In addition to conventional biological data, WebLab also provides rich supports for scientific literatures, such as searching against full text of uploaded literatures and exporting citations into various well-known citation managers such as EndNote and BibTex. To facilitate team work among colleagues, WebLab provides a powerful and flexible sharing mechanism, which allows users to share input data, analysis results, scientific literatures and customized workflows to specified users or groups with sophisticated privilege settings. WebLab is publicly available at http://weblab.cbi.pku.edu.cn, with all source code released as Free Software.

  18. Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario Partidario, Maria; Sheate, William R.

    2013-02-15

    Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning

  19. CmapTools: A Software Environment for Knowledge Modeling and Sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canas, Alberto J.

    2004-01-01

    In an ongoing collaborative effort between a group of NASA Ames scientists and researchers at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) of the University of West Florida, a new version of CmapTools has been developed that enable scientists to construct knowledge models of their domain of expertise, share them with other scientists, make them available to anybody on the Internet with access to a Web browser, and peer-review other scientists models. These software tools have been successfully used at NASA to build a large-scale multimedia on Mars and in knowledge model on Habitability Assessment. The new version of the software places emphasis on greater usability for experts constructing their own knowledge models, and support for the creation of large knowledge models with large number of supporting resources in the forms of images, videos, web pages, and other media. Additionally, the software currently allows scientists to cooperate with each other in the construction, sharing and criticizing of knowledge models. Scientists collaborating from remote distances, for example researchers at the Astrobiology Institute, can concurrently manipulate the knowledge models they are viewing without having to do this at a special videoconferencing facility.

  20. Multicentre knowledge sharing and planning/dose audit on flattening filter free beams for SBRT lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. R.; Sykes, J. R.; Barber, J.; West, K.; Bromley, R.; Szymura, K.; Fisher, S.; Sim, J.; Bailey, M.; Chrystal, D.; Deshpande, S.; Franji, I.; Nielsen, T. B.; Brink, C.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2015-01-01

    When implementing new technology into clinical practice, there will always be a need for large knowledge gain. The aim of this study was twofold, (I) audit the treatment planning and dose delivery of Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beam technology for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) of lung tumours across a range of treatment planning systems compared to the conventional Flatting Filter (FF) beams, (II) investigate how sharing knowledge between centres of different experience can improve plan quality. All vendor/treatment planning system (TPS) combinations investigated were able to produce acceptable treatment plans and the dose accuracy was clinically acceptable for all plans. By sharing knowledge between the different centres, the minor protocol violations (MPV) could be significantly reduced, from an average of 1.9 MPV per plan to 0.6 after such sharing of treatment planning knowledge. In particular, for the centres with less SBRT and/or volumetric- modulated arc therapy (VMAT) experience the MPV average per plan improved. All vendor/TPS combinations were also able to successfully deliver the FF and FFF SBRT VMAT plans. The plan quality and dose accuracy were found to be clinically acceptable.

  1. D and D knowledge management information tool - a web based system developed to share D and D knowledge worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.; Upadhyay, H.; Shoffner, P.

    2013-07-01

    Deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) work is a high risk and technically challenging enterprise within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. During the past three decades, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management has been in charge of carrying out one of the largest environmental restoration efforts in the world: the cleanup of the Manhattan Project legacy. In today's corporate world, worker experiences and knowledge that have developed over time represent a valuable corporate asset. The ever-dynamic workplace, coupled with an aging workforce, presents corporations with the ongoing challenge of preserving work-related experiences and knowledge for cross-generational knowledge transfer to the future workforce [5]. To prevent the D and D knowledge base and expertise from being lost over time, the DOE and the Applied Research Center at Florida International University (FIU) have developed the web-based Knowledge Management Information Tool (KM-IT) to capture and maintain this valuable information in a universally available and easily accessible and usable system. The D and D KM-IT was developed in collaboration with DOE Headquarters (HQ), the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG), and the ALARA [as low as reasonably achievable] Centers at Savannah River Sites to preserve the D and D information generated and collected by the D and D community. This is an open secured system that can be accessed from https://www.dndkm.org over the web and through mobile devices at https://m.dndkm.org. This knowledge system serves as a centralized repository and provides a common interface for D and D-related activities. It also improves efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge and promotes the reuse of existing knowledge. It is a community-driven system that facilitates the gathering, analyzing, storing, and sharing of knowledge and information within the D and D community. It assists the DOE D and D community in identifying potential solutions to their

  2. Knowledge sharing and information integration in healthcare using ontologies and deductive databases.

    PubMed

    Nardon, Fabiane Bizinella; Moura, Lincoln A

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method for using Semantic Web technologies for sharing knowledge in healthcare. It combines deductive databases and ontologies, so that it is possible to extract knowledge that has not been explicitly declared within the database. A representation of the UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) Semantic Network and Metathesaurus was created using the RDF standard, in order to represent the basic medical ontology. The inference over the knowledge base is done by the TRI-DEDALO System, a deductive data-base created to query and update RDF based knowledge sources as well as conventional relational databases. Finally, an ontology was created for the Brazilian National Health Card data interchange format, a standard to capture and transmit health encounter information throughout the country. This paper demonstrates how this approach can be used to integrate heterogeneous information and to answer complex queries in a real world environment.

  3. In silico tools for sharing data and knowledge on toxicity and metabolism: derek for windows, meteor, and vitic.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Carol A; Briggs, Katharine A; Long, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lhasa Limited is a not-for-profit organization that exists to promote the sharing of data and knowledge in chemistry and the life sciences. It has developed the software tools Derek for Windows, Meteor, and Vitic to facilitate such sharing. Derek for Windows and Meteor are knowledge-based expert systems that predict the toxicity and metabolism of a chemical, respectively. Vitic is a chemically intelligent toxicity database. An overview of each software system is provided along with examples of the sharing of data and knowledge in the context of their development. These examples include illustrations of (1) the use of data entry and editing tools for the sharing of data and knowledge within organizations; (2) the use of proprietary data to develop nonconfidential knowledge that can be shared between organizations; (3) the use of shared expert knowledge to refine predictions; (4) the sharing of proprietary data between organizations through the formation of data-sharing groups; and (5) the use of proprietary data to validate predictions. Sharing of chemical toxicity and metabolism data and knowledge in this way offers a number of benefits including the possibilities of faster scientific progress and reductions in the use of animals in testing. Maximizing the accessibility of data also becomes increasingly crucial as in silico systems move toward the prediction of more complex phenomena for which limited data are available.

  4. Sharing What We Know about Living a Good Life: Indigenous Approaches to Knowledge Translation

    PubMed Central

    Smylie, Janet; Olding, Michelle; Ziegler, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge Translation (KT), a core priority in Canadian health research, policy, and practice for the past decade, has a long and rich tradition within Indigenous communities. In Indigenous knowledge systems the processes of “knowing” and “doing” are often intertwined and indistinguishable. However, dominant KT models in health science do not typically recognize Indigenous knowledge conceptualizations, sharing systems, or protocols and will likely fall short in Indigenous contexts. There is a need to move towards KT theory and practice that embraces diverse understandings of knowledge and that recognizes, respects, and builds on pre-existing knowledge systems. This will not only result in better processes and outcomes for Indigenous communities, it will also provide rich learning for mainstream KT scholarship and practice. As professionals deeply engaged in KT work, health librarians are uniquely positioned to support the development and implementation of Indigenous KT. This article provides information that will enhance the ability of readers from diverse backgrounds to promote and support Indigenous KT efforts, including an introduction to Indigenous knowledge conceptualizations and knowledge systems; key contextual issues to consider in planning, implementing, or evaluating KT in Indigenous settings; and contemporary examples of Indigenous KT in action. The authors pose critical reflection questions throughout the article that encourage readers to connect the content with their own practices and underlying knowledge assumptions. PMID:26793244

  5. Shared Knowledge for Decision-making on Environment and Health Issues in the Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will describe a remote sensing and GIs-based system to bring indigenous traditional knowledge together with contemporary scientific knowledge to address impacts resulting from changes in climate, environment, weather and pollution in the Arctic. As scientists and policy-makers from both indigenous and non-indigenous communities continue to build closer partnerships to address common sustainability issues such as the health impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities, it becomes increasingly important to create shared information management systems which integrate all relevant factors for optimal information sharing and decision-making. This system is being designed to bring together remotely sensed, indigenous and other data and observations for analysis, measuring, and monitoring parameters of interest (e.g., snow cover, rainfall, temperature, ice conditions, vegetation, infrastructure, fires). A description of the system and its components as well as a preliminary application of the system in the Arctic will be presented.

  6. A Game between Enterprise and Employees about the Tacit Knowledge Transfer and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuqin, Zhao; Guijun, Wang; Zhenqiang, Bao; Quanke, Pan

    Tacit knowledge transfer and sharing can lead to synergy, both employees and enterprise can benefit from it. This paper discusses the setting of incentive mechanism in order to promote tacit knowledge transfer and sharing of employees in the case of asymmetric information, and establishes the incentive model applied double auction theory. We introduce the concept of favor degree to establish the trust mechanism in the process of trading, and we bring forward the repeated double auction model based on favor degree, improving the transaction success rate, and accelerating the long-term cooperative relationship between enterprise and employees, and solving the quantity problems of employees' promotion potential and the sense of belonging in the human resource management. And then we use an example to demonstrate the feasibility of repeated game model.

  7. Shared Knowledge among Graphic Designers, Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Designing Multimedia-Based Instructional Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The research identified and explored the shared knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of subject matter expert, graphic designer and instructional designer. The knowledge shared by the team was categorized into three groups of multimedia design principles encompasses of basic principles, authoring…

  8. Trust and Work Place Spirituality on Knowledge Sharing Behaviour: Perspective from Non-Academic Staff of Higher Learning Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Osmangani, Aahad M; Daud, Nuraihan Mat; Chowdhury, Abdul Hannan; Hassan, Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This empirical research aims to add value in the existing research on knowledge sharing, investigate the antecedents of knowledge-sharing behaviour by embedding trust and workplace spirituality variable on non-academic staff from higher learning institution in Malaysia. The role of trust, perceived risk and workplace spirituality towards…

  9. Knowledge Sharing among University Students Facilitated with a Creative Commons Licensing Mechanism: A Case Study in a Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yi; Chao, Po-Yao

    2014-01-01

    Creative Commons (CC) mechanism has been suggested as a potential means to foster a reliable environment for online knowledge sharing activity. This study investigates the role of the CC mechanism in supporting knowledge sharing among a group of university students studying programming from the perspectives of social cognitive and social capital…

  10. Sharing Wisdom(s) to Enrich Knowledge: Working in a Transdisciplinary Research Team in Medical Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Carceller-Maicas, Natalia

    2015-06-01

    This paper explains our experience working in a transdisciplinary research team focused on adolescence mental health. It introduces briefly the two key theoretical concepts: participation and transdisciplinarity. In order to be followed with a deep description of the methodology and the creation of the two principal materials resulting from our research: a guide of best practices in adolescent mental health, and a documentary film. Showing in a practical way how the research could be enhanced by the sharing of knowledge.

  11. Shared cultural knowledge: Effects of music on young children's social preferences.

    PubMed

    Soley, Gaye; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Adults use cultural markers to discern the structure of the social landscape. Such markers may also influence the social preferences of young children, who tend to conform to their own group and prefer others who do so. However, the forces that propel these preferences are unknown. Here, we use social preferences based on music to investigate these forces in four- and five-year-old children. First, we establish that children prefer other children whose favorite songs are familiar to them. Then we show that this effect depends on shared knowledge: children both prefer others who know songs they themselves know, and avoid others who know songs they do not know, irrespective of the target children's liking of the songs. These results suggest that young children have a remarkably selective sensitivity to shared cultural knowledge. Shared knowledge may be a powerful determinant of children's social preferences, both because it underpins effective communication and because it is conveyed by others through social interactions and therefore can serve as a marker of social group identity.

  12. Individual Differences in Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge when Learning Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Darcy; Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on children's conceptual and procedural understanding of fractions, and other arithmetic skills, has led to contradictory conclusions. Some research suggests that children learn conceptual knowledge before procedural knowledge, some suggests that they learn procedural knowledge before conceptual knowledge, and other research…

  13. Information technologies and the sharing of disaster knowledge: the critical role of professional culture.

    PubMed

    Marincioni, Fausto

    2007-12-01

    A comparative survey of a diverse sample of 96 US and Italian emergency management agencies shows that the diffusion of new information technologies (IT) has transformed disaster communications. Although these technologies permit access to and the dissemination of massive amounts of disaster information with unprecedented speed and efficiency, barriers rooted in the various professional cultures still hinder the sharing of disaster knowledge. To be effective the available IT must be attuned to the unique settings and professional cultures of the local emergency management communities. Findings show that available technology, context, professional culture and interaction are key factors that affect the knowledge transfer process. Cultural filters appear to influence emergency managers' perceptions of their own professional roles, their vision of the applicability of technology to social issues, and their perspective on the transferability of disaster knowledge. Four cultural approaches to the application of IT to disaster communications are defined: technocentric; geographic,; anthropocentric; and ecocentric.

  14. A Method of Social Collaboration and Knowledge Sharing Acceleration for e-Learning System: The Distance Learning Network Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różewski, Przemysław

    Nowadays, e-learning systems take the form of the Distance Learning Network (DLN) due to widespread use and accessibility of the Internet and networked e-learning services. The focal point of the DLN performance is efficiency of knowledge processing in asynchronous learning mode and facilitating cooperation between students. In addition, the DLN articulates attention to social aspects of the learning process as well. In this paper, a method for the DLN development is proposed. The main research objectives for the proposed method are the processes of acceleration of social collaboration and knowledge sharing in the DLN. The method introduces knowledge-disposed agents (who represent students in educational scenarios) that form a network of individuals aimed to increase their competence. For every agent the competence expansion process is formulated. Based on that outcome the process of dynamic network formation performed on the social and knowledge levels. The method utilizes formal apparatuses of competence set and network game theories combined with an agent system-based approach.

  15. Examining the Impact of Pedagogy on Student Application of Learning: Acquiring, Sharing, and Using Knowledge for Organizational Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Alice C.; Williams, Jacqueline; Smith-Gratto, Karen; Black, Sylvia Sloan; Kane, Betty Turner

    2011-01-01

    In this pilot research we examine the impact of two leadership development training programs on the ability of students to acquire knowledge, share knowledge, and apply knowledge for organizational decision making. One program emphasized concepts and case-based application based on a technical learning paradigm. The other program used a game-based…

  16. Impact of heterogeneity and socioeconomic factors on individual behavior in decentralized sharing ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Gavaldà-Miralles, Arnau; Choffnes, David R.; Otto, John S.; Sánchez, Mario A.; Bustamante, Fabián E.; Amaral, Luís A. N.; Duch, Jordi; Guimerà, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Tens of millions of individuals around the world use decentralized content distribution systems, a fact of growing social, economic, and technological importance. These sharing systems are poorly understood because, unlike in other technosocial systems, it is difficult to gather large-scale data about user behavior. Here, we investigate user activity patterns and the socioeconomic factors that could explain the behavior. Our analysis reveals that (i) the ecosystem is heterogeneous at several levels: content types are heterogeneous, users specialize in a few content types, and countries are heterogeneous in user profiles; and (ii) there is a strong correlation between socioeconomic indicators of a country and users behavior. Our findings open a research area on the dynamics of decentralized sharing ecosystems and the socioeconomic factors affecting them, and may have implications for the design of algorithms and for policymaking. PMID:25288755

  17. Impact of heterogeneity and socioeconomic factors on individual behavior in decentralized sharing ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gavaldà-Miralles, Arnau; Choffnes, David R; Otto, John S; Sánchez, Mario A; Bustamante, Fabián E; Amaral, Luís A N; Duch, Jordi; Guimerà, Roger

    2014-10-28

    Tens of millions of individuals around the world use decentralized content distribution systems, a fact of growing social, economic, and technological importance. These sharing systems are poorly understood because, unlike in other technosocial systems, it is difficult to gather large-scale data about user behavior. Here, we investigate user activity patterns and the socioeconomic factors that could explain the behavior. Our analysis reveals that (i) the ecosystem is heterogeneous at several levels: content types are heterogeneous, users specialize in a few content types, and countries are heterogeneous in user profiles; and (ii) there is a strong correlation between socioeconomic indicators of a country and users behavior. Our findings open a research area on the dynamics of decentralized sharing ecosystems and the socioeconomic factors affecting them, and may have implications for the design of algorithms and for policymaking.

  18. Reflections and arguments in the construction of shared knowledge about the bioethical issues of genetic engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaltas, Fred David

    This qualitative inquiry reports on how metacognitive reflection was more stimulated within a context of a collective argument with a destination of shared knowledge construction. Its purpose was to investigate seventh grade students' group dilemma discussions about the bioethical issues of genetic engineering by relating the dynamics of argumentation to metacognitive mental actions involved in the construction of knowledge. Specifically examined were (1) students reflections and perceptions about the issues involved in the dilemma discussions, (2) elements of argument used during dilemma discussions that supported reasoning and thinking in the construction of knowledge, (3) metacognitive mental actions relating argument and reflective thoughts, (4) levels of metacognitive awareness, (5) levels of metacognitive awareness within argumentative structure. Focus-group interviews and discourse analysis revealed patterns regarding metacognitive strategies and reasoning, knowledge and awareness of the process of argument, and the construction of knowledge. Dilemma discussions may provide innovative learning environments in which reasoning could develop through co-construction and critical opposition fostering a metacognitive dimension of thinking.

  19. Internet Addictive Individuals Share Impulsivity and Executive Dysfunction with Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenhe; Zhu, Hongmei; Li, Cui; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction disorder (IAD) should belong to a kind of behavioral addiction. Previous studies indicated that there are many similarities in the neurobiology of behavior and substance addictions. Up to date, although individuals with IAD have difficulty in suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for IAD. Neuropsychological test studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the effect of IAD on the cognitive function. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent individuals. Participants include 22 Internet addictive individuals, 22 patients with alcohol dependence (AD), and 22 normal controls (NC). All participants were measured with BIS-11, go/no-go task, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Digit span task under the same experimental condition. Results showed that Barratt impulsiveness scale 11 scores, false alarm rate, the total response errors, perseverative errors, failure to maintain set of IAD and AD group were significantly higher than that of NC group, and hit rate, percentage of conceptual level responses, the number of categories completed, forwards scores, and backwards scores of IAD and AD group were significantly lower than that of NC group, however, no differences in above variables between IAD group and AD group were observed. These results revealed that the existence of impulsivity, deficiencies in executive function and working memory in an IAD and an AD sample, namely, Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25202248

  20. Transdisciplinary Project Communication and Knowledge Sharing Experiences in Tanzania and Zambia through a One Health Lens.

    PubMed

    Bagnol, Brigitte; Clarke, Elizabeth; Li, Mu; Maulaga, Wende; Lumbwe, Hilda; McConchie, Robyn; de Bruyn, Julia; Alders, Robyn Gwen

    2016-01-01

    The project "Strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia" brings together animal, crop, and human health specialists, economists, ecologists, social scientists, and practitioners to work with participating communities. It aims to increase poultry value chain, crop farming systems efficiency, and household food and nutrition security and thus requires understanding of, and ability to work effectively within, complex systems. In this context, communication knowledge sharing and synthesis between stakeholders from diverse backgrounds and a range of experiences, perspectives, agendas, and knowledge is a challenge. To address this situation, communication is conceived as a dialog and a participatory process bringing together all stakeholders. This process results in unanticipated and unexpected results that require a high degree of flexibility and adaptability from team members. The paper analyses the approach and aim of the communication strategy developed for the project and the challenges faced.

  1. Transdisciplinary Project Communication and Knowledge Sharing Experiences in Tanzania and Zambia through a One Health Lens

    PubMed Central

    Bagnol, Brigitte; Clarke, Elizabeth; Li, Mu; Maulaga, Wende; Lumbwe, Hilda; McConchie, Robyn; de Bruyn, Julia; Alders, Robyn Gwen

    2016-01-01

    The project “Strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia” brings together animal, crop, and human health specialists, economists, ecologists, social scientists, and practitioners to work with participating communities. It aims to increase poultry value chain, crop farming systems efficiency, and household food and nutrition security and thus requires understanding of, and ability to work effectively within, complex systems. In this context, communication knowledge sharing and synthesis between stakeholders from diverse backgrounds and a range of experiences, perspectives, agendas, and knowledge is a challenge. To address this situation, communication is conceived as a dialog and a participatory process bringing together all stakeholders. This process results in unanticipated and unexpected results that require a high degree of flexibility and adaptability from team members. The paper analyses the approach and aim of the communication strategy developed for the project and the challenges faced. PMID:26904532

  2. Continuous quality improvement: a shared governance model that maximizes agent-specific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Burkoski, Vanessa; Yoon, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Motivate, Innovate, Celebrate: an innovative shared governance model through the establishment of continuous quality improvement (CQI) councils was implemented across the London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC). The model leverages agent-specific knowledge at the point of care and provides a structure aimed at building human resources capacity and sustaining enhancements to quality and safe care delivery. Interprofessional and cross-functional teams work through the CQI councils to identify, formulate, execute and evaluate CQI initiatives. In addition to a structure that facilitates collaboration, accountability and ownership, a corporate CQI Steering Committee provides the forum for scaling up and spreading this model. Point-of-care staff, clinical management and educators were trained in LEAN methodology and patient experience-based design to ensure sufficient knowledge and resources to support the implementation.

  3. Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  4. Collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy: the difference it made in a service project about preterm birth disparity.

    PubMed

    Boutain, Doris M

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about how health disparities are created and sustained from those affected is needed. Collective knowledge sharing is one way to redefine and revalue dialogue and critique processes with the aim of promoting just relationships of knowledge production. This article describes how a community service project focused on using collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy with health ministry volunteers produced insights about preterm birth disparity issues. Project insights related to (1) the connection between faith and health, (2) the significance of family and congregational stories, and (3) the importance of praising assets in the context of disparity recognition.

  5. Exotic herbivores on a shared native host: tissue quality after individual, simultaneous, and sequential attack.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sara; Orians, Colin M; Preisser, Evan L

    2012-08-01

    Plants in nature are often attacked by multiple enemies whose effect on the plant cannot always be predicted based on the outcome of individual attacks. We investigated how two invasive herbivores, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) (HWA) and the elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa) (EHS), alter host plant quality (measured as amino acid concentration and composition) when feeding individually or jointly on eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an important long-lived forest tree that is in severe decline. The joint herbivore treatments included both simultaneous and sequential infestations by the two herbivores. We expected resource depletion over time, particularly in response to feeding by HWA. In contrast, HWA dramatically increased the concentration and altered the composition of individual free amino acids. Compared to control trees, HWA increased total amino acid concentration by 330% after 1 year of infestation. Conversely, EHS had a negligible effect when feeding individually. Interestingly, there was a marginally significant HWA × EHS interaction that suggests the potential for EHS presence to reduce the impact of HWA on foliage quality when the two species co-occur. We suggest indirect effects of water stress as a possible physiological mechanism for our results. Understanding how species interactions change the physiology of a shared host is crucial to making more accurate predictions about host mortality and subsequent changes in affected communities and ecosystems, and to help design appropriate management plans.

  6. Knowledge acquired, satisfaction attained and attitudes towards shared decision making in colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alonso, Francisco J.; Tejero, María Hernández; Cambrodón, Daniel Bonillo; Bermejo, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background Introducing shared decision making (SDM) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening requires patients to acquire appropriate knowledge. We aimed to describe the knowledge attained by subjects with a family history of CRC. Methods Consecutive patients attending the gastroenterology clinic for a CRC family history were invited to take part in a cross-sectional survey. Attitudes towards SDM, satisfaction with the information received, knowledge currently achieved, and relevant influencing factors were evaluated. Satisfaction and attitudes towards SDM were evaluated with Likert scale questions. Knowledge was surveyed with closed (80%) and open (20%) questions. Results Of the 160 patients, 42.7% were male and the median age was 51.8 years (interquartile range: 43.9-58.5). Most subjects favored SDM; only 12.8% (8.4-19.1%) favored passive attitudes. Satisfaction with the information received about what a colonoscopy is and why it is recommended was adequate in 83.1% (76.4-88.2%). Information about risks satisfied 62.9% (55-70.1%) and about alternatives to colonoscopy only 30.6% (23.8-38.3%). The benefits of screening were better known than its risks and alternatives. The CRC decrease associated with screening was known to 71.3% (63.7-77.8%), but only 38.5% (31.1-46.4%) knew that a reduced risk still exists. Just 21.2% (15.5-26.9%) could mention an alternative screening method to colonoscopy and only 42.5% (35-50.4%) were aware of any associated harm. On multivariate analysis, higher educational level and younger age of the attending physician were associated with higher knowledge scores. Conclusion SDM is considered favorably by most patients. Although information about the benefits of CRC screening is transmitted adequately, risks and alternatives should be better addressed. PMID:28042241

  7. Community-Based Individual Knowledge Construction in the Classroom: A Process-Oriented Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looi, C.-K.; Chen, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of knowledge convergence and knowledge sharing in the context of classroom collaboration in which students do a group learning activity mediated by a generic representation tool. In analysing the transcript of the interactions of a group, we adapt the group cognition method of Stahl and the uptake analysis…

  8. Shared Decision Making and Patient Decision Aids: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Hawai‘i Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Friend, John; Chun, Maria BJ

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the health care field moves toward patient-centered care (PCC), increasing emphasis has been placed on the benefits of patient decision aids for promoting shared decision making (SDM). This study provides a baseline measure of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among Hawai‘i's physicians with respect to patient decision aids (DAs). Physicians throughout the State of Hawai‘i were invited to complete a survey assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to the clinical use of DAs. One hundred and seventy four valid surveys were analyzed. Reported awareness and use of DAs were low, but recognition of the benefits of SDM and openness to the use of DAs were very high. The leading perceived barriers to the implementation of DAs were lack of awareness, lack of resources, and limited physician time to learn about DA technology. However, a significant majority of the respondents reported that DAs could empower patients by improving knowledge (88%), increasing satisfaction with the consultation process (81%), and increasing compliance (74%). Among physicians currently employing DAs, use of brochures or options matrix sheets was the most common aid tool. However, leading recommended DA formats were paper-based brochures for clinic use (75%) and interactive online website programs for outside clinic use (73.5%). Given growing emphasis on the PCC model and the recognized desire of many patients to participate in the medical decision making process, positive responses toward SDM and the use of DAs by Hawai‘i physicians are promising. PMID:24251086

  9. Individual differences and metacognitive knowledge of visual search strategy.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    A crucial ability for an organism is to orient toward important objects and to ignore temporarily irrelevant objects. Attention provides the perceptual selectivity necessary to filter an overwhelming input of sensory information to allow for efficient object detection. Although much research has examined visual search and the 'template' of attentional set that allows for target detection, the behavior of individual subjects often reveals the limits of experimental control of attention. Few studies have examined important aspects such as individual differences and metacognitive strategies. The present study analyzes the data from two visual search experiments for a conjunctively defined target (Proulx, 2007). The data revealed attentional capture blindness, individual differences in search strategies, and a significant rate of metacognitive errors for the assessment of the strategies employed. These results highlight a challenge for visual attention studies to account for individual differences in search behavior and distractibility, and participants that do not (or are unable to) follow instructions.

  10. Individual Differences and Metacognitive Knowledge of Visual Search Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A crucial ability for an organism is to orient toward important objects and to ignore temporarily irrelevant objects. Attention provides the perceptual selectivity necessary to filter an overwhelming input of sensory information to allow for efficient object detection. Although much research has examined visual search and the ‘template’ of attentional set that allows for target detection, the behavior of individual subjects often reveals the limits of experimental control of attention. Few studies have examined important aspects such as individual differences and metacognitive strategies. The present study analyzes the data from two visual search experiments for a conjunctively defined target (Proulx, 2007). The data revealed attentional capture blindness, individual differences in search strategies, and a significant rate of metacognitive errors for the assessment of the strategies employed. These results highlight a challenge for visual attention studies to account for individual differences in search behavior and distractibility, and participants that do not (or are unable to) follow instructions. PMID:22066030

  11. Sexual Knowledge Acquisition and Retention for Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pask, Liza; Hughes, Tammy L.; Sutton, Lawrence R.

    2016-01-01

    "Healthy Relationships & Autism" is a developmentally sequenced, manualized intervention intended for children and adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The curriculum is designed to facilitate healthy interpersonal relationships; three modules cover personal hygiene, sexual knowledge, and a variety of productive…

  12. Seeking and Sharing Knowledge Using Social Media in an Organization: The Impact of Social Influence, Organization Structure and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    The prolific use of social media tools such as blogs and wikis is leading several organizations to adopt these tools. However, success of social media depends on its use by employees to share and seek knowledge. Based on a unique data set obtained from a large multi-national corporation, I examined three different aspects of knowledge seeking and…

  13. Identifying Knowledge Sharing Barriers in the Collaboration of Traditional and Western Medicine Professionals in Chinese Hospitals: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lihong; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that aims at identifying knowledge sharing (KS) barriers between traditional and western medicine practitioners co-existing and complementing each other in Chinese healthcare organisations. The study focuses on the tacit aspects of patient knowledge, rather than the traditional technical information shared…

  14. Consume, Modify, Share (CMS): The Interplay between Individual Decisions and Structural Network Properties in the Diffusion of Information.

    PubMed

    Koren, Hila; Kaminer, Ido; Raban, Daphne Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Widely used information diffusion models such as Independent Cascade Model, Susceptible Infected Recovered (SIR) and others fail to acknowledge that information is constantly subject to modification. Some aspects of information diffusion are best explained by network structural characteristics while in some cases strong influence comes from individual decisions. We introduce reinvention, the ability to modify information, as an individual level decision that affects the diffusion process as a whole. Based on a combination of constructs from the Diffusion of Innovations and the Critical Mass Theories, the present study advances the CMS (consume, modify, share) model which accounts for the interplay between network structure and human behavior and interactions. The model's building blocks include processes leading up to and following the formation of a critical mass of information adopters and disseminators. We examine the formation of an inflection point, information reach, sustainability of the diffusion process and collective value creation. The CMS model is tested on two directed networks and one undirected network, assuming weak or strong ties and applying constant and relative modification schemes. While all three networks are designed for disseminating new knowledge they differ in structural properties. Our findings suggest that modification enhances the diffusion of information in networks that support undirected connections and carries the biggest effect when information is shared via weak ties. Rogers' diffusion model and traditional information contagion models are fine tuned. Our results show that modifications not only contribute to a sustainable diffusion process, but also aid information in reaching remote areas of the network. The results point to the importance of cultivating weak ties, allowing reciprocal interaction among nodes and supporting the modification of information in promoting diffusion processes. These results have theoretical and

  15. Consume, Modify, Share (CMS): The Interplay between Individual Decisions and Structural Network Properties in the Diffusion of Information

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Hila; Kaminer, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Widely used information diffusion models such as Independent Cascade Model, Susceptible Infected Recovered (SIR) and others fail to acknowledge that information is constantly subject to modification. Some aspects of information diffusion are best explained by network structural characteristics while in some cases strong influence comes from individual decisions. We introduce reinvention, the ability to modify information, as an individual level decision that affects the diffusion process as a whole. Based on a combination of constructs from the Diffusion of Innovations and the Critical Mass Theories, the present study advances the CMS (consume, modify, share) model which accounts for the interplay between network structure and human behavior and interactions. The model's building blocks include processes leading up to and following the formation of a critical mass of information adopters and disseminators. We examine the formation of an inflection point, information reach, sustainability of the diffusion process and collective value creation. The CMS model is tested on two directed networks and one undirected network, assuming weak or strong ties and applying constant and relative modification schemes. While all three networks are designed for disseminating new knowledge they differ in structural properties. Our findings suggest that modification enhances the diffusion of information in networks that support undirected connections and carries the biggest effect when information is shared via weak ties. Rogers' diffusion model and traditional information contagion models are fine tuned. Our results show that modifications not only contribute to a sustainable diffusion process, but also aid information in reaching remote areas of the network. The results point to the importance of cultivating weak ties, allowing reciprocal interaction among nodes and supporting the modification of information in promoting diffusion processes. These results have theoretical and

  16. Quality management as knowledge sharing: experiences of the Napa County Health and Human Services Agency.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Lacking a coordinated effort in utilizing data and tracking program outcomes, one agency developed a Quality Management (QM) division to facilitate and manage more effective data use. To support this process, the agency sought to develop a collective, agency-wide understanding and investment in improving and measuring client outcomes. Similarly, the agency also focused efforts on creating a culture of transparency and accountability, with goals of improving service, increasing agency integrity, meeting regulatory compliance, and engaging in effective risk management. Operationalizing the QM initiative involved developing procedures, systems, and guidelines that would facilitate the generation of reliable and accurate data that could be used to inform program change and decision-making. This case study describes this agency's experience in successfully creating and implementing a QM initiative aimed at engaging in greater knowledge sharing.

  17. Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK). The NASA Source for Project Management Magazine, Volume 11, March 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    APPL is a research-based organization that serves NASA program and project managers, as well as project teams, at every level of development. In 1997, APPL was created from an earlier program to underscore the importance that NASA places on project management and project teams through a wide variety of products and services, including knowledge sharing, classroom and online courses, career development guidance, performance support, university partnerships, and advanced technology tools. ASK Magazine grew out of APPL's Knowledge Sharing Initiative. The stories that appear in ASK are written by the 'best of the best' project managers, primarily from NASA, but also from other government agencies and industry. Contributors to this issue include: Teresa Bailey, a librarian at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Roy Malone, Deputy Director in the Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), W. Scott Cameron, Capital Systems Manager for the Food and Beverage Global Business Unit of Procter and Gamble, Ray Morgan, recent retiree as Vice President of AeroVironment, Inc., Marty Davis, Program Manager of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, Todd Post, editor of ASK Magazine, and works for EduTech Ltd. in Silver Spring, Maryland, Dr. Owen Gadeken, professor of Engineering Management at the Defense Acquisition University, Ken Schwer, currently the Project Manager of Solar Dynamics Observatory, Dr. Edward Hoffmwan, Director of the NASA Academy of Program and Project Leadership, Frank Snow, a member of the NASA Explorer Program at Goddard Space Flight Center since 1992, Dr. Alexander Laufer, Editor-in-Chief of ASK Magazine and a member of the Advisory Board of the NASA Academy of Program and Project Leadership, Judy Stokley, presently Air Force Program Executive Officer for Weapons in Washington, D.C. and Terry Little, Director of the Kinetic

  18. Knowledge sharing and organizational learning in the context of hospital infection prevention.

    PubMed

    Rangachari, Pavani

    2010-01-01

    Recently, hospitals that have been successful in preventing infections have labeled their improvement approaches as either the Toyota Production System (TPS) approach or the Positive Deviance (PD) approach. PD has been distinguished from TPS as being a bottom-up approach to improvement, as against top-down. Facilities that have employed both approaches have suggested that PD may be more effective than TPS for infection prevention. This article integrates organizational learning, institutional, and knowledge network theories to develop a theoretical framework for understanding the structure and evolution of effective knowledge-sharing networks in health care organizations, that is, networks most conducive to learning and improvement. Contrary to arguments put forth by hospital success stories, the framework suggests that networks rich in brokerage and hierarchy (ie, top-down, "TPS-like" structures) may be more effective for learning and improvement in health care organizations, compared with a networks rich in density (ie, bottom-up, "PD-like" structures). The theoretical framework and ensuing analysis help identify several gaps in the literature related to organization learning and improvement in the infection prevention context. This, in turn, helps put forth recommendations for health management research and practice.

  19. Knowledge corruption for visual perception in individuals high on paranoia.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Göritz, Anja S; Van Quaquebeke, Niels; Andreou, Christina; Jungclaussen, David; Peters, Maarten J V

    2014-03-30

    Studies revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia display overconfidence in errors for memory and social cognition tasks. The present investigation examined whether this pattern holds true for visual perception tasks. Nonclinical participants were recruited via an online panel. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the Paranoia Checklist and were then presented with 24 blurry pictures; half contained a hidden object while the other half showed snowy (visual) noise. Participants were asked to state whether the visual items contained an object and how confident they were in their judgment. Data from 1966 individuals were included following a conservative selection process. Participants high on core paranoid symptoms showed a poor calibration of confidence for correct versus incorrect responses. In particular, participants high on paranoia displayed overconfidence in incorrect responses and demonstrated a 20% error rate for responses made with high confidence compared to a 12% error rate in participants with low paranoia scores. Interestingly, paranoia scores declined after performance of the task. For the first time, overconfidence in errors was demonstrated among individuals with high levels of paranoia using a visual perception task, tentatively suggesting it is a ubiquitous phenomenon. In view of the significant decline in paranoia across time, bias modification programs may incorporate items such as the one employed here to teach patients with clinical paranoia the fallibility of human cognition, which may foster subsequent symptom improvement.

  20. AgShare Open Knowledge: Improving Rural Communities through University Student Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geith, Christine; Vignare, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of AgShare is to create a scalable and sustainable collaboration of existing organizations for African publishing, localizing, and sharing of science-based teaching and learning materials that fill critical resource gaps in African MSc agriculture curriculum. Shared innovative practices are emerging through the AgShare projects, not only…

  1. Mental Representation of Circuit Diagrams: Individual Differences in Procedural Knowledge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Function ("ALTER" Task) 4-2 4.4 Task 3: Complete Circuit ("COMPLETE" Task) 4-2 4.5 Subjects 4-3 4.6 Materials 4-3 4.7 General Procedure 4-3 4.8 Results 4...PROGRAM FOR THIRD YEAR 5-1 5.1 Overview 5-1 5.2 Subjects 5-2 5.3 Materials 5-3 5.4 Procedure 5-3 5.5 Predictions 5-6 6. REFERENCES 6-1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1...tasks targeted for the three-year program are as follows: (1) First-Year: Exploration of structural and functional knowledge. Develop stimulus material

  2. Domain Knowledge and Individual Interest: The Effects of Academic Level and Specialization in Statistics and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Kimberly A.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous research studies have highlighted the significant impact of domain knowledge and individual interest on learning. However, much of this prior research has neglected several important issues regarding the dynamic interplay of domain knowledge and individual interest both within and between domains as well as across developmental stages of…

  3. Interpersonal Coordination and Individual Organization Combined with Shared Phenomenological Experience in Rowing Performance: Two Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ludovic; Lardy, Julien; Bourbousson, Jérôme; Adé, David; Nordez, Antoine; Thouvarecq, Régis; Saury, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to examine the impact of variability in interpersonal coordination and individual organization on rowing performance. The second aim was to analyze crew phenomenology in order to understand how rowers experience their joint actions when coping with constraints emerging from the race. We conducted a descriptive and exploratory study of two coxless pair crews during a 3000-m rowing race against the clock. As the investigation was performed in an ecological context, we postulated that our understanding of the behavioral dynamics of interpersonal coordination and individual organization and the variability in performance would be enriched through the analysis of crew phenomenology. The behavioral dynamics of individual organization were assessed at kinematic and kinetic levels, and interpersonal coordination was examined by computing the relative phase between oar angles and oar forces and the difference in the oar force impulse of the two rowers. The inter-cycle variability of the behavioral dynamics of one international and one national crew was evaluated by computing the root mean square and the Cauchy index. Inter-cycle variability was considered significantly high when the behavioral and performance data for each cycle were outside of the confidence interval. Crew phenomenology was characterized on the basis of self-confrontation interviews and the rowers' concerns were then analyzed according to course-of-action methodology to identify the shared experiences. Our findings showed that greater behavioral variability could be either "perturbing" or "functional" depending on its impact on performance (boat velocity); the rowers experienced it as sometimes meaningful and sometimes meaningless; and their experiences were similar or diverging. By combining phenomenological and behavioral data, we explain how constraints not manipulated by an experimenter but emerging from the ecological context of a race can be associated with

  4. Interpersonal Coordination and Individual Organization Combined with Shared Phenomenological Experience in Rowing Performance: Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Ludovic; Lardy, Julien; Bourbousson, Jérôme; Adé, David; Nordez, Antoine; Thouvarecq, Régis; Saury, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to examine the impact of variability in interpersonal coordination and individual organization on rowing performance. The second aim was to analyze crew phenomenology in order to understand how rowers experience their joint actions when coping with constraints emerging from the race. We conducted a descriptive and exploratory study of two coxless pair crews during a 3000-m rowing race against the clock. As the investigation was performed in an ecological context, we postulated that our understanding of the behavioral dynamics of interpersonal coordination and individual organization and the variability in performance would be enriched through the analysis of crew phenomenology. The behavioral dynamics of individual organization were assessed at kinematic and kinetic levels, and interpersonal coordination was examined by computing the relative phase between oar angles and oar forces and the difference in the oar force impulse of the two rowers. The inter-cycle variability of the behavioral dynamics of one international and one national crew was evaluated by computing the root mean square and the Cauchy index. Inter-cycle variability was considered significantly high when the behavioral and performance data for each cycle were outside of the confidence interval. Crew phenomenology was characterized on the basis of self-confrontation interviews and the rowers' concerns were then analyzed according to course-of-action methodology to identify the shared experiences. Our findings showed that greater behavioral variability could be either “perturbing” or “functional” depending on its impact on performance (boat velocity); the rowers experienced it as sometimes meaningful and sometimes meaningless; and their experiences were similar or diverging. By combining phenomenological and behavioral data, we explain how constraints not manipulated by an experimenter but emerging from the ecological context of a race can be associated with

  5. Knowledge about aerosol injection does not reduce individual mitigation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merk, Christine; Pönitzsch, Gert; Rehdanz, Katrin

    2016-05-01

    Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) is a climate engineering method that is reputed to be very effective in cooling the planet but is also thought to involve major risks and side effects. As a new option in the bid to counter climate change, it has attracted an increasing amount of research and the debate on its potential gained momentum after it was referred to in the 5th IPCC assessment report (IPCC 2013). One major objection to SAI and the research done on it is that it could undermine commitment to the mitigation of greenhouse gases. Policymakers, interest groups or individuals might wrongly perceive SAI as an easy fix for climate change and accordingly reduce their mitigation efforts. This is the first study to provide an empirical evaluation of this claim for individuals. In a large-scale framed field experiment with more than 650 participants, we provide evidence that people do not back-pedal on mitigation when they are told that the climate change problem could be partly addressed via SAI. Instead, we observe that people who have been informed about SAI mitigate more than people who have not. Our data suggest that the increase is driven by a perception of SAI as potential threat.

  6. Institutional and Individual Influences on Scientists' Data Sharing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngseek

    2013-01-01

    In modern research activities, scientific data sharing is essential, especially in terms of data-intensive science and scholarly communication. Scientific communities are making ongoing endeavors to promote scientific data sharing. Currently, however, data sharing is not always well-deployed throughout diverse science and engineering disciplines.…

  7. Views of Ethical Best Practices in Sharing Individual-Level Data From Medical and Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Nia; Parker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing support for sharing individual-level data generated by medical and public health research. This scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature examined stakeholders’ perspectives of ethical best practices in data sharing, particularly in low- and middle-income settings. Sixty-nine empirical and conceptual articles were reviewed, of which, only five were empirical studies and eight were conceptual articles focusing on low- and middle-income settings. We conclude that support for sharing individual-level data is contingent on the development and implementation of international and local policies and processes to support ethical best practices. Further conceptual and empirical research is needed to ensure data sharing policies and processes in low- and middle-income settings are appropriately informed by stakeholders’ perspectives. PMID:26297745

  8. Shared Sanitation versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy. PMID:26123953

  9. Shared Sanitation Versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy.

  10. Leadership = Communication? The Relations of Leaders' Communication Styles with Leadership Styles, Knowledge Sharing and Leadership Outcomes.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Reinout E; Bakker-Pieper, Angelique; Oostenveld, Wyneke

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between leaders' communication styles and charismatic leadership, human-oriented leadership (leader's consideration), task-oriented leadership (leader's initiating structure), and leadership outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A survey was conducted among 279 employees of a governmental organization. The following six main communication styles were operationalized: verbal aggressiveness, expressiveness, preciseness, assuredness, supportiveness, and argumentativeness. Regression analyses were employed to test three main hypotheses. FINDINGS: In line with expectations, the study showed that charismatic and human-oriented leadership are mainly communicative, while task-oriented leadership is significantly less communicative. The communication styles were strongly and differentially related to knowledge sharing behaviors, perceived leader performance, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate's team commitment. Multiple regression analyses showed that the leadership styles mediated the relations between the communication styles and leadership outcomes. However, leader's preciseness explained variance in perceived leader performance and satisfaction with the leader above and beyond the leadership style variables. IMPLICATIONS: This study offers potentially invaluable input for leadership training programs by showing the importance of leader's supportiveness, assuredness, and preciseness when communicating with subordinates. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although one of the core elements of leadership is interpersonal communication, this study is one of the first to use a comprehensive communication styles instrument in the study of leadership.

  11. Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredlund, Tobias; Airey, John; Linder, Cedric

    2012-05-01

    Research has shown that interactive engagement enhances student learning outcomes. A growing body of research suggests that the representations we use in physics are important in such learning environments. In this paper we draw on a number of sources in the literature to explore the role of representations in interactive engagement in physics. In particular we are interested in the potential for sharing disciplinary knowledge inherent in so-called persistent representations (such as equations, diagrams and graphs), which we use in physics. We use selected extracts from a case study, where a group of senior undergraduate physics students are asked to explain the phenomenon of refraction, to illustrate implications for interactive engagement. In this study the ray diagram that was initially introduced by the students did not appear to sufficiently support their interactive engagement. However, the introduction of a wavefront diagram quickly led their discussion to an agreed conclusion. From our analysis we conclude that in interactive engagement it is important to choose appropriate persistent representations to coordinate the use of other representations such as speech and gestures. Pedagogical implications and future research are proposed.

  12. Barriers to knowledge sharing in Chinese healthcare referral services: an emergent theoretical model

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a research study that aims to identify and explain barriers to knowledge sharing (KS) in the provision of healthcare referral services in Chinese healthcare organisations. Design An inductive case study approach was employed, in which 24 healthcare professionals and workers from four healthcare organisations in the province of Hubei, Central China, were interviewed using semi-structured scripts. Results Through data analysis, 14 KS barriers emerged in four main themes: interpersonal trust barriers, communication barriers, management and leadership barriers, and inter-institutional barriers. A cause–consequence analysis of the identified barriers revealed that three of them are at the core of the majority of problems, namely, the absence of national and local policies for inter-hospital KS, lack of a specific hospital KS requirement, and lack of mutual acquaintance. Conclusions To resolve KS problems, it is of great importance that healthcare governance agencies, both at the national and regional levels, take leadership in the process of KS implementation by establishing specific and strong policies for inter-institutional KS in the referral process. This paper raises important issues that exceed academic interests and are important to healthcare professionals, hospital managers, and Information communication technology (ICT) managers in hospitals, as well as healthcare politicians and policy makers. PMID:26895146

  13. One NASA: Sharing Knowledge Through an Agency-wide Process Asset Library (PAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truss, Baraka J.

    2006-01-01

    This poster session will cover the key purpose and components behind implementing the NASA PAL website. This session will present the current results, describing the process used to create the website, the current usage measure, and will demonstrate how NASA is truly becoming ONE. The target audience for the poster session includes those currently implementing the CMMI model and looking for PAL adoption techniques. To continue to be the leader in space, science and technology, NASA is using this agency-wide PAL to share knowledge, work products and lessons learned through this website. Many organizations have failed to recognize how the efforts of process improvement fit into overall organizational effort. However, NASA as an agency has adopted the benefits of process improvement by the creation of this website to foster communication between its ten centers. The poster session will cover the following, topics outlined below: 1) Website purpose; 2) Characteristics of the website; 3) User accounts status; 4) Website content size; and 5) Usage percentages.

  14. A Service Oriented Web Application for Learner Knowledge Representation, Management and Sharing Conforming to IMS LIP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    iLM is a Web based application for representation, management and sharing of IMS LIP conformant user profiles. The tool is developed using a service oriented architecture with emphasis on the easy data sharing. Data elicitation from user profiles is based on the utilization of XQuery scripts and sharing with other applications is achieved through…

  15. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stationary floating crab processor. (3) PQS issued to Blue Dutch, LLC. (i) Pursuant to Public Law 109-241... crab QS fishery. (ii) PQS units issued to Blue Dutch, LLC, under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS...

  16. Activity Systems, Information Sharing and the Development of Organizational Knowledge in Two Finnish Firms: An Exploratory Study Using Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widén-Wulff, Gunilla; Davenport, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper, we discuss the link between information sharing and organizational knowledge production in two very different organizations; a company that handles insurance claims and a small, entrepreneurial hi-tech company. We suggest that this link has not been adequately addressed by studies of information behaviour, though a…

  17. Collaborative 3D Learning Games for Future Learning: Teachers' Instructional Practices to Enhance Shared Knowledge Construction among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hämäläinen, Raija; Oksanen, Kimmo

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative games will enable new kinds of possibilities for learning. In the future, the goal of game-based learning should be to introduce new ideas and deepen learners' in-depth understanding. However, studies have shown that shared high-level knowledge construction is a challenging process. Moreover, thus far, few empirical studies have…

  18. The Association between Attitude towards the Implementation of Staff Development Training and the Practice of Knowledge Sharing among Lecturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassim, Abd. Latif; Raman, Arumugam; Don, Yahya; Daud, Yaakob; Omar, Mohd Sofian

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify the association of teachers' attitude towards the implementation of Staff Development Training with Knowledge Sharing Practices among the lecturers of the Teacher Training Institution (TTI). In addition, this study was also to examine the differences in attitudes towards the implementation of Staff Development…

  19. The Role of Shared Knowledge in Science: The Failure of the Constructivist Programme in the Sociology of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenthal, Gad

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of contructivism, focusing on the work of Karin Knorr-Cetina. Indicates that an internal critique of Knorr's arguments for the relativist program in the sociology highlights the role of shared knowledge in science and that Knorr's analysis produces new insights concerning the necessity and nature of scientific consensus.…

  20. Analyzing the Relationship of Organizational Trust and Organizational Culture with Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Teachers of Second Intermediate Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahhosseini, Sakineh; Nadi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the relationship of organizational trust, organizational culture with knowledge sharing behavior among teachers of Second Intermediate Period in the City of Isfahan. Research method was correlation and statistical population included all teachers of Second Intermediate Period of Isfahan in academic year 2013-2014 (N…

  1. TissueWiki(Mobile): an Integrative Protein Expression Image Browser for Pathological Knowledge Sharing and Annotation on a Mobile Device.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chihwen; Stokes, Todd H; Hang, Sovandy; Wang, May D

    2010-12-01

    Doctors need fast and convenient access to medical data. This motivates the use of mobile devices for knowledge retrieval and sharing. We have developed TissueWiki(Mobile) on the Apple iPhone and iPad to seamlessly access TissueWiki, an enormous repository of medical histology images. TissueWiki is a three terabyte database of antibody information and histology images from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA). Using TissueWiki(Mobile), users are capable of extracting knowledge from protein expression, adding annotations to highlight regions of interest on images, and sharing their professional insight. By providing an intuitive human computer interface, users can efficiently operate TissueWiki(Mobile) to access important biomedical data without losing mobility. TissueWiki(Mobile) furnishes the health community a ubiquitous way to collaborate and share their expert opinions not only on the performance of various antibodies stains but also on histology image annotation.

  2. Best Practices for Ethical Sharing of Individual-Level Health Research Data From Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    PubMed

    Bull, Susan; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Denny, Spencer; Jao, Irene; Marsh, Vicki; Merson, Laura; Shah More, Neena; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Osrin, David; Tangseefa, Decha; Wassenaar, Douglas; Parker, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Sharing individual-level data from clinical and public health research is increasingly being seen as a core requirement for effective and efficient biomedical research. This article discusses the results of a systematic review and multisite qualitative study of key stakeholders' perspectives on best practices in ethical data sharing in low- and middle-income settings. Our research suggests that for data sharing to be effective and sustainable, multiple social and ethical requirements need to be met. An effective model of data sharing will be one in which considered judgments will need to be made about how best to achieve scientific progress, minimize risks of harm, promote fairness and reciprocity, and build and sustain trust.

  3. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of...) Citizenship. A screener must be a citizen or national of the United States. (d) Screener readiness...

  4. Integrating Individual Learning Processes and Organizational Knowledge Formation: Foundational Determinants for Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon; Chermack, Thomas J.; Kim, Hong Min

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the link between learning processes and knowledge formation through an integrated literature review from both academic and practical viewpoints. Individuals' learning processes and organizational knowledge creation were reviewed by means of theoretical and integrative analysis based on a lack of empirical research on the…

  5. Advances in the Knowledge of Transboundary Aquifers Shared by Canada and the USA, through the UNESCO's IHP ISARM Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.

    2015-12-01

    Canada's involvement in the UNESCO IHP ISARM initiative prompted an accrued analysis on the knowledge and state of transboundary aquifers located along the Canada-USA border. As a result, 10 Transboundary Aquifer Systems (TAS) were identified and some have been assessed in cooperation with the United States. This study is a review of the current state of the 10 TAS. Documentation of scientifically-based knowledge on TAS is an important step in identifying potential issues in policies that might be adopted to address shared water-resource issues. The newly acquired hydrological insights for this very long international border emphasizes the need for more scientific data, widespread communication and information sharing between Canadian and American organizations, and a more clearly defined governments' role to manage groundwater at the international level. The study reviews the legal frameworks and summarises the current scientific knowledge for the TAS with respect to the hydrologic and geologic framework as well as some of the major drivers for supply and demand. It also describes the links, approach and relevance of studies on the TAS to the UN Law of Transboundary Aquifers and on how these might fit in the ISARM's regional strategy for the assessment and management of the TAS. Clear communication, shared knowledge and common objectives in the management of TAS will prepare the countries for future negotiations and cooperative binational programs. Encouraged by the ISARM approach of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, Canada is now looking forward to playing a key regional role in improving water management, facilitating transboundary water sharing, and enhancing water research and data sharing in future relations between these two nations.

  6. In Pursuit of the Individual in the Field of Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rechberg, Isabel D. W.; Syed, Jawad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the focus on individuals in the field of knowledge management (KM). Through a meta-review of the KM literature, we identify a relative disregard of the individual in the KM literature while information technology (IT) oriented concepts are widely represented. Our review indicates the need for a greater emphasis…

  7. Chains of (dis)trust: exploring the underpinnings of knowledge-sharing and quality care across mental health services.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick R; Calnan, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Quality and safety in healthcare settings are underpinned by organisational cultures, which facilitate or impede the refinement, sharing and application of knowledge. Avoiding the use of the term culture as a residual category, we focus specifically on describing chains of (dis)trust, analysing their development across relatively low-trust service contexts and their impact upon knowledge-sharing and caregiving. Drawing upon data from in-depth interviews with service users, healthcare professionals, service managers and other stakeholders across three mental healthcare (psychosis) teams in southern England, we identify micro-mechanisms that explain how (dis)trust within one intra-organisational relationship impacts upon other relationships. Experiences and inferences of vulnerability, knowledge, uncertainty, interests and time, among actors who are both trustees and trusters across different relationships, are pertinent to such analyses. This more micro-level understanding facilitates detailed conceptualisations of trust chains as meso-level tendencies that contribute to wider vicious or virtuous cycles of organisational (dis)trust. We explore how knowledge-sharing and caregiving are vitally interwoven within these chains of trust or distrust, enhancing and/or inhibiting the instrumental and communicative aspects of quality healthcare as a result.

  8. A Web 2.0-Based Collaborative Annotation System for Enhancing Knowledge Sharing in Collaborative Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Addison Y. S.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Zhang, Jia

    2010-01-01

    A limitation of current Web-based collaborative learning is the restricted ability of students to create and share individual annotations with annotated documents. Applying Web 2.0 collaborative annotation systems and analyzing students' annotation behavior has attracted attention to improve collaborative learning. This study designed a…

  9. Individual nurse and organizational context considerations for better Knowledge Use in Pain Care.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Margot A; Ritchie, Judith A; Johnston, Celeste C

    2010-08-01

    Nurses are involved in many of the painful procedures performed on hospitalized children. In collaboration with physicians, nurses have an exceptional responsibility to have knowledge to manage the pain; however, the evidence indicates this is not being done. Issues may be twofold: (a) opportunities to improve knowledge of better pain care practices and/or (b) ability to use knowledge. Empirical evidence is available that if used by health care providers can reduce pain in hospitalized children. Theory-guided interventions are necessary to focus resources designated for learning and knowledge translation initiatives in the area of pain care. This article presents the Knowledge Use in Pain Care (KUPC) conceptual model that blends concepts from the fields of knowledge utilization and work life context, which are believed to influence the translation of knowledge to practice. The four main components in the KUPC model include those related to the organization, the individual nurse, the individual patient, and the sociopolitical context. The KUPC model was conceptualized to account for the complex circumstances surrounding nurse's knowledge uptake and use in the context of pain care. The model provides a framework for health care administrators, clinical leaders, and researchers to consider as they decide how to intervene to increase knowledge use to reduce painful experiences of children in the hospital.

  10. Population dynamics of minimally cognitive individuals. Part 2: Dynamics of time-dependent knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The dynamical principle for a population of interacting individuals with mutual pairwise knowledge, presented by the author in a previous paper for the case of constant knowledge, is extended to include the possibility that the knowledge is time-dependent. Several mechanisms are presented by which the mutual knowledge, represented by a matrix K, can be altered, leading to dynamical equations for K(t). The author presents various examples of the transient and long time asymptotic behavior of K(t) for populations of relatively isolated individuals interacting infrequently in local binary collisions. Among the effects observed in the numerical experiments are knowledge diffusion, learning transients, and fluctuating equilibria. This approach will be most appropriate to small populations of complex individuals such as simple animals, robots, computer networks, agent-mediated traffic, simple ecosystems, and games. Evidence of metastable states and intermittent switching leads them to envision a spectroscopy associated with such transitions that is independent of the specific physical individuals and the population. Such spectra may serve as good lumped descriptors of the collective emergent behavior of large classes of populations in which mutual knowledge is an important part of the dynamics.

  11. A method of extracting ontology module using concept relations for sharing knowledge in mobile cloud computing environment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keonsoo; Rho, Seungmin; Lee, Seok-Won

    2014-01-01

    In mobile cloud computing environment, the cooperation of distributed computing objects is one of the most important requirements for providing successful cloud services. To satisfy this requirement, all the members, who are employed in the cooperation group, need to share the knowledge for mutual understanding. Even if ontology can be the right tool for this goal, there are several issues to make a right ontology. As the cost and complexity of managing knowledge increase according to the scale of the knowledge, reducing the size of ontology is one of the critical issues. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting ontology module to increase the utility of knowledge. For the given signature, this method extracts the ontology module, which is semantically self-contained to fulfill the needs of the service, by considering the syntactic structure and semantic relation of concepts. By employing this module, instead of the original ontology, the cooperation of computing objects can be performed with less computing load and complexity. In particular, when multiple external ontologies need to be combined for more complex services, this method can be used to optimize the size of shared knowledge.

  12. Building and Sharing Knowledge Key Practice: What Do You Know, What Don't You Know, What Did You Learn? Research Report. ETS RR-15-24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Tenaha; Deane, Paul; Sabatini, John

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we provide the rationale and foundation for the building and sharing knowledge key practice for the "CBAL"™ English language arts competency model. Building and sharing knowledge is a foundational literacy activity that enables students to learn and communicate what they read in texts. It is a strategic process that…

  13. Functions of Memory Sharing and Mother-Child Reminiscing Behaviors: Individual and Cultural Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkofsky, Sarah; Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined maternal beliefs about the functions of memory sharing and the relations between these beliefs and mother-child reminiscing behaviors in a cross-cultural context. Sixty-three European American and 47 Chinese mothers completed an open-ended questionnaire concerning their beliefs about the functions of parent-child memory…

  14. Relationships between middle childhood outdoor experiences and an adult individual's knowledge of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Brandon A.

    During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education

  15. Building organizational supports for knowledge sharing in county human service organizations: a cross-case analysis of works-in-progress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chris; Austin, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Building on the literature related to evidence-based practice, knowledge management, and learning organizations, this cross-case analysis presents twelve works-in-progress in ten local public human service organizations seeking to develop their own knowledge sharing systems. The data for this cross-case analysis can be found in the various contributions to this Special Issue. The findings feature the developmental aspects of building a learning organization that include knowledge sharing systems featuring transparency, self-assessment, and dissemination and utilization. Implications for practice focus on the structure and processes involved in building knowledge sharing teams inside public human service organizations.

  16. Market shares and individual company data for US energy markets, 1950-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Brannan, M.A.; Piccini, R.A.

    1983-11-01

    1982 data is presented on concentration in various US energy markets, and it also provides revised data for previous years where available. The report is intended to be a handy compilation of statistics on concentration in US energy markets with particular emphasis on the petroleum industry. The report contains four parts. First, it summarizes trends in concentration. This summary includes tables giving concentration indexes for the various energy markets for 1982 and several earlier years. Secondly, it discusses methodology and definitions. Thirdly, the report provides annual company-by-company data on market shares in various segments of the petroleum industry. Finally, the report presents similar market share data for coal, uranium, and for all-energy combined. The tables in the report's third and fourth sections provide sources and qualifications as necessary.

  17. Market shares and individual company data for US energy markets: 1950-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Brannan, M.; Dougher, R.

    1985-01-01

    Revised and updated data summarize trends in concentration in US energy markets. In addition, the report discusses methodology and definitions, provides company-by-company data for 1984 and several earlier years on market shares in various segments of the petroleum industry, and similar market share data for coal, uranium, and all-energy combined. Most measures of concentration in 1984 increased because of oil company mergers, but ratios are still below the level of a decade ago. While domestic oil production concentration rose in 1984, only the 8-firm concentration ratio showed a significant increase. Oil reserve ownership is more concentrated than production. An increasing concentration in refining capacity and refinery runs reflects large-company mergers and shutdowns by small refiners. 101 tables.

  18. A Theoretical Synthesis of Knowledge Sharing and Educational Leadership for Sustaining Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rungrojngarmcharoen, Kanog on

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the crucial and dominant economic resources in order to obtain sustainable advantages in any community. The world is now shifting faster thanks to the advanced development of digital connectivity and increasing access to knowledge. Leaders of a community, society, or country must contemplate what factors concerned in the…

  19. Participatory Modeling Processes to Build Community Knowledge Using Shared Model and Data Resources and in a Transboundary Pacific Northwest Watershed (Nooksack River Basin, Washington, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Dumas, M.

    2014-12-01

    As with many western US watersheds, the Nooksack River Basin faces strong pressures associated with climate variability and change, rapid population growth, and deep-rooted water law. This transboundary basin includes contributing areas in British Columbia, Canada, and has a long history of joint data collection, model development, and facilitated communication between governmental (federal, tribal, state, local), environmental, timber, agricultural, and recreational user groups. However, each entity in the watershed responds to unique data coordination, information sharing, and adaptive management regimes and thresholds, further increasing the complexity of watershed management. Over the past four years, participatory methods were used to compile and review scientific data and models, including fish habitat (endangered salmonid species), channel hydraulics, climate data, agricultural, municipal and industrial water use, and integrated watershed scale distributed hydrologic models from over 15 years of projects (from jointly funded to independent shared work by individual companies, agencies, and universities). A specific outcome of the work includes participatory design of a collective problem statement used for guidance on future investment of shared resources and development of a data-generation process where modeling results are communicated in a three-tiers for 1) public/decision-making, 2) technical, and 3) research audiences. We establish features for successful participation using tools that are iteratively developed, tested for usability through incremental knowledge building, and designed to provide rigor in modeling. A general outcome of the work is ongoing support by tribal, state, and local governments, as well as the agricultural community, to continue the generation of shared watershed data using models in a dynamic legal and regulatory setting, where two federally recognized tribes have requested federal court resolution of federal treaty rights

  20. Help Central: Creating a Help Desk and Knowledge Portal in SharePoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Lisa A.; Tims, Randy S.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the authors' implementation of Help Central, a site within the Lister Hill Library Collection on the University of Alabama-Birmingham's SharePoint server. Initially, Help Central was designed to address the inadequacies in the library's old, static HTML web-based support system, including haphazard issue reporting by staff…

  1. Towards Networked Knowledge: The Learning Registry, an Infrastructure for Sharing Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ashley; Hobson, Joe; Bienkowski, Marie; Midgley, Steve; Currier, Sarah; Campbell, Lorna M.; Novoselova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an open-source, open-data digital infrastructure for sharing information about open educational resources (OERs) across disparate systems and platforms. The Learning Registry, which began as a project funded by the U.S. Departments of Education and Defense, currently has an active international community…

  2. World Bank's Global Development Learning Network: Sharing Knowledge Electronically between Nations To "Fight Poverty."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Global Development Learning Network (GDLN), a satellite-driven global communication system developed by the World Bank to help developing countries fight poverty and share in a global exchange of information. Explains Distance Learning Centers that are used by private and public organizations and institutions for distance education…

  3. Building digital archives by the National Diet Library : Toward knowledge sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Masaki

    This article shows the current situation of construction of the National Diet Library (NDL)'s digital archive and the direction of activities for “creating and reproducing new knowledge” which “knowledge sharing” aims at. The NDL, as a deposit library has a responsibility to acquire and preserve not only paper materials but also digital contents, and needs to make them accessible anytime and anywhere. The NDL acquires and preserves digital contents to a maximum extent to build the NDL digital archive. However, it is impossible to collect all of them, so the NDL plans to accumulate all knowledge in cooperation with other institutions to build distributed digital archives. The NDL plays a data provider role to navigate all the distributed digital archival information and make it available as semantically-related knowledge to build “NDL Search”. The NDL will make it possible to create new knowledge reusing the existing information as knowledge to build up the knowledge infrastructure.

  4. Summary of the ACAT Round Table Discussion: Open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, Federico; Perret-Gallix, Denis; Riemann, Tord

    2014-06-01

    Round table discussions are in the tradition of ACAT. This year's plenary round table discussion was devoted to questions related to the use of scientific software in High Energy Physics and beyond. The 90 minutes of discussion were lively, and quite a lot of diverse opinions were spelled out. Although the discussion was, in part, controversial, the participants agreed unanimously on several basic issues in software sharing: • The importance of having various licensing models in academic research; • The basic value of proper recognition and attribution of intellectual property, including scientific software; • The user respect for the conditions of use, including licence statements, as formulated by the author. The need of a similar discussion on the issues of data sharing was emphasized and it was recommended to cover this subject at the conference round table discussion of next ACAT. In this contribution, we summarise selected topics that were covered in the introductory talks and in the following discussion.

  5. Learning from staff to share knowledge and inform decision-making: the Contra Costa County experience.

    PubMed

    Winship, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to increase staff engagement and opportunities for greater two-way communication between managers and staff, a strategic plan was developed involving administration of an agency-wide staff satisfaction survey. A comprehensive survey was administered to nearly 1700 employees throughout the agency, which encompasses several diverse bureaus ranging from child and family services, aging and adult services, and a workforce investment board. The online survey included 36 questions aimed at gathering staff perspectives on job satisfaction, work expectations, supervision, and information sharing within the agency. 825 employees responded to the survey, and findings were analyzed and shared agency-wide. Results of the survey have been used to inform ongoing agency change and to facilitate continued engagement of staff in organizational goals and initiatives.

  6. Sharing knowledge of Planetary Datasets through the Web-Based PRoGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, M. G.; Morley, J. M.; Muller, J. P. M.; Barnes, R. B.; Tao, Y. T.

    2015-10-01

    The large amount of raw and derived data available from various planetary surface missions (e.g. Mars and Moon in our case) has been integrated withco-registered and geocoded orbital image data to provide rover traverses and camera site locations in universal global co-ordinates [1]. This then allows an integrated GIS to use these geocoded products for scientific applications: we aim to create a web interface, PRoGIS, with minimal controls focusing on the usability and visualisation of the data, to allow planetary geologists to share annotated surface observations. These observations in a common context are shared between different tools and software (PRoGIS, Pro3D, 3D point cloud viewer). Our aim is to use only Open Source components that integrate Open Web Services for planetary data to make available an universal platform with a WebGIS interface, as well as a 3D point cloud and a Panorama viewer to explore derived data. On top of these tools we are building capabilities to make and share annotations amongst users. We use Python and Django for the server-side framework and Open Layers 3 for the WebGIS client. For good performance previewing 3D data (point clouds, pictures on the surface and panoramas) we employ ThreeJS, a WebGL Javascript library. Additionally, user and group controls allow scientists to store and share their observations. PRoGIS not only displays data but also launches sophisticated 3D vision reprocessing (PRoVIP) and an immersive 3D analysis environment (PRo3D).

  7. Individual Difference in Repetition Priming and Its Relationship to Declarative Knowledge Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woltz, Dan J.; Shute, Valerie J.

    1993-01-01

    Two studies involving 274 Air Force recruits and 163 college students, respectively, investigated the relationship between priming effects and declarative knowledge acquisition within repetitive practice models. Individual differences in repetition-priming effects uniquely predicted learning differences relative to other cognitive measures.…

  8. Combining Individual and Group-Level Perspectives for Studying Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvaja, Maarit; Salovaara, Hanna; Hakkinen, Paivi; Jarvela, Sanna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify concepts and methods for studying collaboration in context. The article presents a two-level methodology designed to combine individual and group-level perspectives for the evaluation of collaborative knowledge construction in student groups. The group-level analysis is focused on the students' negotiation…

  9. Effects of Situated Learning on Students' Knowledge Acquisition: An Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of situated learning on students' knowledge acquisition by investigating the influence of individual differences in such learning. Seventy-nine graduates were recruited from an educational department and were assigned to situated learning and traditional learning based on a randomized block design. Results…

  10. Exploring the Attitudes and Knowledge of Support Workers towards Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Natalie S.; Rose, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore support workers' attitudes and knowledge towards individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to see whether a new attitude scale needs to be developed. Method: Support workers from a charitable organization located in the West Midlands in the United Kingdom participated in one of four focus…

  11. The Effect of Individual Differences in the Development of Metacognitive Strategy Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlen, Yves; Merki, Katharina Maag; Ramseier, Erich

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of metacognitive strategy knowledge (MSK) during schooling at the upper secondary education level and to examine its relation with individual student characteristics. This longitudinal study with two measurement points analyzed a sample of students in grades 10 and 11 from 19 schools…

  12. 49 CFR 1544.235 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties. 1544.235 Section 1544.235 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  13. 49 CFR 1548.11 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties. 1548.11 Section 1548.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  14. 49 CFR 1544.235 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties. 1544.235 Section 1544.235 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  15. 49 CFR 1548.11 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties. 1548.11 Section 1548.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  16. 49 CFR 1544.235 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties. 1544.235 Section 1544.235 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  17. 49 CFR 1548.11 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties. 1548.11 Section 1548.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  18. 49 CFR 1548.11 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties. 1548.11 Section 1548.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  19. 49 CFR 1544.235 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties. 1544.235 Section 1544.235 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  20. 49 CFR 1544.235 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties. 1544.235 Section 1544.235 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  1. Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Individual Transition Planning and Its Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Diehm, Kendra L.; Lynch, Patricia S.

    2007-01-01

    Although increased attention in special education has been given to individual transition planning, little research has been done to assess student opinions and knowledge on this process. The majority of research has focused on "best practice" to ensure quality transition planning for students. This study surveyed 103 students receiving…

  2. Guided, Cooperative Learning and Individual Knowledge Acquisition. Technical Report No. 372.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ann L.; Palincsar, Annemarie S.

    Drawing upon Piagetian and Vygotskian developmental theories, philosophical examinations of the nature of argument and explanation, analyses of classroom and Socratic dialogues, and cooperative classroom structures, this paper examines how cooperative learning can influence individual knowledge acquisition. The paper first reviews some of the…

  3. Knowledge for the good of the individual and society: linking philosophy, disciplinary goals, theory, and practice.

    PubMed

    McCurry, Mary K; Revell, Susan M Hunter; Roy, Sr Callista

    2010-01-01

    Nursing as a profession has a social mandate to contribute to the good of society through knowledge-based practice. Knowledge is built upon theories, and theories, together with their philosophical bases and disciplinary goals, are the guiding frameworks for practice. This article explores a philosophical perspective of nursing's social mandate, the disciplinary goals for the good of the individual and society, and one approach for translating knowledge into practice through the use of a middle-range theory. It is anticipated that the integration of the philosophical perspective and model into nursing practice will strengthen the philosophy, disciplinary goal, theory, and practice links and expand knowledge within the discipline. With the focus on humanization, we propose that nursing knowledge for social good will embrace a synthesis of the individual and the common good. This approach converges vital and agency needs described by Hamilton and the primacy of maintaining the heritage of the good within the human species as outlined by Maritain. Further, by embedding knowledge development in a changing social and health care context, nursing focuses on the goals of clinical reasoning and action. McCubbin and Patterson's Double ABCX Model of Family Adaptation was used as an example of a theory that can guide practice at the community and global level. Using the theory-practice link as a foundation, the Double ABCX model provides practising nurses with one approach to meet the needs of individuals and society. The integration of theory into nursing practice provides a guide to achieve nursing's disciplinary goals of promoting health and preventing illness across the globe. When nursing goals are directed at the synthesis of the good of the individual and society, nursing's social and moral mandate may be achieved.

  4. Developing Expert System for Tuberculosis Diagnose to Support Knowledge Sharing in the Era of National Health Insurance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidya, L.

    2017-03-01

    National Health Insurance has been implemented since 1st January 2014. A number of new policies have been established including multilevel referral system. The multilevel referral system classified health care center into three levels, it determined that the flow of patient treatment should be started from first level health care center. There are 144 kind of diseases that must be treat in the first level which mainly consists of general physicians. Unfortunately, competence of the physician in the first level may not fulfil the standard competence yet. To improved the physisians knowledge, government has created many events to accelerate knowledge sharing. However, it still needs times and many resources to give significan results. Expert system is kind of software that provide consulting services to non-expert users in accordance with the area of its expertise. It can improved effectivity and efficiency of knowledge sharing and learning. This research was developed a model of TB diagnose expert system which comply with the standard procedure of TB diagnosis and regulation. The proposed expert system has characteristics as follows provide facility to manage multimedia clinical data, supporting the complexity of TB diagnosis (combine rule-based and case-based expert system), interactive interface, good usability, multi-platform, evolutionary.

  5. Knowledge and Self-Esteem of Individuals with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1).

    PubMed

    Rosnau, Kayla; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Northrup, Hope; Slopis, John; Noblin, Sarah; Ashfaq, Myla

    2016-11-04

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a progressive genetic disorder characterized by physical findings such as café-au-lait macules, Lisch nodules, and neurofibromas in addition to other medical complications. Learning and social problems are more prevalent among individuals affected with NF1. It has been reported that people with NF1 have lower self-esteem (SE) when compared to the general population. Additionally, a study published over 20 years ago found that overall knowledge of NF1 was lacking in individuals affected with the condition. The goals of our study were to evaluate NF1 knowledge in adolescents and adults with the condition, as well as to determine if there is a link between patient knowledge and SE. Furthermore, we explored the impact of other factors, such as attendance at a NF1 support group and having a family history of NF1, on knowledge and SE. A survey comprised of knowledge-based questions and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was distributed to individuals with NF1 through the Texas NF Foundation. Overall, the 49 respondents (13 to 73 years of age) had a mean knowledge score of 77.9 % correct answers. Consistent with previous studies, the SE of our study population was lower when compared to general population norms. Although no correlation between knowledge and SE was observed, SE scores were on average higher if a person reported the following: having friends with NF1 (p = 0.009); attending a NF1 support group (p = 0.006); receiving care at a NF clinic (p = 0.049); or having received genetic counseling (p = 0.008). Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between these factors and SE in the NF1 population.

  6. A systematic literature review of individuals' perspectives on broad consent and data sharing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Nanibaa' A.; Sathe, Nila A.; Antommaria, Armand H. Matheny; Holm, Ingrid A.; Sanderson, Saskia C.; Smith, Maureen E.; McPheeters, Melissa L.; Clayton, Ellen W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In 2011, an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking proposed that de-identified human data and specimens be included in biobanks only if patients provide consent. The National Institutes of Health Genomic Data Sharing policy went into effect in 2015, requiring broad consent from almost all research participants. Genet Med 18 7, 663–671. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of attitudes toward biobanking, broad consent, and data sharing. Bibliographic databases included MEDLINE, Web of Science, EthxWeb, and GenETHX. Study screening was conducted using DistillerSR. Genet Med 18 7, 663–671. Results: The final 48 studies included surveys (n = 23), focus groups (n = 8), mixed methods (n = 14), interviews (n = 1), and consent form analyses (n = 2). Study quality was characterized as good (n = 19), fair (n = 27), and poor (n = 2). Although many participants objected, broad consent was often preferred over tiered or study-specific consent, particularly when broad consent was the only option, samples were de-identified, logistics of biobanks were communicated, and privacy was addressed. Willingness for data to be shared was high, but it was lower among individuals from under-represented minorities, individuals with privacy and confidentiality concerns, and when pharmaceutical companies had access to data. Genet Med 18 7, 663–671. Conclusions: Additional research is needed to understand factors affecting willingness to give broad consent for biobank research and data sharing in order to address concerns to enhance acceptability. Genet Med 18 7, 663–671. PMID:26583683

  7. Knowledge sharing and collaboration in translational research, and the DC-THERA Directory

    PubMed Central

    Gündel, Michaela; Austyn, Jonathan M.; Cavalieri, Duccio; Scognamiglio, Ciro; Brandizi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical research relies increasingly on large collections of data sets and knowledge whose generation, representation and analysis often require large collaborative and interdisciplinary efforts. This dimension of ‘big data’ research calls for the development of computational tools to manage such a vast amount of data, as well as tools that can improve communication and access to information from collaborating researchers and from the wider community. Whenever research projects have a defined temporal scope, an additional issue of data management arises, namely how the knowledge generated within the project can be made available beyond its boundaries and life-time. DC-THERA is a European ‘Network of Excellence’ (NoE) that spawned a very large collaborative and interdisciplinary research community, focusing on the development of novel immunotherapies derived from fundamental research in dendritic cell immunobiology. In this article we introduce the DC-THERA Directory, which is an information system designed to support knowledge management for this research community and beyond. We present how the use of metadata and Semantic Web technologies can effectively help to organize the knowledge generated by modern collaborative research, how these technologies can enable effective data management solutions during and beyond the project lifecycle, and how resources such as the DC-THERA Directory fit into the larger context of e-science. PMID:21969471

  8. A Hundred Ways of Learning: Sharing Traditional Knowledge at Tohono O'odham Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a learning program of the Tohono O'odham or "desert people" of the Southwestern United States and Mexico. Their culture and knowledge on both sides of the border is for them a special way of life known as "himdag," where science is built into everyday life of gathering, hunting, farming, artistry, and…

  9. Population dynamics of minimally cognitive individuals. Part I: Introducing knowledge into the dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The author presents a new approach for modeling the dynamics of collections of objects with internal structure. Based on the fact that the behavior of an individual in a population is modified by its knowledge of other individuals, a procedure for accounting for knowledge in a population of interacting objects is presented. It is assumed that each object has partial (or complete) knowledge of some (or all) other objects in the population. The dynamical equations for the objects are then modified to include the effects of this pairwise knowledge. This procedure has the effect of projecting out what the population will do from the much larger space of what it could do, i.e., filtering or smoothing the dynamics by replacing the complex detailed physical model with an effective model that produces the behavior of interest. The procedure therefore provides a minimalist approach for obtaining emergent collective behavior. The use of knowledge as a dynamical quantity, and its relationship to statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, information theory, and cognition microstructure are discussed.

  10. Seamless Management of Paper and Electronic Documents for Task Knowledge Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Ken

    Due to the progress of Internet technology and the increase of distributed information on networks, the present knowledge management has been based more and more on the performance of various experienced users. In addition to the increase of electronic documents, the use of paper documents has not been reduced because of their convenience. This paper describes a method of tracking paper document locations and contents using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. This research also focuses on the expression of a task process and the seamless structuring of related electronic and paper documents as a result of task knowledge formalization using information organizing. A system is proposed here that implements information organization for both Web documents and paper documents with the task model description and RFID technology. Examples of a prototype system are also presented.

  11. Minimum essential coverage and other rules regarding the shared responsibility payment for individuals. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2014-11-26

    This document contains final regulations relating to the requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, as amended by the TRICARE Affirmation Act and Public Law 111-173 (collectively, the Affordable Care Act). These final regulations provide individual taxpayers with guidance under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code on the requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage and rules governing certain types of exemptions from that requirement.

  12. Exploiting Expertise and Knowledge Sharing Online for the Benefit of NASA's GN&C Community of Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topousis, Daria E.; Lebsock, Kenneth L.; Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, NASA faced major knowledge sharing challenges due to geographically isolated field centers that inhibited engineers from sharing their experiences, expertise, ideas, and lessons learned. The necessity to collaborate on complex development projects and the reality of constrained project resources together drove the need for ensuring that personnel at all NASA centers had comparable skill sets and that engineers could find resources in a timely fashion. Mission failures and new directions for the Agency also demanded better collaborative tools for NASA's engineering workforce. In response to these needs, the online NASA Engineering Network (NEN) was formed by the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer to provide a multi-faceted system for overcoming geographic and cultural barriers. NEN integrates communities of practice with a cross-repository search and the Lessons Learned Information System. This paper describes the features of the GN&C engineering discipline CoP site which went live on NEN in May of 2008 as an online means of gathering input and guidance from practitioners. It allows GN&C discipline expertise captured at one field center to be shared in a collaborative way with the larger discipline CoP spread across the entire Agency. The site enables GN&C engineers to find the information they need quickly, to find solutions to questions from experienced engineers, and to connect with other practitioners regardless of geographic location, thus increasing the probability of project success.

  13. Collaborative Inquiry in a Socially Shared Contextual Frame, Striving toward Sensible Knowledge Creation on Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löytönen, Teija

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The tradition of dance art in Finland is characterized by values such as individuality and uniqueness, and the professional practice is structured by competition and different kinds of hierarchies, which may also add color to the culture of dance teaching. One of the most noticeable elements within the dance education community…

  14. Collective goals and shared tasks: interdependence structure and perceptions of individual sport team environments.

    PubMed

    Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2015-02-01

    Across two studies, we tested the proposition that interdependence structures (i.e., task interaction among teammates during competition, competition against teammates, presence of a collective outcome) influence interdependence perceptions among teammates as well as perceptions of group cohesion, competitiveness, and satisfaction. Study 1 was a paper-and-pencil survey completed by 210 individual sport athletes from 12 university- and college-level teams. Multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that participants who had to work alongside teammates during competition reported increased interdependence perceptions that were, in turn, associated with increased cohesion and satisfaction as well as decreased competitiveness. There were no differences according to whether participants competed in the same event as all of their teammates or not. Study 2 involved a weekly e-mail survey with 17 university-level individual sport athletes who reported interdependence perceptions on a continual basis over the course of their competitive season. Interdependence perceptions were higher during weeks that were close in time to competitions with a collective group outcome. These studies reveal how interdependence structures shape the group environment and support applied efforts that consider ways to structure teammate interdependencies in ways to optimize group functioning and promote member satisfaction.

  15. Effects of inter-individual lumbar spine geometry variation on load-sharing: Geometrically personalized Finite Element study.

    PubMed

    Naserkhaki, Sadegh; Jaremko, Jacob L; El-Rich, Marwan

    2016-09-06

    There is a large, at times contradictory, body of research relating spinal curvature to Low Back Pain (LBP). Mechanical load is considered as important factor in LBP etiology. Geometry of the spinal structures and sagittal curvature of the lumbar spine govern its mechanical behavior. Thus, understanding how inter-individual geometry particularly sagittal curvature variation affects the spinal load-sharing becomes of high importance in LBP assessment. This study calculated and compared kinematics and load-sharing in three ligamentous lumbosacral spines: one hypo-lordotic (Hypo-L) with low lordosis, one normal-lordotic (Norm-L) with normal lordosis, and one hyper-lordotic (Hyper-L) with high lordosis in flexed and extended postures using 3D nonlinear Finite Element (FE) modeling. These postures were simulated by applying Follower Load (FL) combined with flexion or extension moment. The Hypo-L spine demonstrated stiffer behavior in flexion but more flexible response to extension compared to the Norm-L spine. The excessive lordosis stiffened response of the Hyper-L spine to extension but did not affect its resistance to flexion compared to the Norm-L spine. Despite the different resisting actions of the posterior ligaments to flexion moment, the increase of disc compression was similar in all the spines leading to similar load-sharing. However, resistance of the facet joints to extension was more important in the Norm- and Hyper-L spines which reduced the disc compression. The spinal curvature strongly influenced the magnitude and location of load on the spinal components and also altered the kinematics and load-sharing particularly in extension. Consideration of the subject-specific geometry and sagittal curvature should be an integral part of mechanical analysis of the lumbar spine.

  16. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Health Beliefs among Chinese Individuals with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Evelyn; Fraenkel, Liana; Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Xia, Weibo; Insogna, Karl L.; Cui, Qu; Li, Kunli; Li, Taisheng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with HIV are at increased risk for osteoporosis and fracture. Few studies have systematically explored concerns related to osteoporosis prevention among this group. Applying the Health Beliefs Model (HBM), we examined associations between osteoporosis-related preventive health behaviors (i.e., physical exercise and dietary intake) and knowledge, self-efficacy and health beliefs in a large cohort of Chinese individuals with HIV. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with participants from an ongoing multi-center trial. Volunteers completed a questionnaire consisting of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), a calcium and vitamin D intake assessment, the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test, Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale, Osteoporosis Health Beliefs Scale, and relevant sociodemographic and clinical risk factors. Results A total of 263 of 297 eligible participants enrolled in this study. Mean age of participants was 38.4±9.8 years, average BMI was 21.6±2.6 kg/m2, and 76% were men. About 30% of the sample reported low physical activity. Consumption of foods from each calcium and vitamin D-rich category averaged between multiple times per month to weekly. Knowledge regarding osteoporosis was universally low and self-efficacy correlated directly with engagement in preventive behaviors. Women and individuals with lower education perceived greater barriers to adopting preventive behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and BMI showed that calcium and vitamin D intake was directly correlated with knowledge and self-efficacy, whereas physical activity correlated with manual labor occupation, perceived barriers to exercise and health motivation. Conclusions Behavioral frameworks such as the HBM may provide important insight into promoting adoption and maintenance of osteoporosis-related preventive behaviors among individuals with HIV. PMID:25487753

  17. Quantum cryptography: individual eavesdropping with the knowledge of the error-correcting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Horoshko, D B

    2007-12-31

    The quantum key distribution protocol BB84 combined with the repetition protocol for error correction is analysed from the point of view of its security against individual eavesdropping relying on quantum memory. It is shown that the mere knowledge of the error-correcting protocol changes the optimal attack and provides the eavesdropper with additional information on the distributed key. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)

  18. Communication and knowledge sharing in human-robot interaction and learning from demonstration.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Nathan; Takayama, Leila; Matarić, Maja

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive personal robots will soon become available to a large portion of the population. Currently, most consumer robots are relatively simple single-purpose machines or toys. In order to be cost effective and thus widely accepted, robots will need to be able to accomplish a wide range of tasks in diverse conditions. Learning these tasks from demonstrations offers a convenient mechanism to customize and train a robot by transferring task related knowledge from a user to a robot. This avoids the time-consuming and complex process of manual programming. The way in which the user interacts with a robot during a demonstration plays a vital role in terms of how effectively and accurately the user is able to provide a demonstration. Teaching through demonstrations is a social activity, one that requires bidirectional communication between a teacher and a student. The work described in this paper studies how the user's visual observation of the robot and the robot's auditory cues affect the user's ability to teach the robot in a social setting. Results show that auditory cues provide important knowledge about the robot's internal state, while visual observation of a robot can hinder an instructor due to incorrect mental models of the robot and distractions from the robot's movements.

  19. The Dissertation House Model: Doctoral Student Experiences Coping and Writing in a Shared Knowledge Community

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Veale, Wendy Y.; Tull, Renetta G.; Rutledge, Janet C.; Joseph, Lenisa N.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of PhD attrition, especially at the dissertation-writing stage, is not solely related to mentoring, departments, or disciplines; it is a problem that affects the entire institution. As such, solutions require collaborative efforts for student success. Building on Yeatman’s master–apprentice model, which assumes mastering disciplinary writing in singular advisor–student contexts, and Burnett’s collaborative cohort model, which introduced doctoral dissertation supervision in a collaborative-learning environment with several faculty mentors in a single discipline, the Dissertation House model (DHM) introduces a model of doctoral dissertation supervision that involves multiple mentors across several disciplines. On the basis of more than 200 students’ reflections, we find that challenges in completing the dissertation extend beyond departmental and disciplinary boundaries. The DHM’s multidisciplinary approach preserves the traditional master–apprentice relationship between faculty and students within academic departments while providing an additional support mechanism through interdisciplinary collaborative cohorts. Using Thoits’s coping assistance theory and data from DH students over a 10-year period, the DHM incorporates Hoadley’s concept of knowledge communities to establish a successful dissertation-writing intervention for graduate students across doctoral programs. Using propensity score analysis, we provide in this study an empirical assessment of the benefits and efficacy of the DHM. PMID:27521236

  20. The Dissertation House Model: Doctoral Student Experiences Coping and Writing in a Shared Knowledge Community.

    PubMed

    Carter-Veale, Wendy Y; Tull, Renetta G; Rutledge, Janet C; Joseph, Lenisa N

    2016-01-01

    The problem of PhD attrition, especially at the dissertation-writing stage, is not solely related to mentoring, departments, or disciplines; it is a problem that affects the entire institution. As such, solutions require collaborative efforts for student success. Building on Yeatman's master-apprentice model, which assumes mastering disciplinary writing in singular advisor-student contexts, and Burnett's collaborative cohort model, which introduced doctoral dissertation supervision in a collaborative-learning environment with several faculty mentors in a single discipline, the Dissertation House model (DHM) introduces a model of doctoral dissertation supervision that involves multiple mentors across several disciplines. On the basis of more than 200 students' reflections, we find that challenges in completing the dissertation extend beyond departmental and disciplinary boundaries. The DHM's multidisciplinary approach preserves the traditional master-apprentice relationship between faculty and students within academic departments while providing an additional support mechanism through interdisciplinary collaborative cohorts. Using Thoits's coping assistance theory and data from DH students over a 10-year period, the DHM incorporates Hoadley's concept of knowledge communities to establish a successful dissertation-writing intervention for graduate students across doctoral programs. Using propensity score analysis, we provide in this study an empirical assessment of the benefits and efficacy of the DHM.

  1. ‘Sciencenet’—towards a global search and share engine for all scientific knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Lütjohann, Dominic S.; Shah, Asmi H.; Christen, Michael P.; Richter, Florian; Knese, Karsten; Liebel, Urban

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Modern biological experiments create vast amounts of data which are geographically distributed. These datasets consist of petabytes of raw data and billions of documents. Yet to the best of our knowledge, a search engine technology that searches and cross-links all different data types in life sciences does not exist. We have developed a prototype distributed scientific search engine technology, ‘Sciencenet’, which facilitates rapid searching over this large data space. By ‘bringing the search engine to the data’, we do not require server farms. This platform also allows users to contribute to the search index and publish their large-scale data to support e-Science. Furthermore, a community-driven method guarantees that only scientific content is crawled and presented. Our peer-to-peer approach is sufficiently scalable for the science web without performance or capacity tradeoff. Availability and Implementation: The free to use search portal web page and the downloadable client are accessible at: http://sciencenet.kit.edu. The web portal for index administration is implemented in ASP.NET, the ‘AskMe’ experiment publisher is written in Python 2.7, and the backend ‘YaCy’ search engine is based on Java 1.6. Contact: urban.liebel@kit.edu Supplementary Material: Detailed instructions and descriptions can be found on the project homepage: http://sciencenet.kit.edu. PMID:21493657

  2. An Exploration of Communities of Practice: From Lave and Wenger's Seminal Work to a U.S. Government Agency's Knowledge Sharing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chindgren, Tina M.

    2005-01-01

    The communities of practice model for knowledge sharing is examined in this conceptual paper. Key themes reflected in the literature--the linkage between knowledge and activity and the importance of relationships--are explored within the context of programs and practices within the National Aeronautics and Aerospace Agency (NASA) learning…

  3. Culture care of Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia: sharing transcultural nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Omeri, A

    1997-01-01

    Discovery and analysis of care meanings, expressions, and practices of Iranian Immigrants in New South Wales, Australia was the focus of this ethnonursing qualitative research. The purpose of the study was to systematically discover, describe and analyse the values, beliefs, and practices of Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia. The aim of the investigation was to discover transcultural nursing knowledge to guide nurses and health professionals to provide culturally congruent nursing and health care to Iranians. Leininger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality (Leininger, 1991) was used as the conceptual framework for the study. It was predicted that care meanings and expressions of Iranian immigrants would be influenced by their worldview, social structure features, language, and cultural values rooted in their long ethnohistorical past and reflected in their lifeways in Australia. Using the ethnonursing qualitative research method, key and general informants were purposefully selected among Iranian immigrants residing in New South Wales. Three care themes supported by a number of universal and some diverse patterns were identified for Iranian immigrants. The three themes were: (1) Care meant family and kinship ties (hambastegie) as expressed in daily lifeways and interactions with family, friends, and community; (2) Care as expressed in carrying out traditional urban gender roles (role-zan-o-mard) (Azadie zan) as well as in fulfilling emerging new role responsibilities related to equality for female Iranian immigrants; and (3) Care as preservation of Iranian identity (inhamoni, hamonandi) as expressed in traditional cultural events and health care practices. Leininger's (1991) three modes of actions and decisions were used to develop appropriate and culturally meaningful nursing care actions and decisions which were in harmony with the cultural beliefs of Iranian immigrants.

  4. A Theoretical Approach to the Organizational Knowledge Formation Process: Integrating the Concepts of Individual Learning and Learning Organization Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the link between individual learning processes and continuous organizational knowledge formation through an integrated literature review of these perspectives from both academic and practical viewpoints. In the current fierce economic environment, individual knowledge is regarded as the most valuable asset…

  5. Vocational Knowledge in Rural Children: A Study of Individual Differences and Predictors of Occupational Aspirations and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-Wilson, Sarah; Welsh, Marilyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have identified individual differences in vocational knowledge or its association with career aspirations or expectations of children. We investigated whether individual differences in grade, gender, academic achievement, and SES predict levels of vocational knowledge, and further examined the relationship between vocational knowledge…

  6. Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Beken, Sonja; Chlebus, Magda; Ellis, Graham; Griesinger, Claudius; De Jonghe, Sandra; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rossi, Laura H; van Benthem, Jan; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weissenhorn, Renate; Sauer, Ursula G

    2015-10-01

    The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) convened a workshop Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making. Fifty invited participants from the European Commission, national and European agencies and bodies, different industry sectors (chemicals, cosmetics, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, vaccines), and animal protection organizations attended the workshop. Four case studies exemplarily revealed which procedures are in place to obtain regulatory acceptance of new test methods in different sectors. Breakout groups discussed the status quo identifying the following facilitators for regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal testing: Networking and communication (including cross-sector collaboration, international cooperation and harmonization); involvement of regulatory agencies from the initial stages of test method development on; certainty on prerequisites for test method acceptance including the establishment of specific criteria for regulatory acceptance. Data sharing and intellectual property issues affect many aspects of test method development, validation and regulatory acceptance. In principle, all activities should address replacement, reduction and refinement methods (albeit animal testing is generally prohibited in the cosmetics sector). Provision of financial resources and education support all activities aiming at facilitating the acceptance and use of alternatives to animal testing. Overall, workshop participants recommended building confidence in new methodologies by applying and gaining experience with them.

  7. A Method of Sharing Tacit Knowledge by a Bulletin Board Link to Video Scene and an Evaluation in the Field of Nursing Skill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Satoshi; Azuma, Shouzou; Teranaka, Sayaka; Kojima, Akira; Majima, Yukie; Maekawa, Yasuko

    We developed the system that knowledge could be discovered and shared cooperatively in the organization based on the SECI model of knowledge management. This system realized three processes by the following method. (1)A video that expressed skill is segmented into a number of scenes according to its contents. Tacit knowledge is shared in each scene. (2)Tacit knowledge is extracted by bulletin board linked to each scene. (3)Knowledge is acquired by repeatedly viewing the video scene with the comment that shows the technical content to be practiced. We conducted experiments that the system was used by nurses working for general hospitals. Experimental results show that the nursing practical knack is able to be collected by utilizing bulletin board linked to video scene. Results of this study confirmed the possibility of expressing the tacit knowledge of nurses' empirical nursing skills sensitively with a clue of video images.

  8. Sharing hydrological knowledge: an international comparison of hydrological models in the Meuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Drogue, Gilles; Brauer, Claudia; Weerts, Albrecht

    2015-04-01

    International collaboration between institutes and universities working and studying the same transboundary basin is needed for consensus building around possible effects of climate change and climate adaptation measures. Education, experience and expert knowledge of the hydrological community have resulted in the development of a great variety of model concepts, calibration and analysis techniques. Intercomparison could be a first step into consensus modeling or an ensemble based modeling strategy. Besides these practical objectives, such an intercomparison offers the opportunity to explore different ranges of models and learn from each other, hopefully increasing the insight into the hydrological processes that play a role in the transboundary basin. In this experiment, different international research groups applied their rainfall-runoff model in the Ourthe, a Belgium sub-catchment of the Meuse. Data preparation involved the interpolation of hourly precipitation station data collected and owned by the Service Public de Wallonie1 and the freely available E-OBS dataset for daily temperature (Haylock et al., 2008). Daily temperature was disaggregated to hourly values and potential evaporation was derived with the Hargreaves formula. The data was made available to the researchers through an FTP server. The protocol for the modeling involved a split-sample calibration and validation for pre-defined periods. Objective functions for calibration were fixed but the calibration algorithm was a free choice of the research groups. The selection of calibration algorithm was considered model dependent because lumped as well as computationally less efficient distributed models were used. For each model, an ensemble of best performing parameter sets was selected and several performance metrics enabled to assess the models' abilities to simulate discharge. The aim of this experiment is to identify those model components and structures that increase model performance and may best

  9. Knowledge based translation and problem solving in an intelligent individualized instruction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Namho; Biegel, John E.

    1994-01-01

    An Intelligent Individualized Instruction I(sup 3) system is being built to provide computerized instruction. We present the roles of a translator and a problem solver in an intelligent computer system. The modular design of the system provides for easier development and allows for future expansion and maintenance. CLIPS modules and classes are utilized for the purpose of the modular design and inter module communications. CLIPS facts and rules are used to represent the system components and the knowledge base. CLIPS provides an inferencing mechanism to allow the I(sup 3) system to solve problems presented to it in English.

  10. The MIKS (Member Integrated Knowledge System) Model: A Visualization of the Individual Organizational Member's Role When a Knowledge Management System Is Utilized in the Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobmeier, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Relating knowledge management (KM) case studies in various organizational contexts to existing theoretical constructs of learning organizations, a new model, the MIKS (Member Integrated Knowledge System) Model is proposed to include the role of the individual in the process. Their degree of motivation as well as communication and learning…

  11. Capturing Crime: The Qualitative Analysis of Individual Cases for Advancing Criminological Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin A; Bouffard, Leana A

    2016-02-01

    The qualitative analysis of individual cases has a prominent place in the development of criminological theory, yet progression in the scientific study of crime has largely been viewed as a distinctly quantitative endeavor. In the process, much of the theoretical depth and precision supplied by earlier methods of criminological knowledge production have been sacrificed. The current work argues for a return to our criminological roots by supplementing quantitative analyses with the qualitative inspection of individual cases. We provide a specific example of a literature (i.e., criminal specialization/versatility) that has become increasingly quantitative and could benefit from the use of the proposed approach. We conclude by offering additional areas of research that might be advanced by our framework presented here.

  12. Towards improved knowledge sharing: assessment of the HL7 Reference Information Model to support medical logic module queries.

    PubMed

    Jenders, R A; Sujansky, W; Broverman, C A; Chadwick, M

    1997-01-01

    Because clinical databases vary in structure, access methods and vocabulary used to represent data, the Arden Syntax does not define a standard model for querying databases. Consequently, database queries are encoded in ad hoc ways and enclosed in "curly braces" in Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). However, the nonstandard representation of queries impairs sharing of MLMs, an impediment that has come to be known as the "curly braces problem." As a first step in solving this problem, we evaluated the proposed HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM) as a foundation for a standard query model for the Arden Syntax. Specifically, we analyzed the MLM knowledge base at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center and compared the queries in these MLMs to the RIM. We studied 488 queries in 104 MLMs, identifying 674 total query data elements. Laboratory tests accounted for 45.8% of these elements, while demographic and ADT data accounted for 37.6%. Pharmacy orders accounted for 10.5%, medical problems for 4.3% and MLM output messages for 1.6%. We found that the RIM encompasses all but those data elements signifying MLM output (1.6% of the total). We conclude that the majority of queries in the CPMC knowledge base access a relatively small set of data elements and that the RIM encompasses these elements. We propose extensions of this analysis to continue construction of an Arden query model capable of solving the "curly braces problem."

  13. Spatial Knowledge Acquisition from Direct Experience in the Environment: Individual Differences in the Development of Metric Knowledge and the Integration of Separately Learned Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Toru; Montello, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    Existing frameworks for explaining spatial knowledge acquisition in a new environment propose either stage-like or continuous development. To examine the spatial microgenesis of individuals, a longitudinal study was conducted. Twenty-four college students were individually driven along two routes in a previously unfamiliar neighborhood over 10…

  14. Chronic hand eczema: perception and knowledge in non-affected individuals from general and dermatological practice.

    PubMed

    Letulé, Valerie; Herzinger, Thomas; Schirner, Astrid; Hertrich, Frank; Lange, Dirk; Ruzicka, Thomas; Molin, Sonja

    2014-11-01

    Misunderstanding and stigmatisation are common problems encountered by patients with hand eczema. Various misconceptions about the disease circulate in the general population. Although hand eczema has gained more attention in dermatology during the past years, information on public perception of the disease is still lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate perception of and level of knowledge on the subject hand eczema. There were 624 patients included from 2 general medicine practices and 2 dermatological practices. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by the participants, covering issues on history of hand eczema, level of knowledge and attitude towards a clinical photograph of hand eczema. We found that a larger proportion of individuals from dermatological practice were more familiar with hand eczema as a disease than those from general medical practice. Women knew significantly more about and had a more positive perception of the disease than men. Our results imply that the level of knowledge on hand eczema in the general public is rather low and influenced by prejudice.

  15. The development of a new methodology for knowledge sharing in the interface between university and society--an example from the meat sector.

    PubMed

    Algers, Anne; Silva-Fletcher, Ayona; Gregory, Neville; Hunt, Melvin

    2013-11-01

    Design science research was used for the generation, use and evaluation of a model for knowledge sharing in the user community through open educational resources (OER). The focus of interest was on the development process of a model for knowledge sharing that emphasizes the characteristics and the needs of the user community; the empowerment and democratic issues of openness; the collaboration between institutions and dialog with society; and the consideration of quality and sustainability issues. Initially, the community needs were analyzed through surveys and workshops, and the findings used, through negotiations, to formulate the development process. An open-training platform served as an infrastructure and included a repository with OER, a wiki and a discussion forum. The purpose of this article is an attempt to provide universities with a plan and template for integrated knowledge sharing that responds to societal needs. Usability and usefulness has not been evaluated.

  16. Tightening up the performance-pay linkage: roles of contingent reward leadership and profit-sharing in the cross-level influence of individual pay-for-performance.

    PubMed

    Han, Joo Hun; Bartol, Kathryn M; Kim, Seongsu

    2015-03-01

    Drawing upon line-of-sight (Lawler, 1990, 2000; Murphy, 1999) as a unifying concept, we examine the cross-level influence of organizational use of individual pay-for-performance (PFP), theorizing that its impact on individual employees' performance-reward expectancy is boosted by the moderating effects of immediate group managers' contingent reward leadership and organizational use of profit-sharing. Performance-reward expectancy is then expected to mediate the interactive effects of individual PFP with contingent reward leadership and profit-sharing on employee job performance. Analyses of cross-organizational and cross-level data from 912 employees in 194 workgroups from 45 companies reveal that organizations' individual PFP was positively related to employees' performance-reward expectancy, which was strengthened when it was accompanied by higher levels of contingent reward leadership and profit-sharing. Also, performance-reward expectancy significantly transmitted the effects of individual PFP onto job performance under higher levels of contingent reward leadership and profit-sharing, thus delineating cross-level mediating and moderating processes by which organizations' individual PFP is linked to important individual-level employee outcomes. Several theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  17. Brief Opioid Overdose Knowledge (BOOK): A Questionnaire to Assess Overdose Knowledge in Individuals Who Use Illicit or Prescribed Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Barrett, Frederick S.; Yepez-Laubach, Claudia; Meyer, Andrew C.; Hruska, Bryce J.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Opioid overdose is a public health crisis. This study describes efforts to develop and validate the Brief Opioid Overdose Knowledge (BOOK) questionnaire to assess patient knowledge gaps related to opioid overdose risks. Methods: Two samples of illicit opioid users and a third sample of patients receiving an opioid for the treatment of chronic pain (total N = 848) completed self-report items pertaining to opioid overdose risks. Results: A 3-factor scale was established, representing Opioid Knowledge (4 items), Opioid Overdose Knowledge (4 items), and Opioid Overdose Response Knowledge (4 items). The scale had strong internal and face validity. Patients with chronic pain performed worse than illicit drug users in almost all items assessed, highlighting the need to increase knowledge of opioid overdose risk to this population. Conclusions: This study sought to develop a brief, internally valid method for quickly assessing deficits in opioid overdose risk areas within users of illicit and prescribed opioids, to provide an efficient metric for assessing and comparing educational interventions, facilitate conversations between physicians and patients about overdose risks, and help formally identify knowledge deficits in other patient populations. PMID:27504923

  18. Leadership = Communication? The Relations of Leaders’ Communication Styles with Leadership Styles, Knowledge Sharing and Leadership Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bakker-Pieper, Angelique; Oostenveld, Wyneke

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between leaders’ communication styles and charismatic leadership, human-oriented leadership (leader’s consideration), task-oriented leadership (leader’s initiating structure), and leadership outcomes. Methodology A survey was conducted among 279 employees of a governmental organization. The following six main communication styles were operationalized: verbal aggressiveness, expressiveness, preciseness, assuredness, supportiveness, and argumentativeness. Regression analyses were employed to test three main hypotheses. Findings In line with expectations, the study showed that charismatic and human-oriented leadership are mainly communicative, while task-oriented leadership is significantly less communicative. The communication styles were strongly and differentially related to knowledge sharing behaviors, perceived leader performance, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate’s team commitment. Multiple regression analyses showed that the leadership styles mediated the relations between the communication styles and leadership outcomes. However, leader’s preciseness explained variance in perceived leader performance and satisfaction with the leader above and beyond the leadership style variables. Implications This study offers potentially invaluable input for leadership training programs by showing the importance of leader’s supportiveness, assuredness, and preciseness when communicating with subordinates. Originality/value Although one of the core elements of leadership is interpersonal communication, this study is one of the first to use a comprehensive communication styles instrument in the study of leadership. PMID:20700375

  19. Overcoming Interoperability Weaknesses in e-Government Processes: Organizing and Sharing Knowledge in Regional Development Programs Using Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorza, Francesco; Casas, Giuseppe Las; Murgante, Beniamino

    European Regional Policy produced several generations of programmes at both National and Regional levels. Such a complex framework tends to increase multi-level governance in the period 2007-2013, promoting a wider participation of stakeholders (including Public Administration, Local Communities, Enterprises, etc). This process has been usually accompanied by e-tools for the management of bottom-up processes, with several instances related to common problems of participation processes. Communication between "programmer" and categories of beneficiaries always presented weakness due to the ineffective system of management knowledge within the process. Relevant issues in the framework of regional development programmes are: Do stakeholders understand the meaning of general and sectoral policies? Are citizens aware of technical instruments implementing such policies? Are they conscious of ex-ante comprehensive context analysis and/or can they share possible future scenarios? A way to tackle these problems is the use of ontologies. In this work we present the structural elements of the ontology of regional development programmes analyzing major steps of the ontology design and nodal phases of the ontology building (i.e. consensus on relations and restrictions, switch from glossary to taxonomy). The result of such an application is an ontology of regional development containing more than one hundred classes.

  20. University-Industry Relationships and the Role of the Individual: Network Ties and the Diversity of Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva-Felez, Africa; Bekkers, Rudi; Molas-Gallart, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to the effectiveness of knowledge transfer processes between academia and industry. Although there is growing evidence that the characteristics of individual researchers are important when explaining cases of successful transfer, few studies have taken the individual researcher as their unit of…

  1. Impaired personal trait knowledge, but spared other-person trait knowledge, in an individual with bilateral damage to the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Marquine, María J; Grilli, Matthew D; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Kaszniak, Alfred W; Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2016-08-01

    Functional neuroimaging has revealed that in healthy adults retrieval of personal trait knowledge is associated with increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Separately, neuropsychology has shown that the self-referential nature of memory can be disrupted in individuals with mPFC lesions. However, it remains unclear whether damage to the mPFC impairs retrieval of personal trait knowledge. Therefore, in this neuropsychological case study we investigated the integrity of personal trait knowledge in J.S., an individual who sustained bilateral damage to the mPFC as a result of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. We measured both accuracy and consistency of J.S.'s personal trait knowledge as well as his trait knowledge of another, frequently seen person, and compared his performance to a group of healthy adults. Findings revealed that J.S. had severely impaired accuracy and consistency of his personal trait knowledge relative to control participants. In contrast, J.S.'s accuracy and consistency of other-person trait knowledge was intact in comparison to control participants. Moreover, J.S. showed a normal positivity bias in his trait ratings. These results, albeit based on a single case, implicate the mPFC as critical for retrieval of personal trait knowledge. Findings also cast doubt on the likelihood that the mPFC, in particular the ventral mPFC, is necessary for storage and retrieval of trait knowledge of other people. Therefore, this case study adds to a growing body of evidence that mPFC damage can disrupt the link between self and memory.

  2. Principles of antipsychotic prescribing for policy makers, circa 2008. Translating knowledge to promote individualized treatment.

    PubMed

    Parks, Joseph; Radke, Alan; Parker, George; Foti, May-Ellen; Eilers, Robert; Diamond, Mary; Svendsen, Dale; Tandon, Rajiv

    2009-09-01

    Findings from 2 pivotal government-funded studies of comparative antipsychotic effectiveness undermine assumptions about the marked superiority of the more expensive second-generation "atypical" medications in comparison to the less expensive first-generation "typical" drugs. Because this assumption was the basis for the almost universal recommendation that these newer antipsychotics be used preferentially resulting in a 10-fold increase in state governmental expenditures on this class of medications over the past decade, a reassessment of policy is called for. To address the issue, the Medical Directors Council of the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors critically reviewed findings of these studies in the context of other data and considered policy implications in the light of the obligations of state government to make available best possible and individually optimized treatment that is cost-effective. The Medical Directors Council unanimously adopted a set of recommendations to promote appropriate access, efficient utilization, and best practice use. We present our policy statement, in which we provide a succinct background, articulate general principles, and describe a set of 4 broad recommendations. We then summarize our understanding of the current state of knowledge about comparative antipsychotic effectiveness, best antipsychotic practice, and considerations for state policy that represent the basis of our position statement.

  3. Effects of Knowledge Sharing and Social Presence on the Intention to Continuously Use Social Networking Sites: The Case of Twitter in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bong-Won; Lee, Kun Chang

    Recent surge of social networking websites in the world supports a widely accepted assumption that people aspires to be recognized online by sharing information with others, perceive enjoyment and keeps to use their social networking site continuously. Different from traditional social networking sites (SNSs) like Cyworld and Facebook, Twitter is famous for its short message and ease of sharing knowledge with others in a prompt manner. Therefore, Twitter is preferred most by many people who seem innovative generically. In this sense, Twitter accumulates its fame as the most influential SNS media among users. However, there is no study to investigate why people holds continuous intention to use the Twitter from the perspective of knowledge-sharing and social presence. To resolve this research issue, this paper adopts six constructs such as personal innovativeness, knowledge-sharing intention, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, social presence, and intention to continuously use. Empirical results with 105 valid questionnaires revealed that the proposed research model is statistically significant, and people's intention to use the Twitter continuously is influenced by social presence, perceived enjoyment, and perceived ease of use.

  4. Individual Differences in Children's Literacy Development: The Contribution of Orthographic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Harris, Nicholas; Williams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Orthographic knowledge is one of several contributors to developing literacy skills. However, our understanding of how orthographic knowledge contributes to both spelling and reading is incomplete due to a lack of consistency in defining and measuring orthographic knowledge. The goal of the present study was to empirically test whether or not…

  5. Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia: A Participative Workshop to Reduce Volcanic Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.

    2009-12-01

    Galeras has been in nearly constant activity during modern historic times (roughly the past 500 years). Approximately 10,000 people live within an area designated as the highest-hazard and nearly 400,000 people are within areas of potential harmful effects. A wide variety of stakeholders are affected by the hazards, including: farmers, indigenous villagers, and people in urban environments. Hazards assessment and volcano monitoring are the responsibility of the Colombian Geological Survey (INGEOMINAS), whereas decisions regarding mitigation and response procedures are the responsibility of various governmental offices and the national emergency system (SNPAD). According to the current plan, when the risk level rises to a high level the people in the highest risk zone are required to evacuate. The volcano currently is in a very active, but fluctuating, condition and a future large eruption in a medium time frame (years to decades) is possible. There is a growing level of discomfort among many of the affected groups, including indigenous communities, farmers, and urban dwellers, related to the risk assessment. The general opinion prior to July 2009 was quite polarized as the decision makers saw the people of the region as poorly prepared to understand this hazard, whereas the population felt that their views were not being heard. The result was that the people in the hazardous areas decided not to evacuate, even during the current period of explosive activity. To resolve this situation the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop named "Knowledge, Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia" that was held in Pasto (Colombia), between 6 and 11 July, 2009. The general objective of this workshop was to analyze the existing hazard maps and safety plans for Galeras and form a bridge connecting scientists, decision makers, and other stake holders to promote a better

  6. Brief Report: Knowledge and Confidence of Emergency Medical Service Personnel Involving Treatment of an Individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wachob, David; Pesci, Louis J

    2016-12-01

    In order to best respond to an emergency situation, professionals need to have an understanding about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and techniques that will ensure proper care. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and confidence of EMS personnel on interacting and treating an individual with ASD. Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT), and Paramedics were surveyed on their knowledge of ASD; familiarity or experience with ASD, and level of comfort responding to emergencies involving an individual with ASD. The results found that autism-specific training and resources were associated with higher comfort levels, but not knowledge. It was also determined that newer and younger professionals had higher knowledge and comfort when compared to the more experienced and older professionals.

  7. Preservice Teachers' Level of Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Assessment by Individual Innovativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökçearslan, Sahin; Karademir, Tugra; Korucu, Agah Tugrul

    2017-01-01

    Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, one of the frameworks proposed in order to popularize the use of technology in a classroom environment, has been customized and has taken the form of Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge. The Relational Screening Model was used in this study. It aims to determine whether a profile of preservice teachers…

  8. An Investigation of the Relations between Student Knowledge, Personal Contact, and Attitudes toward Individuals with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of 118 MSW students was conducted to examine the relationship between social work students' knowledge about, contact with, and attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that students' knowledge about and contact with persons with schizophrenia were significantly related to better attitudes…

  9. Semantic Knowledge Use in Discourse Produced by Individuals with Anomic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kintz, Stephen; Wright, Heather Harris; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Background Researchers have demonstrated that people with aphasia (PWA) have preserved semantic knowledge (Dell et al., 1997; Jefferies & Lambon Ralph, 2006). However, Antonucci (2014) demonstrated that some PWA have impaired access to certain types of knowledge more than others. Yet, all these studies used single concepts. It has not been demonstrated whether PWA have difficulty accessing certain types of features within a discourse sample. Aims The main goals of this study were to determine if semantic knowledge and two category types were used differently within discourse produced by participants with anomic aphasia and healthy controls. Method & Procedures Participants with anomic aphasia (n=19) and healthy controls (n=19) told stories that were transcribed and coded for 10 types of semantic knowledge and two category types, living and nonliving things. Outcomes & Results A Poisson regression model was conducted. The results indicated a significant difference between the groups for the semantic knowledge types, sound and internal state, but no difference was found for category types. Yet the distribution of semantic knowledge and category types produced within the discourse samples were similar between the groups. Conclusion PWA might have differential access to certain types of semantic knowledge within discourse production, but it does not rise to the level of categorical deficits. These findings extend single-concept research into the realm of discourse. PMID:27429506

  10. High knowledge about obesity and its health risks, with the exception of cancer, among Mexican individuals.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Ruth; Ponce de León Rosales, Sergio; García, Rusia; García-García, Eduardo; Méndez, Juan Pablo

    2012-06-01

    Mexico has the second biggest prevalence in the world of obese adults (30%). We conducted a survey to determine knowledge concerning obesity co-morbidities. Three groups were surveyed with a questionnaire divided into three sections: demographic characteristics; knowledge and awareness in relation to obesity being a disease; causes of obesity and the health risks it represents; weight auto-perception and the subject's personal experiences regarding weight. In all groups we found high knowledge regarding that obesity is a disease and the causes of its development, as well as that it greatly increases the risk of presenting type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and knee osteoarthritis. However, in all groups, there was a gap in knowledge regarding the risk obesity poses for the development of breast and colon cancer. Aggressive health promotion campaigns concerning obesity, which have been implemented recently in Mexico, must emphasize cancer as a potential outcome for obese patients.

  11. Developing Low-Income Preschoolers' Social Studies and Science Vocabulary Knowledge through Content-Focused Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Kim, Minjun; Simmons, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of integrating science and social studies vocabulary instruction into shared book reading with low-income preschool children. Twenty-one preschool teachers and 148 children from their classrooms were randomly assigned at the class level to either the Words of Oral Reading and Language Development (WORLD)…

  12. Ways of Knowing, Sharing, and Translating Agricultural Knowledge and Perspectives: Alternative Epistemologies across Non-Formal and Informal Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Matthew M.; Ball, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    The mainstream agricultural literacy movement has been mostly focused on school-based learning through formal curricula and standardized non-formal models (e.g., FFA, 4-H). The purpose of the current study is to qualitatively explore through a grounded theory approach, the development, sharing, and translation of diverse forms of agricultural…

  13. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  14. Analysis of Swedish Forest Owners' Information and Knowledge-Sharing Networks for Decision-Making: Insights for Climate Change Communication and Adaptation.

    PubMed

    André, Karin; Baird, Julia; Gerger Swartling, Åsa; Vulturius, Gregor; Plummer, Ryan

    2017-03-08

    To further the understanding of climate change adaptation processes, more attention needs to be paid to the various contextual factors that shape whether and how climate-related knowledge and information is received and acted upon by actors involved. This study sets out to examine the characteristics of forest owners' in Sweden, the information and knowledge-sharing networks they draw upon for decision-making, and their perceptions of climate risks, their forests' resilience, the need for adaptation, and perceived adaptive capacity. By applying the concept of ego-network analysis, the empirical data was generated by a quantitative survey distributed to 3000 private forest owners' in Sweden in 2014 with a response rate of 31%. The results show that there is a positive correlation, even though it is generally weak, between forest owner climate perceptions and (i) network features, i.e. network size and heterogeneity, and (ii) presence of certain alter groups (i.e. network members or actors). Results indicate that forest owners' social networks currently serve only a minimal function of sharing knowledge of climate change and adaptation. Moreover, considering the fairly infrequent contact between respondents and alter groups, the timing of knowledge sharing is important. In conclusion we suggest those actors that forest owners' most frequently communicate with, especially forestry experts providing advisory services (e.g. forest owner associations, companies, and authorities) have a clear role to communicate both the risks of climate change and opportunities for adaptation. Peers are valuable in connecting information about climate risks and adaptation to the actual forest property.

  15. Tomorrow's Families: Triumph of the Individual or Sharing the Caring? (Les familles de demain: Triomphe de l'individu ou partage des soins a donner?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue of the Canadian newsletter "Transitions" in both English and French explores the question of the future of families in a period of broken marriages, difficult times, and an obsession with individual success and materialism. "Families of the Future: New Ways to Do the Same Old Things," summarizes the findings of…

  16. Psychiatrists' Knowledge, Training and Attitudes Regarding the Care of Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, S.; Stawski, M.; Polakiewicz, Y.; Levav, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychiatrists are responsible for providing proper care for people with intellectual disability who have psychiatric disorders. This study examined psychiatrists' perceptions of their own training, knowledge and therapeutic skills, as well as their attitudes towards this population. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 679…

  17. Investigating Acceptance toward Mobile Learning to Assist Individual Knowledge Management: Based on Activity Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Hatala, Marek; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices could facilitate human interaction and access to knowledge resources anytime and anywhere. With respect to wide application possibilities of mobile learning, investigating learners' acceptance towards it is an essential issue. Based on activity theory approach, this research explores positive factors for the acceptance of m-learning…

  18. Individual Differences in the Encoding Processes of Egocentric and Allocentric Survey Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Wen; Ishikawa, Toru; Sato, Takao

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how different components of working memory are involved in the acquisition of egocentric and allocentric survey knowledge by people with a good and poor sense of direction (SOD). We employed a dual-task method and asked participants to learn routes from videos with verbal, visual, and spatial interference tasks and without any…

  19. Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen B., Ed.; Stabinsky, Doreen, Ed.

    Intellectual property enables individuals to gain financially from sharing unique and useful knowledge. Compensating indigenous people for sharing their knowledge and resources might both validate and be an equitable reward for indigenous knowledge of biological resources, and might promote the conservation of those resources. This book contains…

  20. A Study on the Effects of Knowledge Share in Virtual Community on Creative Teaching Behaviors and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawan, Sri; Herachwati, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    In the information technology advance era with constantly expanded knowledge and the requirements of the general public for school education, a lot of different education ideas are introduced in the education reforms, such as school-based characteristic curriculum, teachers' professional development, professional learning community, learning…

  1. Knowledge Management and Professional Work: A Communication Perspective on the Knowledge-Based Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Lorna; Taylor, James R.

    2002-01-01

    Challenges two common assumptions in the literature on Knowledge Management: that knowledge originates in the individual and that once made explicit, subsequent interpretation of the representations of knowledge in symbolic form is unproblematic. Argues that the key to understanding the generation and sharing of knowledge is the role of text as…

  2. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... program that TSA determines will train individuals to a level of proficiency equivalent to the level that would be achieved by such classroom instruction. (d) Screener readiness test. Before beginning on-the-job training, a screener trainee must pass the screener readiness test prescribed by TSA. (e)...

  3. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... program that TSA determines will train individuals to a level of proficiency equivalent to the level that would be achieved by such classroom instruction. (d) Screener readiness test. Before beginning on-the-job training, a screener trainee must pass the screener readiness test prescribed by TSA. (e)...

  4. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... program that TSA determines will train individuals to a level of proficiency equivalent to the level that would be achieved by such classroom instruction. (d) Screener readiness test. Before beginning on-the-job training, a screener trainee must pass the screener readiness test prescribed by TSA. (e)...

  5. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in…

  6. Shift toward prior knowledge confers a perceptual advantage in early psychosis and psychosis-prone healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Christoph; Subramaniam, Naresh; Dobler, Veronika; Perez, Jesus; Finnemann, Johanna; Mehta, Puja R.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many neuropsychiatric illnesses are associated with psychosis, i.e., hallucinations (perceptions in the absence of causative stimuli) and delusions (irrational, often bizarre beliefs). Current models of brain function view perception as a combination of two distinct sources of information: bottom-up sensory input and top-down influences from prior knowledge. This framework may explain hallucinations and delusions. Here, we characterized the balance between visual bottom-up and top-down processing in people with early psychosis (study 1) and in psychosis-prone, healthy individuals (study 2) to elucidate the mechanisms that might contribute to the emergence of psychotic experiences. Through a specialized mental-health service, we identified unmedicated individuals who experience early psychotic symptoms but fall below the threshold for a categorical diagnosis. We observed that, in early psychosis, there was a shift in information processing favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. In the complementary study, we capitalized on subtle variations in perception and belief in the general population that exhibit graded similarity with psychotic experiences (schizotypy). We observed that the degree of psychosis proneness in healthy individuals, and, specifically, the presence of subtle perceptual alterations, is also associated with stronger reliance on prior knowledge. Although, in the current experimental studies, this shift conferred a performance benefit, under most natural viewing situations, it may provoke anomalous perceptual experiences. Overall, we show that early psychosis and psychosis proneness both entail a basic shift in visual information processing, favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. The studies provide complementary insights to a mechanism by which psychotic symptoms may emerge. PMID:26460044

  7. Variation in individuals' semantic networks for common knowledge is associated with false memory.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Adams, Susan M; Goldsmith, Timothy E; Butler, Karin M

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the relationships between false memories of words and their degree of connectedness within individual semantic networks. In the first two experiments, participants studied associated word lists (e.g., hot, winter, ice), completed a recognition test that included related nonstudied words (e.g., cold, snow), and then rated the semantic relatedness of all word pairs including studied and nonstudied words. In the third experiment, the task order was reversed; participants completed pairwise ratings and then, two weeks later, completed the false memory task. The relatedness ratings were analysed using the Pathfinder scaling algorithm. In all experiments, items that an individual falsely recognized had higher semantic Pathfinder node densities than those items correctly rejected.

  8. Individuality, phenotypic differentiation, dormancy and ‘persistence’ in culturable bacterial systems: commonalities shared by environmental, laboratory, and clinical microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Douglas; Potgieter, Marnie; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    For bacteria, replication mainly involves growth by binary fission. However, in a very great many natural environments there are examples of phenotypically dormant, non-growing cells that do not replicate immediately and that are phenotypically ‘nonculturable’ on media that normally admit their growth. They thereby evade detection by conventional culture-based methods. Such dormant cells may also be observed in laboratory cultures and in clinical microbiology. They are usually more tolerant to stresses such as antibiotics, and in clinical microbiology they are typically referred to as ‘persisters’. Bacterial cultures necessarily share a great deal of relatedness, and inclusive fitness theory implies that there are conceptual evolutionary advantages in trading a variation in growth rate against its mean, equivalent to hedging one’s bets. There is much evidence that bacteria exploit this strategy widely. We here bring together data that show the commonality of these phenomena across environmental, laboratory and clinical microbiology. Considerable evidence, using methods similar to those common in environmental microbiology, now suggests that many supposedly non-communicable, chronic and inflammatory diseases are exacerbated (if not indeed largely caused) by the presence of dormant or persistent bacteria (the ability of whose components to cause inflammation is well known). This dormancy (and resuscitation therefrom) often reflects the extent of the availability of free iron. Together, these phenomena can provide a ready explanation for the continuing inflammation common to such chronic diseases and its correlation with iron dysregulation. This implies that measures designed to assess and to inhibit or remove such organisms (or their access to iron) might be of much therapeutic benefit. PMID:26629334

  9. Individuality, phenotypic differentiation, dormancy and 'persistence' in culturable bacterial systems: commonalities shared by environmental, laboratory, and clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Kell, Douglas; Potgieter, Marnie; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    For bacteria, replication mainly involves growth by binary fission. However, in a very great many natural environments there are examples of phenotypically dormant, non-growing cells that do not replicate immediately and that are phenotypically 'nonculturable' on media that normally admit their growth. They thereby evade detection by conventional culture-based methods. Such dormant cells may also be observed in laboratory cultures and in clinical microbiology. They are usually more tolerant to stresses such as antibiotics, and in clinical microbiology they are typically referred to as 'persisters'. Bacterial cultures necessarily share a great deal of relatedness, and inclusive fitness theory implies that there are conceptual evolutionary advantages in trading a variation in growth rate against its mean, equivalent to hedging one's bets. There is much evidence that bacteria exploit this strategy widely. We here bring together data that show the commonality of these phenomena across environmental, laboratory and clinical microbiology. Considerable evidence, using methods similar to those common in environmental microbiology, now suggests that many supposedly non-communicable, chronic and inflammatory diseases are exacerbated (if not indeed largely caused) by the presence of dormant or persistent bacteria (the ability of whose components to cause inflammation is well known). This dormancy (and resuscitation therefrom) often reflects the extent of the availability of free iron. Together, these phenomena can provide a ready explanation for the continuing inflammation common to such chronic diseases and its correlation with iron dysregulation. This implies that measures designed to assess and to inhibit or remove such organisms (or their access to iron) might be of much therapeutic benefit.

  10. Individualized risk for statin-induced myopathy: current knowledge, emerging challenges and potential solutions.

    PubMed

    Feng, QiPing; Wilke, Russell A; Baye, Tesfaye M

    2012-04-01

    Skeletal muscle toxicity is the primary adverse effect of statins. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the genetic and nongenetic determinants of risk for statin induced myopathy. Many genetic factors were initially identified through candidate gene association studies limited to pharmacokinetic (PK) targets. Through genome-wide association studies, it has become clear that SLCO1B1 is among the strongest PK predictors of myopathy risk. Genome-wide association studies have also expanded our understanding of pharmacodynamic candidate genes, including RYR2. It is anticipated that deep resequencing efforts will define new loci with rare variants that also contribute, and sophisticated computational approaches will be needed to characterize gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Beyond environment, race is a critical covariate, and its influence is only partly explained by geographic differences in the frequency of known pharmacodynamic and PK variants. As such, admixture analyses will be essential for a full understanding of statin-induced myopathy.

  11. Voice care knowledge by dysphonic and healthy individuals of different generations.

    PubMed

    Moreti, Felipe; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the opinions of both dysphonic and vocally healthy individuals regarding the factors that affect their voices positively and negatively, analyzing them according to the generation to which the participants belong. Eight hundred sixty-six individuals (304 dysphonic and 562 vocally healthy; 196 men and 670 women) categorized by generation: 22 individuals in Silent Generation (1926/-/1945), 180 in Baby Boomers (1946/-/1964), 285 in Generation X (1965/-/1981), and 379 in Generation Y (1982/-/2003) responded to two open questions: "Cite five things that you believe are good/bad to your voice". Five thousand, two hundred sixty answers were identified (2478 positive and 2782 negative) and organized in 365 factors related to voice care. The three most prevalent positive and negative factors for each generation were as follows: Silent Generation - positive factors: 1 - water, honey and pomegranate, 2 - apple, and 3 - ginger tea, voice exercises and gargling; negative factors: 1 - cold drinks, 2 - excessive speaking, and 3 - alcoholic drinks, smoking and screaming; Baby Boomers - positive factors: 1 - water, 2 - apple, and 3 - sleeping well; negative factors: 1 - cold drinks, 2 - screaming, and 3 - smoking; Generation X - positive factors: 1 - water, 2 - apple, and 3 - vocal warm-up; negative factors: 1 - screaming, 2 - smoking, and 3 - alcoholic drinks; and Generation Y - positive factors: 1 - water, 2 - apple, and 3 - vocal warm-up; negative factors: 1 - screaming, 2 - smoking, and 3 - alcoholic drinks. The impact of generation was greater on the frequency of the responses than on their type. Water and apple were the most frequently cited positive factors for all the generations investigated, whereas screaming and smoking were the most frequently mentioned negative factors. Behavioral aspects related to popular beliefs were reported more frequently by the older generations.

  12. Scaling up health knowledge at European level requires sharing integrated data: an approach for collection of database specification.

    PubMed

    Menditto, Enrica; Bolufer De Gea, Angela; Cahir, Caitriona; Marengoni, Alessandra; Riegler, Salvatore; Fico, Giuseppe; Costa, Elisio; Monaco, Alessandro; Pecorelli, Sergio; Pani, Luca; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Computerized health care databases have been widely described as an excellent opportunity for research. The availability of "big data" has brought about a wave of innovation in projects when conducting health services research. Most of the available secondary data sources are restricted to the geographical scope of a given country and present heterogeneous structure and content. Under the umbrella of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, collaborative work conducted by the partners of the group on "adherence to prescription and medical plans" identified the use of observational and large-population databases to monitor medication-taking behavior in the elderly. This article describes the methodology used to gather the information from available databases among the Adherence Action Group partners with the aim of improving data sharing on a European level. A total of six databases belonging to three different European countries (Spain, Republic of Ireland, and Italy) were included in the analysis. Preliminary results suggest that there are some similarities. However, these results should be applied in different contexts and European countries, supporting the idea that large European studies should be designed in order to get the most of already available databases.

  13. Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations.

    PubMed

    Perry, Lynn K; Saffran, Jenny R

    2016-04-05

    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored (e.g., Holstein cow and pink pig); on other trials, colors were switched (e.g., pink cow and Holstein-patterned pig). On each trial, toddlers were directed to find a target object. Overall, recognition was disrupted when colors were switched, as measured by eye movements. Moreover, individual differences in vocabularies predicted recognition differences: Toddlers who say fewer shape-based words were more disrupted by color switches. "Knowing" a word may not mean the same thing for all toddlers; different toddlers prioritize different facets of familiar objects in their lexical representations.

  14. Development of a standardized knowledge base to generate individualized medication plans automatically with drug administration recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Send, Alexander F J; Al-Ayyash, Adel; Schecher, Sabrina; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Klein, Ulrike; Schaier, Matthias; Pruszydlo, Markus G; Witticke, Diana; Lohmann, Kristina; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Haefeli, Walter E; Seidling, Hanna M

    2013-01-01

    Aims We aimed to develop a generic knowledge base with drug administration recommendations which allows the generation of a dynamic and comprehensive medication plan and to evaluate its comprehensibility and potential benefit in a qualitative pilot study with patients and physicians. Methods Based on a literature search and previously published medication plans, a prototype was developed and iteratively refined through qualitative evaluation (interviews with patients and focus group discussions with physicians). To develop the recommendations for safe administration of specific drugs we screened the summary of product characteristics (SmPC) of different exemplary brands, allocated the generated advice to groups with brands potentially requiring the same advice, and reviewed these allocations regarding applicability and appropriateness of the recommendations. Results For the recommendations, 411 SmPCs of 140 different active ingredients including all available galenic formulations, routes of administrations except infusions, and administration devices were screened. Finally, 515 distinct administration recommendations were included in the database. In 926 different generic groups, 29 879 allocations of brands to general advice, food advice, indications, step-by-step instructions, or combinations thereof were made. Thereby, 27 216 of the preselected allocations (91.1%) were confirmed as appropriate. In total, one third of the German drug market was labelled with information. Conclusions Generic grouping of brands according to their active ingredient and other drug characteristics and allocation of standardized administration recommendations is feasible for a large drug market and can be integrated in a medication plan. PMID:24007451

  15. Small passive student experiments on G324 261 individual quests for student knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, James H.; Tempel, Carol A.; Ashcraft, Ruth; Rutherford, Robin

    1995-09-01

    The Charleston County School District CAN DO Project payload on STS-57 had a primary goal of photographing the Earth with the GeoCam camera system. In addition, the payload carried 261 passive student experiments representing the efforts of several thousand students throughout the district and in four other states. These experiments represented the individual concepts of teams ranging in age from pre-school to high school. Consequently, a tremendous variety of samples from collard green seeds to microscopic 'water bears' were flown. Each prospective team was provided a simple kit equipped with five vials. Each student team submitted five coded samples, one for space flight and four control samples. The control samples were exposed to radiation, cold and centrifugation respectively while one negative control sample was passively stored. The students received the samples back still coded so that they were unaware of which samples were flown. They then investigated their samples according to their individual research protocols. The results were presented in poster and platform form at a student research symposium. Space Trees grown from tree seeds flown in the payload have been planted at all district schools, and at many guest schools. These seeds represented another way in which to involve additional classes and students. Both the passive experiments and the space trees were housed in what otherwise would have been wasted space within the payload. They extended the GAS programs worthwhile ballast concept to another level. The opportunity to fly an experiment in space is too previous not to be extended to the greatest number of students possible.

  16. Small passive student experiments on G324 261 individual quests for student knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James H.; Tempel, Carol A.; Ashcraft, Ruth; Rutherford, Robin

    1995-01-01

    The Charleston County School District CAN DO Project payload on STS-57 had a primary goal of photographing the Earth with the GeoCam camera system. In addition, the payload carried 261 passive student experiments representing the efforts of several thousand students throughout the district and in four other states. These experiments represented the individual concepts of teams ranging in age from pre-school to high school. Consequently, a tremendous variety of samples from collard green seeds to microscopic 'water bears' were flown. Each prospective team was provided a simple kit equipped with five vials. Each student team submitted five coded samples, one for space flight and four control samples. The control samples were exposed to radiation, cold and centrifugation respectively while one negative control sample was passively stored. The students received the samples back still coded so that they were unaware of which samples were flown. They then investigated their samples according to their individual research protocols. The results were presented in poster and platform form at a student research symposium. Space Trees grown from tree seeds flown in the payload have been planted at all district schools, and at many guest schools. These seeds represented another way in which to involve additional classes and students. Both the passive experiments and the space trees were housed in what otherwise would have been wasted space within the payload. They extended the GAS programs worthwhile ballast concept to another level. The opportunity to fly an experiment in space is too previous not to be extended to the greatest number of students possible.

  17. DataSHIELD: resolving a conflict in contemporary bioscience—performing a pooled analysis of individual-level data without sharing the data

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, Michael; Wallace, Susan E; Masca, Nicholas; Rowe, Geoff; Sheehan, Nuala A; Ferretti, Vincent; LaFlamme, Philippe; Tobin, Martin D; Macleod, John; Little, Julian; Fortier, Isabel; Knoppers, Bartha M; Burton, Paul R

    2010-01-01

    Background Contemporary bioscience sometimes demands vast sample sizes and there is often then no choice but to synthesize data across several studies and to undertake an appropriate pooled analysis. This same need is also faced in health-services and socio-economic research. When a pooled analysis is required, analytic efficiency and flexibility are often best served by combining the individual-level data from all sources and analysing them as a single large data set. But ethico-legal constraints, including the wording of consent forms and privacy legislation, often prohibit or discourage the sharing of individual-level data, particularly across national or other jurisdictional boundaries. This leads to a fundamental conflict in competing public goods: individual-level analysis is desirable from a scientific perspective, but is prevented by ethico-legal considerations that are entirely valid. Methods Data aggregation through anonymous summary-statistics from harmonized individual-level databases (DataSHIELD), provides a simple approach to analysing pooled data that circumvents this conflict. This is achieved via parallelized analysis and modern distributed computing and, in one key setting, takes advantage of the properties of the updating algorithm for generalized linear models (GLMs). Results The conceptual use of DataSHIELD is illustrated in two different settings. Conclusions As the study of the aetiological architecture of chronic diseases advances to encompass more complex causal pathways—e.g. to include the joint effects of genes, lifestyle and environment—sample size requirements will increase further and the analysis of pooled individual-level data will become ever more important. An aim of this conceptual article is to encourage others to address the challenges and opportunities that DataSHIELD presents, and to explore potential extensions, for example to its use when different data sources hold different data on the same individuals. PMID:20630989

  18. Hospital-Based Nurses’ Perceptions of the Adoption of Web 2.0 Tools for Knowledge Sharing, Learning, Social Interaction and the Production of Collective Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 provides a platform or a set of tools such as blogs, wikis, really simple syndication (RSS), podcasts, tags, social bookmarks, and social networking software for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in a virtual environment. Web 2.0 is also becoming increasingly popular in e-learning and e-social communities. Objectives The objectives were to investigate how Web 2.0 tools can be applied for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in the nursing domain and to investigate what behavioral perceptions are involved in the adoption of Web 2.0 tools by nurses. Methods The decomposed technology acceptance model was applied to construct the research model on which the hypotheses were based. A questionnaire was developed based on the model and data from nurses (n = 388) were collected from late January 2009 until April 30, 2009. Pearson’s correlation analysis and t tests were used for data analysis. Results Intention toward using Web 2.0 tools was positively correlated with usage behavior (r = .60, P < .05). Behavioral intention was positively correlated with attitude (r = .72, P < .05), perceived behavioral control (r = .58, P < .05), and subjective norm (r = .45, P < .05). In their decomposed constructs, perceived usefulness (r = .7, P < .05), relative advantage (r = .64, P < .05), and compatibility (r = .60, P < .05) were positively correlated with attitude, but perceived ease of use was not significantly correlated (r = .004, P < .05) with it. Peer (r = .47, P < .05), senior management (r = .24, P < .05), and hospital (r = .45, P < .05) influences had positive correlations with subjective norm. Resource (r = .41, P < .05) and technological (r = .69, P < .05) conditions were positively correlated with perceived behavioral control. Conclusions The identified behavioral perceptions may further health policy makers’ understanding of nurses

  19. How to talk to strangers: facilitating knowledge sharing within translational health teams with the Toolbox dialogue method.

    PubMed

    Schnapp, Lynn M; Rotschy, Liela; Hall, Troy E; Crowley, Stephen; O'Rourke, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Translational behavioral medicine involves experts from different disciplines and professions interacting to solve complex problems. Coordinating this expertise can be frustrated by the partially tacit nature of expertise and by the various ways in which it manifests in different communities. We describe a method-the Toolbox dialogue method-for addressing these challenges by means of a structured dialogue among team members concerning their respective approaches to complex problems. The Toolbox dialogue method consists of a philosophically grounded questionnaire-the "Toolbox"-deployed in workshops by collaborators from different disciplines and professions. The Health Science Toolbox was modified from an extensively utilized questionnaire designed for Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics (STEM) research and has been piloted with translational medicine teams. Eighty-five percent of participants in STEM workshops indicated a positive impact on awareness of the knowledge, opinions, or scientific approach of teammates. In the Health Science Toolbox, 35 % of questionnaire responses changed substantially from pre- to post-workshop, demonstrating impact of the workshops. The Toolbox dialogue method is a relatively brief workshop encounter that can have a positive impact on mutual understanding within translational medicine teams.

  20. A Conceptual Framework for Examining Knowledge Management in Higher Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hae-Young; Roth, Gene L.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge management is an on-going process that involves varied activities: diagnosis, design, and implementation of knowledge creation, knowledge transfer, and knowledge sharing. The primary goal of knowledge management, like other management theories or models, is to identify and leverage organizational and individual knowledge for the…

  1. Allo-HLA Cross-Reactivities of CMV-, FLU- and VZV-Specific Memory T Cells Are Shared by Different Individuals.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, H; Heutinck, K M; van der Meer-Prins, E M W; Yong, S L; van Miert, P P M C; Anholts, J D H; Franke-van Dijk, M E I; Zhang, X Q; Roelen, D L; Ten Berge, R J M; Claas, F H J

    2017-03-23

    Virus-specific T cells can recognize allogeneic HLA (allo-HLA) through TCR cross-reactivity. The allospecificity often differs per individual ("private cross-reactivity"), but can also be shared by multiple individuals ("public cross-reactivity"). However, only a few examples of the latter have been described. Since these could facilitate alloreactivity prediction in transplantation, we aimed to identify novel public cross-reactivities of human virus-specific CD8+ T cells directed against allo-HLA by assessing their reactivity in mixed-lymphocyte reactions. Further characterization was done by studying TCR usage with primer-based DNA sequencing, cytokine production with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and cytotoxicity with (51) Chromium-release assays. We identified three novel public allo-HLA cross-reactivities of human virus-specific CD8(+) T cells. CMV B35/IPS CD8(+) T cells cross-reacted with HLA-B51 and/or HLA-B58/B57 (23% of tetramer-positive individuals), FLU A2/GIL CD8(+) T cells with HLA-B38 (90% of tetramer-positive individuals) and VZV A2/ALW CD8(+) T cells with HLA-B55 (two unrelated individuals). Cross-reactivity was tested against different cell types including endothelial and epithelial cells. All cross-reactive T cells expressed a memory phenotype, emphasizing the importance for transplantation. We conclude that public allo-HLA cross-reactivity of virus-specific memory T cells is not uncommon, which may create novel opportunities for alloreactivity prediction and risk estimation in transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. 'Is this knowledge mine and nobody else's? I don't feel that.' Patient views about consent, confidentiality and information-sharing in genetic medicine.

    PubMed

    Dheensa, Sandi; Fenwick, Angela; Lucassen, Anneke

    2016-03-01

    In genetic medicine, a patient's diagnosis can mean their family members are also at risk, raising a question about how consent and confidentiality should function in clinical genetics. This question is particularly pressing when it is unclear whether a patient has shared information. Conventionally, healthcare professionals view confidentiality at an individual level and 'disclosure without consent' as the exception, not the rule. The relational joint account model, by contrast, conceptualises genetic information as confidential at the familial level and encourages professionals to take disclosure as the default position. In this study, we interviewed 33 patients about consent and confidentiality and analysed data thematically. Our first theme showed that although participants thought of certain aspects of genetic conditions--for example, the way they affect day-to-day health--as somewhat personal, they perceived genetic information--for example, the mutation in isolation--as familial. Most thought these elements were separable and thought family members had a right to know the latter, identifying a broad range of harms that would justify disclosure. Our second theme illustrated that participants nonetheless had some concerns about what, if any, implications there would be of professionals treating such information as familial and they emphasised the importance of being informed about the way their information would be shared. Based on these results, we recommend that professionals take disclosure as the default position, but make clear that they will treat genetic information as familial during initial consultations and address any concerns therein.

  3. Does state-level context matter for individuals' knowledge about abortion, legality and health? Challenging the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bessett, Danielle; Gerdts, Caitlin; Littman, Lisa L; Kavanaugh, Megan L; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that state-level political context influences individuals' cultural values--the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis--has been invoked to explain the hyper-polarisation of politics in the USA. To test this hypothesis, we examined individuals' knowledge about abortion in relation to the political context of their current state of residence. Drawing from an internet-survey of 586 reproductive-age individuals in the USA, we assessed two types of abortion knowledge: health-related and legality. We found that state-level conservatism does not modify the existing relationships between individual predictors and each of the two types of abortion knowledge. Hence, our findings do not support the 'red states' versus 'blue states' hypothesis. Additionally, we find that knowledge about abortion's health effects in the USA is low: 7% of our sample thought abortion before 12 weeks gestation was illegal.

  4. Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…

  5. Resurrecting Legacy Code Using Ontosoft Knowledge-Sharing and Digital Object Management to Revitalize and Reproduce Software for Groundwater Management Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, N.; Gentle, J.; Pierce, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Software code developed for research is often used for a relatively short period of time before it is abandoned, lost, or becomes outdated. This unintentional abandonment of code is a valid problem in the 21st century scientific process, hindering widespread reusability and increasing the effort needed to develop research software. Potentially important assets, these legacy codes may be resurrected and documented digitally for long-term reuse, often with modest effort. Furthermore, the revived code may be openly accessible in a public repository for researchers to reuse or improve. For this study, the research team has begun to revive the codebase for Groundwater Decision Support System (GWDSS), originally developed for participatory decision making to aid urban planning and groundwater management, though it may serve multiple use cases beyond those originally envisioned. GWDSS was designed as a java-based wrapper with loosely federated commercial and open source components. If successfully revitalized, GWDSS will be useful for both practical applications as a teaching tool and case study for groundwater management, as well as informing theoretical research. Using the knowledge-sharing approaches documented by the NSF-funded Ontosoft project, digital documentation of GWDSS is underway, from conception to development, deployment, characterization, integration, composition, and dissemination through open source communities and geosciences modeling frameworks. Information assets, documentation, and examples are shared using open platforms for data sharing and assigned digital object identifiers. Two instances of GWDSS version 3.0 are being created: 1) a virtual machine instance for the original case study to serve as a live demonstration of the decision support tool, assuring the original version is usable, and 2) an open version of the codebase, executable installation files, and developer guide available via an open repository, assuring the source for the

  6. SHARE and Share Alike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jeffrey Marshall

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a reading comprehension program adopted at J. E. Cosgriff Memorial Catholic School in Salt Lake City, Utah. The program is called SHARE: Students Helping Achieve Reading Excellence, and involves seventh and eighth grade students teaching first and second graders reading comprehension strategies learned in middle school…

  7. Knowledge management: implications for human service organizations.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michael J; Claassen, Jennette; Vu, Catherine M; Mizrahi, Paola

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge management has recently taken a more prominent role in the management of organizations as worker knowledge and intellectual capital are recognized as critical to organizational success. This analysis explores the literature of knowledge management including the individual level of tacit and explicit knowledge, the networks and social interactions utilized by workers to create and share new knowledge, and the multiple organizational and managerial factors associated with effective knowledge management systems. Based on the role of organizational culture, structure, leadership, and reward systems, six strategies are identified to assist human service organizations with implementing new knowledge management systems.

  8. The Impact of Leadership Styles and Knowledge Sharing on Police Officers' Willingness to Exert Extra Effort to Provide Better Security: A Study in the Riot Unit of the Turkish National Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombul, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    The motivation for this study is to understand the factors affecting police officers' willingness to exert extra effort for providing better service through knowledge sharing in different working environments such as riots. Since managers' leadership styles may be important factors affecting subordinates' willingness to exert extra effort, this…

  9. Preserving Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taintor, Spence

    2008-01-01

    Every year, teachers leave the profession and take valuable experience and knowledge with them. An increasing retirement rate makes schools vulnerable to a significant loss of knowledge. This article describes how implementing a knowledge management process will ensure that valuable assets are captured and shared. (Contains 3 online resources.)

  10. Librarians' Attitudes toward Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…

  11. Shared Mind: Communication, Decision Making, and Autonomy in Serious Illness

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ronald M.; Street, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of serious illness, individuals usually rely on others to help them think and feel their way through difficult decisions. To help us to understand why, when, and how individuals involve trusted others in sharing information, deliberation, and decision making, we offer the concept of shared mind—ways in which new ideas and perspectives can emerge through the sharing of thoughts, feelings, perceptions, meanings, and intentions among 2 or more people. We consider how shared mind manifests in relationships and organizations in general, building on studies of collaborative cognition, attunement, and sensemaking. Then, we explore how shared mind might be promoted through communication, when appropriate, and the implications of shared mind for decision making and patient autonomy. Next, we consider a continuum of patient-centered approaches to patient-clinician interactions. At one end of the continuum, an interactional approach promotes knowing the patient as a person, tailoring information, constructing preferences, achieving consensus, and promoting relational autonomy. At the other end, a transactional approach focuses on knowledge about the patient, information-as-commodity, negotiation, consent, and individual autonomy. Finally, we propose that autonomy and decision making should consider not only the individual perspectives of patients, their families, and members of the health care team, but also the perspectives that emerge from the interactions among them. By drawing attention to shared mind, clinicians can observe in what ways they can promote it through bidirectional sharing of information and engaging in shared deliberation. PMID:21911765

  12. Exploring Metaskills of Knowledge-Creating Inquiry in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muukkonen, Hanni; Lakkala, Minna

    2009-01-01

    The skills of knowledge-creating inquiry are explored as a challenge for higher education. The knowledge-creation approach to learning provides a theoretical tool for addressing them: In addition to the individual and social aspects in regulation of inquiry, the knowledge-creation approach focuses on aspects related to advancing shared objects of…

  13. Knowledge of Staff Members of Residential Care Facilities for Individuals with Intellectual Disability on Medication Administration via Enteral Feeding Tube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joos, E.; Mehuys, E.; Van Bocxlaer, J.; Remon, J. P.; Van Winckel, M.; Boussery, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Guidelines for the safe administration of drugs through enteral feeding tube (EFT) are an important tool to minimise the risk of errors. This study aimed to investigate knowledge of these guidelines among staff of residential care facilities (RCF) for people with ID. Method: Knowledge was assessed using a 13-item self-administered…

  14. FIFTH SEMINAR IN MEMORY OF D.N. KLYSHKO: Quantum cryptography: individual eavesdropping with the knowledge of the error-correcting protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoshko, D. B.

    2007-12-01

    The quantum key distribution protocol BB84 combined with the repetition protocol for error correction is analysed from the point of view of its security against individual eavesdropping relying on quantum memory. It is shown that the mere knowledge of the error-correcting protocol changes the optimal attack and provides the eavesdropper with additional information on the distributed key.

  15. Knowledge of risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease (CVD) is poor among individuals with risk factors for CVD

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, Libby; Busingye, Doreen; Reyneke, Megan; Orgill, Mary; Cadilhac, Dominique A.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on whether having pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or risk factors for CVD such as diabetes, ensures greater knowledge of risk factors important for motivating preventative behaviours. Our objective was to compare knowledge among the Australian public participating in a health check program and their risk status. Methods Data from the Stroke Foundation ‘Know your numbers’ program were used. Staff in community pharmacies provided opportunistic health checks (measurement of blood pressure and diabetes risk assessment) among their customers. Participants were categorised: 1) CVD ± risk of CVD: history of stroke, heart disease or kidney disease, and may have risk factors; 2) risk of CVD only: reported having high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or atrial fibrillation; and 3) CVD risk free (no CVD or risk of CVD). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed including adjustment for age and sex. Findings Among 4,647 participants, 12% had CVD (55% male, 85% aged 55+ years), 47% were at risk of CVD (40% male, 72% 55+ years) and 41% were CVD risk free (33% male, 27% 55+ years). Participants with CVD (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.80) or risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.73) had poorer knowledge of the risk factors for diabetes/CVD compared to those who were CVD risk free. After adjustment, only participants with risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.93) had poorer knowledge. Older participants (55+ years) and men had poorer knowledge of diabetes/CVD risk factors and complications of diabetes. Conclusions Participants with poorer knowledge of risk factors were older, more often male or were at risk of developing CVD compared with those who were CVD risk free. Health education in these high risk groups should be a priority, as diabetes and CVD are increasing in prevalence throughout the world. PMID:28245267

  16. The Writer's Individualized Transfer Tool: A Freeware Innovation for Fostering and Researching Transfer of Writing Skills and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khost, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Most higher education institutions lack a program that promotes students' transfer--that is, reapplication or repurposing--of writing skills and knowledge across the curriculum, a phenomenon that research shows does not tend to happen without deliberate sustained support. This article introduces an online instrument, the Writer's Individualized…

  17. Visuo-spatial knowledge acquisition in individuals with Down syndrome: The role of descriptions and sketch maps.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Carretti, Barbara; Toffalini, Enrico

    2017-03-02

    Few studies on individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have explored how they learn space. The present study examines space learning from verbal descriptions in individuals with DS, and explores the role of external cues (such as a sketch map). Twenty-eight individuals with DS and 28 matched typically-developing (TD) children listened to route or survey descriptions with or without seeing a corresponding sketch map (Description+Sketch Map [D+SM] and Description alone [D], respectively). After hearing each description, they performed tasks that involved recognizing, arranging sequentially, and locating landmarks. The results showed that individuals with DS performed less well in recognizing landmarks and arranging them sequentially. The D+SM condition produced general benefits in both groups' accuracy, though the improvement in locating landmarks was greater in the TD than in the DS group. In both groups, the D+SM condition prompted a better performance than the D condition when participants arranged landmarks sequentially after hearing a description from a route perspective, but not from a survey perspective. Overall, our results show that individuals with DS benefited when a spatial description was associated with a corresponding sketch map, albeit to a lesser degree than TD children. The findings are discussed in the light of the literature on DS and on spatial cognition in the TD domain.

  18. Learning about Drinking Water: How Important Are the Three Dimensions of Knowledge That Can Change Individual Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremerey, Christian; Bogner, Franz X.

    2014-01-01

    Clean drinking water, our most important resource, needs comprehensive protection. Due to its ubiquitous availability, the awareness of the importance of clean drinking water has partially vanished. Therefore, sensitizing within this context and improving individual ecological behavior has become an important issue in science curricula. We…

  19. Analyzing Learner Characteristics, Undergraduate Experience and Individual Teamwork Knowledge, Skills and Abilities: Toward Identifying Themes to Promote Higher Workforce Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Consuelo V.

    2009-01-01

    With the world amidst globalization and economic flux affecting business, industry, and communities the need to work together becomes increasingly important. Higher education serves an important role in developing the individual teaming capabilities of the workforce. This environment is the time and place--opportunity for student personnel to…

  20. Constructing Knowledge with an Agent-Based Instructional Program: A Comparison of Cooperative and Individual Meaning Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana

    2009-01-01

    Participants in the present study were 87 college students who learned about botany using an agent-based instructional program with three different learning approaches: individual, jigsaw, or cooperative learning. Results showed no differences among learning approaches on retention. Students in jigsaw groups reported higher cognitive load during…

  1. The Impact of Collaborative and Individualized Student Response System Strategies on Learner Motivation, Metacognition, and Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. E.; Antonenko, P. D.; Greenwood, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of collaborative and individualized student response system-based instruction on learner motivation, metacognition, and concept transfer in a large-enrolment undergraduate science course. Participants in the collaborative group responded to conceptual questions, discussed their responses in small groups, and…

  2. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  3. Conceptual Knowledge Influences Decision Making Differently in Individuals with High or Low Cognitive Flexibility: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaofei; Du, Xiumin; Qi, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) have distinguished between good and bad decision makers and have provided an explanation for deficits in decision making. Previous studies have demonstrated a link between Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performance and IGT performance, but the results were not consistent and failed to explain why WCST performance can predict IGT performance. The present study aimed to demonstrate that WCST performance can predict IGT performance and to identify the cognitive component of the WCST that affects IGT performance using event-related potentials (ERPs). Methods In this study, 39 healthy subjects (5 subjects were excluded) were divided into a high group and a low group based on their global score on the WCST. A single-choice version of the IGT was used to eliminate the impact of retrieval strategies on the choice evaluation process and interference due to uncorrelated decks. Differences in the underlying neural mechanisms and explicit knowledge between the two groups during the three stages of the decision-making process were described. Results Based on the information processing perspective, we divided the decision-making process into three stages: choice evaluation, response selection, and feedback processing. The behavioral results showed that the highly cognitively flexible participants performed better on the IGT and acquired more knowledge of the task. The ERP results showed that during the choice evaluation stage, the P300 recorded from central and parietal regions when a bad deck appeared was larger in the high group participants than in the low group participants. During the response selection stage, the effect of choice type was significant only in the frontal region in the high group, with a larger effect for passing. During the feedback evaluation stage, a larger FRN was evoked for a loss than for a win in the high group, whereas the FRN effect was absent in the low group. Conclusion Compared with the

  4. PERKAM: Personalized Knowledge Awareness Map for Computer Supported Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bishouty, Moushir M.; Ogata, Hiroaki; Yano, Yoneo

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a ubiquitous computing environment in order to support the learners while doing tasks; this environment is called PERKAM (PERsonalized Knowledge Awareness Map). PERKAM allows the learners to share knowledge, interact, collaborate, and exchange individual experiences. It utilizes the RFID ubiquities technology to detect the…

  5. Using Participatory Action Research to Share Knowledge of the Local Environment and Climate Change: Case Study of Erub Island, Torres Strait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Karen Elizabeth; McNamara, John Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Reading seasons and environments has been a long-held practice for Torres Strait Islanders through their close relationships with their islands and seas. This research project worked with elders on Erub (Darnley) Island, in the eastern group of islands in the Torres Strait, to document and synthesise their knowledge of seasonal patterns and…

  6. An Exploration of School Counselors' Knowledge Sharing Practices Using Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Social Exchange Theory, and Theory of Reasoned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipp, Adria E.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors are expected to be advocates, collaborators, consultants, and leaders in their work with students, families, administrators, school staff, and community based stakeholders (ASCA, 2005; Shoffner & Briggs, 2001; Rowley, 2000). Underlying these expectations is the belief that school counselors are knowledgeable in the areas that…

  7. Information Sharing between the U.S. Department State and the U.S. Army: Using Knowledge Management Technology and Tools to Bridge the Gap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    on the People Part of KM ................................................ 58 Competing Systems and Information Overload ...to the information overload in both the Army and State. Both organizations operate networks that are publically accessible, unclassified but for...increase workload for knowledge workers. This information overload is common in federal organizations that have 26 multiple systems with users trying

  8. Preparing the Next Generations of Technology Project Managers to Lead through Knowledge Sharing: A Case Study at a Large Transportation Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargbo, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify knowledge transfer gaps and current practices, prepare current project managers to accept the challenges associated with leadership opportunities that are coming available due to retirements through cross training efforts and succession planning, and to identify the proper management of knowledge…

  9. Sharing Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

  10. Shared Attention.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world.

  11. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  12. Users' Attitudes toward Web-Based Collaborative Learning Systems for Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2008-01-01

    The Web-based technology is a potential tool for supported collaborative learning that may enrich learning performance, such as individual knowledge construction or group knowledge sharing. Thus, understanding Web-based collaborative learning for knowledge management is a critical issue. The present study is to investigate learners' attitudes…

  13. Evaluating knowledge transfer practices among construction organization in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Mohd Azian; Baharuddin, Mohd Nurfaisal; Bahardin, Nur Fadhilah; Yasin, Mohd Fadzil Mat; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Deraman, Rafikullah

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this paper is to identify a key dimension of knowledge transfer component to improve construction organization performance. It investigates the effectiveness of present knowledge transfer practices currently adopted by the Malaysian construction organizations and examines the relationship between knowledge transfer factors and organizational factors. A survey among 151 respondents including a different contractor registration grade was employed for the study. The survey shows that a seven-teen (17) factors known as creating shared awareness for information sharing, communication, personal skills,individual attitude,training, organizational culture, information technology,motivation, monitoring and supervision, service quality,information accessibility, information supply, socialization process,knowledge tools, coaching and monitoring, staff briefing and information sharing were identify as a key dimension for knowledge transfer success. This finding suggest that through improvement of each factor, the recognition of the whole strategic knowledge transfer process can be increase thus helping to strengthen the Malaysian construction organization for competitive advantages.

  14. Individual 3D region-of-interest atlas of the human brain: knowledge-based class image analysis for extraction of anatomical objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Sabri, Osama; Buell, Udalrich

    2000-06-01

    After neural network-based classification of tissue types, the second step of atlas extraction is knowledge-based class image analysis to get anatomically meaningful objects. Basic algorithms are region growing, mathematical morphology operations, and template matching. A special algorithm was designed for each object. The class label of each voxel and the knowledge about the relative position of anatomical objects to each other and to the sagittal midplane of the brain can be utilized for object extraction. User interaction is only necessary to define starting, mid- and end planes for most object extractions and to determine the number of iterations for erosion and dilation operations. Extraction can be done for the following anatomical brain regions: cerebrum; cerebral hemispheres; cerebellum; brain stem; white matter (e.g., centrum semiovale); gray matter [cortex, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal lobes, cingulum, insula, basal ganglia (nuclei caudati, putamen, thalami)]. For atlas- based quantification of functional data, anatomical objects can be convoluted with the point spread function of functional data to take into account the different resolutions of morphological and functional modalities. This method allows individual atlas extraction from MRI image data of a patient without the need of warping individual data to an anatomical or statistical MRI brain atlas.

  15. Quality of life, socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitude toward sexuality from the perspectives of individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus1

    PubMed Central

    Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Gosuen, Gisele Cristina; Campanharo, Cássia Regina Vancini; Fram, Dayana Souza; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag; Belasco, Angélica Gonçalves Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to analyze the quality of life of "patients" with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and relate it to their socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality. Method: crosssectional and analytical study with 201 individuals who are 50 years old or older. The Targeted Quality of Life and Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scales were applied during interviews. Multiple Linear Regression was used in data analysis. Results: dimensions of quality of life more strongly compromised were disclosure worries (39.0), sexual function (45.9), and financial worries (55.6). Scores concerning knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality were 31.7 and 14.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between attitudes and the domains of overall function, health worries, medication worries, and HIV mastery. Conclusion: guidance concerning how the disease is transmitted, treated and how it progresses, in addition to providing social and psychological support, could minimize the negative effects of the disease on the quality of life of patients living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. PMID:26039288

  16. A prospective study comparing the predictions of doctors versus models for treatment outcome of lung cancer patients: a step towards individualized care and shared decision making

    PubMed Central

    Oberije, Cary; Nalbantov, Georgi; Dekker, Andre; Boersma, Liesbeth; Borger, Jacques; Reymen, Bart; van Baardwijk, Angela; Wanders, Rinus; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Steyerberg, Ewout; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Lambin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Decision Support Systems, based on statistical prediction models, have the potential to change the way medicine is being practiced, but their application is currently hampered by the astonishing lack of impact studies. Showing the theoretical benefit of using these models could stimulate conductance of such studies. In addition, it would pave the way for developing more advanced models, based on genomics, proteomics and imaging information, to further improve the performance of the models. Purpose In this prospective single-center study, previously developed and validated statistical models were used to predict the two-year survival (2yrS), dyspnea (DPN), and dysphagia (DPH) outcomes for lung cancer patients treated with chemo radiation. These predictions were compared to probabilities provided by doctors and guideline-based recommendations currently used. We hypothesized that model predictions would significantly outperform predictions from doctors. Materials and Methods Experienced radiation oncologists (ROs) predicted all outcomes at two timepoints: 1) after the first consultation of the patient, and 2) after the radiation treatment plan was made. Differences in the performances of doctors and models were assessed using Area under the Curve (AUC) analysis. Results A total number of 155 patients were included. At timepoint #1 the differences in AUCs between the ROs and the models were 0.15, 0.17, and 0.20 (for 2yrS, DPN, and DPH respectively), with p-values of 0.02, 0.07, and 0.03. Comparable differences at timepoint #2 were not statistically significant due to the limited number of patients. Comparison to guideline-based recommendations also favored the models. Conclusions The models substantially outperformed ROs’ predictions and guideline-based recommendations currently used in clinical practice. Identification of risk groups on the basis of the models facilitates individualized treatment, and should be further investigated in clinical impact

  17. From the description of activities to the identification of risks for clinical management: a proposal of building, merging and sharing knowledge representations of care processes.

    PubMed

    Staccini, Pascal; Joubert, Michel; Collomp, Rémy; Quaranta, Jean-François; Fieschi, Marius

    2007-01-01

    Management of clinical processes and hospital activities takes advantage of business process reengineering methodology. It is now recognized that care process modeling must integrate the definition of goals and the assessment of risk. Two kinds of issues have been outlined: 1) the lack of an integrated model to identify and describe processes and their components according to a functional point of view; and 2) an increasing amount of documents that hospital staff members have to create, collect, index and maintain. As initial models focused only on a structural view of activities, we reviewed different sources of standards and norms to extract and classify a set of metadata aimed at describing any activity and its outcomes. The model includes links to structured terminologies to name attributes or value them. An object-oriented information model has been created and implemented to test the relevance and the feasibility of the modeling approach. Conceptually speaking, this model gives opportunity to bridge tacit and explicit knowledge. Practically speaking, limits to generalization remain partly due to the lack of a template processes database.

  18. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Janis; Jardine, Cynthia G.; Guebert, Jenilee; Bubela, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Background Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK). Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. Objective This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Design Review. Results Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Conclusions Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements. PMID:23986896

  19. Visualization for constructing and sharing geo-scientific concepts.

    PubMed

    MacEachren, Alan M; Gahegan, Mark; Pike, William

    2004-04-06

    Representations of scientific knowledge must reflect the dynamic nature of knowledge construction and the evolving networks of relations between scientific concepts. In this article, we describe initial work toward dynamic, visual methods and tools that support the construction, communication, revision, and application of scientific knowledge. Specifically, we focus on tools to capture and explore the concepts that underlie collaborative science activities, with examples drawn from the domain of human-environment interaction. These tools help individual researchers describe the process of knowledge construction while enabling teams of collaborators to synthesize common concepts. Our visualization approach links geographic visualization techniques with concept-mapping tools and allows the knowledge structures that result to be shared through a Web portal that helps scientists work collectively to advance their understanding. Our integration of geovisualization and knowledge representation methods emphasizes the process through which abstract concepts can be contextualized by the data, methods, people, and perspectives that produced them. This contextualization is a critical component of a knowledge structure, without which much of the meaning that guides the sharing of concepts is lost. By using the tools we describe here, human-environment scientists are given a visual means to build concepts from data (individually and collectively) and to connect these concepts to each other at appropriate levels of abstraction.

  20. Scotland's Knowledge Network: translating knowledge into action to improve quality of care.

    PubMed

    Wales, A; Graham, S; Rooney, K; Crawford, A

    2012-11-01

    The Knowledge Network (www.knowledge.scot.nhs.uk) is Scotland's online knowledge service for health and social care. It is designed to support practitioners to apply knowledge in frontline delivery of care, helping to translate knowledge into better health-care outcomes through safe, effective, person-centred care. The Knowledge Network helps to combine the worlds of evidence-based practice and quality improvement by providing access to knowledge about the effectiveness of clinical interventions ('know-what') and knowledge about how to implement this knowledge to support individual patients in working health-care environments ('know-how'). An 'evidence and guidance' search enables clinicians to quickly access quality-assured evidence and best practice, while point of care and mobile solutions provide knowledge in actionable formats to embed in clinical workflow. This research-based knowledge is complemented by social networking services and improvement tools which support the capture and exchange of knowledge from experience, facilitating practice change and systems improvement. In these cases, the Knowledge Network supports key components of the knowledge-to-action cycle--acquiring, creating, sharing and disseminating knowledge to improve performance and innovate. It provides a vehicle for implementing the recommendations of the national Knowledge into Action review, which outlines a new national approach to embedding knowledge in frontline practice and systems improvement.

  1. Racial Differences in HIV and HCV Risk Behaviors, Transmission, and Prevention Knowledge among Non-Treatment-Seeking Individuals with Opioid Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Metz, Verena E; Sullivan, Maria A; Jones, Jermaine D; Evans, Elizabeth; Luba, Rachel; Vogelman, Jonathan; Comer, Sandra D

    2017-01-01

    In light of New York's recently reinforced strategy to end the AIDS epidemic by expanding testing, treatment, and access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), we assessed drug use and sexual risk behaviors, along with HIV/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and prevention knowledge among non-treatment-seeking adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) in New York City. Over the course of 18 months, volunteers screening for research studies in the Opioid Laboratory at the New York State Psychiatric Institute completed a locally developed self-assessment questionnaire. A total of 138 adults with OUD (24 female, 114 male) with a mean age of 46.5 years (SD = 9.5 yrs) were assessed. Significant differences among the four racial/ethnic subgroups (n = 65 African-Americans, n = 34 Hispanics, n = 31 Caucasians or Whites, n = 8 Multiracial) were found. Whites were the youngest (p = 0.001), most frequently injecting drugs (p < 0.001), and engaged more often in risky drug use and sexual behaviors, although their virus transmission knowledge was comparable to that of the other subgroups. Few participants had heard about PrEP. White opioid users showed the most risk behaviors among races/ethnicities, despite comparable prevention knowledge. Better HIV/HCV prevention interventions targeting individuals with opioid use disorders who are not currently in treatment would be desirable, given their large health burden.

  2. The Knowledge Warehouse: Reusing Knowledge Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacci, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Currently there is little knowledge reuse across training, documentation, and performance support. Knowledge-based materials developed for one purpose are not shared or reused in others. The Knowledge Warehouse, a conceptual solution to this problem is discussed. Benefits and limitations are outlined and a definition of a standardized…

  3. Labia Majora Share

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hanjing; Yap, Yan Lin; Low, Jeffrey Jen Hui

    2017-01-01

    Defects involving specialised areas with characteristic anatomical features, such as the nipple, upper eyelid, and lip, benefit greatly from the use of sharing procedures. The vulva, a complex 3-dimensional structure, can also be reconstructed through a sharing procedure drawing upon the contralateral vulva. In this report, we present the interesting case of a patient with chronic, massive, localised lymphedema of her left labia majora that was resected in 2011. Five years later, she presented with squamous cell carcinoma over the left vulva region, which is rarely associated with chronic lymphedema. To the best of our knowledge, our management of the radical vulvectomy defect with a labia majora sharing procedure is novel and has not been previously described. The labia major flap presented in this report is a shared flap; that is, a transposition flap based on the dorsal clitoral artery, which has consistent vascular anatomy, making this flap durable and reliable. This procedure epitomises the principle of replacing like with like, does not interfere with leg movement or patient positioning, has minimal donor site morbidity, and preserves other locoregional flap options for future reconstruction. One limitation is the need for a lax contralateral vulva. This labia majora sharing procedure is a viable option in carefully selected patients. PMID:28194353

  4. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  5. Individual Differences in Time-Sharing Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    relative to solitary task performance levels (e.g., North and Gopher, 1975; Parker, 1964; Sterky and Eysenck , 1965). In attempting such an analysis...Sterky, K. and Eysenck , H. J. Pursuit rotor performance as a function of different degrees of distraction. Life Sciences, 1965) 4, 889-897. Trankell, A

  6. Team Learning: Building Shared Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim; Segers, Mien; Woltjer, Geert; Kirschner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning behaviors and team effectiveness. Analyses were…

  7. 3_IS: New Tools for Sharing Knowledge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    presentation slides, images, movies, etc.) inserted by the teacher before or after the lesson. This module is developed with Moodle (www.moodle.org) that...sometimes also called Learning Management Systems (LMS) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE). One of the main advantages of Moodle over other systems

  8. Tools for Knowledge Analysis, Synthesis, and Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medland, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    Change and complexity are creating a need for increasing levels of literacy in science and technology. Presently, we are beginning to provide students with clear contexts in which to learn, including clearly written text, visual displays and maps, and more effective instruction. We are also beginning to give students tools that promote their own…

  9. Social Contracts for Writing: Negotiating Shared Understandings about Text in the Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah Wells

    2008-01-01

    This article describes some of the foundational social contracts about written texts that two-year-olds and their teachers were negotiating in a U.S. preschool writing center. Social contracts are shared cultural knowledge that individuals draw on to produce and use written texts in culturally appropriate ways. Participants in this study were 18…

  10. Information sharing promotes prosocial behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-05-01

    More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games, the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emergence of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regard to content.

  11. High Performance Individuals and How They Manage Their Personal Knowledge for Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study of US Air Force Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    knowledge management, Coakes (2000) recently expounded on the natural connection between sociotechnical theory and the practice and processes for...personal knowledge. Some may even rely on other people, such as executive officers, secretaries, or aides. Coakes (2000) argues that the structure... Coakes (2000) agreed, stating, “[t]hinking of knowledge as something that can be stored and retrieved confuses it with information. Knowledge is the

  12. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  13. Young Children Choose to Inform Previously Knowledgeable Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sunae; Kalish, Charles W.; Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Children recognize that people who know more are better informants than those who know less. How does an individual's prior knowledge affect children's decisions about whom to inform? In 3 experiments, 3- to 6-year-old children were invited to share a novel piece of information with 1 of 2 potential recipients who differed in their recent history…

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of South African healthcare workers regarding the prevention and treatment of influenza among HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gaga, Sisanda; Clark, David; Muller, Madeleine; Kuwane, Bulenani; Cohen, Cheryl; Walaza, Sibongile; Tempia, Stefano; Ramatoboe, Puleng; Furumele, Tsakani; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; McMorrow, Meredith L.; Cohen, Adam L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The South African Department of Health (DOH) publishes annual guidelines identifying priority groups, including immunosuppressed individuals and healthcare workers (HCW), for influenza vaccination and treatment. How these guidelines have impacted HCW and their patients, particularly those infected with HIV, remains unknown. Methods We aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding influenza and the vaccine among South African HCW. Surveys were distributed by two local non-governmental organizations in public health clinics and hospitals in 21 districts/municipalities (5 of 9 provinces). Results There were 1164 respondents; median age 41 years; 978/1126 (87%) female; 801/1122 (71%) nurses. One-third (34%) of HCW reported getting influenza vaccine 2013/2014 and most (94%) recommended influenza vaccine to patients infected with HIV. Ability to get vaccine free of charge (aOR 1.69; 95% CI 1.21–2.37) and having received influenza government training (aOR 1.50; 95% CI 1.04–2.15) were significantly associated with self-reported vaccination in 2013/2014. Self-reported 2013/2014 vaccination (aOR 3.76; 95% CI 1.28–11.03) and availability of influenza vaccine during the healthcare visit (aOR 2.56; 95% CI 1.18–5.57) were significantly associated with recommending influenza vaccine to patients infected with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion Only one-third of participants were vaccinated in 2013–2014 but those who were vaccinated were more likely to recommend vaccination to their patients. Free and close access to influenza vaccine were associated with a higher likelihood of getting vaccinated in 2013/2014. HCW who reported getting the influenza vaccine themselves, had vaccine to offer during the patient consult and were familiar with DOH guidelines/trainings were more likely to recommend vaccine to HIV-infected patients. PMID:28301593

  15. A risk-based framework for biomedical data sharing.

    PubMed

    Dankar, Fida K; Badji, Radja

    2017-02-01

    The problem of biomedical data sharing is a form of gambling; on one hand it incurs the risk of privacy violations and on the other it stands to profit from knowledge discovery. In general, the risk of granting data access to a user depends heavily upon the data requested, the purpose for the access, the user requesting the data (user motives) and the security of the user's environment. While traditional manual biomedical data sharing processes (based on institutional review boards) are lengthy and demanding, the automated ones (known as honest broker systems) disregard the individualities of different requests and offer "one-size-fits-all" solutions to all data requestors. In this manuscript, we propose a conceptual risk-aware data sharing system; the system brings the concept of risk, from all contextual information surrounding a data request, into the data disclosure decision module. The decision module, in turn, imposes mitigation measures to counter the calculated risk.

  16. Zwischen Gesetz und Fall. Mutmassungen uber Typologien als Padagogische Wissensform (Between General Law and the Individual Case. Conjectures Concerning Typologies as a Form of Pedagogical Knowledge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Considers the mediation between scientific knowledge and practical action as a crucial feature of professional teaching. Investigates the assumption that typologies represent a form of knowledge which can bridge the gap between theory and practice. Differentiates between two forms of typological thinking and discusses reservations concerning…

  17. 75 FR 51750 - Accessibility Guidelines for Shared Use Paths

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... opportunity for individuals with disabilities, designers of shared use paths, and those with expertise in this... opportunity for individuals with disabilities, designers of shared use paths, and those with expertise in...

  18. Effects of individualized bone density feedback and educational interventions on osteoporosis knowledge and self-efficacy: a 12-yr prospective study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feitong; Laslett, Laura L; Wills, Karen; Oldenburg, Brian; Jones, Graeme; Winzenberg, Tania

    2014-01-01

    This is 12-yr follow-up of a randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of bone density feedback and osteoporosis education on osteoporosis knowledge and self-efficacy. We examined the effects of feedback of bone density-defined fracture risk (high [T-score <0] vs normal [T-score ≥0] risk) and 2 different educational interventions (the group-based Osteoporosis Prevention and Self-Management Course [OPSMC] vs an osteoporosis leaflet) on osteoporosis knowledge and self-efficacy in women aged 25-44. Seventy-four percent (N = 347) of 470 participants at baseline participated at 12 yr. Overall, the scores were higher for osteoporosis knowledge but lower for self-efficacy at 12 yr. However, neither intervention had an effect on the change in knowledge (T-score, β = 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.3 to 1.1; OPSMC, β = 0.2, 95% CI = -0.5 to 0.9) or self-efficacy (T-score, β = -1.1, 95% CI = -2.5 to 0.4; OPSMC, β = -0.2, 95% CI = -1.6 to 1.3). Women in households with an unemployed main financial provider had a decrease in knowledge at 12 yr compared with those in households with an employed main financial provider in whom knowledge increased (β = -1.95, 95% CI = -3.40 to -0.50), but there were no other predictors of change identified for knowledge or self-efficacy. In conclusion, beneficial effects of both OPSMC and feedback of high fracture risk on osteoporosis knowledge seen previously at 2 yr were not sustained after 12 yr although overall knowledge was still significantly higher than at baseline. Neither intervention improved osteoporosis self-efficacy. More frequent osteoporosis education and bone density feedback may be required to maintain knowledge, and other approaches to improve self-efficacy are necessary.

  19. 42 CFR 447.52 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Services (physician visit, physical therapy, etc.) $4 10% of cost the agency pays 20% of cost the agency... paragraph (d)(2) of this section, the agency may target cost sharing to specified groups of individuals with... agency may target cost sharing to specified groups of individuals regardless of income. (e) Denial...

  20. Tripartite quantum state sharing.

    PubMed

    Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P; Sanders, Barry C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-04-30

    We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73+/-0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.

  1. Working Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, David

    The resurgence of "lifelong learning" has renewed consideration of the nature of "working knowledge." Lifelong learning has many aspects, including construction and distribution of individuals' very self-hood, educational institutions' role in capturing informal experiences, and the juggling required between family and…

  2. Patterns of strengths and weaknesses in children's knowledge about fractions.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Steven A; Vagi, Kevin J

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual patterns of strengths and weaknesses in children's mathematical knowledge about common fractions. Tasks that primarily measure either conceptual or procedural aspects of mathematical knowledge were assessed with the same children in their fourth- and fifth-grade years (N=181, 56% female and 44% male). Procedural knowledge was regressed on levels of conceptual knowledge, and vice versa, to obtain residual scores. Residual scores capture variability in each kind of math knowledge that is not shared with the other type of knowledge. Cluster analysis using residuals indicated four distinct knowledge profiles in fourth graders: (a) higher than expected conceptual knowledge and relatively lower procedural knowledge, (b) relatively lower conceptual knowledge and higher procedural knowledge, (c) lower concepts but expected levels of procedural knowledge, and (d) relatively higher than expected levels of both procedural and conceptual knowledge. In fifth grade, another cluster emerged that showed lower procedures but expected levels of conceptual knowledge. In general, students with relatively lower than expected conceptual knowledge showed poorer accuracy on measures used to form the clusters and also word problem setups and estimation of sums. Implications for explaining seemingly conflicting results from prior work across studies are discussed.

  3. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Family Employment Awareness Training Program: Expectations, Knowledge, Barriers, and Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities Who Have Individualized Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Grace L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four individual, but related chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to competitive employment for people with disabilities who have individualized support needs and the Family Employment Awareness Training ("FEAT"). This chapter also provides a general overview of the other chapters in this…

  4. Individual Learning on Environmental Vocational Education and Training Courses Does Not Always Lead to the Workplace Application of Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Fiona; Oltean-Dumbrava, Crina; Kara-Zaitri, Chakib; Newbury, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research on three commercial environmental vocational education and training programmes revealed distinct personal, teaching and work-based presage factors, which influenced individual learning and learning transfer to the workplace. The extent to which behaviour change and learning transfer occurred depended on a diverse range of…

  5. Researching Our Own Practice: An Individual Creative Process and a Dialogic-Collaborative Process: "Self Knowledge Is the Beginning of Wisdom." Krishnamurti (1991, p. 196)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farren, Margaret; Crotty, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explain how our individual PhD enquiries (Farren, 2006; Crotty, 2012) have informed the philosophical underpinnings of our postgraduate programmes. The approach used to ensure validity and rigour in the research process is presented. We report on the development of the International Research Centre for e-Innovation and Workplace…

  6. A flexible Bayesian hierarchical approach for analyzing spatial and temporal variation in the fecal corticosterone levels in birds when there is imperfect knowledge of individual identity.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Link, William A; Woods, Rami J; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-12-01

    Population cycles have long interested biologists. The ruffed grouse, Bonasa umbellus, is one such species whose populations cycle over most of their range. Thus, much effort has been expended to understand the mechanisms that might control cycles in this and other species. Corticosterone metabolites are widely used in studies of animals to measure physiological stress. We evaluated corticosterone metabolites in feces of territorial male grouse as a potential tool to study mechanisms governing grouse cycles. However, like most studies of corticosterone in wild animals, we did not know the identity of all individuals for which we had fecal samples. This presented an analytical problem that resulted in either pseudoreplication or confounding. Therefore, we derived an analytical approach that accommodated for uncertainty in individual identification. Because we had relatively low success capturing birds, we estimated turnover probabilities of birds on territorial display sites based on capture histories of a limited number of birds we captured. Hence, we developed a study design and modeling approach to quantify variation in corticosterone levels among individuals and through time that would be applicable to any field study of corticosterone in wild animals. Specifically, we wanted a sampling design and model that was flexible enough to partition variation among individuals, spatial units, and years, while incorporating environmental covariates that would represent potential mechanisms. We conducted our study during the decline phase of the grouse cycle and found high variation among corticosterone samples (11.33-443.92 ng/g [x=113.99 ng/g, SD=69.08, median=99.03 ng/g]). However, there were relatively small differences in corticosterone levels among years, but levels declined throughout each breeding season, which was opposite our predictions for stress hormones correlating with a declining population. We partitioned the residual variation into site, bird, and

  7. Building effective workforce management practices through shared governance and technology systems integration.

    PubMed

    Krive, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In integrated delivery networks (IDNs) with complex management structures, shared governance in nursing is a proven model for health care delivery. After Advocate Health Care, the largest IDN in Illinois, implemented shared governance in its nursing, clinical, and non-clinical departments and restructured the organization's technology use, it benefited greatly from a new, shared decision-making process. After listening to business consultants, clinical professionals, and information technology experts, hospitals should take the blended, or comprehensive, approach to new projects. They can succeed by promoting communication supported by an integrated computer platform that helps nursing and business executives reach a consensus. Traditional modes of operation, in which individual administrative, clinical, and technology departments separately introduce innovation, do not deliver an advantage. However, models that incorporate open communication, integration, and knowledge sharing will help large IDNs and other complex health care organizations make the best possible use of their resources and investments.

  8. SHARING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    SHARED SERVICES, A COOPERATIVE SCHOOL RESOURCE PROGRAM, IS DEFINED IN DETAIL. INCLUDED IS A DISCUSSION OF THEIR NEED, ADVANTAGES, GROWTH, DESIGN, AND OPERATION. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING STATE AID IN SHARED SERVICES, EFFECTS OF SHARED SERVICES ON THE SCHOOL, AND HINTS CONCERNING SHARED SERVICES ARE DESCRIBED. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL…

  9. Culture as shared cognitive representations.

    PubMed Central

    Romney, A K; Boyd, J P; Moore, C C; Batchelder, W H; Brazill, T J

    1996-01-01

    Culture consists of shared cognitive representations in the minds of individuals. This paper investigates the extent to which English speakers share the "same" semantic structure of English kinship terms. The semantic structure is defined as the arrangement of the terms relative to each other as represented in a metric space in which items judged more similar are placed closer to each other than items judged as less similar. The cognitive representation of the semantic structure, residing in the mind of an individual, is measured by judged similarity tasks involving comparisons among terms. Using six independent measurements, from each of 122 individuals, correspondence analysis represents the data in a common multidimensional spatial representation. Judged by a variety of statistical procedures, the individuals in our sample share virtually identical cognitive representations of the semantic structure of kinship terms. This model of culture accounts for 70-90% of the total variability in these data. We argue that our findings on kinship should generalize to all semantic domains--e.g., animals, emotions, etc. The investigation of semantic domains is important because they may reside in localized functional units in the brain, because they relate to a variety of cognitive processes, and because they have the potential to provide methods for diagnosing individual breakdowns in the structure of cognitive representations typical of such ailments as Alzheimer disease. PMID:11607678

  10. Knowledge, attitudes, perceived vulnerability of Chinese nurses and their preferences for caring for HIV-positive individuals: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Han, Mei

    2013-01-01

    Aims The study was to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and perceived vulnerability with potential factors. Background HIV/AIDS is a public health catastrophe in China. Nurses are expected to care for nurture, comfort and advocate for all patients regardless of their condition. However, in the area of HIV/AIDS, nurses suffer as a result of expectations put on them by their professional roles. Design This was a descriptive, cross-sectional design that used a survey approach. Method Data were collected from Summer 2003–Winter 2004. Results Nurses reported significant perceived severity of risk from occupational exposure. Many nurses were frequently exposed to being stuck by needles (86%) and being splashed by body fluids and more than half of them (59·7%) were concerned about contracting HIV/AIDS. Nurses who had experience of finger pricks worried about potentially contacting HIV and being unaware of it (odds ratio= 0·444, p = 0·004). Nurses demonstrated a lack of knowledge and training in infectious diseases which may be a result of the fact that the study location is not considered a ‘concentrated area’ for infectious disease transmission; therefore, the need for the infectious diseases training has not been considered urgent. Conclusions A well-designed educational programme on occupational hazards and risk behaviour should be implemented to educate nurses in suburban cities and the general public. Hospital administrators should implement on-site continuing education on HIV/AIDS throughout China. Armed with better knowledge of both transmission routes and precautions, nurses can protect themselves while providing care to patients. Relevance to clinical practice Nurses in China urgently need psychosocial and physical supports from families, friends, communities and their working environments while combating HIV epidemic. With good support system, nurses will better educate patients and their family members on how to prevent transmission not only of HIV

  11. Sharing Health Information and Influencing Behavioral Intentions: The Role of Health Literacy, Information Overload, and the Internet in the Diffusion of Healthy Heart Information.

    PubMed

    Crook, Brittani; Stephens, Keri K; Pastorek, Angie E; Mackert, Michael; Donovan, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Low health literacy remains an extremely common and problematic issue, given that individuals with lower health literacy are more likely to experience health challenges and negative health outcomes. In this study, we use the first three stages of the innovation-decision process found in the theory of diffusion of innovations (Rogers, 2003). We incorporate health literacy into a model explaining how perceived health knowledge, information sharing, attitudes, and behavior are related. Results show that health information sharing explains 33% of the variance in behavioral intentions, indicating that the communicative practice of sharing information can positively impact health outcomes. Further, individuals with high health literacy tend to share less information about heart health than those with lower health literacy. Findings also reveal that perceived heart-health knowledge operates differently than health literacy to predict health outcomes.

  12. Teaching behaviorally handicapped preschool children to share.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, L E; Budd, K S

    1984-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of Barton and Ascione 's (1979) package for training sharing in a classroom setting with six behaviorally handicapped preschool children, four of whom were also developmentally delayed. Individual responses in sharing and not sharing were examined. Training consisted of initial instructions, modeling, and behavioral rehearsal, followed by teacher prompts and praise regarding sharing directly in a classroom free play period. Introduction of training in a multiple-baseline design across three pairs of children resulted in substantial increases in sharing for five of the six children. Results for negative interactions were less clear but suggested that concomitant decreases occurred for the same five children. The response analysis indicated that (a) individual components of sharing (offers, requests, and acceptances ) all increased with training; (b) most children were more likely to initiate sharing through requests than through offers; (c) the proportion of sharing initiatives accepted by peers increased with training despite a much greater absolute number of initiatives; and (d) of the three negative behaviors (opposing play, taking without asking, and aggression) examined as incompatible with sharing, the most prevalent response was opposing other children's play. Individual differences in initial social repertoires and responsiveness to training were examined with respect to their implications for research and practice. Overall, the findings provide an encouraging indication of an intervention program for children with behavioral, social, and developmental handicaps. PMID:6725169

  13. Experience as Knowledge in a New Product Development Team: Implications for Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to better understand how New Product Development (NPD) team members apply their experiences to meet the task needs of their project. Although "experience" is highly valued in team members, little research has looked specifically at experiences as a type of knowledge, and how this knowledge is used in work settings. This research evaluated nearly 200 instances where team members referenced past experiences during team meetings. During these experience exchanges, team members structured the sharing of their experiences to include three common elements: the source of the experience, the nature of the experience, and the degree of relevance to the current work of the team. The experiences fell into four categories: people (relationships), process, product, and politics. This paper describes how team members structured, applied, and integrated their individual experiences and presents the resulting implications for knowledge management systems that wish to exploit experience knowledge.

  14. Collaboratively Sharing Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal

    Scientific research becomes increasingly reliant on multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration through sharing experimental data. Indeed, data sharing is mandatory by government research agencies such as NIH. The major hurdles for data sharing come from: i) the lack of data sharing infrastructure to make data sharing convenient for users; ii) users’ fear of losing control of their data; iii) difficulty on sharing schemas and incompatible data from sharing partners; and iv) inconsistent data under schema evolution. In this paper, we develop a collaborative data sharing system SciPort, to support consistency preserved data sharing among multiple distributed organizations. The system first provides Central Server based lightweight data integration architecture, so data and schemas can be conveniently shared across multiple organizations. Through distributed schema management, schema sharing and evolution is made possible, while data consistency is maintained and data compatibility is enforced. With this data sharing system, distributed sites can now consistently share their research data and their associated schemas with much convenience and flexibility. SciPort has been successfully used for data sharing in biomedical research, clinical trials and large scale research collaboration.

  15. Fostering Argumentative Knowledge Construction through Enactive Role Play in "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chee, Yam San; Ho, Caroline Mei Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how pre-university students shared and constructed knowledge in the context of GP (general paper) by interacting through individual virtual characters across five cycles of enactive role play sessions. Contextualized scenarios on the topic of euthanasia were developed in "Second Life". Role-playing the virtual characters…

  16. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    Society in general, and geophysicists in particular, are challenged by problems and opportunities in the prospects for an additional three billion people on finite planet Earth by 2050 in a global economy four to six times larger than it is at present. A problem was identified by the Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): "If we choose to continue our current patterns of use, we face almost certain decline in the ability of ecosystems to yield their broad spectrum of benefits - from clean water to stable climate, fuel wood to food crops, timber to wildlife habitat." This is the issue of environmental sustainability. Another problem is the widening gap in wealth and health between affluent nations and impoverished countries. Every day each of the more than a billion people in the industrial nations produces goods and services worth nearly 60 dollars to meet their basic needs and "wants." This figure increases by about 85 cents annually. Every day each of the 600 million people in the least developed countries produces goods and services worth about 75 cents to meet their basic needs and limited wants. That number grows by less that a penny a day annually. This is the issue of economic prosperity and equity. By harnessing revolutionary technologies in communications to distribute expanding knowledge in the physical, chemical, and geophysical sciences and exploding knowledge in the biological and health sciences, a new vision for world society is brought within reach in The Knowledge Age. It is a society in which all of the basic human needs and an equitable share of human wants can be met while maintaining healthy, attractive, and biologically productive ecosystems. This society is environmentally sustainable, economically prosperous and equitable, and therefore likely to be politically stable. The time has arrived to fashion a strategy to pursue that vision. A knowledge-based and human-centered strategy will involve the discovery, integration, dissemination

  17. Generalized quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R.

    2005-01-01

    We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This has the important application that it reduces quantum (information processing) players by replacing them with their classical counterparts, thereby making quantum secret sharing considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting. In compression, a QSS scheme is turned into an equivalent scheme with fewer quantum players, compensated for by suitable classical shares. In inflation, a QSS scheme is enlarged by adding only classical shares and players. In a twin-threshold scheme, we invoke two separate thresholds for classical and quantum shares based on the idea of information dilution.

  18. Trust, vulnerable populations, and genetic data sharing

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Jalayne J.; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve; Gonzalez, Rosa; Campbell, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Recent policies and proposed regulations, including the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for the Common Rule and the 2014 NIH Genetic Data Sharing Policy, seek to improve research subject protections. Protections for subjects whose genetic data is shared are critical to reduce risks such as loss of confidentiality, stigma, and discrimination. In the article ‘It depends whose data are being shared: considerations for genomic data sharing policies’, Robinson et al. provide a response to our article, ‘The Growth and Gaps of Genetic Data Sharing Policies’. Robinson et al. highlight the importance of individual and group preferences. In this article, we extend the conversation on models for improving protections which will mitigate consequences for individuals and groups that are vulnerable to stigma and discrimination. PMID:27774227

  19. What Drives Academic Data Sharing?

    PubMed Central

    Fecher, Benedikt; Friesike, Sascha; Hebing, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread support from policy makers, funding agencies, and scientific journals, academic researchers rarely make their research data available to others. At the same time, data sharing in research is attributed a vast potential for scientific progress. It allows the reproducibility of study results and the reuse of old data for new research questions. Based on a systematic review of 98 scholarly papers and an empirical survey among 603 secondary data users, we develop a conceptual framework that explains the process of data sharing from the primary researcher’s point of view. We show that this process can be divided into six descriptive categories: Data donor, research organization, research community, norms, data infrastructure, and data recipients. Drawing from our findings, we discuss theoretical implications regarding knowledge creation and dissemination as well as research policy measures to foster academic collaboration. We conclude that research data cannot be regarded as knowledge commons, but research policies that better incentivise data sharing are needed to improve the quality of research results and foster scientific progress. PMID:25714752

  20. Knowledge management impact of information technology Web 2.0/3.0. The case study of agent software technology usability in knowledge management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sołtysik-Piorunkiewicz, Anna

    2015-02-01

    How we can measure the impact of internet technology Web 2.0/3.0 for knowledge management? How we can use the Web 2.0/3.0 technologies for generating, evaluating, sharing, organizing knowledge in knowledge-based organization? How we can evaluate it from user-centered perspective? Article aims to provide a method for evaluate the usability of web technologies to support knowledge management in knowledge-based organizations of the various stages of the cycle knowledge management, taking into account: generating knowledge, evaluating knowledge, sharing knowledge, etc. for the modern Internet technologies based on the example of agent technologies. The method focuses on five areas of evaluation: GUI, functional structure, the way of content publication, organizational aspect, technological aspect. The method is based on the proposed indicators relating respectively to assess specific areas of evaluation, taking into account the individual characteristics of the scoring. Each of the features identified in the evaluation is judged first point wise, then this score is subject to verification and clarification by means of appropriate indicators of a given feature. The article proposes appropriate indicators to measure the impact of Web 2.0/3.0 technologies for knowledge management and verification them in an example of agent technology usability in knowledge management system.

  1. The individual and societal burden of chronic pain in Europe: the case for strategic prioritisation and action to improve knowledge and availability of appropriate care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is common in Europe and elsewhere and its under treatment confers a substantial burden on individuals, employers, healthcare systems and society in general. Indeed, the personal and socioeconomic impact of chronic pain is as great as, or greater, than that of other established healthcare priorities. In light of review of recently published data confirming its clinical and socioeconomic impact, this paper argues that chronic pain should be ranked alongside other conditions of established priority in Europe. We outline strategies to help overcome barriers to effective pain care resulting in particular from deficiencies in education and access to interdisciplinary pain management services. We also address the confusion that exists between proper clinical and scientific uses of opioid medications and their potential for misuse and diversion, as reflected in international variations in the access to, and availability of, these agents. Discussion As the economic costs are driven in part by the costs of lost productivity, absenteeism and early retirement, pain management should aim to fully rehabilitate patients, rather than merely to relieve pain. Accredited education of physicians and allied health professionals regarding state-of-the-art pain management is crucial. Some progress has been made in this area, but further provision and incentivization is required. We support a tiered approach to pain management, whereby patients with pain uncontrolled by non-specialists are able to consult a physician with a pain competency or a specialist in pain medicine, who in turn can recruit the services of other professionals on a case-by-case basis. A fully integrated interdisciplinary pain service should ideally be available to patients with refractory pain. Governments and healthcare systems should ensure that their policies on controlled medications are balanced, safeguarding public health without undue restrictions that compromise patient care, and that

  2. A game theoretic analysis of research data sharing

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, Paulien H.; van Weerden, Anne; Schieving, Feike

    2015-01-01

    While reusing research data has evident benefits for the scientific community as a whole, decisions to archive and share these data are primarily made by individual researchers. In this paper we analyse, within a game theoretical framework, how sharing and reuse of research data affect individuals who share or do not share their datasets. We construct a model in which there is a cost associated with sharing datasets whereas reusing such sets implies a benefit. In our calculations, conflicting interests appear for researchers. Individual researchers are always better off not sharing and omitting the sharing cost, at the same time both sharing and not sharing researchers are better off if (almost) all researchers share. Namely, the more researchers share, the more benefit can be gained by the reuse of those datasets. We simulated several policy measures to increase benefits for researchers sharing or reusing datasets. Results point out that, although policies should be able to increase the rate of sharing researchers, and increased discoverability and dataset quality could partly compensate for costs, a better measure would be to directly lower the cost for sharing, or even turn it into a (citation-) benefit. Making data available would in that case become the most profitable, and therefore stable, strategy. This means researchers would willingly make their datasets available, and arguably in the best possible way to enable reuse. PMID:26401453

  3. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  4. Lay denial of knowledge for justified true beliefs.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A

    2013-12-01

    Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief.

  5. Proactive quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2015-11-01

    A proactive quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the participants can update their key shares periodically. In an updating period, one participant randomly generates the EPR pairs, and the other participants update their key shares and perform the corresponding unitary operations on the particles of the EPR pairs. Then, the participant who generated the EPR pairs performs the Bell-state measurement and updates his key share according to the result of the Bell-state measurement. After an updating period, each participant can change his key share, but the secret is changeless, and the old key shares will be useless even if they have been stolen by the attacker. The proactive property of our scheme is very useful to resist the mobile attacker.

  6. Auditing Knowledge toward Leveraging Organizational IQ in Healthcare Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Shahmoradi, Leila; Farzaneh Nejad, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this study, a knowledge audit was conducted based on organizational intelligence quotient (OIQ) principles of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) to determine levers that can enhance OIQ in healthcare. Methods The mixed method study was conducted within the MOHME. The study population consisted of 15 senior managers and policymakers. A tool based on literature review and panel expert opinions was developed to perform a knowledge audit. Results The significant results of this auditing revealed the following: lack of defined standard processes for organizing knowledge management (KM), lack of a knowledge map, absence of a trustee to implement KM, absence of specialists to produce a knowledge map, individuals' unwillingness to share knowledge, implicitness of knowledge format, occasional nature of knowledge documentation for repeated use, lack of a mechanism to determine repetitive tasks, lack of a reward system for the formation of communities, groups and networks, non-updatedness of the available knowledge, and absence of commercial knowledge. Conclusions The analysis of the audit findings revealed that three levers for enhancing OIQ, including structure and process, organizational culture, and information technology must be created or modified. PMID:27200221

  7. Sharing self-related information is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity of cortical midline brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Mamerow, Loreen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Morawetz, Carmen; Margulies, Daniel S.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants’ degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use. We conducted seed-based correlation analyses in cortical midline regions previously shown in meta-analyses to be involved in self-referential cognition: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), central precuneus (CP), and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (CACC). We examined whether and how functional connectivity between these regions and the rest of the brain was associated with participants’ degree of self-related information sharing. Analyses revealed associations between the MPFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the CP with the right DLPFC, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior temporal pole. These findings extend our present knowledge of functional brain connectivity, specifically demonstrating how the brain’s intrinsic functional organization relates to individual differences in the sharing of self-related information. PMID:26948055

  8. 38 CFR 17.241 - Sharing medical information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., research centers, and individual members of the medical profession, under which medical information and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sharing medical... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Sharing of Medical Facilities, Equipment, and Information § 17.241 Sharing...

  9. 38 CFR 17.241 - Sharing medical information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., research centers, and individual members of the medical profession, under which medical information and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sharing medical... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Sharing of Medical Facilities, Equipment, and Information § 17.241 Sharing...

  10. 38 CFR 17.241 - Sharing medical information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., research centers, and individual members of the medical profession, under which medical information and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sharing medical... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Sharing of Medical Facilities, Equipment, and Information § 17.241 Sharing...

  11. 38 CFR 17.241 - Sharing medical information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., research centers, and individual members of the medical profession, under which medical information and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sharing medical... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Sharing of Medical Facilities, Equipment, and Information § 17.241 Sharing...

  12. Unconscious knowledge: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Luís M.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of unconscious knowledge is fundamental for an understanding of human thought processes and mentation in general; however, the psychological community at large is not familiar with it. This paper offers a survey of the main psychological research currently being carried out into cognitive processes, and examines pathways that can be integrated into a discipline of unconscious knowledge. It shows that the field has already a defined history and discusses some of the features that all kinds of unconscious knowledge seem to share at a deeper level. With the aim of promoting further research, we discuss the main challenges which the postulation of unconscious cognition faces within the psychological community. PMID:21814538

  13. Shared topics on the experience of people with haemophilia living in the UK and the USA and the influence of individual and contextual variables: Results from the HERO qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Palareti, Laura; Potì, Silvia; Cassis, Frederica; Emiliani, Francesca; Matino, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The study illuminates the subjective experience of haemophilia in people who took part in the Haemophilia Experience, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative, a quali-quantitative research program aimed at exploring psychosocial issues concerning this illness around the world. Applying a bottom-up analytic process with the help of software for textual data, we investigated 19 interviews in order to describe the core themes and the latent factors of speech, to explore the role of different variables in shaping the participants’ illness experiences. The five themes detected are feeling different from others, body pain, acquisition of knowledge and resources, family history, and integration of care practices in everyday life. We illustrate how nationality, age, family situation, the use of prophylaxis or on-demand treatment, and the presence of human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus affect the experience of our participants in different ways. Findings are used to bring insights on research, clinical practice, and psychosocial support. PMID:26578360

  14. Shared topics on the experience of people with haemophilia living in the UK and the USA and the influence of individual and contextual variables: Results from the HERO qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Palareti, Laura; Potì, Silvia; Cassis, Frederica; Emiliani, Francesca; Matino, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The study illuminates the subjective experience of haemophilia in people who took part in the Haemophilia Experience, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative, a quali-quantitative research program aimed at exploring psychosocial issues concerning this illness around the world. Applying a bottom-up analytic process with the help of software for textual data, we investigated 19 interviews in order to describe the core themes and the latent factors of speech, to explore the role of different variables in shaping the participants' illness experiences. The five themes detected are feeling different from others, body pain, acquisition of knowledge and resources, family history, and integration of care practices in everyday life. We illustrate how nationality, age, family situation, the use of prophylaxis or on-demand treatment, and the presence of human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus affect the experience of our participants in different ways. Findings are used to bring insights on research, clinical practice, and psychosocial support.

  15. Catch shares slow the race to fish.

    PubMed

    Birkenbach, Anna M; Kaczan, David J; Smith, Martin D

    2017-04-05

    In fisheries, the tragedy of the commons manifests as a competitive race to fish that compresses fishing seasons, resulting in ecological damage, economic waste, and occupational hazards. Catch shares are hypothesized to halt the race by securing each individual's right to a portion of the total catch, but there is evidence for this from selected examples only. Here we systematically analyse natural experiments to test whether catch shares reduce racing in 39 US fisheries. We compare each fishery treated with catch shares to an individually matched control before and after the policy change. We estimate an average policy treatment effect in a pooled model and in a meta-analysis that combines separate estimates for each treatment-control pair. Consistent with the theory that market-based management ends the race to fish, we find strong evidence that catch shares extend fishing seasons. This evidence informs the current debate over expanding the use of market-based regulation to other fisheries.

  16. Employee knowledge of a managed pharmacy benefit in a large corporation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael J; Desselle, Shane P

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about prescription drug benefits is necessary for consumers to choose appropriate health benefits plans in a consumer-directed health plan market. The objective of this study was to describe employees' knowledge of their prescription drug benefits. A one-group, cross-sectional survey of full-time university employees with a tiered pharmacy benefit was performed. Correct responses to knowledge questions were described individually and as an aggregate index score. Respondent understanding of pharmacy benefits was low to moderate. Specifically, knowledge of pharmacy benefits was most limited with respect to formulary management, cost sharing, and financial implications of out-of-network use and the selection of a branded or generic medication. Future research should refine methods for assessing knowledge of pharmacy benefits, explore knowledge of pharmacy benefits in diverse samples, and assess the consequences associated with variations in knowledge of prescription drug benefits.

  17. Models, Norms and Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.

    To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…

  18. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  19. Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    increases with the demands of near real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing...operating system providing actionable near-real- time intelligence to commanders for coalition synchronization and the requirement to protect national...real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing requirements across an ad hoc coalition

  20. A Survey of Knowledge, Individual Perceived Risk, General Perceived Risk, and Behavioral Intentions Regarding Hepatitis B among Students in the Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Health at Shahrekord Islamic Azad University in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Karimiankakolaki, Zohreh; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hossein; Gerayllo, Sakineh; Sheikh Samani, Nadia; Hadipour, Hajar

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B is the most common cause of liver disease, and medical students are a risk group for the disease given their future occupations. Objectives The aim of the study was to assess of predictors of hepatitis B in the Faculty of nursing, midwifery and health at Shahrekord Islamic Azad University in 2014. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 300 students from the Faculty of nursing, midwifery and health at Shahrekord Islamic Azad University. The students answered questionnaires with items covering demographic characteristics, individual knowledge, public risk perception, perceived personal risk, and behavioral intentions regarding hepatitis B. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 18 software. Results The mean knowledge score of the students was 4.77 ± 1.71, the mean public risk perception score was 24.22 ± 3.44, the mean perceived personal risk score was 6.51 ± 1.97, and the mean behavioral intention score was 12.06 ± 2.97. There were significant differences in the mean knowledge scores in terms of gender, level of awareness, and level of education. There were also differences in the mean behavioral intention scores in terms of gender and field of study, the mean perceived personal risk scores in terms of level of education and field of study, and the mean public risk perception scores in terms of field of study. Conclusions According to the results of this study, it is necessary to implement educational intervention in order to allow students to identify risk factors and overcome barriers to understanding the implications of the disease in this context. PMID:27651804

  1. It depends whose data are being shared: considerations for genomic data sharing policies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jill O.; Slashinski, Melody J.; Chiao, Elizabeth; McGuire, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for consistent data sharing policies that promote the advancement of science while respecting the values and interests of those providing their genetic data for research. Responding to the article of Jalayne J. Arias, Genevieve Pham-Kanter, and Eric G. Campbell, ‘The Growth and Gaps of Genetic Data Sharing Policies in the United States’, this commentary further explores the challenges of human subjects’ protection in existing data sharing policies. We will elaborate on the need for data sharing policies to accommodate variation in individual and group preferences around data sharing and privacy concerns by comparing our previously published data on patients’ and parents’ consent to data sharing and attitudes about privacy to data from focus groups with HIV-positive, underserved individuals who were asked about their willingness to participate in genetic research and share their data broadly. These studies support the observation of Arias, Pham-Kanter, and Campbell that researchers, and funding agencies will need to balance the privacy interests of groups as well as individuals in future genomic data sharing policies. PMID:27774218

  2. Hanging with the Right Crowd: Crowdsourcing as a New Business Practice for Innovation, Productivity, Knowledge Capture, and Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Lisa B.

    2013-01-01

    In today's connected world, the reach of the Internet and collaborative social media tools have opened up new opportunities for individuals, regardless of their location, to share their knowledge, expertise, and creativity with others. These tools have also opened up opportunities for organizations to connect with new sources of innovation to…

  3. Knowledge Management: A Teacher Educator's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Radha

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Management can be defined as a systematic process that creates, captures, shares, and analyzes knowledge in ways that directly improve performance. The goal of Knowledge Management is to improve the creation, dissemination, and exploitation of knowledge for the purpose of building competitive advantage. The proper use of knowledge…

  4. Can catch shares prevent fisheries collapse?

    PubMed

    Costello, Christopher; Gaines, Steven D; Lynham, John

    2008-09-19

    Recent reports suggest that most of the world's commercial fisheries could collapse within decades. Although poor fisheries governance is often implicated, evaluation of solutions remains rare. Bioeconomic theory and case studies suggest that rights-based catch shares can provide individual incentives for sustainable harvest that is less prone to collapse. To test whether catch-share fishery reforms achieve these hypothetical benefits, we have compiled a global database of fisheries institutions and catch statistics in 11,135 fisheries from 1950 to 2003. Implementation of catch shares halts, and even reverses, the global trend toward widespread collapse. Institutional change has the potential for greatly altering the future of global fisheries.

  5. Shared governance in the endoscopy department.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, R; Tate, R

    1995-01-01

    Studies have indicated that active participation by employees improves job satisfaction and performance. There is a sense of pride and accountability that is demonstrated in the work environment when staff are involved in the decision-making process. Recent emergence of a relatively new philosophy for management that promotes employee ownership is shared governance. This type of leadership allows individuals who are at the center of the work place to participate in the decisions that actively reflect their needs. In this article, the authors describe the process of implementing shared governance in an Endoscopy Department. The effectiveness of shared governance is evidenced by the renewed enthusiasm and energy demonstrated by the staff.

  6. Virtual environments for telerobotic shared control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Brian K.

    1994-01-01

    The use of a virtual environment to bring about telerobotic shared control is discussed. A knowledge base, referred to as the World Model, is used to aid the system in its decision making. Information from the World Model is displayed visually in order to aid the human side of human-computer interface.

  7. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  8. The dynamics of meaningful social interactions and the emergence of collective knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2015-07-01

    Collective knowledge as a social value may arise in cooperation among actors whose individual expertise is limited. The process of knowledge creation requires meaningful, logically coordinated interactions, which represents a challenging problem to physics and social dynamics modeling. By combining two-scale dynamics model with empirical data analysis from a well-known Questions & Answers system Mathematics, we show that this process occurs as a collective phenomenon in an enlarged network (of actors and their artifacts) where the cognitive recognition interactions are properly encoded. The emergent behavior is quantified by the information divergence and innovation advancing of knowledge over time and the signatures of self-organization and knowledge sharing communities. These measures elucidate the impact of each cognitive element and the individual actor’s expertise in the collective dynamics. The results are relevant to stochastic processes involving smart components and to collaborative social endeavors, for instance, crowdsourcing scientific knowledge production with online games.

  9. The dynamics of meaningful social interactions and the emergence of collective knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2015-01-01

    Collective knowledge as a social value may arise in cooperation among actors whose individual expertise is limited. The process of knowledge creation requires meaningful, logically coordinated interactions, which represents a challenging problem to physics and social dynamics modeling. By combining two-scale dynamics model with empirical data analysis from a well-known Questions & Answers system Mathematics, we show that this process occurs as a collective phenomenon in an enlarged network (of actors and their artifacts) where the cognitive recognition interactions are properly encoded. The emergent behavior is quantified by the information divergence and innovation advancing of knowledge over time and the signatures of self-organization and knowledge sharing communities. These measures elucidate the impact of each cognitive element and the individual actor’s expertise in the collective dynamics. The results are relevant to stochastic processes involving smart components and to collaborative social endeavors, for instance, crowdsourcing scientific knowledge production with online games. PMID:26174482

  10. Share with thy neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Surendar; Yu, Xuwen

    2007-01-01

    Peer to peer (P2P) systems are traditionally designed to scale to a large number of nodes. However, we focus on scenarios where the sharing is effected only among neighbors. Localized sharing is particularly attractive in scenarios where wide area network connectivity is undesirable, expensive or unavailable. On the other hand, local neighbors may not offer the wide variety of objects possible in a much larger system. The goal of this paper is to investigate a P2P system that shares contents with its neighbors. We analyze the sharing behavior of Apple iTunes users in an University setting. iTunes restricts the sharing of audio and video objects to peers within the same LAN sub-network. We show that users are already making a significant amount of content available for local sharing. We show that these systems are not appropriate for applications that require access to a specific object. We argue that mechanisms that allow the user to specify classes of interesting objects are better suited for these systems. Mechanisms such as bloom filters can allow each peer to summarize the contents available in the neighborhood, reducing network search overhead. This research can form the basis for future storage systems that utilize the shared storage available in neighbors and build a probabilistic storage for local consumption.

  11. Facilitating Naval Knowledge Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Transition ...................................................................... 9 Figure 5 Nonaka Knowledge Flow Theory...terms of the dimension reach above. Episteoloogical Explicit Tackt Individual Group Organizabori loter-organization Ontological Figure 5 Nonaka ... Knowledge Flow Theory (Adapted from [48]) As depicted in Figure 5, Nonaka views the interaction between these dimensions as the principal drivers of

  12. Interoperable Data Sharing for Diverse Scientific Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, John S.; Crichton, Daniel; Martinez, Santa; Law, Emily; Hardman, Sean

    2016-04-01

    For diverse scientific disciplines to interoperate they must be able to exchange information based on a shared understanding. To capture this shared understanding, we have developed a knowledge representation framework using ontologies and ISO level archive and metadata registry reference models. This framework provides multi-level governance, evolves independent of implementation technologies, and promotes agile development, namely adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, continuous improvement, and rapid and flexible response to change. The knowledge representation framework is populated through knowledge acquisition from discipline experts. It is also extended to meet specific discipline requirements. The result is a formalized and rigorous knowledge base that addresses data representation, integrity, provenance, context, quantity, and their relationships within the community. The contents of the knowledge base is translated and written to files in appropriate formats to configure system software and services, provide user documentation, validate ingested data, and support data analytics. This presentation will provide an overview of the framework, present the Planetary Data System's PDS4 as a use case that has been adopted by the international planetary science community, describe how the framework is being applied to other disciplines, and share some important lessons learned.

  13. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  14. A Sharing Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

  15. Software Sharing Enables Smarter Content Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, NASA established a technology partnership with Xerox Corporation to develop high-tech knowledge management systems while providing new tools and applications that support the Vision for Space Exploration. In return, NASA provides research and development assistance to Xerox to progress its product line. The first result of the technology partnership was a new system called the NX Knowledge Network (based on Xerox DocuShare CPX). Created specifically for NASA's purposes, this system combines Netmark-practical database content management software created by the Intelligent Systems Division of NASA's Ames Research Center-with complementary software from Xerox's global research centers and DocuShare. NX Knowledge Network was tested at the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and is widely used for document management at Ames, Langley Research Center, within the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center, and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for mission-related tasks.

  16. Knowledge, change and the preservation of progress.

    PubMed

    Morales-gomez, D A

    1993-04-01

    Respect for traditional knowledge is urges as a source of learning to understand where societies originate. A Western understanding of traditional cultural knowledge must go beyond an understanding of fundamental values that give meaning; there must be a change in the cultural perception of development. There operates a complex interaction among artistic and spiritual practices, language and communication, patterns of social reproduction, practices in community governance, and management of natural and human resources. There are contradictions because cultural expression is a diverse combination of individual and collective capacities to manage the social, political, economic, and environmental aspects of life. Quick solutions sometimes lead to romanticized notions of cultural knowledge, rather than being systematic and historical and part of the cultural milieu. From the ethnic perspective, traditional knowledge is seen as "indigenous" or an expression of "curious" traditions and practices of native peoples which are different from one's own perspective. Viewing traditional knowledge in this fashion detaches it from rites, languages, and community practices. When reduced to a utilitarian economic notion, traditional knowledge is separated from the lessons drawn from survival strategies and practices of "materially impoverished peoples." Sometimes, the application of this knowledge bypasses recognition of the part played by traditional peoples. People in the North or industrialized countries neglect the human and sociocultural basis of knowledge, even though there have been attempts to reclaim cultural knowledge as part of development efforts. There remain many questions about how to better understand traditional knowledge, how to preserve it in a meaningful way, and how to apply it to sustain development. There is no consensus about what traditional knowledge is and how it is "genuinely" expressed. The definition of traditional knowledge is as a body of

  17. Food-Sharing Networks in Lamalera, Indonesia: Status, Sharing, and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Nolin, David A

    2012-07-01

    Costly signaling has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain food sharing in foraging populations. This sharing-as-signaling hypothesis predicts an association between sharing and status. Using exponential random graph modeling (ERGM), this prediction is tested on a social network of between-household food-sharing relationships in the fishing and sea-hunting village of Lamalera, Indonesia. Previous analyses (Nolin 2010) have shown that most sharing in Lamalera is consistent with reciprocal altruism. The question addressed here is whether any additional variation may be explained as sharing-as-signaling by high-status households. The results show that high-status households both give and receive more than other households, a pattern more consistent with reciprocal altruism than costly signaling. However, once the propensity to reciprocate and household productivity are controlled, households of men holding leadership positions show greater odds of unreciprocated giving when compared to households of non-leaders. This pattern of excessive giving by leaders is consistent with the sharing-as-signaling hypothesis. Wealthy households show the opposite pattern, giving less and receiving more than other households. These households may reciprocate in a currency other than food or their wealth may attract favor-seeking behavior from others. Overall, status covariates explain little variation in the sharing network as a whole, and much of the sharing observed by high-status households is best explained by the same factors that explain sharing by other households. This pattern suggests that multiple mechanisms may operate simultaneously to promote sharing in Lamalera and that signaling may motivate some sharing by some individuals even within sharing regimes primarily maintained by other mechanisms.

  18. Food-Sharing Networks in Lamalera, Indonesia: Status, Sharing, and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nolin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Costly signaling has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain food sharing in foraging populations. This sharing-as-signaling hypothesis predicts an association between sharing and status. Using exponential random graph modeling (ERGM), this prediction is tested on a social network of between-household food-sharing relationships in the fishing and sea-hunting village of Lamalera, Indonesia. Previous analyses (Nolin 2010) have shown that most sharing in Lamalera is consistent with reciprocal altruism. The question addressed here is whether any additional variation may be explained as sharing-as-signaling by high-status households. The results show that high-status households both give and receive more than other households, a pattern more consistent with reciprocal altruism than costly signaling. However, once the propensity to reciprocate and household productivity are controlled, households of men holding leadership positions show greater odds of unreciprocated giving when compared to households of non-leaders. This pattern of excessive giving by leaders is consistent with the sharing-as-signaling hypothesis. Wealthy households show the opposite pattern, giving less and receiving more than other households. These households may reciprocate in a currency other than food or their wealth may attract favor-seeking behavior from others. Overall, status covariates explain little variation in the sharing network as a whole, and much of the sharing observed by high-status households is best explained by the same factors that explain sharing by other households. This pattern suggests that multiple mechanisms may operate simultaneously to promote sharing in Lamalera and that signaling may motivate some sharing by some individuals even within sharing regimes primarily maintained by other mechanisms. PMID:22822299

  19. Measuring Team Shared Understanding Using the Analysis-Constructed Shared Mental Model Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tristan E.; O'Connor, Debra L.

    2008-01-01

    Teams are an essential part of successful performance in learning and work environments. Analysis-constructed shared mental model (ACSMM) methodology is a set of techniques where individual mental models are elicited and sharedness is determined not by the individuals who provided their mental models but by an analytical procedure. This method…

  20. Unequal Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilly, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the persistence of knowledge inequalities influences higher education. Explores how the control of and access to knowledge affects human well being (i.e., control over production of knowledge, control over its distribution, and access to knowledge by people whose well being it will or could affect). (EV)

  1. The Knowledge Stealing Initiative?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goshorn, Larry

    2005-01-01

    I have the honor of being on the Academy of Program and Project Leadership (APPL) Knowledge Sharing Feedback and Assessment Team (FAA), and as such, I am privileged to receive the feedback written by many of you as attendees of the Project Management (PM) Master s Forums. It is the intent of the FAA Team and APPL leadership to use this feedback as a tool for continuous program improvement. As a retired (sort of) PM in the payload contracting industry, I'm a big supporter of NASA s Knowledge Sharing Initiative (KSI), especially the Master's Forums. I really enjoy participating in them. Unfortunately I had to miss the 8th forum in Pasadena this past Spring, but I did get the feedback package for the Assessment Team work. So here I was, reviewing twelve pages of comments, reflections, learning notes and critiques from attendees of the 8th forum.

  2. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  3. Some thoughts on sharing science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Ivan; Kumar, Alok

    2000-07-01

    Sustaining and upgrading the national interest in science requires breaking through some of the barriers that separate science from the academy's other disciplines and interests, and from society as a whole. This article reviews some of the difficulties and prospects of sharing science within the academy and the ripple effect that such activities may have on the larger social context of attitudes toward science. We recognize that crossing into other disciplines for any purpose raises special communication problems. We also argue that much of the apprehension concerning such discourse rests on a fallacy. Some relief is anticipated through an ongoing critical and reflexive examination of ourselves and our activities with respect to the ways science touches our collective lives, and by conscientiously developing new relationships for teaching scientific thinking and values on the premise that science is inherently a form of public knowledge that relies heavily on cultural values and society.

  4. Banking on Knowledge: The New Knowledge Projects of the World Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Examines the tensions and debates at the heart of the World Bank's desire to become a knowledge agency. Discusses implications of the Bank's changing priorities towards education, trade-off between knowledge sharing versus knowledge development, and use of information and communications technology to create a global knowledge hypermarket called…

  5. Shared care (comanagement).

    PubMed

    Montero Ruiz, E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical departments have increasing difficulties in caring for their hospitalised patients due to the patients' advanced age and comorbidity, the growing specialisation in medical training and the strong political-healthcare pressure that a healthcare organisation places on them, where surgical acts take precedence over other activities. The pressure exerted by these departments on the medical area and the deficient response by the interconsultation system have led to the development of a different healthcare organisation model: Shared care, which includes perioperative medicine. In this model, 2 different specialists share the responsibility and authority in caring for hospitalised surgical patients. Internal Medicine is the most appropriate specialty for shared care. Internists who exercise this responsibility should have certain characteristics and must overcome a number of concerns from the surgeon and anaesthesiologist.

  6. Collaborate, compete and share

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Castellano, Claudio; Marsili, Matteo; Pietronero, Luciano

    2009-02-01

    We introduce and study a model of an interacting population of agents who collaborate in groups which compete for limited resources. Groups are formed by random matching agents and their worth is determined by the sum of the efforts deployed by agents in group formation. Agents, on their side, have to share their effort between contributing to their group’s chances to outcompete other groups and resource sharing among partners, when the group is successful. A simple implementation of this strategic interaction gives rise to static and evolutionary properties with a very rich phenomenology. A robust emerging feature is the separation of the population between agents who invest mainly in the success of their group and agents who concentrate in getting the largest share of their group’s profits.

  7. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  8. New Developments of the Shared Concern Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikas, Anatol

    2002-01-01

    Reviews and describes new developments in the Shared Concern method (SCm), a tool for tackling group bullying amongst teenagers by individual talks. The psychological mechanisms of healing in the bully group and what hinders the bully therapist in eliciting them have become better clarified. The most important recent advancement of the SCm…

  9. Multiparty quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhanjun; Li Yong; Man Zhongxiao

    2005-04-01

    Based on a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol [Phys. Rev. A 69 052319 (2004)], we propose a (n,n)-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical messages (QSSCM) using only single photons. We take advantage of this multiparty QSSCM scheme to establish a scheme of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information (SSQI), in which only all quantum information receivers collaborate can the original qubit be reconstructed. A general idea is also proposed for constructing multiparty SSQI schemes from any QSSCM scheme.

  10. The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…

  11. A community of practice for knowledge translation trainees: an innovative approach for learning and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Robin; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Lal, Shalini; Colquhoun, Heather; Klein, Gail; Richmond, Sarah; Witteman, Holly O

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of researchers and trainees identify knowledge translation (KT) as their field of study or practice. Yet, KT educational and professional development opportunities and established KT networks remain relatively uncommon, making it challenging for trainees to develop the necessary skills, networks, and collaborations to optimally work in this area. The Knowledge Translation Trainee Collaborative is a trainee-initiated and trainee-led community of practice established by junior knowledge translation researchers and practitioners to: examine the diversity of knowledge translation research and practice, build networks with other knowledge translation trainees, and advance the field through knowledge generation activities. In this article, we describe how the collaborative serves as an innovative community of practice for continuing education and professional development in knowledge translation and present a logic model that provides a framework for designing an evaluation of its impact as a community of practice. The expectation is that formal and informal networking will lead to knowledge sharing and knowledge generation opportunities that improve individual members' competencies (eg, combination of skills, abilities, and knowledge) in knowledge translation research and practice and contribute to the development and advancement of the knowledge translation field.

  12. Shared Governance of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald

    Shared decision-making can help schools keep sight of their true goals. In the educational sector the conflicts that arise in collective bargaining disputes can be destructive to the organization. Schools require more than the mere coexistence of labor and management. They require cooperation and strong, supportive relationships. To establish a…

  13. Learning to Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    In the tug-of-war between researchers and IT for supercomputing resources, a centralized approach can help both sides get more bang for their buck. As 2010 began, the University of Washington was preparing to launch its first shared high-performance computing cluster, a 1,500-node system called Hyak, dedicated to research activities. Like other…

  14. Shared decision making

    MedlinePlus

    ... communicate openly and build a relationship of trust. Alternative Names Patient-centered care References Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The SHARE Approach. Updated September 2016. www.ahrq.gov/professionals/education/curriculum-tools/shareddecisionmaking/index.html . Accessed October 19, ...

  15. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  16. Share the Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Site-based management cannot work without the school board's active involvement and determined support. Suggestions are offered from School District 12, Adams County, Colorado, which has been moving away from a centralized administrative system to shared decision-making. (MLF)

  17. Shared Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1997-01-01

    In shared decision making (SDM), principals collaborate with teachers and sometimes parents to take actions aimed at improving instruction and school climate. While research on SDM outcomes is still inconclusive, the literature shows that SDM brings both benefits and problems, and that the principal is a key figure. This brief offers a sampling of…

  18. Core Pedagogy: Individual Uncertainty, Shared Practice, Formative Ethos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Benjamin H.

    2015-01-01

    Attention to the core practices of teaching necessitates core pedagogies in teacher preparation. This article outlines the diffusion of one such pedagogy from medical to teacher education. The concept of clinical simulations is outlined through the lens of "signature pedagogies" and their uncertain, engaging, formative qualities.…

  19. Making Knowledge Services Work in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Donald M.; Lefrere, Paul; Mason, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Over the past three years, knowledge-based practices in higher education have advanced, driving the development of low/no-cost, mass-market tools for knowledge sharing and reducing some barriers to change. New investors in higher education are developing strategies to exploit the knowledge-driven value propositions. Existing institutions, anxious…

  20. Principles for Designing Pragmatic Knowledge Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaleri, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge management continues to evolve as a discipline, yet even basic features that define a discipline have to be established. Developing a shared understanding of core concepts, such as the meaning of "knowledge", has been elusive in this field. In the absence of reaching a universal definition, surrogates for knowledge are adopted because of…

  1. Visual Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipman, Susan F.

    Visual knowledge is an enormously important part of our total knowledge. The psychological study of learning and knowledge has focused almost exclusively on verbal materials. Today, the advance of technology is making the use of visual communication increasingly feasible and popular. However, this enthusiasm involves the illusion that visual…

  2. The Costs of Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prusak, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge-genuinely learning something new-requires the consent and commitment of the person you're trying to learn from. In contrast to information, which can usually be effectively transmitted in a document or diagram, knowledge comes from explaining, clarifying, questioning, and sometimes actually working together. Getting this kind of attention and commitment often involves some form of negotiation, since even the most generous person's time and energy are limited. Few experts sit around waiting to share their knowledge with strangers or casual acquaintances. In reasonably collaborative enterprises- I think NASA is one-this sort of negotiation isn't too onerous. People want to help each other and share what they know, so the "cost" of acquiring knowledge is relatively low. In many organizations (and many communities and countries), however, there are considerable costs associated with this activity, and many situations in which negotiations fail. The greatest knowledge cost is in and adopting knowledge to one's own use. Sometimes this means formally organizing what one learns in writing. Sometimes it means just taking time to reflect on someone else's thoughts and experiences-thinking about knowledge that is not exactly what you need but can lead you to develop ideas that will be useful. A long, discursive conversation, with all the back-and-forth that defines conversation, can be a mechanism of knowledge exchange. I have seen many participants at NASA APPEL Masters Forums talking, reflecting, and thinking-adapting what they are hearing to their own needs. Knowledge transfer is not a simple proposition. An enormous amount of information flows through the world every day, but knowledge is local, contextual, and "stickyn-that is, it takes real effort to move it from one place to another. There is no way around this. To really learn a subject, you have to work at it, you have to pay your "knowledge dues." So while, thanks to advances in technology

  3. Policy enabled information sharing system

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Craig R.; Nelson, Brian D.; Ratheal, Steve W.

    2014-09-02

    A technique for dynamically sharing information includes executing a sharing policy indicating when to share a data object responsive to the occurrence of an event. The data object is created by formatting a data file to be shared with a receiving entity. The data object includes a file data portion and a sharing metadata portion. The data object is encrypted and then automatically transmitted to the receiving entity upon occurrence of the event. The sharing metadata portion includes metadata characterizing the data file and referenced in connection with the sharing policy to determine when to automatically transmit the data object to the receiving entity.

  4. Resource Sharing Controls Gene Expression Bursting.

    PubMed

    Caveney, Patrick M; Norred, S Elizabeth; Chin, Charles W; Boreyko, Jonathan B; Razooky, Brandon S; Retterer, Scott T; Collier, C Patrick; Simpson, Michael L

    2017-02-17

    Episodic gene expression, with periods of high expression separated by periods of no expression, is a pervasive biological phenomenon. This bursty pattern of expression draws from a finite reservoir of expression machinery in a highly time variant way, i.e., requiring no resources most of the time but drawing heavily on them during short intense bursts, that intimately links expression bursting and resource sharing. Yet, most recent investigations have focused on specific molecular mechanisms intrinsic to the bursty behavior of individual genes, while little is known about the interplay between resource sharing and global expression bursting behavior. Here, we confine Escherichia coli cell extract in both cell-sized microfluidic chambers and lipid-based vesicles to explore how resource sharing influences expression bursting. Interestingly, expression burst size, but not burst frequency, is highly sensitive to the size of the shared transcription and translation resource pools. The intriguing implication of these results is that expression bursts are more readily amplified than initiated, suggesting that burst formation occurs through positive feedback or cooperativity. When extrapolated to prokaryotic cells, these results suggest that large translational bursts may be correlated with large transcriptional bursts. This correlation is supported by recently reported transcription and translation bursting studies in E. coli. The results reported here demonstrate a strong intimate link between global expression burst patterns and resource sharing, and they suggest that bursting plays an important role in optimizing the use of limited, shared expression resources.

  5. Explaining Common Variance Shared by Early Numeracy and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidse, N. J.; De Jong, M. T.; Bus, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    How can it be explained that early literacy and numeracy share variance? We specifically tested whether the correlation between four early literacy skills (rhyming, letter knowledge, emergent writing, and orthographic knowledge) and simple sums (non-symbolic and story condition) reduced after taking into account preschool attention control,…

  6. Adaptive Knowledge Management of Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an approach to Adaptive Knowledge Management (AKM) of project-based learning (PBL) is to intensify subject study through guiding, inducing, and facilitating development knowledge, accountability skills, and collaborative skills of students. Knowledge development is attained by knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge…

  7. Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  8. Gear mesh stiffness and load sharing in planetary gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasuba, R.; August, R.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive computerized analysis was developed for determining load sharing among planetary gears. The load sharing is established as a function of transmitted torque, degree of sun gear fixity, component flexibility, gear tooth quality, and phasing of individual planet gears. A nonlinear variable gear tooth mesh stiffness model was used to simulate the sun/plant and planet/ring gear meshes. The determined load sharing and gear mesh stiffness parameters then can be used for the subsequent assessment of dynamic load factors.

  9. Cultivating Knowledge Sharing and Trust in Online Communities for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Sharon Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Innovative uses of technology to support teacher learning are emerging through professional learning communities that leverage social networking technologies. The value of an online community for educators lies in the rich and open exchange of ideas, experiences, and resources where educators feel both respected and supported. Yet among the most…

  10. "Apps"--An Innovative Way to Share Extension Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Joseph S.; Franke-Dvorak, Tanya C.; Price, Randy R.

    2012-01-01

    Extension professionals across the country are continuously seeking innovative ways to reach clientele and to disseminate timely, educational information. A new avenue to reach clientele includes the use of smartphone "apps." The "Machinery Sizing" app, which was developed to ease the estimation of tractor horsepower to…

  11. Children Expect Generic Knowledge to Be Widely Shared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimpian, Andrei; Scott, Rose M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to acquire and store generic information (that is, information about entire categories) is at the core of human cognition. Remarkably, even young children place special value on generic information, often inferring that it holds important insights about the world. Here, we tested whether children's assumptions about the nature of…

  12. KSC/IT Knowledge Sharing With JAXA/IT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Stacie

    2010-01-01

    The mission of NASA IT [organizations throughout the Agency] is to increase the productivity of scientists, engineers, and mission support personnel by responsively and efficiently delivering reliable, innovative and secure IT services. (http://insidenasa.nasa.gov/ocio/about/index.html, July 2010) IT at NASA/KSC serves to enable KSC's mission (Human Space Flight) in a customer-focused manner by offering a breadth of IT services to support the current and advanced information technology and communications needs of KSC institutional and NASA/KSC program customers.

  13. Professional Cultures and Professional Knowledge: Owning, Loaning and Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the relationship between professional culture and collaborative working in Children's Centres in a region of England. In Children's Centres, professionals from different professional backgrounds and different organisations are required to work together towards common goals as required by the Children Act 2004.…

  14. Elastomeric load sharing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isabelle, Charles J. (Inventor); Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Stone, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An elastomeric load sharing device, interposed in combination between a driven gear and a central drive shaft to facilitate balanced torque distribution in split power transmission systems, includes a cylindrical elastomeric bearing and a plurality of elastomeric bearing pads. The elastomeric bearing and bearing pads comprise one or more layers, each layer including an elastomer having a metal backing strip secured thereto. The elastomeric bearing is configured to have a high radial stiffness and a low torsional stiffness and is operative to radially center the driven gear and to minimize torque transfer through the elastomeric bearing. The bearing pads are configured to have a low radial and torsional stiffness and a high axial stiffness and are operative to compressively transmit torque from the driven gear to the drive shaft. The elastomeric load sharing device has spring rates that compensate for mechanical deviations in the gear train assembly to provide balanced torque distribution between complementary load paths of split power transmission systems.

  15. Shared language:Towards more effective communication.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to communicate to others and express ourselves is a basic human need. As we develop our understanding of the world, based on our upbringing, education and so on, our perspective and the way we communicate can differ from those around us. Engaging and interacting with others is a critical part of healthy living. It is the responsibility of the individual to ensure that they are understood in the way they intended.Shared language refers to people developing understanding amongst themselves based on language (e.g. spoken, text) to help them communicate more effectively. The key to understanding language is to first notice and be mindful of your language. Developing a shared language is an ongoing process that requires intention and time, which results in better understanding.Shared language is critical to collaboration, and collaboration is critical to business and education. With whom and how many people do you connect? Your 'shared language' makes a difference in the world. So, how do we successfully do this? This paper shares several strategies.Your sphere of influence will carry forward what and how you are communicating. Developing and nurturing a shared language is an essential element to enhance communication and collaboration whether it is simply between partners or across the larger community of business and customers. Constant awareness and education is required to maintain the shared language. We are living in an increasingly smaller global community. Business is built on relationships. If you invest in developing shared language, your relationships and your business will thrive.

  16. Shared Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  17. Intelligence Sharing in Counterproliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Routledge, 2004), 75. 3 Dieter Mahncke, Wyn Rees , and Wayne C. Thompson, Redefining transatlantic security relations: The Challenge of Change...Redefining Transatlantic Security Relations, by Dieter Mahncke, Wyn Rees , and Wayne C. Thompson, it is argued that these differences coupled with...Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction” by U.S. Senators Laurence Silbermann and Charles Robb, “the information sharing problem manifested itself in

  18. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. W.D. Reece

    1999-09-01

    The University Reactor Sharing Program provides funding for reactor experimentation to institutions that do not normally have access to a research reactor. Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material to producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding also gives small colleges and universities the opportunity to use the facility for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy.

  19. Efficient quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-05-01

    An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer generates some single particles and then uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode a determinate secret into these particles. The participants get their shadows by performing the single-particle measurements on their particles, and even the dealer cannot know their shadows. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more practical within the present technologies.

  20. Toward worldwide data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond; Joy, Steven; King, Todd

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade the nature of space science research has changed dramatically. Earlier investigators could carry out meaningful research by looking at observations from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Today that is rapidly changing and researchers regularly use data from multiple instruments on multiple spacecraft as well as observations from ground observatories. Increasingly those observations come from missions flown by many countries. Recent advances in distributed data management have made it possible for researchers located around the world to access and use data from multiple nations. By using virtual observatory technology it no longer matters where data are housed they can be freely accessed wherever they reside. In this presentation we will discuss two initiatives designed to make space science data access worldwide. One is the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) and the other is the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). In both cases the key to worldwide data sharing is adopting common metadata standards. In this talk we will review how these two groups are addressing the worldwide data sharing and their progress in achieving their goals. IPDA and HDMC are two of several efforts to promote broad based data sharing. Talks in the remainder of the symposium will discuss this is more detail.